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Sample records for highly enriched mixed

  1. Enrichment of highly settleable microalgal consortia in mixed cultures for effluent polishing and low-cost biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuansheng; Hao, Xiaodi; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Chen, Huiqin

    2017-08-15

    Microalgae cultivation is a promising technology for integrated effluent polishing and biofuel production, but poor separability of microalgal cells hinders its industrial application. This study intended to selectively enrich settleable microalgal consortia in mixed culture by applying "wash-out" pressure, which was realized by controlling settling time (ST) and volume exchange ratio (VER) in photo-SBRs. The results demonstrated that highly settleable microalgal consortia (settling efficiency>97%; SVI = 17-50 mL/g) could be enriched from indigenous algal cultures developed in WWTP's effluent. High VER was the key factor for the fast development of settleable microalgae. VER was also a controlling factor of the algal community structure. High VERs (0.5 and 0.7) resulted in the dominance of diatom, while low VER (0.2) facilitated the dominance of cyanobacteria. The settleable microalgal consortia were very efficient in phosphorus removal (effluent PO4(3-)-P99%), which was largely attributed to intensive chemical precipitation of phosphate induced by high pH (8.5-10). However, the high pH decreased the bioavailable inorganic carbon, resulting in incomplete nitrate removal (effluent NO3(-)-N = 2.2-4 mg/L; removal efficiency = 61-79%) under high VERs and low lipid content (up to 10%) in the settleable microalgae. This problem could be resolved by sparging CO2 or controlling pH. Overall, this study demonstrated a simple and effective method to overcome the separation challenge in scale-up of microalgae biotechnology for advanced wastewater purification and biofuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calibration of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Mixed Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, M; O' Connell, W; Cochran, C; Rinard, P; Dearborn, D; Endres, E

    2002-05-23

    As a follow-on to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler for measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide, a method has been developed to extend the use of the PAN shuffler to the measurement of HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. This method uses the current LLNL HEU oxide calibration algorithms, appropriately corrected for the mixed U-Pu oxide assay time, and recently developed PuO{sub 2} calibration algorithms to yield the mass of {sup 235}U present via differences between the expected count rate for the PuO{sub 2} and the measured count rate of the mixed U-Pu oxide. This paper describes the LLNL effort to use PAN shuffler measurements of units of certified reference material (CRM) 149 [uranium (93% Enriched) Oxide - U{sub 3}O{sub 8} Standard for Neutron Counting Measurements] and CRM 146 [Uranium Isotopic Standard for Gamma Spectrometry Measurements] and a selected set of LLNL PuO{sub 2}-bearing containers in consort with Monte Carlo simulations of the PAN shuffler response to each to (1) establish and validate a correction to the HEU calibration algorithm for the mixed U-Pu oxide assay time, (2) develop a PuO{sub 2} calibration algorithm that includes the effect of PuO{sub 2} density (2.4 g/cm{sup 3} to 4.8 g/cm{sup 3}) and container size (8.57 cm to 9.88 cm inside diameter and 9.60 cm to 13.29 cm inside height) on the PAN shuffler response, and (3) develop and validate the method for establishing the mass of {sup 235}U present in an unknown of mixed U-Pu oxide.

  3. Enrichment of high ammonia tolerant methanogenic culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Proietti, Nicolas

    plants. The methods used today to counteract ammonia inhibition are slow and costexpensive. A new biological approach to avoid or counteract ammonia inhibition by using ammonia tolerant methanogens, could provide a sustainable solution for cost-effective digestion of abundant ammonia-rich wastes. The aim...... of the current study was to isolate and identify methanogenic cultures tolerant to high ammonia concentrations. A mixed methanogenic population was stepwise exposed to ammonia concentrations (1 to 9.26 g NH4+-N L-1) during an enrichment process with successive batch cultivations. The methanogenic population...... was derived from a full scale biogas reactor (Hashøj, Denmark), fed with 75% animal manure and 25% food industries organic waste. Basal anaerobic medium was used for the enrichment along with sodium acetate (1 g HAc L-1) as a carbon source. Fluorescence insitu hybridization (FISH) was used to determine...

  4. High-mix insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Premix insulins are commonly used insulin preparations, which are available in varying ratios of different molecules. These drugs contain one short- or rapid-acting, and one intermediate- or long-acting insulin. High-mix insulins are mixtures of insulins that contain 50% or more than 50% of short-acting insulin. This review describes the clinical pharmacology of high-mix insulins, including data from randomized controlled trials. It suggests various ways, in which high-mix insulin can be used, including once daily, twice daily, thrice daily, hetero-mix, and reverse regimes. The authors provide a rational framework to help diabetes care professionals, identify indications for pragmatic high-mix use.

  5. Environmental enrichment for a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Fay E; Melfi, Vicky A

    2012-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an integral aspect of modern zoo animal management but, empirical evaluation of it is biased toward species housed in single-species groups. Nocturnal houses, where several nocturnal species are housed together, are particularly overlooked. This study investigated whether three species (nine-banded armadillos, Dasypus novemcinctus; Senegal bush babies, Galago senegalensis; two-toed sloths, Choloepus didactylus) in the nocturnal house at Paignton Zoo Environmental Park, UK could be enriched using food-based and sensory EE. Subjects were an adult male and female of each species. EE was deemed effective if it promoted target species-typical behaviors, behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones. Results from generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that food-based EE elicited the most positive behavioral effects across species. One set of food-based EEs (Kong®, termite mound and hanging food) presented together was associated with a significant increase in species-typical behaviors, increased behavioral diversity, and increased use of enriched exhibit zones in armadillos and bush babies. Although one type of sensory EE (scented pine cones) increased overall exhibit use in all species, the other (rainforest sounds) was linked to a significant decrease in species-typical behavior in bush babies and sloths. There were no intra or interspecies conflicts over EE, and commensalism occurred between armadillos and bush babies. Our data demonstrate that simple food-based and sensory EE can promote positive behavioral changes in a mixed-species nocturnal mammal exhibit. We suggest that both food and sensory EE presented concurrently will maximize opportunities for naturalistic activity in all species.

  6. The First Galaxies: Chemical Enrichment, Mixing, and Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Greif, Thomas H; Bromm, Volker; Klessen, Ralf S

    2010-01-01

    Using three-dimensional cosmological simulations, we study the assembly process of one of the first galaxies, with a total mass of 10^8 M_sun, collapsing at z = 10. Our main goal is to trace the transport of the heavy chemical elements produced and dispersed by a pair-instability supernova exploding in one of the minihalo progenitors. To this extent, we incorporate an efficient algorithm into our smoothed particle hydrodynamics code which approximately models turbulent mixing as a diffusion process. We study this mixing with and without the radiative feedback from Pop III stars that subsequently form in neighboring minihalos. Our simulations allow us to constrain the initial conditions for second-generation star formation, within the first galaxy itself, and inside of minihalos that virialize after the supernova explosion. We find that most minihalos remain unscathed by ionizing radiation or the supernova remnant, while some are substantially photoheated and enriched to supercritical levels, likely resulting ...

  7. Dimethylamine biodegradation by mixed culture enriched from drinking water biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylamine (DMA) is one of the important precursors of drinking water disinfection by-product N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Reduction of DMA to minimize the formation of carcinogenic NDMA in drinking water is of practical importance. Biodegradation plays a major role in elimination of DMA pollution in the environment, yet information on DMA removal by drinking water biofilter is still lacking. In this study, microcosms with different treatments were constructed to investigate the potential of DMA removal by a mixed culture enriched from a drinking water biofilter and the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. DMA could be quickly mineralized by the enrichment culture. Amendment of a carbon source, instead of a nitrogen source, had a profound impact on DMA removal. A shift in bacterial community structure was observed with DMA biodegradation, affected by carbon and nitrogen sources. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum group in DMA-degrading microcosms. Microorganisms from a variety of bacterial genera might be responsible for the rapid DMA mineralization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gravimetric enrichment of high lipid and starch accumulating microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Morteza; Abbasabadi, Mahsa; Ebrahimi, Sirous; Hosseini, Maryam; Sheikhbaglou, Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    This study presents gravimetric enrichment of mixed culture to screen starch and lipid producing species separately in a sequencing batch reactor. In the enriched starch-producing mixed culture photobioreactor, the starch content at the end of steady state batch became 3.42 times the beginning of depletion. Whereas in the enriched lipid-producing photobioreactor, the lipid content at the end of steady state batch became 3 times the beginning of famine phase. The obtained results revealed that the gravimetric enrichment is a suitable screening method for specific production of storage compounds in none-sterile large-scaled condition.

  9. Selective enrichment media bias the types of Salmonella enterica strains isolated from mixed strain cultures and complex enrichment broths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    For foodborne outbreak investigations it can be difficult to isolate the relevant strain from food and/or environmental sources. If the sample is contaminated by more than one strain of the pathogen the relevant strain might be missed. In this study mixed cultures of Salmonella enterica were grown in one set of standard enrichment media to see if culture bias patterns emerged. Nineteen strains representing four serogroups and ten serotypes were compared in four-strain mixtures in Salmonella-only and in cattle fecal culture enrichment backgrounds using Salmonella enrichment media. One or more strain(s) emerged as dominant in each mixture. No serotype was most fit, but strains of serogroups C2 and E were more likely to dominate enrichment culture mixtures than strains of serogroups B or C1. Different versions of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium gave different patterns of strain dominance in both Salmonella-only and fecal enrichment culture backgrounds. The fittest strains belonged to serogroups C1, C2, and E, and included strains of S. Infantis, S. Thompson S. Newport, S. 6,8:d:-, and S. Give. Strains of serogroup B, which included serotypes often seen in outbreaks such as S. Typhimurium, S. Saintpaul, and S. Schwarzengrund were less likely to emerge as dominant strains in the mixtures when using standard RV as part of the enrichment. Using a more nutrient-rich version of RV as part of the protocol led to a different pattern of strains emerging, however some were still present in very low numbers in the resulting population. These results indicate that outbreak investigations of food and/or other environmental samples should include multiple enrichment protocols to ensure isolation of target strains of Salmonella.

  10. 31 CFR 540.306 - Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). 540...) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.306 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). The term...

  11. Radionuclide inventories : ORIGEN2.2 isotopic depletion calculation for high burnup low-enriched uranium and weapons-grade mixed-oxide pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Ross, Kyle W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James Dean; Longmire, Pamela

    2010-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory computer code, ORIGEN2.2 (CCC-371, 2002), was used to obtain the elemental composition of irradiated low-enriched uranium (LEU)/mixed-oxide (MOX) pressurized-water reactor fuel assemblies. Described in this report are the input parameters for the ORIGEN2.2 calculations. The rationale for performing the ORIGEN2.2 calculation was to generate inventories to be used to populate MELCOR radionuclide classes. Therefore the ORIGEN2.2 output was subsequently manipulated. The procedures performed in this data reduction process are also described herein. A listing of the ORIGEN2.2 input deck for two-cycle MOX is provided in the appendix. The final output from this data reduction process was three tables containing the radionuclide inventories for LEU/MOX in elemental form. Masses, thermal powers, and activities were reported for each category.

  12. Development of mixed inoculum for methane enriched biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjeet; Mandal, S K; Jain, V K

    2010-10-01

    Inocula were collected from four different sources such as Jajmau tannery waste treatment plant (ITW), Jajmau municipal waste treatment (IMW), Unnao distillery (IDW) and a batch reactor, in which the sludge of a field scale biogas reactor was added to cow dung slurry to develop inoculum (IBS). A combination of these mixed inocula were used for biogas production at 35°C in laboratory scale reactor (10 L capacity) and the average yield of biogas (0.547 Lg(-1) volatile solid (VS)) and methane (0.323 Lg(-1)VS) in 41 d was higher in case of mixed inoculum IMW (1) (IMW+IBS), with maximum methane content in biogas (68% during 27-30 d), as compared to other mixed inocula as well as control i.e. ITW (1) (ITW+IBS), IDW(1) (IDW+IBS) and IBS. The corresponding yields of gas were biogas (0.505, 0.536 and 0.456 Lg(-1)VS), methane (0.288, 0.305, and 0.245 Lg(-1)VS) where as, the corresponding maximum methane content in biogas was 62% during 29-33d, 64% during 29-33 d and 62% during 27-29 d in ITW(1), IDW(1) and IBS.

  13. Enrichment Experiences in Engineering (E[superscript 3]) for Teachers Summer Research Program: An Examination of Mixed-Method Evaluation Findings on High School Teacher Implementation of Engineering Content in High School STEM Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Cheryl A.; Lewis, Chance W.; Autenrieth, Robin L.; Butler-Purry, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing efforts across the U.S. to encourage K-12 students to consider science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) careers have been motivated by concerns that the STEM pipeline is shrinking because of declining student enrollment and increasing rates of retirement in industry. The Enrichment Experiences in Engineering (E[superscript…

  14. Mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated nano-magnets for selective adsorption and enrichment of illegal cationic dyes in food matrices prior to high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ping; Liang, Zhi-an; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qing-qiong; Zheng, Chun-hao; Luo, Li-Ni; Lin, Zi-hao; Zhu, Fang; Zhang, Xue-wu

    2016-03-11

    In this study, mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction (MHSPE) based on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated nano-magnets Fe3O4 was investigated as a novel method for the extraction and separation of four banned cationic dyes, Auramine O, Rhodamine B, Basic orange 21 and Basic orange 22, in condiments prior to HPLC detection. The main factors affecting the extraction of analysts, such as pH, surfactant and adsorbent concentrations and zeta potential were studied and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method was successful applied for the analysis of banned cationic dyes in food samples such as chili sauce, soybean paste and tomato sauce. Validation data showed the good recoveries in the range of 70.1-104.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 15%. The method limits of determination/quantification were in the range of 0.2-0.9 and 0.7-3μgkg(-1), respectively. The selective adsorption and enrichment of cationic dyes were achieved by the synergistic effects of hydrophobic interactions and electrostatic attraction between mixed hemimicelles and the cationic dyes, which also resulted in the removal of natural pigments interferences from sample extracts. When applied to real samples, RB was detected in several positive samples (chili powders) within the range from 0.042 to 0.177mgkg(-1). These results indicate that magnetic MHSPE is an efficient and selective sample preparation technique for the extraction of banned cationic dyes in a complex matrix.

  15. Effects of carbon sources on the enrichment of halophilic polyhydroxyalkanoate-storing mixed microbial culture in an aerobic dynamic feeding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, You-Wei; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Lu, Peng-Fei; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2016-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production serves as a substitute for petroleum-based plastics. Enriching mixed microbial cultures (MMCs) with the capacity to store PHA is a key precursor for low-cost PHA production. This study investigated the impact of carbon types on enrichment outcomes. Three MMCs were separately fed by acetate sodium, glucose, and starch as an enriching carbon source, and were exposed to long-term aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) periods. The PHA production capacity, kinetics and stoichiometry of the enrichments, the PHA composition, and the microbial diversity and community composition were explored to determine carbon and enrichment correlations. After 350-cycle enriching periods under feast-famine (F-F) regimes, the MMCs enriched by acetate sodium and glucose contained a maximum PHA content of 64.7% and 60.5% cell dry weight (CDW). The starch-enriched MMC only had 27.3% CDW of PHA. High-throughput sequencing revealed that non-PHA bacteria survived alongside PHA storing bacteria, even under severe F-F selective pressure. Genus of Pseudomonas and Stappia were the possible PHA accumulating bacteria in acetate-enriched MMC. Genus of Oceanicella, Piscicoccus and Vibrio were found as PHA accumulating bacteria in glucose-enriched MMC. Vibrio genus was the only PHA accumulating bacteria in starch-enriched MMC. The community diversity and composition were regulated by the substrate types.

  16. Physicochemical Characterization and Enhancement of the Antioxidant Potential of Ocimum gratissimum Enriched Pepper Soup Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucky Arueya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum enriched pepper-soup mix continues to remain an indigenous soup delicacy consumed for its nutritional and health benefits. There is however paucity of scientific data underlying its significance which could be further explored to advantage. In this study, dry soup mix was prepared from scent leaf (15%, ginger (30%, black pepper (25%, African nutmeg (17.5% and scent pepper (12.5% and evaluated for proximate, anti-oxidative and sensory properties using standard methods. The mix was reformulated to include 10% modified cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta flour (thickener, 5% fresh and dried tea (Camellia sinensis leaf following which it was re-characterized Concentration-dependent scavenging activity was observed for the entire samples with nitric oxide radical scavenging activity of scent leaf enriched soup (750 &muμg/mL exhibiting the highest value 77% compared to 57.7% for soup containing cocoyam. Total phenol, flavonoid contents and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity differed in all the reformulated samples (p50% in DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed as a result of tea leaf addition. The moisture, fat, crude fiber, ash, protein of the enhanced scent leaf enriched pepper-soup mix was 7.55, 28.4, 8.0, 6.2% and 11.2%, respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.05 in the sensory qualities (color, aroma, taste, consistency and overall acceptability between scent leaf and enhanced tea leaf pepper soup mix. The antioxidant potential, nutrient content and sensory attributes of this enhanced pepper soup mix holds great promise in further combating oxidative stress as in some disease conditions and rapid ageing.

  17. Measurements and analysis of critical assemblies for research reactors with mixed enrichments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Hobbs, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the RERTR Program whole-core demonstration in the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) at the University of Michigan, data have been obtained which will allow more extensive validation of neutronics methods for whole-core calculations of an equilibrium high-enriched-uranium (HEU) core and a fresh low-enriched-uranium (LEU) core. A series of experiments designed to provide the data needed for these validations has been performed in the Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL). This paper reports the results of the measurements and of the subsequent validation calculations performed at ANL. Measurements were made on approximately 20 different critical configurations in the PCA during the period June 15 to 26, 1981. The normal PCA fuel elements contained high-enriched uranium (HEU, 93 wt% /sup 235/U) while the reduced-enrichment fuel elements, obtained for irradiation testing in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) under the fuel demonstration activity of the RERTR Program, contained either medium-enriched uranium (MEU, 45 wt% /sup 235/U) or low-enriched uranium (LEU, 19.8 wt% /sup 235/U).

  18. Enrichment and characteristics of mixed methane-oxidizing bacteria from a Chinese coal mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Duan, Changhong; Luo, Mingfang; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-12-01

    In methane-rich environments, methane-oxidizing bacteria usually occur predominantly among consortia including other types of microorganisms. In this study, artificial coal bed gas and methane gas were used to enrich mixed methanotrophic cultures from the soil of a coal mine in China, respectively. The changes in microbial community structure and function during the enrichment were examined. The microbial diversity was reduced as the enrichment proceeded, while the capacity for methane oxidation was significantly enhanced by the increased abundance of methanotrophs. The proportion of type II methanotrophs increased greatly from 7.84 % in the sampled soil to about 50 % in the enrichment cultures, due to the increase of methane concentration. After the microbial community of the cultures got stable, Methylomonas and Methylocystis became the dominant type I and type II methanotrophs, while Methylophilus was the prevailing methylotroph. The sequences affiliated with pigment-producing strains, Methylomonas rubra, Hydrogenophaga sp. AH-24, and Flavobacterium cucumis, could explain the orange appearance of the cultures. Comparing the two cultures, the multi-carbon sources in the artificial coal bed gas caused more variety of non-methanotrophic bacteria, but did not help to maintain the diversity or to increase the quantity and activity of methanotrophs. The results could help to understand the succession and interaction of microbial community in a methane-driven ecosystem.

  19. Extracurricular enrichment workshops for high ability students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Rojo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze and explain attention to diversity measures for high ability (gifted and talented students. The model, developed in the Spanish region of Murcia, is based on cognitive psychology and aims to encourage thinking skills. The program is developed as a curriculum extension and the interests, motivations and abilities of children have been considered once these were identified. The article offers a theoretical approach, a set of objectives, and some of the activities that have been done with students.

  20. Batch fermentative hydrogen production by enriched mixed culture: Combination strategy and their microbial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2014-02-01

    The effect of individual and combined mixed culture on dark fermentative hydrogen production performance was investigated. Mixed cultures from cow dung (C1), sewage sludge (C2), and pig slurry (C3) were enriched under strict anaerobic conditions at 37°C with glucose as the sole carbon source. Biochemical hydrogen production test in peptone-yeast-glucose (PYG) and basal medium was performed for individual mixed cultures (C1, C2 and C3) and their combinations (C1-C2, C2-C3, C1-C3 and C1-C2-C3) at a glucose concentration of 10 g/L, 37°C and initial pH 7. Maximum hydrogen yields (HY) of 2.0 and 1.86 [Formula: see text] by C2, and 1.98 and 1.95 mol(H2)/mol(glucose) by C2-C3 were obtained in PYG and basal medium, respectively. Butyrate and acetate were the major soluble metabolites produced by all the cultures, and the ratio of butyrate to acetate was ∼2 fold higher in basal medium than PYG medium, indicating strong influence of media formulation on glucose catabolism. The major hydrogen-producing bacterial strains, observed in all mixed cultures, belonged to Clostridium butyricum, C. saccharobutylicum, C. tertium and C. perfringens. The hydrogen production performance of the combined mixed culture (C2-C3) was further evaluated on beverage wastewater (10 g/L) at pH 7 and 37°C. The results showed an HY of 1.92 mol(H2)/mol(glucose-equivalent). Experimental evidence suggests that hydrogen fermentation by mixed culture combination could be a novel strategy to improve the HY from industrial wastewater.

  1. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Jing; Dai, Kun; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Zeng, Raymond J.

    2014-06-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70°C) mixed culture fermentation. The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) was stable operated during 100 days, in which acetate accounted for more than 90% of metabolites in liquid solutions. The yields of acetate, methane and biomass in CSTR were 1.5 +/- 0.06, 1.0 +/- 0.13 and 0.4 +/- 0.05 mol/mol glucose, respectively, close to the theoretical expected values. The CSTR effluent was stable and no further conversion occurred when incubated for 14 days in a batch reactor. In fed-batch experiments, acetate could be produced up to 34.4 g/L, significantly higher than observed in common hydrogen producing fermentations. Acetate also accounted for more than 90% of soluble products formed in these fed-batch fermentations. The microbial community analysis revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogens (mainly Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus and Methanobacterium thermoaggregans) as 98% of Archaea, confirming that high temperature will select hydrogenotrophic methanogens over aceticlastic methanogens effectively. This work demonstrated a potential application to effectively produce acetate as a value chemical and methane as an energy gas together via mixed culture fermentation.

  2. [Psychoeducational intervention in high ability: intellectual functioning and extracurricular enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2014-02-24

    The 'new paradigm' defines the high intellectual ability as a potential that should crystallize progressively throughout development. Its main feature is a high intellectual initial multidimensional potential, which is transformed so that, being a person with high intellectual ability is the result of a developmental process from a neurobiological substrate and the incidence of variables (psychosocial and education) which determines its manifestation more or less stable and optimal to excellence. It is interesting to know the effectiveness of psychoeducational intervention of the extracurricular enrichment programs and their effects on the expression of differential functioning and the optimization of the management of cognitive resources that lead to excellence. An extracurricular enrichment program is described and evaluated through: 1) the stability of the intellectual measures; 2) the satisfaction level of participants and families. Participants are 58 high ability students on the enrichment program and 25 parents. Intellectual profiles are obtained on T1-T2 and calculated their stability by regression analysis, the CSA and CSA-P questionnaires were applied in order to know the participants and families' satisfaction measure. Results show the basic stability of intellectual profiles with five cases of instability among the 58 profiles obtained, and a high satisfaction with the results obtained in the domain of cognitive and personal management among the participants.

  3. Initial report on characterization of excess highly enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    DOE`s Office of Fissile Materials Disposition assigned to this Y-12 division the task of preparing a report on the 174.4 metric tons of excess highly enriched U. Characterization included identification by category, gathering existing data (assay), defining the likely needed processing steps for prepping for transfer to a blending site, and developing a range of preliminary cost estimates for those steps. Focus is on making commercial reactor fuel as a final disposition path.

  4. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70ºC) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, J.; Dai, K.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Zeng, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-th

  5. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Mikova, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar Soares, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS (0

  6. Stable acetate production in extreme-thermophilic (70ºC) mixed culture fermentation by selective enrichment of hydrogenotrophic methanogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, F.; Zhang, Y.; Ding, J.; Dai, K.; Van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Zeng, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The control of metabolite production is difficult in mixed culture fermentation. This is particularly related to hydrogen inhibition. In this work, hydrogenotrophic methanogens were selectively enriched to reduce the hydrogen partial pressure and to realize efficient acetate production in extreme-th

  7. Strategies for analyzing highly enriched IP-chip datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavaré Simon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation on tiling arrays (ChIP-chip has been employed to examine features such as protein binding and histone modifications on a genome-wide scale in a variety of cell types. Array data from the latter studies typically have a high proportion of enriched probes whose signals vary considerably (due to heterogeneity in the cell population, and this makes their normalization and downstream analysis difficult. Results Here we present strategies for analyzing such experiments, focusing our discussion on the analysis of Bromodeoxyruridine (BrdU immunoprecipitation on tiling array (BrdU-IP-chip datasets. BrdU-IP-chip experiments map large, recently replicated genomic regions and have similar characteristics to histone modification/location data. To prepare such data for downstream analysis we employ a dynamic programming algorithm that identifies a set of putative unenriched probes, which we use for both within-array and between-array normalization. We also introduce a second dynamic programming algorithm that incorporates a priori knowledge to identify and quantify positive signals in these datasets. Conclusion Highly enriched IP-chip datasets are often difficult to analyze with traditional array normalization and analysis strategies. Here we present and test a set of analytical tools for their normalization and quantification that allows for accurate identification and analysis of enriched regions.

  8. Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

  9. Rotifers enriched with a mixed algal diet promote survival, growth and development of barramundi larvae, Lates calcarifer (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Thépot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fulfilling the nutritional requirements of marine fish larvae, including barramundi (Lates calcarifer, remains a bottleneck for optimal commercial hatchery production. This study investigated the effect of mixed algal diets for the enrichment of rotifers on the survival, growth, development and stress resistance of barramundi larvae. Four groups of 2–13 days-post-hatch (dph barramundi larvae were fed rotifers enriched with either Nannochloropsis oculata, Chlorella vulgaris, or a blend of 50:50 or 75:25 of N. oculata to C. vulgaris (based on dry weight, DW, respectively. The highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and arachidonic acid (ARA were used as qualitative proxies of the feed. The barramundi larvae fed with the 50:50 diet outperformed all other treatments, with significantly greater larval length (P < 0.05, eye diameter (P < 0.05 and body depth (P < 0.05 at 10 dph, a trend conserved over the whole growth period. The barramundi larvae fed the 50:50 diet also achieved the highest flexion percentage at 10 dph (P < 0.05 and scored the highest survival past the stress test (85%; P < 0.05. The best performing treatment had the second highest level of DHA which suggests that while DHA is an important fatty acid for barramundi larvae it is likely its interaction with other EFA and monounsaturated fatty acid also plays a critical role in their development. Overall, blending microalgae species can enhance the balance of dietary fatty acid for barramundi larvae which in turn can lead to better growth, faster development and higher stress resistance when compared to monospecific microalgal diets.

  10. Accelerating the Reduction of Excess Russian Highly Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, J; Wall, D; Parker, E; Rutkowski, E

    2004-02-18

    This paper presents the latest information on one of the Accelerated Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Disposition initiatives that resulted from the May 2002 Summit meeting between Presidents George W. Bush and Vladimir V. Putin. These initiatives are meant to strengthen nuclear nonproliferation objectives by accelerating the disposition of nuclear weapons-useable materials. The HEU Transparency Implementation Program (TIP), within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) is working to implement one of the selected initiatives that would purchase excess Russian HEU (93% 235U) for use as fuel in U.S. research reactors over the next ten years. This will parallel efforts to convert the reactors' fuel core from HEU to low enriched uranium (LEU) material, where feasible. The paper will examine important aspects associated with the U.S. research reactor HEU purchase. In particular: (1) the establishment of specifications for the Russian HEU, and (2) transportation safeguard considerations for moving the HEU from the Mayak Production Facility in Ozersk, Russia, to the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  11. Predictions from high scale mixing unification hypothesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Srivastava

    2016-02-01

    Starting with ‘high scale mixing unification’ hypothesis, we investigate the renormalization group evolution of mixing parameters and masses for both Dirac and Majorana-type neutrinos. Following this hypothesis, the PMNS mixing parameters are taken to be identical to the CKM ones at a unifying high scale. Then, they are evolved to a low scale using MSSM renormalization group equations. For both types of neutrinos, the renormalization group evolution naturally results in a non-zero and small value of leptonic mixing angle 13. One of the important predictions of this analysis is that, in both cases, the mixing angle 23 turns out to be non-maximal for most of the parameter range. We also elaborate on the important differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos within our framework and how to experimentally distinguish between the two scenarios. Furthermore, for both cases, we also derive constraints on the allowed parameter range for the SUSY breaking and unification scales, for which this hypothesis works. The results can be tested by the present and future experiments.

  12. Research on Experimental and Application for the High Efficient Enrichment of the Low-grade Precious Metal Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xingxiang; FU Guangqiang; DONG Haigang; WU Yuedong; LIU Yang; ZHAO Jiachun; WU Xiaofeng; LI Bojie; TONG Weifeng

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reviewing the progress in the high efficient enrichment from secondary resources of low-grade precious metals at home and abroad,a process route of the high efficient enrichment precious metals from secondary resources of low-grade metals by adding iron oxide as the trapping agent,reducing agent,additive,mixing uniformly and grinding,pelletizing,reduction,grinding and separation,and selectively acid leaching iron has been put forward in this paper.The experiments of reduction,grinding and separation,and selectively acid leaching iron were carried out mainly.Under the decided experiment parameters and conditions,iron generated during the reduction can trap precious metals during reduction,high active alloy powders were obtained from the reduced products by grinding and separation,the concentration of precious metals was obtained by acid leaching high active alloy powders.The better enrichment effect was obtained by adopting the technical route of processing.Other low grade noble metal materials and enrichment ratio of precious metals from the materials to acid products was high through acid leaching.This process has the advantages of simple process,environmental-friendly,strong adaptability of raw materials,high concentration ratio,which was regarded as a kind of the general efficient enrichment technology of low grade precious metal materials.

  13. Slow recovery of High Arctic heath communities from nitrogen enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Lorna E; Burns, Nancy R; Woodin, Sarah J

    2015-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are strongly nutrient limited and exhibit dramatic responses to nitrogen (N) enrichment, the reversibility of which is unknown. This study uniquely assesses the potential for tundra heath to recover from N deposition and the influence of phosphorus (P) availability on recovery. We revisited an experiment in Svalbard, established in 1991, in which N was applied at rates representing atmospheric N deposition in Europe (10 and 50 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ; 'low' and 'high', respectively) for 3-8 yr. We investigated whether significant effects on vegetation composition and ecosystem nutrient status persisted up to 18 yr post-treatment. Although the tundra heath is no longer N saturated, N treatment effects persist and are strongly P-dependent. Vegetation was more resilient to N where no P was added, although shrub cover is still reduced in low-N plots. Where P was also added (5 kg P ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), there are still effects of low N on community composition and nutrient dynamics. High N, with and without P, has many lasting impacts. Importantly, N + P has caused dramatically increased moss abundance, which influences nutrient dynamics. Our key finding is that Arctic ecosystems are slow to recover from even small N inputs, particularly where P is not limiting.

  14. Highly Enriched Uranium Metal Cylinders Surrounded by Various Reflector Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard Jones; J. Blair Briggs; Leland Monteirth

    2007-05-01

    A series of experiments was performed at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1958 to determine critical masses of cylinders of Oralloy (Oy) reflected by a number of materials. The experiments were all performed on the Comet Universal Critical Assembly Machine, and consisted of discs of highly enriched uranium (93.3 wt.% 235U) reflected by half-inch and one-inch-thick cylindrical shells of various reflector materials. The experiments were performed by members of Group N-2, particularly K. W. Gallup, G. E. Hansen, H. C. Paxton, and R. H. White. This experiment was intended to ascertain critical masses for criticality safety purposes, as well as to compare neutron transport cross sections to those obtained from danger coefficient measurements with the Topsy Oralloy-Tuballoy reflected and Godiva unreflected critical assemblies. The reflector materials examined in this series of experiments are as follows: magnesium, titanium, aluminum, graphite, mild steel, nickel, copper, cobalt, molybdenum, natural uranium, tungsten, beryllium, aluminum oxide, molybdenum carbide, and polythene (polyethylene). Also included are two special configurations of composite beryllium and iron reflectors. Analyses were performed in which uncertainty associated with six different parameters was evaluated; namely, extrapolation to the uranium critical mass, uranium density, 235U enrichment, reflector density, reflector thickness, and reflector impurities. In addition to the idealizations made by the experimenters (removal of the platen and diaphragm), two simplifications were also made to the benchmark models that resulted in a small bias and additional uncertainty. First of all, since impurities in core and reflector materials are only estimated, they are not included in the benchmark models. Secondly, the room, support structure, and other possible surrounding equipment were not included in the model. Bias values that result from these two simplifications were determined and associated

  15. Removal of trichlorobenzene using 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; He, Peng; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Ma, Shuangchen

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash, industry lime and an additive, Ca(ClO2)2 (C) were used to prepare the 'oxygen-enriched' highly active absorbent (HAA). The influencing factors for removal of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) using this absorbent such as reaction temperature, simulating gas flow rate, oxygen content, etc. were studied in a self-designed reactor. The optimum experimental conditions of removing 1,2,4-TCB are that the content of an oxidizing additive in the absorbent is 3% (wt), simulating gas flow rate is 100 mL/min, reaction temperature is 250 degrees C, and the content of oxygen in simulating gas is 6%. The maximum removal efficiency is 81.71% in 10 mins. The absorption capacity of the absorbent is 0.000111 g/g. The reaction products were determined by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/ MS), 2,6-Bis-[1,1-Dimethylethyl]-4-methyl-Phenol is considered to be the major intermediate product. The reaction route was revealed.

  16. Enrichment strategy to select functional consortium from mixed cultures: Consortium from rumen liquor for simultaneous cellulose degradation and hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Gao, Lingfang; Xu, Jifei; Liu, Chong; Lee, Duu-Jong [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Strain isolation using conventional roll tube/plating technique is time consuming and is able to culture in vitro only a small fraction of existing microbes in a natural microflora. This paper proposed a simple and rapid method to select the as-simple-as-possible biological consortium by serially diluting the original mixed culture. The diluted which remains, while the one diluted in serial loses the target function, is defined as the functional consortium of the original mixed culture. Since the microbial structure and the reaction pathway incorporated with the functional consortium is much simpler than its original mother liquor, detailed analysis on the strain interaction is possible without the risk of losing key functional strains as often caused from conventional isolation method. The rumen liquor that can degrade cellulose and produce hydrogen is used as a demonstration example. A ''rumen cellulose-degrading bacterial consortium'' (RCBC) was identified using the proposed enrichment strategy. (author)

  17. Mixing in High Schmidt Number Turbulent Jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul Lewis

    This thesis is an experimental investigation of the passive scalar (species concentration) field in the far-field of round, axisymmetric, high Schmidt number (liquid phase), turbulent jets issuing into a quiescent reservoir, by means of a quantitative laser-induced fluorescence technique. Single -point concentration measurements are made on the jet centerline, at axial locations from 100 to 305 nozzle diameters downstream, and Reynolds numbers of 3,000 to 102,000, yielding data with a resolved temporal dynamic range up to 2.5 times 10^5, and capturing as many as 504 large-scale structure passages. Long-time statistics of the jet concentration are found to converge slowly. Between 100 and 300 large-scale structure passages are required to reduce the uncertainty in the mean to 1%, or so. The behavior of the jet varies with Reynolds number. The centerline concentration pdf's become taller and narrower with increasing Re, and the normalized concentration variances correspondingly decrease with Re. The concentration power spectra also evolve with Re. The behavior of the spectral slopes is examined. No constant -1 (Batchelor) spectral slope range is present. Rather, in the viscous region, the power spectra exhibit log-normal behavior, over a range of scales exceeding a factor of 40, in some cases. The frequency of the beginning of this log-normal range scales like Re^{3/4} (Kolmogorov scaling). Mixing in the far-field is found to be susceptible to initial conditions. Disturbances in the jet plenum fluid and near the nozzle exit strongly influence the scalar variance, with larger disturbances causing larger variances, i.e., less homogeneous mixing. The plenum/nozzle geometry also influences the variance. These effects of initial conditions persist for hundreds of diameters from the nozzle exit, over hundreds of large scales. Mixing in these jets differs from gas-phase, order unity Sc, jet mixing. At low to moderate Re, the higher Sc jet is less well mixed. The difference

  18. Unallocated Off-Specification Highly Enriched Uranium: Recommendations for Disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridges, D. N.; Boeke, S. G.; Tousley, D. R.; Bickford, W.; Goergen, C.; Williams, W.; Hassler, M.; Nelson, T.; Keck, R.; Arbital, J.

    2002-02-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress with regard to disposition planning for 174 metric tons (MTU) of surplus Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU). Approximately 55 MTU of this 174 MTU are ''offspec'' HEU. (''Off-spec'' signifies that the isotopic or chemical content of the material does not meet the American Society for Testing and Materials standards for commercial nuclear reactor fuel.) Approximately 33 of the 55 MTU have been allocated to off-spec commercial reactor fuel per an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the Tennessee Valley Authority (1). To determine disposition plans for the remaining {approx}22 MTU, the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) and the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) co-sponsored this technical study. This paper represents a synopsis of the formal technical report (NNSA/NN-0014). The {approx} 22 MTU of off-spec HEU inventory in this study were divided into two main groupings: one grouping with plutonium (Pu) contamination and one grouping without plutonium. This study identified and evaluated 26 potential paths for the disposition of this HEU using proven decision analysis tools. This selection process resulted in recommended and alternative disposition paths for each group of HEU. The evaluation and selection of these paths considered criteria such as technical maturity, programmatic issues, cost, schedule, and environment, safety and health compliance. The primary recommendations from the analysis are comprised of 7 different disposition paths. The study recommendations will serve as a technical basis for subsequent programmatic decisions as disposition of this HEU moves into the implementation phase.

  19. Use of naturally enriched mixed food in 13C breath tests applied in young suckling calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, C C; Schmidt, H L; Eichinger, H

    1992-01-01

    Utilization of three milk diets including cream, casein or whey, each naturally labelled with 13C (1 mmol 13C excess) from C4 sources, by six young male calves of the Deutsche Fleckvieh breed was investigated in a Latin-square split-plot design. Each milk diet was examined under resting conditions and during a short period of physical exercise on a treadmill. Delta 13C values (/1000) in carbon dioxide in expired air were measured at intervals of about 1 h during 6.5 h after food intake. Expired air samples for CO2 isolation, subsequent isotopic analysis, measurement of CO2 production and respiratory quotient were taken at about hourly intervals and 13C recovery rates over 6.5 h were calculated. Feeding milk containing enriched milk casein, cream, or whey resulted in maximal significant 13C enrichments over background (delta 13C) in CO2 of +1, +2.4 and +2.2 /1000, and recovery rates of 3.6, 9.9 and 12.2% respectively. This comparison shows the different kinetic behaviour of the main nutrients during the oxidation in tissues. The short exercise period (5 min at 1 J/s per kg body-weight +5 min at 2 J/s per kg body-weight) did not influence the recovery rates significantly. However, after 10 min of muscular exercise there was a brief decrease in delta 13C value of expired air which disappeared within the first 5 min of rest. These experiments demonstrate for the first time the applicability of the 13C breath test with naturally enriched diets in animal nutrition research and that quantitative results may be obtained.

  20. Postprandial plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations after consumption of plant sterol or stanol enriched mixed meals in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Konings, Maurice; Schött, Hans-F; Friedrichs, Silvia; Husche, Constanze; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent results on the relationship between increased plant sterol concentrations with cardiovascular risk, which might be related to the formation of oxyphytosterols (plant sterol oxidation products) from plant sterols. However, determinants of oxyphytosterol formation and metabolism are largely unknown. It is known, however, that serum plant sterol concentrations increase after daily consumption of plant sterol enriched products, while concentrations decrease after plant stanol consumption. Still, we have earlier reported that fasting oxyphytosterol concentrations did not increase after consuming a plant sterol- or a plant stanol enriched margarine (3.0g/d of plant sterols or stanols) for 4weeks. Since humans are in a non-fasting state for most part of the day, we have now investigated effects on oxyphytosterol concentrations during the postprandial state. For this, subjects consumed a shake (50g of fat, 12g of protein, 67g of carbohydrates), containing no, or 3.0g of plant sterols or plant stanols. Blood samples were taken up to 8h and after 4h subjects received a second shake (without plant sterols or plant stanols). Serum oxyphytosterol concentrations were determined in BHT-enriched EDTA plasma via GC-MS/MS. 7β-OH-campesterol and 7β-OH-sitosterol concentrations were significantly higher after consumption of a mixed meal enriched with plant sterol esters compared to the control and plant stanol ester meal. These increases were seen only after consumption of the second shake, illustrative for a second meal effect. Non-oxidized campesterol and sitosterol concentrations also increased after plant sterol consumption, in parallel with 7β-OH concentrations and again only after the second meal. Apparently, plant sterols and oxyphytosterols follow the same second meal effect as described for dietary cholesterol. However, the question remains whether the increase in oxyphytosterols in the postprandial phase is due to

  1. Highly selective enrichment of phosphorylated peptides using titanium dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine; Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Jensen, Ole N

    2006-01-01

    a protocol for selective phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide (TiO2) chromatography. The selectivity toward phosphopeptides is obtained by loading the sample in a 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) or phthalic acid solution containing acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) onto a TiO2 micro...

  2. DETERMINATION OF B-GROUP VITAMINS IN ENRICHED FLAVORED MILK MIXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. A. COSTA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the levels of enrichment of vitamins B1, B2, B6, B3 and B12 in vanilla, strawberry and chocolate flavored milk. The chromatographic separation was performed in a C18 column with gradient elution and UV detector at 254, 278 and 358 nm. The B12 levels were the most near of the values declared in the package of the analysis products, while the vitamin B2 levels were found between 20-150% more than the package value. In general, the levels of vitamins determined in the samples were higher than the declared values on the labels and did not be in accordance with the legislation to enriched foods.

  3. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential a...

  4. 78 FR 17942 - Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... Security material (High- kilograms U-235 LVR-15 Research will ultimately Administration. Enriched Uranium... medical isotope March 11, 2013 uranium) the list of production at the XSNM3622/02 research...

  5. 77 FR 51579 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... kilograms For the export of Canada. Complex, July 30, 2012, August Uranium (93.35%). uranium-235 high-enriched 1, 2012, XSNM3726, 11006037. contained in 7.5 uranium in the kilograms uranium. form of...

  6. 78 FR 16303 - Request To Amend a License To Export; High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export; High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... of Energy, High-Enriched Uranium 10 kilograms uranium To manufacture HEU targets in France...

  7. 76 FR 72984 - Revised Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Revised Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium The application for a license to export high-enriched Uranium has been revised as noted below. Notice of this application was previously... kilograms To fabricate fuel France. Security Complex; October 18, Uranium (93.35%). uranium (174.0...

  8. Nicotine suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced release of interleukin-6 in mixed glia and microglia-enriched cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Li; Qingzan Zhao; Hua Zhang; Xiuhua Ren; Mingfu Zhou; Weidong Zang

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) through the over-activation of microglia.Epidemiological studies show that smoking is associated with a lower incidence of PD.This study hypothesized that the neuroprotective effect of nicotine is mediated by modulating the activation of microglia via cytokine release.This study found that nicotine pretreatment suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory reaction in the nervous system, especially microglia activation and interleukin-6 production.The inhibitory effects of 100 pmol/L nicotine were stronger compared with 1 and 10 pmol/L nicotine.These findings indicate that nicotine significantly decreases the production of proinflammatory interleukin-6 in mixed glia or microglia-enriched cultures, and plays an inhibitory effect on the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory reaction.

  9. Ethanol enrichment from ethanol-water mixtures using high frequency ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpalani, D M; Suzuki, K

    2011-09-01

    The influence of high frequency ultrasound on the enrichment of ethanol from ethanol-water mixtures was investigated. Experiments performed in a continuous enrichment system showed that the generated atomized mist was at a higher ethanol concentration than the feed and the enrichment ratio was higher than the vapor liquid equilibrium curve for ethanol-water above 40 mol%. Well-controlled experiments were performed to analyze the effect of physical parameters; temperature, carrier gas flow and collection height on the enrichment. Droplet size measurements of the atomized mist and visualization of the oscillating fountain jet formed during sonication were made to understand the separation mechanism.

  10. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d3-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise.

  11. Leucine-Enriched Essential Amino Acids Augment Mixed Protein Synthesis, But Not Collagen Protein Synthesis, in Rat Skeletal Muscle after Downhill Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiromi; Inoue, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Hisamine

    2016-06-28

    Mixed and collagen protein synthesis is elevated for as many as 3 days following exercise. Immediately after exercise, enhanced amino acid availability increases synthesis of mixed muscle protein, but not muscle collagen protein. However, the potential for synergic effects of amino acid ingestion with exercise on both mixed and collagen protein synthesis remains unclear. We investigated muscle collagen protein synthesis in rats following post-exercise ingestion of leucine-enriched essential amino acids. We determined fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) at different time points following exercise. Mixed protein and collagen protein FSRs in skeletal muscle were determined by measuring protein-bound enrichments of hydroxyproline and proline, and by measuring the intracellular enrichment of proline, using injections of flooding d₃-proline doses. A leucine-enriched mixture of essential amino acids (or distilled water as a control) was administrated 30 min or 1 day post-exercise. The collagen protein synthesis in the vastus lateralis was elevated for 2 days after exercise. Although amino acid administration did not increase muscle collagen protein synthesis, it did lead to augmented mixed muscle protein synthesis 1 day following exercise. Thus, contrary to the regulation of mixed muscle protein synthesis, muscle collagen protein synthesis is not affected by amino acid availability after damage-inducing exercise.

  12. ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. A FOLLOW-UP STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARENDS, RICHARD H.; FORD, PAUL M.

    THE 1963-64 STUDY INVOLVED AN INVESTIGATION OF ACCELERATION IN MATHEMATICS AND ENRICHMENT IN READING AND SCIENCE IN THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL. BUT THE RESEARCH WAS BROADENED AND, UNLIKE THE 1962-63 STUDY, EXPLORED MORE DEEPLY THE EFFECTS OF ACCELERATION AND ENRICHMENT. A NUMBER OF SCHOOLS OUTSIDE OF WALLA WALLA WAS USED. PROBLEMS CONSIDERED WERE--(1)…

  13. Biological hydrogen production from probiotic wastewater as substrate by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Biohydrogen production from probiotic wastewater using mixed anaerobic consortia is reported in this paper. Batch tests are carried out in a 5.0 L batch reactor under constant mesophillic temperature (37 C). The maximum hydrogen yield 1.8 mol-hydrogen/mol-carbohydrate is obtained at an optimum pH of 5.5 and substrate concentration 5 g/L. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 168 ml/h. The hydrogen content in the biogas is more than 65% and no significant methane is observed throughout the study. In addition to hydrogen, acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol are found to be the main by-products in the metabolism of hydrogen fermentation. (author)

  14. Effects of a Plant Sterol or Stanol Enriched Mixed Meal on Postprandial Lipid Metabolism in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P.; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence is increasing that plant sterols and stanols not only lower fasting serum low-density lipoprotein concentrations, but also those of triglycerides (TG). Insight into effects of these components on postprandial TG metabolism, an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is missing. Objective Our objective was to examine the 8-hour postprandial response after consuming plant sterol or stanol enriched margarine as part of a mixed meal. Methods This postprandial study was part of a randomized crossover study in which 42 subjects consumed plant sterol enriched (3 g/d plant sterols), plant stanol enriched (3 g/d plant stanols), and control margarines for 4 weeks. After each period, subjects consumed a shake enriched with 3g plant sterols (sterol period), 3g plant stanols (stanol period) or no addition (control period). Subjects received a second shake with no addition after 4 hours. Results TG and apoB48 incremental areas under the curves (iAUC) of the total (0-8h) and 1st meal response (0-4h) were comparable between the meals and in all age categories (I:18-35y, II:36-52y, III:53-69y). In subjects aged 53-69y, TG iAUC after the 2nd meal (4-8h) was higher in the stanol period as compared with the sterol (63.1±53.0 mmol/L/min; P sterol period (67.1±77.0 mg/L/min; P < 0.05) and tended to be higher than after the control period (43.1±64.5 mg/L/min; P = 0.08) in subjects aged 53-69y. These increased postprandial responses may be due to reduced lipoprotein lipase activity, since postprandial apoCIII/II ratios were increased after stanol consumption compared with the control meal. Conclusion Postprandial TG and apoB48 responses are age-dependently increased after plant stanol consumption, which might be related to a changed clearance of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01559428 PMID:27611192

  15. High-efficiency hydrogen production by an anaerobic, thermophilic enrichment culture from an Icelandic hot spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Lay, Chyi-How; Puhakka, Jaakko A; Lin, Ping-Jei; Wu, Shu-Yii; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2008-11-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by a thermophilic culture (33HL), enriched from an Icelandic hot spring sediment sample, was studied in two continuous-flow, completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR1, CSTR2) and in one semi-continuous, anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) at 58 degrees C. The 33HL produced H2 yield (HY) of up to 3.2 mol-H2/mol-glucose along with acetate in batch assay. In the CSTR1 with 33HL inoculum, H2 production was unstable. In the ASBR, maintained with 33HL, the H2 production enhanced after the addition of 6 mg/L of FeSO4 x H2O resulting in HY up to 2.51 mol-H2/mol-glucose (H2 production rate (HPR) of 7.85 mmol/h/L). The H2 production increase was associated with an increase in butyrate production. In the CSTR2, with ASBR inoculum and FeSO4 supplementation, stable, high-rate H2 production was obtained with HPR up to 45.8 mmol/h/L (1.1 L/h/L) and HY of 1.54 mol-H2/mol-glucose. The 33HL batch enrichment was dominated by bacterial strains closely affiliated with Thermobrachium celere (99.8-100%). T. celere affiliated strains, however, did not thrive in the three open system bioreactors. Instead, Thermoanaerobacterium aotearoense (98.5-99.6%) affiliated strains, producing H2 along with butyrate and acetate, dominated the reactor cultures. This culture had higher H2 production efficiency (HY and specific HPR) than reported for mesophilic mixed cultures. Further, the thermophilic culture readily formed granules in CSTR and ASBR systems. In summary, the thermophilic culture as characterized by high H2 production efficiency and ready granulation is considered very promising for H2 fermentation from carbohydrates.

  16. High tech cognitive and acoustic enrichment for captive elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Fiona; Mancini, Clara; Sharp, Helen

    2017-09-23

    This paper investigates the potential for using technology to support the development of sensory and cognitive enrichment activities for captive elephants. It explores the usefulness of applying conceptual frameworks from interaction design and game design to the problem of developing species-specific smart toys that promote natural behaviours and provide stimulation. We adopted a Research through Design approach, and describe how scientific inquiry supported our design process, while the creation of artefacts guided our investigations into possible future solutions. Our fieldwork resulted in the development of an interactive prototype of an acoustic toy that elephants are able to control using interface elements constructed from a range of natural materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 186Os and 187Os enrichments and high-3He/4He sources in the Earth's mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandon, A.D.; Graham, D.W.; Waight, Tod Earle

    2007-01-01

    . These Os isotope systematics are best explained by ancient recycled crust or melt enrichment in the mantle source region. If so, then the coupled enrichments displayed in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os from lavas of other plume systems must result from an independent process, the most viable candidate...... picrites is best modeled as mixtures of 1 Ga or older ancient recycled crust mixed with primitive mantle or incompletely degassed depleted mantle isolated since 1-1.5 Ga, which preserves the high 3He/4He of the depleted mantle at the time. These mixtures create a hybrid source region that subsequently...... be interpreted as an increase in the proportion of ancient recycled crust in the upwelling plume over this time period. The positive correlation between 187Os/188Os and 3He/4He demonstrates that the Iceland lava He isotopic compositions do not result from simple melt depletion histories and consequent removal...

  18. Prolonging charge separation in P3HT-SWNT composites using highly enriched semiconducting nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Josh M; Ferguson, Andrew J; Kopidakis, Nikos; Larsen, Brian A; Bult, Justin; Rumbles, Garry; Blackburn, Jeffrey L

    2010-11-10

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have potential as electron acceptors in organic photovoltaics (OPVs), but the currently low-power conversion efficiencies of devices remain largely unexplained. We demonstrate effective redispersion of isolated, highly enriched semiconducting and metallic SWNTs into poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). We use these enriched blends to provide the first experimental evidence of the negative impact of metallic nanotubes. Time-resolved microwave conductivity reveals that the long-lived carrier population can be significantly increased by incorporating highly enriched semiconducting SWNTs into semiconducting polymer composites.

  19. Criticality issues with highly enriched fuels in a repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanchez, L.C.; Rath, J.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary analysis of a volcanic tuff repository containing a combination of low enrichment commercial spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and DOE-owned SNF packages. These SNFs were analyzed with respect to their criticality risks. Disposal of SNF packages containing significant fissile mass within a geologic repository must comply with current regulations relative to criticality safety during transportation and handling within operational facilities. However, once the repository is closed, the double contingency credits for criticality safety are subject to unremediable degradation, (e.g., water intrusion, continued presence of neutron absorbers in proximity to fissile material, and fissile material reconfiguration). The work presented in this paper focused on two attributes of criticality in a volcanic tuff repository for near-field and far-field scenarios: (1) scenario conditions necessary to have a criticality, and (2) consequences of a nuclear excursion that are components of risk. All criticality consequences are dependent upon eventual water intrusion into the repository and subsequent breach of the disposal package. Key criticality parameters necessary for a critical assembly are: (1) adequate thermal fissile mass, (2) adequate concentration of fissile material, (3) separation of neutron poison from fissile materials, and (4) sufficient neutron moderation (expressed in units of moderator to fissile atom ratios). Key results from this study indicated that the total energies released during a single excursion are minimal (comparable to those released in previous solution accidents), and the maximum frequency of occurrence is bounded by the saturation and temperature recycle times, thus resulting in small criticality risks.

  20. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  1. Exploring the Dimensions of Problem-solving Ability on High-achieving Secondary Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamm, Jolene Diane

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between self-concept and problem-solving style and how these two constructs compared and contrasted in regards to a participantâ s perception of his or her problem-solving ability. The 86 study participants were high-achieving rising 11th and 12th grade students attending a summer enrichment program for agriculture. This study used a concurrent triangulation mixed methods design. The quantitative aspect of the study employed two instrum...

  2. Pajarito Monitor: a high-sensitivity monitoring system for highly enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Coop, K.; Garcia, C. Jr.; Martinez, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Pajarito Monitor for Special Nuclear Material is a high-sensitivity gamma-ray monitoring system for detecting small quantities of highly enriched uranium transported by pedestrians or motor vehicles. The monitor consists of two components: a walk-through personnel monitor and a vehicle monitor. The personnel monitor has a plastic-scintillator detector portal, a microwave occupancy monitor, and a microprocessor control unit that measures the radiation intensity during background and monitoring periods to detect transient diversion signals. The vehicle monitor examines stationary motor vehicles while the vehicle's occupants pass through the personnel portal to exchange their badges. The vehicle monitor has four groups of large plastic scintillators that scan the vehicle from above and below. Its microprocessor control unit measures separate radiation intensities in each detector group. Vehicle occupancy is sensed by a highway traffic detection system. Each monitor's controller is responsible for detecting diversion as well as serving as a calibration and trouble-shooting aid. Diversion signals are detected by a sequential probability ratio hypothesis test that minimizes the monitoring time in the vehicle monitor and adapts itself well to variations in individual passage speed in the personnel monitor. Designed to be highly sensitive to diverted enriched uranium, the monitoring system also exhibits exceptional sensitivity for plutonium. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India); Narasu, M. Lakshmi [Centre for Biotechnology, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally Hyderabad-500 085 (India)

    2010-07-01

    The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C) and acidophilic conditions (pH 6) with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW) as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS) through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h) coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C) to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB) prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861 +- 14ml/L-WW/d) compared to 370C (651 +- 30ml/L-ww/d). The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  4. Bioelectricity production from wastewater treatment in dual chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) using selectively enriched mixed microflora: Effect of catholyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Saravanan, R; Raghavulu, S Veer; Mohanakrishna, G; Sarma, P N

    2008-02-01

    The performance of aerated and ferricyanide catholytes on the bioelectricity production was evaluated in dual chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) (mediatroless anode; graphite electrodes) employing selectively enriched H(2) producing mixed consortia as anodic inoculum. Two MFCs with aerated catholyte (MFC(AC)) and ferricyanide catholyte (MFC(FC)) were operated separately to elucidate the difference in power generation potential and carbon removal efficiency under similar operating conditions [ambient pressure; room temperature (28+/-2 degrees C); acidophilic microenvironment (pH 6)]. The experimental data demonstrated the feasibility of in situ bioelectricity generation along with wastewater treatment. Effective power generation and substrate removal efficiency was documented in the fuel cell operated with ferricyanide catholyte (586 mV; 2.37 mA; 0.559 kg COD/m(3) day) than aerated catholyte (572 mV; 1.68 mA; 0.464 kg COD/m(3) day). Maximum power yield (0.635 W/kg COD(R) and 0.440 W/kg COD(R)) and current density (222.59 mA/m(2) and 190.28 mA/m(2)) was observed at 100 Omega resistor with ferricyanide and aerated catholytes, respectively. The study documented both wastewater treatment and electricity production through direct conversion of H(2) in a single system.

  5. Thermo-acidophillic biohydrogen production from rice bran de-oiled wastewater by Selectively enriched mixed culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sivaramakrishna, D.Sreekanth, V.Himabindu, M.Lakshmi Narasu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the biohydrogen production in an anaerobic batch reactor operated at thermophillic (570C and acidophilic conditions (pH 6 with rice bran de-oiled wastewater (RBOW as substrate. The hydrogen generating mixed microflora was enriched from slaughter house sludge (SHS through acid treatment (pH 3-4, for 24h coupled with heat treatment (1h at 1000C to eliminate non-spore forming bacteria and to inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria (MB prior to inoculation in the reactor. The hydrogen production rate was maximum at 570C (1861±14ml/L-WW/d compared to 370C (651±30ml/L-ww/d. The Hydrogen yield increased with temperature from 1.1 to 2.2 molH2/mol of substrate respectively. The optimum pH range for hydrogen production in this system was observed in between 5.5 to 6. Acid-forming pathway with butyric acid as a major metabolite dominated the metabolic flow during the hydrogen production.

  6. Transport of high enriched uranium fresh fuel from Yugoslavia to the Russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Milan P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the relevant data related to the recent shipment (August 2002 of fresh highly enriched uranium fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to the Russian Federation for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gave its contribution to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR Program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist actions against nuclear material potentially usable for the production of nuclear weapons.

