WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly efficient interfacing

  1. The impact of interface bonding efficiency on high-burnup spent nuclear fuel dynamic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao, E-mail: jiangh@ornl.gov; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • To investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on its dynamic performance. • Flexural rigidity, EI = M/κ, estimated from FEA results were benchmarked with SNF dynamic experimental results, and used to evaluate interface bonding efficiency. • Interface bonding efficiency can significantly dictate the SNF system rigidity and the associated dynamic performance. • With consideration of interface bonding efficiency and fuel cracking, HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with SNF static and dynamic experimental data. - Abstract: Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on system dynamic performance. Bending moments M were applied to FEA model to evaluate the system responses. From bending curvature, κ, flexural rigidity EI can be estimated as EI = M/κ. The FEA simulation results were benchmarked with experimental results from cyclic integrated reversal bending fatigue test (CIRFT) of HBR fuel rods. The consequence of interface debonding between fuel pellets and cladding is a redistribution of the loads carried by the fuel pellets to the clad, which results in a reduction in composite rod system flexural rigidity. Therefore, the interface bonding efficiency at the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces can significantly dictate the SNF system dynamic performance. With the consideration of interface bonding efficiency, the HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with CIRFT test data.

  2. Highly efficient bilayer interface exciplex for yellow organic light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wen-Yi; Fang, Guan-Cheng; Chang, Yuh-Chia; Kuo, Ting-Yi; Chou, Pi-Tai; Lin, Shih-Wei; Wong, Ken-Tsung

    2013-08-14

    A simple three-layer interfacial-type yellow emission exciplex device with an external quantum efficiency as high as 7.7% has been successfully achieved by combining conformation compatible C3-symmetric hole-transporting TCTA and electron-transporting 3P-T2T. The excellent and balanced charge-transporting properties of TCTA and 3P-T2T and the large energy-levels offset (0.8 eV) of TCTA/3P-T2T interface play important roles for the efficient exciplexes formation, which are effectively confined around the interfacial region due to the high triplet energies (2.85 eV) of TCTA and 3P-T2T. The high-performance OLED was believed to be from the effective harvest of exciplex triplet excitons via reverse intersystem crossing process.

  3. High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells with Improved Junction Quality and Interface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Gao, Pingqi; Ling, Zhaoheng; Ding, Li; Yang, Zhenhai; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2016-12-27

    Silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on conjugated polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and n-type silicon (n-Si) have attracted wide attention due to their potential advantages of high efficiency and low cost. However, the state-of-the-art efficiencies are still far from satisfactory due to the inferior junction quality. Here, facile treatments were applied by pretreating the n-Si wafer in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution and using a capping copper iodide (CuI) layer on the PEDOT:PSS layer to achieve a high-quality Schottky junction. Detailed photoelectric characteristics indicated that the surface recombination was greatly suppressed after TMAH pretreatment, which increased the thickness of the interfacial oxide layer. Furthermore, the CuI capping layer induced a strong inversion layer near the n-Si surface, resulting in an excellent field effect passivation. With the collaborative improvements in the interface chemical and electrical passivation, a competitive open-circuit voltage of 0.656 V and a high fill factor of 78.1% were achieved, leading to a stable efficiency of over 14.3% for the planar n-Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs. Our findings suggest promising strategies to further exploit the full voltage as well as efficiency potentials for Si/organic solar cells.

  4. Nanoplasmonically Engineered Interfaces on Amorphous TiO2 for Highly Efficient Photocatalysis in Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huijun; Meng, Qiuxia; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hucheng; Wang, Jianji

    2018-04-25

    The nanoplasmonic metal-driven photocatalytic activity depends heavily on the spacing between metal nanoparticles (NPs) and semiconductors, and this work shows that ethylene glycol (EG) is an ideal candidate for interface spacer. Controlling the synthetic systems at pH 3, the composite of Ag NPs with EG-stabilized amorphous TiO 2 (Ag/TiO 2 -3) was synthesized by the facile light-induced reduction. It is verified that EG spacers can set up suitable geometric arrangement in the composite: the twin hydroxyls act as stabilizers to bind Ag NPs and TiO 2 together and the nonconductive alkyl chains consisting only of two CH 2 are able to separate the two building blocks completely and also provide the shortest channels for an efficient transfer of radiation energies to reach TiO 2 . Employed as photocatalysts in hydrogen evolution under visible light, amorphous TiO 2 hardly exhibits the catalytic activity due to high defect density, whereas Ag/TiO 2 -3 represents a remarkably high catalytic efficiency. The enhancement mechanism of the reaction rate is proposed by the analysis of the compositional, structural, and optical properties from a series of Ag/TiO 2 composites.

  5. A Universal Method to Engineer Metal Oxide-Metal-Carbon Interface for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lin; Zha, Dace; Ruan, Yunjun; Li, Zhishan; Ao, Xiang; Zheng, Jie; Jiang, Jianjun; Chen, Hao Ming; Chiang, Wei-Hung; Chen, Jun; Wang, Chundong

    2018-03-27

    Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is also the most important reaction in life processes and energy converting/storage systems. Developing techniques toward high-efficiency ORR remains highly desired and a challenge. Here, we report a N-doped carbon (NC) encapsulated CeO 2 /Co interfacial hollow structure (CeO 2 -Co-NC) via a generalized strategy for largely increased oxygen species adsorption and improved ORR activities. First, the metallic Co nanoparticles not only provide high conductivity but also serve as electron donors to largely create oxygen vacancies in CeO 2 . Second, the outer carbon layer can effectively protect cobalt from oxidation and dissociation in alkaline media and as well imparts its higher ORR activity. In the meanwhile, the electronic interactions between CeO 2 and Co in the CeO 2 /Co interface are unveiled theoretically by density functional theory calculations to justify the increased oxygen absorption for ORR activity improvement. The reported CeO 2 -Co-NC hollow nanospheres not only exhibit decent ORR performance with a high onset potential (922 mV vs RHE), half-wave potential (797 mV vs RHE), and small Tafel slope (60 mV dec -1 ) comparable to those of the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalysts but also possess long-term stability with a negative shift of only 7 mV of the half-wave potential after 2000 cycles and strong tolerance against methanol. This work represents a solid step toward high-efficient oxygen reduction.

  6. Thermal Stability-Enhanced and High-Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Interface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihai; Xiong, Juan; Jiang, Li; Wang, Jianying; Mei, Tao; Wang, Xianbao; Gu, Haoshuang; Daoud, Walid A; Li, Jinhua

    2017-11-08

    As the electron transport layer (ETL) of perovskite solar cells, oxide semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) has been attracting great attention due to its relatively high mobility, optical transparency, low-temperature fabrication, and good environment stability. However, the nature of ZnO will react with the patron on methylamine, which would deteriorate the performance of cells. Although many methods, including high-temperature annealing, doping, and surface modification, have been studied to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells with ZnO ETL, devices remain relatively low in efficiency and stability. Herein, we adopted a novel multistep annealing method to deposit a porous PbI 2 film and improved the quality and uniformity of perovskite films. The cells with ZnO ETL were fabricated at the temperature of perovskite film. Interestingly, the PCE of PCBM-passivated cells could reach nearly 19.1%. To our best knowledge, this is the highest PCE value of ZnO-based perovskite solar cells until now. More importantly, PCBM modification could effectively suppress the decomposition of MAPbI 3 and improve the thermal stability of cells. Therefore, the ZnO is a promising candidate of electron transport material for perovskite solar cells in future applications.

  7. A highly efficient sharp-interface immersed boundary method with adaptive mesh refinement for bio-inspired flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    Developing a high-fidelity, high-efficiency numerical method for bio-inspired flow problems with flow-structure interaction is important for understanding related physics and developing many bio-inspired technologies. To simulate a fast-swimming big fish with multiple finlets or fish schooling, we need fine grids and/or a big computational domain, which are big challenges for 3-D simulations. In current work, based on the 3-D finite-difference sharp-interface immersed boundary method for incompressible flows (Mittal et al., JCP 2008), we developed an octree-like Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technique to enhance the computational ability and increase the computational efficiency. The AMR is coupled with a multigrid acceleration technique and a MPI +OpenMP hybrid parallelization. In this work, different AMR layers are treated separately and the synchronization is performed in the buffer regions and iterations are performed for the convergence of solution. Each big region is calculated by a MPI process which then uses multiple OpenMP threads for further acceleration, so that the communication cost is reduced. With these acceleration techniques, various canonical and bio-inspired flow problems with complex boundaries can be simulated accurately and efficiently. This work is supported by the MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF Grant CBET-1605434.

  8. Advanced interface modelling of n-Si/HNO3 doped graphene solar cells to identify pathways to high efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ma, Fa-Jun; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Hao; Jie, Jiansheng; Ho-Baillie, Anita; Bremner, Stephen P.