  7. High Intellectual Ability: Extracurricular Enrichment and Cognitive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre-Riba, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to provide a better understanding of high intellectual abilities and of how to address the educational needs of those who possess such abilities. Within the emergent paradigm, high intellectual abilities are understood as multidimensional and as the result of lifetime development; that is, not only are they the result of their…

  8. Measurements of Molecular Mixing in a High Schmidt Number Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueschke, N J; Schilling, O; Youngs, D L; Andrews, M

    2007-12-03

    Molecular mixing measurements are performed for a high Schmidt number (Sc {approx} 10{sup 3}), small Atwood number (A {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup -4}) buoyancy-driven turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer in a water channel facility. Salt was added to the top stream to create the desired density difference. The degree of molecular mixing was measured as a function of time by monitoring a diffusion-limited chemical reaction between the two fluid streams. The pH of each stream was modified by the addition of acid or alkali such that a local neutralization reaction occurred as the two fluids molecularly mixed. The progress of this neutralization reaction was tracked by the addition of phenolphthalein - a pH-sensitive chemical indicator - to the acidic stream. Accurately calibrated backlit optical techniques were used to measure the average concentration of the colored chemical indicator. Comparisons of chemical product formation for pre-transitional buoyancy- and shear-driven mixing layers are given. It is also shown that experiments performed at different equivalence ratios (acid/alkali concentration) can be combined to obtain a mathematical relationship between the colored product formed and the density variance. This relationship was used to obtain high-fidelity, quantitative measures of the degree of molecular mixing which are independent of probe resolution constraints. The dependence of such mixing parameters on the Schmidt and Reynolds numbers is examined by comparing the current Sc {approx} 10{sup 3} measurements with Sc = 0.7 gas-phase and Pr = 7 liquid-phase measurements. This comparison indicates that the Schmidt number has a large effect on the bulk quantity of mixed fluid at small Reynolds numbers Re{sub h} < 10{sup 3}. At late times, all mixing parameters indicated a greater degree of molecular mixing and a decreased Schmidt number dependence. Implications for the development and quantitative assessment of turbulent transport and mixing models appropriate for

  9. Mixing high-viscosity fluids via acoustically driven bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbay, Sinem; Ozcelik, Adem; Lata, James; Kaynak, Murat; Wu, Mengxi; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    We present an acoustofluidic micromixer which can perform rapid and homogeneous mixing of highly viscous fluids in the presence of an acoustic field. In this device, two high-viscosity polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions were co-injected into a three-inlet PDMS microchannel with the center inlet containing a constant stream of nitrogen flow which forms bubbles in the device. When these bubbles were excited by an acoustic field generated via a piezoelectric transducer, the two solutions mixed homogenously due to the combination of acoustic streaming, droplet ejection, and bubble eruption effects. The mixing efficiency of this acoustofluidic device was evaluated using PEG-700 solutions which are ~106 times more viscous than deionized (DI) water. Our results indicate homogenous mixing of the PEG-700 solutions with a ~0.93 mixing index. The acoustofluidic micromixer is compact, inexpensive, easy to operate, and has the capacity to mix highly viscous fluids within 50 ms.

  10. Development of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we first designed and synthesized an IMAC material with Hf(4+) immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene and applied it to phosphopeptides enrichment successfully. The newly prepared material gathered the advantages of large specific surface area of graphene, good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine and superparamagnetism of Fe3O4. We investigated the performance of Hf(4+)-immobilized polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (denoted as magG@PDA-Hf(4+)) in phosphopeptides enrichment and the results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the new material. Finally, we successfully applied magG@PDA-Hf(4+) to phosphopeptides enrichment from non-fat milk digests and human serum, further demonstrating excellent performance of this new material in phosphopeptides enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of enrichments and resampling for sulfate reducing bacteria diversity assessment by high-throughput cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Yannick; Goñi-Urriza, Marisol; Caumette, Pierre; Guyoneaud, Rémy

    2015-03-01

    The development of new high-throughput cultivation methods aims to increase the isolation efficiency as compared to standard techniques that often require enrichment procedures to compensate the low microbial recovery. In the current study, estuarine sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated using an anaerobic isolation procedure in 384-well microplates. Ninety-nine strains were recovered from initial sediments. Isolates were identified according to their partial 16S rRNA sequences and clustered into 13 phylotypes. Besides, the increase in species richness obtained through enrichments or resampling was investigated. Forty-four enrichment procedures were conducted and shifts in sulfate-reducing bacterial communities were investigated through dsrAB gene fingerprinting. Despite efforts in conducting numerous enrichment conditions only few of them were statistically different from initial sample. The cultural diversity obtained from 3 of the most divergent enrichments, as well as from resampled sediments equally contributed to raise the sulfate-reducing diversity up to 22 phylotypes. Enrichments (selection of metabolism) or resampling (transient populations and micro-heterogeneity) may still be helpful to assess new microbial phylotypes. Nevertheless, all the newly cultivated strains were all representatives of minor Operational Taxonomic Units and could eventually be recovered by maintaining high-throughput isolation effort from the initial sediments.

  12. Preliminary Accident Analyses for Conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) from Highly Enriched to Low Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Floyd E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Olson, Arne P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wilson, Erik H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Kaichao S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Newton, Jr., Thomas H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Hu, Lin-wen [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR-II) is a research reactor in Cambridge, Massachusetts designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context most research and test reactors, both domestic and international, have started a program of conversion to the use of LEU fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (U-Mo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like MITR. This report presents the preliminary accident analyses for MITR cores fueled with LEU monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel with 10 wt% Mo. Preliminary results demonstrate adequate performance, including thermal margin to expected safety limits, for the LEU accident scenarios analyzed.

  13. Design of High Compressive Strength Concrete Mix without Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akasha, N, M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the crashed Basalt and uncrushed granite is used in concrete mixes as coarse aggregate. The selected materials, with high specification using special production techniques, the properties ,the mix design procedure and mix proportion of the high strength concrete (HSC were discussed. Different proportions of Ordinary Portland cement (410,430 and 450 kg/m3 with different crashed Basalt and uncrushed Granite coarse aggregate amount (1120 and 1050 kg/m3 and fine aggregate with fine modulus of 3.65 were used. Eight concrete mixes were prepared: two as control mix for crashed Basalt and uncrushed Granite, three with crashed Basalt and three with uncrushed Granite coarse aggregate with mix amount(410:680:1120,430:610:1050 and 450:550:1050 kg/m3,(cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregaterespectively. The study showed that the use of granite coarse aggregate in concrete mixes has a clear effect in mix proportion. The compressive strength of concrete was measured at ages of 7, 28 and 56 days and it was found that the granite (Mix3 of (450:550:1050 kg/m3 with w/c of 0.46 give the highest of strength in 28 and 56 days among the abovementioned mixes its 56 and 64 N/mm2 respectively. The paper shows that good results of compressive strength and workability of concrete were obtained when using granite coarse aggregate.

  14. Elucidating high-dimensional cancer hallmark annotation via enriched ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shankai; Wong, Ka-Chun

    2017-09-01

    Cancer hallmark annotation is a promising technique that could discover novel knowledge about cancer from the biomedical literature. The automated annotation of cancer hallmarks could reveal relevant cancer transformation processes in the literature or extract the articles that correspond to the cancer hallmark of interest. It acts as a complementary approach that can retrieve knowledge from massive text information, advancing numerous focused studies in cancer research. Nonetheless, the high-dimensional nature of cancer hallmark annotation imposes a unique challenge. To address the curse of dimensionality, we compared multiple cancer hallmark annotation methods on 1580 PubMed abstracts. Based on the insights, a novel approach, UDT-RF, which makes use of ontological features is proposed. It expands the feature space via the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ontology graph and utilizes novel feature selections for elucidating the high-dimensional cancer hallmark annotation space. To demonstrate its effectiveness, state-of-the-art methods are compared and evaluated by a multitude of performance metrics, revealing the full performance spectrum on the full set of cancer hallmarks. Several case studies are conducted, demonstrating how the proposed approach could reveal novel insights into cancers. https://github.com/cskyan/chmannot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technical basis in support of the conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) core from highly-enriched to low-enriched uranium - core neutron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillman, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Feldman, E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Research Reactor; Foyto, L [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Research Reactor; Kutikkad, K [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Research Reactor; McKibben, J C [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Research Reactor; Peters, N. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Research Reactor; Stevens, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report contains the results of reactor design and performance for conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the MURR Facility. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support of the U. S. government.

  16. Thermomagnetic phenomena in the mixed state of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilikhov, E. Z.

    1995-01-01

    Galvano- and thermomagnetic-phenomena in high temperature superconductors, based on kinetic coefficients, are discussed, along with a connection between the electric field and the heat flow in superconductor mixed state. The relationship that determines the transport coefficients of high temperature superconductors in the mixed state based on Seebeck and Nernst effects is developed. It is shown that this relationship is true for a whole transition region of the resistive mixed state of a superconductor. Peltier, Ettingshausen and Righi-Leduc effects associated with heat conductivity as related to high temperature superconductors are also addressed.

  17. Multiplex target enrichment using DNA indexing for ultra-high throughput SNP detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, Elaine M

    2011-02-01

    Screening large numbers of target regions in multiple DNA samples for sequence variation is an important application of next-generation sequencing but an efficient method to enrich the samples in parallel has yet to be reported. We describe an advanced method that combines DNA samples using indexes or barcodes prior to target enrichment to facilitate this type of experiment. Sequencing libraries for multiple individual DNA samples, each incorporating a unique 6-bp index, are combined in equal quantities, enriched using a single in-solution target enrichment assay and sequenced in a single reaction. Sequence reads are parsed based on the index, allowing sequence analysis of individual samples. We show that the use of indexed samples does not impact on the efficiency of the enrichment reaction. For three- and nine-indexed HapMap DNA samples, the method was found to be highly accurate for SNP identification. Even with sequence coverage as low as 8x, 99% of sequence SNP calls were concordant with known genotypes. Within a single experiment, this method can sequence the exonic regions of hundreds of genes in tens of samples for sequence and structural variation using as little as 1 μg of input DNA per sample.

  18. 77 FR 1956 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public... Netherlands. Security Complex. Uranium uranium (9.3 targets at December 21, 2011 (93.35%). kilograms U-...

  19. 78 FR 33448 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... targets Canada. Security Complex, May 13, Uranium (93.35%). uranium-235 at the National 2013, May 21, 2013, XSNM3745, contained in 7.5 Research Universal 11006098. kilograms reactor in Canada for uranium....

  20. 78 FR 72123 - Request To Amend a License to Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License to Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... in Belgium. National Nuclear Security Uranium (HEU) uranium France for irradiation in Administration... contained in 6.2 kg uranium to a new cumulative total of 12.615 kg of U-235 contained in 13.5 kg uranium;...

  1. 77 FR 73056 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... targets Belgium. Security Complex. Uranium (93.2%). uranium-235 at CERCA AREVA Romans October 10, 2012 contained in 6.2 in France and to October 12, 2012 kilograms irradiate targets at XSNM3729 uranium. the...

  2. 75 FR 6223 - Application For a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application For a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fabricate Canada. Complex December 21, 2009, Uranium (93.35%). uranium (16.3 targets for December 28,...

  3. 75 FR 7525 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fuel France; Belgium. Security Complex, February 2, Uranium (93.35%). uranium (87.3 elements in...

  4. 75 FR 15743 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(c) ``Public... fabricate fuel France. Complex, March 3, 2010. Uranium (93.35%). uranium (149.36 elements in March 9,...

  5. 78 FR 60928 - Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... COMMISSION Request To Amend a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... Nuclear Security Uranium uranium (17.1 targets in France Administration, September 9, (93.35%). kilograms... 10.1 kg uranium to a new cumulative total of 17.1 kg of U-235 contained in 18.4 kg uranium; and...

  6. 77 FR 73055 - Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export High-Enriched Uranium Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70 (b) ``Public... kilograms To fabricate targets The Netherlands. Security Complex. Uranium uranium-235 at CERCA AREVA October... XSNM3730 uranium. targets at the HFR 11006054 Research Reactor in the Netherlands, the BR-2 Reactor...

  7. Effect of high iron concentration enrichment on the phytoplankton in the Prydz Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张武昌; 孙松; 张永山; 扈传昱; 刘诚刚

    2004-01-01

    Shipboard iron enrichment phytoplankton incubations were carried out in the Prydz Bay, Antarctic, in January through to March 2002. Waters for the three incubations ( Exp 1,2 and 3 ) were collected from 20 m depth in three stations ( St. Ⅰ -1, Ⅶ-1 and Ⅶ-5 ), respectively. Although the nutrient concentrations in the surface waters of the three stations were consistently high, the Chl a concentrations varied considerably. Chl a concentrations in the 20 m depth of St. Ⅰ-1 and Ⅶ-1 werewas 2.35-2.65 for St. Ⅶ-5. There were six levels of enriched iron concentrations(control 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 nM) in Exp 1 (6-29th, January) while three enriched iron levels (control 10 and 40 nM) were arranged in Exp 2 and 3 (both were from 20th February to 4 th March). The iron enrichments stimulated the phytoplankton growth and nutrient drawdown in Exp 1 and Exp 2. In Exp 3, phytoplankton growth and nutrient drawdown were at nearly the same rate in the control and iron enriched bottles. In Exp 1, Chl a concentrations in the bottles with 20, 40 and 80 nM iday, respectively, with a growth rate of 0.36-0.38 d-1. Chl a concentration in the day ( growth rate 0.27 d - 1 ). Phytoplankton growth rates in the control bottle and the bottle enriched with 5 nM iron were 0.13 and 0.16 d -1, respectively. In Exp 2, the Chl a growth rates were 0.13, 0.32 and 0.40 d-1 in the control bottle and bottles with 10 and 40 nM iron enrichments, respectively. It seems that 10 nM iron enrichment was not enough to stimulate the phytoplankton to reach their maximum growth rate. The result that the phytoplankton < 10 μm bloomed in Exp 1 and 2 was controversial to the "Ecumenical Iron Hypothesis" of Morel et al. ( 1991 ) that upon enrichment of iron, phytoplankton >10 μm would grow faster than phytoplankton<10 μm.

  8. On the arsenic source mobilisation and its natural enrichment in the sediments of a high mountain cirque in the Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos George; Hooda, Peter S; Fernandez, Javier; Soler, Antonio Palanca; Burghelea, Carmen Ionela

    2009-11-01

    Recently arsenic contamination and its environmental and human health problems have been raising concerns worldwide. The occurrence of natural high levels of arsenic contamination has generally been reported for low altitude environments. Here we report a study conducted to assess the extent of arsenic mobilisation/transportation from previously identified arsenic source areas in a high altitude cirque of the Pyrenees as well as the potential contribution of As by snow. The concentration of arsenic in sediments of several tributaries was enriched up to about ten folds due to mobilisation of arsenic from the source areas within the catchment. The highest arsenic enrichments were found in an area dominated by quartzite and slate formation in the southern side of the basin, and it generally diminished towards the major lake downstream, possible due to mixing with sediments from non-source areas. At these sites arsenic exceeded the hazard quotient (HQ) limits for the protection of aquatic life. The potential hazard of the As-enriched sediments may be further enhanced outside the catchment as samples collected downstream the cirque have also shown arsenic concentration exceeding HQ unity. The arsenic concentrations in the water collected at a number of sites exceeded its guide value for the protection of aquatic life. The potential As contribution by snow in the area was low and was largely of lithospheric origin. The PCA analysis showed strong association of arsenic in sediments with the sediment mineralogical composition (Fe2O3, TiO2 and Mn). Arsenic in water was positively correlated with its concentration in the sediments and could potentially increase if the environmental/climate conditions change.

  9. Treatment and electricity harvesting from sulfate/sulfide-containing wastewaters using microbial fuel cell with enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duu-Jong, E-mail: cedean@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Chin-Yu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Center for Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulfate-reducing bacteria and anode-respiring bacteria were enriched in anodic biofilms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MFC effectively remove sulfate to elementary sulfur in the presence of lactate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The present device can treat sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting. - Abstract: Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-laden wastewaters can produce excess sulfide, which is corrosive to pipelines and is toxic to incorporated microorganisms. This work started up microbial fuel cell (MFC) using enriched sulfate-reducing mixed culture as anodic biofilms and applied the so yielded MFC for treating sulfate or sulfide-laden wastewaters. The sulfate-reducing bacteria in anodic biofilm effectively reduced sulfate to sulfide, which was then used by neighboring anode respiring bacteria (ARB) as electron donor for electricity production. The presence of organic carbons enhanced MFC performance since the biofilm ARB were mixotrophs that need organic carbon to grow. The present device introduces a route for treating sulfate laden wastewaters with electricity harvesting.

  10. Enrichment and isolation of Flavobacterium strains with tolerance to high concentrations of cesium ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Souichiro; Goya, Eri; Tanaka, Michiko; Kitagawa, Wataru; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2016-02-17

    Interest in the interaction of microorganisms with cesium ions (Cs(+)) has arisen, especially in terms of their potent ability for radiocesium bioaccumulation and their important roles in biogeochemical cycling. Although high concentrations of Cs(+) display toxic effects on microorganisms, there have been only limited reports for Cs(+)-tolerant microorganisms. Here we report enrichment and isolation of Cs(+)-tolerant microorganisms from soil microbiota. Microbial community analysis revealed that bacteria within the phylum Bacteroidetes, especially Flavobacterium spp., dominated in enrichment cultures in the medium supplemented with 50 or 200 mM Cs(+), while Gammaproteobacteria was dominant in the control enrichment cultures (in the presence of 50 and 200 mM K(+) instead of Cs(+)). The dominant Flavobacterium sp. was successfully isolated from the enrichment culture and was closely related to Flavobacterium chungbukense with 99.5% identity. Growth experiments clearly demonstrated that the isolate has significantly higher tolerance to Cs(+) compared to its close relatives, suggesting the Cs(+)-tolerance is a specific trait of this strain, but not a universal trait in the genus Flavobacterium. Measurement of intracellular K(+) and Cs(+) concentrations of the Cs(+)-tolerant isolate and its close relatives suggested that the ability to maintain low intracellular Cs(+) concentration confers the tolerance against high concentrations of external Cs(+).

  11. Development of immobilized Sn(4+) affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haizhu; Deng, Chunhui

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we first immobilized tin(IV) ion on polydopamine-coated magnetic graphene (magG@PDA) to synthesize Sn(4+) -immobilized magG@PDA (magG@PDA-Sn(4+) ) and successfully applied the material to highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides. The material gathered the advantages of large surface area of graphene, superparamagnetism of Fe3 O4 , good hydrophilicity and biocompatibility of polydopamine, and strong interaction between Sn(4+) and phosphopeptides. The enrichment performance of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) toward phosphopeptides from digested β-casein at different concentrations, with and without added digested BSA was investigated and compared with magG@PDA-Ti(4+) . The results showed high selectivity and sensitivity of the Sn(4+) -IMAC material toward phosphopeptides, as good as the Ti(4+) -IMAC material. Finally, magG@PDA-Sn(4+) was applied to the analysis of endogenous phosphopeptides from a real sample, human saliva, with both MALDI-TOF MS and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The results indicated that the as-synthesized Sn(4+) -IMAC material not only has good enrichment performance, but also could serve as a supplement to the Ti(4+) -IMAC material and expand the phosphopeptide coverage enriched by the single Ti(4+) -IMAC material, demonstrating the broad application prospects of magG@PDA-Sn(4+) in phosphoproteome research. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  13. Hydrazide functionalized core-shell magnetic nanocomposites for highly specific enrichment of N-glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liting; Yu, Meng; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Changchun; Lu, Haojie

    2014-05-28

    In view of the biological significance of glycosylation for human health, profiling of glycoproteome from complex biological samples is highly inclined toward the discovery of disease biomarkers and clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, because of the existence of glycopeptides at relatively low abundances compared with nonglycosylated peptides and glycan microheterogeneity, glycopeptides need to be highly selectively enriched from complex biological samples for mass spectrometry analysis. Herein, a new type of hydrazide functionalized core-shell magnetic nanocomposite has been synthesized for highly specific enrichment of N-glycopeptides. The nanocomposites with both the magnetic core and the polymer shell hanging high density of hydrazide groups were prepared by first functionalization of the magnetic core with polymethacrylic acid by reflux precipitation polymerization to obtain the Fe3O4@poly(methacrylic acid) (Fe3O4@PMAA) and then modification of the surface of Fe3O4@PMAA with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) to obtain Fe3O4@poly(methacrylic hydrazide) (Fe3O4@PMAH). The abundant hydrazide groups toward highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides and the magnetic core make it suitable for large-scale, high-throughput, and automated sample processing. In addition, the hydrophilic polymer surface can provide low nonspecific adsorption of other peptides. Compared to commercially available hydrazide resin, Fe3O4@PMAH improved more than 5 times the signal-to-noise ratio of standard glycopeptides. Finally, this nanocomposite was applied in the profiling of N-glycoproteome from the colorectal cancer patient serum. In total, 175 unique glycopeptides and 181 glycosylation sites corresponding to 63 unique glycoproteins were identified in three repeated experiments, with the specificities of the enriched glycopeptides and corresponding glycoproteins of 69.6% and 80.9%, respectively. Because of all these attractive features, we believe that this novel hydrazide functionalized

  14. Combining target enrichment with barcode multiplexing for high throughput SNP discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunke Sebastian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary goal of genetic linkage analysis is to identify genes affecting a phenotypic trait. After localisation of the linkage region, efficient genetic dissection of the disease linked loci requires that functional variants are identified across the loci. These functional variations are difficult to detect due to extent of genetic diversity and, to date, incomplete cataloguing of the large number of variants present both within and between populations. Massively parallel sequencing platforms offer unprecedented capacity for variant discovery, however the number of samples analysed are still limited by cost per sample. Some progress has been made in reducing the cost of resequencing using either multiplexing methodologies or through the utilisation of targeted enrichment technologies which provide the ability to resequence genomic areas of interest rather that full genome sequencing. Results We developed a method that combines current multiplexing methodologies with a solution-based target enrichment method to further reduce the cost of resequencing where region-specific sequencing is required. Our multiplex/enrichment strategy produced high quality data with nominal reduction of sequencing depth. We undertook a genotyping study and were successful in the discovery of novel SNP alleles in all samples at uniplex, duplex and pentaplex levels. Conclusion Our work describes the successful combination of a targeted enrichment method and index barcode multiplexing to reduce costs, time and labour associated with processing large sample sets. Furthermore, we have shown that the sequencing depth obtained is adequate for credible SNP genotyping analysis at uniplex, duplex and pentaplex levels.

  15. Constraints on the Parental Melts of Enriched Shergottites from Image Analysis and High Pressure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, M.; Medard, E.; Devouard, B.; Peslier, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian basalts can be classified in at least two geochemically different families: enriched and depleted shergottites. Enriched shergottites are characterized by higher incompatible element concentrations and initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and lower initial Nd-143/Nd-144 and Hf-176/Hf-177 than depleted shergottites [e.g. 1, 2]. It is now generally admitted that shergottites result from the melting of at least two distinct mantle reservoirs [e.g. 2, 3]. Some of the olivine-phyric shergottites (either depleted or enriched), the most magnesian Martian basalts, could represent primitive melts, which are of considerable interest to constrain mantle sources. Two depleted olivine-phyric shergottites, Yamato (Y) 980459 and Northwest Africa (NWA) 5789, are in equilibrium with their most magnesian olivine (Fig. 1) and their bulk rock compositions are inferred to represent primitive melts [4, 5]. Larkman Nunatak (LAR) 06319 [3, 6, 7] and NWA 1068 [8], the most magnesian enriched basalts, have bulk Mg# that are too high to be in equilibrium with their olivine megacryst cores. Parental melt compositions have been estimated by subtracting the most magnesian olivine from the bulk rock composition, assuming that olivine megacrysts have partially accumulated [3, 9]. However, because this technique does not account for the actual petrography of these meteorites, we used image analysis to study these rocks history, reconstruct their parent magma and understand the nature of olivine megacrysts.

  16. Establishing Specifications for Low Enriched Uranium Fuel Operations Conducted Outside the High Flux Isotope Reactor Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has funded staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from the current, high enriched uranium fuel to low enriched uranium fuel. The LEU fuel form is a metal alloy that has never been used in HFIR or any HFIR-like reactor. This report provides documentation of a process for the creation of a fuel specification that will meet all applicable regulations and guidelines to which UT-Battelle, LLC (UTB) the operating contractor for ORNL - must adhere. This process will allow UTB to purchase LEU fuel for HFIR and be assured of the quality of the fuel being procured.

  17. High Dimensional ODEs Coupled with Mixed-Effects Modeling Techniques for Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Liang, Hua; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Hulin

    2011-01-01

    Gene regulation is a complicated process. The interaction of many genes and their products forms an intricate biological network. Identification of this dynamic network will help us understand the biological process in a systematic way. However, the construction of such a dynamic network is very challenging for a high-dimensional system. In this article we propose to use a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), coupled with dimensional reduction by clustering and mixed-effects modeling techniques, to model the dynamic gene regulatory network (GRN). The ODE models allow us to quantify both positive and negative gene regulations as well as feedback effects of one set of genes in a functional module on the dynamic expression changes of the genes in another functional module, which results in a directed graph network. A five-step procedure, Clustering, Smoothing, regulation Identification, parameter Estimates refining and Function enrichment analysis (CSIEF) is developed to identify the ODE-based dynamic GRN. In the proposed CSIEF procedure, a series of cutting-edge statistical methods and techniques are employed, that include non-parametric mixed-effects models with a mixture distribution for clustering, nonparametric mixed-effects smoothing-based methods for ODE models, the smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD)-based variable selection, and stochastic approximation EM (SAEM) approach for mixed-effects ODE model parameter estimation. The key step, the SCAD-based variable selection of the proposed procedure is justified by investigating its asymptotic properties and validated by Monte Carlo simulations. We apply the proposed method to identify the dynamic GRN for yeast cell cycle progression data. We are able to annotate the identified modules through function enrichment analyses. Some interesting biological findings are discussed. The proposed procedure is a promising tool for constructing a general dynamic GRN and more complicated dynamic networks.

  18. Assumptions and Criteria for Performing a Feasability Study of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Core to Use Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, R.T., III; Ellis, R.J.; Gehin, J.C.; Moses, D.L.; Binder, J.L.; Xoubi, N. (U. of Cincinnati)

    2006-02-01

    A computational study will be initiated during fiscal year 2006 to examine the feasibility of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium. The study will be limited to steady-state, nominal operation, reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic analyses of a uranium-molybdenum alloy that would be substituted for the current fuel powder--U{sub 3}O{sub 8} mixed with aluminum. The purposes of this document are to (1) define the scope of studies to be conducted, (2) define the methodologies to be used to conduct the studies, (3) define the assumptions that serve as input to the methodologies, (4) provide an efficient means for communication with the Department of Energy and American research reactor operators, and (5) expedite review and commentary by those parties.

  19. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Casali, N.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Princeton University, Physics Department, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Gironi, L.; Maino, M. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Dafinei, I.; Orio, F.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Di Domizio, S. [INFN, Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Giuliani, A. [Centre de Spectrometrie de Masse, Orsay (France); Gotti, C.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Laubenstein, M.; Nisi, S.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S.; Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (L' Aquila) (Italy); Nagorny, S.; Pagnanini, L. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Nones, C. [SPP Centre de Saclay, CEA, Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-12-15

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4.10{sup 22}, 1.3.10{sup 22} and 1.0.10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L. (orig.)

  20. Double-beta decay investigation with highly pure enriched {sup 82}Se for the LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeman, J. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 94720, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Benetti, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, 27100, Pavia (Italy); Cardani, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); Physics Department, Princeton University, 08544, Princeton, NJ (United States); Casali, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma, 00185, Rome (Italy)

    2015-12-13

    The LUCIFER project aims at deploying the first array of enriched scintillating bolometers for the investigation of neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se. The matrix which embeds the source is an array of ZnSe crystals, where enriched {sup 82}Se is used as decay isotope. The radiopurity of the initial components employed for manufacturing crystals, that can be operated as bolometers, is crucial for achieving a null background level in the region of interest for double-beta decay investigations. In this work, we evaluated the radioactive content in 2.5 kg of 96.3 % enriched {sup 82}Se metal, measured with a high-purity germanium detector at the Gran Sasso deep underground laboratory. The limits on internal contaminations of primordial decay chain elements of {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U are respectively: <61, <110 and <74 μBq/kg at 90 % C.L. The extremely low-background conditions in which the measurement was carried out and the high radiopurity of the {sup 82}Se allowed us to establish the most stringent lower limits on the half-lives of the double-beta decay of {sup 82}Se to 0{sub 1}{sup +}, 2{sub 2}{sup +} and 2{sub 1}{sup +} excited states of {sup 82}Kr of 3.4·10{sup 22}, 1.3·10{sup 22} and 1.0·10{sup 22} y, respectively, with a 90 % C.L.

  1. A simple method for the absolute determination of uranium enrichment by high-resolution {gamma} spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korob, R.O. [Unidad de Actividad Radioquimica y Quimica de las Radiaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15 Partido de Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: korob@cae.cnea.gov.ar; Blasiyh Nuno, G.A. [Unidad de Actividad Gestion de Residuos Radiactivos, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Ezeiza, Presbitero Juan Gonzalez y Aragon No. 15 Partido de Ezeiza, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-05-15

    A simple method for the determination of uranium enrichment using high-resolution {gamma} spectrometry is presented in this paper. The method relies solely on the {gamma}-ray emission probabilities of {sup 235}U and {sup 234m}Pa, and an iterative procedure for the least squares fit of a polynomial to a set of experimentally determined data. To ensure the reliability of the {sup 234m}Pa {gamma}-ray emission probabilities employed, a new determination of these probabilities was carried out using a combination of {gamma} spectrometry and Cerenkov counting of a purified {sup 234}Th solution. Using these new data, a maximum difference of {approx}5% has been found between the experimental and declared uranium enrichment in a set of solid and liquid samples containing uranium compounds.

  2. Accident Analyses for Conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from Highly-Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillman, J. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Feldman, E. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jaluvka, D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wilson, E. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Foyto, L. P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Kutikkad, K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); McKibben, J. C. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Peters, N. J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report contains the results of reactor accident analyses for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The calculations were performed as part of the conversion from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members in the Research and Test Reactor Department at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the MURR Facility. MURR LEU conversion is part of an overall effort to develop and qualify high-density fuel within the U.S. High Performance Research Reactor Conversion (USHPRR) program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Material Management and Minimization (M3).

  3. Peltier effect in the mixed state of high- Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvenov, G. Yu.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Ustinov, A. V.; Huebener, R. P.

    1991-04-01

    The Peltier and Seebeck effects in the mixed state of high- Tc superconductors are proportional to the resistivity due to flux motion. Therefore, both effects also show the broadening of the transition regime characteristic for these superconductors. The origin of the Peltier effect is discussed in detail, and the validity of the Thomson relation is confirmed, as expected.

  4. Low-enriched uranium high-density target project. Compendium report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandegrift, George; Brown, M. Alex; Jerden, James L.; Gelis, Artem V.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley; Youker, Amanda; Hebden, Andrew; Solbrekken, G; Allen, C; Robertson., D; El-Gizawy, Sherif; Govindarajan, Srisharan; Hoyer, Annemarie; Makarewicz, Philip; Harris, Jacob; Graybill, Brian; Gunn, Andy; Berlin, James; Bryan, Chris; Sherman, Steven; Hobbs, Randy; Griffin, F. P.; Chandler, David; Hurt, C. J.; Williams, Paul; Creasy, John; Tjader, Barak; McFall, Danielle; Longmire, Hollie

    2016-09-01

    At present, most 99Mo is produced in research, test, or isotope production reactors by irradiation of highly enriched uranium targets. To achieve the denser form of uranium needed for switching from high to low enriched uranium (LEU), targets in the form of a metal foil (~125-150 µm thick) are being developed. The LEU High Density Target Project successfully demonstrated several iterations of an LEU-fission-based Mo-99 technology that has the potential to provide the world’s supply of Mo-99, should major producers choose to utilize the technology. Over 50 annular high density targets have been successfully tested, and the assembly and disassembly of targets have been improved and optimized. Two target front-end processes (acidic and electrochemical) have been scaled up and demonstrated to allow for the high-density target technology to mate up to the existing producer technology for target processing. In the event that a new target processing line is started, the chemical processing of the targets is greatly simplified. Extensive modeling and safety analysis has been conducted, and the target has been qualified to be inserted into the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which is considered above and beyond the requirements for the typical use of this target due to high fluence and irradiation duration.

  5. Porous single-crystalline palladium nanoflowers with enriched {100} facets for highly enhanced ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kun; Wang, Qiyu; Zheng, Weitao; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Xiaoqiang

    2014-11-01

    Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black.Palladium porous single-crystalline nanoflowers (PSNFs) with enriched high catalytic activity {100} facets were synthesized using a mild and controllable seed mediated growth method. The growth mechanism of the Pd PSNFs was investigated using time dependent morphology evolution through TEM imaging. Due to the specific structure, Pd PSNFs show highly enhanced ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) activity, high EOR anti-poisoning and stability, much better than Pd nanocubes, {111} facets dominated dendritic urchin-like Pd nanoparticles and Pd black. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05761a

  6. Selective enrichment and production of highly urease active bacteria by non-sterile (open) chemostat culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    In general, bioprocesses can be subdivided into naturally occurring processes, not requiring sterility (e.g., beer brewing, wine making, lactic acid fermentation, or biogas digestion) and other processes (e.g., the production of enzymes and antibiotics) that typically require a high level of sterility to avoid contaminant microbes overgrowing the production strain. The current paper describes the sustainable, non-sterile production of an industrial enzyme using activated sludge as inoculum. By using selective conditions (high pH, high ammonia concentration, and presence of urea) for the target bacterium, highly active ureolytic bacteria, physiologically resembling Sporosarcina pasteurii were reproducibly enriched and then continuously produced via chemostat operation of the bioreactor. When using a pH of 10 and about 0.2 M urea in a yeast extract-based medium, ureolytic bacteria developed under aerobic chemostat operation at hydraulic retention times of about 10 h with urease levels of about 60 μmol min⁻¹ ml⁻¹ culture. For cost minimization at an industrial scale the costly protein-rich yeast extract medium could be replaced by commercial milk powder or by lysed activated sludge. Glutamate, molasses, or glucose-based media did not result in the enrichment of ureolytic bacteria by the chemostat. The concentration of intracellular urease was sufficiently high such that the produced raw effluent from the reactor could be used directly for biocementation in the field.

  7. Target-dependent enrichment of virions determines the reduction of high-throughput sequencing in virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Holm Jensen

    Full Text Available Viral infections cause many different diseases stemming both from well-characterized viral pathogens but also from emerging viruses, and the search for novel viruses continues to be of great importance. High-throughput sequencing is an important technology for this purpose. However, viral nucleic acids often constitute a minute proportion of the total genetic material in a sample from infected tissue. Techniques to enrich viral targets in high-throughput sequencing have been reported, but the sensitivity of such methods is not well established. This study compares different library preparation techniques targeting both DNA and RNA with and without virion enrichment. By optimizing the selection of intact virus particles, both by physical and enzymatic approaches, we assessed the effectiveness of the specific enrichment of viral sequences as compared to non-enriched sample preparations by selectively looking for and counting read sequences obtained from shotgun sequencing. Using shotgun sequencing of total DNA or RNA, viral targets were detected at concentrations corresponding to the predicted level, providing a foundation for estimating the effectiveness of virion enrichment. Virion enrichment typically produced a 1000-fold increase in the proportion of DNA virus sequences. For RNA virions the gain was less pronounced with a maximum 13-fold increase. This enrichment varied between the different sample concentrations, with no clear trend. Despite that less sequencing was required to identify target sequences, it was not evident from our data that a lower detection level was achieved by virion enrichment compared to shotgun sequencing.

  8. Accident Analyses for Conversion of the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) from Highly-Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillman, J. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div., Research and Test Reactor Dept.; Feldman, E. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div., Research and Test Reactor Dept.; Wilson, E. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Div., Research and Test Reactor Dept.; Foyto, L. P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor; Kutikkad, K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor; McKibben, J. C. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor; Peters, N. J. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Research Reactor; Cowherd, W. M. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). College of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Program; Rickman, B. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). College of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Program

    2014-12-01

    This report contains the results of reactor accident analyses for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The calculations were performed as part of the conversion from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the MURR Facility, and the Nuclear Engineering Program – College of Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support from the U. S. government. This report contains the results of reactor accident analyses for the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The calculations were performed as part of the conversion from the use of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses were performed by staff members of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Reactor Conversion Program at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the MURR Facility, and the Nuclear Engineering Program – College of Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia. The core conversion to LEU is being performed with financial support from the U. S. government. In the framework of non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context most research and test reactors, both domestic and international, have started a program of conversion to the use of LEU fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on an alloy of uranium and molybdenum (U-Mo) is expected to allow the conversion of U.S. domestic high performance reactors like MURR. This report presents the results of a study of core behavior under a set of accident conditions for MURR cores fueled with HEU U-Alx dispersion fuel or LEU monolithic U-Mo alloy fuel with 10 wt% Mo

  9. Anaerobic biotransformation of high concentrations of chloroform by an enrichment culture and two bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Huifeng; Kurtz, Harry D; Mykytczuk, Nadia; Trevors, Jack T; Freedman, David L

    2010-10-01

    A fermentative enrichment culture (designated DHM-1) was developed that is capable of cometabolically biotransforming high concentrations of chloroform (CF) to nontoxic end products. Two Pantoea spp. were isolated from DHM-1 that also possess this dechlorination capability. Following acclimation to increasing levels of CF, corn syrup-grown DHM-1 was able to transform over 500 mg/liter CF in the presence of vitamin B(12) (approximately 3% of CF on a molar basis) at a rate as high as 22 mg/liter/day in a mineral salts medium. CO, CO(2), and organic acids were the predominant biodegradation products, suggesting that hydrolytic reactions predominate during CF transformation. DHM-1 was capable of growing on corn syrup in the presence of high concentrations of CF (as may be present near contaminant source zones in groundwater), which makes it a promising culture for bioaugmentation. Strains DHM-1B and DHM-1T transform CF at rates similar to that of the DHM-1 enrichment culture. The ability of these strains to grow in the presence of high concentrations of CF appears to be related to alteration of membrane fluidity or homeoviscous and homeophasic adaptation.

  10. Preparation of highly and generally enriched mammalian tissues for solid state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Veronica Wai Ching; Reid, David G.; Chow, Wing Ying; Rajan, Rakesh [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Green, Maggie [University of Cambridge, Central Biomedical Resources, School of Clinical Medicine (United Kingdom); Brooks, Roger A. [University of Cambridge, Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Addenbrooke’s Hospital (United Kingdom); Duer, Melinda J., E-mail: mjd13@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    An appreciable level of isotope labelling is essential for future NMR structure elucidation of mammalian biomaterials, which are either poorly expressed, or unexpressable, using micro-organisms. We present a detailed protocol for high level {sup 13}C enrichment even in slow turnover murine biomaterials (fur keratin), using a customized diet supplemented with commercial labelled algal hydrolysate and formulated as a gel to minimize wastage, which female mice consumed during pregnancy and lactation. This procedure produced approximately eightfold higher fur keratin labelling in pups, exposed in utero and throughout life to label, than in adults exposed for the same period, showing both the effectiveness, and necessity, of this approach.

  11. Comparison Of A Neutron Kinetics Parameter For A Polyethylene Moderated Highly Enriched Uranium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, IV, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Grove, Travis Justin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sanchez, Rene Gerardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-17

    This paper examines the comparison of MCNP® code’s capability to calculate kinetics parameters effectively for a thermal system containing highly enriched uranium (HEU). The Rossi-α parameter was chosen for this examination because it is relatively easy to measure as well as easy to calculate using MCNP®’s kopts card. The Rossi-α also incorporates many other parameters of interest in nuclear kinetics most of which are more difficult to precisely measure. The comparison looks at two different nuclear data libraries for comparison to the experimental data. These libraries are ENDF/BVI (.66c) and ENDF/BVII (.80c).

  12. Pion-Muon Concentrating System for Detectors of Highly Enriched Uranium

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, Sergey; Blind, Barbara; Jason, Andrew J; Neri, Filippo

    2005-01-01

    One of many possible applications of low-energy antiprotons collected in a Penning trap can be a portable muon source. Released antiprotons annihilate on impact with normal matter producing on average about 3 charged pions per antiproton, which in turn decay into muons. Existence of such negative-muon sources of sufficient intensity would bring into play, for example, detectors of highly enriched uranium based on muonic X-rays. We explore options of collecting and focusing pions and resulting muons to enhance the muon flux toward the detector. Simulations with MARS and MAFIA are used to choose the target material and parameters of the magnetic system consisting of a few solenoids.

  13. Pico-force optical exchange (pico-FOX): utilizing optical forces applied to an orthogonal electroosmotic flow for particulate enrichment from mixed sample streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Sarah J R; Kim, Soo Y; Hart, Sean J; Collins, Greg E; Terray, Alex

    2013-09-17

    Results are reported from a combined optical force and electrokinetic microfluidic device that separates individual particulates from molecular components in a mixed sample stream. A pico-Newton optical force was applied to an orthogonal electroosmotic flow carrying a hydrodynamically pinched, mixed sample, resulting in the separation of the various particles from the sample stream. Different combinations of polystyrene, PMMA, and silica particles with a commercially available dye were utilized to test the different separation modes available, from purely optical force to combined optical and electrophoretic forces. The impact of various particle properties on particle separation and separation efficiency were explored, including size (2, 6, 10 μm), refractive index, and electrophoretic mobility. Particle addressability was achieved by moving particles to different outlets on the basis of particle size, refractive index, and electrophoretic differences. Separations of 6 and 10 μm polystyrene particles led to only 3% particle contamination in the original sample stream and interparticle type enrichment levels >80%. The unique addressability of three different particle materials (polystyrene, PMMA, and silica) of the same size (2 μm) led to each being separated into a unique outlet without measurable contamination of the other particle types using optical force and electrophoretic mobility. In addition to particle separation, the device was able to minimize dye diffusion, leading to >95% dye recovery. This combined platform would have applications for noninvasive sample preparation of mixed molecular/particulate systems for mating with traditional analytics as well as efficient removal of harmful, degrading components from complex mixtures.

  14. The Influence of Mixing in High Temperature Gas Phase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østberg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    of NH3 by formation of NH2 and NH radicals.Mixing in reacting gas phase systems is described by an empirical mixing model (the droplet diffusion model). The mixing process is separated into macro- and micromixing. The macromixing is assumed to be ideal while the micromixing is modelled by molecular......The objective of this thesis is to describe the mixing in high temperature gas phase reactions.The Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NOx (referred as the SNR process) using NH3 as reductant was chosen as reaction system. This in-furnace denitrification process is made at around 1200 - 1300 K...... by injection of NH3 with carrier gas into the flue gas. NH3 can react with NO and form N2, but a competing reaction path is the oxidation of NH3 to NO.The SNR process is briefly described and it is shown by chemical kinetic modelling that OH radicals under the present conditions will initiate the reaction...

  15. Highly enriched isotope samples of uranium and transuranium elements for scientific investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesnovskii, Stanislav P.; Polynov, Vladimir N.; Danilin, Lev. D.

    1992-02-01

    The paper describes the production of highly enriched isotopes of uranium, plutonium, americium and curium by electromagnetic separation for scientific and applied researches in physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, biology and other fields. Using the equipment described, the isotopes are produced in quantities sufficient to set up nuclear physical experiments, to produce nuclear reference materials and standard sources for calibration of radiometrical and mass spectrometrical equipment, in radionuclide metrology, etc. For the following isotopes the indicated degrees of isotopic enrichment were achieved: 233U - 99.97%; 235U - 99.97%; 236U - 98.0%; 238U - 99.997%; 238Pu - 99.6%; 239Pu - 99.9977%; 240Pu - 99.9-100%; 241Pu - 96.998%; 242Pu - 97.8-99.96%; 244Pu - 96.7%; 241Am - 99.6%; 242Am - 73.6%; 243Am - 99.2-99.94%; 243Cm - 99.99%; 245Cm - 99.998%; 246Cm - 99.8%; 247Cm - 90%; 248Cm - 97%. Methods for preparing layers of highly enriched isotopes on various substances are presented: - electrochemical deposition of transuranic elements from aqueous-organic and organic media and vacuum spraying: - the method of foil and coating formation via compounds in the vapour phase; - the method of fabrication of layers of transuranic elements on superthin (1-2 μm) metal substrates with additional isolating polymer-metal coatings (0.2-0.4 μm), that substantially decrease material transfer from the active layer and increase safety of product handling.

  16. Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Boundary Current and Mixing Processes in The High Latitude Oceans Robin D. Muench Earth & Space Research 1910 Fairview Ave E., Ste 210 Seattle...Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales. Journal of Geophysical Research , 87, 9601-9613. Galbraith, P.S., and D.E. Kelley, 1996: Identifying overturns in...and near Marguerite Bay during winter 2003: A SO GLOBEC study. Deep-Sea Research 2, 54. Padman, L., S.L. Howard, and R.D. Muench, 2006a: Internal

  17. Case mix, quality and high-cost kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englesbe, M J; Dimick, J B; Fan, Z; Baser, O; Birkmeyer, J D

    2009-05-01

    A better understanding of high-cost kidney transplant patients would be useful for informing value-based purchasing strategies by payers. This retrospective cohort study was based on the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) files from 2003 to 2006. The focus of this analysis was high-cost kidney transplant patients (patients that qualified for Medicare outlier payments and 30-day readmission payments). Using regression techniques, we explored relationships between high-cost kidney transplant patients, center-specific case mix, and center quality. Among 43 393 kidney transplants in Medicare recipients, 35.2% were categorized as high-cost patients. These payments represented 20% of total Medicare payments for kidney transplantation and exceeded $200 million over the study period. Case mix was associated with these payments and was an important factor underlying variation in hospital payments high-cost patients. Hospital quality was also a strong determinant of future Medicare payments for high-cost patients. Compared to high-quality centers, low-quality centers cost Medicare an additional $1185 per kidney transplant. Payments for high-cost patients represent a significant proportion of the total costs of kidney transplant surgical care. Quality improvement may be an important strategy for reducing the costs of kidney transplantation.

  18. The Effect of Different Mixing Methods on the pH and Solubility of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-Enriched Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Shahriar; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Yavari, Hamid Reza; Samiei, Mohammad; Janani, Maryam; Bahari, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different mixing techniques on the pH and solubility of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM). Methods and Materials: Five samples were prepared from each biomaterial with different mixing techniques including hand-, amalgamator- or ultrasonic-mixing and were then placed in pre-weighted plastic tubes to determine their pH values. Each tube was then incubated in 10 mL deionized distilled water for 1 h at 37ºC. An electrode was placed in the fluid in each flask at 24ºC and the pH was recorded. In the next stage, six samples from each mixing technique/material were separately placed in glass bottles containing 50 mL of distilled water at 37ºC for 1 h and were let dry for 1 h at 37ºC. The samples’ weights were measured and recorded twice. The procedure was repeated at 1-, 7- and 21-day intervals. Data were analyzed with the repeated measures ANOVA (for solubility) and two-way ANOVA (for pH) and then the post-hoc Tukey’s test was done. Results: The pH of the materials was not significantly affected by mixing methods. (P=0.8 for CEM and P=0.1 for MTA). The solubility of all test groups was within the acceptable range (=3%). However, the solubility of CEM at 1- and 21-day intervals was significantly different (P=0.03 for 1 day and P=0.001 for 21 days). Different mixing techniques had significant effects on the solubility of MTA at the three time points (P=0.004, 0.003 and 0.002 for 1-, 7- and 21-day intervals, respectively). Conclusion: The pH of biomaterials was not influenced by the mixing technique and their solubility was within the acceptable range. PMID:25834601

  19. Fusion solution to dispose of spent nuclear fuel, transuranic elements, and highly enriched uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohar, Yousry E-mail: gohar@anl.gov

    2001-11-01

    The disposal of the nuclear spent fuel, the transuranic elements, and the highly enriched uranium represents a major problem under investigation by the international scientific community to identify the most promising solutions. The investigation of this paper focused on achieving the top rated solution for the problem, the elimination goal, which requires complete elimination for the transuranic elements or the highly enriched uranium, and the long-lived fission products. To achieve this goal, fusion blankets with liquid carrier, molten salts or liquid metal eutectics, for the transuranic elements and the uranium isotopes are utilized. The generated energy from the fusion blankets is used to provide revenue for the system. The long-lived fission products are fabricated into fission product targets for transmutation utilizing the neutron leakage from the fusion blankets. This paper investigated the fusion blanket designs for small fusion devices and the system requirements for such application. The results show that 334 MW of fusion power from D-T plasma for 30 years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of the 70,000 tons of the U.S. inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, this fusion solution eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. Meanwhile, such utilization of the fusion power will provide an excellent opportunity to develop fusion energy for the future.

  20. Partial Safety Analysis for a Reduced Uranium Enrichment Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    A computational model of the reactor core of the High Flux Isotope Rector (HFIR) was developed in order to analyze non-destructive accidents caused by transients during reactor operation. The reactor model was built for the latest version of the nuclear analysis software package called Program for the Analysis of Reactor Transients (PARET). Analyses performed with the model constructed were compared with previous data obtained with other tools in order to benchmark the code. Finally, the model was used to analyze the behavior of the reactor under transients using a different nuclear fuel with lower enrichment of uranium (LEU) than the fuel currently used, which has a high enrichment of uranium (HEU). The study shows that the presence of fertile isotopes in LEU fuel, which increases the neutron resonance absorption, reduces the impact of transients on the fuel and enhances the negative reactivity feedback, thus, within the limitations of this study, making LEU fuel appear to be a safe alternative fuel for the reactor core.

  1. Surface strontium enrichment on highly active perovskites for oxygen electrocatalysis in solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Crumlin, Ethan J.

    2012-01-01

    Perovskite oxides have high catalytic activities for oxygen electrocatalysis competitive to platinum at elevated temperatures. However, little is known about the oxide surface chemistry that influences the activity near ambient oxygen partial pressures, which hampers the design of highly active catalysts for many clean-energy technologies such as solid oxide fuel cells. Using in situ synchrotron-based, ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the surface chemistry changes, we show that the coverage of surface secondary phases on a (001)-oriented La 0.8Sr 0.2CoO 3-δ (LSC) film becomes smaller than that on an LSC powder pellet at elevated temperatures. In addition, strontium (Sr) in the perovskite structure enriches towards the film surface in contrast to the pellet having no detectable changes with increasing temperature. We propose that the ability to reduce surface secondary phases and develop Sr-enriched perovskite surfaces of the LSC film contributes to its enhanced activity for O 2 electrocatalysis relative to LSC powder-based electrodes. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Impact of chemistry on Standard High Solids Vessel Design mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-02

    The plan for resolving technical issues regarding mixing performance within vessels of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility directs a chemical impact study to be performed. The vessels involved are those that will process higher (e.g., 5 wt % or more) concentrations of solids. The mixing equipment design for these vessels includes both pulse jet mixers (PJM) and air spargers. This study assesses the impact of feed chemistry on the effectiveness of PJM mixing in the Standard High Solids Vessel Design (SHSVD). The overall purpose of this study is to complement the Properties that Matter document in helping to establish an acceptable physical simulant for full-scale testing. The specific objectives for this study are (1) to identify the relevant properties and behavior of the in-process tank waste that control the performance of the system being tested, (2) to assess the solubility limits of key components that are likely to precipitate or crystallize due to PJM and sparger interaction with the waste feeds, (3) to evaluate the impact of waste chemistry on rheology and agglomeration, (4) to assess the impact of temperature on rheology and agglomeration, (5) to assess the impact of organic compounds on PJM mixing, and (6) to provide the technical basis for using a physical-rheological simulant rather than a physical-rheological-chemical simulant for full-scale vessel testing. Among the conclusions reached are the following: The primary impact of precipitation or crystallization of salts due to interactions between PJMs or spargers and waste feeds is to increase the insoluble solids concentration in the slurries, which will increase the slurry yield stress. Slurry yield stress is a function of pH, ionic strength, insoluble solids concentration, and particle size. Ionic strength and chemical composition can affect particle size. Changes in temperature can affect SHSVD mixing through its effect on properties such as viscosity, yield stress, solubility

  3. High-efficiency design of a mixed-flow pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM; Jin-Hyuk; AHN; Hyung-Jin; KIM; Kwang-Yong

    2010-01-01

    High-efficiency design of a mixed-flow pump has been carried out based on numerical analysis of a three-dimensional viscous flow.For analysis,the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a shear stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite-volume approximations.Structured grid system was constructed in the computational domain,which has O-type grids near the blade surfaces and H/J-type grids in other regions.The numerical results were validated with experimental data for the heads and hydraulic efficiencies at different flow coefficients.The hydraulic efficiency at the design flow coefficient was evaluated with variation of the geometric variables,i.e.,the area of the discharge and length of the vane in the diffuser.The result has shown that the hydraulic efficiency of a mixed-flow pump at the design condition is improved by the modification of the geometry.

  4. Mixed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Baya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Remenat (Catalan (Mixed, "revoltillo" (Scrambled in Spanish, is a dish which, in Catalunya, consists of a beaten egg cooked with vegetables or other ingredients, normally prawns or asparagus. It is delicious. Scrambled refers to the action of mixing the beaten egg with other ingredients in a pan, normally using a wooden spoon Thought is frequently an amalgam of past ideas put through a spinner and rhythmically shaken around like a cocktail until a uniform and dense paste is made. This malleable product, rather like a cake mixture can be deformed pulling it out, rolling it around, adapting its shape to the commands of one’s hands or the tool which is being used on it. In the piece Mixed, the contortion of the wood seeks to reproduce the plasticity of this slow heavy movement. Each piece lays itself on the next piece consecutively like a tongue of incandescent lava slowly advancing but with unstoppable inertia.

  5. Geological Conditions Favourable for High-Wax Oil Enrichment in Damintun Depression,Bohai Bay Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fangbing

    2009-01-01

    The Damintun (大民屯) depression,a small (about 800 km2 in area) subunit in the Bohai (渤海) Bay basin,hosts nearly 2×108t of high-wax oils with wax contents up to 60%. The high-wax oils have high consolidation temperatures and viscosities.The high-wax oils were generated from the fourth member of the Shahejie Formation (Es4),which is also important source rocks for oils in other subunits of the Bohai Bay basin.Yet high-wax oils have not been found in significant volumes elsewhere in the Bohai Bay basin.Geological conditions favourable for high-wax oil enrichment were studied.This study shows that the unusual concentrations of high-wax oils in the depression seem to result from at least three different factors: (1) the presence of organic-matter rich source rocks which were prone to generate wax-rich hydrocarbons; (2) the formation of early overpressures which increased the expulsion efficiency of waxy hydrocarbons; and (3) reductions in subsidence rate and basal heat flows,which minimized the thermal cracking of high molecular-weight (waxy) hydrocarbons,and therefore prevented the high-wax oils from being transformed into less waxy equivalents.

  6. High performance electrodes in vanadium redox flow batteries through oxygen-enriched thermal activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Alan M.; Clement, Jason T.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2015-10-01

    The roundtrip electrochemical energy efficiency is improved from 63% to 76% at a current density of 200 mA cm-2 in an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) by utilizing modified carbon paper electrodes in the high-performance no-gap design. Heat treatment of the carbon paper electrodes in a 42% oxygen/58% nitrogen atmosphere increases the electrochemically wetted surface area from 0.24 to 51.22 m2 g-1, resulting in a 100-140 mV decrease in activation overpotential at operationally relevant current densities. An enriched oxygen environment decreases the amount of treatment time required to achieve high surface area. The increased efficiency and greater depth of discharge doubles the total usable energy stored in a fixed amount of electrolyte during operation at 200 mA cm-2.

  7. Preparation of hydrazine functionalized polymer brushes hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for highly specific enrichment of glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guang; Sun, Zhen; Qin, Hongqiang; Zhao, Liang; Xiong, Zhichao; Peng, Xiaojun; Ou, Junjie; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-05-07

    Hydrazide chemistry is a powerful technique in glycopeptides enrichment. However, the low density of the monolayer hydrazine groups on the conventional hydrazine-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles limits the efficiency of glycopeptides enrichment. Herein, a novel magnetic nanoparticle grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (GMA) brushes was fabricated via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and a large amount of hydrazine groups were further introduced to the GMA brushes by ring-opening the epoxy groups with hydrazine hydrate. The resulting magnetic nanoparticles (denoted as Fe3O4@SiO2@GMA-NHNH2) demonstrated the high specificity of capturing glycopeptides from a tryptic digest of the sample comprising a standard non-glycosylated protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and four standard glycoproteins with a weight ratio of 50 : 1, and the detection limit was as low as 130 fmol. In the analysis of a real complex biological sample, the tryptic digest of hepatocellular carcinoma, 179 glycosites were identified by the Fe3O4@SiO2@GMA-NHNH2 nanoparticles, surpassing that of 68 glycosites by Fe3O4@SiO2-single-NHNH2 (with monolayer hydrazine groups on the surface). It can be expected that the magnetic nanoparticles modified with hydrazine functionalized polymer brushes via RAFT technique will improve the specificity and the binding capacity of glycopeptides from complex samples, and show great potential in the analysis of protein glycosylation in biological samples.

  8. Cell sorting enriches Escherichia coli mutants that rely on peptidoglycan endopeptidases to suppress highly aberrant morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Mary E; Melquist, Amy L; Chandramohan, Lakshmi; Young, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects.

  9. Zirconium oxide aerogel for effective enrichment of phosphopeptides with high binding capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Xu, Jin; Sun, Liangliang; Ma, Junfeng; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-04-01

    In this study, zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) aerogel was synthesized via a green sol-gel approach, with zirconium oxychloride, instead of the commonly used alkoxide with high toxicity, as the precursor. With such material, phosphopeptides from the digests of 4 pmol of β-casein with the coexistence of 100 times (mol ratio) BSA could be selectively captured, and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Due to the large surface area (416.0 m(2) g(-1)) and the mesoporous structure (the average pore size of 10.2 nm) of ZrO(2) aerogel, a 20-fold higher loading capacity for phosphopeptide, YKVPQLEIVPN[pS]AEER (MW 1952.12), was obtained compared to that of commercial ZrO(2) microspheres (341.5 vs. 17.87 mg g(-1)). The metal oxide aerogel was further applied in the enrichment of phosphopeptides from 100 ng nonfat milk, and 17 phosphopeptides were positively identified, with a 1.5-fold improvement in phosphopeptide detection compared with previously reported results. These results demonstrate that ZrO(2) aerogel can be a powerful enrichment material for phosphoproteome study.

  10. Mixed Anti-diffusion Method for High Resolution Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣华; 张威威

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study a kied of mixed anti-diffusion method for partial differntial equations. Firstly, we use the method to construct some difference schemes for the conservation laws. The schemes are of second order accuracy and are total variation decreasing (TVD). In particular, there are only three knots involved in the schemes. Secondly, we extend the method to construct a few high accuracy difference schemes for elliptic and parabolic equations. Numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the efficiency of the method.

  11. Reduction of Sn-Bearing Iron Concentrate with Mixed H2/CO Gas for Preparation of Sn-Enriched Direct Reduced Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhixiong; Li, Guanghui; Wen, Peidan; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2017-06-01

    The development of manufacturing technology of Sn-bearing stainless steel inspires a novel concept for using Sn-bearing complex iron ore via reduction with mixed H2/CO gas to prepare Sn-enriched direct reduced iron (DRI). The thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process confirms the easy reduction of stannic oxide to metallic tin and the rigorous conditions for volatilizing SnO. Although the removal of tin is feasible by reduction of the pellet at 1223 K (950 °C) with mixed gas of 5 vol pct H2, 28.5 vol pct CO, and 66.5 vol pct CO2 (CO/(CO + CO2) = 30 pct), it is necessary that the pellet be further reduced for preparing DRI. In contrast, maintaining Sn in the metallic pellet is demonstrated to be a promising way to effectively use the ore. It is indicated that only 5.5 pct of Sn is volatilized when the pellet is reduced at 1223 K (950 °C) for 30 minutes with the mixed gas of 50 vol pct H2, 50 vol pct CO (CO/(CO + CO2) = 100 pct). A metallic pellet (Sn-bearing DRI) with Sn content of 0.293 pct, Fe metallization of 93.5 pct, and total iron content of 88.2 pct is prepared as a raw material for producing Sn-bearing stainless steel. The reduced tin in the Sn-bearing DRI either combines with metallic iron to form Sn-Fe alloy or it remains intact.

  12. Reduction of Sn-Bearing Iron Concentrate with Mixed H2/CO Gas for Preparation of Sn-Enriched Direct Reduced Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhixiong; Li, Guanghui; Wen, Peidan; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    The development of manufacturing technology of Sn-bearing stainless steel inspires a novel concept for using Sn-bearing complex iron ore via reduction with mixed H2/CO gas to prepare Sn-enriched direct reduced iron (DRI). The thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process confirms the easy reduction of stannic oxide to metallic tin and the rigorous conditions for volatilizing SnO. Although the removal of tin is feasible by reduction of the pellet at 1223 K (950 °C) with mixed gas of 5 vol pct H2, 28.5 vol pct CO, and 66.5 vol pct CO2 (CO/(CO + CO2) = 30 pct), it is necessary that the pellet be further reduced for preparing DRI. In contrast, maintaining Sn in the metallic pellet is demonstrated to be a promising way to effectively use the ore. It is indicated that only 5.5 pct of Sn is volatilized when the pellet is reduced at 1223 K (950 °C) for 30 minutes with the mixed gas of 50 vol pct H2, 50 vol pct CO (CO/(CO + CO2) = 100 pct). A metallic pellet (Sn-bearing DRI) with Sn content of 0.293 pct, Fe metallization of 93.5 pct, and total iron content of 88.2 pct is prepared as a raw material for producing Sn-bearing stainless steel. The reduced tin in the Sn-bearing DRI either combines with metallic iron to form Sn-Fe alloy or it remains intact.

  13. Isotopic fingerprints of Pt-containing luminescence centers in highly enriched Si-28

    CERN Document Server

    Steger, M; Godisov, O N; Alves, E; Kaliteevskii, A K; Saeedi, K; Abrosimov, N V; Churbanov, M F; Gusev, A V; Johnston, K; Thewalt, M L W; Sekiguchi, T; Yang, A; Riemann, H; Henry, M O; Pohl, H -J; Wahl, U

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have shown that the reduction in the photoluminescence linewidth of many deep luminescence centers in highly enriched Si-28 results in well-resolved isotopic fingerprints. This allows for a better characterization of a defect center, as not only the involvement of a specific element but also the number of atoms of that element within the complex can be determined. Surprisingly, we have found that many well-known luminescence centers have a different composition than originally supposed. In addition, we have found a large number of four- and five-atom luminescence centers involving the elements Cu, Au, and Li. Here we introduce series of four- and five-atom deep luminescence centers involving a single Pt atom together with Cu and Li, similar to what has been seen previously for Au-containing luminescence centers.

  14. Bacterial community succession during the enrichment of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria at high arsenic concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Ai Le; Akiko Sato; Daisuke Inoue; Kazunari Sei; Satoshi Soda; Michihiko Ike

    2012-01-01

    To generate cost-effective technologies for the removal of arsenic from water,we developed an enrichment culture of chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidizing bacteria (CAOs) that could effectively oxidize widely ranging concentrations of As(Ⅲ) to As(Ⅴ).In addition,we attempted to elucidate the enrichment process and characterize the microbial composition of the enrichment culture.A CAOs enrichment culture capable of stably oxidizing As(Ⅲ) to As(Ⅴ) was successfully constructed through repeated batch cultivation for more than 700 days,during which time the initial As(Ⅲ) concentrations were increased in a stepwise manner from l to 10-12 mmol/L.As(Ⅲ) oxidation activity of the enrichment culture gradually improved,and 10-12 mmol/L As(Ⅲ) was almost completely oxidized within four days.Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the enrichment culture varied drastically during the enrichment process depending on the As(Ⅲ) concentration.Isolation and characterization of bacteria in the enrichment culture revealed that the presence of multiple CAOs with various As(Ⅲ) oxidation abilities enabled the culture to adapt to a wide range of As(Ⅲ) concentrations.The CAOs enrichment culture constructed here may he useful for pretreatment of water from which arsenic is being removed.

  15. Program to enrich science and mathematics experiences of high school students through interactive museum internships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reif, R.J. [State Univ. of New York, New Paltz, NY (United States); Lock, C.R. [Univ. of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This project addressed the problem of female and minority representation in science and mathematics education and in related fields. It was designed to recruit high school students from under-represented groups into a program that provided significant, meaningful experiences to encourage those young people to pursue careers in science and science teaching. It provided role models for those students. It provided experiences outside of the normal school environment, experiences that put the participants in the position to serve as role models themselves for disadvantaged young people. It also provided encouragement to pursue careers in science and mathematics teaching and related careers. In these respects, it complemented other successful programs to encourage participation in science. And, it differed in that it provided incentives at a crucial time, when career decisions are being made during the high school years. Further, it encouraged the pursuit of careers in science teaching. The objectives of this project were to: (1) provide enrichment instruction in basic concepts in the life, earth, space, physical sciences and mathematics to selected high school students participating in the program; (2) provide instruction in teaching methods or processes, including verbal communication skills and the use of questioning; (3) provide opportunities for participants, as paid student interns, to transfer knowledge to other peers and adults; (4) encourage minority and female students with high academic potential to pursue careers in science teaching.

  16. Oxygen enrichment and its application to life support systems for workers in high-altitude areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongling; Liu, Yingshu

    2014-01-01

    Workers coming from lowland regions are at risk of developing acute mountain sickness (AMS) when working in low oxygen high-altitude areas. The aim of this study was to improve the conditions that lead to hypoxia and ensure the safety of the high-altitude workers. We analyzed the influence of low atmospheric pressure on the oxygen enrichment process in high-altitude areas using an engineering method called low-pressure swing adsorption (LPSA). Fourteen male subjects were screened and divided into three groups by type of oxygen supply system used: (1) oxygen cylinder group; (2) LPSA oxygen dispersal group; and (3) control group. These tests included arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), pulse rate (PR), breaths per minute (BPM), and blood pressure (BP). The results showed that after supplying oxygen using the LPSA method at the tunnel face, the SaO2 of workers increased; the incidence of acute mountain sickness, PR, and BPM significantly decreased. The LPSA life support system was found to be a simple, convenient, efficient, reliable, and applicable approach to ensure proper working conditions at construction sites in high-altitude areas.

  17. High molecular weight dissolved organic matter enrichment selects for methylotrophs in dilution to extinction cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Oscar A; Gifford, Scott M; Repeta, Daniel J; DeLong, Edward F

    2015-12-01

    The role of bacterioplankton in the cycling of marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is central to the carbon and energy balance in the ocean, yet there are few model organisms available to investigate the genes, metabolic pathways, and biochemical mechanisms involved in the degradation of this globally important carbon pool. To obtain microbial isolates capable of degrading semi-labile DOM for growth, we conducted dilution to extinction cultivation experiments using seawater enriched with high molecular weight (HMW) DOM. In total, 93 isolates were obtained. Amendments using HMW DOM to increase the dissolved organic carbon concentration 4x (280 μM) or 10x (700 μM) the ocean surface water concentrations yielded positive growth in 4-6% of replicate dilutions, whereas <1% scored positive for growth in non-DOM-amended controls. The majority (71%) of isolates displayed a distinct increase in cell yields when grown in increasing concentrations of HMW DOM. Whole-genome sequencing was used to screen the culture collection for purity and to determine the phylogenetic identity of the isolates. Eleven percent of the isolates belonged to the gammaproteobacteria including Alteromonadales (the SAR92 clade) and Vibrio. Surprisingly, 85% of isolates belonged to the methylotrophic OM43 clade of betaproteobacteria, bacteria thought to metabolically specialize in degrading C1 compounds. Growth of these isolates on methanol confirmed their methylotrophic phenotype. Our results indicate that dilution to extinction cultivation enriched with natural sources of organic substrates has a potential to reveal the previously unsuspected relationships between naturally occurring organic nutrients and the microorganisms that consume them.

  18. Edge-enriched, porous carbon-based, high energy density supercapacitors for hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Jung; Yang, Cheol-Min; Park, Ki Chul; Kaneko, Katsumi; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Noguchi, Minoru; Fujino, Takeshi; Oyama, Shigeki; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-03-12

    Supercapacitors can store and deliver energy by a simple charge separation, and thus they could be an attractive option to meet transient high energy density in operating fuel cells and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. To achieve such requirements, intensive studies have been carried out to improve the volumetric capacitance in supercapacitors using various types and forms of carbons including carbon nanotubes and graphenes. However, conventional porous carbons are not suitable for use as electrode material in supercapacitors for such high energy density applications. Here, we show that edge-enriched porous carbons are the best electrode material for high energy density supercapacitors to be used in vehicles as an auxiliary powertrain. Molten potassium hydroxide penetrates well-aligned graphene layers vertically and consequently generates both suitable pores that are easily accessible to the electrolyte and a large fraction of electrochemically active edge sites. We expect that our findings will motivate further research related to energy storage devices and also environmentally friendly electric vehicles. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Melting Alpine glaciers enrich high-elevation lakes with reactive nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saros, Jasmine E; Rose, Kevin C; Clow, David W; Stephens, Verlin C; Nurse, Andrea B; Arnett, Heather A; Stone, Jeffery R; Williamson, Craig E; Wolfe, Alexander P

    2010-07-01

    Alpine glaciers have receded substantially over the last century in many regions of the world. Resulting changes in glacial runoff not only affect the hydrological cycle, but can also alter the physical (i.e., turbidity from glacial flour) and biogeochemical properties of downstream ecosystems. Here we compare nutrient concentrations, transparency gradients, algal biomass, and fossil diatom species richness in two sets of high-elevation lakes: those fed by snowpack melt alone (SF lakes) and those fed by both glacial and snowpack meltwaters (GSF lakes). We found that nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentrations in the GSF lakes were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than in SF lakes. Although nitrogen (N) limitation is common in alpine lakes, algal biomass was lower in highly N-enriched GSF lakes than in the N-poor SF lakes. Contrary to expectations, GSF lakes were more transparent than SF lakes to ultraviolet and equally transparent to photosynthetically active radiation. Sediment diatom assemblages had lower taxonomic richness in the GSF lakes, a feature that has persisted over the last century. Our results demonstrate that the presence of glaciers on alpine watersheds more strongly influences NO(3)(-)concentrations in high-elevation lake ecosystems than any other geomorphic or biogeographic characteristic.

  20. Statistics of High Atwood Number Turbulent Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Jon; Livescu, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The statistical properties of incompressible shear-driven planar mixing layers between two miscible streams of fluids with different densities are investigated by means of Direct Numerical Simulations. The simulations begin from a thin interface perturbed by a thin broadband random disturbance, and the mixing layers are allowed to develop to self-similar states. The temporal simulations are performed in unprecedented domain sizes, with grid sizes up to 6144 x 2048 x 1536, which allows turbulent structures to grow and merge naturally. This allows the flow to reach states far-removed from the initial disturbances, thereby enabling high-quality statistics to be obtained for higher moments, pdfs, and other quantities critical to developing closure models. A wide range of Atwood numbers are explored, ranging from nearly constant density to At=0.87. The consequences of increasing the density contrast are investigated for global quantities, such as growth rates, and asymmetries that form in statistical profiles. Additional simulations in smaller domains are performed to study the effects of domain size.

  1. The Influence of Mixing in High Temperature Gas Phase Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østberg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    by injection of NH3 with carrier gas into the flue gas. NH3 can react with NO and form N2, but a competing reaction path is the oxidation of NH3 to NO.The SNR process is briefly described and it is shown by chemical kinetic modelling that OH radicals under the present conditions will initiate the reaction...... diffusion. The SNR process is simulated using the mixing model and an empirical kinetic model based on laboratory experiments.A bench scale reactor set-up has been built using a natural gas burner to provide the main reaction gas. The set-up has been used to perform an experimental investigation......The objective of this thesis is to describe the mixing in high temperature gas phase reactions.The Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction of NOx (referred as the SNR process) using NH3 as reductant was chosen as reaction system. This in-furnace denitrification process is made at around 1200 - 1300 K...

  2. Shelf-life study of Indian traditional food based nutraceutical (oryzanol) enriched instant mixes Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby Latha, R; Debnath, Sukumar; Sarmandal, C V; Hemavathy, J; Khatoon, Sakina; Gopala Krishna, A G; Lokesh, B R

    2014-01-01

    To provide nutraceutical such as oryzanol through food, two instant mixes based on the Indian traditional food cuisine Bisibele bhath and Upma(Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ) were developed and evaluated for shelf-life. The formulations contained cereals, pulses, and spices along with oryzanol enriched oil and were packed in 200gauge/50 gauge metallized polyester packaging material and stored under ambient (27 °C 65%RH) and accelerated conditions (37 °C/92%RH). Samples were withdrawn periodically and peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid value (FFA), fatty acid composition, oryzanol, and total tocopherols content were estimated. Sensory evaluation of reconstituted products was also carried out. Oryzanol content (610 and 550 mg%) did not change appreciably in Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ respectively. The peroxide value under ambient condition increased from 1.1 to 9.3 meq.O2/kg and 2.24 to 9.02 meq.O2/kg during the 6 month storage study at 27 °C and 65% RH, while under accelerated conditions at 37 °C and 92%RH, it increased from 1.12 to 8.54 meq. O2/kg and 2.24 to 6.96 meq. O2/kg during 2 month storage period. Bhath-OZ and Upma-OZ packed in metallized polyester pouches stored at 27 °C and 65% RH had a shelf-life of 4 months without affecting the oryzanol content and quality of instant mixes during the storage period.

  3. Observing quantum chaos with noisy measurements and highly mixed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Jason F.; Jacobs, Kurt; Everitt, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental requirement for the emergence of classical behavior from an underlying quantum description is that certain observed quantum systems make a transition to chaotic dynamics as their action is increased relative to ℏ . While experiments have demonstrated some aspects of this transition, the emergence of quantum trajectories with a positive Lyapunov exponent has never been observed directly. Here, we remove a major obstacle to achieving this goal by showing that, for the Duffing oscillator, the transition to a positive Lyapunov exponent can be resolved clearly from observed trajectories even with measurement efficiencies as low as 20%. We also find that the positive Lyapunov exponent is robust to highly mixed, low-purity states and to variations in the parameters of the system.

  4. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  5. Enrichment of vanillin in barley malt by hydrolysis in high temperature and high pressure steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Koichi; Kageyama, Norihiko; Nagami, Kenzo

    2012-12-19

    Malted barley was treated with saturated steam at temperatures ranging from 180 to 220 °C, that is, high temperature and high pressure steam (HHS), and a control sample exposed to saturated liquid water in the same temperature range. The malt treated in steam was extracted with water (70 °C) for 15 min after drying. Vanillin which gave beer preferable flavor was detected in all malt extracts, both after treatment with steam and in effluent from malt exposed to liquid water. Hydrolysis of ingredients in the malt occurred even in steam. The treatment of natural products in HHS could be a new thermal technique to provide a special ingredient for food industry, for example, malt for beer.

  6. Active neutron and gamma-ray imaging of highly enriched uranium for treaty verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Michael C; Polack, J Kyle; Ruch, Marc L; Marcath, Matthew J; Clarke, Shaun D; Pozzi, Sara A

    2017-08-11

    The detection and characterization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) presents a large challenge in the non-proliferation field. HEU has a low neutron emission rate and most gamma rays are low energy and easily shielded. To address this challenge, an instrument known as the dual-particle imager (DPI) was used with a portable deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron generator to detect neutrons and gamma rays from induced fission in HEU. We evaluated system response using a 13.7-kg HEU sphere in several configurations with no moderation, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) moderation, and tungsten moderation. A hollow tungsten sphere was interrogated to evaluate the response to a possible hoax item. First, localization capabilities were demonstrated by reconstructing neutron and gamma-ray images. Once localized, additional properties such as fast neutron energy spectra and time-dependent neutron count rates were attributed to the items. For the interrogated configurations containing HEU, the reconstructed neutron spectra resembled Watt spectra, which gave confidence that the interrogated items were undergoing induced fission. The time-dependent neutron count rate was also compared for each configuration and shown to be dependent on the neutron multiplication of the item. This result showed that the DPI is a viable tool for localizing and confirming fissile mass and multiplication.

  7. Odontella aurita-enriched diet prevents high fat diet-induced liver insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Hamza; Benomar, Yacir; Haimeur, Adil; Messaouri, Hafida; Meskini, Nadia; Taouis, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effect of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid (w-3 FA) consumption regarding cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance and inflammation has been widely reported. Fish oil is considered as the main source of commercialized w-3 FAs, and other alternative sources have been reported such as linseed or microalgae. However, despite numerous reports, the underlying mechanisms of action of w-3 FAs on insulin resistance are still not clearly established, especially those from microalgae. Here, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in w-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid, prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. Indeed, a high fat diet (HFD) increased plasma insulin levels associated with the impairment of insulin receptor signaling and the up-regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Importantly, Odontella aurita-enriched HFD (HFOA) reduces body weight and plasma insulin levels and maintains normal insulin receptor expression and responsiveness. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression, JNK/p38 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory factors. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that diet supplementation with whole Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.

  8. High-throughput microsatellite isolation through 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing of enriched DNA libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malausa, Thibaut; Gilles, André; Meglécz, Emese; Blanquart, Hélène; Duthoy, Stéphanie; Costedoat, Caroline; Dubut, Vincent; Pech, Nicolas; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Délye, Christophe; Feau, Nicolas; Frey, Pascal; Gauthier, Philippe; Guillemaud, Thomas; Hazard, Laurent; Le Corre, Valérie; Lung-Escarmant, Brigitte; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Ferreira, Stéphanie; Martin, Jean-François

    2011-07-01

    Microsatellites (or SSRs: simple sequence repeats) are among the most frequently used DNA markers in many areas of research. The use of microsatellite markers is limited by the difficulties involved in their de novo isolation from species for which no genomic resources are available. We describe here a high-throughput method for isolating microsatellite markers based on coupling multiplex microsatellite enrichment and next-generation sequencing on 454 GS-FLX Titanium platforms. The procedure was calibrated on a model species (Apis mellifera) and validated on 13 other species from various taxonomic groups (animals, plants and fungi), including taxa for which severe difficulties were previously encountered using traditional methods. We obtained from 11,497 to 34,483 sequences depending on the species and the number of detected microsatellite loci ranged from 199 to 5791. We thus demonstrated that this procedure can be readily and successfully applied to a large variety of taxonomic groups, at much lower cost than would have been possible with traditional protocols. This method is expected to speed up the acquisition of high-quality genetic markers for nonmodel organisms.

  9. Probing Pre-galactic Metal Enrichment with High-Redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, F Y; Greif, Thomas H; Stacy, Athena; Dai, Z G; Loeb, Abraham; Cheng, K S

    2012-01-01

    We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Pop III GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly-resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature >10^4 K. We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1+z) with values of about a few cm^{-3}. In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n>100 cm^{-3}. The resu...

  10. 2D quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon nanohybrids for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kan; Wang, Lei; Yu, Peng; Jiang, Baojiang; Shi, Keying; Fu, Honggang

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are intercalated into the interlayers of the expanded EG with the assistance of a vacuum. Subsequently, the intercalated aniline monomers could assemble on the interlayer surface of the expanded EG, accompanied by the in situ polymerization from aniline monomers to polyaniline. Meanwhile, the expanded EG could be exfoliated to graphite nanosheets. By subsequent pyrolysis and activation processes, the QNPC nanohybrids could be prepared. As supercapacitor electrodes, a typical QNPC12-700 sample derived from the precursor containing an EG content of 12%, with a high level of nitrogen doping of 5.22 at%, offers a high specific capacitance of 305.7 F g-1 (1 A g-1), excellent rate-capability and long-term stability. Notably, an extremely high energy density of 95.7 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 449.7 W kg-1 in an ionic liquid electrolyte can be achieved. The unique structural features and moderate heteroatom doping of the QNPC nanohybrids combines electrochemical double layer and faradaic capacitance contributions, which make these nanohybrids ideal candidates as electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices.Two-dimensional (2D) quasi-ordered nitrogen-enriched porous carbon (QNPC) nanohybrids, with the characteristics of an ultrathin graphite nanosheet framework and thick quasi-ordered nitrogen-doped carbon cladding with a porous texture, have been synthesized via an in situ polymerization assembly method. In the synthesis, the expandable graphite (EG) is enlarged by an intermittent microwave method, and then aniline monomers are

  11. NUCLEAR ISOTOPIC DILUTION OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM BY DRY BLENDING VIA THE RM-2 MILL TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj K. Rajamani; Sanjeeva Latchireddi; Vikas Devrani; Harappan Sethi; Roger Henry; Nate Chipman

    2003-08-01

    DOE has initiated numerous activities to focus on identifying material management strategies to disposition various excess fissile materials. In particular the INEEL has stored 1,700 Kg of offspec HEU at INTEC in CPP-651 vault facility. Currently, the proposed strategies for dispositioning are (a) aqueous dissolution and down blending to LEU via facilities at SRS followed by shipment of the liquid LEU to NFS for fabrication into LWR fuel for the TVA reactors and (b) dilution of the HEU to 0.9% for discard as a waste stream that would no longer have a criticality or proliferation risk without being processed through some type of enrichment system. Dispositioning this inventory as a waste stream via aqueous processing at SRS has been determined to be too costly. Thus, dry blending is the only proposed disposal process for the uranium oxide materials in the CPP-651 vault. Isotopic dilution of HEU to typically less than 20% by dry blending is the key to solving the dispositioning issue (i.e., proliferation) posed by HEU stored at INEEL. RM-2 mill is a technology developed and successfully tested for producing ultra-fine particles by dry grinding. Grinding action in RM-2 mill produces a two million-fold increase in the number of particles being blended in a centrifugal field. In a previous study, the concept of achieving complete and adequate blending and mixing (i.e., no methods were identified to easily separate and concentrate one titanium compound from the other) in remarkably short processing times was successfully tested with surrogate materials (titanium dioxide and titanium mono-oxide) with different particle sizes, hardness and densities. In the current project, the RM-2 milling technology was thoroughly tested with mixtures of natural uranium oxide (NU) and depleted uranium oxide (DU) stock to prove its performance. The effects of mill operating and design variables on the blending of NU/DU oxides were evaluated. First, NU and DU both made of the same oxide

  12. Effect of high organic enrichment of benthic polychaete population in an estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Ingole, B.S.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The benthic polychaete fauna of an estuarine region receiving domestic sewage and wastes from a nearby fish landing jetty was compared to that of a site having normal organic enrichment. The population density, biomass and species diversity were...

  13. High yield derivation of enriched glutamatergic neurons from suspension-cultured mouse ESCs for neurotoxicology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubbard Kyle S

    2012-10-01

    . Conclusions These findings demonstrate a cost-effective, scalable and flexible method to produce a highly enriched glutamatergic neuron population. The functional characterization of pathophysiological responses to neurotropic toxins and the compatibility with multi-well plating formats were used to demonstrate the suitability of ESNs as a discovery platform for molecular mechanisms of action, moderate-throughput analytical approaches and diagnostic screening. Furthermore, for the first time we demonstrate a cell-based model that is sensitive to all seven BoNT serotypes with EC50 values comparable to those reported in primary neuron populations. These data providing compelling evidence that ESNs offer a neuromimetic platform suitable for the evaluation of molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity.

  14. Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  15. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Return of Highly Enriched Uranium from Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messick, C.E.; Dickerson, S.L.; Greenberg, R.F. Jr. [U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Washington D.C. (United States); Andes, T.C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In March 2010, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Global Threat Reduction (GTRI), in collaboration with the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN), completed a shipment of 18.2 kilograms of non-U.S.-origin highly enriched uranium (HEU) to the United States. The HEU was in the form of 71 aluminium-clad material test reactor (MTR) fuel elements and was the first GTRI Gap Program shipment that included non-U.S. origin irradiated nuclear fuel. Although shipments of research reactor fuels are not unique, this shipment served as a cornerstone to the first Presidential Nuclear Security Summit held in Washington, D.C., in April 2010. Carrying out the shipment became critical when a severe earthquake struck Chile just one day before the shipment was to occur. As the fuel had already been packaged in casks and the ocean vessels were nearing the port, U.S. and Chilean officials decided that it was most imperative that the shipment continue as planned. After careful analysis of the situation, inspection of the transportation packages, roadways, and port services, the shipment team was able to make the shipment occur in a safe and secure manner. This paper describes the loading activities at both the RECH-1 and RECH-2 reactors as well as the transportation of the loaded casks to the port of departure. (author)

  16. Preparation and Characterization of High Purity Enriched10B Boric Acid via Anti-Solvent Recrystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫江; 刘天雨; 徐姣

    2016-01-01

    Self-made enriched10B boric acid as raw material was purified by recrystallization. The effects of final crystallization temperature, crystallization time, stirring speed, crystallization frequency and other factors on the purity were investigated. The appropriate operating condition was that the final crystallization temperature and time were 5,℃and 10 h respectively under a low-speed stirring for crystallizing twice, which would make the purity and yield of boric acid reach 99.94% and 95.36%, respectively. Taking this as foundation, recrystallization process was optimized with acetone as anti-solvent, whose amount was the most important index. The boric acid solution was added into acetone and recrystallized under the same condition, and the purity and yield of boric acid would reach 99.98% and 99.61%, respectively. The product detected by XRD was confirmed as boric acid crystal. Main ion concentration in the product was detected by ICP, which basically met the national standard of high purity. Crystal morphology of boric acid was observed by SEM.

  17. Consideration of critically when directly disposing highly enriched spent nuclear fuel in unsaturated tuff: Bounding estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Tierney, M.S.; Sanchez, L.C.; Martell, M.-A.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents one of 2 approaches (bounding calculations) which were used in a 1994 study to examine the possibility of a criticality in a repository. Bounding probabilities, although rough, point to the difficulty of creating conditions under which a critical mass could be assembled (container corrosion, separation of neutron absorbers from fissile material, collapse or precipitation of fissile material) and how significant the geochemical and hydrologic phenomena are. The study could not conceive of a mechanism consistent with conditions under which an atomic explosion could occur. Should a criticality occur in or near a container in the future, boundary consequence calculations showed that fissions from one critical event (<10{sup 20} fissions, if similar to aqueous and metal accidents and experiments) are quite small compared to the amount of fissions represented by the spent fuel itself. If it is assumed that the containers necessary to hold the highly enriched spent fuel went critical once per day for 1 million years, creating an energy release of about 10{sup 20} fissions, the number of fissions equals about 10{sup 28}, which corresponds to only 1% of the fission inventory in a repository containing 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal, the expected size for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  18. Highly efficient chiral resolution of DL-arginine by cocrystal formation followed by recrystallization under preferential-enrichment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Sekai; Kuyama, Kazunori; Mori, Yuko; Manoj, Kochunnoonny; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Hughes, Colan E; Williams, P Andrew; Harris, Kenneth D M; Veesler, Stéphane; Takahashi, Hiroki; Tsue, Hirohito; Tamura, Rui

    2014-08-11

    An excellent chiral symmetry-breaking spontaneous enantiomeric resolution phenomenon, denoted preferential enrichment, was observed on recrystallization of the 1:1 cocrystal of dl-arginine and fumaric acid, which is classified as a racemic compound crystal with a high eutectic ee value (>95 %), under non-equilibrium crystallization conditions. On the basis of temperature-controlled video microscopy and in situ time-resolved solid-state (13) C NMR spectroscopic studies on the crystallization process, a new mechanism of phase transition that can induce preferential enrichment is proposed.

  19. 78 FR 37925 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Register and transmitted to the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 20, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013... Disposition of Russian Highly Enriched Uranium On June 25, 2012, by Executive Order 13617, I declared a... volume of weapons-usable fissile material in the territory of the Russian Federation. Full...

  20. Innovative method for the enrichment of high-polarity bioactive molecules present at low concentrations in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Shan; He, Jie; Zhou, Wen-Bin; Gu, Yu-Long; Huang, Huoqiang; Li, Ke-Qin; Yin, Xiao-Ying

    2017-02-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a valuable bioactive molecule but its high polarity and low concentration in complex mixtures makes it a challenge to separate Ginsenoside Rg1 from other saponins with similar structures, resulting in low extraction efficiency. The successful development of effective Rg1 molecularly imprinted polymers that exhibit high selectivity and adsorption may offer an improved method for the enrichment of active compounds. In this work, molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared with two different methods, precipitation polymerization or surface imprinted polymerization. Comparison of the adsorption abilities showed higher adsorption of the surface molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by surface imprinted polymerization, 46.80 mg/g, compared to the 27.74 mg/g observed for the molecularly imprinted polymers prepared by precipitation polymerization. Therefore, for higher adsorption of the highly polar Rg1, surface imprinted polymerization is a superior technique to make Rg1 molecularly imprinted polymers. The prepared surface molecularly imprinted polymers were tested as a solid-phase extraction column to directionally enrich Rg1 and its analogues from ginseng tea and total ginseng extracts. The column with surface molecularly imprinted polymers showed higher enrichment efficiency and better selectivity than a C18 solid-phase extraction column. Overall, a new, innovative method was developed to efficiently enrich high-polarity bioactive molecules present at low concentrations in complex matrices.

  1. Microbial diversity and community structure of a highly active anaerobic methane-oxidizing sulfate-reducing enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagersma, C.G.; Meulepas, R.J.W.; Heikamp-de Jong, G.A.M.; Gieteling, J.; Klimiuk, A.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Lens, P.N.L.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is an important methane sink in the ocean but the microbes responsible for AOM are as yet resilient to cultivation. Here we describe the microbial analysis of an enrichment obtained in a novel submerged-membrane bioreactor system and capable of high-rate

  2. Mixed phase effects on high-mass twin stars

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Castillo, D E

    2014-01-01

    Recently it has been found that a certain class of hybrid star equations of state with a large latent heat (strong first order phase transition obtained by a Maxwell construction) between stiff hadronic hadronic and stiff quark matter phases allows for the appearance of a third family of compact stars (including "twins") at high mass of $\\sim 2 M_\\odot$. We investigate how robust this high-mass twin phenomenon is against a smoothing of the transition which would occur, e.g., due to pasta structures in the mixed phase. To this end we propose a simple construction of a pasta-like equation of state with a parameter that quantifies the degree of smoothing of the transition and could eventually be related to the surface tension of the pasta structures. It is interesting to note that the range of energy densities for the transition as well as the pressure at the onset of the transition of this class of hybrid star matter at zero temperature corresponds well to values of the same quantities found in finite temperatu...

  3. Separation/enrichment of the low-content high molecular weight natural protein using protein-imprinted polymers with ARPCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for separation/enrichment of the low-content cellular protein in high mo-lecular weight on the basis of molecular imprinting. The template protein, bacterial cloned immu-noglobulin binding protein (BiP), was selectively assembled with assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs) from their library, which consists of numerous limited length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition and immobilizing sites. The assemblies of proteins and ARPCs were adsorbed by porous polymeric beads and immobilized by cross-linking polymerization. After the template was removed, the synthesized imprinted polymer was used to adsorb authentic BiP from endoplasmic re-ticulum (ER) extract, and its proportional content was enriched 45 times. It is the first time that the low-content cellular natural protein, whose molecular weight reaches 78 kDa, is enriched by molecular imprinting.

  4. A Convenient and Efficient Method to Enrich and Maintain Highly Proliferative Human Fetal Liver Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuan; Wang, Shu; Dou, Ya-ling; Guo, Xiang-fei; Chen, Zhao-li; Wang, Xin-wei; Shen, Zhi-qiang; Qiu, Zhi-gang; Jin, Min; Li, Jun-wen

    2015-06-01

    Pluripotent human hepatic stem cells have broad research and clinical applications, which are, however, restricted by both limited resources and technical difficulties with respect to isolation of stem cells from the adult or fetal liver. In this study, we developed a convenient and efficient method involving a two-step in situ collagenase perfusion, gravity sedimentation, and Percoll density gradient centrifugation to enrich and maintain highly proliferative human fetal liver stem cells (hFLSCs). Using this method, the isolated hFLSCs entered into the exponential growth phase within 10 days and maintained sufficient proliferative activity to permit subculture for at least 20 passages without differentiation. Immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry results showed that these cells expressed stem cell markers, such as c-kit, CD44, epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), oval cell marker-6 (OV-6), epithelial marker cytokeratin 18 (CK18), biliary ductal marker CK19, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Gene expression analysis showed that these cells had stable mRNA expression of c-Kit, EpCAM, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), CK19, CK18, AFP, and claudin 3 (CLDN-3) throughout each passage while maintaining low levels of ALB, but with complete absence of cytochrome P450 3A4 (C3A4), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF), and connexin 26 (CX26) expression. When grown in appropriate medium, these isolated liver stem cells could differentiate into hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, or endothelial cells. Thus, we have demonstrated a more economical and efficient method to isolate hFLSCs than magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). This novel approach may provide an excellent tool to isolate highly proliferative hFLSCs for tissue engineering and regenerative therapies.

  5. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  6. High Efficient Enrichment and Activated Dissolution of Refractory Low Grade Rh-containing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiaofeng; DONG Haigang; TONG Weifeng; ZHAO Jiachun; ZENG Rui

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to the low-grade rhodium-containing waste materials,a new process was proposed to enrich and activate rhodium by smelting using iron oxide as a trapping agent and activator.A rhodium concentrate was obtained by the separation of base metals and precious metals.The concentrate was reacted with dilute aqua regia to obtain rhodium solution.The factors influencing the enrichment and activation effects were discussed in this paper.The results showed that the dissolution rate is greater than 99% under the optimum conditions.In this process,the activation of rhodium was finished in the enrichment process.The iron oxide is both a trapping agent and activator,which simplifies the process and reduce the cost.

  7. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  8. AIR SHIPMENT OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL FROM ROMANIA AND LIBYA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Landers; Igor Bolshinsky; Ken Allen; Stanley Moses

    2010-07-01

    In June 2009 Romania successfully completed the world’s first air shipment of highly enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel transported in Type B(U) casks under existing international laws and without special exceptions for the air transport licenses. Special 20-foot ISO shipping containers and cask tiedown supports were designed to transport Russian TUK 19 shipping casks for the Romanian air shipment and the equipment was certified for all modes of transport, including road, rail, water, and air. In December 2009 Libya successfully used this same equipment for a second air shipment of HEU spent nuclear fuel. Both spent fuel shipments were transported by truck from the originating nuclear facilities to nearby commercial airports, were flown by commercial cargo aircraft to a commercial airport in Yekaterinburg, Russia, and then transported by truck to their final destinations at the Production Association Mayak facility in Chelyabinsk, Russia. Both air shipments were performed under the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return Program (RRRFR) as part of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI). The Romania air shipment of 23.7 kg of HEU spent fuel from the VVR S research reactor was the last of three HEU fresh and spent fuel shipments under RRRFR that resulted in Romania becoming the 3rd RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. Libya had previously completed two RRRFR shipments of HEU fresh fuel so the 5.2 kg of HEU spent fuel air shipped from the IRT 1 research reactor in December made Libya the 4th RRRFR participating country to remove all HEU. This paper describes the equipment, preparations, and license approvals required to safely and securely complete these two air shipments of spent nuclear fuel.

  9. Investigation of a Quadruplex-Forming Repeat Sequence Highly Enriched in Xanthomonas and Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Charlotte; Wurmthaler, Lena A; Li, Yuanhao; Frickey, Tancred; Hartig, Jörg S

    2015-01-01

    In prokaryotes simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with unit sizes of 1-5 nucleotides (nt) are causative for phase and antigenic variation. Although an increased abundance of heptameric repeats was noticed in bacteria, reports about SSRs of 6-9 nt are rare. In particular G-rich repeat sequences with the propensity to fold into G-quadruplex (G4) structures have received little attention. In silico analysis of prokaryotic genomes show putative G4 forming sequences to be abundant. This report focuses on a surprisingly enriched G-rich repeat of the type GGGNATC in Xanthomonas and cyanobacteria such as Nostoc. We studied in detail the genomes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913 (Xcc), Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 (Xac), and Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120 (Ana). In all three organisms repeats are spread all over the genome with an over-representation in non-coding regions. Extensive variation of the number of repetitive units was observed with repeat numbers ranging from two up to 26 units. However a clear preference for four units was detected. The strong bias for four units coincides with the requirement of four consecutive G-tracts for G4 formation. Evidence for G4 formation of the consensus repeat sequences was found in biophysical studies utilizing CD spectroscopy. The G-rich repeats are preferably located between aligned open reading frames (ORFs) and are under-represented in coding regions or between divergent ORFs. The G-rich repeats are preferentially located within a distance of 50 bp upstream of an ORF on the anti-sense strand or within 50 bp from the stop codon on the sense strand. Analysis of whole transcriptome sequence data showed that the majority of repeat sequences are transcribed. The genetic loci in the vicinity of repeat regions show increased genomic stability. In conclusion, we introduce and characterize a special class of highly abundant and wide-spread quadruplex-forming repeat sequences in bacteria.

  10. Pyrosequencing reveals high-temperature cellulolytic microbial consortia in Great Boiling Spring after in situ lignocellulose enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Peacock

    Full Text Available To characterize high-temperature cellulolytic microbial communities, two lignocellulosic substrates, ammonia fiber-explosion-treated corn stover and aspen shavings, were incubated at average temperatures of 77 and 85°C in the sediment and water column of Great Boiling Spring, Nevada. Comparison of 109,941 quality-filtered 16S rRNA gene pyrosequences (pyrotags from eight enrichments to 37,057 quality-filtered pyrotags from corresponding natural samples revealed distinct enriched communities dominated by phylotypes related to cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic Thermotoga and Dictyoglomus, cellulolytic and sugar-fermenting Desulfurococcales, and sugar-fermenting and hydrogenotrophic Archaeoglobales. Minor enriched populations included close relatives of hydrogenotrophic Thermodesulfobacteria, the candidate bacterial phylum OP9, and candidate archaeal groups C2 and DHVE3. Enrichment temperature was the major factor influencing community composition, with a negative correlation between temperature and richness, followed by lignocellulosic substrate composition. This study establishes the importance of these groups in the natural degradation of lignocellulose at high temperatures and suggests that a substantial portion of the diversity of thermophiles contributing to consortial cellulolysis may be contained within lineages that have representatives in pure culture.

  11. A novel tantalum-based sol-gel packed microextraction syringe for highly specific enrichment of phosphopeptides in MALDI-MS applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikbıçak, Ömür; Atakay, Mehmet; Güler, Ülkü; Salih, Bekir

    2013-08-07

    A new tantalum-based sol-gel material was synthesized using a unique sol-gel synthesis pathway by PEG incorporation into the sol-gel structure without performing a calcination step. This improved its chemical and physical properties for the high capacity and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from protein digests in complex biological media. The specificity of the tantalum-based sol-gel material for phosphopeptides was evaluated and compared with tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) in different phosphopeptide enrichment applications. The tantalum-based sol-gel and tantalum(V) oxide were characterized in detail using FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and also using a surface area and pore size analyzer. In the characterization studies, the surface morphology, pore volume, crystallinity of the materials and PEG incorporation into the sol-gel structure to produce a more hydrophilic material were successfully demonstrated. The X-ray diffractograms of the two different materials were compared and it was noted that the broad signals of the tantalum-based sol-gel clearly represented the amorphous structure of the sol-gel material, which was more likely to create enough surface area and to provide more accessible tantalum atoms for phosphopeptides to be easily adsorbed when compared with the neat and more crystalline structure of Ta2O5. Therefore, the phosphopeptide enrichment performance of the tantalum-based sol-gels was found to be remarkably higher than the more crystalline Ta2O5 in our studies. Phosphopeptides at femtomole levels could be selectively enriched using the tantalum-based sol-gel and detected with a higher signal-to-noise ratio by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer (MALDI-MS). Moreover, phosphopeptides in a tryptic digest of non-fat bovine milk as a complex real-world biological sample were retained with higher yield using a tantalum-based sol-gel. Additionally, the sol-gel material

  12. The effect of high intensity mixing on the enzymatic hydrolysis of concentrated cellulose fiber suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph R. Samaniuk; C. Tim Scott; Thatcher W. Root; Daniel J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass in a high shear environment was examined. The conversion of cellulose to glucose in samples mixed in a torque rheometer producing shear flows similar to those found in twin screw extruders was greater than that of unmixed samples. In addition, there is a synergistic effect of mixing and enzymatic hydrolysis; mixing...

  13. Fuel handling accident analysis for the University of Missouri Research Reactor's High Enriched Uranium to Low Enriched Uranium fuel conversion initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Benjamin

    In accordance with the 1986 amendment concerning licenses for research and test reactors, the MU Research Reactor (MURR) is planning to convert from using High-Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to the use of Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. Since the approval of a new LEU fuel that could meet the MURR's performance demands, the next phase of action for the fuel conversion process is to create a new Safety Analysis Report (SAR) with respect to the LEU fuel. A component of the SAR includes the Maximum Hypothetical Accident (MHA) and accidents that qualify under the class of Fuel Handling Accidents (FHA). In this work, the dose to occupational staff at the MURR is calculated for the FHAs. The radionuclide inventory for the proposed LEU fuel was calculated using the ORIGEN2 point-depletion code linked to the MURR neutron spectrum. The MURR spectrum was generated from a Monte Carlo Neutron transPort (MCNP) simulation. The coupling of these codes create MONTEBURNS, a time-dependent burnup code. The release fraction from each FHA within this analysis was established by the methodology of the 2006 HEU SAR, which was accepted by the NRC. The actual dose methodology was not recorded in the HEU SAR, so a conservative path was chosen. In compliance to NUREG 1537, when new methodology is used in a HEU to LEU analysis, it is necessary to re-evaluate the HEU accident. The Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) values were calculated in addition to the whole body dose and thyroid dose to operation personnel. The LEU FHA occupational TEDE dose was 349 mrem which is under the NRC regulatory occupational dose limit of 5 rem TEDE, and under the LEU MHA limit of 403 mrem. The re-evaluated HEU FHA occupational TEDE dose was 235 mrem, which is above the HEU MHA TEDE dose of 132 mrem. Since the new methodology produces a dose that is larger than the HEU MHA, we can safely assume that it is more conservative than the previous, unspecified dose.

  14. Feedback model evaluation of high-mix product manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dion; Cheng, Mingjen; Lu, Aho; Mao, Zhibiao; Liang, Curtis

    2006-03-01

    As the patterns are getting smaller, the difficulty to control a margin-tight process expands exponentially. The use of the Automated Process Control (APC), therefore, becomes a widely employed mean in photolithography process to control overlay and CD variations. The accuracy of APC is dependent upon the amount of the previous process data. However, in a foundry with high-mix products it is typical that there are not enough historic data points for accurate calculation of process parameters for a low volume product. The consequence is the high rework rate of pilot runs and test runes due to poor process parameter prediction for overlay. Several studies of the method for predicting the overlay correction have been reported. The key to build a good prediction model is to break the overlay errors down to several parts. Some are equipment or technology related errors, which are shared by all products. Others are the characteristic for certain products, for instance, mask error or special alignment marks. In the production environment the former parts are updated in real time by data feedback from processing all kinds of products. The low volume products or pilot products can share the information. Thus we can achieve a more accurate control or prediction for a new product. In this paper we provide a new model for predicting the process parameter settings of overlay for a pilot run or a product not being run on a tool for a long period of time. This new model is a Simplified Cerebellar Manipulation Arithmetic Controller (SCMAC), which is one kind of Neural Network (NN) model. We assume each part of overlay errors is a cell in SCMAC and build the whole cell table by using this assumption. The final overlay correction value is the sum of a group of cells, which is activated by one lot information. We will also present the details of the building and training of this new SCMAC model. The prediction accuracy of SCMAC in overlay parameters is also evaluated. According to

  15. Mixed DPPC/DPPG monolayers at very high film compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Sameh M I; Policova, Zdenka; Acosta, Edgar J; Hair, Michael L; Neumann, A Wilhelm

    2009-09-15

    A drop shape technique using a constrained sessile drop constellation (ADSA-CSD) has been introduced as a superior technique for studying spread films specially at high collapse pressures [Saad et al. Langmuir 2008, 24, 10843-10850]. It has been shown that ADSA-CSD has certain advantages including the need only for small quantities of liquid and insoluble surfactants, the ability to measure very low surface tension values, easier deposition procedure, and leak-proof design. Here, this technique was applied to investigate mixed DPPC/DPPG monolayers to characterize the role of such molecules in maintaining stable film properties and surface activity of lung surfactant preparations. Results of compression isotherms were obtained for different DPPC/DPPG mixture ratios: 90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, and 50/50 in addition to pure DPPC and pure DPPG at room temperature of 24 degrees C. The ultimate collapse pressure of DPPC/DPPG mixtures was found to be 70.5 mJ/m2 (similar to pure DPPC) for the cases of low DPPG content (up to 20%). Increasing the DPPG content in the mixture (up to 40%) caused a slight decrease in the ultimate collapse pressure. However, further increase of DPPG in the mixture (50% or more) caused a sharp decrease in the ultimate collapse pressure to a value of 59.9 mJ/m2 (similar to pure DPPG). The change in film elasticity was also tracked for the range of mixture ratios studied. The physical reasons for such changes and the interaction between DPPC and DPPG molecules are discussed. The results also show a change in the film hysteresis upon successive compression and expansion cycles for different mixture ratios.

  16. Mantle mixing and crustal contamination as the origin of the high-Sr radiogenic magmatism of Stromboli (Aeolian arc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luais, Béatrice

    1988-04-01

    The temporal evolution of the volcanic activity on Stromboli (Aeolian arc) is characterized by high-K calc-alkaline magmatism followed by shoshonitic magmatism. Rocks from the two series can be distinguished by their K and P concentrations, hygromagmaphile element concentrations, and Sr isotopic ratios, which are higher in the shoshonitic series than in high-K calc-alkaline series. The mantle oxygen isotopic ratios of the shoshonitic series (Javoy, 1976 [39]) suggest that these characteristics are generated in the upper mantle. The geochemical and isotopic characteristics of the magmatism on Stromboli are midway between those of calc-alkaline rocks from the Aeolian arc and potassic rocks from Central Italy (Campanian region). The similarity between the most radiogenic and LILE-enriched samples of the shoshonitic series and the low-K magmatism in Central Italy suggests that the volcanism on Stromboli is the result of mantle mixing between a calc-alkaline magma and a radiogenic Sr/hygromagmaphile element-enriched magma, such as the high-K magmatism in Central Italy (Alban Hills). The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the differentiated samples can be explained by crustal contamination during the differentiation of the basic liquid by fractional crystallization. An anorthose-bearing xenolith with high Sr isotopic composition of crustal origin (0.71300) is a likely candidate for this crustal component.

  17. Mantle mixing and crustal contamination as the origin of the high-Sr radiogenic magmatism of Stromboli (Aeolian arc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luais, B.

    1988-04-01

    The temporal evolution of the volcanic activity on Stromboli (Aeolian arc) is characterized by high-K calc-alkaline magmatism followed by shoshonitic magmatism. Rocks from the two series can be distinguished by their K and P concentrations, hygromagmaphile element concentrations, and Sr isotopic ratios, which are higher in the shoshonitic series than in high-K calc-alkaline series. The mantle oxygen isotopic ratios of the shoshonitic series suggest that these characteristics are generated in the upper mantle. The geometrical and isotopic characteristics of the magmatism on Stromboli are midway between those of calc-alkaline rocks from the Aeolian arc and potassic rocks from Central Italy (Campanian region). The similarity between the most radiogenic and LILE-enriched samples of the shoshonitic series and the low-K magmatism in Central Italy suggests that the volcanism on Stromboli is the result of mantle mixing between a calc-alkaline magma and a radiogenic Sr/hygromagmaphile element-enriched magma, such as the high-K magmatism in Central Italy (Alban Hills). The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the differentiated samples can be explained by crustal contamination during the differentiation of the basic liquid by fractional crystallization. An anorthose-bearing xenolith with high Sr isotopic composition of crustal origin (0.71300) is a likely candidate for thus crustal component.

  18. AGILE integration into APC for high mix logic fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatefait, M.; Lam, A.; Le Gratiet, B.; Mikolajczak, M.; Morin, V.; Chojnowski, N.; Kocsis, Z.; Smith, I.; Decaunes, J.; Ostrovsky, A.; Monget, C.

    2015-09-01

    mix logic Fab) in term of product and technology portfolio AGILE corrects for up to 120nm of product topography error on process layer with less than 50nm depth of focus Based on tool functionalities delivered by ASML and on high volume manufacturing requirement, AGILE integration is a real challenge. Regarding ST requirements "Automatic AGILE" functionality developed by ASML was not a turnkey solution and a dedicated functionality was needed. A "ST homemade AGILE integration" has been fully developed and implemented within ASML and ST constraints. This paper describes this integration in our Advanced Process Control platform (APC).

  19. High-performance composite membrane with enriched CO2-philic groups and improved adhesion at the interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Wang, Shaofei; Wu, Hong; Guo, Ruili; Liu, Ye; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Zhizhang; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xingzhong; Wang, Baoyi

    2014-05-14

    A novel strategy to design a high-performance composite membrane for CO2 capture via coating a thin layer of water-swellable polymers (WSPs) onto a porous support with enriched CO2-philic groups is demonstrated in this study. First, by employing a versatile platform technique combining non-solvent-induced phase separation and surface segregation, porous support membranes with abundant CO2-philic ethylene oxide (EO) groups at the surface are successfully prepared. Second, a thin selective layer composed of Pebax MH 1657 is deposited onto the support membranes via dip coating. Because of the water-swellable characteristic of Pebax and the enriched EO groups at the interface, the composite membranes exhibit high CO2 permeance above 1000 GPU with CO2/N2 selectivity above 40 at a humidified state (25 °C and 3 bar). By tuning the content of the PEO segment at the interface, the composite membranes can show either high CO2 permeance up to 2420 GPU with moderate selectivity of 46.0 or high selectivity up to 109.6 with fairly good CO2 permeance of 1275 GPU. Moreover, enrichment of the PEO segment at the interface significantly improves interfacial adhesion, as revealed by the T-peel test and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurement. In this way, the feasibility of designing WSP-based composite membranes by enriching CO2-philic groups at the interface is validated. We hope our findings may pave a generic way to fabricate high-performance composite membranes for CO2 capture using cost-effective materials and facile methods.

  20. Investigation of a Quadruplex-Forming Repeat Sequence Highly Enriched in Xanthomonas and Nostoc sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rehm

    Full Text Available In prokaryotes simple sequence repeats (SSRs with unit sizes of 1-5 nucleotides (nt are causative for phase and antigenic variation. Although an increased abundance of heptameric repeats was noticed in bacteria, reports about SSRs of 6-9 nt are rare. In particular G-rich repeat sequences with the propensity to fold into G-quadruplex (G4 structures have received little attention. In silico analysis of prokaryotic genomes show putative G4 forming sequences to be abundant. This report focuses on a surprisingly enriched G-rich repeat of the type GGGNATC in Xanthomonas and cyanobacteria such as Nostoc. We studied in detail the genomes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913 (Xcc, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri str. 306 (Xac, and Nostoc sp. strain PCC7120 (Ana. In all three organisms repeats are spread all over the genome with an over-representation in non-coding regions. Extensive variation of the number of repetitive units was observed with repeat numbers ranging from two up to 26 units. However a clear preference for four units was detected. The strong bias for four units coincides with the requirement of four consecutive G-tracts for G4 formation. Evidence for G4 formation of the consensus repeat sequences was found in biophysical studies utilizing CD spectroscopy. The G-rich repeats are preferably located between aligned open reading frames (ORFs and are under-represented in coding regions or between divergent ORFs. The G-rich repeats are preferentially located within a distance of 50 bp upstream of an ORF on the anti-sense strand or within 50 bp from the stop codon on the sense strand. Analysis of whole transcriptome sequence data showed that the majority of repeat sequences are transcribed. The genetic loci in the vicinity of repeat regions show increased genomic stability. In conclusion, we introduce and characterize a special class of highly abundant and wide-spread quadruplex-forming repeat sequences in bacteria.

  1. Efficient enrichment of high-producing recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells for monoclonal antibody by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Takeshi; Masuda, Kenji; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Miyadai, Kenji; Nonaka, Koichi; Yabuta, Masayuki; Omasa, Takeshi

    2015-09-01

    To screen a high-producing recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell from transfected cells is generally laborious and time-consuming. We developed an efficient enrichment strategy for high-producing cell screening using flow cytometry (FCM). A stable pool that had possibly shown a huge variety of monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression levels was prepared by transfection of an expression vector for mAb production to a CHO cell. To enrich high-producing cells derived from a stable pool stained with a fluorescent-labeled antibody that binds to mAb presented on the cell surface, we set the cell size and intracellular density gates based on forward scatter (FSC) and side scatter (SSC), and collected the brightest 5% of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-positive cells from each group by FCM. The final product concentration in a fed-batch culture of cells sorted without FSC and SSC gates was 1.2-1.3-times higher than that of unsorted cells, whereas that of cells gated by FSC and SSC was 3.4-4.7-fold higher than unsorted cells. Surprisingly, the fraction with the highest final product concentration indicated the smallest value of FSC and SSC, and the middle value of fluorescence intensity among all fractionated cells. Our results showed that our new screening strategy by FCM based on FSC and SSC gates could achieve an efficient enrichment of high-producing cells with the smallest value of FSC and SSC.

  2. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual report for FY 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Guida, Tracey [University of Pittsburgh; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2010-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2009 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Studies are reported of the application of a silicon coating to surrogates for spheres of uranium-molybdenum alloy. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. A description of the progress in developing a finite element thermal hydraulics model of the LEU core is provided.

  3. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Design with Two-Dimensional Grading for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    An engineering design study of the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel is ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The computational models developed during fiscal year 2010 to search for an LEU fuel design that would meet the requirements for the conversion and the results obtained with these models are documented and discussed in this report. Estimates of relevant reactor performance parameters for the LEU fuel core are presented and compared with the corresponding data for the currently operating HEU fuel core. The results obtained indicate that the LEU fuel design would maintain the current performance of the HFIR with respect to the neutron flux to the central target region, reflector, and beam tube locations under the assumption that the operating power for the reactor fueled with LEU can be increased from the current value of 85 MW to 100 MW.

  4. Design Study for a Low-Enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL

    2009-03-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2008 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in reactor performance from the current level. Results of selected benchmark studies imply that calculations of LEU performance are accurate. Scoping experiments with various manufacturing methods for forming the LEU alloy profile are presented.

  5. DESIGN STUDY FOR A LOW-ENRICHED URANIUM CORE FOR THE HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR, ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Renfro, David G [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Pinkston, Daniel [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    This report documents progress made during FY 2010 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. With axial and radial grading of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current level. Studies are reported of support to a thermal hydraulic test loop design, the implementation of finite element, thermal hydraulic analysis capability, and infrastructure tasks at HFIR to upgrade the facility for operation at 100 MW. A discussion of difficulties with preparing a fuel specification for the uranium-molybdenum alloy is provided. Continuing development in the definition of the fuel fabrication process is described.

  6. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Sánchez-González

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI, the specific leaf area (SLA, the water use efficiency (WUE, the radiation use efficiency (RUE and dry weight (DW accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m increased fruit firmness (N, total soluble solids content (SSC and titratable acidity (TA, whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G, turning (T, and pink/light red (P. Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality.

  7. Carbon dioxide enrichment: a technique to mitigate the negative effects of salinity on the productivity of high value tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-González, M. J.; Sánchez-Guerrero, M.C.; Medrano, E.; Porras, M.E.; Baeza, E.J.; Lorenzo, P.

    2016-11-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mitigating influence of greenhouse CO2 enrichment on the negative effects of salinity in Mediterranean conditions. Hybrid Raf (cv. Delizia) tomato plants were exposed to two salinity levels of the nutrient solution (5 and 7 dS/m) obtained by adding NaCl, and two CO2 concentrations (350 and 800 μmol/mol) in which CO2 enrichment was applied during the daytime according to a strategy linked to ventilation. Increasing water salinity negatively affected the leaf area index (LAI), the specific leaf area (SLA), the water use efficiency (WUE), the radiation use efficiency (RUE) and dry weight (DW) accumulation resulting in lower marketable yield. The high salinity treatment (7 dS/m) increased fruit firmness (N), total soluble solids content (SSC) and titratable acidity (TA), whereas pH was reduced in the three ripening stages: mature green/breaker (G), turning (T), and pink/light red (P). Also, the increase in electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution led to a general change in intensity of the sensory characteristics of tomato fruits. On the other hand, CO2 enrichment did not affect LAI although SLA was reduced. RUE and DW accumulation were increased resulting in higher marketable yield, through positive effects on fruit number and their average weight. WUE was enhanced by CO2 supply mainly through increased growth and yield. Physical-chemical quality parameters such as fruit firmness, TA and pH were not affected by CO2 enrichment whereas SSC was enhanced. Greenhouse CO2 enrichment did mitigate the negative effect of saline conditions on productivity without compromising organoleptic and sensory fruit quality. (Author)

  8. Targeted gene enrichment and high-throughput sequencing for environmental biomonitoring: a case study using freshwater macroinvertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, Eddy J; Pochon, Xavier; C Banks, Jonathan; Shearer, Karen; Wood, Susanna A

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have advocated biomonitoring using DNA techniques. In this study, two high-throughput sequencing (HTS)-based methods were evaluated: amplicon metabarcoding of the cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene and gene enrichment using MYbaits (targeting nine different genes including COI). The gene-enrichment method does not require PCR amplification and thus avoids biases associated with universal primers. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected from 12 New Zealand rivers. Macroinvertebrates were morphologically identified and enumerated, and their biomass determined. DNA was extracted from all macroinvertebrate samples and HTS undertaken using the illumina miseq platform. Macroinvertebrate communities were characterized from sequence data using either six genes (three of the original nine were not used) or just the COI gene in isolation. The gene-enrichment method (all genes) detected the highest number of taxa and obtained the strongest Spearman rank correlations between the number of sequence reads, abundance and biomass in 67% of the samples. Median detection rates across rare (5%) taxa were highest using the gene-enrichment method (all genes). Our data indicated primer biases occurred during amplicon metabarcoding with greater than 80% of sequence reads originating from one taxon in several samples. The accuracy and sensitivity of both HTS methods would be improved with more comprehensive reference sequence databases. The data from this study illustrate the challenges of using PCR amplification-based methods for biomonitoring and highlight the potential benefits of using approaches, such as gene enrichment, which circumvent the need for an initial PCR step. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. High-throughput simultaneous determination of plasma water deuterium and 18-oxygen enrichment using a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer with isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richelle, M; Darimont, C; Piguet-Welsch, C; Fay, L B

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a high-throughput method for the simultaneous determination of deuterium and oxygen-18 (18O) enrichment of water samples isolated from blood. This analytical method enables rapid and simple determination of these enrichments of microgram quantities of water. Water is converted into hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases by the use of a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC-EA), that are then transferred on-line into the isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Accuracy determined with the standard light Antartic precipitation (SLAP) and Greenland ice sheet precipitation (GISP) is reliable for deuterium and 18O enrichments. The range of linearity is from 0 up to 0.09 atom percent excess (APE, i.e. -78 up to 5725 delta per mil (dpm)) for deuterium enrichment and from 0 up to 0.17 APE (-11 up to 890 dpm) for 18O enrichment. Memory effects do exist but can be avoided by analyzing the biological samples in quintuplet. This method allows the determination of 1440 samples per week, i.e. 288 biological samples per week.

  10. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  11. Chemical composition and oxidative status of tissues from Iberian pigs as affected by diets: extensive feeding v. oleic acid- and tocopherol-enriched mixed diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, S; Tejeda, J F; Estévez, M

    2008-04-01

    The present work was intended to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative stability of the muscle biceps femoris and adipose tissues from Iberian pigs fed different finishing diets: free-range feeding on grass and acorns in a 'Montanera' traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115 g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250 mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement with a tocopherol-non-supplemented control mixed diet (CON). Muscles from MON pigs contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat than those from HOVE and CON pigs. Muscles from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than muscles from CON pigs whereas free-range feeding provided significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol to muscles from MON pigs than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. Adipose tissues from MON and HOVE pigs contained significantly lower proportions of saturated fatty acids and significantly higher levels of oleic acid and monounsaturated fatty acids than those from CON pigs. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids than those from CON and HOVE pigs. To a higher extent, feeding background affected the fatty acid composition of polar lipids from the muscle biceps femoris than that of neutral lipids. Tissues from MON pigs contained significantly smaller ω-6/ω-3 values than those from pigs fed mixed diets. Compared to tissues from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels.