    2018-03-01

    In graphene/silicon solar cells, it is crucial to understand the transport mechanism of the graphene/silicon interface to further improve power conversion efficiency. Until now, the transport mechanism has been predominantly simplified as an ideal Schottky junction. However, such an ideal Schottky contact is never realised experimentally. According to literature, doped graphene shows the properties of a semiconductor, therefore, it is physically more accurate to model graphene/silicon junction as a Heterojunction. In this work, HNO3-doped graphene/silicon solar cells were fabricated with the power conversion efficiency of 9.45%. Extensive characterization and first-principles calculations were carried out to establish an advanced technology computer-aided design (TCAD) model, where p-doped graphene forms a straddling heterojunction with the n-type silicon. In comparison with the simple Schottky junction models, our TCAD model paves the way for thorough investigation on the sensitivity of solar cell performance to graphene properties like electron affinity. According to the TCAD heterojunction model, the cell performance can be improved up to 22.5% after optimizations of the antireflection coatings and the rear structure, highlighting the great potentials for fabricating high efficiency graphene/silicon solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.

  9. High-efficiency InP-based photocathode for hydrogen production by interface energetics design and photon management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, L.; Cui, Y.; Vervuurt, R.H.J.; van Dam, D.; van Veldhoven, R.; Hofmann, J.P.; Bol, A.A.; Haverkort, J.E.M.; Notten, P.H.L.; Bakkers, E.P.A.M.; Hensen, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The solar energy conversion efficiency of photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices is usually limited by poor interface energetics, limiting the onset potential, and light reflection losses. Here, a three-pronged approach to obtain excellent performance of an InP-based photoelectrode for water reduction

  10. Highly Efficient and Stable Organic Solar Cells via Interface Engineering with a Nanostructured ITR-GO/PFN Bilayer Cathode Interlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An innovative bilayer cathode interlayer (CIL with a nanostructure consisting of in situ thermal reduced graphene oxide (ITR-GO and poly[(9,9-bis(3′-(N,N-dimethylamionpropyl-2,7-fluorene-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyl fluorene] (PFN has been fabricated for inverted organic solar cells (OSCs. An approach to prepare a CIL of high electronic quality by using ITR-GO as a template to modulate the morphology of the interface between the active layer and electrode and to further reduce the work function of the electrode has also been realized. This bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is processed by a spray-coating method with facile in situ thermal reduction. Meanwhile, the CIL shows a good charge transport efficiency and less charge recombination, which leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency from 6.47% to 8.34% for Poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyloxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexylcarbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl} (PTB7:[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM-based OSCs. In addition, the long-term stability of the OSC is improved by using the ITR-GO/PFN CIL when compared with the pristine device. These results indicate that the bilayer ITR-GO/PFN CIL is a promising way to realize high-efficiency and stable OSCs by using water-soluble conjugated polymer electrolytes such as PFN.

  11. High temperature interface superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.

  12. Design principle for efficient charge separation at the donor-acceptor interface for high performance organic solar cell device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Wanyi; Gupta, Gautam; Crone, Brian; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Mohite, Aditya; MPA-11 Material synthesis and integrated device Team; MPA-chemistry Team

    2014-03-01

    The performance of donor (D) /acceptor (A) structure based organic electronic devices, such as solar cell, light emitting devices etc., relays on the charge transfer process at the interface dramatically. In organic solar cell, the photo-induced electron-hole pair is tightly bonded and will form a charge transfer (CT) state at the D/A interface after dissociation. There is a large chance for them to recombine through CT state and thus is a major loss that limit the overall performance. Here, we report three different strategies that allow us to completely suppress the exciplex (or charge transfer state) recombination between any D/A system. We observe that the photocurrent increases by 300% and the power conversion efficiency increases by 4-5 times simply by inserting a spacer layer in the form of an a) insulator b) Oliogomer or using a c) heavy atom at the donor-acceptor interface in a P3HT/C60 bilayer device. By using those different functional mono layers, we successfully suppressed the exciplex recombination in evidence of increased photocurrent and open circuit voltage. Moreover, these strategies are applicable universally to any donor-acceptor interface. And we demonstrated such strategies in a bulk-heterojunction device which improved the power conversion efficiency from 3.5% up to 4.6%.

  13. Inductively and capacitively coupled plasmas at interface: A comparative study towards highly efficient amorphous-crystalline Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingnan; Ong, Thiam Min Brian; Levchenko, I.; Xu, Shuyan

    2018-01-01

    A comparative study on the application of two quite different plasma-based techniques to the preparation of amorphous/crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interfaces for solar cells is presented. The interfaces were fabricated and processed by hydrogen plasma treatment using the conventional plasma-enhanced chemical vacuum deposition (PECVD) and inductively coupled plasma chemical vapour deposition (ICP-CVD) methods The influence of processing temperature, radio-frequency power, treatment duration and other parameters on interface properties and degree of surface passivation were studied. It was found that passivation could be improved by post-deposition treatment using both ICP-CVD and PECVD, but PECVD treatment is more efficient for the improvement on passivation quality, whereas the minority carrier lifetime increased from 1.65 × 10-4 to 2.25 × 10-4 and 3.35 × 10-4 s after the hydrogen plasma treatment by ICP-CVD and PECVD, respectively. In addition to the improvement of carrier lifetimes at low temperatures, low RF powers and short processing times, both techniques are efficient in band gap adjustment at sophisticated interfaces.

  14. Highly Simplified Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Devices Incorporating a Green Phosphorescence Ultrathin Emitter within a Novel Interface Exciplex for High Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ting; Zhou, Jun-Gui; Huang, Chen-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Fung, Man-Keung; Murtaza, Imran; Meng, Hong; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2017-03-29

    Herein we report a novel design philosophy of tandem OLEDs incorporating a doping-free green phosphorescent bis[2-(2-pyridinyl-N)phenyl-C](acetylacetonato)iridium(III) (Ir(ppy) 2 (acac)) as an ultrathin emissive layer (UEML) into a novel interface-exciplex-forming structure of 1,1-bis[(di-4-tolylamino)phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC) and 1,3,5-tri(p-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene (TmPyPB). Particularly, relatively low working voltage and remarkable efficiency are achieved and the designed tandem OLEDs exhibit a peak current efficiency of 135.74 cd/A (EQE = 36.85%) which is two times higher than 66.2 cd/A (EQE = 17.97%) of the device with a single emitter unit. This might be one of the highest efficiencies of OLEDs applying ultrathin emitters without light extraction. Moreover, with the proposed structure, the color gamut of the displays can be effectively increased from 76% to 82% NTSC if the same red and blue emissions as those in the NTSC are applied. A novel form of harmonious fusion among interface exciplex, UEML, and tandem structure is successfully realized, which sheds light on further development of ideal OLED structure with high efficiency, simplified fabrication, low power consumption, low cost, and improved color gamut, simultaneously.

  15. Interface and thickness tuning for blade coated small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Fan; Chiu, Yu-Chian; Chang, Hao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Siang; Shih, Yi-Lun; Wu, Chih-Hao; Liu, Yi-Lun; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Chi, Yun; Huang, Heh-Lung; Tseng, Mei-Rurng; Lin, Hao-Wu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2013-09-01

    We developed a general method based on fluorescence microscopy to characterize the interface dissolution in multi-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by blade coating. A sharp bi-layer edge was created before blade coating, with the bottom layer being insoluble and top layer soluble. After blade coating, fluorescence images showed that the edge of the top layer shifted when the layer dissolved completely, whereas the bottom layer's edge remained in place as a positioning mark. The dissolution depth was determined to be 15-20 nm when the emissive-layer host of 2,6-bis (3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl) pyridine (26DCzPPy) was coated on the hole-transport layer of N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine(NPB), which was consistent with a sudden drop in efficiency of orange OLEDs with layer thickness below 20 nm. Thus, the layer thickness of OLEDs was optimized to stay more than 20 nm for blade coating. For a two-color white OLED with the structure TCTA/26DCzPPy:PO-01-TB:FIrpic/TPBI, efficiency was 24 cd/A and 8.5 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2. For a three-color white OLED with Os(fptz)2(dhpm) added as the emitter, the efficiency was 12.3 cd/A and 3.7 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2. For a green device with the structure TCTA/26DCzPPy:Ir(mppy)3/TPBI, the efficiency was 41.9 cd/A and 23.4 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2.

  16. High-bandwidth memory interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  17. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  18. Interface engineering for efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivanna, Ravichandran; Narayan, K. S., E-mail: rajaram@jncasr.ac.in, E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Rajaram, Sridhar, E-mail: rajaram@jncasr.ac.in, E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in [International Centre for Materials Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2015-03-23

    We demonstrate the role of zinc oxide (ZnO) morphology and addition of an acceptor interlayer to achieve high efficiency fullerene-free bulk heterojunction inverted organic solar cells. Nanopatterning of the ZnO buffer layer enhances the effective light absorption in the active layer, and the insertion of a twisted perylene acceptor layer planarizes and decreases the electron extraction barrier. Along with an increase in current homogeneity, the reduced work function difference and selective transport of electrons prevent the accumulation of charges and decrease the electron-hole recombination at the interface. These factors enable an overall increase of efficiency to 4.6%, which is significant for a fullerene-free solution-processed organic solar cell.