  12. Enrichment of Logging Gaps with a High Conservation Value Species (Pericopsis elata in a Central African Moist Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakis-Yaoba Ouédraogo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In central Africa, most of the timber species require high light at the seedling stage for survival and growth. Forest managers face a regeneration shortage of these light-demanding timber species. To achieve long-term sustainability, there is a need for enrichment methods combining low cost and high species performance. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of Pericopsis elata seedlings in enriched logging gaps in Cameroon. Over five years; the survival and size of each seedling was monitored in 27 logging gaps that were either left without maintenance or cleared. Gaps were relatively small with an average total area of 155 m2. We found that planted seedlings of P. elata performed well in logging gaps. Even without any maintenance 61% of the planted seedlings survived after five years with an average annual diameter increment of 0.28 cm. P. elata appeared to be a good candidate species for enrichment in logging gaps. We demonstrated that the seedlings of P. elata tolerated a wide range of soil conditions but that their performance was strongly influenced by light availability (gap clearance, suggesting potentially improved performance of P. elata in high light environments such as in plantation or larger gaps.

  13. Multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR): a high-throughput, highly sensitive detection method for GMO identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wei, Shuang; Zhixin, Du; Wang, Chenguang; Wu, Xiyang; Li, Feiwu; Zhu, Shuifang

    2017-04-01

    Among all of the high-throughput detection methods, PCR-based methodologies are regarded as the most cost-efficient and feasible methodologies compared with the next-generation sequencing or ChIP-based methods. However, the PCR-based methods can only achieve multiplex detection up to 15-plex due to limitations imposed by the multiplex primer interactions. The detection throughput cannot meet the demands of high-throughput detection, such as SNP or gene expression analysis. Therefore, in our study, we have developed a new high-throughput PCR-based detection method, multiplex enrichment quantitative PCR (ME-qPCR), which is a combination of qPCR and nested PCR. The GMO content detection results in our study showed that ME-qPCR could achieve high-throughput detection up to 26-plex. Compared to the original qPCR, the Ct values of ME-qPCR were lower for the same group, which showed that ME-qPCR sensitivity is higher than the original qPCR. The absolute limit of detection for ME-qPCR could achieve levels as low as a single copy of the plant genome. Moreover, the specificity results showed that no cross-amplification occurred for irrelevant GMO events. After evaluation of all of the parameters, a practical evaluation was performed with different foods. The more stable amplification results, compared to qPCR, showed that ME-qPCR was suitable for GMO detection in foods. In conclusion, ME-qPCR achieved sensitive, high-throughput GMO detection in complex substrates, such as crops or food samples. In the future, ME-qPCR-based GMO content identification may positively impact SNP analysis or multiplex gene expression of food or agricultural samples. Graphical abstract For the first-step amplification, four primers (A, B, C, and D) have been added into the reaction volume. In this manner, four kinds of amplicons have been generated. All of these four amplicons could be regarded as the target of second-step PCR. For the second-step amplification, three parallels have been taken for

  14. Synthesis of Zwitterionic Polymer Particles via Combined Distillation Precipitation Polymerization and Click Chemistry for Highly Efficient Enrichment of Glycopeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianxi; Yang, Kaiguang; Shao, Wenya; Li, Senwu; Wu, Qi; Zhang, Shen; Qu, Yanyan; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-08-31

    Because of the low abundance of glycopeptide in natural biological samples, methods for efficient and selective enrichment of glycopeptides play a significant role in mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycoproteomics. In this study, a novel kind of zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction chromatography polymer particles, namely, poly(N,N-methylenebisacrylamide-co-methacrylic acid)@l-Cys (poly(MBAAm-co-MAA)@l-Cys), for the enrichment of glycopeptides was synthesized by a facile and efficient approach that combined distillation precipitation polymerization (DPP) and "thiol-ene" click reaction. In the DPP approach, residual vinyl groups explored outside the core with high density, then the functional ligand cysteine was immobilized onto the surface of core particles by highly efficient thiol-ene click reaction. Taking advantage of the unique structure of poly(MBAAm-co-MAA)@l-Cys, the resulting particles possess remarkable enrichment selectivity for glycopeptides from the tryptic digested human immunoglobulin G. The polymer particles were successfully employed for the analysis of human plasma, and 208 unique glycopeptides corresponding to 121 glycoproteins were reliably identified in triple independent nano-LC-MS/MS runs. The selectivity toward glycopeptides of these particles poly(MBAAm-co-MAA)@l-Cys is ∼2 times than that of the commercial beads. These results demonstrated that these particles had great potential for large-scale glycoproteomics research. Moreover, the strategy with the combination of DPP and thiol-ene click chemistry might be a facile method to produce functional polymer particles for bioenrichment application.

  15. Synthesis and sintering of ceramic nanocomposites with high mixed conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zyryanov V.V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastable solid solutions of complex oxides with fluorite and perovskite structures are obtained by mechanosynthesis. Dense ceramics on the base of these metastable phases was obtained by thermal sintering of nanopowders due to kinetic stabilization. Different degrees of a chemical interaction (interdiffusion are observed during sintering of "perovskite+fluorite" and "perovskite+perovskite" composites. It is shown, that optimization of the composition, mixing conditions of individual phases and their sintering, preparation of ceramic composites with mixed conductivity for use in catalytic membrane reactors is possible. Unusual behavior of complex perovskites and fluorites is discovered during sintering, enabling determination of an optimum sintering temperature and time for which a qualitative explanation is given. It is established that rearrangement of fine crystalline particles as a whole plays a key role in shrinkage.

  16. Separation/enrichment of the low-content high molecular weight natural protein using protein-imprinted polymers with ARPCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA JianJun; LONG Yi; GUO MinJie; WANG Ying; MI HuaiFeng

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new method for separation/enrichment of the low-content cellular protein in high molecular weight on the basis of molecular imprinting.The template protein,bacterial cloned immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP),was selectively assembled with assistant recognition polymer chains (ARPCs) from their library,which consists of numerous limited length polymer chains with randomly distributed recognition and immobilizing sites.The assemblies of proteins and ARPCs were adsorbed by porous polymeric beads and immobilized by cross-linking polymerization.After the template was removed,the synthesized imprinted polymer was used to adsorb authentic BiP from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) extract,and its proportional content was enriched 45 times.It is the first time that the low-content cellular natural protein,whose molecular weight reaches 78 kDa,is enrichd by molecular imprinting.

  17. (30)Si mole fraction of a silicon material highly enriched in (28)Si determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Di Luzio, Marco; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2015-06-01

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in (28)Si, reached the target 2 × 10(-8) relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the (30)Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of (30)Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV γ-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope (31)Si produced via the neutron capture reaction (30)Si(n,γ)(31)Si. The x((30)Si) = 1.043(19) × 10(-6) mol mol(-1) is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  18. 30Si Mole Fraction of a Silicon Material Highly Enriched in 28Si Determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo; Pramann, Axel; Prata, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The latest determination of the Avogadro constant, carried out by counting the atoms in a pure silicon crystal highly enriched in 28Si, reached the target 2x10-8 relative uncertainty required for the redefinition of the kilogram based on the Planck constant. The knowledge of the isotopic composition of the enriched silicon material is central; it is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. In this work, an independent estimate of the 30Si mole fraction was obtained by applying a relative measurement protocol based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The amount of 30Si isotope was determined by counting the 1266.1 keV gamma-photons emitted during the radioactive decay of the radioisotope 31Si produced via the neutron capture reaction 30Si(n,gamma)31Si. The x(30Si) = 1.043(19)x10-6 mol mol-1 is consistent with the value currently adopted by the International Avogadro Coordination.

  19. Dietary silicon-enriched spirulina improves early atherosclerosis markers in hamsters on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidé, Joris; Virsolvy, Anne; Romain, Cindy; Ramos, Jeanne; Jouy, Nicolas; Richard, Sylvain; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Gaillet, Sylvie; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary silicon-enriched spirulina (SES) on atherosclerosis. Hamsters (six per group) on a high-fat (HF) diet received SES or non-enriched spirulina (both at 57 mg/kg body weight) daily. This corresponded to 0.57 mg silicon/kg body weight daily. The HF diet induced dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and vascular dysfunction. Compared with the HF group, SES attenuated increases of lipemia and prevented insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.001). SES protected against oxidative stress through a reduction of heart (P = 0.006) and liver (P spirulina and silicon were observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transient evolution and high stratification scaling in horizontal mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arratia, C.; Ortiz, S.; Chomaz, J. M.

    Mixing layers (sheared flows in homogeneous or stratified fluid) are present in many geophysical contexts and may lead to turbulence and mixing. In several cases, mixing layers are known to exhibit the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability leading to the roll-up of spanwise vortices, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) billows. This is an essentially two-dimensional (2D) process. In fact, in the homogeneous cases the Squire's theorem implies that the most unstable mode is 2D. However, Squire's theorem applies only for the exponentially growing perturbations that control the large time dynamics and is not valid for the transient dynamics at short time. Indeed, Iams et al.[1] have shown that, in the non-stratified case, the most amplified optimal perturbations for short times are three-dimensional (3D) and result from a cooperation between the lift-up and Orr mechanisms[2]. This provides a finite time mechanism for spanwise scale selection, scale that may persist at later times if nonlinearities are strong enough.

  1. Kinetic analysis of high-concentration isopropanol biodegradation by a solvent-tolerant mixed microbial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustard, Mark T; Meeyoo, Vissanu; Wright, Phillip C

    2002-06-20

    The ability of a previously enriched microbial population to utilize isopropanol (IPA) as the sole carbon source within a minimal salts medium is studied. The advantage of prior enrichment procedures for the improvement of IPA biodegradation performance is demonstrated for an IPA concentration of up to 24 g L(-1). Results showing the interrelationship between temperature and substrate utilization and inhibition levels at temperatures of between 2 degrees C and 45 degrees C are examined. Models of inhibition based on enzyme kinetics are assessed via nonlinear analysis, in order to accurately represent the growth kinetics of this solvent-tolerant mixed culture. The model that best describes the data is the Levenspiel substrate inhibition model, which can predict the maximum substrate level above which growth is completely limited. This is the first report of IPA treatment of up to 24 g L(-1) by an aerobic solvent-tolerant population.

  2. ZPR-3 Assembly 6F : A spherical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium, aluminum and steel with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 47 atom %.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D; Schaefer, R. W.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-09-30

    Assembly 6F (ZPR-3/6F), the final phase of the Assembly 6 program, simulated a spherical core with a thick depleted uranium reflector. ZPR-3/6F was designed as a fast reactor physics benchmark experiment with an average core {sup 235}U enrichment of approximately 47 at.%. Approximately 81.4% of the total fissions in this assembly occur above 100 keV, approximately 18.6% occur below 100 keV, and essentially none below 0.625 eV - thus the classification as a 'fast' assembly. This assembly is Fast Reactor Benchmark No. 7 in the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3/6F began in late December 1956, and the experimental measurements were performed in January 1957. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates, perforated aluminum plates and stainless steel plates loaded into aluminum drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of three columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, three columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates, nine columns of 0.125 in.-wide perforated aluminum plates and one column of stainless steel plates. The maximum length of each column of core material in a drawer was 9 in. (228.6 mm). Because of the goal to produce an approximately spherical core, core fuel and diluent column lengths generally varied between adjacent drawers and frequently within an individual drawer. The axial reflector consisted of depleted uranium plates and blocks loaded in the available space in the front (core) drawers, with the remainder loaded into back drawers behind the front drawers. The radial reflector consisted of blocks of depleted uranium loaded directly into the matrix tubes. The assembly geometry approximated a reflected sphere as closely as the square matrix tubes, the drawers and the

  3. ZPR-3 Assembly 12 : A cylindrical assembly of highly enriched uranium, depleted uranium and graphite with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 21 atom %.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Perel, R. L.; Wagschal, J. J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Racah Inst. of Physics

    2010-09-30

    Specifications and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 12 began in late Jan. 1958, and the Assembly 12 program ended in Feb. 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates, depleted uranium plates and graphite plates loaded into stainless steel drawers which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide depleted uranium plates and seven columns of 0.125 in.-wide graphite plates. The length of each column was 9 in. (228.6 mm) in each half of the core. The graphite plates were included to produce a softer neutron spectrum that would be more characteristic of a large power reactor. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the radial blanket was approximately 12 in. and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 21 in. (533.4 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/12, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on Feb. 5, 1958. The subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/12 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. An accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/12 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a

  4. Disposition of highly enriched uranium obtained from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This EA assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with DOE`s proposal to transport 600 kg of Kazakhstand-origin HEU from Y-12 to a blending site (B&W Lynchburg or NFS Erwin), transport low-enriched UF6 blending stock from a gaseous diffusion plant to GE Wilmington and U oxide blending stock to the blending site, blending the HEU and uranium oxide blending stock to produce LEU in the form of uranyl nitrate, and transport the uranyl nitrate from the blending site to USEC Portsmouth.

  5. High sensitivity of Lobelia dortmanna to sediment oxygen depletion following organic enrichment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Claus Lindskov; Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2011-01-01

    • Lobelia dortmanna thrives in oligotrophic, softwater lakes thanks to O(2) and CO(2) exchange across roots and uptake of sediment nutrients. We hypothesize that low gas permeability of leaves constrains Lobelia to pristine habitats because plants go anoxic in the dark if O(2) vanishes from...... thresholds for cell function in enriched sediments and was accompanied by critically low chlorophyll and photosynthesis. • We propose that anoxic stress restricts ATP formation and constrains transfer of nutrients to leaves. Brief anoxia in sediments and leaf lacunae late at night is a recurring summer...

  6. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  7. Optimization of Mix Proportion of High Performance Mortar for Structural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah C. Ban

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mortar mix is a major construction material in fabrication of ferrocement structural elements. However, there have been scarce amount of technical data available on suitable mix proportion to achieve structural grade mortar with specific strength requirement and adequate level of workability for proper placement into construction formwork. Moreover, current practice in ferrocement construction work which uses mortar mix with cement: sand ratio ranging between 1:1.5 to 1:2 incurs high requirement of cement yet producing mix with suboptimum level of compressive strength. Approach: An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate workability and compressive strength properties of structural grade mortar mixes with various cement: sand ratios ranging from 1:2.0-1:2.75 and varying water/binder ratio between 0.35 and 0.50. Throughout the laboratory investigation, a total of 28 batches of mortar mixes with various mix proportion were designed, cast and tested in accordance to relevant standards of practice prescribed by British Standard Institute (BSI and American Society of Testing Material (ASTM. Results: At the end of the laboratory investigation program, high performance mortar mix with compressive strength exceeding 55 MPa and slump level within 50-90 mm which is suitable for heavy duty ferrocement construction work was successfully developed. Moreover, data on mix proportion for several other grades of mortar mixes ranging from grade 35 to grade 55 were also derived. Conclusion: It was found that optimum cement: Sand ratio of structural mortar is 1:2.25. With the use of this cement: Sand ratio in the production of structural grade mortar mix in fabrication of ferrocement structural elements, consumption of cement binder will be economized hence resulting in potential savings in term of material and production cost of mortar mix in the construction industry. Besides, it was also observed that strengths

  8. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  9. Assessing the effects of salmon farming seabed enrichment using bacterial community diversity and high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowle, Eddy; Pochon, Xavier; Keeley, Nigel; Wood, Susanna A

    2015-08-01

    Aquaculture is an extremely valuable and rapidly expanding sector of the seafood industry. The sediment below active aquaculture farms receives inputs of organic matter from uneaten food and faecal material and this has led to concerns related to environmental sustainability. The impacts of organic enrichment on macrobenthic infauna are well characterized; however, much less is known about effect on bacterial communities. In this study, sediment, macrobenthic infauna samples and environmental data were collected along an enrichment gradient radiating out from a Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) farm (Marlborough Sounds; New Zealand). DNA and RNA were extracted and 16S rRNA metabarcodes from bacterial communities characterized using high-throughput sequencing. Desulfobacterales dominated at the cage (DNA and RNA), and at sites 50 m (DNA and RNA) and 150 m (RNA) from the farm. In contrast, unclassified bacteria from the class Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant taxa at control sites (625 and 4000 m). Pronounced differences among DNA and RNA samples occurred at the cage site where Desulfobacterales abundance was markedly higher in RNA samples. There were strong correlations between shifts in bacterial communities and total organic matter and redox. This suggests that bacterial composition is strongly influenced by organic enrichment, a trait that may make them useful for assessing impacts associated with aquaculture farms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Design, construction, and operation of a laboratory scale reactorfor the production of high-purity, isotopically enriched bulksilicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-12-20

    The design and operation of a recirculating flow reactor designed to convert isotopically enriched silane to polycrystalline Si with high efficiency and chemical purity is described. The starting material is SiF{sub 4}, which is enriched in the desired isotope by a centrifuge method and subsequently converted to silane. In the reactor, the silane is decomposed to silicon on the surface of a graphite starter rod (3 mm diameter) heated to 700-750 C. Flow and gas composition (0.3-0.5% silane in hydrogen) are chosen to minimize the generation of particles by homogeneous nucleation of silane and to attain uniform deposition along the length of the rod. Growth rates are 5 {micro}m/min, and the conversion efficiency is greater than 95%. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si deposited along a 150 mm length of the rod. After removal of the starter rod, dislocation-free single crystals are formed by the floating zone method. Crystals enriched in all 3 stable isotopes of Si have been made: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (88.25%). Concentrations of electrically active impurities (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  11. Effect of atmospheric CO 2 enrichment on rubisco content in herbaceous species from high and low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F.; Schäppi, Bernd; Körner, Christian

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment reduces Rubisco content in many species grown in controlled environments; however, relatively few studies have examined CO 2 effects on Rubisco content of plants grown in their natural habitat. We examined the response of Rubisco content to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment (600-680 μmol mol -1 in place of ppm) in 5 herbaceous species growing in a low altitude grassland (550 m) near Basel, Switzerland, and 3 herbaceous species from Swiss alpine grassland at 2470 m. At low elevation, the dominant grass Bromus erectus and the subdominant dicot Sanquisorba minor exhibited 20% to 25% reduction of Rubisco content following high CO 2 exposure; no CO 2 effect was observed in the subdominants Carex flacca, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens. At the Alpine site, the subdominant grass Poa alpina maintained 27% less Rubisco content when grown at high CO 2 while the co-dominant forb Leontodon helveticus had 19% less Rubisco in high CO 2. Rubisco content was unaffected in the tundra dominant Carex curvula. Because the degree of Rubisco modulation was similar between high and low elevation sites, it does not appear that differences in local partial pressure of CO 2 (altitude) or differences in stress in general induce different patterns of modulation of photosynthetic capacity in response to high CO 2. In addition, the degree of Rubisco reduction (<30%) was less than might be indicated by the low biomass response to CO 2 enrichment previously observed at these sites. Thus, plants in Swiss lowland and alpine grassland appear to maintain greater Rubisco concentration and photosynthetic capacity than whole plants can effectively exploit in terms of harvestable biomass.

  12. The effect of particle shape on mixing in a high shear mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Matthew D.; Cleary, Paul W.

    2016-11-01

    Discrete element method modelling is used to study the effect of particle shape on the flow dynamics and mixing in a high shear mixer. The blade generates strong flow over its top surface while compacting and pushing forward particles that are directly in front of the blade. A complex three dimensional flow is established with vertical and radial flow components that are shape dependent and which control the nature of the mixing. Mixing was found to be fast in the azimuthal direction, of intermediate speed in the vertical direction and comparatively slow in the radial mixing. Diffusive mixing is characterised using the granular temperature which shows that the regions of higher granular temperature are larger for round particles than non-round ones leading to stronger diffusive mixing. The spatial distribution of the convective component of mixing is identified using novel calculation of shear strain rate. This size and shape of the high shear region is found to be only slightly sensitive to the particle shape indicating that the convective mixing is relatively independent of shape, except in the middle of the mixer. The blockiness of the particles has the strongest impact on flow and mixing while the mixing has only a weak dependence on the particle aspect ratio.

  13. Extensive feeding versus oleic acid and tocopherol enriched mixed diets for the production of Iberian dry-cured hams: Effect on chemical composition, oxidative status and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, S; Ventanas, J; Tovar, J; García, C; Estévez, M

    2007-10-01

    The present study aimed to analyse the chemical composition and oxidative status of Iberian dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets: extensive feeding on acorns and pasture in a "Montanera" traditional system (MON), fed in confinement with a mixed diet containing high-oleic sunflower oil (115g/kg of diet) and supplemented with 250mg/kg α-tocopherol (HOVE), and fed in confinement control mixed diet (CON) without added tocopherol and oleic acid fat. Muscles from MON dry-cured hams contained significantly (p<0.05) higher amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) than those from HOVE and CON hams. The feeding background affected the tocopherol levels in dry-cured hams as those from MON and HOVE pigs had significantly higher levels of α-tocopherol than those from CON pigs whereas the extensive feeding provided muscles from MON pigs with significantly higher levels of γ-tocopherol than the experimental diets did to CON and HOVE pigs. The HOVE diet significantly increased the levels of oleic acid in Iberian dry-cured hams with these levels being similar to the oleic acid levels found in MON hams and significantly higher than those in CON hams. Compared to dry-cured hams from CON pigs, those from MON and HOVE pigs exhibited a higher oxidative stability as a likely result of a most favourable fatty acid composition and the presence of higher tocopherol levels. The principal component analysis (PCA) successfully discriminated between dry-cured hams from pigs fed different finishing diets.

  14. Global expression profile of highly enriched cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu Qin; Soo, Set Yen; Sun, William; Zweigerdt, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC), with their ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in culture, hold great potential for cell replacement therapies and provide an in vitro model of human heart development. A genomewide characterization of the molecular phenotype of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes is important for their envisioned applications. We have employed a lineage selection strategy to generate a pure population of cardiomyocytes (>99%) from transgenic hESC lines. Global gene expression profiling showed that these cardiomyocytes are distinct from pluripotent and differentiated hESC cultures. Pure cardiomyocytes displayed similarities with heart tissue, but in many aspects presented an individual transcriptome pattern. A subset of 1,311 cardiac-enriched transcripts was identified, which were significantly overpresented (p human heart development.

  15. High conversion efficiency in resonant four-wave mixing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Yuan; Wu, Bo-Han; Wang, Gang; Chen, Yong-Fang; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Yu, Ite A

    2016-01-25

    We propose a new scheme of the resonant four-wave mixing (FWM) for the frequency up or down conversion, which is more efficient than the commonly-used scheme of the non-resonant FWM. In this new scheme, two control fields are spatially varied such that a probe field at the input can be converted to a signal field at the output. The efficiency of probe-to-signal energy conversion can be 90% at medium's optical depth of about 100. Our proposed scheme works for both the continuous-wave and pulse cases, and is flexible in choosing the control field intensity. This work provides a very useful tool in the nonlinear frequency conversion.

  16. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  17. High-Mixed-Voltage Analog and RF Circuit Techniques for Nanoscale CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mak, Pui-In

    2012-01-01

    This book presents high-/mixed-voltage analog and radio frequency (RF) circuit techniques for developing low-cost multistandard wireless receivers in nm-length CMOS processes.  Key benefits of high-/mixed-voltage RF and analog CMOS circuits are explained, state-of-the-art examples are studied, and circuit solutions before and after voltage-conscious design are compared. Three real design examples are included, which demonstrate the feasibility of high-/mixed-voltage circuit techniques.    Provides a valuable summary and real case studies of the state-of-the-art in high-/mixed-voltage circuits and systems; Includes novel high-/mixed-voltage analog and RF circuit techniques – from concept to practice; Describes the first high-voltage-enabled mobile-TVRF front-end in 90nm CMOS and the first mixed-voltage full-band mobile-TV Receiver in 65nm CMOS; Demonstrates the feasibility of high-/mixed-voltage circuit techniques with real design examples.  

  18. Importance of open marine waters to the enrichment of total mercury and monomethylmercury in lichens in the Canadian High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, K A; St Louis, V L; Kirk, J L; Lehnherr, I; Wang, S; La Farge, C

    2015-05-19

    Caribou, which rely on lichens as forage, are a dietary source of monomethylmercury (MMHg) to many of Canada's Arctic Aboriginal people. However, little is understood about the sources of MMHg to lichens in the High Arctic. We quantified MMHg, total mercury (THg) and other chemical parameters (e.g., marine and crustal elements, δ(13)C, δ(15)N, organic carbon, calcium carbonate) in lichen and soil samples collected along transects extending from the coast on Bathurst and Devon islands, Nunavut, to determine factors driving lichen MMHg and THg concentrations in the High Arctic. Lichen MMHg and THg concentrations ranged from 1.41 to 17.1 ng g(-1) and from 36.0 to 361 ng g(-1), respectively. Both were highly enriched over concentrations in underlying soils, indicating a predominately atmospheric source of Hg in lichens. However, MMHg and THg enrichment at coastal sites on Bathurst Island was far greater than on Devon Island. We suggest that this variability can be explained by the proximity of the Bathurst Island transect to several polynyas, which promote enhanced Hg deposition to adjacent landscapes through various biogeochemical processes. This study is the first to clearly show a strong marine influence on MMHg inputs to coastal terrestrial food webs with implications for MMHg accumulation in caribou and the health of the people who depend on them as part of a traditional diet.

  19. Performances of miniature microstrip detectors made on oxygen enriched p-type substrates after very high proton irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casse, G. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gcasse@hep.ph.liv.ac.uk; Allport, P.P. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Marti i Garcia, S. [IFIC CSIC, Edificio Institutos de Investigacion Apartado de Correos 22085 E-46071, Valencia-Spain (Spain); Lozano, M. [IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Turner, P.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, P.O. Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-11

    Silicon microstrip detectors with n-type implant read-out strips on FZ p-type bulk (n-in-p) show superior charge collection properties, after heavy irradiation, to the more standard p-strips in n-type silicon (p-in-n). It is also well established that oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrates show better performance, in terms of degradation of the full depletion voltage after charged hadron irradiation, than the standard FZ silicon used for high energy physics detectors. Silicon microstrip detectors combining both the advantages of oxygenation and of n-strip read-out (n-in-n) have achieved high radiation tolerance to charged hadrons. The manufacturing of n-in-n detectors though requires double-sided processing, resulting in more complicated and expensive devices than standard p-in-n. A cheaper single-sided option, that still combines these advantages, is to use n-in-p devices. P-type FZ wafers have been oxygen-enriched by high temperature diffusion from an oxide layer and successfully used to process miniature (1x1 cm{sup 2}) microstrip detectors. These detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the CERN/PS T7 irradiation area up to {approx}7.5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We report results with these irradiated detectors in terms of the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage.

  20. Performances of miniature microstrip detectors made on oxygen enriched p-type substrates after very high proton irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, G.; Allport, P. P.; Martí i Garcia, S.; Lozano, M.; Turner, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors with n-type implant read-out strips on FZ p-type bulk (n-in-p) show superior charge collection properties, after heavy irradiation, to the more standard p-strips in n-type silicon (p-in-n). It is also well established that oxygen-enriched n-type silicon substrates show better performance, in terms of degradation of the full depletion voltage after charged hadron irradiation, than the standard FZ silicon used for high energy physics detectors. Silicon microstrip detectors combining both the advantages of oxygenation and of n-strip read-out (n-in-n) have achieved high radiation tolerance to charged hadrons. The manufacturing of n-in-n detectors though requires double-sided processing, resulting in more complicated and expensive devices than standard p-in-n. A cheaper single-sided option, that still combines these advantages, is to use n-in-p devices. P-type FZ wafers have been oxygen-enriched by high temperature diffusion from an oxide layer and succesfully used to process miniature (1×1 cm 2) microstrip detectors. These detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons in the CERN/PS T7 irradiation area up to ˜7.5×10 15 cm -2. We report results with these irradiated detectors in terms of the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage.

  1. Mineralogy and crystallization history of a highly differentiated REE-enriched hypabyssal rhyolite: Round Top laccolith, Trans-Pecos, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, L. Christine; Elliott, Brent A.; Kyle, J. Richard

    2017-09-01

    The Round Top hypabyssal rhyolite laccolith is a highly evolved magmatic system, enriched in incompatible elements including REE [Rare Earth Element(s)], U, Be, and F. The Round Top intrusion is part of a series of Paleogene intrusions emplaced as the Sierra Blanca Complex. These intrusions are situated within long-lived, complex tectonic regimes that have been subjected to regional compression and subduction, punctuated by extensional bimodal volcanism. The enrichment in the rhyolite that comprises Round Top is the result of the prolonged removal of compatible elements from the source magma chamber through the emplacement of earlier magmatic events. With the emplacement of each sequential laccolith, the F-rich source magma became more enriched in incompatible elements, with increasing HREE [Heavy Rare Earth Elements(s)] concentrations. The emplacement of Round Top as a laccolith (versus that of an extrusive rhyolitic flow) facilitated the retention of the volatile-rich vapor phase within the magma, forming ubiquitous REE-bearing minerals, mainly yttrofluorite and yttrocerite. The high temperature mineral-vapor phase alteration of the feldspar groundmass was essential to the formation of REE minerals, where the pervasive open pore space was occupied by the late-crystallizing minerals. These late-forming REE-bearing minerals also occur as crystals associated with other accessory and trace phases, as inclusions within other phases, along grain boundaries, and along fractures and within voids. The rhyolite at Round Top and other laccolith intrusions in the Sierra Blanca Complex represent a new sub-type of magmatic rare earth element hosting system.

  2. Photopatterning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) membranes for a high level of enrichment and cleanup of nucleic acids in microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Meng; Hao, Nan; Yu, Tao; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-09-14

    An ideal nanoporous poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) membrane has been fabricated in glass microchannels by means of spatially controlled photopatterning technology for a high level of enrichment and cleanup of nucleic acids.

  3. High-temperature apparatus for chaotic mixing of natural silicate melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgavi, D.; Petrelli, M.; Vetere, F. P.; González-García, D.; Perugini, D., E-mail: diego.perugini@unipg.it [Department of Physics and Geology, Petro-Volcanology Research Group (PVRG), University of Perugia, Piazza Università, Perugia 06100 (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A unique high-temperature apparatus was developed to trigger chaotic mixing at high-temperature (up to 1800 °C). This new apparatus, which we term Chaotic Magma Mixing Apparatus (COMMA), is designed to carry out experiments with high-temperature and high-viscosity (up to 10{sup 6} Pa s) natural silicate melts. This instrument allows us to follow in time and space the evolution of the mixing process and the associated modulation of chemical composition. This is essential to understand the dynamics of magma mixing and related chemical exchanges. The COMMA device is tested by mixing natural melts from Aeolian Islands (Italy). The experiment was performed at 1180 °C using shoshonite and rhyolite melts, resulting in a viscosity ratio of more than three orders of magnitude. This viscosity ratio is close to the maximum possible ratio of viscosity between high-temperature natural silicate melts. Results indicate that the generated mixing structures are topologically identical to those observed in natural volcanic rocks highlighting the enormous potential of the COMMA to replicate, as a first approximation, the same mixing patterns observed in the natural environment. COMMA can be used to investigate in detail the space and time development of magma mixing providing information about this fundamental petrological and volcanological process that would be impossible to investigate by direct observations. Among the potentials of this new experimental device is the construction of empirical relationships relating the mixing time, obtained through experimental time series, and chemical exchanges between the melts to constrain the mixing-to-eruption time of volcanic systems, a fundamental topic in volcanic hazard assessment.

  4. Oxygen- and Nitrogen-Enriched 3D Porous Carbon for Supercapacitors of High Volumetric Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Liu, Kang; Gao, Xiang; Yao, Bin; Huo, Kaifu; Cheng, Yongliang; Cheng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Dongchang; Wang, Bo; Sun, Wanmei; Ding, Dong; Liu, Meilin; Huang, Liang

    2015-11-11

    Efficient utilization and broader commercialization of alternative energies (e.g., solar, wind, and geothermal) hinges on the performance and cost of energy storage and conversion systems. For now and in the foreseeable future, the combination of rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors remains the most promising option for many energy storage applications. Porous carbonaceous materials have been widely used as an electrode for batteries and supercapacitors. To date, however, the highest specific capacitance of an electrochemical double layer capacitor is only ∼200 F/g, although a wide variety of synthetic approaches have been explored in creating optimized porous structures. Here, we report our findings in the synthesis of porous carbon through a simple, one-step process: direct carbonization of kelp in an NH3 atmosphere at 700 °C. The resulting oxygen- and nitrogen-enriched carbon has a three-dimensional structure with specific surface area greater than 1000 m(2)/g. When evaluated as an electrode for electrochemical double layer capacitors, the porous carbon structure demonstrated excellent volumetric capacitance (>360 F/cm(3)) with excellent cycling stability. This simple approach to low-cost carbonaceous materials with unique architecture and functionality could be a promising alternative to fabrication of porous carbon structures for many practical applications, including batteries and fuel cells.

  5. Case Mix, Quality and High-Cost Kidney Transplant Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Englesbe, M. J.; Dimick, J. B.; Fan, Z; Baser, O.; Birkmeyer, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of high-cost kidney transplant patients would be useful for informing value-based purchasing strategies by payers. This retrospective cohort study was based on the Medicare Provider Analysis and Review (MEDPAR) files from 2003 to 2006. The focus of this analysis was high-cost kidney transplant patients (patients that qualified for Medicare outlier payments and 30-day readmission payments). Using regression techniques, we explored relationships between high-cost kidney t...

  6. Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel Conversion Activities for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Griffin, Frederick P [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    This report describes progress made during FY11 in ORNL activities to support converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum (UMo) alloy. With both radial and axial contouring of the fuel foil and an increase in reactor power to 100 MW, calculations indicate that the HFIR can be operated with LEU fuel with no degradation in performance to users from the current levels achieved with HEU fuel. Studies are continuing to demonstrate that the fuel thermal safety margins can be preserved following conversion. Studies are also continuing to update other aspects of the reactor steady state operation and accident response for the effects of fuel conversion. Technical input has been provided to Oregon State University in support of their hydraulic testing program. The HFIR conversion schedule was revised and provided to the GTRI program. In addition to HFIR conversion activities, technical support was provided directly to the Fuel Fabrication Capability program manager.

  7. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridouane, El Hassan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The objective of the study outlined in this report is to resolve the issue that the flow rates that are required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space.and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes.

  8. High-resolution Quantification of Turbulent Mixing in the North Indian Ocean During the Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    High-resolution quantification of turbulent mixing in the North Indian Ocean during the monsoons Sutanu Sarkar Department of Mechanical and...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High-resolution Quantification of Turbulent Mixing in the North Indian Ocean During the...corresponding horizontal pressure gradient drives a counter gravity current which causes the bore to decelerate. The counter current also causes the

  9. Performance evaluation of high modulus asphalt concrete mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritonovs, V.; Tihonovs, J.; Zaumanis, M.

    2016-04-01

    Dolomite is one of the most available sedimentary rocks in the territory of Latvia. Dolomite quarries contain about 1000 million tons of this material. However, according to Latvian Road Specifications, this dolomite cannot be used for average and high intensity roads because of its low quality (mainly, LA index). Therefore, mostly imported magmatic rocks (granite, diabase, gabbro, basalt) or imported dolomite are used which makes asphalt expensive. However, practical experience shows that even with these high quality materials roads exhibit rutting, fatigue and thermal cracks. The aim of the research is to develop a high performance asphalt concrete for base and binder courses using only locally available aggregates. In order to achieve resistance against deformations at a high ambient temperature, a hard grade binder was used. Workability, fatigue and thermal cracking resistance, as well as sufficient water resistance is achieved by low porosity (3-5%) and higher binder content compared to traditional asphalt mixtures. The design of the asphalt includes a combination of empirical and performance based tests, which in laboratory circumstances allow simulating traffic and environmental loads. High performance AC 16 base asphalt concrete was created using local dolomite aggregate with polymer modified (PMB 10/40-65) and hard grade (B20/30) bitumen. The mixtures were specified based on fundamental properties in accordance to EN 13108-1 standard.

  10. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maeda

    2016-03-01

    significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7–29.8 ‰ values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification–denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  11. Wall modeling via function enrichment within a high-order DG method for RANS simulations of incompressible flow

    CERN Document Server

    Krank, Benjamin; Wall, Wolfgang A

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel approach to wall modeling for RANS within the discontinuous Galerkin method. Wall functions are not used to prescribe boundary conditions as usual but they are built into the function space of the numerical method as a local enrichment, in addition to the standard polynomial component. The Galerkin method then automatically finds the optimal solution among all shape functions available. This idea is fully consistent and gives the wall model vast flexibility in separated boundary layers or high adverse pressure gradients. The wall model is implemented in a high-order discontinuous Galerkin solver for incompressible flow complemented by the Spalart-Allmaras closure model. As benchmark examples we present turbulent channel flow starting from $Re_{\\tau}=180$ and up to $Re_{\\tau}=100{,}000$ as well as flow past periodic hills at Reynolds numbers based on the hill height of $Re_H=10{,}595$ and $Re_{H}=19{,}000$.

  12. Human Milk Plasmalogens Are Highly Enriched in Long-Chain PUFAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukarzel, Sara; Dyer, Roger A; Keller, Bernd O; Elango, Rajavel; Innis, Sheila M

    2016-11-01

    Human milk contains unique glycerophospholipids, including ethanolamine-containing plasmalogens (Pls-PEs) in the milk fat globule membrane, which have been implicated in infant brain development. Brain Pls-PEs accumulate postnatally and are enriched in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Fatty acid (FA) composition of Pls-PEs in milk is poorly understood because of the analytical challenges in separating Pls-PEs from other phospholipids in the predominating presence of triacylglycerols. The variability of Pls-PE FAs and the potential role of maternal diet remain unknown. Our primary objectives were to establish improved methodology for extracting Pls-PEs from human milk, enabling FA analysis, and to compare FA composition between Pls-PEs and 2 major milk phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Our secondary objective was to explore associations between maternal DHA intake and DHA in milk phospholipids and variability in phospholipid-DHA within a woman. Mature milk was collected from 25 women, with 4 providing 3 milk samples on 3 separate days. Lipids were extracted, and phospholipids were removed by solid phase extraction. Pls-PEs were separated by using normal-phase HPLC, recovered and analyzed for FAs by GLC. Diet was assessed by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Pls-PE concentration in human milk was significantly higher in LC-PUFAs than phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, including arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA. The mean ± SD concentration of AAs in Pls-PEs was ∼2.5-fold higher than in phosphatidylethanolamine (10.5 ± 1.71 and 3.82 ± 0.92 g/100 g, respectively). DHA in Pls-PEs varied across women (0.95-6.51 g/100 g), likely independent of maternal DHA intake. Pls-PE DHA also varied within a woman across days (CV ranged from 9.8% to 28%). Human milk provides the infant with LC-PUFAs from multiple lipid pools, including a source from Pls-PEs. The

  13. [Determination of trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water by online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Enzhi; Yang, Xinlei; Ye, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Cai, Xiaojun

    2011-11-01

    An online column enrichment-ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water. The sample was injected into a UHPLC system directly after filtration with 0.22 microm membrane, and then enriched by online solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The analyte was back-flushed into the analytical column Acclaim RSLC C18 (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 2.2 microm) by valve switching method. The mobile phases were 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.0, adjusted by acetic acid) and acetonitrile in a gradient elution mode with a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and detected by a diode array detector with the detection wavelength of 280 nm. The good linear ranges of carbaryl and carbofuran were 1.0 - 100 microg/L with the correlation coefficients (r2) larger than 0.9999, and the limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.5 microg/L and 0.25 microg/L, respectively. The average spiked recoveries were in the range of 76.0% - 120.0%. The method has been applied to determine trace carbaryl and carbofuran in water samples with satisfactory results.

  14. XPS study and physico-chemical properties of nitrogen-enriched microporous activated carbon from high volatile bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Pietrzak [Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan (Poland). Laboratory of Coal Chemistry and Technology

    2009-10-15

    N-enriched microporous active carbons of different physico-chemical parameters have been obtained from high volatile bituminous coal subjected to the processes of ammoxidation, carbonisation and activation in different sequences. Ammoxidation was performed by a mixture of ammonia and air at the ratio 1:3 (flow ratio 250 ml/min:750 ml/min) at 350{sup o}C, at each stage of production i.e. that of precursor, carbonisate and active carbon. Ammoxidation performed at the stage of demineralised coal or carbonisate has been shown to lead to a significant nitrogen enrichment and to have beneficial effect on the porous structure of the carbon during activation, allowing obtaining samples of the surface area of 2600-2800 m{sup 2}/g and pore volume 1.29-1.60 cm{sup 3}/g to be obtained with the yield of about 50%. The amount of nitrogen introduced into the carbon structure was found to depend on the sequence of the processes applied. The greatest amount of nitrogen was introduced for the processes in the sequence carbonisation {yields} activation {yields} ammoxidation. The introduction of nitrogen at the stage of active carbon leads to a reduction in the surface area and lowering of its sorption capacity. From the XPS study, ammoxidation introduces nitrogen mainly in the form of imines, amines, amides, N-5 and N-6, irrespective of the processing stage at which it is applied. 40 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Mixing It Up with Dickinson: Two High School Poetry Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhawk, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Uses Emily Dickinson as the focus of three poetry workshops at Western Michigan University with high school students attending the Michigan Youth Arts Festival as winners in a state-wide poetry competition. Describes two poetry workshops: "Dear World" - Dickinson in Detroit, and "Walking toward you without knowing" - Michigan…

  16. Mixing It Up with Dickinson: Two High School Poetry Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhawk, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Uses Emily Dickinson as the focus of three poetry workshops at Western Michigan University with high school students attending the Michigan Youth Arts Festival as winners in a state-wide poetry competition. Describes two poetry workshops: "Dear World" - Dickinson in Detroit, and "Walking toward you without knowing" - Michigan…

  17. Short-interval intracortical inhibition is modulated by high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Sakuma, Kenji; Nomura, Takashi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    Cortical excitability can be modulated by manipulation of afferent input. We investigated the influence of peripheral mixed nerve stimulation on the excitability of the motor cortex. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB), extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles were evaluated using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation (150 Hz, 30 min) over the right median nerve at the wrist. The MEP amplitude and SICI of the APB muscle decreased transiently 0-10 min after the intervention, whereas the ICF did not change. High-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation reduced the excitability of the motor cortex. The decrement in the SICI, which reflects the function of GABA(A)ergic inhibitory interneurons, might compensate for the reduced motor cortical excitability after high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation.

  18. Highly stable, mesoporous mixed lanthanum-cerium oxides with tailored structure and reducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shuang; Broitman, Esteban; Wang, Yanan; Cao, Anmin; Veser, Goetz

    2011-05-01

    Pure and mixed lanthanum and cerium oxides were synthesized via a reverse microemulsion-templated route. This approach yields highly homogeneous and phase-stable mixed oxides with high surface areas across the entire range of La:Ce ratios from pure lanthana to pure ceria. Surprisingly, all mixed oxides show the fluorite crystal structure of ceria, even for lanthanum contents as high as 90%. Varying the La:Ce ratio not only allows tailoring of the oxide morphology (lattice parameter, pore structure, particle size, and surface area), but also results in a fine-tuning of the reducibility of the oxide which can be explained by the creation of oxygen vacancies in the ceria lattice upon La addition. Such finely controlled syntheses, which enable the formation of stable, homogeneous mixed oxides across the entire composition range, open the path towards functional tailoring of oxide materials, such as rational catalyst design via fine-tuning of redox activity.

  19. Evaluation of Air Mixing and Thermal Comfort From High Sidewall Supply Air Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridouane, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Uniform mixing of conditioned air with room air is an essential factor for providing comfort in homes. The higher the supply flow rates the easier to reach good mixing in the space. In high performance homes, however, the flow rates required to meet the small remaining thermal loads are not large enough to maintain uniform mixing in the space. The objective of this study is to resolve this issue and maintain uniform temperatures within future homes. We used computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the performance of high sidewall air supply for residential applications in heating and cooling modes. Parameters of the study are the supply velocity, supply temperature, diffuser dimensions, and room dimensions. Laboratory experiments supported the study of thermal mixing in heating mode; we used the results to develop a correlation to predict high sidewall diffuser performance. For cooling mode, numerical analysis is presented. The results provide information to guide the selection of high sidewall supply diffusers to maintain proper room mixing for heating and cooling of high performance homes. It is proven that these systems can achieve good mixing and provide acceptable comfort levels. Recommendations are given on the operating conditions to guarantee occupant comfort.

  20. Numerical Analysis Of Mixing Under Low And High Frequency Pulsations At Serpentine Micromixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malecha Ziemowit M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The numerical investigation of the mixing process in complex geometry micromixers, as a function of various inlet conditions and various micromixer vibrations, was performed. The examined devices were two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D types of serpentine micromixers with two inlets. Entering fluids were perturbed with a wide range of the frequency (0 - 50 Hz of pulsations. Additionally, mixing fluids also entered in the same or opposite phase of pulsations. The performed numerical calculations were 3D to capture the proximity of all the walls, which has a substantial influence on microchannel flow. The geometry of the 3D type serpentine micromixer corresponded to the physically existing device, characterised by excellent mixing properties but also a challenging production process (Malecha et al., 2009. It was shown that low-frequency perturbations could improve the average mixing efficiency of the 2D micromixer by only about 2% and additionally led to a disadvantageously non-uniform mixture quality in time. It was also shown that high-frequency mixing could level these fluctuations and more significantly improve the mixing quality. In the second part of the paper a faster and simplified method of evaluation of mixing quality was introduced. This method was based on calculating the length of the contact interface between mixing fluids. It was used to evaluate the 2D type serpentine micromixer performance under various types of vibrations and under a wide range of vibration frequencies.

  1. Biosynthesis of highly enriched 13C-lycopene for human metabolic studies using repeated batch tomato cell culturing with 13C-glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Nancy E.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lu, Chi-Hua; Conlon, Lauren E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Clinton, Steven K.; Erdman, John W

    2013-01-01

    While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched 13C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies. To enhance the 13C-enrichment and yields of labeled lycopene from the hp-1 tomato cell line, cultures were first grown in 13C-glucose media fo...

  2. Beam dynamics of mixed high intensity highly charged ion Beams in the Q/A selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yin, X. J.; Qian, C.; Sun, L. T.; Du, H.; Li, Z. S.; Qiao, J.; Wang, K. D.; Zhao, H. W.; Xia, J. W.

    2017-06-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are widely used in heavy ion accelerators for their advantages in producing high quality intense beams of highly charged ions. However, it exists challenges in the design of the Q/A selection systems for mixed high intensity ion beams to reach sufficient Q/A resolution while controlling the beam emittance growth. Moreover, as the emittance of beam from ECR ion sources is coupled, the matching of phase space to post accelerator, for a wide range of ion beam species with different intensities, should be carefully studied. In this paper, the simulation and experimental results of the Q/A selection system at the LECR4 platform are shown. The formation of hollow cross section heavy ion beam at the end of the Q/A selector is revealed. A reasonable interpretation has been proposed, a modified design of the Q/A selection system has been committed for HIRFL-SSC linac injector. The features of the new design including beam simulations and experiment results are also presented.

  3. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  4. Comparison of two different high performance mixed signal controllers for DC/DC converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how mixed signal controllers combining a cheap microcontroller with a simple analogue circuit can offer high performance digital control for DC/DC converters. Mixed signal controllers have the same versatility and performance as DSP based controllers. It is important to have...... an engineer experienced in microcontroller programming write the software algorithms to achieve optimal performance. Two mixed signal controller designs based on the same 8-bit microcontroller are compared both theoretically and experimentally. A 16-bit PID compensator with a sampling frequency of 200 k......Hz implemented in the 16 MIPS, 8-bit ATTiny26 microcontroller is demonstrated....

  5. Field Measurement of Am241 and Total Uranium at a Mixed Oxide Fuel Facility with Variable Uranium Enrichments Ranging from 0.3% to 97% U235

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, K. C.

    2002-02-28

    The uranium and transuranic content of site soils and building rubble can be accurately measured using a NaI(Tl) well counter, without significant soil preparation. Accurate measurements of total uranium in uranium-transuranic mixtures can be made, despite a wide range (0.3% to 97%) of uranium enrichment, sample mass, and activity concentrations. The appropriate uranium scaling factors needed to include the undetected uranium isotopes, particularly U 234 can be readily determined on a sample by sample basis as a part of the field analysis, by comparing the relative response of the U 235 186 keV peak versus the K shell X rays of U 238 , U 235, and their immediate ingrowth daughters. The ratio of the two results is a sensitive and accurate predictor of the uranium enrichment and scaling factors. The case study will illustrate how NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometry was used to provide rapid turnaround uranium and transuranic activity levels for soil and building rubble with sample by sample determination of the appropriate scaling factor to include the U234 and Uranium238 content.

  6. A Eu/Tb-mixed MOF for luminescent high-temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huizhen; Zhao, Dian; Cui, Yuangjing; Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong

    2017-02-01

    Temperature measurements and thermal mapping using luminescent MOF operating in the high-temperature range are of great interest in the micro-electronic diagnosis. In this paper, we report a thermostable Eu/Tb-mixed MOF Eu0.37Tb0.63-BTC-a exhibiting strong luminescence at elevated temperature, which can serve as a ratiometric luminescent thermometer for high-temperature range. The high-temperature operating range (313-473 K), high relative sensitivity and accurate temperature resolution, make such a Eu/Tb-mixed MOF useful for micro-electronic diagnosis.

  7. Characterization of single coal particle combustion within oxygen-enriched environments using high-speed OH-PLIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köser, J.; Becker, L. G.; Vorobiev, N.; Schiemann, M.; Scherer, V.; Böhm, B.; Dreizler, A.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents first-of-its-kind high-speed planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of the hydroxyl radical in the boundary layer of single coal particles. Experiments were performed in a laminar flow reactor providing an oxygen-enriched exhaust gas environment at elevated temperatures. Single coal particles in a sieve fraction of 90-125 µm and a significant amount of volatiles (36 wt%) were injected along the burner's centerline. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy measurements were taken to characterize the gas-phase temperature. Time-resolved imaging of the OH distribution at 10 kHz allowed identifying reaction and post-flame zones and gave access to the temporal evolution of burning coal particles. During volatile combustion, a symmetric diffusion flame was observed around the particle starting from a distance of ~150 µm from the particle surface. For subsequent char combustion, this distance decreased and the highest OH signals appeared close to the particle surface.

  8. Parametric Evaluation of Active Neutron Interrogation for the Detection of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium in the Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Chcihester; E. H. Seabury; S. J. Thompson; R. R. C. Clement

    2011-10-01

    Parametric studies using numerical simulations are being performed to assess the performance capabilities and limits of active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded highly enriched uranium (HEU). Varying the shield material, HEU mass, HEU depth inside the shield, and interrogating neutron source energy, the simulations account for both neutron and photon emission signatures from the HEU with resolution in both energy and time. The results are processed to represent different irradiation timing schemes and several different classes of radiation detectors, and evaluated using a statistical approach considering signal intensity over background. This paper describes the details of the modeling campaign and some preliminary results, weighing the strengths of alternative measurement approaches for the different irradiation scenarios.

  9. Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets derived from egg white by using expanded perlite template and its high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiucun; Liu, Yinqin; Li, Wenjun; Xu, Liqun; Yang, Huan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-08-01

    Nitrogen-enriched carbon sheets were synthesized using egg white as a unique carbon source and expanded perlite as a novel template. The as-prepared material was further used as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications, demonstrating excellent supercapacitance with a maximum gravimetric specific capacitance of 302 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 in a 3-electrode setup for a sample carbonized at 850 °C and activated for 6 h. Moreover, the carbon sheet-based capacitor with 2-symmetric electrodes showed an excellent cycle life (2% loss at 0.1 A g-1 after 10 000 cycles). The excellent performance may be attributed to the combination of the 3D carbon structure and the highly concentrated doped nitrogen component from the natural egg source for superior pseudocapacitance.

  10. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are

  11. Effects of high fat-, cholesterol-enriched diet on the antioxidant defence mechanisms in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenna, D; Del Boccio, G; Porreca, E; Pennelli, A; Mezzetti, A; De Gioia, S; Marzio, L; Di Ilio, C; Cuccurullo, F

    1992-01-01

    In 7 rabbits fed on hyperlipidic diet (0.5% cholesterol, 5% peanut oil and 5% lard) for 4 weeks, the ventricular myocardium was tested for antioxidant defences and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Seven age-matched rabbits served as controls. The hearts were previously subjected to 45 min Langendorff perfusion to study coronary flow, developed tension and resting tension; coronary effluent values of CPK activity, pH and UV absorbance at 250 nm (i.e., low molecular weight ATP catabolites) were also investigated. After 4 weeks of diet, a significant rise of plasma cholesterol (P effluent of hyperlipidemic rabbits. In conclusion, high fat-, cholesterol-enriched diet induces an imbalance in the rabbit heart antioxidant defences, some of which are increased, whereas others are depressed, eventually resulting in enhanced myocardial lipid peroxidation. These biochemical changes are associated with higher perfusate values of UV absorbance at 250 nm, but not with significant CPK leakage or myocardial hemodynamics derangement.

  12. Effective DNA fragmentation technique for simple sequence repeat detection with a microsatellite-enriched library and high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keisuke; Ohtake, Rumi; Yoshida, Saki; Shinohara, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Two different techniques for genomic DNA fragmentation before microsatellite-enriched library construction-restriction enzyme (NlaIII and MseI) digestion and sonication-were compared to examine their effects on simple sequence repeat (SSR) detection using high-throughput sequencing. Tens of thousands of SSR regions from 5 species of the plant family Myrtaceae were detected when the output of individual samples was >1 million paired-end reads. Comparison of the two DNA fragmentation techniques showed that restriction enzyme digestion was superior to sonication for identification of heterozygous genotypes, whereas sonication was superior for detection of various SSR flanking regions with both species-specific and common characteristics. Therefore, choosing the most suitable DNA fragmentation method depends on the type of analysis that is planned.

  13. Multi-component solid solution alloys having high mixing entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Hongbin

    2015-10-06

    A multi-component high-entropy alloy includes a composition selected from the following group: VNbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaTiWRe, VNbTaMoWRe, VNbTiMoWRe, VTaTiMoWRe, NbTaTiMoWRe, VNbTaTiMo, VNbTaTiW, VNbTaMoW, VNbTiMoW, VTaTiMoW, NbTaTiMoW, VNbTaTiRe, VNbTaMoRe, VNbTiMoRe, VTaTiMoRe, NbTaTiMoRe, VNbTaWRe, VNbTiWRe, VTaTiWRe, NbTaTiWRe, VNbMoWRe, VTaMoWRe, NbTaMoWRe, VTiMoWRe, NbTiMoWRe, TaTiMoWRe, wherein relative amounts of each element vary by no more than .+-.15 atomic %.

  14. Globular Cluster Formation at High Density: A Model for Elemental Enrichment with Fast Recycling of Massive-star Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2017-02-01

    The self-enrichment of massive star clusters by p-processed elements is shown to increase significantly with increasing gas density as a result of enhanced star formation rates and stellar scatterings compared to the lifetime of a massive star. Considering the type of cloud core where a globular cluster (GC) might have formed, we follow the evolution and enrichment of the gas and the time dependence of stellar mass. A key assumption is that interactions between massive stars are important at high density, including interactions between massive stars and massive-star binaries that can shred stellar envelopes. Massive-star interactions should also scatter low-mass stars out of the cluster. Reasonable agreement with the observations is obtained for a cloud-core mass of ∼4 × 106 M ⊙ and a density of ∼2 × 106 cm‑3. The results depend primarily on a few dimensionless parameters, including, most importantly, the ratio of the gas consumption time to the lifetime of a massive star, which has to be low, ∼10%, and the efficiency of scattering low-mass stars per unit dynamical time, which has to be relatively large, such as a few percent. Also for these conditions, the velocity dispersions of embedded GCs should be comparable to the high gas dispersions of galaxies at that time, so that stellar ejection by multistar interactions could cause low-mass stars to leave a dwarf galaxy host altogether. This could solve the problem of missing first-generation stars in the halos of Fornax and WLM.

  15. Clinical validation of an ultra high-throughput spiral microfluidics for the detection and enrichment of viable circulating tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Luan Khoo

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are cancer cells that can be isolated via liquid biopsy from blood and can be phenotypically and genetically characterized to provide critical information for guiding cancer treatment. Current analysis of CTCs is hindered by the throughput, selectivity and specificity of devices or assays used in CTC detection and isolation.Here, we enriched and characterized putative CTCs from blood samples of patients with both advanced stage metastatic breast and lung cancers using a novel multiplexed spiral microfluidic chip. This system detected putative CTCs under high sensitivity (100%, n = 56 (Breast cancer samples: 12-1275 CTCs/ml; Lung cancer samples: 10-1535 CTCs/ml rapidly from clinically relevant blood volumes (7.5 ml under 5 min. Blood samples were completely separated into plasma, CTCs and PBMCs components and each fraction were characterized with immunophenotyping (Pan-cytokeratin/CD45, CD44/CD24, EpCAM, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH (EML4-ALK or targeted somatic mutation analysis. We used an ultra-sensitive mass spectrometry based system to highlight the presence of an EGFR-activating mutation in both isolated CTCs and plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA, and demonstrate concordance with the original tumor-biopsy samples.We have clinically validated our multiplexed microfluidic chip for the ultra high-throughput, low-cost and label-free enrichment of CTCs. Retrieved cells were unlabeled and viable, enabling potential propagation and real-time downstream analysis using next generation sequencing (NGS or proteomic analysis.

  16. Geometry of high-lying eigenfunctions in a plane billiard system having mixed type classical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, B; Li, Baowen; Robnik, Marko

    1995-01-01

    In this work we study the geometrical properties of the high-lying eigenfunctions (200,000 and above) which are deep in the semiclassical regime. The system we are analyzing is the billiard system inside the region defined by the quadratic (complex) conformal map w = z + \\lambda z^{2} of the unit disk |z| \\le 1 as introduced by Robnik (1983), with the shape parameter value \\lambda = 0.15, so that the billiard is still convex and has KAM-type classical dynamics, where regular and irregular regions of classical motion coexist in the classical phase space. By inspecting 100 and by showing 36 consecutive numerically calculated eigenfunctions we reach the following conclusions: (1) Percival's (1973) conjectured classification in regular and irregular states works well: the mixed type states "living" on regular {\\em and} irregular regions disappear in the semiclassical limit. (2) The irregular (chaotic) states can be strongly localized due to the slow classical diffusion, but become fully extended in the semiclassi...

  17. Impact of grain size distributions on the dust enrichment in high-redshift quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Tzu-Ming; Hirashita, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    In high-redshift ($z>5$) quasars, a large amount of dust ($\\textstyle\\sim 10^{8} \\mathrm{M}_{\\sun}$) has been observed. In order to explain the large dust content, we focus on a possibility that grain growth by the accretion of heavy elements is the dominant dust source. We adopt a chemical evolution model applicable to nearby galaxies but utilize parameters adequate to high-$z$ quasars. It is assumed that metals and dust are predominantly ejected by Type II supernovae (SNe). We have found th...

  18. A high-resolution study of surfactant partitioning and kinetic limitations for two-component internally mixed aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, S. R.; Petters, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), altering cloud properties and ultimately affecting climate through their effect on the radiative balance. Aerosol CCN activity depends in part on aerosol composition and surfactant compounds are of particular interest because surfactants are enriched at the water/air interface, resulting in a radial concentration gradient within the aqueous droplet. Accurate treatment of the surfactant concentration gradient complicates the otherwise straightforward predictions of CCN activity for aerosols of known composition. To accurately evaluate predictions made by theory, laboratory studies investigating the relationship between critical supersaturation and dry diameter of particles that include surfactants require significant reduction in measurement uncertainty for both water-uptake and CCN measurements. Furthermore, uncertainties remain regarding kinetic limitations to surfactant partitioning that could result in deviation from predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. This study attempts to address some of these issues through high-resolution analysis of CCN activity of two-component mixed surfactant/non-surfactant aerosols at different internal mixing ratios performed with and without a water-uptake time delay to ascertain whether or not the observed effects are kinetically limited. We present new data for the aerosols consisting of 1) the ionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with ammonium sulfate, 2) SDS with sodium chloride and 3) the strong non-ionic fluorosurfactant Zonyl with an organic proxy glucose. As a point of reference we also evaluated the mixture of ammonium sulfate with glucose. Aerosol activation diameters were determined using CCN analysis in conjunction with scanning mobility size classification and high sheath-to-aerosol flow ratios. This resulted in CCN-derived kappa values that could be determined within +/-5% relative error. To test whether dynamic surfactant partitioning

  19. Efficient ozone generator for ozone layer enrichment from high altitude balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiouguine, Igor V.; Kostiouchenko, Sergey V.; Koudriavtsev, Nikolay N.; Starikovskaya, Svetlana M.

    1994-01-01

    The possibilities of ozone production at low gas pressures by nanosecond high voltage discharge has been investigated. The measurements of ozone synthesis in N2-O2 mixtures have been performed. The explanation of experimental results is suggested. The possible ways of ozone yield growth are analyzed.

  20. Highly scalable ZIF-based mixed-matrix hollow fiber membranes for advanced hydrocarbon separations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chen

    2014-05-29

    ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM, a proven mixed-matrix material that demonstrated remarkably enhanced C3H6/C3H8 selectivity in dense film geometry, was extended to scalable hollow fiber geometry in the current work. We successfully formed dual-layer ZIF-8/6FDA-DAM mixed-matrix hollow fiber membranes with ZIF-8 nanoparticle loading up to 30 wt % using the conventional dry-jet/wet-quench fiber spinning technique. The mixed-matrix hollow fibers showed significantly enhanced C3H6/C3H8 selectivity that was consistent with mixed-matrix dense films. Critical variables controlling successful formation of mixed-matrix hollow fiber membranes with desirable morphology and attractive transport properties were discussed. Furthermore, the effects of coating materials on selectivity recovery of partially defective fibers were investigated. To our best knowledge, this is the first article reporting successful formation of high-loading mixed-matrix hollow fiber membranes with significantly enhanced selectivity for separation of condensable olefin/paraffin mixtures. Therefore, it represents a major step in the research area of advanced mixed-matrix membranes. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  1. Mapping Metal-Enriched High Velocity Clouds to Very Low HI Column Densities

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Masiero, J R; Churchill, Chris; Charlton, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Our galaxy is the nearest known quasar absorption line system, and it uniquely provides us with an opportunity to probe multiple lines of sight through the same galaxy. This is essential for our interpretations of the complex kinematic profiles seen in the MgII absorption due to lines of sight through intermediate redshift galaxies. The Milky Way halo has never been probed for high velocity clouds below the 21-cm detection threshold of N(HI)~10^18 cm-2. Through a survey of MgII absorption looking toward the brightest AGNs and quasars, it will be possible to reach down a few orders of magnitude in HI column density. The analogs to the high velocity components of the MgII absorption profiles due to intermediate redshift galaxies should be seen. We describe a program we are undertaking, and present some preliminary findings.

  2. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  3. Fundamental Study on Coke Degradation in BF with Oxygen Enriched Blast and High Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; LI Jia-xin; ZHOU Li-ying

    2005-01-01

    The effects of gas composition, temperature, ore to coke ratio and prereduction rate of ore on coke degradation were studied. The results showed that 1% increment in solution loss of coke reduces coke strength by 0.6%, and the coke degradation is accelerated with the temperature. The higher the temperature, the more coke surface is involved in reactions, and the less negative effect on coke strength is. Hydrogen exerts stronger effect on coke degradation than CO at high temperature. The coke degradation is decreased with the reduction of ore to coke ratio and increase of ore prereduction rate.

  4. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2 enriched coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pH values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pH=7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pH values projected for the end of this century. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  5. Performance evaluation and bacteria analysis of AFB-MFC enriched with high-strength synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian-sheng; Guo, Yong; Yang, Ping; Li, Chong-ming; Gao, Hui; Feng, Li; Zhang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the performance and bacterial communities of an anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell (AFB-MFC) system, the 16S rDNA gene sequencing was applied, and high-strength synthetic wastewater was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The high-strength synthetic wastewater, in which the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen were above 19,000, 2,516-3,871 and 927-1,427 mg/L, was treated by the AFB-MFC system. The removal efficiency of COD, nitrite nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen reached 70-89, 98 and 98%, while the maximum voltage was 394 mV. The bacteria analysis revealed the presence of Alistipes putredinis, Carnobacterium sp., Victivallis vadensis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Thauera sp., Parabacteroides merdae, Parvimonas micra, Parabacteroides sp., and Desulfomicrobium baculatum in the anode chamber. In addition, the Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed to have the capability of organic degradation and electricity generation, while the Thauera sp. has the capability of denitrification.

  6. Design Study for a Low-enriched Uranium Core for the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Annual Report for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primm, Trent [ORNL; Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Sease, John D [ORNL

    2007-11-01

    This report documents progress made during fiscal year 2007 in studies of converting the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low enriched uranium fuel (LEU). Conversion from HEU to LEU will require a change in fuel form from uranium oxide to a uranium-molybdenum alloy. A high volume fraction U/Mo-in-Al fuel could attain the same neutron flux performance as with the current, HEU fuel but materials considerations appear to preclude production and irradiation of such a fuel. A diffusion barrier would be required if Al is to be retained as the interstitial medium and the additional volume required for this barrier would degrade performance. Attaining the high volume fraction (55 wt. %) of U/Mo assumed in the computational study while maintaining the current fuel plate acceptance level at the fuel manufacturer is unlikely, i.e. no increase in the percentage of plates rejected for non-compliance with the fuel specification. Substitution of a zirconium alloy for Al would significantly increase the weight of the fuel element, the cost of the fuel element, and introduce an as-yet untried manufacturing process. A monolithic U-10Mo foil is the choice of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preliminary calculations indicate that with a modest increase in reactor power, the flux performance of the reactor can be maintained at the current level. A linearly-graded, radial fuel thickness profile is preferred to the arched profile currently used in HEU fuel because the LEU fuel media is a metal alloy foil rather than a powder. Developments in analysis capability and nuclear data processing techniques are underway with the goal of verifying the preliminary calculations of LEU flux performance. A conceptual study of the operational cost of an LEU fuel fabrication facility yielded the conclusion that the annual fuel cost to the HFIR would increase significantly from the current, HEU fuel cycle. Though manufacturing can be accomplished with existing technology

  7. Development of gel-filter method for high enrichment of low-molecular weight proteins from serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingsheng Chen

    Full Text Available The human serum proteome has been extensively screened for biomarkers. However, the large dynamic range of protein concentrations in serum and the presence of highly abundant and large molecular weight proteins, make identification and detection changes in the amount of low-molecular weight proteins (LMW, molecular weight ≤ 30kDa difficult. Here, we developed a gel-filter method including four layers of different concentration of tricine SDS-PAGE-based gels to block high-molecular weight proteins and enrich LMW proteins. By utilizing this method, we identified 1,576 proteins (n = 2 from 10 μL serum. Among them, 559 (n = 2 proteins belonged to LMW proteins. Furthermore, this gel-filter method could identify 67.4% and 39.8% more LMW proteins than that in representative methods of glycine SDS-PAGE and optimized-DS, respectively. By utilizing SILAC-AQUA approach with labeled recombinant protein as internal standard, the recovery rate for GST spiked in serum during the treatment of gel-filter, optimized-DS, and ProteoMiner was 33.1 ± 0.01%, 18.7 ± 0.01% and 9.6 ± 0.03%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the gel-filter method offers a rapid, highly reproducible and efficient approach for screening biomarkers from serum through proteomic analyses.

  8. Enrichment of Secondary Wastewater Sludge for Production of Hydrogen from Crude Glycerol and Comparative Evaluation of Mono-, Co- and Mixed-Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachapur, Vinayak Laxman; Kutty, Prianka; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Ramirez, Antonio Avalos

    2016-01-13

    Anaerobic digestion using mixed-culture with broader choice of pretreatments for hydrogen (H₂) production was investigated. Pretreatment of wastewater sludge by five methods, such as heat, acid, base, microwave and chloroform was conducted using crude glycerol (CG) as substrate. Results for heat treatment (100 °C for 15 min) showed the highest H₂ production across the pretreatment methods with 15.18 ± 0.26 mmol/L of medium at 30 °C in absence of complex media and nutrient solution. The heat-pretreated inoculum eliminated H₂ consuming bacteria and produced twice as much as H₂ as compared to other pretreatment methods. The fermentation conditions, such as CG concentration (1.23 to 24 g/L), percentage of inoculum size (InS) (1.23% to 24% v/v) along with initial pH (2.98 to 8.02) was tested using central composite design (CCD) with H₂ production as response parameter. The maximum H₂ production of 29.43 ± 0.71 mmol/L obtained at optimum conditions of 20 g/L CG, 20% InS and pH 7. Symbiotic correlation of pH over CG and InS had a significant (p-value: 0.0011) contribution to H₂ production. The mixed-culture possessed better natural acclimatization activity for degrading CG, at substrate inhibition concentration and provided efficient inoculum conditions in comparison to mono- and co-culture systems. The heat pretreatment step used across mixed-culture system is simple, cheap and industrially applicable in comparison to mono-/co-culture systems for H₂ production.

  9. Enrichment of Secondary Wastewater Sludge for Production of Hydrogen from Crude Glycerol and Comparative Evaluation of Mono-, Co- and Mixed-Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak Laxman Pachapur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion using mixed-culture with broader choice of pretreatments for hydrogen (H2 production was investigated. Pretreatment of wastewater sludge by five methods, such as heat, acid, base, microwave and chloroform was conducted using crude glycerol (CG as substrate. Results for heat treatment (100 °C for 15 min showed the highest H2 production across the pretreatment methods with 15.18 ± 0.26 mmol/L of medium at 30 °C in absence of complex media and nutrient solution. The heat-pretreated inoculum eliminated H2 consuming bacteria and produced twice as much as H2 as compared to other pretreatment methods. The fermentation conditions, such as CG concentration (1.23 to 24 g/L, percentage of inoculum size (InS (1.23% to 24% v/v along with initial pH (2.98 to 8.02 was tested using central composite design (CCD with H2 production as response parameter. The maximum H2 production of 29.43 ± 0.71 mmol/L obtained at optimum conditions of 20 g/L CG, 20% InS and pH 7. Symbiotic correlation of pH over CG and InS had a significant (p-value: 0.0011 contribution to H2 production. The mixed-culture possessed better natural acclimatization activity for degrading CG, at substrate inhibition concentration and provided efficient inoculum conditions in comparison to mono- and co-culture systems. The heat pretreatment step used across mixed-culture system is simple, cheap and industrially applicable in comparison to mono-/co-culture systems for H2 production.

  10. High-Ability Students' Perspectives on an Affective Curriculum in a Diverse, University-Based Summer Residential Enrichment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Enyi; Gentry, Marcia; Moon, Sidney M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how high-ability students experienced their participation in an affective curriculum through small-group discussions in a diverse, university-based, summer enrichment program for talented youth. The investigation included two closely related studies. The first study included 77 high-ability students…

  11. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  12. Active detection of small quantities of shielded highly-enriched uranium using low-dose 60-kev neutron interrogation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Phil; Rowland, Mark; Dietrich, Dan; Stoeffl, Wolfgang; Wheeler, Boyd; Nakae, Les; Howard, Doug; Hagmann, Chris; Newby, Jason; Porter, Robert

    2007-08-01

    Active interrogation with low-energy neutrons provides a search technique for highly-enriched uranium concealed in cargo. We describe the technique and show initial results using a low-dose 60-keV neutron beam. This technique produces a clear induced fission signal in the presence of small quantities of 235U. The technique has been validated with low-Z and high-Z cargo materials. The technique uses a forward-directed beam of 60-keV neutrons to induce fission in 235U. Detection of the fast fission neutrons with pulse-shape discriminating scintillators is then the signature for 235U. The beam of neutrons is generated with a 1.93 MeV proton beam impinging on a natural lithium target. The proton beam is produced by a radio-frequency quadrupole LINAC. The 60 keV neutron beam is forward-directed because the 7Li(p, n) reaction is just above threshold for a proton energy of 1.93 MeV.

  13. High information throughput analysis of nucleotides and their isotopically enriched isotopologues by direct-infusion FTICR-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkiewicz, Pawel; Higashi, Richard M; Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is capable of acquiring unmatched quality of isotopologue data for stable isotope resolved metabolomics (SIRM). This capability drives the need for a continuous ion introduction for obtaining optimal isotope ratios. Here we report the simultaneous analysis of mono and dinucleotides from crude polar extracts by FTICR-MS by adapting an ion-pairing sample preparation method for LC-MS analysis. This involves a rapid cleanup of extracted nucleotides on pipet tips containing a C(18) stationary phase, which enabled global analysis of nucleotides and their (13)C isotopologues at nanomolar concentrations by direct infusion nanoelectrospray FTICR-MS with 5 minutes of data acquisition. The resolution and mass accuracy enabled computer-assisted unambiguous assignment of most nucleotide species, including all phosphorylated forms of the adenine, guanine, uracil and cytosine nucleotides, NAD(+), NADH, NADP(+), NADPH, cyclic nucleotides, several UDP-hexoses, and all their (13)C isotopologues. The method was applied to a SIRM study on human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells grown in [U-(13)C] glucose with or without the anti-cancer agent methylseleninic acid. At m/z resolving power of 400,000, (13)C-isotopologues of nucleotides were fully resolved from all other elemental isotopologues, thus allowing their (13)C fractional enrichment to be accurately determined. The method achieves both high sample and high information throughput analysis of nucleotides for metabolic pathway reconstruction in SIRM investigations.

  14. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Hass, Michael Z.; Møller, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis...... salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality...

  15. Preventive effect of Monascus-fermented products enriched with ubiquinones on type 2 diabetic rats induced by a high-fructose plus high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyo, Young-Hee; Lee, Kyung-Won

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of Monascus-fermented grains (MFGEs) enriched with ubiquinones (Coenzyme Qs, CoQ9+CoQ10) alleviates high-fructose (60%) plus high-fat (20%) diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycemia and hepatic oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were fed HFD for 16 weeks and orally administered with MFGEs (300 mg/kg/day) or atorvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) for the last 4 weeks of the study. HFD-fed rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and impaired insulin sensitivity. MFGE treatment prevented the increase in glucose levels and index of insulin resistance in the HFD-induced diabetic rats. A significant decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation and significant increases in hepatic superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were observed in the MFGE supplemented group. The results suggest that dietary supplementation with MFGEs enriched with CoQs exerts an antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats by improving insulin resistance and hepatic antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  17. The CD44(high tumorigenic subsets in lung cancer biospecimens are enriched for low miR-34a expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K Basak

    Full Text Available Cellular heterogeneity is an integral part of cancer development and progression. Progression can be associated with emergence of cells that exhibit high phenotypic plasticity (including "de-differentiation" to primitive developmental states, and aggressive behavioral properties (including high tumorigenic potentials. We observed that many biomarkers that are used to identify Cancer Stem Cells (CSC can label cell subsets in an advanced clinical stage of lung cancer (malignant pleural effusions, or MPE. Thus, CSC-biomarkers may be useful for live sorting functionally distinct cell subsets from individual tumors, which may enable investigators to hone in on the molecular basis for functional heterogeneity. We demonstrate that the CD44(hi (CD44-high cancer cell subsets display higher clonal, colony forming potential than CD44(lo cells (n=3 and are also tumorigenic (n=2/2 when transplanted in mouse xenograft model. The CD44(hi subsets express different levels of embryonal (de-differentiation markers or chromatin regulators. In archived lung cancer tissues, ALDH markers co-localize more with CD44 in squamous cell carcinoma (n=5/7 than Adeno Carcinoma (n=1/12. MPE cancer cells and a lung cancer cell line (NCI-H-2122 exhibit chromosomal abnormalities and 1p36 deletion (n=3/3. Since miR-34a maps to the 1p36 deletion site, low miR-34a expression levels were detected in these cells. The colony forming efficiency of CD44(hi cells, characteristic property of CSC, can be inhibited by mir-34a replacement in these samples. In addition the highly tumorigenic CD44(hi cells are enriched for cells in the G2 phase of cell cycle.

  18. High efficiency enrichment of low-abundance peptides by novel dual-platform graphene@SiO2@PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Zhao, Man; Deng, Chunhui

    2012-11-21

    For the first time, dual-platform graphene@SiO(2)@poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) material was synthesized, and successfully applied to efficiently enrich low-abundance peptides for mass spectrometry analysis.

  19. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and...material shortage reduction and lead time reduction of system sub-assemblies. Man- ufacturing quality was found to be impacted by material shortages

  20. Peltier effect in the mixed state of high-Tc superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logvenov, G.Yu.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Ustinov, A.V.; Huebener, R.P. (Physikalisches Inst., Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik 2, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-04-01

    The Peltier and Seebeck effects in the mixed state of high-Tc superconductors are proportional to the resistivity due to flux motion. Therefore, both effects also show the broadening of the transition regime characteristic for these superconductors. The origin of the Peltier effect is discussed in detail, and the validity of the Thomson relation is confirmed, as expected. (orig.).

  1. The potential of high resolution melting analysis (hrma) to streamline, facilitate and enrich routine diagnostics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskova, Lenka; Raclavsky, Vladislav

    2011-09-01

    Routine medical microbiology diagnostics relies on conventional cultivation followed by phenotypic techniques for identification of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. This is not only due to tradition and economy but also because it provides pure culture needed for antibiotic susceptibility testing. This review focuses on the potential of High Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA) of double-stranded DNA for future routine medical microbiology. Search of MEDLINE database for publications showing the advantages of HRMA in routine medical microbiology for identification, strain typing and further characterization of pathogenic bacteria and fungi in particular. The results show increasing numbers of newly-developed and more tailor-made assays in this field. For microbiologists unfamiliar with technical aspects of HRMA, we also provide insight into the technique from the perspective of microbial characterization. We can anticipate that the routine availability of HRMA in medical microbiology laboratories will provide a strong stimulus to this field. This is already envisioned by the growing number of medical microbiology applications published recently. The speed, power, convenience and cost effectiveness of this technology virtually predestine that it will advance genetic characterization of microbes and streamline, facilitate and enrich diagnostics in routine medical microbiology without interfering with the proven advantages of conventional cultivation.

  2. Photoinduced ESR signals from the primary electron donors in deuterated highly /sup 13/C enriched photosynthetic bacteria and algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Norris, J.R.; Crespi, H.L.; Harper, J.

    1981-12-16

    In purple photosynthetic bacteria such as Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides the oxidized primary donar P865/sup +/ exhibits a single Gaussian ESR signal posessing a line width that is narrowed by 1/%2 relative to that of monomeric BChl a/sup +/ in vitro. Data show that P700/sup +/ from the green plant photosystem I donor is a single oxidized Chl a type macrocycle. New data confirm that P865/sup +/ is a dimer of a BChl a type macrocycle. A method that accounts for the entire spin is needed in order to count the number of spins per macrocycle. The solution to this problem is to make each carbon atom of the ..pi.. system over which the electron is distributed magnetic resonance active. This requires that each position in the ..pi.. framework be highly enriched in /sup 13/C. Under these conditions the total ESR line width is the sum of the hyperfine lines due to each carbon atom of the ..pi.. system. Data indicate that the spin in P700/sup +/ is located on only one Chl a type macrocycle whereas that of P865/sup +/ is shared between two BChl a type macrocycles. (MWF)

  3. Ribosomal protein genes are highly enriched among genes with allele-specific expression in the interspecific F1 hybrid catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Wang, Ruijia; Liu, Shikai; Peatman, Eric; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Jiang, Chen; Li, Chao; Li, Yun; Zeng, Qifan; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2016-06-01

    Interspecific hybrids provide a rich source for the analysis of allele-specific expression (ASE). In this work, we analyzed ASE in F1 hybrid catfish using RNA-Seq datasets. While the vast majority of genes were expressed with both alleles, 7-8 % SNPs exhibited significant differences in allele ratios of expression. Of the 66,251 and 177,841 SNPs identified from the datasets of the liver and gill, 5420 (8.2 %) and 13,390 (7.5 %) SNPs were identified as significant ASE-SNPs, respectively. With these SNPs, a total of 1519 and 3075 ASE-genes were identified. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that genes encoding cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RP) were highly enriched among ASE genes. Parent-of-origin was determined for 27 and 30 ASE RP genes in the liver and gill, respectively. The results indicated that genes from both channel catfish and blue catfish were involved in ASE. However, each RP gene appeared to be almost exclusively expressed from only one parent, indicating that ribosomes in the hybrid catfish were in the "hybrid" form. Overall representation of RP transcripts among the transcriptome appeared lower in the F1 hybrid catfish than in channel catfish or blue catfish, suggesting that the "hybrid" ribosomes may work more efficiently for translation in the F1 hybrid catfish.

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory Support for Commercial U.S. Production of 99Mo without the Use of Highly Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    There is currently a serious shortage of 99Mo, from which to generate the medically significant isotope 99mTc. Most of the world's supply comes from the fission of highly enriched uranium targets--this is a proliferation concern. This document focuses on the technology involved in two alternative methods: electron accelerator production of 99Mo from the 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo reaction and production of 99Mo as a fission product in a subcritical, DT accelerator-driven low enriched uranium salt solution.

  5. Numerical Simulation of High-Power Synthetic Jet Actuator Flowfield and its Influence on Mixing Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Detailed two-dimensional unsteady numerical simulation is carried out to investigate a high-power synthetic jet actuator flow field and its design characteristic. Simultaneously, mixing control mechanism of coaxial jets with actuators is also studied. Firstly, excitation frequency (rotating speed), piston displacement and its exit slot width have effect on the controlling ability and controlling efficiency of actuator. With the invariable model and concerned parameters, the actuator becomes more desirable as the rotating speed increases. Average velocity and maximal velocity at the actuator exit section increase as the piston displacement enlarges or the exit slot width decreases. But the actuator does not always exhibit good performance with the narrower exit. Secondly, the synthetic jets also have the "push" effect on the coaxial jets, which results in the fluctuation of vorticity and temperature distribution of mixing fiowfield. Finally, the employment of synthetic jet actuator can achieve mixing enhancement significantly.

  6. What can we learn from high precision measurements of neutrino mixing angles?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra

    2004-12-01

    Many experiments are being planned to measure the neutrino mixing angles more precisely. In this note, the theoretical significance of a high precision measurement of these parameters is discussed. It is emphasized that they can provide crucial information about different ways to understand the origin of large atmospheric neutrino mixing and move us closer towards determining the neutrino mass matrix. They may also be able to throw light on the question of lepton–quark unification as well as the existence of any leptonic symmetries. For instance if exact ↔ symmetry in the neutrino mass matrix is assumed to be the reason for maximal - mixing, one gets 13 = 0 and 13 ≃ $\\sqrt{ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ or 13 ≃ $ m^{2}_{\\odot} / m^{2}_{{\\text{A}}}$ can provide information about the way the ↔ symmetry breaking manifests in the case of normal hierarchy.

  7. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the 233U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshalkin, V. E.; Povyshev, V. M.

    2015-12-01

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium-uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D2O, H2O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the 233U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  8. A pilot study to access whether high expansion CO2-enriched foam is acceptable for on-farm emergency killing of poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritzen, M.A.; Sparrey, J.

    2008-01-01

    This pilot experiment was conducted to ascertain whether CO2-enriched high expansion foam could be an acceptable and efficient alternative in emergency killing of poultry. This method could have wide-ranging applications but with particular emphasis on small (backyard) flocks, free-range sheds or op

  9. DOSE RESPONSE FROM HIGH THROUGHPUT GENE EXPRESSION STUDIES AND THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND CELL LINE ON INFERRED MODE OF ACTION BY ONTOLOGIC ENRICHMENT (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene expression with ontologic enrichment and connectivity mapping tools is widely used to infer modes of action (MOA) for therapeutic drugs. Despite progress in high-throughput (HT) genomic systems, strategies suitable to identify industrial chemical MOA are needed. The L1000 is...

  10. Neutron activation analysis of the 30Si content of highly enriched 28Si: proof of concept and estimation of the achievable uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Oddone, Massimo; Prata, Michele; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of neutron activation to estimate the 30Si mole fraction of the ultra-pure silicon material highly enriched in 28Si for the measurement of the Avogadro constant. Specifically, we developed a relative method based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and using a natural-Si sample as a standard. To evaluate the achievable uncertainty, we irradiated a 6 g sample of a natural-Si material and modeled experimentally the signal that would be produced by a sample of the 28Si-enriched material of similar mass and subjected to the same measurement conditions. The extrapolation of the expected uncertainty from the experimental data indicates that a measurement of the 30Si mole fraction of the 28Si-enriched material might reach a 4% relative combined standard uncertainty.

  11. CO2–CH4 permeation in high zeolite 4A loading mixed matrix membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Adams, Ryan T.

    2011-02-01

    Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with low particle loadings have been shown to improve the properties of pure polymers for many gas separations. Comparatively few reports have been made for high particle loading (≥50vol.%) MMMs. In this work, CO2-CH4 feeds were used to study the potential of 50vol.% zeolite 4A-poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) MMMs for natural gas separations. A low CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance below the plasticization pressure of PVAc and a high CO2 partial pressure mixed feed probed MMM performance at industrially relevant conditions above the plasticization pressure.Under both mixed feed conditions at 35°C, substantial improvements in overall separation performance were observed. At low CO2 partial pressures, CO2 permeability roughly doubled with a nearly 50% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc under the same conditions. For the high CO2 partial pressure feed, CO2 permeability remained effectively unchanged with a 63% increase in selectivity versus pure PVAc. Surprisingly, the performance of these PVAc based MMMs approached the properties of current " upper bound" polymers. Overall, this work shows that significantly improved performance MMMs can be made with traditional techniques from a low cost, low performance polymer without costly adhesion promoters. © 2010.

  12. Processing of mixed uranium/refractory metal carbide fuels for high temperature space nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Travis; Anghaie, Samim

    2000-01-01

    Single phase, solid-solution mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides have been proposed as an advanced nuclear fuel for high performance, next generation space power and propulsion systems. These mixed carbides such as the pseudo-ternary, (U, Zr, Nb)C, hold significant promise because of their high melting points (typically greater than 3200 K), thermochemical stability in a hot hydrogen environment, and high thermal conductivity. However, insufficient test data exist under nuclear thermal propulsion conditions of temperature and hot hydrogen environment to fully evaluate their performance. Various compositions of (U, Zr, Nb)C were processed with 5% and 10% metal mole fraction of uranium. Stoichiometric samples were processed from the constituent carbide powders while hypostoichiometric samples with carbon-to-metal (C/M) ratios of 0.95 were processed from uranium hydride, graphite, and constituent refractory carbide powders. Processing techniques of cold pressing, sintering, and hot pressing were investigated to optimize the processing parameters necessary to produce dense (low porosity), homogeneous, single phase, solid-solution mixed carbide nuclear fuels for testing. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate and characterize the performance of these mixed uranium/refractory metal carbides for space power and propulsion applications. .

  13. Seebeck effect in the mixed state of high- T sub c superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, R.P.; Ustinov, A.V. (Physikalisches Institut, Lehrstuhl Experimentalphysik II, Universitat Tubingen, D-7400 Tubingen (Federal Republic of Germany)); Kaplunenko, V.K. (Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Moscow (U.S.S.R))

    1990-09-01

    The recent experimental observation of a pronounced Seebeck effect in the mixed state of high-{Tc} superconductors is explained by a model based on the counterflow of a quasiparticle current and a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient. The relatively large magnitude of this effect is due to the negligible amount of flux pinning above the irreversibility line in high-{Tc} superconductors.

  14. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengda; Su, Hua; Long, Brian; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hetts, Steven W; Higashida, Randall T; Dowd, Christopher F; Halbach, Van V; Cooke, Daniel L

    2014-12-20

    Endovascular sampling and characterization from patients can provide very useful information about the pathogenesis of different vascular diseases, but it has been limited by the lack of an effective method of endothelial cell (EC) enrichment. We optimized the EC yield and enrichment from conventional guide wires by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) technique, and addressed the feasibility of using these enriched ECs for downstream gene expression detection. Iliac artery endovascular samples from 10 patients undergoing routine catheter angiography were collected using conventional 0.038 in. J-shape guide wires. Each of these samples was equally divided into two parts, which were respectively used for EC enrichment by immunocytochemistry-coupled LCM or multiple color FACS. After RNA extraction and reverse transcription, the amplified cDNA was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Fixed ECs, with positive CD31 or vWF fluorescent signal and endothelial like nucleus, were successfully separated by LCM and live single ECs were sorted on FACS by a seven color staining panel. EC yields by LCM and FACS were 51 ± 22 and 149 ± 56 respectively (P < 0.001). The minimum number of fixed ECs from ICC-coupled LCM for acceptable qPCR results of endothelial marker genes was 30, while acceptable qPCR results as enriched by FACS were attainable from a single live EC. Both LCM and FACS can be used to enrich ECs from conventional guide wires and the enriched ECs can be used for downstream gene expression detection. FACS generated a higher EC yield and the sorted live ECs may be used for single cell gene expression detection.

  15. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhengda; Su, Hua; Long, Brian; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Hetts, Steven W.; Higashida, Randall T.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Halbach, Van V.; Cooke, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Endovascular sampling and characterization from patients can provide very useful information about the pathogenesis of different vascular diseases, but it has been limited by the lack of an effective method of endothelial cell (EC) enrichment. We optimized the EC yield and enrichment from conventional guide wires by laser capture microdissection (LCM) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) technique, and addressed the feasibility of using these enriched ECs for downstream gene expression detection. Methods Iliac artery endovascular samples from 10 patients undergoing routine catheter angiography were collected using conventional 0.038 in. J-shape guide wires. Each of these samples was equally divided into two parts, which were respectively used for EC enrichment by immunocytochemistry-coupled LCM or multiple color FACS. After RNA extraction and reverse transcription, the amplified cDNA was used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Fixed ECs, with positive CD31 or vWF fluorescent signal and endothelial like nucleus, were successfully separated by LCM and live single ECs were sorted on FACS by a seven color staining panel. EC yields by LCM and FACS were 51 ± 22 and 149 ± 56 respectively (P < 0.001). The minimum number of fixed ECs from ICC-coupled LCM for acceptable qPCR results of endothelial marker genes was 30, while acceptable qPCR results as enriched by FACS were attainable from a single live EC. Conclusion Both LCM and FACS can be used to enrich ECs from conventional guide wires and the enriched ECs can be used for downstream gene expression detection. FACS generated a higher EC yield and the sorted live ECs may be used for single cell gene expression detection. PMID:25450638

  16. A phylogeny of birds based on over 1,500 loci collected by target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McCormack

    Full Text Available Evolutionary relationships among birds in Neoaves, the clade comprising the vast majority of avian diversity, have vexed systematists due to the ancient, rapid radiation of numerous lineages. We applied a new phylogenomic approach to resolve relationships in Neoaves using target enrichment (sequence capture and high-throughput sequencing of ultraconserved elements (UCEs in avian genomes. We collected sequence data from UCE loci for 32 members of Neoaves and one outgroup (chicken and analyzed data sets that differed in their amount of missing data. An alignment of 1,541 loci that allowed missing data was 87% complete and resulted in a highly resolved phylogeny with broad agreement between the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML trees. Although results from the 100% complete matrix of 416 UCE loci were similar, the Bayesian and ML trees differed to a greater extent in this analysis, suggesting that increasing from 416 to 1,541 loci led to increased stability and resolution of the tree. Novel results of our study include surprisingly close relationships between phenotypically divergent bird families, such as tropicbirds (Phaethontidae and the sunbittern (Eurypygidae as well as between bustards (Otididae and turacos (Musophagidae. This phylogeny bolsters support for monophyletic waterbird and landbird clades and also strongly supports controversial results from previous studies, including the sister relationship between passerines and parrots and the non-monophyly of raptorial birds in the hawk and falcon families. Although significant challenges remain to fully resolving some of the deep relationships in Neoaves, especially among lineages outside the waterbirds and landbirds, this study suggests that increased data will yield an increasingly resolved avian phylogeny.

  17. 31 CFR 540.316 - Uranium enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium enrichment. 540.316 Section... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.316 Uranium enrichment. The term uranium enrichment means the process...

  18. Gas-Enhanced Ultra-High Shear Mixing: A Concept and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Frank; Birsan, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    The processes of mixing, homogenizing, and deagglomeration are of paramount importance in many industries for modifying properties of liquids or liquid-based dispersions at room temperature and treatment of molten or semi-molten alloys at high temperatures, prior to their solidification. To implement treatments, a variety of technologies based on mechanical, electromagnetic, and ultrasonic principles are used commercially or tested at the laboratory scale. In a large number of techniques, especially those tailored toward metallurgical applications, the vital role is played by cavitation, generation of gas bubbles, and their interaction with the melt. This paper describes a novel concept exploring an integration of gas injection into the shear zone with ultra-high shear mixing. As revealed via experiments with a prototype of the cylindrical rotor-stator apparatus and transparent media, gases injected radially through the high-speed rotor generate highly refined bubbles of high concentration directly in the shear zone of the mixer. It is believed that an interaction of large volume of fine gas bubbles with the liquid, superimposed on ultra-high shear, will enhance mixing capabilities and cause superior refining and homogenizing of the liquids or solid-liquid slurries, thus allowing their effective property modification.

  19. Field calibration studies for ionisation chambers in mixed high-energy radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, C; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuerstner, M; Mayer, S; Otto, Th; Roesler, S; Vincke, H

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring of ambient doses at work places around high-energy accelerators is a challenging task due the complexity of the mixed stray radiation fields encountered. At CERN, mainly Centronics IG5 high-pressure ionisation chambers are used to monitor radiation exposure in mixed fields. The monitors are calibrated in the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(10) using standard, source-generated photon- and neutron fields. However, the relationship between ionisation chamber reading and ambient dose equivalent in a mixed high-energy radiation field can only be assessed if the spectral response to every component and the field composition is known. Therefore, comprehensive studies were performed at the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility where the spectral fluence for each particle type has been assessed with Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, studies have been performed in an accessible controlled radiation area in the vicinity of a beam loss point of CERN's proton synchrotron. The comparison of measurements and calculations has shown reasonable agreement for most exposure conditions. The results indicate that conventionally calibrated ionisation chambers can give satisfactory response in terms of ambient dose equivalent in stray radiation fields at high-energy accelerators in many cases. These studies are one step towards establishing a method of 'field calibration' of radiation protection instruments in which Monte Carlo simulations will be used to establish a correct correlation between the response of specific detectors to a given high-energy radiation field.

  20. Gas-Enhanced Ultra-High Shear Mixing: A Concept and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Frank; Birsan, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    The processes of mixing, homogenizing, and deagglomeration are of paramount importance in many industries for modifying properties of liquids or liquid-based dispersions at room temperature and treatment of molten or semi-molten alloys at high temperatures, prior to their solidification. To implement treatments, a variety of technologies based on mechanical, electromagnetic, and ultrasonic principles are used commercially or tested at the laboratory scale. In a large number of techniques, especially those tailored toward metallurgical applications, the vital role is played by cavitation, generation of gas bubbles, and their interaction with the melt. This paper describes a novel concept exploring an integration of gas injection into the shear zone with ultra-high shear mixing. As revealed via experiments with a prototype of the cylindrical rotor-stator apparatus and transparent media, gases injected radially through the high-speed rotor generate highly refined bubbles of high concentration directly in the shear zone of the mixer. It is believed that an interaction of large volume of fine gas bubbles with the liquid, superimposed on ultra-high shear, will enhance mixing capabilities and cause superior refining and homogenizing of the liquids or solid-liquid slurries, thus allowing their effective property modification.

  1. Design and optimization of highly nonlinear low-dispersion crystal fiber with high birefringence for four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Ni; Ren, Li-Yong; Gong, Yong-Kang; Li, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Lei-Ran; Sun, Chuan-Dong

    2010-06-01

    We have proposed a novel type of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with low dispersion and high nonlinearity for four-wave mixing. This type of fiber is composed of a solid silica core and a cladding with a squeezed hexagonal lattice elliptical airhole along the fiber length. Its dispersion and nonlinearity coefficient are investigated simultaneously by using the full vectorial finite element method. Numerical results show that the proposed highly nonlinear low-dispersion fiber has a total dispersion as low as +/-2.5 ps nm(-1) km(-1) over an ultrabroad wavelength range from 1.43 to 1.8 microm, and the corresponding nonlinearity coefficient and birefringence are about 150 W(-1) km(-1) and 2.5x10(-3) at 1.55 microm, respectively. The proposed PCF with low ultraflattened dispersion, high nonlinearity, and high birefringence can have important application in four-wave mixing.

  2. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  3. The ENRICH Study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to improve isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, adherence and completion among people living with HIV in Ethiopia: rationale and design of a mixed methods cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrea A; Hirsch-Moverman, Yael; Saito, Suzue; Gadisa, Tsigereda; Daftary, Amrita; Melaku, Zenebe

    2017-06-01

    Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis among HIV-positive individuals, however implementation is suboptimal. Implementation science studies are needed to identify interventions to address this evidence-to-program gap. The ENRICH Study is a mixed methods cluster randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of a combination intervention package (CIP) to improve IPT implementation in Ethiopia. Ten health centers were randomized to receive the CIP or standard of care. The CIP includes: nurse training and mentorship using a clinical algorithm, tool to identify IPT-eligible family members, and data review at multidisciplinary team meetings; patient transport reimbursement; and adherence support using peer educators and interactive voice response messages. Routine data were abstracted for all newly-enrolled IPT-eligible HIV-positive patients; anticipated sample size was 1400 individuals. A measurement cohort of patients initiating IPT was recruited; target enrollment was 500 individuals, to be followed for the duration of IPT (6-9 months). Inclusion criteria were: HIV-positive; initiated IPT; age ≥18; Amharic-, Oromiffa-, Harari-, or Somali-speaking; and capable of informed consent. Three groups were recruited from CIP health centers for in-depth interviews: IPT initiators; IPT non-initiators; and health care providers. Primary outcomes are: IPT initiation; and IPT completion. Secondary outcomes include: retention; adherence; change in CD4+ count; adverse events; and acceptability. Follow-up is complete. The ENRICH Study evaluates a CIP targeting barriers to IPT implementation. If the CIP is found effective and acceptable, this study has the potential to inform TB prevention strategies for HIV patients in resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Application of a double-enrichment procedure for microsatellite isolation and the use of tailed primers for high throughput genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mendonça Diniz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of microsatellite loci and their allelic diversity contribute to increase accuracy and informativity of genetic estimates, however, the isolation of microsatellite loci is not only laborious but also quite expensive. We used (GATAn and (GACAn tetranucleotide probes and single- and double-enrichment hybridization to construct and screen a genomic library with an increased proportion of DNA fragments containing repeat motifs. Repeats were found using both types of hybridization but the double-enrichment procedure recovered sequences of which 100% contained (GATAn and (GACAn motifs. Microsatellite loci primers were then designed with an M13R-tail or CAG-tag to produce scorable PCR products with minimal stutter. The approach used in this study suggests that double-enrichment is a worthwhile strategy when isolating repeat motifs from eukaryotic genomes. Moreover, the use of tailed microsatellite primers provides increased resolution for compound microsatellite loci, with a significant decrease in costs.

  5. Identifying high-affinity aptamer ligands with defined cross-reactivity using high-throughput guided systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levay, Agata; Brenneman, Randall; Hoinka, Jan; Sant, David; Cardone, Marco; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Przytycka, Teresa M; Berezhnoy, Alexey

    2015-07-13

    Oligonucleotide aptamers represent a novel platform for creating ligands with desired specificity, and they offer many potentially significant advantages over monoclonal antibodies in terms of feasibility, cost, and clinical applicability. However, the isolation of high-affinity aptamer ligands from random oligonucleotide pools has been challenging. Although high-throughput sequencing (HTS) promises to significantly facilitate systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) analysis, the enormous datasets generated in the process pose new challenges for identifying those rare, high-affinity aptamers present in a given pool. We show that emulsion PCR preserves library diversity, preventing the loss of rare high-affinity aptamers that are difficult to amplify. We also demonstrate the importance of using reference targets to eliminate binding candidates with reduced specificity. Using a combination of bioinformatics and functional analyses, we show that the rate of amplification is more predictive than prevalence with respect to binding affinity and that the mutational landscape within a cluster of related aptamers can guide the identification of high-affinity aptamer ligands. Finally, we demonstrate the power of this selection process for identifying cross-species aptamers that can bind human receptors and cross-react with their murine orthologs.

  6. High-throughput sequencing of mGluR signaling pathway genes reveals enrichment of rare variants in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J Kelleher

    Full Text Available Identification of common molecular pathways affected by genetic variation in autism is important for understanding disease pathogenesis and devising effective therapies. Here, we test the hypothesis that rare genetic variation in the metabotropic glutamate-receptor (mGluR signaling pathway contributes to autism susceptibility. Single-nucleotide variants in genes encoding components of the mGluR signaling pathway were identified by high-throughput multiplex sequencing of pooled samples from 290 non-syndromic autism cases and 300 ethnically matched controls on two independent next-generation platforms. This analysis revealed significant enrichment of rare functional variants in the mGluR pathway in autism cases. Higher burdens of rare, potentially deleterious variants were identified in autism cases for three pathway genes previously implicated in syndromic autism spectrum disorder, TSC1, TSC2, and SHANK3, suggesting that genetic variation in these genes also contributes to risk for non-syndromic autism. In addition, our analysis identified HOMER1, which encodes a postsynaptic density-localized scaffolding protein that interacts with Shank3 to regulate mGluR activity, as a novel autism-risk gene. Rare, potentially deleterious HOMER1 variants identified uniquely in the autism population affected functionally important protein regions or regulatory sequences and co-segregated closely with autism among children of affected families. We also identified rare ASD-associated coding variants predicted to have damaging effects on components of the Ras/MAPK cascade. Collectively, these findings suggest that altered signaling downstream of mGluRs contributes to the pathogenesis of non-syndromic autism.

  7. A latent factor linear mixed model for high-dimensional longitudinal data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xinming; Yang, Qing; Bentler, Peter M

    2013-10-30

    High-dimensional longitudinal data involving latent variables such as depression and anxiety that cannot be quantified directly are often encountered in biomedical and social sciences. Multiple responses are used to characterize these latent quantities, and repeated measures are collected to capture their trends over time. Furthermore, substantive research questions may concern issues such as interrelated trends among latent variables that can only be addressed by modeling them jointly. Although statistical analysis of univariate longitudinal data has been well developed, methods for modeling multivariate high-dimensional longitudinal data are still under development. In this paper, we propose a latent factor linear mixed model (LFLMM) for analyzing this type of data. This model is a combination of the factor analysis and multivariate linear mixed models. Under this modeling framework, we reduced the high-dimensional responses to low-dimensional latent factors by the factor analysis model, and then we used the multivariate linear mixed model to study the longitudinal trends of these latent factors. We developed an expectation-maximization algorithm to estimate the model. We used simulation studies to investigate the computational properties of the expectation-maximization algorithm and compare the LFLMM model with other approaches for high-dimensional longitudinal data analysis. We used a real data example to illustrate the practical usefulness of the model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation using high-throughput DNA sequencing of target-enriched pooled DNA samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The central role of the somatotrophic axis in animal post-natal growth, development and fertility is well established. Therefore, the identification of genetic variants affecting quantitative traits within this axis is an attractive goal. However, large sample numbers are a pre-requisite for the identification of genetic variants underlying complex traits and although technologies are improving rapidly, high-throughput sequencing of large numbers of complete individual genomes remains prohibitively expensive. Therefore using a pooled DNA approach coupled with target enrichment and high-throughput sequencing, the aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms and estimate allele frequency differences across 83 candidate genes of the somatotrophic axis, in 150 Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls divided into two groups divergent for genetic merit for fertility. Results In total, 4,135 SNPs and 893 indels were identified during the resequencing of the 83 candidate genes. Nineteen percent (n = 952 of variants were located within 5' and 3' UTRs. Seventy-two percent (n = 3,612 were intronic and 9% (n = 464 were exonic, including 65 indels and 236 SNPs resulting in non-synonymous substitutions (NSS. Significant (P ® MassARRAY. No significant differences (P > 0.1 were observed between the two methods for any of the 43 SNPs across both pools (i.e., 86 tests in total. Conclusions The results of the current study support previous findings of the use of DNA sample pooling and high-throughput sequencing as a viable strategy for polymorphism discovery and allele frequency estimation. Using this approach we have characterised the genetic variation within genes of the somatotrophic axis and related pathways, central to mammalian post-natal growth and development and subsequent lactogenesis and fertility. We have identified a large number of variants segregating at significantly different frequencies between cattle groups divergent for calving

  9. Streptococcus mutans protein synthesis during mixed-species biofilm development by high-throughput quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Marlise I; Xiao, Jin; Lu, Bingwen; Delahunty, Claire M; Yates, John R; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v) was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA) and glucan-binding (gbpB) during this transition (Pspecies biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms) demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm maintenance in the presence of other organisms. Our data provide insights about how S. mutans optimizes its metabolism and adapts/survives within the mixed-species community in response to a dynamically changing environment. This reflects the intricate physiological processes linked to expression of virulence by this bacterium within complex biofilms.

  10. High-efficiency degenerate four wave-mixing in triply resonant nanobeam cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Zin; Loncar, Marko; Johnson, Steven G; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate high-efficiency, degenerate four-wave mixing in triply resonant Kerr $\\chi^(3)$ photonic crystal (PhC) nanobeam cavities. Using a combination of temporal coupled mode theory and nonlinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations, we study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant four-wave mixing processes and demonstrate the possibility of observing high-efficiency limit cycles and steady-state conversion corresponding to $\\approx 100$% depletion of the pump light at low powers, even including effects due to losses, self- and cross-phase modulation, and imperfect frequency matching. Assuming operation in the telecom range, we predict close to perfect quantum efficiencies at reasonably low $\\sim$ 50 mW input powers in silicon micrometer-scale cavities.

  11. Application of mixed-organic-cation for high performance hole-conductor-free perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Li, Yanyan; Dong, Binghai; Xu, Zuxun; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2017-09-15

    ABX3-type organic lead halide perovskites have gained increasing attention as light harvester for solar cells due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE). Recently, it has become a trend to avoid the use of expensive hole-transport materials (HTMs) and precious metals, such as Au, to be competitive in future commercial development. In this study, we fabricated mixed-cation perovskite-based solar cells through one-step spin-coating using methylammonium (CH3NH3(+)) and formamidinium (HN=CHNH3(+)) cations to extend the optical absorption range into the red region and enhance the utilization of solar light. The synthesized hole-conductor-free cells with carbon electrode and mixed cations exhibited increased short-circuit current, outperforming the cells prepared with pure methylammonium, and PCE of 10.55%. This paper proposes an efficient approach for fabricating high-performance and low-cost perovskite solar cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A genetic map of melon highly enriched with fruit quality QTLs and EST markers, including sugar and carotenoid metabolism genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    A genetic map of melon enriched for fruit traits was constructed, using a recombinant inbred (RI) population developed from a cross between representatives of the two subspecies of Cucumis melo L.: PI 414723 (subspecies agrestis) and 'Dulce' (subspecies melo). Phenotyping of 99 RI lines was conducte...

  13. 1D and 2D annotation enrichment: a statistical method integrating quantitative proteomics with complementary high-throughput data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Juergen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative proteomics now provides abundance ratios for thousands of proteins upon perturbations. These need to be functionally interpreted and correlated to other types of quantitative genome-wide data such as the corresponding transcriptome changes. We describe a new method, 2D annotation enrichment, which compares quantitative data from any two 'omics' types in the context of categorical annotation of the proteins or genes. Suitable genome-wide categories are membership of proteins in biochemical pathways, their annotation with gene ontology terms, sub-cellular localization, the presence of protein domains or the membership in protein complexes. 2D annotation enrichment detects annotation terms whose members show consistent behavior in one or both of the data dimensions. This consistent behavior can be a correlation between the two data types, such as simultaneous up- or down-regulation in both data dimensions, or a lack thereof, such as regulation in one dimension but no change in the other. For the statistical formulation of the test we introduce a two-dimensional generalization of the nonparametric two-sample test. The false discovery rate is stringently controlled by correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. We also describe one-dimensional annotation enrichment, which can be applied to single omics data. The 1D and 2D annotation enrichment algorithms are freely available as part of the Perseus software.

  14. Detailed characterization of CW- and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Grüner-Nielsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative comparison of continuouswave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW and pulsed FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CWand pulsed-pump parametric gain...... bandwidth. However, an inverse scaling of the TOD with the dispersion fluctuations, leads to different CW-optimized fibers, which depend only on the even dispersion-orders....

  15. The Parameters Fitting in High-strength Concrete Mix Proportion Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hao; LV Lingnu; ZHANG Luo

    2005-01-01

    Parameters that need to be fitted in High-Strength concrete mix proportion experiment and two equation models that are referenced in the experiment are discussed. The reasoning and implement of the corresponding linear fitting algorithm are demonstrated.Parmeter fitting is realized by value estimate method of mathematical statistics.This paper combines mathematical statisitics,linear equations and template thought together successfully and discussed an efficient parameter fitting method based on strength equation model and water consumption equation model.

  16. Electrokinetic mixing at high zeta potentials: ionic size effects on cross stream diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian Yazdi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Arman; Saidi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-03-15

    The electrokinetic phenomena at high zeta potentials may show several unique features which are not normally observed. One of these features is the ionic size (steric) effect associated with the solutions of high ionic concentration. In the present work, attention is given to the influences of finite ionic size on the cross stream diffusion process in an electrokinetically actuated Y-shaped micromixer. The method consists of a finite difference based numerical approach for non-uniform grid which is applied to the dimensionless form of the governing equations, including the modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The results reveal that, neglecting the ionic size at high zeta potentials gives rise to the overestimation of the mixing length, because the steric effects retard liquid flow, thereby enhancing the mixing efficiency. The importance of steric effects is found to be more intense for channels of smaller width to height ratio. It is also observed that, in sharp contrast to the conditions that the ions are treated as point charges, increasing the zeta potential improves the cross stream diffusion when incorporating the ionic size. Moreover, increasing the EDL thickness decreases the mixing length, whereas the opposite is true for the channel aspect ratio.

  17. Effects of argon enriched low-oxygen atmospheres and of high-oxygen atmospheres on the kinetics of polyphenoloxidase (PPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Beirne, David; Murphy, Eileen; Ni Eidhin, Deirdre

    2011-01-01

    The reported benefits of enrichment of air atmospheres with argon or oxygen for control of enzymatic browning were investigated by determining the effects of these atmospheres on PPO kinetics. Kinetics of purified apple PPO and a commercially available mushroom PPO were studied in an in vitro model system. Enrichment with argon produced greater inhibitory effects than the current industry practice of enrichment with nitrogen. Km(app) values (mM) for apple PPO in 3%O(2)/97%Ar, 3%O(2)/97%N(2), and air, were 133, 87, and 48, respectively. The data indicate that inhibition by both gases is competitive, and also support the hypothesis that the greater inhibitory effect of argon was proportional to the size of the Van der Waals radius of argon against nitrogen (1.91 Å against 1.54 Å). Much smaller inhibitory effects were observed in the presence of 80% O(2) (Km(app) 57 mM), and the nature of this inhibition was less clear. The results suggest that the benefits of argon enrichment may be relatively small, and may require critical enzyme, substrate, and gas levels to be successful. However, these benefits may be exploitable commercially in some fresh-cut products, and may allow less anoxic atmospheres to be used. Practical Application: Control of enzymatic browning without sulfites continues to be a challenge in some fresh-cut products. While sporadic benefits of these atmospheres in control of enzymatic browning have been reported, results have been inconsistent in commercial practice. The results suggest that the benefits of argon enrichment may be relatively small, and may require critical enzyme, substrate, and gas levels to be successful. However, these benefits may be exploitable commercially in some fresh-cut products, and allow less anoxic atmospheres to be used.

  18. Selenate-enriched urea granules are a highly effective fertilizer for selenium biofortification of paddy rice grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premarathna, Lakmalie; McLaughlin, Mike J; Kirby, Jason K; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M; Stacey, Samuel; Chittleborough, David J

    2012-06-13

    This study examined the effects of applied selenium (Se) species, time of application, method of application, and soil water management regimen on the accumulation of Se in rice plants. Plants were grown to maturity in a temperature- and humidity-controlled growth chamber using three water management methods: field capacity (FC), submerged until harvest, and submerged and drained 2 weeks before harvest. Two Se species, selenate (SeO4(2-)) and selenite (SeO3(2-)), were applied at a rate equivalent to 30 g ha(-1). Four application methods were employed as follows: (i) Se applied at soil preparation, (ii) Se-enriched urea granules applied to floodwater at heading; (iii) foliar Se applied at heading; and (iv) fluid fertilizer Se applied to soil or floodwater at heading. Total Se concentrations in rice grains, husks, leaves, culms, and roots were measured, as well as Se speciation in grains from the Se-enriched urea granule treatment. Highest Se concentrations in the grain occurred with SeO4(2-) and with fertilizer applied at heading stage; SeO4(2-)-enriched urea granules applied at heading increased grain Se concentrations 5-6-fold (by 450-600 μg kg(-1)) compared to the control (no fertilizer Se applied) in all water treatments. Under paddy conditions other Se fertilization strategies were much less effective. Drainage before harvesting caused Se to accumulate in/on rice roots, possibly through adsorption onto iron plaque on roots. Rice grains contained Se mainly in the organic form as selenomethionine (SeM), which comprised >90% of the total grain Se in treatments fertilized with SeO4(2-)-enriched urea granules. The results of this study clearly show that of the fertilizer strategies tested biofortification of Se in rice grains can best be achieved in lowland rice by broadcast application of SeO4(2-)-enriched urea granules to floodwater at heading stage.

  19. High-fidelity numerical simulations of compressible turbulence and mixing generated by hydrodynamic instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahed, Pooya

    High-speed flows are prone to hydrodynamic interfacial instabilities that evolve to turbulence, thereby intensely mixing different fluids and dissipating energy. The lack of knowledge of these phenomena has impeded progress in a variety of disciplines. In science, a full understanding of mixing between heavy and light elements after the collapse of a supernova and between adjacent layers of different density in geophysical (atmospheric and oceanic) flows remains lacking. In engineering, the inability to achieve ignition in inertial fusion and efficient combustion constitute further examples of this lack of basic understanding of turbulent mixing. In this work, my goal is to develop accurate and efficient numerical schemes and employ them to study compressible turbulence and mixing generated by interactions between shocked (Richtmyer-Meshkov) and accelerated (Rayleigh-Taylor) interfaces, which play important roles in high-energy-density physics environments. To accomplish my goal, a hybrid high-order central/discontinuity-capturing finite difference scheme is first presented. The underlying principle is that, to accurately and efficiently represent both broadband motions and discontinuities, non-dissipative methods are used where the solution is smooth, while the more expensive and dissipative capturing schemes are applied near discontinuous regions. Thus, an accurate numerical sensor is developed to discriminate between smooth regions, shocks and material discontinuities, which all require a different treatment. The interface capturing approach is extended to central differences, such that smooth distributions of varying specific heats ratio can be simulated without generating spurious pressure oscillations. I verified and validated this approach against a stringent suite of problems including shocks, interfaces, turbulence and two-dimensional single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability simulations. The three-dimensional code is shown to scale well up to 4000 cores

  20. Effect of high shear mixing parameters and degassing temperature on the morphology of epoxy-clay nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qadhi, Muneer

    2013-01-01

    Epoxy-clay nanocomposites were prepared by high shear mixing method using Nanomer I.30E nanoclay as nano-reinforcement in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA). The effect of mixing speed and time on the nature and degree of clay dispersion were investigated by varying the mixing speed in the range of 500-8000 RPM and mixing time in the range of 15-90 minutes. The effect of degassing temperature on the morphology of the resultant nanocomposites was also studied. Scanning and transmission microscopy (SEM and TEM) along with x-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used to characterize the effect of shear mixing speed, mixing time and degassing temperature on the structure of the resultant nanocomposites. The SEM, TEM and XRD examinations demonstrated that the degree of clay dispersion was improved with increasing the high shear mixing speed and mixing time. The results showed that the optimum high shear mixing speed and mixing time were 6000 rpm and 60 min, respectively. It was observed that the structure of the nanocomposites that have been degassed at 65°C was dominated by ordered intercalated morphology while disordered intercalated with some exfoliated morphology was found for the sample degassed at 100°C for the first 2 hours of the degassing process. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  1. Enrichment of pasta with faba bean does not impact glycemic or insulin response but can enhance satiety feeling and digestive comfort when dried at very high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès; Molinari, Nicolas; Cassan, Denis; Sutra, Thibault; Avignon, Antoine; Micard, Valérie

    2015-09-01

    Enrichment of durum wheat pasta with legume flour enhances their protein and essential amino acid content, especially lysine content. However, despite its nutritional potential, the addition of a legume alters the rheological properties of pasta. High temperature drying of pasta reduces this negative effect by strengthening its protein network. The aim of our study was to determine if these changes in the pasta structure alter its in vitro carbohydrate digestibility, in vivo glycemic, insulin and satiety responses. We also investigated if high temperature drying of pasta can reduce the well-known digestive discomfort associated with the consumption of legume grains. Fifteen healthy volunteers consumed three test meals: durum wheat pasta dried at a low temperature (control), and pasta enriched with 35% faba bean dried at a low and at a very high temperature. When enriched with 35% legume flour, pasta maintained its nutritionally valuable low glycemic and insulin index, despite its weaker protein network. Drying 35% faba bean pasta at a high temperature strengthened its protein network, and decreased its in vitro carbohydrate digestion with no further decrease in its in vivo glycemic or insulin index. Drying pasta at a very high temperature reduced digestive discomfort and enhanced self-reported satiety, and was not associated with a modification of energy intake in the following meal.

  2. Highly specific purification of N-glycans using phosphate-based derivatization as an affinity tag in combination with Ti(4+)-SPE enrichment for mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Peng, Ye; Bin, Zhichao; Wang, Huijie; Lu, Haojie

    2016-08-31

    N-linked protein glycosylation is involved in regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes and associated with numerous diseases. Highly specific identification of N-glycome remains a challenge while its biological significance is acknowledged. The relatively low abundance of glycan in complex biological mixtures, lack of basic sites for protonation, and suppression by other highly abundant proteins/peptides lead to the particularly poor detection sensitivity of N-glycans in the MS analysis. Therefore, the highly specific purification procedure becomes a crucial step prior to MS analysis of the N-glycome. Herein, a novel N-glycans enrichment approach based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti(4+)-SPE (solid phase extraction) was developed. Briefly, in this strategy, N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phospho-group at their reducing ends, such that the Ti(4+)-SPE microspheres were able to capture the phospho-containing glycans. The enrichment method was developed and optimized using model oligosaccharides (maltoheptaose DP7 and sialylated glycan A1) and also glycans from a standard glycoprotein (asialofetuin, ASF). This method experimentally showed high derivatization efficiency (almost 100%), excellent selectivity (analyzing DP7 in the digests of bovine serum albumin at a mass ratio of 1:100), high enriching recovery (90%), good reproducibility (CVN-glycome in human serum, in which a total of 31 N-glycan masses were identified.