  19. High Integrity Can Design Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaber, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is chartered with facilitating the disposition of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel to allow disposal at a geologic repository. This is done through coordination with the repository program and by assisting DOE Site owners of SNF with needed information, standardized requirements, packaging approaches, etc. The High Integrity Can (HIC) will be manufactured to provide a substitute or barrier enhancement for normal fuel geometry and cladding. The can would be nested inside the DOE standardized canister which is designed to interface with the repository waste package. The HIC approach may provide the following benefits over typical canning approaches for DOE SNF. (a) It allows ready calculation and management of criticality issues for miscellaneous. (b) It segments and further isolates damaged or otherwise problem materials from normal SNF in the repository package. (c) It provides a very long term corrosion barrier. (d) It provides an extra internal pressure barrier for particulates, gaseous fission products, hydrogen, and water vapor. (e) It delays any potential release of fission products to the repository environment. (f) It maintains an additional level of fuel geometry control during design basis accidents, rock-fall, and seismic events. (g) When seal welded, it could provide the additional containment required for shipments involving plutonium content in excess of 20 Ci. (10 CFR 71.63.b) if integrated with an appropriate cask design. Long term corrosion protection is central to the HIC concept. The material selected for the HIC (Hastelloy C-22) has undergone extensive testing for repository service. The most severe theoretical interactions between iron, repository water containing chlorides and other repository construction materials have been tested. These expected chemical species have not been shown capable of corroding the selected HIC material. Therefore, the HIC should provide a significant barrier to DOE SNF dispersal

  20. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... internal resistance of the cell, and long-term stable, it is critical to develop electrode materials that are optimal for steam electrolysis. In this article electrolysis cells for electrolysis of water or steam at temperatures above 200 degrees C for production of H-2 are reviewed. High temperature...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...

  1. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  2. High-efficiency CARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  3. Short-length and high-density TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu, E-mail: shicw506@foxmail.com; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-05-15

    The TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm{sup −2} were firstly prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. Over-500 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layers were successfully obtained by sequential deposition routes using 1.7 M PbI{sub 2}·DMSO complex precursor solution and 0.465 M isopropanol solution of the methylammonium halide mixture with the molar ratio of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I/CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}Br=85/15. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Graphical abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm{sup −2} were prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. The optimal annealing temperature of TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays was 450 °C. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93% and the average PCE of 13.41±2.52%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO{sub 2} nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Br{sub x} absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% and the average PCE of 10.54±2.28% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Highlights:

  4. Short-length and high-density TiO2 nanorod arrays for the efficient charge separation interface in perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Guannan; Shi, Chengwu; Zhang, Zhengguo; Li, Nannan; Li, Long

    2017-01-01

    The TiO 2 nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm −2 were firstly prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. Over-500 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layers were successfully obtained by sequential deposition routes using 1.7 M PbI 2 ·DMSO complex precursor solution and 0.465 M isopropanol solution of the methylammonium halide mixture with the molar ratio of CH 3 NH 3 I/CH 3 NH 3 Br=85/15. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO 2 nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO 2 nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Graphical abstract: The TiO 2 nanorod arrays with the length of 70 nm, the diameter of 20 nm, and the areal density of 1000 µm −2 were prepared by the hydrothermal method using the aqueous grown solution of 38 mM titanium isopropoxide and 6 M hydrochloric acid at 170 °C for 60 min. The optimal annealing temperature of TiO 2 nanorod arrays was 450 °C. The perovskite solar cells based on the TiO 2 nanorod array and 560 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer exhibited the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.93% and the average PCE of 13.41±2.52%, while the corresponding planar perovskite solar cells without the TiO 2 nanorod array and with 530 nm-thickness CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Br x absorber layer gave the best PCE of 12.82% and the average PCE of 10.54±2.28% at the relative humidity of 50–54%. - Highlights: • Preparation of TiO 2 nanorod array with length of 70 nm and density of 1000 µm −2 . • Influence of annealing temperatures on the -OH content of Ti

  5. Simultaneous Enhancement of Efficiency and Stability of Phosphorescent OLEDs Based on Efficient Förster Energy Transfer from Interface Exciplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Cai, Minghan; Zhang, Yunge; Bin, Zhengyang; Zhang, Deqiang; Duan, Lian

    2016-02-17

    Exciplex forming cohosts have been widely adopted in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs), achieving high efficiency with low roll-off and low driving voltage. However, the influence of the exciplex-forming hosts on the lifetimes of the devices, which is one of the essential characteristics, remains unclear. Here, we compare the influence of the bulk exciplex and interface exciplex on the performances of the devices, demonstrating highly efficient orange PHOLEDs with long lifetime at low dopant concentration by efficient Förster energy transfer from the interface exciplex. A bipolar host, (3'-(4,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-(1,1'-biphenyl)-3-yl)-9-carbazole (CzTrz), was adopted to combine with a donor molecule, tris(4-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)amine (TCTA), to form exciplex. Devices with energy transfer from the interface exciplex achieve lifetime almost 2 orders of magnitude higher than the ones based on bulk exciplex as the host by avoiding the formation of the donor excited states. Moreover, a highest EQE of 27% was obtained at the dopant concentration as low as 3 wt % for a device with interface exciplex, which is favorable for reducing the cost of fabrication. We believe that our work may shed light on future development of ideal OLEDs with high efficiency, long-lifetime, low roll-off and low cost simultaneously.

  6. Interface-Resolving Simulation of Collision Efficiency of Cloud Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Ping; Peng, Cheng; Rosa, Bodgan; Onishi, Ryo

    2017-11-01

    Small-scale air turbulence could enhance the geometric collision rate of cloud droplets while large-scale air turbulence could augment the diffusional growth of cloud droplets. Air turbulence could also enhance the collision efficiency of cloud droplets. Accurate simulation of collision efficiency, however, requires capture of the multi-scale droplet-turbulence and droplet-droplet interactions, which has only been partially achieved in the recent past using the hybrid direct numerical simulation (HDNS) approach. % where Stokes disturbance flow is assumed. The HDNS approach has two major drawbacks: (1) the short-range droplet-droplet interaction is not treated rigorously; (2) the finite-Reynolds number correction to the collision efficiency is not included. In this talk, using two independent numerical methods, we will develop an interface-resolved simulation approach in which the disturbance flows are directly resolved numerically, combined with a rigorous lubrication correction model for near-field droplet-droplet interaction. This multi-scale approach is first used to study the effect of finite flow Reynolds numbers on the droplet collision efficiency in still air. Our simulation results show a significant finite-Re effect on collision efficiency when the droplets are of similar sizes. Preliminary results on integrating this approach in a turbulent flow laden with droplets will also be presented. This work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation.

  7. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, P.

    1987-01-01

    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs

  8. An integrated high performance fastbus slave interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1992-01-01

    A high performance Fastbus slave interface ASIC is presented. The Fastbus slave integrated circuit (FASIC) is a programmable device, enabling its direct use in many different applications. The FASIC acts as an interface between Fastbus and a 'standard' processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a microprocessor. A set of address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/s to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO buffer in the FASIC. (orig.)

  9. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  10. High efficiency positron moderation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taqqu, D.

    1990-01-01

    A new positron moderation scheme is proposed. It makes use of electric and magnetic fields to confine the β + emitted by a radioactive source forcing them to slow down within a thin foil. A specific arrangement is described where an intermediary slowed-down beam of energy below 10 keV is produced. By directing it towards a standard moderator optimal conversion into slow positrons is achieved. This scheme is best applied to short lived β + emitters for which a 25% moderation efficiency can be reached. Within the state of the art technology a slow positron source intensity exceeding 2 x 10 10 e + /sec is achievable. (orig.)

  11. Power Electronics as Efficient Interface of Renewable Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2004-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is steadily rising and consequently there is a demand to increase the power generation capacity. A significant percentage of the required capacity increase can be based on renewable energy sources. Wind turbine technology, as the most cost effective...... renewable energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface...... to the grid and this paper will first briefly discuss three different alternative/ renewable energy sources. Next, various configurations of the wind turbine technology are presented, as this technology seems to be most developed and cost-effective. Finally, the developments and requirements from the grid...

  12. Interface control scheme for computer high-speed interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    Control scheme is general and performs for multiplexed and dedicated channels as well as for data-bus interfaces. Control comprises two 64-pin, dual in-line packages, each of which holds custom large-scale integrated array built with silicon-on-sapphire complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology.