  3. The high-grade Las Cruces copper deposit, Spain: a product of secondary enrichment in an evolving basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornos, Fernando; Velasco, Francisco; Slack, John F.; Delgado, Antonio; Gomez-Miguelez, Nieves; Escobar, Juan Manuel; Gomez, Carmelo

    2017-01-01

    The Las Cruces deposit (Iberian Pyrite Belt) includes a large, high-grade cementation zone capped by unusual rocks that contain carbonates, galena, iron sulphides, and quartz. Between the Late Cretaceous(?) and Tortonian, the volcanogenic massive sulphides were exhumed and affected by subaerial oxidation that formed paired cementation and gossan zones. Onset of Alpine extension produced accelerated growth of the cementation zone along extensional faults, leading to formation of the high-grade copper ore at ca. 11 Ma. Later, replacement of the overlying gossan by sulphide- and carbonate-rich rocks beneath sealing marl sediments is thought to have involved microbial processes, occurring between the Messinian (ca. 7.2 Ma) and today. Isotope data show that the cementation zone formed by the mixing of descending acidic waters derived from oxidation of the massive sulphides, with upwelling geothermal waters flowing at temperatures above 100 °C. The C, O, and Sr isotope values of the mineralization (87Sr/86Sr 0.7101-0.7104) and of the local groundwater (0.7102-0.7104) reflect equilibration with basement rocks, and indicate that influence on the ore-forming process by marl-equilibrated water (0.7091-0.7093) or Miocene seawater (0.7086-0.7092) was negligible. The high sulphur isotope values of the sulphides in the biogenic zone (most +19 to +24 ‰) are well above those of the primary sulphides (δ34S ca. -6.8 to +10.3 ‰) and likely reflect formation of the biogenic sulphides by reduction of aqueous sulphate in the groundwaters. Sulphur isotope values of the cementation zone (δ34S ca. -2.4 to +21.7 ‰) are also consistent with some contribution of sulphur from the biogenic reduction of aqueous sulphate.

  4. Hydrophilic Nb{sup 5+}-immobilized magnetic core–shell microsphere – A novel immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xueni; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Li, Yan, E-mail: yanli@fudan.edu.cn [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China); Deng, Chunhui [Department of Chemistry and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Duan, Gengli [Pharmaceutical Analysis Department, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2015-06-23

    Highlights: • A new IMAC material (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+}) was synthesized. • The strong magnetic behaviors of the microspheres ensure fast and easy separation. • The enrichment ability was tested by human serum and nonfat milk. • The results were compared with other IMAC materials including the commercial kits. • All results proved the good enrichment ability, especially for multiphosphopeptides. - Abstract: Rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples is essential and challenging in phosphorylated proteomics. In this work, for the first time, niobium ions were directly immobilized on the surface of polydopamine-coated magnetic microspheres through a facile and effective synthetic route. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@polydopamine-Nb{sup 5+} (denoted as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+}) microspheres possess merits of high hydrophilicity and good biological compatibility, and demonstrated low limit of detection (2 fmol). The selectivity was also basically satisfactory (β-casein:BSA = 1:500) to capture phosphopeptides. They were also successfully applied for enrichment of phosphopeptides from real biological samples such as human serum and nonfat milk. Compared with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Ti{sup 4+} microspheres, the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@PD-Nb{sup 5+} microspheres exhibit superior selectivity to multi-phosphorylated peptides, and thus may be complementary to the conventional IMAC materials.

  5. [Online enrichment ability of restricted-access column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Rong; Xie, Hua; Yin, Qiang; Li, Xiaoyun; Jia, Zhengping; Wu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Juanhong; Li, Wenbin

    2013-05-01

    The online enrichment ability of the restricted-access media (RAM) column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography by column switching technique for benazepril hydrochloride in plasma was studied. The RAM-HPLC system consisted of an RAM column as enrichment column and a C18 column as analytical column coupled via the column switching technique. The effects of the injection volume on the peak area and the systematic pressure were studied. When the injection volume was less than 100 microL, the peak area increased with the increase of the injection volume. However, when the injection volume was more than 80 microL, the pressure of whole system increased obviously. In order to protect the whole system, 80 microL was chosen as the maximum injection volume. The peak areas of ordinary injection and the large volume injection showed a good linear relationship. The enrichment ability of RAM-HPLC system was satisfactory. The system was successfully used for the separation and detection of the trace benazepril hydrochloride in rat plasma after its administration. The sensitivity of HPLC can be improved by RAM pre-enrichment. It is a simple and economic measurement method.

  6. Late-Time Mixing Sensitivity to Initial Broadband Surface Roughness in High-Energy-Density Shear Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flippo, K. A.; Doss, F. W.; Kline, J. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Capelli, D.; Cardenas, T.; DeVolder, B.; Fierro, F.; Huntington, C. M.; Kot, L.; Loomis, E. N.; MacLaren, S. A.; Murphy, T. J.; Nagel, S. R.; Perry, T. S.; Randolph, R. B.; Rivera, G.; Schmidt, D. W.

    2016-11-23

    Using a large volume high-energy-density fluid shear experiment (8.5 cm3) at the National Ignition Facility, we have demonstrated for the first time the ability to significantly alter the evolution of a supersonic sheared mixing layer by controlling the initial conditions of that layer. By altering the initial surface roughness of the tracer foil, we demonstrate the ability to transition the shear mixing layer from a highly ordered system of coherent structures to a randomly ordered system with a faster growing mix layer, indicative of strong mixing in the layer at a temperature of several tens of electron volts and at near solid density. Simulations using a turbulent-mix model show good agreement with the experimental results and poor agreement without turbulent mix.

  7. Streptococcus mutans protein synthesis during mixed-species biofilm development by high-throughput quantitative proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise I Klein

    Full Text Available Biofilms formed on tooth surfaces are comprised of mixed microbiota enmeshed in an extracellular matrix. Oral biofilms are constantly exposed to environmental changes, which influence the microbial composition, matrix formation and expression of virulence. Streptococcus mutans and sucrose are key modulators associated with the evolution of virulent-cariogenic biofilms. In this study, we used a high-throughput quantitative proteomics approach to examine how S. mutans produces relevant proteins that facilitate its establishment and optimal survival during mixed-species biofilms development induced by sucrose. Biofilms of S. mutans, alone or mixed with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus oralis, were initially formed onto saliva-coated hydroxyapatite surface under carbohydrate-limiting condition. Sucrose (1%, w/v was then introduced to cause environmental changes, and to induce biofilm accumulation. Multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT approach detected up to 60% of proteins encoded by S. mutans within biofilms. Specific proteins associated with exopolysaccharide matrix assembly, metabolic and stress adaptation processes were highly abundant as the biofilm transit from earlier to later developmental stages following sucrose introduction. Our results indicate that S. mutans within a mixed-species biofilm community increases the expression of specific genes associated with glucan synthesis and remodeling (gtfBC, dexA and glucan-binding (gbpB during this transition (P<0.05. Furthermore, S. mutans up-regulates specific adaptation mechanisms to cope with acidic environments (F1F0-ATPase system, fatty acid biosynthesis, branched chain amino acids metabolism, and molecular chaperones (GroEL. Interestingly, the protein levels and gene expression are in general augmented when S. mutans form mixed-species biofilms (vs. single-species biofilms demonstrating fundamental differences in the matrix assembly, survival and biofilm

  8. Tunable catalytic properties of bi-functional mixed oxides in ethanol conversion to high value compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gray, Michel J.; Job, Heather M.; Smith, Colin D.; Wang, Yong

    2016-04-10

    tA highly versatile ethanol conversion process to selectively generate high value compounds is pre-sented here. By changing the reaction temperature, ethanol can be selectively converted to >C2alcohols/oxygenates or phenolic compounds over hydrotalcite derived bi-functional MgO–Al2O3cata-lyst via complex cascade mechanism. Reaction temperature plays a role in whether aldol condensationor the acetone formation is the path taken in changing the product composition. This article containsthe catalytic activity comparison between the mono-functional and physical mixture counterpart to thehydrotalcite derived mixed oxides and the detailed discussion on the reaction mechanisms.

  9. Investigative studies on the effects of cadmium rabbits on high enriched uranium-fueled and low enriched uranium-fueled cores of Ghana Research Reactor-1 using MCNP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffie, J., E-mail: jboffie@yahoo.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana); Akaho, E.H.K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); Nyarko, B.J.B.; Odoi, H.C.; Tuffour-Achampong, K.; Abrefah, R.G. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Material Science, School of Nuclear and Allied Sciences (SNAS), University of Ghana, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic Energy, Accra (Ghana); National Nuclear Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box LG 80, Legon, Accra (Ghana)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The operating parameters for both the HEU core and proposed LEU core were similar. • The length of the Cd in the capsules must be increased for its use in the LEU core. • Cd rabbits can emergently be used to shut down MNSRs. - Abstract: Miniature Neutron Source Reactors (MNSRs) are noted to be among highly safe research reactors. However, because of its use of one control rod for reactivity control and shutdown purposes, alternative methods of shutting it down are important. The Ghana MNSR uses four cadmium rabbits of approximate dimensions 6.5 cm × 5.0 cm × 0.1 cm and mass of 9.48 g each to emergently shut down the reactor. The Monte Carlo N-Particle code; version 5, (MCNP5) was used to design the high enriched uranium (HEU) and low enriched uranium (LEU) cores of the MNSR with four cadmium rabbits inserted in four inner irradiation sites of each core. The operating parameters and shutdown parameters for both cores with the central control rod (CCR) either fully withdrawn or fully inserted had similar results with the HEU core having slightly better results in terms of safety. However, the results show that the four inserted cadmium rabbits make the HEU core subcritical whiles in the LEU core, it still remains critical (k{sub eff} = 1.00005 ± 0.00007). The length of the cadmium material in each cadmium rabbit must therefore be increased by at least 0.5 cm in order to attain subcriticality (k{sub eff} = 0.99989 ± 0.00006) and shutdown margin of 0.11 mk when inserted in the LEU core.

  10. Experimental investigation of late time Rayleigh-Taylor mixing at high Atwood number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchandra, Prasoon; Mikhaeil, Mark; Ranjan, Devesh

    2016-11-01

    Dynamics of late time, high Reynolds number (Re >20000) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing is studied using statistically steady experiments performed in a multi-layer gas tunnel. The density ratio of air and air-Helium mixture used in the present experiment results in an Atwood number 0.73. Three types of diagnostics - back-lit visualization, hot-wire anemometry and stereo particle image velocimetry (S-PIV) - are employed to obtain mixing width, velocity and density fields, with S-PIV employed for the first time for such experimental conditions. Velocity and density statistics, and their correlations (u', v', w',ρ' ,ρ'v') are presented. Calculations of probability density functions (p.d.f.s) and energy spectra are made to provide further insight into the flow physics. Energy budget of the flow is also discussed.

  11. Measurement of the b forward-backward asymmetry and mixing using high-p$_{\\perp}$ leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palla, Fabrizio; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Wildish, T; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The B0-B0# average mixing parameter chi and b forward-backward asymmetry are measured from a sample of 4,200,000 Z -> q qbar events recorded with the ALEPH detector at LEP in the years 1990-1995. High transverse momentum electrons and muons produced in b semileptonic decays provide the tag of the quark flavour and of its charge. The average mixing parameter and the pole b asymmetry are measured to be Chi = 0.1246 +/- 0.0051 stat +/- 0.0052 syst, A0_fb(b) = 0.1008 +/- 0.0043 stat +/- 0.0028 syst. The value of sin^2_eff(theta) = 0.23198 +/- 0.00092 is extracted from the asymmetry measurement.

  12. Seasonal optimal mix of wind and solar power in a future, highly renewable Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Dominik; Bremen, Lueder von; Greiner, Martin

    2010-01-01

    behaviors are able to counterbalance each other to a certain extent to follow the seasonal load curve. The best point of counterbalancing represents the seasonal optimal mix between wind and solar power generation. It leads to a pronounced minimum in required stored energy. For a 100% renewable Europe......The renewable power generation aggregated across Europe exhibits strong seasonal behaviors. Wind power generation is much stronger in winter than in summer. The opposite is true for solar power generation. In a future Europe with a very high share of renewable power generation those two opposite...... the seasonal optimal mix becomes 55% wind and 45% solar power generation. For less than 100% renewable scenarios the fraction of wind power generation increases and that of solar power generation decreases....

  13. Utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium with breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope in the VVER reactors using thorium and heavy water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshalkin, V. E., E-mail: marshalkin@vniief.ru; Povyshev, V. M. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A method for joint utilization of non-weapons-grade plutonium and highly enriched uranium in the thorium–uranium—plutonium oxide fuel of a water-moderated reactor with a varying water composition (D{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}O) is proposed. The method is characterized by efficient breeding of the {sup 233}U isotope and safe reactor operation and is comparatively simple to implement.

  14. Fluxes in PHA-storing microbial communities during enrichment and biopolymer accumulation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janarthanan, Om Murugan; Laycock, Bronwyn; Montano-Herrera, Liliana; Lu, Yang; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica V; Werker, Alan; Pratt, Steven

    2016-01-25

    The use of mixed microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is emerging as a viable technology. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to analyse fluctuations in populations over a 63-day period within a PHA-storing mixed microbial community enriched on fermented whey permeate. This community was dominated by the genera Flavisolibacter and Zoogloea as well as an unidentified organism belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The population was observed to cycle through an increase in Zoogloea followed by a return to a community composition similar to the initial one (highly enriched in Flavisolibacter). It was found that the PHA accumulation capacity of the community was robust to population flux during enrichment and even PHA accumulation, with final polymer composition dependent on the overall proportion of acetic to propionic acids in the feed. This community adaptation suggests that mixed culture PHA production is a robust process.

  15. Design of High-Entropy Alloy: A Perspective from Nonideal Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q. F.; Ding, Z. Y.; Ye, Y. F.; Yang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Since the advent in 2004, high-entropy alloys (HEAs) have been attracting a great deal of research interest worldwide. Being deemed as a major paradigmatic shift, the design of HEAs without base elements poses challenges to the existing thermodynamic models and theories that were long established for traditional alloys, one of which is related to the thermodynamic mechanisms for the formation of random solid solution in a concentrated multicomponent alloy. In this article, we discuss the design of HEAs from the perspective of correlated mixing (nonideal mixing of atoms with interatomic correlations). In a quantitative manner, we can show that the formation of a random solid solution in HEAs depends not only on the number of constituent elements but also on the alloy's melting/processing temperature and on various interatomic correlations. Through the correlated mixing rule, we further demonstrate a strategy to screen out equiatomic alloys with the thermodynamic characteristics close to those of random solid solutions from an expanded library of 20 candidate elements.

  16. Probing the hadron-quark mixed phase at high isospin and baryon density. Sensitive observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Toro, Massimo; Greco, Vincenzo [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Physics and Astronomy Dept., Catania (Italy); Colonna, Maria [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Shao, Guo-Yun [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Department of Applied Physics, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-15

    We discuss the isospin effect on the possible phase transition from hadronic to quark matter at high baryon density and finite temperatures. The two-Equation of State (Two-EoS) model is adopted to describe the hadron-quark phase transition in dense matter formed in heavy-ion collisions. For the hadron sector we use Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) effective models, already tested on heavy-ion collision (HIC). For the quark phase we consider various effective models, the MIT-Bag static picture, the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) approach with chiral dynamics and finally the NJL coupled to the Polyakov-loop field (PNJL), which includes both chiral and (de)confinement dynamics. The idea is to extract mixed phase properties which appear robust with respect to the model differences. In particular we focus on the phase transitions of isospin asymmetric matter, with two main results: (i) an earlier transition to a mixed hadron-quark phase, at lower baryon density/chemical potential with respect to symmetric matter; (ii) an ''Isospin Distillation'' to the quark component of the mixed phase, with predicted effects on the final hadron production. Possible observation signals are suggested to probe in heavy-ion collision experiments at intermediate energies, in the range of the NICA program. (orig.)

  17. High-throughput screening and scale-up of cocrystals using resonant acoustic mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagapudi, Karthik; Umanzor, Evelyn Yanez; Masui, Colin

    2017-04-15

    This paper explores the effectiveness of resonant acoustic mixing RAM for screening and scale up of cocrystals. 16 cocrystal systems were selected as test cases based on previous literature precedent. A 96 well plate set up in conjunction with zirconia beads was used for cocrystal screening using RAM. A success rate of 80% was obtained in the screen for plates containing solvent or solvent plus Zirconia beads. A proof of concept production of hydrated and anhydrous cocrystals of 1:1 Theophylline Citric acid system at a 400mg scale was demonstrated using solvent and bead assisted RAM. Finally the parameters affecting the scale up of 2:1 Theophylline Oxalic acid cocrystals was explored in a systematic fashion using a Design of Experiments DOE approach. The RAM parameters of acceleration and mixing time were optimized using the DOE approach. A quantitative XRPD method was developed to determine the extent of conversion to the cocrystal when using RAM Mixing time of 2h and an acceleration of 60G were determined to be optimal. The optimized parameters were used to demonstrate scale up of 2:1 Theophylline Oxalic acid cocrystals at an 80 gram scale with a net yield of 94%. RAM is thus established as an environmentally friendly mechanochemical technique for both high throughput screening and scaled up production of cocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequential elution of multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides with polar-copolymerized mixed-mode RP18/SCX material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Guo, Zhimou; Sheng, Qianying; Xue, Xingya; Liang, Xinmiao

    2012-06-21

    Novel polar-copolymerized mixed-mode RP18/SCX material was developed for feasible phosphopeptide enrichment, in which multiply and singly phosphorylated peptides could be sequentially eluted and separated with high selectivity.

  19. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of the Impact on Reactor Vessel dpa Rates Due to Installation of a Proposed Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Core in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Charles R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    An assessment of the impact on the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) reactor vessel (RV) displacements-per-atom (dpa) rates due to operations with the proposed low enriched uranium (LEU) core described by Ilas and Primm has been performed and is presented herein. The analyses documented herein support the conclusion that conversion of HFIR to low-enriched uranium (LEU) core operations using the LEU core design of Ilas and Primm will have no negative impact on HFIR RV dpa rates. Since its inception, HFIR has been operated with highly enriched uranium (HEU) cores. As part of an effort sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conversion to LEU cores is being considered for future HFIR operations. The HFIR LEU configurations analyzed are consistent with the LEU core models used by Ilas and Primm and the HEU balance-of-plant models used by Risner and Blakeman in the latest analyses performed to support the HFIR materials surveillance program. The Risner and Blakeman analyses, as well as the studies documented herein, are the first to apply the hybrid transport methods available in the Automated Variance reduction Generator (ADVANTG) code to HFIR RV dpa rate calculations. These calculations have been performed on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Institutional Cluster (OIC) with version 1.60 of the Monte Carlo N-Particle 5 (MCNP5) computer code.

  1. One-Step Facile Synthesis of Aptamer-Modified Graphene Oxide for Highly Specific Enrichment of Human A-Thrombin in Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The enrichment of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples plays an important role in clinical diagnostics and biomedical research. This work reports a novel one-step method for the synthesis of aptamer-modified graphene oxide (GO/Apt nanocomposites, without introducing the use of gold, for the rapid and specific separation and enrichment of human α-thrombin from buffer solutions with highly concentrated interferences. The obtained GO/Apt nanocomposites had remarkable aptamer immobilization, up to 44.8 nmol/mg. Furthermore, GO/Apt nanocomposites exhibited significant specific enrichment efficiency for human α-thrombin (>90%, even under the presence of 3000-fold interference proteins, which was better than the performance of other nanomaterials. Finally, the GO/Apt nanocomposites were applied in the specific capturing of human α-thrombin in highly concentrated human plasma solutions with negligible nonspecific binding of other proteins, which demonstrated their prospects in rare protein analysis and biosensing applications.

  2. Self-structuring foods based on acid-sensitive low and high acyl mixed gellan systems to impact on satiety

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro acid-induced gelation of mixed systems of two biopolymers; low acyl and high acyl gellan gum. Rheological and texture analysis showed that these mixed gels displayed textures that lay between the material properties exhibited for the low and high acyl variants. DSC analysis showed that mixtures of the low acyl and high acyl forms exhibit two separate conformational transitions at temperatures coincident with each of the individual biopolymers. Various meta...

  3. A clinoptilolite-PDMS mixed-matrix membrane for high temperature water softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Farzad; Alizadehgiashi, Moien; Sawada, James A; Kuznicki, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    A mixed-matrix membrane composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the continuous phase and clinoptilolite, a naturally occurring zeolite, as the active phase has been used to decrease the conductivity of water by more than 80% across the membrane. Testing was carried out using a cross-flow configuration at temperatures as high as 160 °C using a constant transmembrane pressure of 8 bar. The simple fabrication method for the membrane, the durability of the system under the test conditions, and a suitable flux rate make such membranes promising candidates for industrial wastewater treatment.

  4. How holistic process control translates into high mix logic fab APC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le-Gratiet, B.; Gatefait, M.; Ducotè, J.; Decaunes, J.; Lam, A.; Beraud, B.; Mikolajczak, M.; Pelletier, A.; Orlando, B.; Sundermann, F.; Ostrovsky, A.; Lapeyre, C.

    2014-10-01

    Advanced CMOS nodes require more and more information to get the wafer process well setup. Process tool intrinsic capabilities are not sufficient to secure specifications. APC systems (Advanced Process Control) are being developed in waferfab to manage process context information to automatically adjust and tune wafer processing. The APC manages today Run to Run component from and between various process steps plus a sub-recipes/profiles corrections management. This paper will outline the architecture of an integrated/holistic process control system for a high mix advanced logic waferfoundry.

  5. Atomistic study of mixing at high Z / low Z interfaces at Warm Dense Matter Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimali, Tomorr; Glosli, James; Rudd, Robert; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Team

    2016-10-01

    We use atomistic simulations to study different aspects of mixing occurring at an initially sharp interface of high Z and low Z plasmas in the Warm/Hot Dense Matter regime. We consider a system of Diamond (the low Z component) in contact with Ag (the high Z component), which undergoes rapid isochoric heating from room temperature up to 10 eV, rapidly changing the solids into warm dense matter at solid density. We simulate the motion of ions via the screened Coulomb potential. The electric field, the electron density and ionizations level are computed on the fly by solving Poisson equation. The spatially varying screening lengths computed from the electron cloud are included in this effective interaction; the electrons are not simulated explicitly. We compute the electric field generated at the Ag-C interface as well as the dynamics of the ions during the mixing process occurring at the plasma interface. Preliminary results indicate an anomalous transport of high Z ions (Ag) into the low Z component (C); a phenomenon that is partially related to the enhanced transport of ions due to the generated electric field. These results are in agreement with recent experimental observation on Au-diamond plasma interface. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Dept. of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. The next generation of target capture technologies - large DNA fragment enrichment and sequencing determines regional genomic variation of high complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapprich, Johannes; Ferriola, Deborah; Mackiewicz, Kate; Clark, Peter M; Rappaport, Eric; D'Arcy, Monica; Sasson, Ariella; Gai, Xiaowu; Schug, Jonathan; Kaestner, Klaus H; Monos, Dimitri

    2016-07-09

    The ability to capture and sequence large contiguous DNA fragments represents a significant advancement towards the comprehensive characterization of complex genomic regions. While emerging sequencing platforms are capable of producing several kilobases-long reads, the fragment sizes generated by current DNA target enrichment technologies remain a limiting factor, producing DNA fragments generally shorter than 1 kbp. The DNA enrichment methodology described herein, Region-Specific Extraction (RSE), produces DNA segments in excess of 20 kbp in length. Coupling this enrichment method to appropriate sequencing platforms will significantly enhance the ability to generate complete and accurate sequence characterization of any genomic region without the need for reference-based assembly. RSE is a long-range DNA target capture methodology that relies on the specific hybridization of short (20-25 base) oligonucleotide primers to selected sequence motifs within the DNA target region. These capture primers are then enzymatically extended on the 3'-end, incorporating biotinylated nucleotides into the DNA. Streptavidin-coated beads are subsequently used to pull-down the original, long DNA template molecules via the newly synthesized, biotinylated DNA that is bound to them. We demonstrate the accuracy, simplicity and utility of the RSE method by capturing and sequencing a 4 Mbp stretch of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our results show an average depth of coverage of 164X for the entire MHC. This depth of coverage contributes significantly to a 99.94 % total coverage of the targeted region and to an accuracy that is over 99.99 %. RSE represents a cost-effective target enrichment method capable of producing sequencing templates in excess of 20 kbp in length. The utility of our method has been proven to generate superior coverage across the MHC as compared to other commercially available methodologies, with the added advantage of producing longer sequencing

  7. High temperature vitrification of surrogate Savannah River Site (SRS) mixed waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applewhite-Ramsey, A.; Schumacher, R.F.; Spatz, T.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Newsom, R.A.; Circeo, L.J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Danjaji, M.B. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has been funded through the DOE Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to investigate high-temperature vitrification technologies for the treatment of diverse low-level and mixed wastes. High temperature vitrification is a likely candidate for processing heterogeneous solid wastes containing low levels of activity. Many SRS wastes fit into this category. Plasma torch technology is one high temperature vitrification method. A trial demonstration of plasma torch processing is being performed at the Georgia Institute of Technology on surrogate SRS wastes. This effort is in cooperation with the Engineering Research and Development Association of Georgia Universities (ERDA) program. The results of phase 1 of these plasma torch trials will be presented.

  8. Two stage hydrolysis of corn stover at high solids content for mixing power saving and scale-up applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    A two stage hydrolysis of corn stover was designed to solve the difficulties between sufficient mixing at high solids content and high power input encountered in large scale bioreactors. The process starts with the quick liquefaction to convert solid cellulose to liquid slurry with strong mixing in small reactors, then followed the comprehensive hydrolysis to complete saccharification into fermentable sugars in large reactors without agitation apparatus. 60% of the mixing energy consumption was saved by removing the mixing apparatus in large scale vessels. Scale-up ratio was small for the first step hydrolysis reactors because of the reduced reactor volume. For large saccharification reactors in the second step, the scale-up was easy because of no mixing mechanism was involved. This two stage hydrolysis is applicable for either simple hydrolysis or combined fermentation processes. The method provided a practical process option for industrial scale biorefinery processing of lignocellulose biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Comparison of Shock and Bubble Heave Energies from Underwater Explosion of Ideal HE and Explosive Composite Mixtures Highly Enriched with Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarov, P. V.; Borisov, A. A.; Sokolov, G. N.; Lavrov, V. V.

    Experimental data on shock wave and bubble heave energies at underwater explosion of charges based on highly enriched with aluminium explosive mixtures are reported. Al/O ratios of the mixtures used are varied from 1.31 to 2.36. Al-rich charges up to 30 g were exploded in basin of 2 m in diameter and 5 m in depth. As a result, Al-rich mixtures used are demonstrates overall specific energies of underwater explosion up to twice higher than conventional high explosives.

  10. Dietary enrichment with fish oil prevents high fat-induced metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Lisa K; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Janovska, Alena; Wittert, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    High saturated fat (HF-S) diets increase intramyocellular lipid, an effect ameliorated by omega-3 fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, though little is known about sex- and muscle fiber type-specific effects. We compared effects of standard chow, HF-S, and 7.5% HF-S replaced with fish oil (HF-FO) diets on the metabolic profile and lipid metabolism gene and protein content in red (soleus) and white (extensor digitorum longus) muscles of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 9-12/group). Weight gain was similar in HF-S- and HF-FO-fed groups. HF-S feeding increased mesenteric fat mass and lipid marker, Oil Red O, in red and mixed muscle; HF-FO increased interscapular brown fat mass. Compared to chow, HF-S and HF-FO increased expression of genes regulating triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid transport, HF-S suppressed genes and proteins regulating fatty acid oxidation, whereas HF-FO increased oxidative genes, proteins and enzymes and lipolytic gene content, whilst suppressing lipogenic genes. In comparison to HF-S, HF-FO further increased fat transporters, markers of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial content, and reduced lipogenic genes. No diet-by-sex interactions were observed. Neither diet influenced fiber type composition. However, some interactions between muscle type and diet were observed. HF-S induced changes in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipogenic genes in red, but not white, muscle, and mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative genes were suppressed by HF-S and increased by HF-FO in red muscle only. In conclusion, HF-S feeding promotes lipid storage in red muscle, an effect abrogated by the fish oil, which increases mediators of lipolysis, oxidation and thermogenesis while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Greater storage and synthesis, and lower oxidative genes in red, but not white, muscle likely contribute to lipid accretion encountered in red muscle. Despite several gender-dimorphic genes, both sexes exhibited a similar HF-S-induced metabolic and gene

  11. Dietary enrichment with fish oil prevents high fat-induced metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa K Philp

    Full Text Available High saturated fat (HF-S diets increase intramyocellular lipid, an effect ameliorated by omega-3 fatty acids in vitro and in vivo, though little is known about sex- and muscle fiber type-specific effects. We compared effects of standard chow, HF-S, and 7.5% HF-S replaced with fish oil (HF-FO diets on the metabolic profile and lipid metabolism gene and protein content in red (soleus and white (extensor digitorum longus muscles of male and female C57BL/6 mice (n = 9-12/group. Weight gain was similar in HF-S- and HF-FO-fed groups. HF-S feeding increased mesenteric fat mass and lipid marker, Oil Red O, in red and mixed muscle; HF-FO increased interscapular brown fat mass. Compared to chow, HF-S and HF-FO increased expression of genes regulating triacylglycerol synthesis and fatty acid transport, HF-S suppressed genes and proteins regulating fatty acid oxidation, whereas HF-FO increased oxidative genes, proteins and enzymes and lipolytic gene content, whilst suppressing lipogenic genes. In comparison to HF-S, HF-FO further increased fat transporters, markers of fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial content, and reduced lipogenic genes. No diet-by-sex interactions were observed. Neither diet influenced fiber type composition. However, some interactions between muscle type and diet were observed. HF-S induced changes in triacylglycerol synthesis and lipogenic genes in red, but not white, muscle, and mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative genes were suppressed by HF-S and increased by HF-FO in red muscle only. In conclusion, HF-S feeding promotes lipid storage in red muscle, an effect abrogated by the fish oil, which increases mediators of lipolysis, oxidation and thermogenesis while inhibiting lipogenic genes. Greater storage and synthesis, and lower oxidative genes in red, but not white, muscle likely contribute to lipid accretion encountered in red muscle. Despite several gender-dimorphic genes, both sexes exhibited a similar HF-S-induced metabolic

  12. Enrichment of fetal cells from maternal blood by high gradient magnetic cell sorting (double MACS) for PCR-based genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büsch, J; Huber, P; Pflüger, E; Miltenyi, S; Holtz, J; Radbruch, A

    1994-12-01

    For simple and effective isolation of fetal cells from peripheral maternal blood, we combined depletion of maternal cells and enrichment of fetal cells by high-gradient magnetic cell separation (MACS). First CD45+ and CD14+ cells were depleted from maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells by MACS. From the depleted fraction, CD71+ erythroid cells were enriched up to 80 per cent by MACS. This double-MACS' procedure yielded an average depletion rate of 780-fold and an average enrichment rate of 500-fold, with approximate recovery rates of 40-55 per cent. For paternity testing, cells from unseparated blood and the various fractions were analysed for polymorphism of the HLA-DQ-A1 locus and D1S80 locus by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In CD45-/CD71+ sorted cells from maternal blood, but not in unfractionated cells from maternal blood or CD45-/CD14- cells, paternal alleles could be detected. In the CD45-/CD71+ fraction, the relative frequency of paternal alleles compared with maternal alleles ranged from 1 in 20 to 1 in 200 (determined by titration and depending on the quality of separation and biological variation). In 7 out of 11 cases, between weeks 12 and 25 of gestation, we could identify paternal alleles by PCR, either HLA-DQ-A1 or D1S80. This double-MACS procedure is simple, fast, efficient, and reliable for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

  13. Advanced mix-and-match using a high-NA i-line scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Jan P.; Harris, Thomas A.; van der Heijden, Ludo; Witko, David; Cossins, John; Foster, James; Ritchie, Douglas R.

    2000-07-01

    Step and Scan technology has matured for the current generation of semiconductor lithography tools and has become the standard for most new fabs and fab expansions. It is estimated that for the year 1999, more than 64 percent of new exposure tool shipments from all vendors were step and scan platforms. For economical mass production in sub 180 nm applications, DUV and i-line lithography have to be combined with critical layers that are exposure during DUV. Semi- critical and non-critical layers are exposed using i-line. The choice to use a stepper ora scanner for the i-line platform becomes critical in terms of operating cost and technical capability. This paper reports on the performance of high resolution, high throughput i-line scanners that are used in mix and match with DUV scanners. Advanced imaging capability is demonstrated on the ASML PAS 5500/400 i-line scanner as well as alignment performance on the most difficult layers using the ATHENA advanced alignment system. Matching strategies are presented along with a cost analysis showing the merits of using i-line scanners for semi- critical and non-critical layers in mix and match.

  14. A mixed ionic and electronic conducting dual-phase membrane with high oxygen permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Liang, Fangyi; Cao, Zhengwen; Steinbach, Frank; Feldhoff, Armin

    2015-04-13

    To combine good chemical stability and high oxygen permeability, a mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) 75 wt% Ce(0.85)Gd(0.1)Cu(0.05)O(2-δ)-25 wt% La(0.6)Ca(0.4)FeO(3-δ)(CGCO-LCF) dual-phase membrane based on a MIEC-MIEC composite has been developed. Copper doping into Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(2-δ) (CGO) oxide enhances both ionic and electronic conductivity, which then leads to a change from ionic conduction to mixed conduction at elevated temperatures. For the first time we demonstrate that an intergranular film with 2-10 nm thickness containing Ce, Ca, Gd, La, and Fe has been formed between the CGCO grains in the CGCO-LCF one-pot dual-phase membrane. A high oxygen permeation flux of 0.70 mL min(-1) cm(-2) is obtained by the CGCO-LCF one-pot dual-phase membrane with 0.5 mm thickness at 950 °C using pure CO2 as the sweep gas, and the membrane shows excellent stability in the presence of CO2 even at lower temperatures (800 °C) during long-term operation.

  15. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY OF COBALT(III) MIXED LIGAND COMPLEXES WITH ACETYLACETONATE AND OXINATE AND MONOMETHYLOXINATE IONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kidani, Yoshinori; Naga, Shinobu; Koike, Hisashi

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of Co(III) mixed ligand complexes with acetylacetonate, and oxinate and monomethyloxinate ions, the authors attempted to employ high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC, for the separation and purification...

  16. An a posteriori-driven adaptive Mixed High-Order method with application to electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Daniele A.; Specogna, Ruben

    2016-12-01

    In this work we propose an adaptive version of the recently introduced Mixed High-Order method and showcase its performance on a comprehensive set of academic and industrial problems in computational electromagnetism. The latter include, in particular, the numerical modeling of comb-drive and MEMS devices. Mesh adaptation is driven by newly derived, residual-based error estimators. The resulting method has several advantageous features: It supports fairly general meshes, it enables arbitrary approximation orders, and has a moderate computational cost thanks to hybridization and static condensation. The a posteriori-driven mesh refinement is shown to significantly enhance the performance on problems featuring singular solutions, allowing to fully exploit the high-order of approximation.

  17. Mixed domain models for the distribution of aluminum in high silica zeolite SSZ-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Subramanian; Petrov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    High silica zeolite SSZ-13 with Si/Al ratios varying from 11 to 17 was characterized by aluminum-27 and silicon-29 NMR spectroscopy. Aluminum-27 MAS and MQMAS NMR data indicated that in addition to tetrahedral aluminum sites, a fraction of aluminum sites are present in distorted tetrahedral environments. Although in samples of SSZ-13 having high Si/Al ratios all aluminum atoms are expected to be isolated, silicon-29 NMR spectra revealed that in addition to isolated aluminum atoms (Si(1Al)), non-isolated aluminum atoms (Si(2Al)) exist in the crystals. To model these contributions of the various aluminum atoms, a mixed-domain distribution was developed, using double-six membered rings (D6R) as the basic building units of SSZ-13. A combination of different ideal domains, one containing isolated and the other with non-isolated aluminum sites, has been found to describe the experimental silicon-29 NMR data.

  18. An overset mesh approach for 3D mixed element high-order discretizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazell, Michael J.; Sitaraman, Jayanarayanan; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    2016-10-01

    A parallel high-order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is used to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in an overset mesh framework. The DG solver has many capabilities including: hp-adaption, curved cells, support for hybrid, mixed-element meshes, and moving meshes. Combining these capabilities with overset grids allows the DG solver to be used in problems with bodies in relative motion and in a near-body off-body solver strategy. The overset implementation is constructed to preserve the design accuracy of the baseline DG discretization. Multiple simulations are carried out to validate the accuracy and performance of the overset DG solver. These simulations demonstrate the capability of the high-order DG solver to handle complex geometry and large scale parallel simulations in an overset framework.

  19. Mix design of concrete with high content of mineral additions: Optimisation to improve early age strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I.A. Khokhar; E. Roziere; P. Turcry; F. Grondin; A. Loukili [Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (GeM), Nantes (France)

    2010-05-15

    The concrete industry is an important source of CO{sub 2} gas emissions. The cement used in the design of concrete is the result of a chemical process linked to the decarbonation of limestone conducted at high temperature and results in a significant release of carbon dioxide. Under the project EcoBeton (Green concrete) funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR), concrete mixtures have been designed with a low cement quantity, by replacing cement by mineral additions i.e., blast-furnace slag, fly ash or limestone fillers. Replacement of cement by other materials at high percentages generally lowers the early age strength of the resulting concrete. To cope with this problem, an optimisation method for mix design of concrete using Bolomey's law has been used. Following the encouraging results obtained from mortar, a series of tests on concretes with various substitution percentages were carried out to validate the optimisation method.

  20. Phylogenetic and Metabolic Diversity of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX)-transforming Bacteria in Strictly Anaerobic Mixed Cultures Enriched on RDX as Nitrogen Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    the Enterobacteriaceae family ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, and Escherichia coli) [10,11... wastewater to methane (70% of the total gas released). The following compounds were added to the basic salts and vitamins medium to enrich bacteria using RDX...RDX biodegradation by a methanogenic enrichment culture obtained from an explosives man- ufacturing wastewater treatment plant. Technical report, pp. 99

  1. Highly efficient differentiation and enrichment of spinal motor neurons derived from human and monkey embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are no cures or efficacious treatments for severe motor neuron diseases. It is extremely difficult to obtain naïve spinal motor neurons (sMNs from human tissues for research due to both technical and ethical reasons. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs are alternative sources. Several methods for MN differentiation have been reported. However, efficient production of naïve sMNs and culture cost were not taken into consideration in most of the methods. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We aimed to establish protocols for efficient production and enrichment of sMNs derived from pluripotent stem cells. Nestin+ neural stem cell (NSC clusters were induced by Noggin or a small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling. After dissociation of NSC clusters, neurospheres were formed in a floating culture containing FGF2. The number of NSCs in neurospheres could be expanded more than 30-fold via several passages. More than 33% of HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were observed after differentiation of dissociated neurospheres by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and a Shh agonist for another week on monolayer culture. HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were enriched by gradient centrifugation up to 80% purity. These HB9+ cells differentiated into electrophysiologically functional cells and formed synapses with myotubes during a few weeks after ATRA/SAG treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The series of procedures we established here, namely neural induction, NSC expansion, sMN differentiation and sMN purification, can provide large quantities of naïve sMNs derived from human and monkey pluripotent stem cells. Using small molecule reagents, reduction of culture cost could be achieved.

  2. Highly Efficient Differentiation and Enrichment of Spinal Motor Neurons Derived from Human and Monkey Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tamaki; Honda, Makoto; Minami, Itsunari; Tooi, Norie; Amagai, Yuji; Nakatsuji, Norio; Aiba, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no cures or efficacious treatments for severe motor neuron diseases. It is extremely difficult to obtain naïve spinal motor neurons (sMNs) from human tissues for research due to both technical and ethical reasons. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are alternative sources. Several methods for MN differentiation have been reported. However, efficient production of naïve sMNs and culture cost were not taken into consideration in most of the methods. Methods/Principal Findings We aimed to establish protocols for efficient production and enrichment of sMNs derived from pluripotent stem cells. Nestin+ neural stem cell (NSC) clusters were induced by Noggin or a small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling. After dissociation of NSC clusters, neurospheres were formed in a floating culture containing FGF2. The number of NSCs in neurospheres could be expanded more than 30-fold via several passages. More than 33% of HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were observed after differentiation of dissociated neurospheres by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and a Shh agonist for another week on monolayer culture. HB9+ sMN progenitor cells were enriched by gradient centrifugation up to 80% purity. These HB9+ cells differentiated into electrophysiologically functional cells and formed synapses with myotubes during a few weeks after ATRA/SAG treatment. Conclusions and Significance The series of procedures we established here, namely neural induction, NSC expansion, sMN differentiation and sMN purification, can provide large quantities of naïve sMNs derived from human and monkey pluripotent stem cells. Using small molecule reagents, reduction of culture cost could be achieved. PMID:19701462

  3. A microdevice for the mixing of a highly viscous biosample with water/membrane protein solution using microchannel and centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liang; Zheng, Yuan F

    2011-02-01

    A mechanism for controlling the mixing of highly viscous biosamples at the microliter scale is presented. Existing methods for mixing biosamples using microstirrers or shaking microwells are only effective for non-highly viscous materials. The proposed mechanism mixes monoolein, a highly viscous biosample, with water/membrane protein solution in a microdevice called microcapsule using a microchannel and centrifugation. To achieve effective mixing, the design of the microcapsule along with the microchannel is presented and so is the hydrodynamic model describing the flow of viscous materials in the microchannel. The mixing process is analyzed according to the Reynolds number of the biosamples using computer simulation, which is observed during the experiment using digital images for further analysis. Finally, the new approach is verified by X-ray diffraction experiments with water and the Rh membrane protein solution, which are used to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing. Experimental results not only validate the proposed method but also determine the flow oscillation time in the microchannel to achieve effective and efficient mixing.

  4. The role of hot spot mix in the low-foot and high-foot implosions on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T.; Patel, P. K.; Izumi, N.; Springer, P. T.; Key, M. H.; Atherton, L. J.; Barrios, M. A.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bionta, R.; Bond, E.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C. J.; Church, J. A.; Clark, D. S.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Dixit, S. N.; Döppner, T.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Edgell, D. H.; Epstein, R.; Field, J.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Glenn, S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Grim, G.; Guler, N.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hatarik, R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hicks, D.; Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jones, O. S.; Kauffman, R.; Khan, S. F.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Kline, J. L.; Kozioziemski, B.; Kritcher, A.; Kyrala, G. A.; Landen, O. L.; Lindl, J. D.; Le Pape, S.; MacGowan, B. J.; Mackinnon, A. J.; MacPhee, A. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, J. D.; Moses, E. I.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Parham, T.; Park, H.-S.; Ralph, J. E.; Regan, S. P.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Ross, J. S.; Salmonson, J. D.; Sater, J.; Sayre, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Shaughnessy, D.; Sio, H.; Spears, B. K.; Smalyuk, V.; Suter, L. J.; Tommasini, R.; Town, R. P. J.; Volegov, P. L.; Wan, A.; Weber, S. V.; Widmann, K.; Wilde, C. H.; Yeamans, C.; Edwards, M. J.

    2017-05-01

    Hydrodynamic mix of the ablator into the DT fuel layer and hot spot can be a critical performance limitation in inertial confinement fusion implosions. This mix results in increased radiation loss, cooling of the hot spot, and reduced neutron yield. To quantify the level of mix, we have developed a simple model that infers the level of contamination using the ratio of the measured x-ray emission to the neutron yield. The principal source for the performance limitation of the "low-foot" class of implosions appears to have been mix. Lower convergence "high-foot" implosions are found to be less susceptible to mix, allowing velocities of >380 km/s to be achieved.

  5. Proposed pushered single shell capsule design for the investigation of mid/high Z mix on the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Ryan; Tipton, Robert; Graziani, Frank

    2016-05-01

    The CD Mix campaign has given a detailed explination of the mix mechanics in the current ignition capsule designs by investigating the relationship between material mixing, shell-fuel interfaces, and the change in thermonuclear yield given a deuterated layer in the capsule. Alternative ignition scenarios include the use of double shell designs that incorporate high-Z material in the capsule. Simulations are conducted on a proposed capsule platform using the ARES code on a scaled capsule design using a partially reduced glass capsule design. This allows for the inclusion of deuterium on the inner surface of the pusher layer similar to the CD mix experiments. The presence of silicon dioxide allows for the investigation of the influence of higher Z material on the mixing characteristics.

  6. Harmonic frequency mixing using high Tc superconductor Josephson junction mounted on pulse tube cryocooler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency mixing system including microwave coupling and intermediate frequency (IF) measurement arrangements is esigned. In lieu of liquid nitrogen, a pulse tube cryocooler is used to cool the whole system. With YBa2Cu3O7/Yttrium stabilized irconia (YBCO/YSZ) bicrystal Josephson junction as the mixing element, 36th harmonic frequency mixing at the 8 mm waveband is obtained.

  7. High-internal-phase-emulsion polymeric monolith coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry for enrichment and sensitive detection of trace cytokinins in plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyou; Sun, Lin; Zhen, Xian; Nie, Honggang; Zheng, Yanjie; Ruan, Guihua; Li, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    High-internal-phase-emulsion polymers (polyHIPEs) show great promise as solid-phase-extraction (SPE) materials because of the tremendous porosity and highly interconnected framework afforded by the high-internal-phase-emulsion (HIPE) technique. In this work, polyHIPE monolithic columns as novel SPE materials were prepared and applied to trace enrichment of cytokinins (CKs) from complex plant samples. The polyHIPE monoliths were synthesized via the in-situ polymerization of the continuous phase of a HIPE containing styrene (STY) and divinylbenzene (DVB) in a stainless column, and revealed highly efficient and selective enrichment ability for aromatic compounds. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a method using a monolithic polyHIPE column combined with liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and sensitive determination of trans-zeatin (tZ), meta-topolin (mT), kinetin (K), and kinetin riboside (KR). The proposed method had good linearity, with correlation coefficients (R (2)) from 0.9957 to 0.9984, and low detection limits (LODs, S/N = 3) in the range 2.4-47 pg mL(-1) for the four CKs. The method was successfully applied to the determination of CKs in real plant samples, and obtained good recoveries ranging from 68.8 % to 103.0 % and relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 16 %.

  8. Numerical analysis to four-wave mixing induced spectral broadening in high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yujun; Wang, Xiaojun; Ke, Weiwei; Sun, Yinhong; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Yi; Li, Tenglong; Wang, Yanshan; Wu, Juan

    2015-02-01

    For powers exceeding a threshold the spectral broadening in fiber amplifiers becomes a significant challenge for the development of high power narrow bandwidth fiber lasers. In this letter, we show that the spectral broadening can be partly caused by four-wave mixing(FWM) process in which the power of the central wavelength would transfer to the side ones. A practical FWM induced spectral broadening theory has been derived from the early works. A numerical model of fiber amplifier has been established and FWM process has been added to the model. During the simulation process, we find that when a 10 GHz, several watts narrow bandwidth laser is seeded into a few modes fiber laser amplifier, the FWM induced spectral broadening effect might continually increase the FWHM of the spectra of the continuum laser to 100 GHz within the amplification process to several hundred watts which has been convinced by our experiments. Some other results have also been analyzed in this paper to complete the four-wave mixing induced spectral broadening theory in fiber amplifiers.

  9. Highly Sensitive Bacteriophage-Based Detection of Brucella abortus in Mixed Culture and Spiked Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Sergueev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For decades, bacteriophages (phages have been used for Brucella species identification in the diagnosis and epidemiology of brucellosis. Traditional Brucella phage typing is a multi-day procedure including the isolation of a pure culture, a step that can take up to three weeks. In this study, we focused on the use of brucellaphages for sensitive detection of the pathogen in clinical and other complex samples, and developed an indirect method of Brucella detection using real-time quantitative PCR monitoring of brucellaphage DNA amplification via replication on live Brucella cells. This assay allowed the detection of single bacteria (down to 1 colony-forming unit per milliliter within 72 h without DNA extraction and purification steps. The technique was equally efficient with Brucella abortus pure culture and with mixed cultures of B. abortus and α-proteobacterial near neighbors that can be misidentified as Brucella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi and Afipia felis. The addition of a simple short sample preparation step enabled the indirect phage-based detection of B. abortus in spiked blood, with the same high sensitivity. This indirect phage-based detection assay enables the rapid and sensitive detection of live B. abortus in mixed cultures and in blood samples, and can potentially be applied for detection in other clinical samples and other complex sample types.

  10. Highly efficient four wave mixing in GaInP photonic crystal waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhouse, V; Cestier, I; Eisenstein, G; Combrié, S; Colman, P; De Rossi, A; Santagiustina, M; Someda, C G; Vadalà, G

    2010-05-01

    We report highly efficient four wave mixing in a GaInP photonic crystal waveguide. Owing to its large bandgap, the ultrafast Kerr nonlinearity of GaInP is not diminished by two photon absorption and related carrier effects for photons in the 1550 nm range. A four-wave-mixing efficiency of -49 dB was demonstrated for cw pump and probe signals in the milliwatt range, while for pulsed pumps with a peak power of 25 mW the conversion efficiency increased to -36 dB. Measured conversion efficiency dependencies on pump probe detuning and on pump power are in excellent agreement with a simple analytical model from which the nonlinear parameter gamma is extracted. Gamma scales approximately with the square of the slow down factor and varies from 800 W(-1) m(-1) at a pump wavelength lambda(p)=1532 nm to 2900 W(-1) m(-1) at lambda(p)=1550 nm. These values are consistent with those obtained from self phase modulation experiments in similar devices.

  11. The behaviour of arcs in carbon mixed-mode high-power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, M. D.; Putman, K. J.; Ganesan, R.; Lattemann, M.; Stueber, M.; Ulrich, S.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.; Marks, N. A.

    2017-04-01

    Mixed-mode deposition of carbon is an extension of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering in which a short-lived arc is deliberately allowed to ignite on the target surface to increase the ionised fraction of carbon in the deposition flux. Here we investigate the ignition and evolution of these arcs and examine their behaviour for different conditions of argon pressure, power supply voltage, and current. We find that mixed-mode deposition is sensitive to the condition of the target surface, and changing the operating parameters causes changes in the target surface condition which themselves affect the discharge in a process of negative feedback. Initially the arcs are evenly distributed on the target racetrack, but after a long period of operation the mode of erosion changes and arcs become localised in a small region, resulting in a pronounced nodular structure. We also quantify macroparticle generation and observe a power-law size distribution typical of arc discharges. Fewer particles are generated for operation at lower Ar pressure when the arc spot velocity is higher.

  12. Mixed-ligand Al complex-a new approach for more high efficient OLEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, Petia K., E-mail: petia@clf.bas.bg [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G Bonchev st., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tomova, Reni L.; Stoycheva-Topalova, Rumiana T. [Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G Bonchev st., bl. 109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kaloyanova, Stefka S.; Deligeorgiev, Todor G. [Applied Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2012-02-15

    The mixed-ligand Aluminum bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) acetylacetonate (Alq{sub 2}Acac) complex was presented and its performance as electroluminescent and electron transporting layer for OLED was studied. The photophysical properties of the novel complex were investigated and compared with the properties of the parent Alq{sub 3}. Highly efficient OLED based on the mixed-ligand Al complex was developed with two times higher luminescence and efficiency compared to the identical OLED based on the conventional Alq{sub 3} The better performance of the devices make the novel Al complex a very promising material for OLEDs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel electroluminescent Alq{sub 2}Acac complex is presented as material for OLED. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electroluminescent emission of Alq{sub 2}Acac is very similar to that of commercial Alq{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Devices with Alq{sub 2}Acac show better characteristics compared to those with Alq{sub 3}.

  13. Mixing Characteristics of Coaxial Injectors at High Gas to Liquid Momentum Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Hutt, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the spray of a swirl coaxial gas-liquid injector operating at high gas to liquid momentum ratios is reported. Mixing and droplet size characteristics of the swirl injector are also compared to a shear coaxial injector, currently being used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner. The injectors were tested at elevated chamber pressures using water as a LOX simulant and nitrogen and helium as gaseous hydrogen simulants. The elevated chamber pressure allowed for matching of several of the preburner injector conditions including; gas to liquid momentum ratio, density ratio and Mach number. Diagnostic techniques used to characterize the spray included; strobe back-light imaging, laser sheet spray imaging, mechanical patternation, and a phase Doppler interferometry. Results thus far indicate that the radial spreading of the swirl coaxial spray is much less than was reported in previous studies of swirl injectors operating at atmospheric back-pressure. The swirl coaxial spray does, however, exhibit a smaller overall droplet size which may be interpreted as an increase in local mixing.

  14. Spatial heterogeneity as a genetic mixing mechanism in highly philopatric colonial seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofari, Robin; Trucchi, Emiliano; Whittington, Jason D; Vigetta, Stéphanie; Gachot-Neveu, Hélène; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2015-01-01

    How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the importance of

  15. Spatial heterogeneity as a genetic mixing mechanism in highly philopatric colonial seabirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Cristofari

    Full Text Available How genetic diversity is maintained in philopatric colonial systems remains unclear, and understanding the dynamic balance of philopatry and dispersal at all spatial scales is essential to the study of the evolution of coloniality. In the King penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, return rates of post-fledging chicks to their natal sub-colony are remarkably high. Empirical studies have shown that adults return year after year to their previous breeding territories within a radius of a few meters. Yet, little reliable data are available on intra- and inter-colonial dispersal in this species. Here, we present the first fine-scale study of the genetic structure in a king penguin colony in the Crozet Archipelago. Samples were collected from individual chicks and analysed at 8 microsatellite loci. Precise geolocation data of hatching sites and selective pressures associated with habitat features were recorded for all sampling locations. We found that despite strong natal and breeding site fidelity, king penguins retain a high degree of panmixia and genetic diversity. Yet, genetic structure appears markedly heterogeneous across the colony, with higher-than-expected inbreeding levels, and local inbreeding and relatedness hotspots that overlap predicted higher-quality nesting locations. This points towards heterogeneous population structure at the sub-colony level, in which fine-scale environmental features drive local philopatric behaviour, while lower-quality patches may act as genetic mixing mechanisms at the colony level. These findings show how a lack of global genetic structuring can emerge from small-scale heterogeneity in ecological parameters, as opposed to the classical model of homogeneous dispersal. Our results also emphasize the importance of sampling design for estimation of population parameters in colonial seabirds, as at high spatial resolution, basic genetic features are shown to be location-dependent. Finally, this study stresses the

  16. High yield simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production under extreme-thermophilic (70 C) mixed culture environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chenxi [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Lu, Wenjing; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The effect of pH and medium composition on extreme-thermophilic (70 C) dark fermentative simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (process performance and microbial ecology) was investigated. Hydrogen and ethanol yields were optimized with respect to glucose, peptone, FeSO{sub 4}, NaHCO{sub 3}, yeast extract, trace mineral salts, vitamins, and phosphate buffer concentrations as well as initial pH as independent variables. A combination of low levels of both glucose ({<=}2 g/L) and vitamin solutions ({<=}1 mL/L) and high levels of initial pH ({>=}7), mineral salts solution ({>=}5 mL/L) and FeSO{sub 4} ({>=}100 mg/L) stimulated the hydrogen production, while high level of glucose ({>=}5 g/L) and low levels of both initial pH ({<=}5.5) and mineral salts solution ({<=}1 mL/L) enhanced the ethanol production. High yield of simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production (1.58 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose combined with an ethanol yield of 0.90 mol ethanol/mol glucose) was achieved under extreme-thermophilic mixed culture environment. Results obtained showed that the shift of the metabolic pathways favouring either hydrogen or ethanol production was affected by the change in cultivation conditions (pH and medium composition). The mixed culture in this study demonstrated flexible ability for simultaneous hydrogen and ethanol production, depending on pH and nutrients formulation. The microorganisms involved could be regarded as simultaneous hydrogen/ethanol producers, as hydrogen and ethanol fermentation under all conditions was carried out by a group of extreme-thermophilic bacterial species related to Thermoanaerobacter, Thermoanaerobacterium and Caldanaerobacter. (author)

  17. Portable mixed abrasive water jet equipment for rescue in high gas mine shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rui; DU Chang-long; XU Rui; ZHAO Jing

    2011-01-01

    In order to rescue a trapped miner and clean out roadways quickly in a high gas mine shaft after a mining mishap, a special portable cold-cutting equipment is needed, the main technology parameters were calculated according to the advanced cold-cutting technology of high pressure abrasive water jet and the portable mixed abrasive water jet equipment (PAWE) was designed to meet the needs of emergency rescue in high gas mine shafts. Tested the PAWE in a high gas environment, and the result shows that the maximum cutting depth of solid iron pipe is 18 mm and the recoilforce of the sprayer is 28.9 N under the conditions that actual cutting pressure is 29 MPa, starting target distance is 10 mm, cutting speed is 180 mm/min and concentration of abrasive is 32%. The course of the experiment in the high gas environment was smooth and continuous, without any explosion. The PAWE is easy to move and operate, but the nozzle which was worn badly in the sprayer should be changed every 8 minutes.

  18. Experiments and Simulations of the Use of Time-Correlated Thermal Neutron Counting to Determine the Multiplication of an Assembly of Highly Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw; Scott M. Watson; Jeffrey M. Kalter; Eric C. Miller; William A. Noonan

    2014-11-01

    A series of experiments and numerical simulations using thermal-neutron time-correlated measurements has been performed to determine the neutron multiplication, M, of assemblies of highly enriched uranium available at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiments used up to 14.4 kg of highly-enriched uranium, including bare assemblies and assemblies reflected with high-density polyethylene, carbon steel, and tungsten. A small 252Cf source was used to initiate fission chains within the assembly. Both the experiments and the simulations used 6-channel and 8-channel detector systems, each consisting of 3He proportional counters moderated with polyethylene; data was recorded in list mode for analysis. 'True' multiplication values for each assembly were empirically derived using basic neutron production and loss values determined through simulation. A total of one-hundred and sixteen separate measurements were performed using fifty-seven unique measurement scenarios, the multiplication varied from 1.75 to 10.90. This paper presents the results of these comparisons and discusses differences among the various cases.

  19. Experiments and Simulations of the Use of Time-Correlated Thermal Neutron Counting to Determine the Multiplication of an Assembly of Highly Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw; Scott M. Watson; Jeffrey M. Kalter; Eric C. Miller; William A. Noonan

    2014-11-01

    A series of experiments and numerical simulations using thermal-neutron time-correlated measurements has been performed to determine the neutron multiplication, M, of assemblies of highly enriched uranium available at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiments used up to 14.4 kg of highly-enriched uranium, including bare assemblies and assemblies reflected with high-density polyethylene, carbon steel, and tungsten. A small 252Cf source was used to initiate fission chains within the assembly. Both the experiments and the simulations used 6-channel and 8-channel detector systems, each consisting of 3He proportional counters moderated with polyethylene; data was recorded in list mode for analysis. 'True' multiplication values for each assembly were empirically derived using basic neutron production and loss values determined through simulation. A total of one-hundred and sixteen separate measurements were performed using fifty-seven unique measurement scenarios, the multiplication varied from 1.75 to 10.90. This paper presents the results of these comparisons and discusses differences among the various cases.

  20. Effects of Q&P Processing Conditions on Austenite Carbon Enrichment Studied by In Situ High-Energy X-ray Diffraction Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Yves Pierre Allain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first ultra-fast time-resolved quantitative information on the quenching and partitioning process of conventional high-strength steel by an in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD experiment. The time and temperature evolutions of phase fractions, their carbon content, and internal stresses were determined and discussed for different process parameters. It is shown that the austenite-to-martensite transformation below the martensite start temperature Ms is followed by a stage of fast carbon enrichment in austenite during isothermal holding at both 400 and 450 °C. The analysis proposed supports the concurrent bainite transformation and carbon diffusion from martensite to austenite as the main mechanisms of this enrichment. Furthermore, we give evidence that high hydrostatic tensile stresses in austenite are produced during the final quenching, and must be taken into account for the estimation of the carbon content in austenite. Finally, a large amount of carbon is shown to be trapped in the microstructure.