  13. Toward efficient fiber-based quantum interface (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soshenko, Vladimir; Vorobyov, Vadim V.; Bolshedvorsky, Stepan; Lebedev, Nikolay; Akimov, Alexey V.; Sorokin, Vadim; Smolyaninov, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    NV center in diamond is attracting a lot of attention in quantum information processing community [1]. Been spin system in clean and well-controlled environment of diamond it shows outstanding performance as quantum memory even at room temperature, spin control with single shot optical readout and possibility to build up quantum registers even on single NV center. Moreover, NV centers could be used as high-resolution sensitive elements of detectors of magnetic or electric field, temperature, tension, force or rotation. For all of these applications collection of the light emitted by NV center is crucial point. There were number of approaches suggested to address this issue, proposing use of surface plasmoms [2], manufacturing structures in diamond [3] etc. One of the key feature of any practically important interface is compatibility with the fiber technology. Several groups attacking this problem using various approaches. One of them is placing of nanodiamonds in the holes of photonic crystal fiber [4], another is utilization of AFM to pick and place nanodiamond on the tapered fiber[5]. We have developed a novel technique of placing a nanodiamond with single NV center on the tapered fiber by controlled transfer of a nanodiamond from one "donor" tapered fiber to the "target" clean tapered fiber. We verify our ability to transfer only single color centers by means of measurement of second order correlation function. With this technique, we were able to double collection efficiency of confocal microscope. The majority of the factors limiting the collection of photons via optical fiber are technical and may be removed allowing order of magnitude improved in collection. We also discuss number of extensions of this technique to all fiber excitation and integration with nanostructures. References: [1] Marcus W. Doherty, Neil B. Manson, Paul Delaney, Fedor Jelezko, Jörg Wrachtrup, Lloyd C.L. Hollenberg , " The nitrogen-vacancy colour centre in diamond," Physics Reports

  14. An integrated energy-efficient capacitive sensor digital interface circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient 13-bit capacitive sensor interface circuit. The proposed design fully relies on successive approximation algorithm, which eliminates the need for oversampling and digital decimation filtering, and thus low-power consumption is achieved. The proposed architecture employs a charge amplifier stage to acheive parasitic insensitive operation and fine absolute resolution. Moreover, the output code is not affected by offset voltages or charge injection. The successive approximation algorithm is implemented in the capacitance-domain using a coarse-fine programmable capacitor array, which allows digitizing wide capacitance range in compact area. Analysis for the maximum achievable resolution due to mismatch is provided. The proposed design is insensitive to any reference voltage or current which translates to low temperature sensitivity. The operation of a prototype fabricated in a standard CMOS technology is experimentally verified using both on-chip and off-chip capacitive sensors. Compared to similar prior work, the fabricated prototype achieves and excellent energy efficiency of 34 pJ/step.

  15. An integrated high performance Fastbus slave interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.; Ljuslin, C.

    1993-01-01

    A high performance CMOS Fastbus slave interface ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) supporting all addressing and data transfer modes defined in the IEEE 960 - 1986 standard is presented. The FAstbus Slave Integrated Circuit (FASIC) is an interface between the asynchronous Fastbus and a clock synchronous processor/memory bus. It can work stand-alone or together with a 32 bit microprocessor. The FASIC is a programmable device enabling its direct use in many different applications. A set of programmable address mapping windows can map Fastbus addresses to convenient memory addresses and at the same time act as address decoding logic. Data rates of 100 MBytes/sec to Fastbus can be obtained using an internal FIFO in the FASIC to buffer data between the two buses during block transfers. Message passing from Fastbus to a microprocessor on the slave module is supported. A compact (70 mm x 170 mm) Fastbus slave piggy back sub-card interface including level conversion between ECL and TTL signal levels has been implemented using surface mount components and the 208 pin FASIC chip

  16. New highly efficient piezoceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantsiger, A.Ya.; Razumovskaya, O.N.; Reznichenko, L.A.; Grineva, L.D.; Devlikanova, R.U.; Dudkina, S.I.; Gavrilyachenko, S.V.; Dergunova, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    New high efficient piezoceramic materials with various combination of parameters inclusing high Curie point for high-temperature transducers using in atomic power engineering are worked. They can be used in systems for heated matters nondestructive testing, controllers for varied industrial power plants and other high-temperature equipment

  17. Efficient direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion by in situ interface transformation of a tandem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias M.; Lewerenz, Hans-Joachim; Lackner, David; Dimroth, Frank; Hannappel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthesis is nature's route to convert intermittent solar irradiation into storable energy, while its use for an industrial energy supply is impaired by low efficiency. Artificial photosynthesis provides a promising alternative for efficient robust carbon-neutral renewable energy generation. The approach of direct hydrogen generation by photoelectrochemical water splitting utilizes customized tandem absorber structures to mimic the Z-scheme of natural photosynthesis. Here a combined chemical surface transformation of a tandem structure and catalyst deposition at ambient temperature yields photocurrents approaching the theoretical limit of the absorber and results in a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 14%. The potentiostatically assisted photoelectrode efficiency is 17%. Present benchmarks for integrated systems are clearly exceeded. Details of the in situ interface transformation, the electronic improvement and chemical passivation are presented. The surface functionalization procedure is widely applicable and can be precisely controlled, allowing further developments of high-efficiency robust hydrogen generators.

  18. Fun and Efficiency of the Wii Balance Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Nijholt, A.; Reidsma, D.; Hoeijmakers, Niek; Reidsma, Dennis; van der Vet, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Balance input in human-computer interfaces can be beneficial, enjoyable and entertaining. Users can navigate a virtual (game) world or an (empirical) dataset while having their hands free to issue other commands. A new low-cost balance interface, the Nintendo balance board, offers more widespread

  19. A high-speed interface for multi-channel analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Ji; Zheng Zhong; Qiao Chong; Chen Ziyu; Ye Yunxiu; Ye Zhenyu

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a high-speed computer interface for multi-channel analyzer based on DMA technique. Its essential principle and operating procedure are introduced. By the detecting of γ spectrum of 137 Cs with the interface, it's proved that the interface can meet the requirements of high-speed data acquisition

  20. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  1. Single-crystal charge transfer interfaces for efficient photonic devices (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Helena; Pinto, Rui M.; Maçôas, Ermelinda M. S.; Baleizão, Carlos; Santos, Isabel C.

    2016-09-01

    Organic semiconductors have unique optical, mechanical and electronic properties that can be combined with customized chemical functionality. In the crystalline form, determinant features for electronic applications such as molecular purity, the charge mobility or the exciton diffusion length, reveal a superior performance when compared with materials in a more disordered form. Combining crystals of two different conjugated materials as even enable a new 2D electronic system. However, the use of organic single crystals in devices is still limited to a few applications, such as field-effect transistors. In 2013, we presented the first system composed of single-crystal charge transfer interfaces presenting photoconductivity behaviour. The system composed of rubrene and TCNQ has a responsivity reaching 1 A/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. A similar approach, with a hybrid structure of a PCBM film and rubrene single crystal also presents high responsivity and the possibility to extract excitons generated in acceptor materials. This strategy led to an extended action towards the near IR. By adequate material design and structural organisation of perylediimides, we demonstrate that is possible to improve exciton diffusion efficiency. More recently, we have successfully used the concept of charge transfer interfaces in phototransistors. These results open the possibility of using organic single-crystal interfaces in photonic applications.

  2. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guo-qin; Zhao, Qi-guo; Gong, Shao-lin; Shi, Qing-hua

    2012-01-01

    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecol...

  3. Toward High-Performance Communications Interfaces for Science Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviatt, Sharon L.; Cohen, Adrienne O.

    2010-12-01

    From a theoretical viewpoint, educational interfaces that facilitate communicative actions involving representations central to a domain can maximize students' effort associated with constructing new schemas. In addition, interfaces that minimize working memory demands due to the interface per se, for example by mimicking existing non-digital work practice, can preserve students' attentional focus on their learning task. In this research, we asked the question: What type of interface input capabilities provide best support for science problem solving in both low- and high- performing students? High school students' ability to solve a diverse range of biology problems was compared over longitudinal sessions while they used: (1) hardcopy paper and pencil (2) a digital paper and pen interface (3) pen tablet interface, and (4) graphical tablet interface. Post-test evaluations revealed that time to solve problems, meta-cognitive control, solution correctness, and memory all were significantly enhanced when using the digital pen and paper interface, compared with tablet interfaces. The tangible pen and paper interface also was the only alternative that significantly facilitated skill acquisition in low-performing students. Paradoxically, all students nonetheless believed that the tablet interfaces provided best support for their performance, revealing a lack of self-awareness about how to use computational tools to best advantage. Implications are discussed for how pen interfaces can be optimized for future educational purposes, and for establishing technology fluency curricula to improve students' awareness of the impact of digital tools on their performance.

  4. CMOS circuits for piezoelectric energy harvesters efficient power extraction, interface modeling and loss analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hehn, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the challenge of exploiting ambient vibrational energy which can be used to power small and low-power electronic devices, e.g. wireless sensor nodes. Generally, particularly for low voltage amplitudes, low-loss rectification is required to achieve high conversion efficiency. In the special case of piezoelectric energy harvesting, pulsed charge extraction has the potential to extract more power compared to a single rectifier. For this purpose, a fully autonomous CMOS integrated interface circuit for piezoelectric generators which fulfills these requirements is presented.Due

  5. High-power, high-efficiency FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1989-04-01

    High power, high efficiency FELs require tapering, as the particles loose energy, so as to maintain resonance between the electromagnetic wave and the particles. They also require focusing of the particles (usually done with curved pole faces) and focusing of the electromagnetic wave (i.e. optical guiding). In addition, one must avoid transverse beam instabilities (primarily resistive wall) and longitudinal instabilities (i.e sidebands). 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Increasing conversion efficiency of two-step photon up-conversion solar cell with a voltage booster hetero-interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Shigeo; Kusaki, Kazuki; Harada, Yukihiro; Kita, Takashi

    2018-01-17

    Development of high-efficiency solar cells is one of the attractive challenges in renewable energy technologies. Photon up-conversion can reduce the transmission loss and is one of the promising concepts which improve conversion efficiency. Here we present an analysis of the conversion efficiency, which can be increased by up-conversion in a single-junction solar cell with a hetero-interface that boosts the output voltage. We confirm that an increase in the quasi-Fermi gap and substantial photocurrent generation result in a high conversion efficiency.