  1. Formation of high nuclearity mixed-valent polyoxovanadates in the presence of copper amine complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jency Thomas; Sanjeev Sharma; S E Lofland; K V Ramanujachary; A Ramanana

    2006-01-01

    Two new Müller-type clusters, a one-dimensional solid {Cu()2}4[Cl ⊂ V15O36]$\\cdot$12H2O 1, and a three-dimensional solid {Cu()2}4[Cl ⊂ V18O42]$\\cdot$12H2O 2, have been synthesised by employing identical hydrothermal conditions except varying the nature of organic diamine. 1 crystallised in a chiral space group 212121 with = 12.757(1), = 18.927(2) and = 28.590(3) Å, and = 4. 2 crystallised in a tetragonal system with space group 4/, = 15.113(1) and = 18.542(3) Å, and = 2. Mixed-valent vanadium ions in structures 1 and 2 have been established both by magnetisation and bond-length bondvalence measurements. Chemistry of formation of high nuclearity polyoxovanadate clusters is discussed.

  2. The Single Minute Exchange of Die Methodology in a High-Mix Processing Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filla Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of turbulence in the economic environment, enterprises must react flexibly to the changing demands of their customers. Thus, a changeover process is required. If an enterprise has a large product portfolio, there are basically only two process options; to integrate production into large batches or to change the production programme frequently. Frequent changes associated with the changeover process of machinery are optimized by using the SMED method. The main goal of this paper is to apply SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die to a High-Mix processing line. The case study is undertaken in a flat glass processing company which manufactures hundreds of types of products. The results of the case study demonstrate that it is possible to save up to 30% annually of the time currently spent on changeovers.

  3. Broadband wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailing; Demokan, M S

    2005-09-15

    We demonstrate a 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a 20 m highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. The tunable wavelength conversion bandwidth (3 dB) is about 100 nm. The conversion efficiency is -16 dB when the pump power is 22.5 dBm. Phase modulation was not used to suppress the stimulated Brillouin scattering; thus the linewidth of the converted wavelength remained very narrow. The eye diagrams show that there is no additional noise during wavelength conversion. The measured power penalty at a 10(-9) bit-error-rate level is about 0.7 dB.

  4. Detailed characterization of CW- and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillieholm, M; Galili, M; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Oxenløwe, L K

    2016-11-01

    We present a quantitative comparison of continuous-wave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW- and pulsed-pump FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CW- and pulsed-pump parametric gain is characterized experimentally for several HNLFs with various dispersion properties, including zero-dispersion wavelength fluctuations, and the results are interpreted in conjunction with detailed numerical simulations. It is found that a low third-order dispersion (TOD) is essential for the pulsed-pump FWM bandwidth. However, an inverse scaling of the TOD with the dispersion fluctuations leads to different CW-optimized fibers, which depend only on the even dispersion orders.

  5. Carbon dioxide selective adsorption within a highly stable mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Lin

    2014-08-01

    A new mixed-ligand Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Zn4(2-mbIm) 3(bIm)5·4H2O (named JUC-160, 2-mbIm = 2-methylbenzimidazole, bIm = benzimidazole and JUC = Jilin University China) was synthesized with a solvothermal reaction of Zn(NO3) 2·6H2O, bIm and 2-mbIm in DMF solution at 180 °C. Topological analysis indicated that JUC-160 has a zeolite GIS (gismondine) topology. Study of the gas adsorption and thermal and chemical stability of JUC-160 demonstrated its selective adsorption property for carbon dioxide, high thermal stability, and remarkable chemical resistance to boiling alkaline water and organic solvent for up to one week. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Highly efficient H 1-Galerkin mixed finite element method (MFEM) for parabolic integro-differential equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东洋; 廖歆; 唐启立

    2014-01-01

    A highly effcient H 1-Galerkin mixed finite element method (MFEM) is presented with linear triangular element for the parabolic integro-differential equation. Firstly, some new results about the integral estimation and asymptotic expansions are studied. Then, the superconvergence of order O(h2) for both the original variable u in H1(Ω) norm and the flux p=∇u in H(div,Ω) norm is derived through the interpolation post processing technique. Furthermore, with the help of the asymptotic expansions and a suitable auxiliary problem, the extrapolation solutions with accuracy O(h3) are obtained for the above two variables. Finally, some numerical results are provided to confirm validity of the theoretical analysis and excellent performance of the proposed method.

  7. Advanced high pressure engine study for mixed-mode vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscher, W. P.; Mellish, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    High pressure liquid rocket engine design, performance, weight, envelope, and operational characteristics were evaluated for a variety of candidate engines for use in mixed-mode, single-stage-to-orbit applications. Propellant property and performance data were obtained for candidate Mode 1 fuels which included: RP-1, RJ-5, hydrazine, monomethyl-hydrazine, and methane. The common oxidizer was liquid oxygen. Oxygen, the candidate Mode 1 fuels, and hydrogen were evaluated as thrust chamber coolants. Oxygen, methane, and hydrogen were found to be the most viable cooling candidates. Water, lithium, and sodium-potassium were also evaluated as auxiliary coolant systems. Water proved to be the best of these, but the system was heavier than those systems which cooled with the engine propellants. Engine weight and envelope parametric data were established for candidate Mode 1, Mode 2, and dual-fuel engines. Delivered engine performance data were also calculated for all candidate Mode 1 and dual-fuel engines.

  8. A highly enriched niche of precursor cells with neuronal and glial potential within the hair follicle dermal papilla of adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, David P J; Morris, Paul N; Sterling, Jane; Anderson, Jane A; Joannides, Alexis; Jahoda, Colin; Compston, Alastair; Chandran, Siddharthan

    2008-01-01

    Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) are multipotent neural crest-related stem cells that grow as self-renewing spheres and are capable of generating neurons and myelinating glial cells. SKPs are of clinical interest because they are accessible and potentially autologous. However, although spheres can be readily isolated from embryonic and neonatal skin, SKP frequency falls away sharply in adulthood, and primary sphere generation from adult human skin is more problematic. In addition, the culture-initiating cell population is undefined and heterogeneous, limiting experimental studies addressing important aspects of these cells such as the behavior of endogenous precursors in vivo and the molecular mechanisms of neural generation. Using a combined fate-mapping and microdissection approach, we identified and characterized a highly enriched niche of neural crest-derived sphere-forming cells within the dermal papilla of the hair follicle of adult skin. We demonstrated that the dermal papilla of the rodent vibrissal follicle is 1,000-fold enriched for sphere-forming neural crest-derived cells compared with whole facial skin. These "papillaspheres" share a phenotypic and developmental profile similar to that of SKPs, can be readily expanded in vitro, and are able to generate both neuronal and glial cells in response to appropriate cues. We demonstrate that papillaspheres can be efficiently generated and expanded from adult human facial skin by microdissection of a single hair follicle. This strategy of targeting a highly enriched niche of sphere-forming cells provides a novel and efficient method for generating neuronal and glial cells from an accessible adult somatic source that is both defined and minimally invasive.

  9. Controlled incremental filtration: a simplified approach to design and fabrication of high-throughput microfluidic devices for selective enrichment of particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Sean C; Spillane, Angela M; Vignes, Seth M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2014-12-07

    The number of microfluidic strategies aimed at separating particles or cells of a specific size within a continuous flow system continues to grow. The wide array of biomedical and other applications that would benefit from successful development of such technology has motivated the extensive research in this area over the past 15 years. However, despite promising advancements in microfabrication capabilities, a versatile approach that is suitable for a large range of particle sizes and high levels of enrichment, with a volumetric throughput sufficient for large-scale applications, has yet to emerge. Here we describe a straightforward method that enables the rapid design of microfluidic devices that are capable of enriching/removing particles within a complex aqueous mixture, with an unprecedented range of potential cutoff diameter (below 1 μm to above 100 μm) and an easily scalable degree of enrichment/filtration (up to 10-fold and well beyond). A simplified model of a new approach to crossflow filtration - controlled incremental filtration - was developed and validated for its ability to generate microfluidic devices that efficiently separate particles on the order of 1-10 μm, with throughputs of tens of μL min(-1), without the use of a pump. Precise control of the amount of fluid incrementally diverted at each filtration "gap" of the device allows for the gap size (~20 μm) to be much larger than the particles of interest, while the simplicity of the model allows for many thousands of these filtration points to be readily incorporated into a desired device design. This new approach should enable truly high-throughput microfluidic particle-separation devices to be generated, even by users only minimally experienced in fluid mechanics and microfabrication techniques.

  10. Facile synthesis of boronate-decorated polyethyleneimine-grafted hybrid magnetic nanoparticles for the highly selective enrichment of modified nucleosides and ribosylated metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Shan, Yuanhong; Qiao, Lizhen; Dou, Abo; Shi, Xianzhe; Xu, Guowang

    2013-12-03

    Ribosylated metabolites, especially modified nucleosides, have been extensively evaluated as cancer-related biomarkers. Boronate adsorbents are considered to be promising materials for extracting them from complex matrices. However, the enrichment of ribosylated metabolites in low abundance is still a challenge due to the limited capacity and selectivity of the existing boronate adsorbents. In this study, a novel type of magnetic nanoparticles named Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-FPBA was synthesized by grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2 before modification by boronate groups. The high density of the amino groups on the PEI chains supplied a large number of binding sites for boronate groups. Thus, the adsorption capacity (1.34 ± 0.024 mg/g) of the nanoparticles, which is 6- to 7-fold higher than that of analogous materials, was greatly improved. The unreacted secondary amines and tertiary amines of the PEI enhanced the aqueous solubility of the nanoparticles, which could efficiently reduce nonspecific adsorption. The nanoparticles were able to capture 1,2 cis-diol nucleosides from 1000-fold interferences. Moreover, the flexible chains of PEI were favorable for effective enrichment and quick equilibration (nanoparticles. Among them, 43 were identified to be nucleosides and other ribosylated metabolites. Nine low abundance modified nucleosides were detected for the first time. In conclusion, Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI-FPBA is an attractive candidate material for the highly selective enrichment of 1,2-cis-diol compounds.

  11. Maize Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense Ab-V5 Cells Enriched with Exopolysaccharides and Polyhydroxybutyrate Results in High Productivity under Low N Fertilizer Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. M. Oliveira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although Azospirillum strains used in commercial inoculant formulations presents diazotrophic activity, it has been reported that their ability to produce phytohormones plays a pivotal role in plant growth-promotion, leading to a general recommendation of its use in association with regular N-fertilizer doses. In addition, a high variability in the effectiveness of Azospirillum inoculants is still reported under field conditions, contributing to the adoption of the inoculation technology as an additional management practice rather than its use as an alternative practice to the use of chemical inputs in agriculture. To investigate whether the content of stress-resistance biopolymers would improve the viability and performance of Azospirillum inoculants when used as substitute of N-fertilizers, biomass of A. brasilense strain Ab-V5 enriched in exopolysaccharides (EPS and polyhydroxybutirate (PHB was produced using a new culture medium developed by factorial mixture design, and the effectiveness of resulting inoculants was evaluated under field conditions. The culture medium formulation extended the log phase of A. brasilense cultures, which presented higher cell counts and increased EPS and PHB contents than observed in the cultures grown in the OAB medium used as control. An inoculation trial with maize conducted under greenhouse conditions and using the biopolymers-enriched Ab-V5 cells demonstrated the importance of EPS and PHB to the long term bacterial viability in soil and to the effectiveness of inoculation. The effectiveness of liquid and peat inoculants prepared with Ab-V5 cells enriched with EPS and PHB was also evaluated under field conditions, using maize as target crop along different seasons, with the inoculants applied directly over seeds or at topdressing under limiting levels of N-fertilization. No additive effect on yield resulted from inoculation under high N fertilizer input, while inoculated plants grown under 80% reduction in

  12. Statistical-noise reduction in correlation analysis of high-energy nuclear collisions with event-mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, R L

    2016-01-01

    The error propagation and statistical-noise reduction method of Reid and Trainor for two-point correlation applications in high-energy collisions is extended to include particle-pair references constructed by mixing two particles from all event-pair combinations within event subsets of arbitrary size. The Reid-Trainor method is also applied to other particle-pair mixing algorithms commonly used in correlation analysis of particle production from high-energy nuclear collisions. The statistical-noise reduction, inherent in the Reid-Trainor event-mixing procedure, is shown to occur for these other event-mixing algorithms as well. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented which verify the predicted degree of noise reduction. In each case the final errors are determined by the bin-wise particle-pair number, rather than by the bin-wise single-particle count.

  13. Statistical-noise reduction in correlation analysis of high-energy nuclear collisions with event-mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, R.L., E-mail: ray@physics.utexas.edu; Bhattarai, P.

    2016-06-11

    The error propagation and statistical-noise reduction method of Reid and Trainor for two-point correlation applications in high-energy collisions is extended to include particle-pair references constructed by mixing two particles from all event-pair combinations within event subsets of arbitrary size. The Reid–Trainor method is also applied to other particle-pair mixing algorithms commonly used in correlation analysis of particle production from high-energy nuclear collisions. The statistical-noise reduction, inherent in the Reid–Trainor event-mixing procedure, is shown to occur for these other event-mixing algorithms as well. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented which verify the predicted degree of noise reduction. In each case the final errors are determined by the bin-wise particle-pair number, rather than by the bin-wise single-particle count.

  14. High-efficient nitrogen removal by coupling enriched autotrophic-nitrification and aerobic-denitrification consortiums at cold temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiqiang; Yao, Shuo; Ni, Jinren

    2014-06-01

    This study paid particular attention to total nitrogen removal at low temperature (10°C) by excellent coupling of enriched autotrophic nitrifying and heterotrophic denitrifying consortiums at sole aerobic condition. The maximum specific nitrifying rate of the nitrifying consortium reached 8.85mgN/(gSSh). Further test in four identical lab-scale sequencing batch reactors demonstrated its excellent performance for bioaugmentation in potential applications. On the other hand, the aerobic denitrifying consortium could achieve a specific denitrifying rate of 32.93mgN/(gSSh) under dissolved oxygen of 1.0-1.5mg/L at 10°C. Coupling both kinds of consortiums was proved very successful for a perfect total nitrogen (TN) removal at COD/N of 4 and dissolved oxygen of 1.5-4.5mg/L, which was hardly reached by any single consortium reported previously. The encouraging results from coupling aerobic consortiums implied a huge potential in practical treatment of low-strength domestic wastewater (200-300mg/L COD) during wintertime.

  15. Radiofrequency electric-field heating behaviors of highly enriched semiconducting and metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart J. Corr[1,2,3; Mustafa Raoof[2,4; Brandon T. Cisneros[2,3,5; Alvin W. Orbaek[3; Matthew A. Cheney[1,2,3; Justin J. Law[1,3; Nadia C. Lara[1,3; Andrew R. Barron[3,6; Lon J. Wilsor[3; Steven A. Curley[1,2,7

    2015-01-01

    It is theorized that enhanced thermal heating may result from exposing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) embedded in a conductive host to radiofrequency (RF) electric fields. We examine the RF-induced (13.56 MHz) heating behaviors of 95% metallic- and semiconducting-enriched SWNTs (m-/s-SWNTs) suspended in aqueous solutions with varying NaC1 molarity (0.001 mM-1 M). The heating effects were only evident for host molarities below 1 mM (equivalent to 0.1 S/m) at which the s-SWNT heating rates dominated those of the m-SWNTs. The heating effects were localized to aligned and aggregated "SWNT ropes" -1 cm in length that formed in suspension, parallel to the electric-field vector, during the RF exposure. For molarities above 1 mM, no enhancements were evident, owing to the large heating effects of the bulk ionic NaC1 suspensions, which were observed in previous studies. Although larger enhancement effects proportional to the host conductivity have been theoretically predicted for m-/s-SWNT suspensions, this was not observed most likely because of the aggregation and screening effects, which diminished the scattered electric field near the m-/s-SWNTs. Our research may further the development of better nanoparticle heating agents for applications such as non-invasive RF-induced cancer hyperthermia.

  16. Comparative studies on mitochondria isolated from neuron-enriched and glia-enriched fractions of rabbit and beef brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, A; Blomstrand, C; Lehninger, A L

    1970-05-01

    Fractions enriched in neuronal and glial cells were obtained from dispersions of whole beef brain and rabbit cerebral cortex by large-scale density gradient centrifugation procedures. The fractions were characterized by appropriate microscopic observation. Mitochondria were then isolated from these fractions by differential centrifugation of their homogenates. The two different types of mitochondria were characterized with respect to certain enzyme activities, respiratory rate, rate of protein synthesis, and their buoyant density in sucrose gradients. The mitochondria from the neuron-enriched fraction were distinguished by a higher rate of incorporation of amino acids into protein, higher cytochrome oxidase activity, and a higher buoyant density in sucrose density gradients. Mitochondria from the glia-enriched fraction showed relatively high monoamine oxidase and Na(+)- and K(+)-stimulated ATPase activities. The rates of oxidation of various substrates and the acceptor control ratios did not differ appreciably between the two types of mitochondria. The difference in the buoyant density of mitochondria isolated from the neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cell fractions was utilized in attempts to separate neuronal and glial mitochondria from the mixed mitochondria obtained from whole brain homogenates in shallow sucrose gradients. The appearance of two peaks of cytochrome oxidase, monoamine oxidase, and protein concentration in such gradients shows the potential feasibility of such an approach.

  17. EBSD and TEM characterization of high burn-up mixed oxide fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, Melissa; Gorman, Brian; Miller, Brandon; King, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and studying the irradiation behavior of high burn-up oxide fuel is critical to licensing of future fast breeder reactors. Advancements in experimental techniques and equipment are allowing for new insights into previously irradiated samples. In this work dual column focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscope (SEM) was utilized to prepared transmission electron microscope samples from mixed oxide fuel with a burn-up of 6.7% FIMA. Utilizing the FIB/SEM for preparation resulted in samples with a dose rate of <0.5 mRem/h compared to ∼1.1 R/h for a traditionally prepared TEM sample. The TEM analysis showed that the sample taken from the cooler rim region of the fuel pellet had ∼2.5× higher dislocation density than that of the sample taken from the mid-radius due to the lower irradiation temperature of the rim. The dual column FIB/SEM was additionally used to prepared and serially slice ∼25 μm cubes. High quality electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) were collected from the face at each step, showing, for the first time, the ability to obtain EBSD data from high activity irradiated fuel.

  18. High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giewekemeyer, Klaus; Philipp, Hugh T.; Wilke, Robin N.; Aquila, Andrew; Osterhoff, Markus; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Zozulya, Alexey V.; Salditt, Tim; Gruner, Sol M.; Mancuso, Adrian P.

    2014-01-01

    Coherent (X-ray) diffractive imaging (CDI) is an increasingly popular form of X-ray microscopy, mainly due to its potential to produce high-resolution images and the lack of an objective lens between the sample and its corresponding imaging detector. One challenge, however, is that very high dynamic range diffraction data must be collected to produce both quantitative and high-resolution images. In this work, hard X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging has been performed at the P10 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron to demonstrate the potential of a very wide dynamic range imaging X-ray detector (the Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD). The detector is capable of single photon detection, detecting fluxes exceeding 1 × 108 8-keV photons pixel−1 s−1, and framing at 1 kHz. A ptychographic reconstruction was performed using a peak focal intensity on the order of 1 × 1010 photons µm−2 s−1 within an area of approximately 325 nm × 603 nm. This was done without need of a beam stop and with a very modest attenuation, while ‘still’ images of the empty beam far-field intensity were recorded without any attenuation. The treatment of the detector frames and CDI methodology for reconstruction of non-sensitive detector regions, partially also extending the active detector area, are described. PMID:25178008

  19. Polybenzimidazole-based mixed membranes with exceptional high water vapor permeability and selectivity

    KAUST Repository

    Akhtar, Faheem Hassan

    2017-09-13

    Polybenzimidazole (PBI), a thermal and chemically stable polymer, is commonly used to fabricate membranes for applications like hydrogen recovery at temperatures of more than 300 °C, fuel cells working in a highly acidic environment, and nanofiltration in aggressive solvents. This report shows for the first time use of PBI dense membranes for water vapor/gas separation applications. They showed an excellent selectivity and high water vapor permeability. Incorporation of inorganic hydrophilic titanium-based nano-fillers into the PBI matrix further increased the water vapor permeability and water vapor/N2 selectivity. The most selective mixed matrix membrane with 0.5 wt% loading of TiO2 nanotubes yielded a water vapor permeability of 6.8×104 Barrer and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.9×106. The most permeable membrane with 1 wt% loading of carboxylated TiO2 nanoparticles had a 7.1×104 Barrer water vapor permeability and a H2O/N2 selectivity of 3.1×106. The performance of these membranes in terms of water vapor transport and selectivity is among the highest reported ones. The remarkable ability of PBI to efficiently permeate water versus other gases opens the possibility to fabricate membranes for dehumidification of streams in harsh environments. This includes the removal of water from high temperature reaction mixtures to shift the equilibrium towards products.

  20. Extensive determination of glycan heterogeneity reveals an unusual abundance of high mannose glycans in enriched plasma membranes of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hyun Joo; Gip, Phung; Kim, Jaehan; Wu, Shuai; Park, Kun Wook; McVaugh, Cheryl T; Schaffer, David V; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2012-04-01

    Most cell membrane proteins are known or predicted to be glycosylated in eukaryotic organisms, where surface glycans are essential in many biological processes including cell development and differentiation. Nonetheless, the glycosylation on cell membranes remains not well characterized because of the lack of sensitive analytical methods. This study introduces a technique for the rapid profiling and quantitation of N- and O-glycans on cell membranes using membrane enrichment and nanoflow liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry of native structures. Using this new method, the glycome analysis of cell membranes isolated from human embryonic stem cells and somatic cell lines was performed. Human embryonic stem cells were found to have high levels of high mannose glycans, which contrasts with IMR-90 fibroblasts and a human normal breast cell line, where complex glycans are by far the most abundant and high mannose glycans are minor components. O-Glycosylation affects relatively minor components of cell surfaces. To verify the quantitation and localization of glycans on the human embryonic stem cell membranes, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry were performed. Proteomics analyses were also performed and confirmed enrichment of plasma membrane proteins with some contamination from endoplasmic reticulum and other membranes. These findings suggest that high mannose glycans are the major component of cell surface glycosylation with even terminal glucoses. High mannose glycans are not commonly presented on the surfaces of mammalian cells or in serum yet may play important roles in stem cell biology. The results also mean that distinguishing stem cells from other mammalian cells may be facilitated by the major difference in the glycosylation of the cell membrane. The deep structural analysis enabled by this new method will enable future mechanistic studies on the biological significance of high mannose glycans on stem cell membranes and provide a general tool to examine

  1. Child contact management in high tuberculosis burden countries: A mixed-methods systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, Lienki; Du Preez, Karen; Carr, Catherine; Mandalakas, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996–2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105). We formulated a search strategy to identify all available studies, published in English that specifically targeted a) population: child contacts (studied and compared in HBCs, and d) outcomes: monitoring and evaluation of CCM outcomes reported in the literature for each CCM cascade step. We included any quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods study design except for randomized-controlled trials, editorials or commentaries. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed. Child contact losses varied greatly for screening, isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, and completion. CCM challenges included: infrastructure, knowledge, attitudes, stigma, access, competing priorities, and treatment. CCM recommendations included: health system strengthening, health education, and improved preventive therapy. Identified predictors included: index case and clinic characteristics, perceptions of barriers and risk, costs, and treatment characteristics. CCM lacks standardization resulting in common challenges and losses throughout the CCM cascade. Prioritization of a CCM-friendly healthcare environment with improved CCM processes and tools; health education; and active, evidence-based strategies can decrease barriers. A focused approach toward every aspect of the CCM cascade will likely diminish losses throughout the CCM cascade and ultimately decrease TB

  2. A prominent large high-density lipoprotein at birth enriched in apolipoprotein C-I identifies a new group of infancts of lower birth weight and younger gestational age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiterovich Jr., Peter O.; Cockrill, Steven L.; Virgil, Donna G.; Garrett, Elizabeth; Otvos, James; Knight-Gibson, Carolyn; Alaupovic, Petar; Forte, Trudy; Farwig, Zachlyn N.; Macfarlane, Ronald D.

    2003-10-01

    Because low birth weight is associated with adverse cardiovascular risk and death in adults, lipoprotein heterogeneity at birth was studied. A prominent, large high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclass enriched in apolipoprotein C-I (apoC-I) was found in 19 percent of infants, who had significantly lower birth weights and younger gestational ages and distinctly different lipoprotein profiles than infants with undetectable, possible or probable amounts of apoC-I-enriched HDL. An elevated amount of an apoC-I-enriched HDL identifies a new group of low birth weight infants.

  3. Verification of high-order mixed FEM solution of transient Magnetic diffusion problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieben, R; White, D A

    2005-05-12

    We develop and present high order mixed finite element discretizations of the time dependent electromagnetic diffusion equations for solving eddy current problems on 3D unstructured grids. The discretizations are based on high order H(grad), H(curl) and H(div) conforming finite element spaces combined with an implicit and unconditionally stable generalized Crank-Nicholson time differencing method. We develop three separate electromagnetic diffusion formulations, namely the E (electric field), H (magnetic field) and the A-{phi} (potential) formulations. For each formulation, we also provide a consistent procedure for computing the secondary variables F (current flux density) and B (magnetic flux density), as these fields are required for the computation of electromagnetic force and heating terms. We verify the error convergence properties of each formulation via a series of numerical experiments on canonical problems with known analytic solutions. The key result is that the different formulations are equally accurate, even for the secondary variables J and B, and hence the choice of which formulation to use depends mostly upon relevance of the Natural and Essential boundary conditions to the problem of interest. In addition, we highlight issues with numerical verification of finite element methods which can lead to false conclusions on the accuracy of the methods.

  4. Bacterioplankton responses to iron enrichment during the SAGE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuparinen, J.; Hall, J.; Ellwood, M.; Safi, K.; Peloquin, J.; Katz, D.

    2011-03-01

    We studied the microbial food web in the upper 100 m of the water column in iron-limited sub-Antarctic HNLC waters south-east of New Zealand in the SAGE experiment in 2004, with focus on bacterioplankton. Samples were collected daily from inside and outside the iron enriched patch. Short term enrichment experiments were conducted on board in 4 L polycarbonate bottles with water outside the iron enriched patch to study single and combined effects of micronutrient additions on microbial food web. Low bacterial growth was recorded in the study area with community turnover times of 50 h or more during the study period. Measurements of bacterial standing stocks and production rates in the study show minor responses to the large scale iron enrichment, with increase in rates and stocks after the first enrichment and at the end of the study period after the third iron enrichment when solar radiation increased and wind mixing decreased. The average daily bacterial production rates were 31.5 and 33.7 mgCm -2 d -1 for the OUT and IN stations, respectively; thus overall there was not a significant difference between the control and the iron-enriched patch. In the bottle experiments bacterial thymidine incorporation showed responses to single iron and silicic acid enrichments and a major growth response to the combined iron and sucrose enrichments. Phytoplankton chlorophyll- a showed clear stimulation by single additions of iron and silicic acid and silicic acid enhanced the iron impact. Cobalt additions had no effect on bacteria growth and a negative effect on phytoplankton growth. Low bacterial in situ growth rates and the enrichment experiments suggest that bacteria are co-limited by iron and carbon, and that bacterial iron uptake is dependent on carbon supply by the food web. With the high iron quota (μmol Fe mol C -1) bacteria may scavenge considerable amounts of the excess iron, and thus influence the relative importance of the microbial food web as a carbon sink.

  5. Ultrafast Generation of Fundamental and Multiple-Order Phonon Excitations in Highly Enriched (6,5) Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yong-Sik; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Cho, Sung-Jae; Noh, Min-Young; Yoon, Eun-Jin; Liu, Huaping; Kim, Ji-Hee; Telg, Hagen; Hároz, Erik H.; Sanders, Gary D.; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kataura, Hiromichi; Doorn, Stephen K.; Stanton, Christopher J.; Saito, Riichiro; Kono, Junichiro; Joo, Taiha

    2014-03-01

    Using a macroscopic ensemble of highly-enriched (6,5) single-wall carbon nanotubes, combined with high signal-to-noise ratio, time-dependent differential transmission spectroscopy, we have generated vibrational modes in an ultrawide spectral range (10-3000 cm^{-1}). A total of fourteen modes were clearly resolved and identified, including fundamental modes of A, E1, and E2 symmetries and their combinational modes involving two and three phonons. Through comparison with CW Raman spectra as well as calculations based on an extended tight-binding model, we were able to identify all the observed peaks and determine the frequencies of the individual and combined modes. We provide a full summary of phonon frequencies for (6,5) nanotubes that can serve as a basic reference with which to refine our understanding of nanotube phonon spectra as well as a testbed for new theoretical models.

  6. On-line enrichment and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric particulates using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence as detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particulates were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector using direction injection and an on-line enrichment trap column. The method simplified the sample pretreatment, saved time and increased the efficiency. With the on-line trap column, PAHs were separated availably even underground injecting 1.0 ml sample with relatively high column efficiency. The recoveries of the seven PAHs were from 85% to 120% for spiked atmospheric particulate sample. The limit of detection was 15.3-39.6 ng/L (S/N=3.3). There were good linear correlations between the peak areas and concentrations of the seven kinds of PAHs in the range of 1-50 ng/ml with the correlation coefficients over 0.9970. Furthermore, it also indicated that the method is available to determine PAHs in atmospheric particulates well.

  7. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  8. Biosynthesis of highly enriched 13C-lycopene for human metabolic studies using repeated batch tomato cell culturing with 13C-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy Engelmann; Rogers, Randy B; Lu, Chi-Hua; Conlon, Lauren E; Lila, Mary Ann; Clinton, Steven K; Erdman, John W

    2013-08-15

    While putative disease-preventing lycopene metabolites are found in both tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) products and in their consumers, mammalian lycopene metabolism is poorly understood. Advances in tomato cell culturing techniques offer an economical tool for generation of highly-enriched (13)C-lycopene for human bioavailability and metabolism studies. To enhance the (13)C-enrichment and yields of labelled lycopene from the hp-1 tomato cell line, cultures were first grown in (13)C-glucose media for three serial batches and produced increasing proportions of uniformly labelled lycopene (14.3±1.2%, 39.6±0.5%, and 48.9±1.5%) with consistent yields (from 5.8 to 9 mg/L). An optimised 9-day-long (13)C-loading and 18-day-long labelling strategy developed based on glucose utilisation and lycopene yields, yielded (13)C-lycopene with 93% (13)C isotopic purity, and 55% of isotopomers were uniformly labelled. Furthermore, an optimised acetone and hexane extraction led to a fourfold increase in lycopene recovery from cultures compared to a standard extraction.

  9. Hydrophilic Nb⁵⁺-immobilized magnetic core-shell microsphere--A novel immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography material for highly selective enrichment of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xueni; Liu, Xiaodan; Feng, Jianan; Li, Yan; Deng, Chunhui; Duan, Gengli

    2015-06-23

    Rapid and selective enrichment of phosphopeptides from complex biological samples is essential and challenging in phosphorylated proteomics. In this work, for the first time, niobium ions were directly immobilized on the surface of polydopamine-coated magnetic microspheres through a facile and effective synthetic route. The Fe3O4@polydopamine-Nb(5+) (denoted as Fe3O4@PD-Nb(5+)) microspheres possess merits of high hydrophilicity and good biological compatibility, and demonstrated low limit of detection (2 fmol). The selectivity was also basically satisfactory (β-casein:BSA=1:500) to capture phosphopeptides. They were also successfully applied for enrichment of phosphopeptides from real biological samples such as human serum and nonfat milk. Compared with Fe3O4@PD-Ti(4+) microspheres, the Fe3O4@PD-Nb(5+) microspheres exhibit superior selectivity to multi-phosphorylated peptides, and thus may be complementary to the conventional IMAC materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunomodulatory properties of two wheat bran fractions - aleurone-enriched and crude fractions - in obese mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; De Backer, Fabienne; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Stroobants, Aurore; Portetelle, Daniel; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2008-10-01

    Several data suggest that fermentable dietary fibers could play a role in the control of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. In mice, dietary fructans, which are extensively fermented in caeco-colon by bifidobacteria, decrease fat mass development and modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in the control of food intake (namely glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two cereal bran fractions isolated from wheat - aleurone-enriched and crude fractions - in a nutritional model of obesity. In a first experiment, we confirmed that 2 weeks of treatment with a high fat (HF) diet is sufficient to exhibit glucose intolerance and to increase adiposity in mice. In the second experiment, mice were fed a HF or a HF diet enriched with 10% wheat bran fractions during 3 weeks. None of the wheat bran fractions modified body weight, adipose tissue mass, glucose or lipid homeostasis. Wheat bran fractions increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the caecal content without any effect on caecal enlargement and on GLP-1 precursor expression in the colon. Furthermore, wheat bran fractions decreased circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6) and CD68 mRNA in the visceral adipose tissue, suggesting a decrease in recruited-tissue macrophages. We propose that specific and early immunomodulatory properties of cereal products with prebiotic properties, may occur in obese mice independently of extensive gut fermentation.

  11. High Performance Microreactor for Rapid Fluid Mixing and Redox Reaction of Ascorbic Acid

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Wei-Feng

    2008-01-01

    A novel micro device with a mechanism of split and recombination (SNR) for rapid fluidic mixing and reaction, named a SNR micro-reactor, was designed, fabricated and systematically analyzed. This SNR micro-reactor possessing an in-plane dividing structure requires only simple fabrication. We investigated this reactor and compared it numerically and experimentally with a slanted-groove micromixer (SGM). From the numerical results the mixing indices and mixing patterns demonstrated that the mixing ability of the SNR micro-reactor was much superior to that of the SGM. From a mixing test with phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide solutions, the mixing lengths of the SNR micro-reactor were less than 4 mm for a Reynolds number over a wide range (Re = 0.1 - 10). From a comparison of mixing lengths, the results revealed also that the SNR micro-reactor surpassed the SGM in mixing performance by more than 200 %. As a reaction length is a suitable test of the performance of a reactor, we introduced a redox reaction betwe...

  12. ZPR-3 Assembly 11 : A cylindrical sssembly of highly enriched uranium and depleted uranium with an average {sup 235}U enrichment of 12 atom % and a depleted uranium reflector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.; Tsiboulia, A.; Rozhikhin, Y.; National Security; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2010-09-30

    Working Group (CSEWG) Benchmark Specificationsa and has historically been used as a data validation benchmark assembly. Loading of ZPR-3 Assembly 11 began in early January 1958, and the Assembly 11 program ended in late January 1958. The core consisted of highly enriched uranium (HEU) plates and depleted uranium plates loaded into stainless steel drawers, which were inserted into the central square stainless steel tubes of a 31 x 31 matrix on a split table machine. The core unit cell consisted of two columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) HEU plates, six columns of 0.125 in.-wide (3.175 mm) depleted uranium plates and one column of 1.0 in.-wide (25.4 mm) depleted uranium plates. The length of each column was 10 in. (254.0 mm) in each half of the core. The axial blanket consisted of 12 in. (304.8 mm) of depleted uranium behind the core. The thickness of the depleted uranium radial blanket was approximately 14 in. (355.6 mm), and the length of the radial blanket in each half of the matrix was 22 in. (558.8 mm). The assembly geometry approximated a right circular cylinder as closely as the square matrix tubes allowed. According to the logbook and loading records for ZPR-3/11, the reference critical configuration was loading 10 which was critical on January 21, 1958. Subsequent loadings were very similar but less clean for criticality because there were modifications made to accommodate reactor physics measurements other than criticality. Accordingly, ZPR-3/11 loading 10 was selected as the only configuration for this benchmark. As documented below, it was determined to be acceptable as a criticality safety benchmark experiment. A very accurate transformation to a simplified model is needed to make any ZPR assembly a practical criticality-safety benchmark. There is simply too much geometric detail in an exact (as-built) model of a ZPR assembly, even a clean core such as ZPR-3/11 loading 10. The transformation must reduce the detail to a practical level without masking any of

  13. Two-step simulation of velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Schmidt number in turbulent jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, K. Jeff; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2016-11-01

    Simulation of passive scalar in the high Schmidt number turbulent mixing process requires higher computational cost than that of velocity fields, because the scalar is associated with smaller length scales than velocity. Thus, full simulation of both velocity and passive scalar with high Sc for a practical configuration is difficult to perform. In this work, a new approach to simulate velocity and passive scalar mixing at high Sc is suggested to reduce the computational cost. First, the velocity fields are resolved by Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Then, by extracting the velocity information from LES, the scalar inside a moving fluid blob is simulated by Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). This two-step simulation method is applied to a turbulent jet and provides a new way to examine a scalar mixing process in a practical application with smaller computational cost. NSF, Samsung Scholarship.

  14. Analysis and testing of high entrainment single nozzle jet pumps with variable mixing tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, K. E.; Hill, P. G.; Gilbert, G. B.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to predict the performance characteristics of axisymmetric single-nozzle jet pumps with variable area mixing tubes. The primary flow may be subsonic or supersonic. The computer program uses integral techniques to calculate the velocity profiles and the wall static pressures that result from the mixing of the supersonic primary jet and the subsonic secondary flow. An experimental program was conducted to measure mixing tube wall static pressure variations, velocity profiles, and temperature profiles in a variable area mixing tube with a supersonic primary jet. Static pressure variations were measured at four different secondary flow rates. These test results were used to evaluate the analytical model. The analytical results compared well to the experimental data. Therefore, the analysis is believed to be ready for use to relate jet pump performance characteristics to mixing tube design.

  15. 乳酸菌组合发酵菌种配方及其增殖培养基的优化%Formula of Mixed Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Optimization of Enrichment Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽; 韩玲; 张丽

    2011-01-01

    为了将甘肃牧区优良乳酸菌株用于直投式酸奶发酵剂的生产,以从甘肃牧区分离所得的乳酸乳球菌乳脂亚种(HM 598685)、嗜酸乳杆菌(HM 598684)、干酪乳杆菌(HM 598683),按照1:0:0、0:1:0、0:0:1、1:1:0、1:2:0、2:1:0、1:0:1、1:0:2、2:0:1、1:1:1、1:2:1、2:1:1、1:1:2的比例进行混合发酵,通过所制酸奶的感官性状和生化特性确定组合发酵的菌种配方,并对混合发酵的增殖培养基进行优化。结果发现,当3株菌比例为1:1:1时,其混合发酵的凝乳时间最短,为8.5h;所得酸奶的活菌数最大,高达7.90×10^8CFU/mL;而其感官评价中滋味气味及组织形态均显著优于其他组合。根据美蓝实验,当基础培养基中使用胰蛋白酶水解乳蛋白时,培养所得乳酸菌的活性最高,且活菌数可达2.93×10^8CFU/mL。通过L9(3^4)正交设计,确定最佳增殖因子为酵母粉1%、果糖0.5%、吐温0.2%、乙酸钠0.5%,此时培养所得混合菌活菌数达2.11×10^9CFU/mL;各增殖因子对活菌数影响的主次顺序为:酵母粉〉乙酸钠〉果糖〉吐温。%In order to apply excellent lactic acid bacteria strains from pastoral area from Gansu province to production of direct vat set starter(DVS),Lactococcus lactis subspecies(HM 598683),Lactobacillus acidophilus(HM 598684) and Lactobacillus casei(HM 598685) from Gansu province were implemented in mixed fermentation by 1: 0:0,0:1:0,0:0:1,1:1:0,1:2:0,2:1:0,1:0:1,1:0:2,2:0:1,1:1:1,1:2:1,2:1:1,1:1:2,the formula of mixed fermentation was determined through sensory attributes and biochemical characteristics.And the enrichment medium of mixed fermentation was also optimized.The results showed that curd time was minimum with 8.5 h,the colony forming unit(CFU) was maximum with 7.90×10^8 CFU/mL and flavour and shape in sensory attributes was best when

  16. Bulk production and evaluation of high specific activity (186g)Re for cancer therapy using enriched (186)WO3 targets in a proton beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastren, Tara; Radchenko, Valery; Bach, Hong T; Balkin, Ethan R; Birnbaum, Eva R; Brugh, Mark; Engle, Jonathan W; Gott, Matthew D; Guthrie, James; Hennkens, Heather M; John, Kevin D; Ketring, Alan R; Kuchuk, Marina; Maassen, Joel R; Naranjo, Cleo M; Nortier, F Meiring; Phelps, Tim E; Jurisson, Silvia S; Wilbur, D Scott; Fassbender, Michael E

    2017-06-01

    Rhenium-186g (t1/2 = 3.72 d) is a β(-) emitting isotope suitable for theranostic applications. Current production methods rely on reactor production by way of the reaction (185)Re(n,γ)(186g)Re, which results in low specific activities limiting its use for cancer therapy. Production via charged particle activation of enriched (186)W results in a (186g)Re product with a higher specific activity, allowing it to be used more broadly for targeted radiotherapy applications. This targets the unmet clinical need for more efficient radiotherapeutics. A target consisting of highly enriched, pressed (186)WO3 was irradiated with protons at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Isotope Production Facility (LANL-IPF) to evaluate (186g)Re product yield and quality. LANL-IPF was operated in a dedicated nominal 40 MeV mode. Alkaline dissolution followed by anion exchange chromatography was used to isolate (186g)Re from the target material. Phantom and radiolabeling studies were conducted with the produced (186g)Re activity. A (186g)Re batch yield of 1.38 ± 0.09 MBq/μAh or 384.9 ± 27.3 MBq/C was obtained after 16.5 h in a 205 μA average/230μA maximum current proton beam. The chemical recovery yield was 93% and radiolabeling was achieved with efficiencies ranging from 60-80%. True specific activity of (186g)Re at EOB was determined via ICP-AES and amounted to 0.788 ± 0.089 GBq/μg (0.146 ± 0.017 GBq/nmol), which is approximately seven times higher than the product obtained from neutron capture in a reactor. Phantom studies show similar imaging quality to the gold standard (99m)Tc. We report a preliminary study of the large-scale production and novel anion exchange based chemical recovery of high specific activity (186g)Re from enriched (186)WO3 targets in a high-intensity proton beam with exceptional chemical recovery and radiochemical purity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fundamentals of Highly Non-Degenerate Cascaded Four-Wave Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Weigand

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By crossing two intense ultrashort laser pulses with different colors in a transparent medium, like a simple piece of glass, a fan of multicolored broadband light pulses can be simultaneously generated. These newly generated pulses are emitted in several well-defined directions and can cover a broad spectral range, from the infrared to the ultraviolet and beyond. This beautiful phenomenon, first observed and described 15 years ago, is due to highly-nondegenerate cascaded four-wave mixing (cascaded FWM, or CFWM. Here, we present a review of our work on the generation and measurement of multicolored light pulses based on third-order nonlinearities in transparent solids, from the discovery and first demonstration of highly-nondegenerate CFWM, to the coherent synthesis of single-cycle pulses by superposition of the multicolored light pulses produced by CFWM. We will also present the development and main results of a dedicated 2.5-D nonlinear propagation model, i.e., with propagation occurring along a two-dimensional plane while assuming cylindrically symmetric pump beam profiles, capable of adequately describing noncollinear FWM and CFWM processes. A new method for the generation of femtosecond pulses in the deep-ultraviolet (DUV based on FWM and CFWM will also be described. These experimental and theoretical results show that highly-nondegenerate third-order nonlinear optical processes are formally well understood and provide broader bandwidths than other nonlinear optical processes for the generation of ultrashort light pulses with wavelengths extending from the near-infrared to the deep-ultraviolet, which have many applications in science and technology.

  18. High-dynamic-range coherent diffractive imaging: ptychography using the mixed-mode pixel array detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giewekemeyer, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.giewekemeyer@xfel.eu [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Philipp, Hugh T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Wilke, Robin N. [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany); Aquila, Andrew [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Osterhoff, Markus [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany); Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Zozulya, Alexey V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Salditt, Tim [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen (Germany); Gruner, Sol M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Kavli Institute of Cornell for Nanoscience, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mancuso, Adrian P. [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-08-07

    The advantages of a novel wide dynamic range hard X-ray detector are demonstrated for (ptychographic) coherent X-ray diffractive imaging. Coherent (X-ray) diffractive imaging (CDI) is an increasingly popular form of X-ray microscopy, mainly due to its potential to produce high-resolution images and the lack of an objective lens between the sample and its corresponding imaging detector. One challenge, however, is that very high dynamic range diffraction data must be collected to produce both quantitative and high-resolution images. In this work, hard X-ray ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging has been performed at the P10 beamline of the PETRA III synchrotron to demonstrate the potential of a very wide dynamic range imaging X-ray detector (the Mixed-Mode Pixel Array Detector, or MM-PAD). The detector is capable of single photon detection, detecting fluxes exceeding 1 × 10{sup 8} 8-keV photons pixel{sup −1} s{sup −1}, and framing at 1 kHz. A ptychographic reconstruction was performed using a peak focal intensity on the order of 1 × 10{sup 10} photons µm{sup −2} s{sup −1} within an area of approximately 325 nm × 603 nm. This was done without need of a beam stop and with a very modest attenuation, while ‘still’ images of the empty beam far-field intensity were recorded without any attenuation. The treatment of the detector frames and CDI methodology for reconstruction of non-sensitive detector regions, partially also extending the active detector area, are described.

  19. Design of a mixing system for simulated high-level nuclear waste melter feed slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; McCarthy, D.; Muhlstein, K.D.

    1986-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Treatment Program development program consists of coordinated nonradioactive and radioactive testing combined with numerical modeling of the process to provide a complete basis for design and operation of a vitrification facility. The radioactive demonstration tests of equipment and processes are conducted before incorporation in radioactive pilot-scale melter systems for final demonstration. The mixing system evaluation described in this report was conducted as part of the nonradioactive testing. The format of this report follows the sequence in which the design of a large-scale mixing system is determined. The initial program activity was concerned with gaining an understanding of the theoretical foundation of non-Newtonian mixing systems. Section 3 of this report describes the classical rheological models that are used to describe non-Newtonian mixing systems. Since the results obtained here are only valid for the slurries utilized, Section 4, Preparation of Simulated Hanford and West Valley Slurries, describes how the slurries were prepared. The laboratory-scale viscometric and physical property information is summarized in Section 5, Laboratory Rheological Evaluations. The bench-scale mixing evaluations conducted to define the effects of the independent variables described above on the degree of mixing achieved with each slurry are described in Section 6. Bench-scale results are scaled-up to establish engineering design requirements for the full-scale mixing system in Section 7. 24 refs., 37 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. The role of midlatitude mixing barriers in creating the annual variation of total ozone in high northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gille, John; Karol, Svetlana; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Yudin, Valery

    2014-08-01

    Data from the HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) are used to investigate the annual variation of total column ozone in high northern latitudes. Downward transport of ozone-rich air by the residual mean circulation during autumn and winter bends ozone isopleths down and increases the high-latitude ozone amounts, leading to an ozone maximum at the end of the winter. During the summer months eddy mixing acts to restore pre-fall distributions of ozone. In this study the large-scale mixing in the lower stratosphere is analyzed using Nakamura's (1996) equivalent length formulation with observed and simulated ozone. The analysis of ozone mixing is performed in the tracer equivalent latitude-potential temperature coordinate system. Steep latitudinal gradients of ozone isopleths below about 500 K occur during the winter, where there are minima in the equivalent length, indicating barriers to mixing at 30°N-40°N. This transport barrier allows large ozone maxima to develop poleward of it. The barrier disappears over the summer, permitting latitudinal mixing of the high ozone air. Above 500 K mixing is more effective during the winter, so a large winter maximum does not occur. In both midlatitude and high latitude the lower stratospheric layer from 330 to 500 K doubles its ozone content from autumn to spring, compared with much smaller changes in the layer from 500 to 650 K. Our results confirm that the presence of the winter transport barrier in the lower stratosphere controls the seasonal variation of total ozone.

  1. A high-speed mixed-signal down-scaling circuit for DAB tuners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Lu; Wang Zhigong; Xuan Jiahui; Yang Yang; Xu Jian; Xu Yong

    2012-01-01

    A high-speed mixed-signal down-scaling circuit with low power consumption and low phase noise for use in digital audio broadcasting tuners has been realized and characterized.Some new circuit techniques are adopted to improve its performance,A dual-modulus prescaler (DMP) with low phase noise is realized with a kind of improved source-coupled logic (SCL) D-flip-flop (DFF) in the synchronous divider and a kind of improved complementary metal oxide semiconductor master-slave (CMOS MS)-DFF in the asynchronous divider.A new more accurate wire-load model is used to realize the pulse-swallow counter (PS counter).Fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process,the total chip size is 0.6 × 0.2 mm2.The DMP in the proposed down-scaling circuit exhibits a low phase noise of-118.2 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz off the carrier frequency.At a supply voltage of 1.8 V,the power consumption of the down-scaling circuit's core part is only 2.7 mW.

  2. Semiconductor High-Level Dosimeters Used in the SLAC Mixed Gamma and Neutron Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mao, S

    2003-01-01

    As part of an exploration of Semiconductor High-Level Dosimetry (SHLD) in the accelerator radiation fields, the response of SHLD system, composed of dual MOSFETs, wide-base PIN diode, and a microprocessor-controlled reader, was calibrated in photon (Co-60) and neutron (Bare-reactor) fields. The response curves for the MOSFET and the PIN diode were determined. The neutron sensitivity of the PIN diode is about a factor of 2200 times higher than its photon sensitivity. Therefore, the PIN diode can be used to measure the neutron dose and virtually ignore the photon dose contribution. The MOSFET can be used to estimate the photon dose after subtracting the ionizing effect of the neutrons. The SHLD was used in the SLAC mixed field to measure the photon and neutron doses around a copper beam dump. The photon measurements near the copper dump agreed reasonably with the FLUKA Monte Carlo calculations. The neutron measurements agreed with FLUKA calculations to within a factor of two.

  3. Quantitative Raman imaging investigations of mixing phenomena in high-pressure cryogenic jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, M; Schik, A; Meier, U E; Stricker, W

    1998-08-20

    A two-dimensional Raman technique was used to investigate mixing phenomena of cryogenic jets under both supercritical and transcritical conditions. The aim of this study was to enlarge the experimental data basis for modeling purposes and to provide quantitative information to help to improve the design of injectors for high-pressure rocket engine combustion chambers. Cryogenic nitrogen, which served as substitute for liquid O(2), was injected into N(2) at room temperature at pressures up to 6.0 MPa. The liquid N(2) jet could be atomized by a coaxial H(2) flow. Raman scattering was generated with a XeF excimer laser. The resulting signal images were discriminated against background by spectral filtering and preferential detection of light with a polarization corresponding to the polarization of the laser, thus making use of the conserved polarization of the Raman-scattered light. The Raman images were converted into density distributions of N(2) and H(2), respectively, as well as into temperature distributions for a variety of experimental conditions.

  4. Mixed Electronic and Ionic Conductor-Coated Cathode Material for High-Voltage Lithium Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Han, Jung-Min; Lee, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-05-18

    A lithium ionic conductor, Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 (LATP), is introduced as a coating material on the surface of Mg-doped LiCoO2 to improve electrochemical performances for high-voltage (4.5 V) lithium ion batteries. Structure, morphology, elemental distribution, and electrical properties of the materials are thoroughly characterized by SEM, TEM, EELS, EDS, and C-AFM. The coating layer is electrically conductive with the aid of Mg ions which are used as a dopant for the active materials; therefore, this mixed electronic ionic conductor strongly enhances the electrochemical performances of initial capacity, cycling property, and rate capability. The LATP coating layer also demonstrates very promising applicability for 4.4 V prismatic full cells with graphite anode, which correspond to the 4.5 V half-cells with lithium anode. The 2900 mA h full cells show 85% of capacity retention after 500 cycles and more than 60% after 700 cycles.

  5. A high-speed mixed-signal down-scaling circuit for DAB tuners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tang; Zhigong, Wang; Jiahui, Xuan; Yang, Yang; Jian, Xu; Yong, Xu

    2012-07-01

    A high-speed mixed-signal down-scaling circuit with low power consumption and low phase noise for use in digital audio broadcasting tuners has been realized and characterized. Some new circuit techniques are adopted to improve its performance. A dual-modulus prescaler (DMP) with low phase noise is realized with a kind of improved source-coupled logic (SCL) D-flip-flop (DFF) in the synchronous divider and a kind of improved complementary metal oxide semiconductor master-slave (CMOS MS)-DFF in the asynchronous divider. A new more accurate wire-load model is used to realize the pulse-swallow counter (PS counter). Fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process, the total chip size is 0.6 × 0.2 mm2. The DMP in the proposed down-scaling circuit exhibits a low phase noise of -118.2 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz off the carrier frequency. At a supply voltage of 1.8 V, the power consumption of the down-scaling circuit's core part is only 2.7 mW.

  6. Investigation of Human Cancers for Retrovirus by Low-Stringency Target Enrichment and High-Throughput Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinner, Lasse; Mourier, Tobias; Friis-Nielsen, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    Although nearly one fifth of all human cancers have an infectious aetiology, the causes for the majority of cancers remain unexplained. Despite the enormous data output from high-throughput shotgun sequencing, viral DNA in a clinical sample typically constitutes a proportion of host DNA that is too......-stringency in-solution hybridization method enables detection of discovery of hitherto unknown viral sequences by high-throughput sequencing. The sensitivity was sufficient to detect retroviral...

  7. Mixed matrix membranes prepared from high impact polystyrene with dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for gas separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Safaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents synthesis and characterization of high impact polystyrene - TiO2 nanoparticles mixed matrix membranes for separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen. The solution-casting method was used for preparation of membranes. The nano mixed matrix membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to ensure the suitable dispersion of nano particles in high impact polystyrene matrix. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles loading on membrane performance was investigated. The separation performance of synthesized membranes was investigated in separation of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture. Effect of feed pressure and TiO2 content on separation of CO2 was studied. The results revealed that increase of feed pressure decreases flux of gases through the mixed matrix membrane. The results also confirmed that the best separation performance can be obtained at TiO2 nanoparticles loading of 7 wt.%.

  8. Se-Enriched Hot Pepper Cultivation for High Yield and Quality%富硒番茄优质高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓正春; 吴平安; 杜登科; 汤小明; 熊伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the Se-enriched tomato cultivation for high yield and quality in terms of production site condition, variety selection, seed treatment, growing seedling, timely transplanting, field management, pest control, scientific application of selenium, and timely harvesting.%系统介绍了富硒番茄优质高产栽培技术。指出在富硒番茄生产过程中应注意立地条件、品种选择、种子处理、培育壮苗、及时移栽、田间培管、病虫防治、科学施硒及适时采收等栽培技术要点。

  9. Radiochemical purity of Mo and Tc solution obtained after irradiation and dissolution of Mo-100-enriched and ultra-high-purity natural Mo disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Four irradiations of ultra-high-purity natural Mo targets and one irradiation using 97.4% Mo-100-enriched material were performed. The purpose of these irradiations was to determine whether the presence of Sn stabilizer in the H2O2 used for the dissolution of sintered Mo disks can affect the radiochemical purity of the final K2MoO4 in 5M KOH solution. Results from radiochemical purity tests performed using thin-layer paper chromatography show that even 2– 3× excess of Sn-stabilized H2O2 typically used for dissolution of sintered Mo disks did not affect the radiochemical purity of the final product.

  10. Self-structuring foods based on acid-sensitive low and high acyl mixed gellan systems to impact on satiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbeer, Jennifer F.; Hancocks, Robin; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Norton, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro acid-induced gelation of mixed systems of two biopolymers; low acyl and high acyl gellan gum. Rheological and texture analysis showed that these mixed gels displayed textures that lay between the material properties exhibited for the low and high acyl variants. DSC analysis showed that mixtures of the low acyl and high acyl forms exhibit two separate conformational transitions at temperatures coincident with each of the individual biopolymers. Various metabolically relevant pH environments and hydrocolloid concentrations were investigated. These resulted in very different acid gelled structures, which were characterised by texture analysis. The structures of the acid gels were shown to depend upon the pH, hydrocolloid concentration and proportion of each biopolymer used during their production. A selection of these mixed gellan structures were assessed post-production in terms of their response to prolonged exposure to an acidic (pH 1), stomach-like, environment. This resulted in a significant increase in the gel strength, regardless of the biopolymer proportions. The high acyl gellan was less acid-sensitive, and subsequently no evidence of acid gelation was observed with high acyl gellan at a proportion greater than 60% of the total biopolymer. The findings presented here demonstrate that structuring as well as de-structuring of mixed gellan acid gels can be controlled in acidic environments similar to those that are present in the stomach after food consumption. PMID:24882914

  11. Mixing subattolitre volumes in a quantitative and highly parallel manner with soft matter nanofluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sune M.; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves; Hatzakis, Nikos;

    2012-01-01

    Handling and mixing ultrasmall volumes of reactants in parallel can increase the throughput and complexity of screening assays while simultaneously reducing reagent consumption. Microfabricated silicon and plastic can provide reliable fluidic devices, but cannot typically handle total volumes sma...

  12. Toward fully automated high performance computing drug discovery: a massively parallel virtual screening pipeline for docking and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area rescoring to improve enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2014-01-27

    In this work we announce and evaluate a high throughput virtual screening pipeline for in-silico screening of virtual compound databases using high performance computing (HPC). Notable features of this pipeline are an automated receptor preparation scheme with unsupervised binding site identification. The pipeline includes receptor/target preparation, ligand preparation, VinaLC docking calculation, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) rescoring using the GB model by Onufriev and co-workers [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 156-169]. Furthermore, we leverage HPC resources to perform an unprecedented, comprehensive evaluation of MM/GBSA rescoring when applied to the DUD-E data set (Directory of Useful Decoys: Enhanced), in which we selected 38 protein targets and a total of ∼0.7 million actives and decoys. The computer wall time for virtual screening has been reduced drastically on HPC machines, which increases the feasibility of extremely large ligand database screening with more accurate methods. HPC resources allowed us to rescore 20 poses per compound and evaluate the optimal number of poses to rescore. We find that keeping 5-10 poses is a good compromise between accuracy and computational expense. Overall the results demonstrate that MM/GBSA rescoring has higher average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) values and consistently better early recovery of actives than Vina docking alone. Specifically, the enrichment performance is target-dependent. MM/GBSA rescoring significantly out performs Vina docking for the folate enzymes, kinases, and several other enzymes. The more accurate energy function and solvation terms of the MM/GBSA method allow MM/GBSA to achieve better enrichment, but the rescoring is still limited by the docking method to generate the poses with the correct binding modes.

  13. A hybrid enrichment process combining conjugated polymer extraction and silica gel adsorption for high purity semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianfu; Li, Zhao; Lefebvre, Jacques; Cheng, Fuyong; Dunford, Jeffrey L.; Malenfant, Patrick R. L.; Humes, Jefford; Kroeger, Jens

    2015-09-01

    A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm.A novel purification process for the enrichment of sc-SWCNTs that combines selective conjugated polymer extraction (CPE) with selective adsorption using silica gel, termed hybrid-CPE (h-CPE), has been developed, providing a high purity sc-SWCNT material with a significant improvement in process efficiency and yield. Using the h-CPE protocol, a greater than 5 fold improvement in yield can be obtained compared to traditional CPE while obtaining sc-SWCNT with a purity >99.9% as assessed by absorption spectroscopy and Raman mapping. Thin film transistor devices using the h-CPE derived sc-SWCNTs as the semiconductor possess mobility values ranging from 10-30 cm2 V-1 s-1 and current ON/OFF ratio of 104-105 for channel lengths between 2.5 and 20 μm. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04851f

  14. Pressure ratio effects on self-similar scalar mixing of high-pressure turbulent jets in a pressurized volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Adam; Pickett, Lyle; Frank, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Many real world combustion devices model fuel scalar mixing by assuming the self-similar argument established in atmospheric free jets. This allows simple prediction of the mean and rms fuel scalar fields to describe the mixing. This approach has been adopted in super critical liquid injections found in diesel engines where the liquid behaves as a dense fluid. The effect of pressure ratio (injection to ambient) when the ambient is greater than atmospheric pressure, upon the self-similar collapse has not been well characterized, particularly the effect upon mixing constants, jet spreading rates, and virtual origins. Changes in these self-similar parameters control the reproduction of the scalar mixing statistics. This experiment investigates the steady state mixing of high pressure ethylene jets in a pressurized pure nitrogen environment for various pressure ratios and jet orifice diameters. Quantitative laser Rayleigh scattering imaging was performed utilizing a calibration procedure to account for the pressure effects upon scattering interference within the high-pressure vessel.