  7. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  8. High resolution interface nanochemistry and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A summary is given of results on nanospectroscopy etc. during the previous three years, divided into the following subsections: development of methods and instrumentation for interface/boundary chemical analysis, interface and boundary structure in ceramic matrix composites, quantitative composition measurements of thin films and inclusions, theoretical calculations for electron energy loss near edge fine structure and grain boundary structure, and small probe radiation effects in ceramics. Materials studied include SiC whisker-reinforced Si3N4, SiC, Si oxides, Si, Si oxynitride, other ceramics. Methods mentioned include field emission, EELS (electron energy loss spectroscopy), nanospectroscopy, electron nanoprobe, etc

  9. High-efficient electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavatskikh, K.V.; Zverev, B.V.; Kalyuzhnyj, V.E.; Morozov, V.L.; Nikolaev, S.V.; Plotnikov, S.N.; Sobenin, N.P.; Vovna, V.A.; Gryzlov, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Comparison analysis of ELA on running and still waves designed for 10 MeV energy and with high efficiency is carried out. It is shown, that from the point of view of dimensions ELA with a still wave or that of a combined type is more preferable. From the point of view of impedance characteristics in any variant with application of magnetron as HF-generator it is necessary to implement special requirements to the accelerating structure if no ferrite isolation is provided in HF-channel. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Efficient decellularization for tissue engineering of the tendon-bone interface with preservation of biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    Full Text Available Interfaces between tendon/ligament and bone ("entheses" are highly specialized tissues that allow for stress transfer between mechanically dissimilar materials. Entheses show very low regenerative capacity resulting in high incidences of failure after surgical repair. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to recover functionality of entheses. Here, we established a protocol to decellularize porcine entheses as scaffolds for enthesis tissue engineering. Chemical detergents as well as physical treatments were investigated with regard to their efficiency to decellularize 2 mm thick porcine Achilles tendon entheses. A two-phase approach was employed: study 1 investigated the effect of various concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS and t-octylphenoxypolyethoxy-ethanol (Triton X-100 as decellularization agents. The most efficient combination of SDS and Triton was then carried forward into study 2, where different physical methods, including freeze-thaw cycles, ultrasound, perfusion, and hydrostatic washing were used to enhance the decellularization effect. Cell counts, DNA quantification, and histology showed that washing with 0.5% SDS + 1% Triton X-100 for 72 h at room temperature could remove ~ 98% cells from the interface. Further investigation of physical methods proved that washing under 200 mmHg hydrostatic pressure shortened the detergent exposing time from 72 h to 48 h. Biomechanical tensile testing showed that the biomechanical features of treated samples were preserved. Washing under 200 mmHg hydrostatic pressure with 0.5% SDS + 1% Triton X-100 for 48 h efficiently decellularized entheses with preservation of matrix structure and biomechanical features. This protocol can be used to efficiently decellularize entheses as scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  11. Cross-language Babel structs—making scientific interfaces more efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prantl, Adrian; Epperly, Thomas G W; Ebner, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Babel is an open-source language interoperability framework tailored to the needs of high-performance scientific computing. As an integral element of the Common Component Architecture, it is employed in a wide range of scientific applications where it is used to connect components written in different programming languages. In this paper we describe how we extended Babel to support interoperable tuple data types (structs). Structs are a common idiom in (mono-lingual) scientific application programming interfaces (APIs); they are an efficient way to pass tuples of nonuniform data between functions, and are supported natively by most programming languages. Using our extended version of Babel, developers of scientific codes can now pass structs as arguments between functions implemented in any of the supported languages. In C, C++, Fortran 2003/2008 and Chapel, structs can be passed without the overhead of data marshaling or copying, providing language interoperability at minimal cost. Other supported languages are Fortran 77, Fortran 90/95, Java and Python. We will show how we designed a struct implementation that is interoperable with all of the supported languages and present benchmark data to compare the performance of all language bindings, highlighting the differences between languages that offer native struct support and an object-oriented interface with getter/setter methods. A case study shows how structs can help simplify the interfaces of scientific codes significantly. (paper)

  12. Thermal interface pastes nanostructured for high performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuangang

    Thermal interface materials in the form of pastes are needed to improve thermal contacts, such as that between a microprocessor and a heat sink of a computer. High-performance and low-cost thermal pastes have been developed in this dissertation by using polyol esters as the vehicle and various nanoscale solid components. The proportion of a solid component needs to be optimized, as an excessive amount degrades the performance, due to the increase in the bond line thickness. The optimum solid volume fraction tends to be lower when the mating surfaces are smoother, and higher when the thermal conductivity is higher. Both a low bond line thickness and a high thermal conductivity help the performance. When the surfaces are smooth, a low bond line thickness can be even more important than a high thermal conductivity, as shown by the outstanding performance of the nanoclay paste of low thermal conductivity in the smooth case (0.009 mum), with the bond line thickness less than 1 mum, as enabled by low storage modulus G', low loss modulus G" and high tan delta. However, for rough surfaces, the thermal conductivity is important. The rheology affects the bond line thickness, but it does not correlate well with the performance. This study found that the structure of carbon black is an important parameter that governs the effectiveness of a carbon black for use in a thermal paste. By using a carbon black with a lower structure (i.e., a lower DBP value), a thermal paste that is more effective than the previously reported carbon black paste was obtained. Graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) was found to be comparable in effectiveness to carbon black (CB) pastes for rough surfaces, but it is less effective for smooth surfaces. At the same filler volume fraction, GNP gives higher thermal conductivity than carbon black paste. At the same pressure, GNP gives higher bond line thickness than CB (Tokai or Cabot). The effectiveness of GNP is limited, due to the high bond line thickness. A

  13. A generic interface to reduce the efficiency-stability-cost gap of perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi; Du, Xiaoyan; Scheiner, Simon; McMeekin, David P.; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Ning; Killian, Manuela S.; Chen, Haiwei; Richter, Moses; Levchuk, Ievgen; Schrenker, Nadine; Spiecker, Erdmann; Stubhan, Tobias; Luechinger, Norman A.; Hirsch, Andreas; Schmuki, Patrik; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Fink, Rainer H.; Halik, Marcus; Snaith, Henry J.; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2017-12-01

    A major bottleneck delaying the further commercialization of thin-film solar cells based on hybrid organohalide lead perovskites is interface loss in state-of-the-art devices. We present a generic interface architecture that combines solution-processed, reliable, and cost-efficient hole-transporting materials without compromising efficiency, stability, or scalability of perovskite solar cells. Tantalum-doped tungsten oxide (Ta-WOx)/conjugated polymer multilayers offer a surprisingly small interface barrier and form quasi-ohmic contacts universally with various scalable conjugated polymers. In a simple device with regular planar architecture and a self-assembled monolayer, Ta-WOx-doped interface-based perovskite solar cells achieve maximum efficiencies of 21.2% and offer more than 1000 hours of light stability. By eliminating additional ionic dopants, these findings open up the entire class of organics as scalable hole-transporting materials for perovskite solar cells.

  14. High-efficiency photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.T.; Zehr, S.W.

    1982-06-21

    High efficiency solar converters comprised of a two cell, non-lattice matched, monolithic stacked semiconductor configuration using optimum pairs of cells having bandgaps in the range 1.6 to 1.7 eV and 0.95 to 1.1 eV, and a method of fabrication thereof, are disclosed. The high band gap subcells are fabricated using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to produce the required AlGaAs layers of optimized composition, thickness and doping to produce high performance, heteroface homojunction devices. The low bandgap subcells are similarly fabricated from AlGa(As)Sb compositions by LPE, MBE or MOCVD. These subcells are then coupled to form a monolithic structure by an appropriate bonding technique which also forms the required transparent intercell ohmic contact (IOC) between the two subcells. Improved ohmic contacts to the high bandgap semiconductor structure can be formed by vacuum evaporating to suitable metal or semiconductor materials which react during laser annealing to form a low bandgap semiconductor which provides a low contact resistance structure.

  15. An Efficient User Interface Design for Nursing Information System Based on Integrated Patient Order Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Hui; Kuo, Ming-Chuan; Weng, Shu-Hui; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2016-01-01

    A user friendly interface can enhance the efficiency of data entry, which is crucial for building a complete database. In this study, two user interfaces (traditional pull-down menu vs. check boxes) are proposed and evaluated based on medical records with fever medication orders by measuring the time for data entry, steps for each data entry record, and the complete rate of each medical record. The result revealed that the time for data entry is reduced from 22.8 sec/record to 3.2 sec/record. The data entry procedures also have reduced from 9 steps in the traditional one to 3 steps in the new one. In addition, the completeness of medical records is increased from 20.2% to 98%. All these results indicate that the new user interface provides a more user friendly and efficient approach for data entry than the traditional interface.

  16. Integrated computer network high-speed parallel interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.B.

    1979-03-01

    As the number and variety of computers within Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Central Computer Facility grows, the need for a standard, high-speed intercomputer interface has become more apparent. This report details the development of a High-Speed Parallel Interface from conceptual through implementation stages to meet current and future needs for large-scle network computing within the Integrated Computer Network. 4 figures

  17. Towards highly efficient water photoelectrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavambedu Prakasam, Haripriya

    ethylene glycol resulted in remarkable growth characteristics of titania nanotube arrays, hexagonal closed packed up to 1 mm in length, with tube aspect ratios of approximately 10,000. For the first time, complete anodization of the starting titanium foil has been demonstrated resulting in back to back nanotube array membranes ranging from 360 mum--1 mm in length. The nanotubes exhibited growth rates of up to 15 mum/hr. A detailed study on the factors affecting the growth rate and nanotube dimensions is presented. It is suggested that faster high field ionic conduction through a thinner barrier layer is responsible for the higher growth rates observed in electrolytes containing ethylene glycol. Methods to fabricate free standing, titania nanotube array membranes ranging in thickness from 50 microm--1000 mum has also been an outcome of this dissertation. In an effort to combine the charge transport properties of titania with the light absorption properties of iron (III) oxide, films comprised of vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube arrays on FTO coated glass substrates have been successfully synthesized in ethylene glycol electrolytes. Depending upon the Fe content the bandgap of the resulting films varied from about 3.26 to 2.17 eV. The Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films demonstrated a photocurrent of 2 mA/cm2 under global AM 1.5 illumination with a 1.2% (two-electrode) photoconversion efficiency, demonstrating a sustained, time-energy normalized hydrogen evolution rate by water splitting of 7.1 mL/W·hr in a 1 M KOH solution with a platinum counter electrode under an applied bias of 0.7 V. The Ti-Fe-O material architecture demonstrates properties useful for hydrogen generation by water photoelectrolysis and, more importantly, this dissertation demonstrates that the general nanotube-array synthesis technique can be extended to other ternary oxide compositions of interest for water photoelectrolysis.

  18. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  19. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  20. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  1. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  2. High-resolution method for evolving complex interface networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shucheng; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we describe a high-resolution transport formulation of the regional level-set approach for an improved prediction of the evolution of complex interface networks. The novelty of this method is twofold: (i) construction of local level sets and reconstruction of a global level set, (ii) local transport of the interface network by employing high-order spatial discretization schemes for improved representation of complex topologies. Various numerical test cases of multi-region flow problems, including triple-point advection, single vortex flow, mean curvature flow, normal driven flow, dry foam dynamics and shock-bubble interaction show that the method is accurate and suitable for a wide range of complex interface-network evolutions. Its overall computational cost is comparable to the Semi-Lagrangian regional level-set method while the prediction accuracy is significantly improved. The approach thus offers a viable alternative to previous interface-network level-set method.

  3. High-level Component Interfaces for Collaborative Development: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Marlowe

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Software development has rapidly moved toward collaborative development models where multiple partners collaborate in creating and evolving software intensive systems or components of sophisticated ubiquitous socio-technical-ecosystems. In this paper we extend the concept of software interface to a flexible high-level interface as means for accommodating change and localizing, controlling and managing the exchange of knowledge and functional, behavioral, quality, project and business related information between the partners and between the developed components.

  4. High speed UNIBUS-VME interface; Interface de alta velocidad VME-UNIBUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, P

    1987-07-01

    An interface between VME an the UNIBUS of PDP or VAX computer is presented. The system supports high speed parallel communication (up to 1MB/S) and is composed of two modules. One of these is a commercial DR11M board which performs DMA transfers between UNIBUS and the external word. The other is a VME module specifically developed for this application. The interface has been tested under VMS operating system in VAX and VALET-PLUS system for the VME Bus. We describe in detail the VME module and its connection with the DR11M. Software, both in WMS and VALET, is also described. (Author) 7 refs.

  5. The wave-based substructuring approach for the efficient description of interface dynamics in substructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, S.; Pluymers, B.; Ragnarsson, P.; Hadjit, R.; Desmet, W.

    2010-04-01

    In the vehicle design process, design decisions are more and more based on virtual prototypes. Due to competitive and regulatory pressure, vehicle manufacturers are forced to improve product quality, to reduce time-to-market and to launch an increasing number of design variants on the global market. To speed up the design iteration process, substructuring and component mode synthesis (CMS) methods are commonly used, involving the analysis of substructure models and the synthesis of the substructure analysis results. Substructuring and CMS enable efficient decentralized collaboration across departments and allow to benefit from the availability of parallel computing environments. However, traditional CMS methods become prohibitively inefficient when substructures are coupled along large interfaces, i.e. with a large number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) at the interface between substructures. The reason is that the analysis of substructures involves the calculation of a number of enrichment vectors, one for each interface degree of freedom (DOF). Since large interfaces are common in vehicles (e.g. the continuous line connections to connect the body with the windshield, roof or floor), this interface bottleneck poses a clear limitation in the vehicle noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) design process. Therefore there is a need to describe the interface dynamics more efficiently. This paper presents a wave-based substructuring (WBS) approach, which allows reducing the interface representation between substructures in an assembly by expressing the interface DOFs in terms of a limited set of basis functions ("waves"). As the number of basis functions can be much lower than the number of interface DOFs, this greatly facilitates the substructure analysis procedure and results in faster design predictions. The waves are calculated once from a full nominal assembly analysis, but these nominal waves can be re-used for the assembly of modified components. The WBS approach thus

  6. To what extent can charge localization influence electron injection efficiency at graphene-porphyrin interfaces?

    KAUST Repository

    Parida, Manas R.

    2015-04-28

    Controlling the electron transfer process at donor- acceptor interfaces is a research direction that has not yet seen much progress. Here, with careful control of the charge localization on the porphyrin macrocycle using β -Cyclodextrin as an external cage, we are able to improve the electron injection efficiency from cationic porphyrin to graphene carboxylate by 120% . The detailed reaction mechanism is also discussed.

  7. High efficiency motor selection handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Gilbert A.; Litman, Todd; Douglass, John G.

    1990-10-01

    Substantial reductions in energy and operational costs can be achieved through the use of energy-efficient electric motors. A handbook was compiled to help industry identify opportunities for cost-effective application of these motors. It covers the economic and operational factors to be considered when motor purchase decisions are being made. Its audience includes plant managers, plant engineers, and others interested in energy management or preventative maintenance programs.

  8. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen

    2013-11-17

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  9. Efficient charge generation by relaxed charge-transfer states at organic interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vandewal, Koen; Albrecht, Steve N.; Hoke, Eric T.; Graham, Kenneth; Widmer, Johannes; Douglas, Jessica D.; Schubert, Marcel; Mateker, William R.; Bloking, Jason T.; Burkhard, George F.; Sellinger, Alan; Frechet, Jean; Amassian, Aram; Riede, Moritz Kilian; McGehee, Michael D.; Neher, Dieter; Salleo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Interfaces between organic electron-donating (D) and electron-accepting (A) materials have the ability to generate charge carriers on illumination. Efficient organic solar cells require a high yield for this process, combined with a minimum of energy losses. Here, we investigate the role of the lowest energy emissive interfacial charge-transfer state (CT1) in the charge generation process. We measure the quantum yield and the electric field dependence of charge generation on excitation of the charge-transfer (CT) state manifold via weakly allowed, low-energy optical transitions. For a wide range of photovoltaic devices based on polymer:fullerene, small-molecule:C60 and polymer:polymer blends, our study reveals that the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is essentially independent of whether or not D, A or CT states with an energy higher than that of CT1 are excited. The best materials systems show an IQE higher than 90% without the need for excess electronic or vibrational energy. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  10. High-pressure needle interface for thermoplastic microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C F; Liu, J; Hromada, L P; Tsao, C W; Chang, C C; DeVoe, D L

    2009-01-07

    A robust and low dead volume world-to-chip interface for thermoplastic microfluidics has been developed. The high pressure fluidic port employs a stainless steel needle inserted into a mating hole aligned to an embedded microchannel, with an interference fit used to increase pressure resistance. Alternately, a self-tapping threaded needle screwed into a mating hole is also demonstrated. In both cases, the flat bottom needle ports seat directly against the microchannel substrate, ensuring low interfacial dead volumes. Low dispersion is observed for dye bands passing the interfaces. The needle ports offer sufficient pull-out forces for applications such as liquid chromatography that require high internal fluid pressures, with the epoxy-free interfaces compatible with internal microchannel pressures above 40 MPa.

  11. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D-D and D-T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  12. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W e using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated

  13. Patterning of high mobility electron gases at complex oxide interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Felix; Prawiroatmodjo, G. E. D. K.; von Soosten, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Oxide interfaces provide an opportunity for electronics. However, patterning of electron gases at complex oxide interfaces is challenging. In particular, patterning of complex oxides while preserving a high electron mobility remains underexplored and inhibits the study of quantum mechanical effects...... of amorphous-LSM (a-LSM) thin films, which acts as a hard mask during subsequent depositions. Strikingly, the patterned modulation-doped interface shows electron mobilities up to ∼8 700 cm2/V s at 2 K, which is among the highest reported values for patterned conducting complex oxide interfaces that usually...... where extended electron mean free paths are paramount. This letter presents an effective patterning strategy of both the amorphous-LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/STO) and modulation-doped amorphous-LaAlO3/La7/8Sr1/8MnO3/SrTiO3 (a-LAO/LSM/STO) oxide interfaces. Our patterning is based on selective wet etching...