  15. A continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuancai; Ng, Wai Kiong; Hu, Jun; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H

    2010-02-15

    Rapid and homogeneous mixing of the solvent and antisolvent is critical to achieve submicron drug particles by antisolvent precipitation technique. This work aims to develop a continuous and highly effective static mixing process for antisolvent precipitation of nanoparticles of poorly water-soluble drugs with spironolactone as a model drug. Continuous antisolvent production of drug nanoparticles was carried out with a SMV DN25 static mixer comprising 6-18 mixing elements. The total flow rate ranged from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min while the flow rate ratio of solvent to antisolvent was maintained at 1:9. It is found that only 6 mixing elements were sufficient to precipitate the particles in the submicron range. Increasing the number of elements would further reduce the precipitated particle size. Increasing flow rate from 1.0 to 3.0 L/min did not further reduce the particle size, while higher drug concentrations led to particle size increase. XRD and SEM results demonstrated that the freshly precipitated drug nanoparticles are in the amorphous state, which would, in presence of the mixture of solvent and antisolvent, change to crystalline form in short time. The lyophilized spironolactone nanoparticles with lactose as lyoprotectant possessed good redispersibility and showed 6.6 and 3.3 times faster dissolution rate than that of lyophilized raw drug formulation in 5 and 10 min, respectively. The developed static mixing process exhibits high potential for continuous and large-scale antisolvent precipitation of submicron drug particles.

  16. High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Safafar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids, tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry.

  17. Mixed-Signal VLSI Circuits for Particle Detector Instrumentation in High-Energy Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loinaz, Marc Joseph

    1995-11-01

    This research is concerned with the circuit design challenges presented by the electronics requirements at future colliding beam facilitates for high-energy physics research. The particle detectors to be used in the next generation of experiments depend on the realization of sophisticated instrumentation electronics that will enable the identification and characterization of the fundamental constituents of matter. The work presented here focuses on the monolithic VLSI integration of multiple, mixed-signal, front-end electronics channels for detector-mounted instrumentation. The use of high levels of integration is driven by the need for compactness, low cost, high reliability, and low power dissipation in the implementation of the hundreds of thousands of sensory channels required for future experiments. The specific application considered in this work is the front -end electronics for straw tube drift chambers. In this context, the function of the front-end electronics is to measure the occurrence time of an input pulse in relation to a system clock. Each front-end channel includes analog circuits that provide amplification and signal conditioning for input pulses as small as 1mV, a timing discriminator, and a time interval digitizer to measure input pulse arrival times with respect to the system clock. Performance requirements for the channel include a timing error less than 0.75ns RMS, average power dissipation in the tens of milliwatts, and event rates in the 50-100MHz range. Circuits must be designed to allow the implementation of high-sensitivity analog and fast digital functions on the same chip. Unwanted coupling between digital and analog circuits must be minimized along with channel-to-channel crosstalk. A multi-channel circuit that measures the occurrence times of input pulses with peak values in the 1-10mV range relative to a 62.5-MHz clock has been monolithically integrated in a 1.2-μm CMOS technology. Each channel includes a wideband amplifier, a

  18. The ENRICH study to evaluate the effectiveness of a combination intervention package to improve isoniazid preventive therapy initiation, adherence and completion among people living with HIV in Ethiopia: Rationale and design of a mixed methods cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Howard

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: The ENRICH Study evaluates a CIP targeting barriers to IPT implementation. If the CIP is found effective and acceptable, this study has the potential to inform TB prevention strategies for HIV patients in resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. Investigation of Human Cancers for Retrovirus by Low-Stringency Target Enrichment and High-Throughput Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinner, Lasse; Mourier, Tobias; Friis-Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    small to be detected. Sequence variation among virus genomes complicates application of sequence-specific, and highly sensitive, PCR methods. Therefore, we aimed to develop and characterize a method that permits sensitive detection of sequences despite considerable variation. We demonstrate that our low...... biopsies. Nonetheless, our generally applicable method makes sensitive detection possible and permits sequencing of distantly related sequences from complex material....

  20. Nanocomposites of polyimide and mixed oxide nanoparticles for high performance nanohybrid gate dielectrics in flexible thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Do-Il; Kim, Jin Soo; Seol, Young Gug; Kim, Tae Woong; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-01-01

    Organic gate dielectrics in thin film transistors (TFTs) for flexible display have advantages of high flexibility yet have the disadvantage of low dielectric constant (low-k). To supplement low-k characteristics of organic gate dielectrics, an organic/inorganic nanocomposite insulator loaded with high-k inorganic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) has been investigated but high loading of high-k NPs in polymer matrix is essential. Herein, compositing of over-coated polyimide (PI) on self-assembled (SA) layer of mixed HfO2 and ZrO2 NPs as inorganic fillers was used to make dielectric constant higher and leakage characteristics lower. A flexible TFT with lower the threshold voltage and high current on/off ratio could be fabricated by using the hybrid gate dielectric structure of the nanocomposite with SA layer of mixed NPs on ultrathin atomic-layer deposited Al2O3.

  1. Magnetic mixed hemimicelles solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the extraction and rapid determination of six fluoroquinolones in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yuan, Qiuxiang; Liang, Guoxi; Shi, Longbiao; Zhan, Qian

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a mixed hemimicelle solid-phase extraction method based on Fe3 O4 nanoparticles coated with sodium dodecyl sulfate was applied for the preconcentration and fast isolation of six fluoroquinolones in environmental water samples before high-performance liquid chromatography determination. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes, such as amount of surfactant, amount of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles, extraction time, sample volume, sample pH, ionic strength, and desorption conditions, were investigated and optimized. The method has detection limits from 0.05 to 0.1 ng/mL and good linearity (r ≥ 09948) in the range 0.1-200 ng/mL depending on the fluoroquinolone. The enrichment factor is ∼200. The recoveries (at spiked levels of 1, 5, and 50 ng/mL) are in the range of 79-120%. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Efficient room temperature oxidation of cyclohexane over highly active hetero-mixed WO3/V2O5 oxide catalyst

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makgwane, PR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An efficient room temperature catalyzed oxidation of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone (K) and cyclohexanol (A) was achieved over hetero-mixed tungsten–vanadia (WO(sub3)/V(sub2)O(sub5)) using H(sub2)O(sub2) oxidant. WO(sub3)/V(sub2)O(sub5) exhibited high...

  3. High temperature phase transition of mixed (PuO2 + ThO2) investigated by laser melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böhler, R.; Cakir, P.; Benes, O.; Hein, H.; Konings, R.J.M.; Manara, D.

    2014-01-01

    A laser heating approach combined with fast pyrometry in a thermal arrest method was used to provide new data for the melting/solidification phase transition in mixed (PuO2 + ThO2) at high temperature. At low concentration of ThO2 in PuO2 a minimum in the solidification temperature in the pseudo bin

  4. High-surface-area nanomesh graphene with enriched edge sites as efficient metal-free cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Xu, Xiuwen; Gao, Yalun; Li, Zhao; Li, Cuiyu; Wang, Wenping; Chen, Yu; Ning, Guoqing; Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Shengli; Wang, Aijun; Kong, Jing; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-06-01

    Exploiting cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) has been a persistent objective for practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we present an efficient CE by using pure three-dimensional (3D) nanomesh graphene frameworks (NGFs) which are synthesized via a template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The high-surface-area 3D NGFs associated with the enriched surface edge defects make it very efficient towards I3- reduction even without any Pt catalyst. More interestingly, by virtue of the interpenetrating graphene frameworks, the NGFs exhibit excellent electron conductivity, thus leading to facile charge transfer. Consequently, the DSSCs with pure NGFs as CEs display a power conversion efficiency of 7.32%, which is comparable to that of Pt as CEs (7.28%), thereby exhibiting great potential as low-cost and highly efficient CE materials for large-scale deployment of DSSCs.Exploiting cost-effective and highly efficient counter electrodes (CEs) has been a persistent objective for practical application of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Here, we present an efficient CE by using pure three-dimensional (3D) nanomesh graphene frameworks (NGFs) which are synthesized via a template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The high-surface-area 3D NGFs associated with the enriched surface edge defects make it very efficient towards I3- reduction even without any Pt catalyst. More interestingly, by virtue of the interpenetrating graphene frameworks, the NGFs exhibit excellent electron conductivity, thus leading to facile charge transfer. Consequently, the DSSCs with pure NGFs as CEs display a power conversion efficiency of 7.32%, which is comparable to that of Pt as CEs (7.28%), thereby exhibiting great potential as low-cost and highly efficient CE materials for large-scale deployment of DSSCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM image, SAED image, cross-sectional SEM

  5. Quantitative TCR:pMHC Dissociation Rate Assessment by NTAmers Reveals Antimelanoma T Cell Repertoires Enriched for High Functional Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Philippe O; Wieckowski, Sébastien; Baumgaertner, Petra; Hebeisen, Michaël; Allard, Mathilde; Speiser, Daniel E; Rufer, Nathalie

    2015-07-01

    Experimental models demonstrated that therapeutic induction of CD8 T cell responses may offer protection against tumors or infectious diseases providing that T cells have sufficiently high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity for efficient Ag recognition and consequently strong immune functions. However, comprehensive characterization of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity in clinically relevant situations has remained elusive. In this study, using the novel NTA-His tag-containing multimer technology, we quantified the TCR:pMHC dissociation rates (koff) of tumor-specific vaccine-induced CD8 T cell clones (n = 139) derived from seven melanoma patients vaccinated with IFA, CpG, and the native/EAA or analog/ELA Melan-A(MART-1)(26-35) peptide, binding with low or high affinity to MHC, respectively. We observed substantial correlations between koff and Ca(2+) mobilization (p = 0.016) and target cell recognition (p tumor-reactive T cell clones derived from patients vaccinated with the low-affinity (native) peptide expressed slower koff rates than those derived from patients vaccinated with the high-affinity (analog) peptide (p tumor-specific T cells bearing TCRs with high TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity (p < 0.0001). Altogether, TCR:pMHC interaction kinetics correlated strongly with T cell functions. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and usefulness of TCR/CD8:pMHC avidity assessment by NTA-His tag-containing multimers of naturally occurring polyclonal T cell responses, which represents a strong asset for the development of immunotherapy. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Highly uniform and monodisperse carbon nanospheres enriched with cobalt-nitrogen active sites as a potential oxygen reduction electrocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xing; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Peng, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Uniform cobalt and nitrogen co-doped carbon nanospheres (CoN-CNS) with high specific surface area (865 m2 g-1) have been prepared by a simple but efficient method. The prepared CoN-CNS catalyst exhibits outstanding catalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in both alkaline and acidic electrolytes. In alkaline electrolyte, the prepared CoN-CNS has more positive half-wave potential and larger kinetic current density than commercial Pt/C. In acidic electrolyte, CoN-CNS also shows good ORR activity with high electron transfer number, its onset and half-wave potentials are all close to those of commercial carbon supported platinum catalyst (Pt/C). CoN-CNS catalyst shows more superior stability and higher methanol-tolerance than commercial Pt/C both in alkaline and in acidic electrolytes. The potassium thiocyanate-poisoning test further confirms that the cobalt-nitrogen active sites exist in CoN-CNS, which are dominating to endow high ORR catalytic activity in acidic electrolyte. This study develops a new method to prepare non-precious metal catalyst with excellent ORR performances for direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Importance of aerosol composition and mixing state for cloud droplet activation in the high Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leck

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN were measured throughout an expedition by icebreaker around the central Arctic Ocean, including a 3 week ice drift operation at 87° N, from 3 August to 9 September 2008. In agreement with previous observations in the area and season median daily CCN concentrations at 0.2% water vapor supersaturation were typically in the range of 15 to 30 cm−3, but concentrations varied by two to three orders of magnitude over the expedition and were occasionally below 1 cm−3. The CCN concentrations were highest near the ice edge and fell by a factor of three in the first 48 h of transport from the open sea into the pack ice region. For longer transport times they increased again indicating a local source over the pack ice, suggested to be polymer gels, via drops injected into the air by bubbles bursting on open leads. By assuming Köhler theory and simulating the cloud nucleation process using a Lagrangian adiabatic air parcel model that solves the kinetic formulation for condensation of water on size resolved aerosol particles we inferred the properties of the unexplained non-water soluble aerosol fraction that is necessary for reproducing the observed concentrations of CCN. We propose that the portion of the internally/externally mixed water insoluble particles was larger in the corresponding smaller aerosol sizes ranges. These particles were physically and chemically behaving as polymer gels: the interaction of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic entities on the structures of polymer gels during cloud droplet activation would at first only show a partial wetting character and only weak hygroscopic growth. Given time, a high CCN activation efficiency is achieved, which is promoted by the hydrophilicity or surface-active properties of the gels. Thus the result in this study argues for that the behavior of the high Arctic aerosol in CCN-counters operating at water vapor supersaturations > 0.4% (high relative

  8. Unravelling the mechanisms behind mixed catalysts for the high yield production of single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Sailaja; Zaka, Mujtaba; Schönfelder, Ronny; Bachmatiuk, Alicja; Börrnert, Felix; Ibrahim, Imad; Lin, Jarrn H; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Warner, Jamie H; Büchner, Bernd; Rümmeli, Mark H

    2009-12-22

    The use of mixed catalysts for the high-yield production of single-walled carbon nanotubes is well-known. The mechanisms behind the improved yield are poorly understood. In this study, we systematically explore different catalyst combinations from Ni, Co, and Mo for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes via laser evaporation. Our findings reveal that the mixing of catalysts alters the catalyst cluster size distribution, maximizing the clusters' potential to form a hemispherical cap at nucleation and, hence, form a single-walled carbon nanotube. This process significantly improves the single-walled carbon nanotube yields.

  9. Integrating high electrical conductivity and photocatalytic activity in cotton fabric by cationizing for enriched coating of negatively charged graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Sun, Kyung Chul; Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-10-01

    Electroconductive textiles have attended tremendous focus recently and researchers are making efforts to increase conductivity of e-textiles, in order to increase the use of such flexible and low cost textile materials. In this study, surface conductivity and photo catalytic activity of standard cotton fabric (SCF) was enhanced by modifying its surface charge, from negative to positive, using Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a cationic agent, to convert it into cationised cotton fabric (CCF). Then, both types of fabrics were dip coated with a simple dip and dry technique for the adsorption of negatively charged graphene oxide (GO) sheets onto its surface. This resulted in 67.74% higher loading amount of GO on the CCF making self-assembly. Finally, this coating was chemically converted by vapor reduction using hydrazine hydrate to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for restoration of a high electrical conductivity at the fabric surface. Our results revealed that with such high loading of GO, the surface resistance of CCF was only 40Ω/sq as compared to 510Ω/sq of the SCF and a 66% higher photo catalytic activity was also achieved through cationization for improved GO coating. Graphene coated SCF and CCF were characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, Raman, UV-vis, WAXD, EDX and XPS spectroscopy to ascertain successful reduction of GO to rGO. The effect of BSA treatment on adsorption of cotton fabric was studied using drop shape analyzer to measure contact angle and for thermal and mechanical resistance, the fabric was tested for TGA and tensile strength, respectively. rGO coated fabric also showed slightly improved thermal stability yet a minor loss of strength was observed. The high flexibility, photocatalytic activity and excellent conductivity of this fabric suggests that it can be used as an electrode material for various applications.

  10. Dietary Supplementation of Selenium-Enriched Probiotics Enhances Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) Raised Under High Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alam Zeb; Kumbhar, Shahnawaz; Liu, Yunhuan; Hamid, Mohammad; Pan, Cuiling; Nido, Sonia Agostinho; Parveen, Fahmida; Huang, Kehe

    2017-07-12

    We investigated the effects of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on broiler meat quality under high ambient temperature and explore their underlying mechanisms. A total of 200 1-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to four treatment groups, each with five replicates, in groups of ten birds. These birds were fed a corn-soybean basal diet (C), a basal diet plus probiotics supplementation (P), a basal diet plus Se supplementation in the form of sodium selenite (SS, 0.30 mg Se/kg), and a basal diet with the addition of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP, 0.30 mg Se/kg). The experiment lasted for 42 days. The birds were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, and the breast muscles were removed for further process. Our results showed that SP diet significantly increased (p < 0.05) the physical (pH, colors, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force) and sensory characteristics of breast meat. All P, SS, and SP supplementation enhanced the antioxidant system by increasing (p < 0.05) the Se concentrations, glutathione (GSH) levels, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) whereas decreasing (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, with SP being higher than P and SS. Moreover, SP diet significantly upregulated (p < 0.05) the mRNA levels of glutathione peroxidase genes (GPx1, GPx4) while it downregulated heat stress biomarkers such as heat shock protein (HSP) 70 as compared to C, P, and SS diets. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SP may function as beneficial nutritive supplement that is capable of improving meat quality during the summer season.

  11. Combination therapy of autologous adipose mesenchymal stem cell-enriched, high-density lipoaspirate and topical timolol for healing chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Larissa; Tchanque-Fossuo, Catherine N; Gorouhi, Farzam; Boudreault, David; Nguyen, Chuong; Fuentes, Jaime J; Crawford, Robert W; Dahle, Sara E; Whetzel, Thomas; Rivkah Isseroff, R

    2016-12-12

    Chronic venous leg ulcers are profoundly debilitating and result in billions in health care expenditure. Thus, there is a quest for engineered and innovative approaches. Herein we present a 63-year-old patient with a 30 year history of venous stasis and left lower extremity ulcers, which have been refractory to standard of care, anticoagulation and venous stripping. The medial ulcer was treated with transplantation of autologous adipose mesenchymal stem cell (AMSC)-enriched, high-density lipoaspirate (HDL) on OASIS wound matrix and compression therapy. The lateral ulcer was treated as a control with standard debridement and compression therapy. Four weeks later, both ulcers received daily topical timolol. Three months later, the test ulcer was completely epithelized and remains healed for over 15 months. However, the control showed minimal signs of improvement. In companion studies in our laboratory, human AMSC were cultured in Minimum Essential Medium Eagle Alpha Modifications (MEMα) with fetal bovine serum (FBS). Timolol was administered to AMSC prior to treatment with epinephrine and 104 bacteria/ml heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus. The MEMα with FBS devoid of AMSC served as a background control. After 24 h, cell culture supernatants and protein lysates were collected to determine cytokine production. There was a statistical significant decrease in pro-inflammatory interleukin-6 and -8 induced by the bacteria (to model the wound environment) in AMSC in the presence of timolol compared with control (p < 0.5). This is the first case of a successful combination of autologous AMSC-enriched, HDL with topical timolol for the healing of chronic venous leg ulcers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Effect of pressure on high Karlovitz number lean turbulent premixed hydrogen-enriched methane-air flames using LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoria, David; Chan, C. K.

    2017-07-01

    Large eddy simulation (LES) is employed to investigate the effect of pressure on lean CH4-H2-air turbulent premixed flames at high Karlovitz number for mixtures up to 60% of hydrogen in volume. The subfilter combustion term representing the interaction between turbulence and chemistry is modelled using the PaSR model, along with complex chemistry using a skeletal mechanism based on GRI-MECH3.0. The influence of pressure at high turbulence levels is studied by means of the local flame structure, and the assessment of species formation inside the flame. Results show that the ratio of turbulent flame thickness to laminar flame thickness δt/δu increases faster with pressure, and increases with the fraction of hydrogen in the mixture, leading to higher ratio of turbulent to laminar flame speed. The flame displays smaller structures and higher degree of wrinkling at higher pressure. Final species of CO2 and H2O formation is almost independent of pressure. For intermediate species CO and OH, an increase in pressure at constant volume fraction of hydrogen β leads to a decrease of emission of these species.

  13. Efficient four-wave mixing in an ultra-highly nonlinear suspended-core chalcogenide As38Se62 fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Sy Dat; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Thual, Monique; Bramerie, Laurent; Costa e Silva, Marcia; Lenglé, Kevin; Gay, Mathilde; Chartier, Thierry; Brilland, Laurent; Méchin, David; Toupin, Perrine; Troles, Johann

    2011-12-12

    We report a chalcogenide suspended-core fiber with ultra-high nonlinearity and low attenuation loss. The glass composition is As(38)Se(62).With a core diameter as small as 1.13 µm, a record Kerr nonlinearity of 46,000 W(-1) km(-1) is demonstrated with attenuation loss of 0.9 dB/m. Four-wave mixing is experimented by using a 1m-long chalcogenide fiber for 10 GHz and 42.7 GHz signals. Four-wave mixing efficiencies of -5.6 dB at 10 GHz and -17.5 dB at 42.7 GHz are obtained. We also observed higher orders of four-wave mixing for both repetition rates. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  14. Factors influencing the separation of oligonucleotides using reversed-phase/ion-exchange mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biba, Mirlinda; Jiang, Eileen; Mao, Bing; Zewge, Daniel; Foley, Joe P; Welch, Christopher J

    2013-08-23

    New mixed-mode columns consisting of reversed-phase and ion-exchange separation modes were evaluated for the analysis of short RNA oligonucleotides (∼20mers). Conventional analysis for these samples typically involves using two complementary methods: strong anion-exchange liquid chromatography (SAX-LC) for separation based on charge, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) for separation based on hydrophobicity. Recently introduced mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns combine both reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes, potentially offering a simpler analysis by combining the benefits of both separation modes into a single method. Analysis of a variety of RNA oligonucleotide samples using three different mixed-mode stationary phases showed some distinct benefits for oligonucleotide separation and analysis. When using these mixed-mode columns with typical IP-RPLC mobile phase conditions, such as ammonium acetate or triethylammonium acetate as the primary ion-pair reagent, the separation was mainly based on the IP-RPLC mode. However, when changing the mobile phase conditions to those more typical for SAX-LC, such as salt gradients with NaCl or NaBr, very different separation patterns were observed due to mixed-mode interactions. In addition, the Scherzo SW-C18 and SM-C18 columns with sodium chloride or sodium bromide salt gradients also showed significant improvements in peak shape.

  15. (DURIP 10) High Speed Intensified Imaging System For Studies Of Mixing And Combustion In Supersonic Flows And Hydrocarbon Flame Structure Measurements At Elevated Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-09

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0357 (DURIP 10) HIGH-SPEED INTENSIFIED IMAGING SYSTEM FOR STUDIES OF MIXING AND COMBUSTION IN SUPERSONIC FLOWS AND HYDROCARBON...COVERED (From - To) 03 Sep 2010 to 29 Sep 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (DURIP 10) HIGH-SPEED INTENSIFIED IMAGING SYSTEM FOR STUDIES OF MIXING AND COMBUSTION ...91125 HIGH SPEED INTENSIFIED IMAGING SYSTEM FOR MIXING AND COMBUSTION IN SUPERSONIC FLOWS AND HYDROCARBON- FLAME STRUCTURE MEASUREMENTS AT

  16. Mixed H2/H∞ filtering for a class of high-speed sampling uncertain systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui; YAO Yu; MA KeMao; CHEN SongLin

    2008-01-01

    The problem of mixed H2/H∞ filtering for polytopic Delta operator systems is inves-tigated. The aim is to design a linear asymptotically stable filter which guarantees that the filtering error system has different performances in different filtering channels. Based on a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function, a new mixed H2/H∞ performance criterion is presented. Upon this performance criterion, a sufficient condition for the full-order mixed H2/H∞ filter is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. The filter can be obtained from the solution of a convex optimization problem. The proposed filter design procedure is less conservative than the strat-egy based on the quadratic stability notion. A numerical example is given to illus-trate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  17. Quantifying tree mortality in a mixed species woodland using multitemporal high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Steven R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brumby, Steven P.; Gangodagamage, Chandana; McDowell, Nate G.; Cai, D. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality events have recently been observed in several biomes. To effectively quantify the severity and extent of these events, tools that allow for rapid assessment at the landscape scale are required. Past studies using high spatial resolution satellite imagery have primarily focused on detecting green, red, and gray tree canopies during and shortly after tree damage or mortality has occurred. However, detecting trees in various stages of death is not always possible due to limited availability of archived satellite imagery. Here we assess the capability of high spatial resolution satellite imagery for tree mortality detection in a southwestern U.S. mixed species woodland using archived satellite images acquired prior to mortality and well after dead trees had dropped their leaves. We developed a multistep classification approach that uses: supervised masking of non-tree image elements; bi-temporal (pre- and post-mortality) differencing of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and red:green ratio (RGI); and unsupervised multivariate clustering of pixels into live and dead tree classes using a Gaussian mixture model. Classification accuracies were improved in a final step by tuning the rules of pixel classification using the posterior probabilities of class membership obtained from the Gaussian mixture model. Classifications were produced for two images acquired post-mortality with overall accuracies of 97.9% and 98.5%, respectively. Classified images were combined with land cover data to characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of tree mortality across areas with differences in tree species composition. We found that 38% of tree crown area was lost during the drought period between 2002 and 2006. The majority of tree mortality during this period was concentrated in piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus monosperma) woodlands. An additional 20% of the tree canopy died or was removed between 2006 and 2011, primarily in areas

  18. Modelling of HTR (High Temperature Reactor Pebble-Bed 10 MW to Determine Criticality as A Variations of Enrichment and Radius of the Fuel (Kernel With the Monte Carlo Code MCNP4C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammam Oktajianto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas-cooled nuclear reactor is a Generation IV reactor which has been receiving significant attention due to many desired characteristics such as inherent safety, modularity, relatively low cost, short construction period, and easy financing. High temperature reactor (HTR pebble-bed as one of type of gas-cooled reactor concept is getting attention. In HTR pebble-bed design, radius and enrichment of the fuel kernel are the key parameter that can be chosen freely to determine the desired value of criticality. This paper models HTR pebble-bed 10 MW and determines an effective of enrichment and radius of the fuel (Kernel to get criticality value of reactor. The TRISO particle coated fuel particle which was modelled explicitly and distributed in the fuelled region of the fuel pebbles using a Simple-Cubic (SC lattice. The pebble-bed balls and moderator balls distributed in the core zone using a Body-Centred Cubic lattice with assumption of a fresh fuel by the fuel enrichment was 7-17% at 1% range and the size of the fuel radius was 175-300 µm at 25 µm ranges. The geometrical model of the full reactor is obtained by using lattice and universe facilities provided by MCNP4C. The details of model are discussed with necessary simplifications. Criticality calculations were conducted by Monte Carlo transport code MCNP4C and continuous energy nuclear data library ENDF/B-VI. From calculation results can be concluded that an effective of enrichment and radius of fuel (Kernel to achieve a critical condition was the enrichment of 15-17% at a radius of 200 µm, the enrichment of 13-17% at a radius of 225 µm, the enrichments of 12-15% at radius of 250 µm, the enrichments of 11-14% at a radius of 275 µm and the enrichment of 10-13% at a radius of 300 µm, so that the effective of enrichments and radii of fuel (Kernel can be considered in the HTR 10 MW. Keywords—MCNP4C, HTR, enrichment, radius, criticality 

  19. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  20. Coherent {lambda}-{sigma}{sup 0} mixing in high-density neutron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinmura, S. [Department of Information Science, Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Khin Swe Myint [Department of Physics, Mandalay University, Mandalay (Myanmar); Harada, T. [Osaka Electro-Communication University, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan); Akaishi, Y. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The Brueckner theory is applied to hyperon properties in dense neutron matter. The coupled-channel Bethe-Goldstone equations are solved for the Nijmegen hyperon-nucleon potentials, NSC97 and NSC89. The coherent {lambda}-{sigma} coupling is strongly enhanced in neutron matter and causes large {sigma}{sup 0} mixing of 5 {approx} 25% at {rho}={rho}{sub 0}{approx}3{rho}{sub 0}. The coherent mixing drastically affects the hyperon composition of neutron-star matter. (author)

  1. Direct formation of supermassive black holes in metal-enriched gas at the heart of high-redshift galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Lucio; Bonoli, Silvia; Quinn, Thomas; Roskar, Rok; Shen, Sijing; Wadsley, James

    2014-01-01

    We present novel 3D multi-scale SPH simulations of gas-rich galaxy mergers between the most massive galaxies at $z \\sim 8 - 10$, designed to scrutinize the direct collapse formation scenario for massive black hole seeds proposed in \\citet{mayer+10}. The simulations achieve a resolution of 0.1 pc, and include both metallicity-dependent optically-thin cooling and a model for thermal balance at high optical depth. We consider different formulations of the SPH hydrodynamical equations, including thermal and metal diffusion. When the two merging galaxy cores collide, gas infall produces a compact, optically thick nuclear disk with densities exceeding $10^{-10}$ g cm$^3$. The disk rapidly accretes higher angular momentum gas from its surroundings reaching $\\sim 5$ pc and a mass of $\\gtrsim 10^9$ $M_{\\odot}$ in only a few $10^4$ yr. Outside $\\gtrsim 2$ pc it fragments into massive clumps. Instead, supersonic turbulence prevents fragmentation in the inner parsec region, which remains warm ($\\sim 3000-6000$ K) and dev...

  2. Review of 15 years: high-density low-enriched UMo dispersion fuel development for research reactors in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghe, S. van den [SCK.CEN, Nuclear Materials Science Institute (NMS), Boeretan (Belgium); Lemoine, P [Commissariat a l' Eergie Atomique, CEA Saclay, Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-04-15

    This review aims to provide a synthesis of the knowledge generated and the lessons learned in roughly 15 years of UMo dispersion fuel R and D in Europe through a series of irradiation experiments. A lot of irradiations were also performed outside of Europe, particularly in the USA, Russia, Canada, Korea and Argentina. In addition, a large number of out-of-pile investigations were done throughout the world, providing support to the understanding of the phenomena governing the UMo behaviour in pile. However, the focus of this article will be on the irradiations and Post-Irradiation Examination (PIE) results obtained in European experiments. The introduction of the article provides a historic overview of the evolution and progress in the high density UMo dispersion fuel development. The ensuing sections then provide further details on the various phases of the development, from the UMo dispersion in a pure Al matrix through the addition of Si to the matrix to address the interaction layer formation and finally to the more advanced solutions to the excessive swelling encountered in various experiments. This review was based only on published results or results that are currently in the process of being published.

  3. High-amplitude supergiant V5112 Sgr: enrichment of the envelope with heavy s-process metals

    CERN Document Server

    Klochkova., V G

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution (R=60000) echelle spectroscopy of the post-AGB supergiant V5112 Sgr performed in 1996-2012 with the 6-m telescope BTA has revealed peculiarities of the star optical spectrum and has allowed the variability of the velocity field in the stellar atmosphere and envelope to be studied in detail. An asymmetry and splitting of strong absorption lines with a low lower-level excitation potential have been detected for the first time. The effect is maximal in BaII lines whose profile is split into three components. The profile shape and positions of the split lines change with time. The blue components of the split absorption lines are shown to be formed in a structured circumstellar envelope, suggesting an efficient dredge-up of the heavy metals produced during the preceding evolution of this star into the envelope. The envelope expansion velocities have been estimated to be 20 and 30 km/s. The mean radial velocity from diffuse bands in the spectrum of V5112 Sgr coincides with that from the short-wavel...

  4. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  5. General synthesis of vanadium-based mixed metal oxides hollow nanofibers for high performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Juan; Yu, Xin-Yao; Paik, Ungyu

    2016-10-01

    Hollow nanostructured mixed metal oxides have recently been intensively investigated as electrode materials for energy storage and conversion due to their remarkable electrochemical properties. Although great efforts have been made, the synthesis of hollow nanostructured vanadium-based mixed metal oxides especially those with one dimensional structure is rarely reported. Vanadium-based mixed metal oxides are promising electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high capacity and good rate capability. Here, we develop a facile and general method for the synthesis of one dimensional MxV2O8 (M = Co, Ni, Fe) tubular structure through a simple single-spinneret electrospinning technique followed by a calcination process. As a demonstration, Co3V2O8 hollow nanofibers are evaluated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. As expected, benefiting from their unique one dimensional tubular structure, the as-synthesized Co3V2O8 exhibits excellent electrochemical properties for lithium storage. To be specific, it can deliver a high specific capacity of 900 mAh g-1 at 5 A g-1, and long cycling stability up to 2000 cycles. The present work makes a significant contribution to the design and synthesis of mixed metal oxides with one dimensional tubular structure, as well as their potential applications in electrochemical energy storage.

  6. Metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes: a solution for highly efficient CO2 capture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seoane, B.; Coronas, J.; Gascon, I.; Benavides, M.E.; Karvan, O.; Caro, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2015-01-01

    The field of metal–organic framework based mixed matrix membranes (M4s) is critically reviewed, with special emphasis on their application in CO2 capture during energy generation. After introducing the most relevant parameters affecting membrane performance, we define targets in terms of selectivity

  7. Dispersion-Flattened Composite Highly Nonlinear Fibre Optimised for Broadband Pulsed Four-Wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a segmented composite HNLF optimised for mitigation of dispersion-fluctuation impairments for broadband pulsed four-wave mixing. The HNLF-segmentation allows for pulsed FWMprocessing of a 13-nm wide input WDM-signal with -4.6-dB conversion efficiency...

  8. Alcohol Mixed with High Levels of Caffeine: What Campus Professionals Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traue, Jessica Greher; Stahlman, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few months, there has been much media attention on popular caffeinated malt beverages like Four Loko. However, researchers, policy makers, and health professionals have expressed concern over caffeinated malt beverages and mixed energy drinks for several years. Since the introduction of energy drinks to the United States such as Red…

  9. A Bifidobacterium mixed-species microarray for high resolution discrimination between intestinal bifidobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesten, R.J.; Schuren, F.H.; Vos, de W.M.

    2009-01-01

    A genomic DNA-based microarray was constructed containing over 6000 randomly cloned genomic fragments of approximately 1-2 kb from six mammalian intestinal Bifidobacterium spp. including B. adolescentis, B. animalis, B. bifidum, B. catenulatum, B. longum and B. pseudolongum. This Bifidobacterium Mix

  10. Alcohol Mixed with High Levels of Caffeine: What Campus Professionals Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traue, Jessica Greher; Stahlman, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few months, there has been much media attention on popular caffeinated malt beverages like Four Loko. However, researchers, policy makers, and health professionals have expressed concern over caffeinated malt beverages and mixed energy drinks for several years. Since the introduction of energy drinks to the United States such as Red…

  11. High pressure gas separation performance of mixed-matrix polymer membranes containing mesoporous FE(BTC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahid, S.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs), filled with inorganic particles, provide a means to improve the gas separation performance of polymeric membranes. In this work, MMMs containing the mesoporous metal organic framework (MOF) Fe(BTC) in a Matrimid®-PI matrix were characterized in terms of their carbon di

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Koningsbruggen, van M.P.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Three pyrolysis processes for Mixed Plastic Waste (MPW) with different reactors (Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed and Rotating Cone Reactor, respectively BFB, CFB and RCR) were designed and evaluated. The estimated fixed capital investment for a 50 kton/year MPW pyrolysis plant buil

  13. Highly specific purification of N-glycans using phosphate-based derivatization as an affinity tag in combination with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE enrichment for mass spectrometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugates Research Ministry of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Peng, Ye; Bin, Zhichao [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Wang, Huijie [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Lu, Haojie, E-mail: luhaojie@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Cancer Center and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Key Laboratory of Glycoconjugates Research Ministry of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-08-31

    N-linked protein glycosylation is involved in regulation of a wide variety of cellular processes and associated with numerous diseases. Highly specific identification of N-glycome remains a challenge while its biological significance is acknowledged. The relatively low abundance of glycan in complex biological mixtures, lack of basic sites for protonation, and suppression by other highly abundant proteins/peptides lead to the particularly poor detection sensitivity of N-glycans in the MS analysis. Therefore, the highly specific purification procedure becomes a crucial step prior to MS analysis of the N-glycome. Herein, a novel N-glycans enrichment approach based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE (solid phase extraction) was developed. Briefly, in this strategy, N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phospho-group at their reducing ends, such that the Ti{sup 4+}-SPE microspheres were able to capture the phospho-containing glycans. The enrichment method was developed and optimized using model oligosaccharides (maltoheptaose DP7 and sialylated glycan A1) and also glycans from a standard glycoprotein (asialofetuin, ASF). This method experimentally showed high derivatization efficiency (almost 100%), excellent selectivity (analyzing DP7 in the digests of bovine serum albumin at a mass ratio of 1:100), high enriching recovery (90%), good reproducibility (CV<15%) as well as high sensitivity (LOD at fmol level). At last, the proposed method was successfully applied in the profiling of N-glycome in human serum, in which a total of 31 N-glycan masses were identified. - Graphical abstract: A selective enrichment method for the N-glycome is reported. N-glycans were chemically labeled with a phosphate derivatization reagent (AMS), then the phospho-containing glycans were enriched using Ti{sup 4+}-microspheres. - Highlights: • A highly specific N-glycans purification method based on phosphate derivatization combined with Ti{sup 4+}-SPE was developed

  14. Influence of High Temperatures on the Workability of Fresh Ready-Mixed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sampebulu'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of fresh concrete made in tropical countries, which is mixed, transported (with agitation, placed and initially cured in places where the temperature ranges from about 20oC to 40oC and relative humidity above 60%, are not completely understood. Applicable requirements also differ from country to country and government agencies and private enterprises have their own specifications. Assuming such temperature and relative humidity conditions, the present study is an attempt at evaluating the properties of hot weather concrete in fresh state with using a method of ready–mixed concrete. The fresh concrete was mixed and agitated at varying concrete and ambient temperatures. Three groups of the component materials, each material having such temperature as to bring resulting temperature of the fresh concrete to about 20oC, 30oC, 35oC, were chosen. The temperature of cement was conditioned to about20o, 40oC and 60oC for each of groups respectively. The aggregate was made warm enough to simulate the condition of outdoor pile in ready-mixed concrete plant. The temperature of tap water was always 20oC as it was easily controlled and unlikely affected by outdoor temperature. With the fresh concrete prevented from evaporation, slump loss is caused solely by increased temperature of concrete. During agitation, the slump loss increases rapidly during the first 30 minutes but moderately during the remaining period. Concrete-placing temperature (upon arrival at the work site could be estimated by a proposed formula derived from this study. Besides the freshly mixed concrete temperature, this formula also takes into consideration the ambient temperature, agitating time in transit and hydration heat. The achievement as described in this study may be useful to control concrete quality in terms of strength, shrinkage and other properties of concrete to be placed in hot-humid environment.

  15. Active Detection of Small Quantities of Shielded Highly-Enriched Uranium Using Low-Dose 60-keV Neutron Interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P; Rowland, M; Dietrich, D; Stoeffl, W; Wheeler, B; Nakae, L; Howard, D; Hagmann, C; Newby, J; Porter, R

    2006-08-16

    Active interrogation with low-energy neutrons provides a search technique for shielded highly-enriched uranium. We describe the technique and show initial results using a low-dose 60 keV neutron beam. This technique produces a clear induced fission signal in the presence of small quantities of {sup 235}U. The technique has been validated with low-Z and high-Z shielding materials. The technique uses a forward-directed beam of 60 keV neutrons to induce fission in {sup 235}U. The induced fission produces fast neutrons which are then detected as the signature for {sup 235}U. The beam of neutrons is generated with a 1.93 MeV proton beam impinging on a natural lithium target. The proton beam is produced by a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) LINAC. The 60 keV neutron beam is forward directed because the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction is just at threshold for the proton energy of 1.93 MeV.

  16. In situ solvothermal growth of metal-organic framework-ionic liquid functionalized graphene nanocomposite for highly efficient enrichment of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mian; Ai, Youhong; Zeng, Baizhao; Zhao, Faqiong

    2016-01-04

    Here we report a facile in situ solvothermal growth method for immobilization of metal-organic framework-ionic liquid functionalized graphene (MOF-5/ILG) composite on etched stainless steel wire. The X-ray diffraction spectra, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the metal organic framework possessed good crystal shape and its structure was not disturbed by the introduction of ILG. Moreover, the covalent bond established between the amino group of ILG and the carboxylic group of the metal organic framework improved the mechanical stability and structure uniformity of the microcrystals. The obtained material combined the favorable attributes of both metal-organic framework and ILG, having high surface area (820 m(2)/g) and good adsorption capability. Its adsorption properties were explored by preconcentrating chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol from aqueous solutions prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. The MOF-5/ILG exhibited high enrichment capacity for the analytes as they could interact through π-π and H-bonding interaction. Under the optimum conditions, good linearity (correlation coefficients higher than 0.9981), low limits of detection (14.8-19.5 ng/L), and good precision (relative standard deviations less than 6.0% (n=5)) were achieved. The MOF-5/ILG composite displayed durable property. The method was applied to the determination of two antibiotics in milk, honey, urine and serum samples with acceptable relative recoveries of 82.3-103.2%.

  17. Bottom-up synthesis of high-performance nitrogen-enriched transition metal/graphene oxygen reduction electrocatalysts both in alkaline and acidic solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Qingxue; Gao, Qingwen; Su, Qi; Liang, Yanyu; Wang, Yuxi; Yang, Zhi

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with low cost and excellent performance are urgently required for large-scale application in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Though nitrogen-enriched transition metal/graphene hybrids (N-TM/G, TM = Fe, Co, and Ni and related compounds) have been developed as novel substitutes for precious metal catalysts (PMCs) towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), a significant challenge still remains for simple and efficient synthesis of N-TM/G catalysts with satisfactory electrocatalytic behavior. Herein, we demonstrate a universal bottom-up strategy for efficient fabrication of strongly-coupled N-TM/G catalysts. This strategy is implemented via direct polymerization of transition metal phthalocyanine (TMPc) in the two-dimensional confined space of in situ generated g-C3N4 and a subsequent pyrolysis. Such a space-confined bottom-up synthesis route successfully constructs a strongly-coupled triple junction of transition metal-graphitic carbon-nitrogen-doped graphene (TM-GC-NG) with extensive controllability over the specific surface area, nitrogen content/types as well as the states of metal. As a result, the optimized N-Fe/G materials have promising potential as high-performance NPMCs towards ORR both in alkaline and acidic solution.Oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with low cost and excellent performance are urgently required for large-scale application in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Though nitrogen-enriched transition metal/graphene hybrids (N-TM/G, TM = Fe, Co, and Ni and related compounds) have been developed as novel substitutes for precious metal catalysts (PMCs) towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), a significant challenge still remains for simple and efficient synthesis of N-TM/G catalysts with satisfactory electrocatalytic behavior. Herein, we demonstrate a universal bottom-up strategy for efficient fabrication of strongly-coupled N-TM/G catalysts. This strategy is implemented via direct polymerization of transition

  18. Research and Development of Multiphysics Models in Support of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodey, Isaac T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curtis, Franklin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Arimilli, Rao V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Freels, James D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    ABSTRACT The findings presented in this report are results of a five year effort lead by the RRD Division of the ORNL, which is focused on research and development toward the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report focuses on the tasks accomplished by the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK) team from the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering (MABE) that provided expert support in multiphysics modeling of complex problems associated with the LEU conversion of the HFIR reactor. The COMSOL software was used as the main computational modeling tool, whereas Solidworks was also used in support of computer-aided-design (CAD) modeling of the proposed LEU fuel design. The UTK research has been governed by a statement of work (SOW), which was updated annually to clearly define the specific tasks reported herein. Ph.D. student Isaac T. Bodey has focused on heat transfer and fluid flow modeling issues and has been aided by his major professor Dr. Rao V. Arimilli. Ph.D. student Franklin G. Curtis has been focusing on modeling the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena caused by the mechanical forces acting on the fuel plates, which in turn affect the fluid flow in between the fuel plates, and ultimately the heat transfer, is also affected by the FSI changes. Franklin Curtis has been aided by his major professor Dr. Kivanc Ekici. M.Sc. student Adam R. Travis has focused two major areas of research: (1) on accurate CAD modeling of the proposed LEU plate design, and (2) reduction of the model complexity and dimensionality through interdimensional coupling of the fluid flow and heat transfer for the HFIR plate geometry. Adam Travis is also aided by his major professor, Dr. Kivanc Ekici. We must note that the UTK team, and particularly the graduate students, have been in very close collaboration with Dr. James D. Freels (ORNL technical monitor and mentor

  19. Research and Development of Multiphysics Models in Support of the Conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodey, Isaac T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Curtis, Franklin G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Arimilli, Rao V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Freels, James D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The findings presented in this report are results of a five year effort led by the RRD Division of the ORNL, which is focused on research and development toward the conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). This report focuses on the tasks accomplished by the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK) team from the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering (MABE) that provided expert support in multiphysics modeling of complex problems associated with the LEU conversion of the HFIR reactor. The COMSOL software was used as the main computational modeling tool, whereas Solidworks was also used in support of computer-aided-design (CAD) modeling of the proposed LEU fuel design. The UTK research has been governed by a statement of work (SOW), which was updated annually to clearly define the specific tasks reported herein. Ph.D. student Isaac T. Bodey has focused on heat transfer and fluid flow modeling issues and has been aided by his major professor Dr. Rao V. Arimilli. Ph.D. student Franklin G. Curtis has been focusing on modeling the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) phenomena caused by the mechanical forces acting on the fuel plates, which in turn affect the fluid flow in between the fuel plates, and ultimately the heat transfer, is also affected by the FSI changes. Franklin Curtis has been aided by his major professor Dr. Kivanc Ekici. M.Sc. student Adam R. Travis has focused two major areas of research: (1) on accurate CAD modeling of the proposed LEU plate design, and (2) reduction of the model complexity and dimensionality through interdimensional coupling of the fluid flow and heat transfer for the HFIR plate geometry. Adam Travis is also aided by his major professor, Dr. Kivanc Ekici. We must note that the UTK team, and particularly the graduate students, have been in very close collaboration with Dr. James D. Freels (ORNL technical monitor and mentor) and have

  20. Submicron InP DHBT technology for high-speed high-swing mixed-signal ICs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godin, Jean; Nodjiadjim, V.; Riet, Muriel;

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a submicron InP DHBT technology, optimized for the fabrication of 50-GHz-clock mixed signal ICs. In-depth study of device geometry and structure has allowed to get the needed performances and yield. Special attention has been paid to critical thermal behavior. Vari...

  1. Application of an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Yongling; Zou, Denglang; Chen, Chen; You, Jinmao; Zhou, Guoying; Sun, Jing; Li, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Mixed State and High Effective Utilization of Pilbara Blending Iron Ore Powder%Mixed State and High Effective Utilization of Pilbara Blending Iron Ore Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong-guo; WU Sheng-li; HAN Hong-liang; WANG Hong-wei; XUE Fang; LIU Xiao-qin

    2011-01-01

    Pilbara blending iron ore powder (PB powder) is blending ores with good and poor quality iron ores, so how to use PB power effectively is a problem. The self-characteristics of PB powder and its single-components were studied respectively such as the macroscopic properties, microscopic properties, and high-temperature properties the behavior and effect in the sintering were mastered. Then based on the new ore-proportioning idea of iron ores sintering characteristics complementary, the principles on the effective use of PB powder were discussed, and was fur ther validated through the sintering pot test and industrial production. The results show that PB powder is composed of three kinds of iron ore, and the sintering characteristics of different iron ores are obviously discrepant. With the ore-proportioning optimization based on the iron ores sintering characteristics complementary, the proportion of PB iron ore powder can be increased to more than 45 %.

  3. High-throughput synthesis of mixed-metal electrocatalysts for CO{sub 2} reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jingfu; Dettelbach, Kevan E.; Li, Tengfei [Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Salvatore, Danielle A. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Berlinguette, Curtis P. [Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2017-05-22

    The utilization of CO{sub 2} as a feedstock requires fundamental breakthroughs in catalyst design. The efficiencies and activities of pure metal electrodes towards the CO{sub 2} reduction reaction are established, but the corresponding data on mixed-metal systems are not as well developed. In this study we show that the near-infrared driven decomposition (NIRDD) of solution-deposited films of metal salts and subsequent electrochemical reduction offers the unique opportunity to form an array of mixed-metal electrocatalyst coatings with excellent control of the metal stoichiometries. This synthetic method enabled us to develop an empirical structure-property correlation to help inform the development of optimized CO{sub 2} catalyst compositions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Winsorization on linear mixed model (Case study: National exam of senior high school in West Java)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliyani, Leny; Kurnia, Anang; Indahwati

    2017-03-01

    In the case of hierarchical data is typically modeled with linear mixed model (LMM). The LMM requires the assumption of normality which is error and random effects are assumed normal distribution. However in practice, to meet the assumption of normality is difficult especially if the sample is small. Violation of the normality assumption can be caused by outliers. In this paper, we will examine the effect of outliers on the random effects and error and overcome them with the Winsorization technique. The result of application indicated that Winsorization technique with c-tuning constant iterative process produced root mean squared error, AIC, and BIC are smaller than the others. We conclude that Winsorization technique can be used to overcome outliers in linear mixed model fitting.

  5. Magma mixing and high fountaining during the 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides, I.; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, Don; Steele-MacInnis, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The 1959 Kīlauea Iki eruption provides a unique opportunity to investigate the process of shallow magma mixing, its impact on the magmatic volatile budget and its role in triggering and driving episodes of Hawaiian fountaining. Melt inclusions hosted by olivine record a continuous decrease in H2O concentration through the 17 episodes of the eruption, while CO2 concentrations correlate with the degree of post-entrapment crystallization of olivine on the inclusion walls. Geochemical data, when combined with the magma budget and with contemporaneous eruption observations, show complex mixing between episodes involving hot, geochemically heterogeneous melts from depth, likely carrying exsolved vapor, and melts which had erupted at the surface, degassed and drained-back into the vent. The drained-back melts acted as a coolant, inducing rapid cooling of the more primitive melts and their olivines at shallow depths and inducing crystallization and vesiculation and triggering renewed fountaining. A consequence of the mixing is that the melts became vapor-undersaturated, so equilibration pressures cannot be inferred from them using saturation models. After the melt inclusions were trapped, continued growth of vapor bubbles, caused by enhanced post-entrapment crystallization, sequestered a large fraction of CO2 from the melt within the inclusions. This study, while cautioning against accepting melt inclusion CO2 concentrations “as measured” in mixed magmas, also illustrates that careful analysis and interpretation of post-entrapment modifications can turn this apparent challenge into a way to yield novel useful insights into the geochemical controls on eruption intensity.

  6. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. High throughput and rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in peptides with angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai-Lun; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wu, Hao; Sun, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Zhou, Bai-Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Twelve kinds of marine protein materials, including fish, shrimp, seashell, algae and seafood wastes were selected for the hydrolysis using four different proteases. The IC(50) values for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of 48 hydrolysates were rapidly determined by capillary electrophoresis (CE). The values ranged from 0.17 to 501.7mg/ml, and were affected by both the marine protein resources and the selected proteases. Hydrolysates of the lowest IC(50) values were from shrimp (Acetes chinensis), shark meat, mackerel bone, Polysiphonia urceolata and Spirulina platensis, indicating these five kinds of marine food proteins contained beneficial materials for the production of ACE inhibitory peptides by proteolysis. The hydrolysates obtained using proteases Protamex and SM98011 had lower IC(50) values, showing these two proteases were superior to others. The CE method achieved the same sensitivity as the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. However, the CE method was faster and, as a result, more economical. Therefore, CE had potential for rapid screening of marine protein hydrolysates enriched in ACE inhibitory peptides.

  8. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment.

  9. Lipase-catalyzed preparation of diacylglycerol-enriched oil from high-acid rice bran oil in solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhihua; Liu, Yuanfa; Jin, Qingzhe; Li, Lei; Wang, Xingguo; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Ruijie

    2012-09-01

    The ability of immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) to catalyze the reaction of high-acid rice bran oil (RBO) and monoglyceride (MG) for diacylglycerol-enriched rice bran oil (RBO-DG) preparation was investigated. The effects of substrate ratio, reaction temperature, time, and enzyme load on the respective content of free fatty acid (FFA) and DG in the final RBO-DG products was investigated. Enzyme screening on the reaction was also investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of the reaction temperature (50-70 °C), the enzyme load (2-6 %; relative to the weight of total substrates), and the reaction time (4-8 h) on the respective content of FFA and DG. Validation of the RSM model was verified by the good agreement between the experimental and the predicted values. The optimum preparation conditions were as follows: MG/RBO, 0.25; temperature, 56 °C; enzyme load, 4.77 %; and reaction time, 5.75 h. Under the suggested conditions, the respective content of FFA and DG was 0.28 and 27.98 %, respectively. Repeated reaction tests indicated that Lipozyme RM IM could be used nine times under the optimum conditions with 90 % of its original catalytic activity still retained.

  10. Si iv Column Densities Predicted from Non-Equilibrium Ionization Simulations of Turbulent Mixing Layers and High-Velocity Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Kyujin; Henley, David B

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions of the Si iv ions in turbulent mixing layers (TMLs) between hot and cool gas and in cool high-velocity clouds (HVCs) that travel through a hot halo, complementing the C iv, N v, and O vi predictions in Kwak & Shelton, Kwak et al., and Henley et al. We find that the Si iv ions are most abundant in regions where the hot and cool gases first begin to mix or where the mixed gas has cooled significantly. The predicted column densities of high velocity Si iv and the predicted ratios of Si iv to C iv and O vi found on individual sightlines in our HVC simulations are in good agreement with observations of high velocity gas. Low velocity Si iv is also seen in the simulations, as a result of decelerated gas in the case of the HVC simulations and when looking along directions that pass perpendicular to the direction of motion in the TML simulations. The ratios of low velocity Si iv to C iv and O vi in the TML simulations are in good agreement with those recorded for Milky Way halo gas, while t...

  11. Effect of high fat diet enriched with unsaturated and diet rich in saturated fatty acids on sphingolipid metabolism in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Baranowski, Marcin; Zabielski, Piotr; Gorski, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Consumption of high fat diet leads to muscle lipid accumulation which is an important factor involved in induction of insulin resistance. Ceramide is likely to partially inhibit insulin signaling cascade. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different high fat diets on ceramide metabolism in rat skeletal muscles. The experiments were carried out on rats fed for 5 weeks: (1) a standard chow and (2) high fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (3) diet enriched with saturated fatty acids (SAT). Assays were performed on three types of muscles: slow-twitch oxidative (soleus), fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic, and fast-twitch glycolytic (red and white section of the gastrocnemius, respectively). The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), neutral and acid sphingomyelinase (n- and aSMase), and neutral and alkaline ceramidase (n- and alCDase) was examined. The content of ceramide, sphinganine, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate was also measured. The ceramide content did not change in any muscle from PUFA diet group but increased in the SAT diet group by 46% and 52% in the soleus and red section of the gastrocnemius, respectively. Elevated ceramide content in the SAT diet group could be a result of increased SPT activity and simultaneously decreased activity of nCDase. Unchanged ceramide content in the PUFA diet group might be a result of increased activity of SPT and alCDase and simultaneously decreased activity of SMases. We conclude that regulation of muscle ceramide level depends on the diet and type of skeletal muscle. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Quantitative Imaging of Turbulent Mixing Dynamics in High-Pressure Fuel Injection to Enable Predictive Simulations of Engine Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, Jonathan H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Pickett, Lyle M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Bisson, Scott E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Remote Sensing and Energetic Materials Dept.; Patterson, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). combustion Chemistry Dept.; Ruggles, Adam J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Skeen, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Manin, Julien Luc [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Huang, Erxiong [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Reacting Flows Dept.; Cicone, Dave J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.; Sphicas, Panos [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Engine Combustion Dept.

    2015-09-01

    In this LDRD project, we developed a capability for quantitative high - speed imaging measurements of high - pressure fuel injection dynamics to advance understanding of turbulent mixing in transcritical flows, ignition, and flame stabilization mechanisms, and to provide e ssential validation data for developing predictive tools for engine combustion simulations. Advanced, fuel - efficient engine technologies rely on fuel injection into a high - pressure, high - temperature environment for mixture preparation and com bustion. Howe ver, the dynamics of fuel injection are not well understood and pose significant experimental and modeling challenges. To address the need for quantitative high - speed measurements, we developed a Nd:YAG laser that provides a 5ms burst of pulses at 100 kHz o n a robust mobile platform . Using this laser, we demonstrated s patially and temporally resolved Rayleigh scattering imaging and particle image velocimetry measurements of turbulent mixing in high - pressure gas - phase flows and vaporizing sprays . Quantitativ e interpretation of high - pressure measurements was advanced by reducing and correcting interferences and imaging artifacts.

  13. The feasibility of using high resolution genome sequencing of influenza A viruses to detect mixed infections and quasispecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthannan A Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rapidly expanding availability of de novo sequencing technologies can greatly facilitate efforts to monitor the relatively high mutation rates of influenza A viruses and the detection of quasispecies. Both the mutation rates and the lineages of influenza A viruses are likely to play an important role in the natural history of these viruses and the emergence of phenotypically and antigenically distinct strains. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated quasispecies and mixed infections by de novo sequencing the whole genomes of 10 virus isolates, including eight avian influenza viruses grown in embryonated chicken eggs (six waterfowl isolates - five H3N2 and one H4N6; an H7N3 turkey isolate; and a bald eagle isolate with H1N1/H2N1 mixed infection, and two tissue cultured H3N2 swine influenza viruses. Two waterfowl cloacal swabs were included in the analysis. Full-length sequences of all segments were obtained with 20 to 787-X coverage for the ten viruses and one cloacal swab. The second cloacal swab yielded 15 influenza reads of approximately 230 bases, sufficient for bioinformatic inference of mixed infections or quasispecies. Genomic subpopulations or quasispecies of viruses were identified in four egg grown avian influenza isolates and one cell cultured swine virus. A bald eagle isolate and the second cloacal swab showed evidence of mixed infections with two (H1 and H2 and three (H1, H3, and H4 HA subtypes, respectively. Multiple sequence differences were identified between cloacal swab and the virus recovered using embryonated chicken eggs. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a new approach to comprehensively identify mixed infections and quasispecies in low passage influenza A isolates and cloacal swabs and add to the understanding of the ecology of influenza A virus populations.

  14. The Generation of Smooth High Speed Solar Wind From Plume-Interplume Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steve; Parhi, Shyam; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ulysses has shown that fast solar wind is extremely smooth, with a variance of less than 5%, in contrast to slow wind with a variance of approximately 30%. Now UVCS has produced the surprising result that the flow speed within coronal holes, the source of fast wind, is not at all smooth. Specifically, Giordano et al. (ApJ, v531, L79-L82, 2000) report that at 1.7 R(sub SUN) the interplume flow speed is typically more than twice the plume flow speed. Other less direct evidence supports this same result, with speeds from less than 300 to over 1000 km/s reported at approximately 5 R(sub SUN). This presents the paradox of how strongly differing plume and interplume flow speeds can exist near the Sun and be absent far from the Sun. The only answer is that plume and interplume material or momentum must be strongly mixed and that the mixing must occur mainly inside 0.3 AU to be consistent with Helios observations of smooth fast wind. Pressure balance structures (PBSs) and He abundance anomalies (Reisenfeld, et al., GRL, v26(13), 1805-1808, 1999) have been identified as interplanetary remnants of plumes, implying momentum mixing is the dominant coronal process. One possible source for plume/interplume momentum mixing is MHD Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) shear instabilities occurring on the velocity shear interfaces. The velocity shear is a source of free energy and KH fluctuations coul