  14. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H.,; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Pedretti, Kevin; Grant, Ryan; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Levenhagen, Michael J.; DeBonis, David

    2014-08-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  15. Effects of Iodine Doping on Carrier Behavior at the Interface of Perovskite Crystals: Efficiency and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The interface related to the polycrystalline hybrid perovskite thin film plays an essential role in the resulting device performance. Iodine was employed as an additive to modify the interface between perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer. The oxidation ability of iodine significantly improved the efficiency of charge extraction for perovskite solar cells. It reveals that the Open Circuit Voltage (Voc and Fill Factor (FF of perovskite solar cells were improved substantially due to the dopant, which is mainly attributed to the interfacial improvement. It was found that the best efficiency of the devices was achieved when the dopant of iodine was in equivalent mole concentration with that of spiro-OMeTAD. Moreover, the long-term stability of the corresponding device was investigated.

  16. High-order FDTD methods via derivative matching for Maxwell's equations with material interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Shan; Wei, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a series of novel hierarchical implicit derivative matching methods to restore the accuracy of high-order finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) schemes of computational electromagnetics (CEM) with material interfaces in one (1D) and two spatial dimensions (2D). By making use of fictitious points, systematic approaches are proposed to locally enforce the physical jump conditions at material interfaces in a preprocessing stage, to arbitrarily high orders of accuracy in principle. While often limited by numerical instability, orders up to 16 and 12 are achieved, respectively, in 1D and 2D. Detailed stability analyses are presented for the present approach to examine the upper limit in constructing embedded FDTD methods. As natural generalizations of the high-order FDTD schemes, the proposed derivative matching methods automatically reduce to the standard FDTD schemes when the material interfaces are absent. An interesting feature of the present approach is that it encompasses a variety of schemes of different orders in a single code. Another feature of the present approach is that it can be robustly implemented with other high accuracy time-domain approaches, such as the multiresolution time-domain method and the local spectral time-domain method, to cope with material interfaces. Numerical experiments on both 1D and 2D problems are carried out to test the convergence, examine the stability, access the efficiency, and explore the limitation of the proposed methods. It is found that operating at their best capacity, the proposed high-order schemes could be over 2000 times more efficient than their fourth-order versions in 2D. In conclusion, the present work indicates that the proposed hierarchical derivative matching methods might lead to practical high-order schemes for numerical solution of time-domain Maxwell's equations with material interfaces

  17. High-speed Integrated Circuits for electrical/Optical Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christoffer Felix

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the effort to increase the bandwidth of communicationnetworks. The thesis presents the results of the design of several high-speed electrical ircuits for an electrical/optical interface. These circuits have been a contribution to the ESTA project in collaboration...... circuits at the receiver interface, though VCOs are also found in the transmitter where a multitude of independent sources have to be mutually synchronized before multiplexing. The circuits are based on an InP DHBT process (VIP-2) supplied by Vitesse and made publicly available as MPW. The VIP-2 process...... represents the avant-garde of InP technology, with ft and fmax well above 300 GHz. Principles of high speed design are presented and described as a useful background before proceeding to circuits. A static divider is used as an example to illustrate many of the design principles. Theory and fundamentals...

  18. Critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, lain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experim...

  19. A structural approach to constructing perspective efficient and reliable human-computer interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, L.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of human-computer interface (HCI) realizations are investigated with the aim of getting closer to a general framework and thus, to a more or less solid background of constructing perspective efficient, reliable and cost-effective human-computer interfaces. On the basis of characterizing and classifying the different HCI solutions, the fundamental problems of interface construction are pointed out especially with respect to human error occurrence possibilities. The evolution of HCI realizations is illustrated by summarizing the main properties of past, present and foreseeable future interface generations. HCI modeling is pointed out to be a crucial problem in theoretical and practical investigations. Suggestions concerning HCI structure (hierarchy and modularity), HCI functional dynamics (mapping from input to output information), minimization of human error caused system failures (error-tolerance, error-recovery and error-correcting) as well as cost-effective HCI design and realization methodology (universal and application-oriented vs. application-specific solutions) are presented. The concept of RISC-based and SCAMP-type HCI components is introduced with the aim of having a reduced interaction scheme in communication and a well defined architecture in HCI components' internal structure. HCI efficiency and reliability are dealt with, by taking into account complexity and flexibility. The application of fast computerized prototyping is also briefly investigated as an experimental device of achieving simple, parametrized, invariant HCI models. Finally, a concise outline of an approach of how to construct ideal HCI's is also suggested by emphasizing the open questions and the need of future work related to the proposals, as well. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  20. Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2011-02-01

    The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.

  1. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Duan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  2. A metamaterial electromagnetic energy rectifying surface with high harvesting efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhou, Lin

    2016-12-01

    A novel metamaterial rectifying surface (MRS) for electromagnetic energy capture and rectification with high harvesting efficiency is presented. It is fabricated on a three-layer printed circuit board, which comprises an array of periodic metamaterial particles in the shape of mirrored split rings, a metal ground, and integrated rectifiers employing Schottky diodes. Perfect impedance matching is engineered at two interfaces, i.e. one between free space and the surface, and the other between the metamaterial particles and the rectifiers, which are connected through optimally positioned vias. Therefore, the incident electromagnetic power is captured with almost no reflection by the metamaterial particles, then channeled maximally to the rectifiers, and finally converted to direct current efficiently. Moreover, the rectifiers are behind the metal ground, avoiding the disturbance of high power incident electromagnetic waves. Such a MRS working at 2.45 GHz is designed, manufactured and measured, achieving a harvesting efficiency up to 66.9% under an incident power density of 5 mW/cm2, compared with a simulated efficiency of 72.9%. This high harvesting efficiency makes the proposed MRS an effective receiving device in practical microwave power transmission applications.

  3. Sustainability in Chinese Higher Educational Institutions’ Social Science Research: A Performance Interface toward Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianmei Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability issues in higher educational institutions’ (HEIs research, especially in the social science field, have attracted increasing levels of attention in higher education administration in recent decades as HEIs are confronted with a growing pressure worldwide to increase the efficiency of their research activities under a limited volume and relatively equitable division of public funding resources. This paper introduces a theoretical analysis framework based on a data envelopment analysis, separating the social science research process into a foundation stage and a construction stage, and then projecting each HEI into certain quadrants to form several clusters according to their overall and stage efficiencies and corresponding Malmquist Productivity Indices. Furthermore, the interfaces are formed in each cluster as feasible potential improvement directions. The empirical results in detail are demonstrated from a data set of Chinese HEIs in Jiangsu Province over the Twelfth Five-Year period as offering a closer approximation to the “China social science research best practice”.

  4. Progress of OLED devices with high efficiency at high luminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Carmen; Ingram, Grayson; Lu, Zhenghong

    2014-03-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have progressed significantly over the last two decades. For years, OLEDs have been promoted as the next generation technology for flat panel displays and solid-state lighting due to their potential for high energy efficiency and dynamic range of colors. Although high efficiency can readily be obtained at low brightness levels, a significant decline at high brightness is commonly observed. In this report, we will review various strategies for achieving highly efficient phosphorescent OLED devices at high luminance. Specifically, we will provide details regarding the performance and general working principles behind each strategy. We will conclude by looking at how some of these strategies can be combined to produce high efficiency white OLEDs at high brightness.

  5. Fully Integrated Solar Energy Harvester and Sensor Interface Circuits for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kayal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an energy-efficient solar energy harvesting and sensing microsystem that harvests solar energy from a micro-power photovoltaic module for autonomous operation of a gas sensor. A fully integrated solar energy harvester stores the harvested energy in a rechargeable NiMH microbattery. Hydrogen concentration and temperature are measured and converted to a digital value with 12-bit resolution using a fully integrated sensor interface circuit, and a wireless transceiver is used to transmit the measurement results to a base station. As the harvested solar energy varies considerably in different lighting conditions, in order to guarantee autonomous operation of the sensor, the proposed area- and energy-efficient circuit scales the power consumption and performance of the sensor. The power management circuit dynamically decreases the operating frequency of digital circuits and bias currents of analog circuits in the sensor interface circuit and increases the idle time of the transceiver under reduced light intensity. The proposed microsystem has been implemented in a 0.18 µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS process and occupies a core area of only 0.25 mm2. This circuit features a low power consumption of 2.1 µW when operating at its highest performance. It operates with low power supply voltage in the 0.8V to 1.6 V range.

  6. Designing interfaces of hydrogenase-nanomaterial hybrids for efficient solar conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    The direct conversion of sunlight into biofuels is an intriguing alternative to a continued reliance on fossil fuels. Natural photosynthesis has long been investigated both as a potential solution, and as a model for utilizing solar energy to drive a water-to-fuel cycle. The molecules and organizational structure provide a template to inspire the design of efficient molecular systems for photocatalysis. A clear design strategy is the coordination of molecular interactions that match kinetic rates and energetic levels to control the direction and flow of energy from light harvesting to catalysis. Energy transduction and electron-transfer reactions occur through interfaces formed between complexes of donor-acceptor molecules. Although the structures of several of the key biological complexes have been solved, detailed descriptions of many electron-transfer complexes are lacking, which presents a challenge to designing and engineering biomolecular systems for solar conversion. Alternatively, it is possible to couple the catalytic power of biological enzymes to light harvesting by semiconductor nanomaterials. In these molecules, surface chemistry and structure can be designed using ligands. The passivation effect of the ligand can also dramatically affect the photophysical properties of the semiconductor, and energetics of external charge-transfer. The length, degree of bond saturation (aromaticity), and solvent exposed functional groups of ligands can be manipulated to further tune the interface to control molecular assembly, and complex stability in photocatalytic hybrids. The results of this research show how ligand selection is critical to designing molecular interfaces that promote efficient self-assembly, charge-transfer and photocatalysis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Metals in Bioenergetics and Biomimetics Systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  8. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  9. Experiments on high efficiency aerosol filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, M.; Cuccuru, A.; Kunz, P.

    1977-01-01

    Research on high efficiency aerosol filtration by the Nuclear Engineering Institute of Pisa University and by CAMEN in collaboration with CNEN is outlined. HEPA filter efficiency was studied as a function of the type and size of the test aerosol, and as a function of flowrate (+-50% of the nominal value), air temperature (up to 70 0 C), relative humidity (up to 100%), and durability in a corrosive atmosphere (up to 140 hours in NaCl mist). In the selected experimental conditions these influences were appreciable but are not sufficient to be significant in industrial HEPA filter applications. Planned future research is outlined: measurement of the efficiency of two HEPA filters in series using a fixed particle size; dependence of the efficiency on air, temperatures up to 300-500 0 C; performance when subject to smoke from burning organic materials (natural rubber, neoprene, miscellaneous plastics). Such studies are relevant to possible accidental fires in a plutonium laboratory

  10. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Litzov; Christoph J. Brabec

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeO x ) play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work fun...

  11. High efficiency, variable geometry, centrifugal cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsha, M.D.; Nichols, K.E.; Beale, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been developed which has a basic design that is rugged and reliable with variable speed and variable geometry features that achieve high pump efficiency over a wide range of head-flow conditions. The pump uses a sealless design and rolling element bearings to achieve high reliability and the ruggedness to withstand liquid-vapor slugging. The pump can meet a wide range of variable head, off-design flow requirements and maintain design point efficiency by adjusting the pump speed. The pump also has features that allow the impeller and diffuser blade heights to be adjusted. The adjustable height blades were intended to enhance the pump efficiency when it is operating at constant head, off-design flow rates. For small pumps, the adjustable height blades are not recommended. For larger pumps, they could provide off-design efficiency improvements. This pump was developed for supercritical helium service, but the design is well suited to any cryogenic application where high efficiency is required over a wide range of head-flow conditions

  12. Saving energy via high-efficiency fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Thomas Heine, sales and market manager for EC Upgrades, the retrofit arm of global provider of air movement solutions, ebm-papst A&NZ, discusses the retrofitting of high-efficiency fans to existing HVAC equipment to 'drastically reduce energy consumption'.

  13. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzov, Ivan; Brabec, Christoph J

    2013-12-10

    Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeO x ) play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n -type- and p -type-like MeO x interface materials consisting of binary compounds A x B y . Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL) and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL) in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed.

  14. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Litzov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed.

  15. Development of Efficient and Stable Inverted Bulk Heterojunction (BHJ) Solar Cells Using Different Metal Oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzov, Ivan; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2013-01-01

    Solution-processed inverted bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have gained much more attention during the last decade, because of their significantly better environmental stability compared to the normal architecture BHJ solar cells. Transparent metal oxides (MeOx) play an important role as the dominant class for solution-processed interface materials in this development, due to their excellent optical transparency, their relatively high electrical conductivity and their tunable work function. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of the most common synthesis methods used for the wet chemical preparation of the most relevant n-type- and p-type-like MeOx interface materials consisting of binary compounds AxBy. Their performance for applications as electron transport/extraction layers (ETL/EEL) and as hole transport/extraction layers (HTL/HEL) in inverted BHJ solar cells will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:28788423

  16. High-performance, polymer-based direct cellular interfaces for electrical stimulation and recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Nara; Kim, Youngseok; Baik, Min-Seo; Yoo, Minsu; Kim, Dongyoon; Lee, Won-June; Kang, Dong-Hee; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Kwanghee; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2018-04-01

    Due to the trade-off between their electrical/electrochemical performance and underwater stability, realizing polymer-based, high-performance direct cellular interfaces for electrical stimulation and recording has been very challenging. Herein, we developed transparent and conductive direct cellular interfaces based on a water-stable, high-performance poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film via solvent-assisted crystallization. The crystallized PEDOT:PSS on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate exhibited excellent electrical/electrochemical/optical characteristics, long-term underwater stability without film dissolution/delamination, and good viability for primarily cultured cardiomyocytes and neurons over several weeks. Furthermore, the highly crystallized, nanofibrillar PEDOT:PSS networks enabled dramatically enlarged surface areas and electrochemical activities, which were successfully employed to modulate cardiomyocyte beating via direct electrical stimulation. Finally, the high-performance PEDOT:PSS layer was seamlessly incorporated into transparent microelectrode arrays for efficient, real-time recording of cardiomyocyte action potentials with a high signal fidelity. All these results demonstrate the strong potential of crystallized PEDOT:PSS as a crucial component for a variety of versatile bioelectronic interfaces.

  17. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... converter components. Wide bandgap power semiconductors are introduced due to their superior performance in comparison to traditional silicon power devices. The analysis presents a study based on switching loss measurements performed on Si IGBTs, SiC JFETs, SiC MOSFETs and their respective gate drivers...

  18. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based......, and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  19. High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor for Rotorcraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Gorazd; Sharma, Om P.; Jongwook, Joo; Hardin, Larry W.; McCormick, Duane C.; Cousins, William T.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Shabbir, Aamir; Holley, Brian M.; Van Slooten, Paul R.

    2017-01-01

    A centrifugal compressor research effort conducted by United Technologies Research Center under NASA Research Announcement NNC08CB03C is documented. The objectives were to identify key technical barriers to advancing the aerodynamic performance of high-efficiency, high work factor, compact centrifugal compressor aft-stages for turboshaft engines; to acquire measurements needed to overcome the technical barriers and inform future designs; to design, fabricate, and test a new research compressor in which to acquire the requisite flow field data. A new High-Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor stage -- splittered impeller, splittered diffuser, 90 degree bend, and exit guide vanes -- with aerodynamically aggressive performance and configuration (compactness) goals were designed, fabricated, and subquently tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  20. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  1. High efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Congyi; Wang, Bohan; Zhao, Tianfei; Chen, C. Q.

    2018-01-01

    Energy transmission efficiency and working bandwidth are the two major factors limiting the application of current acoustic diodes (ADs). This letter presents a design of high efficiency and broadband acoustic diodes composed of a nonlinear frequency converter and a linear wave filter. The converter consists of two masses connected by a bilinear spring with asymmetric tension and compression stiffness. The wave filter is a linear mass-spring lattice (sonic crystal). Both numerical simulation and experiment show that the energy transmission efficiency of the acoustic diode can be improved by as much as two orders of magnitude, reaching about 61%. Moreover, the primary working band width of the AD is about two times of the cut-off frequency of the sonic crystal filter. The cut-off frequency dependent working band of the AD implies that the developed AD can be scaled up or down from macro-scale to micro- and nano-scale.

  2. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  3. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2016-08-01

    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  4. High voltage/high resolution studies of metal and semiconductor interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westmacott, K.H.; Dahmen, U.

    1989-11-01

    The application of high resolution transmission electron microscopy to the study of homo- or hetero-phase interface structures requires specimens that meet stringent criteria. In some systems the necessary geometric imaging conditions are established naturally, thus greatly simplifying the analysis. This is illustrated for a diamond-hexagonal/diamond-cubic interface in deformed silicon, a Σ99 tilt boundary in a pure aluminum bicrystal, and a germanium precipitate in an aluminum matrix. 13 refs., 5 figs

  5. High efficiency novel window air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Use of novel refrigerant mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar conc.) to reduce global warming and improve energy efficiency. • Use of novel features such as electronically commuted motor (ECM) fan motor, slinger and sub-merged sub-cooler. • Energy savings of up to 0.1 Quads per year in USA and much more in Asia/Middle East where WACs are used in large numbers. • Payback period of only 1.4 years of the novel efficient WAC. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an experimental and analytical evaluation of measures to raise the efficiency of window air conditioners (WAC). In order to achieve a higher energy efficiency ratio (EER), the original capacity of a baseline R410A unit was reduced by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity but higher EER compressor, while all heat exchangers and the chassis from the original unit were retained. Subsequent major modifications included – replacing the alternating current fan motor with a brushless high efficiency electronically commutated motor (ECM) motor, replacing the capillary tube with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and replacing R410A with a ‘drop-in’ lower global warming potential (GWP) binary mixture of R32/R125 (85/15% molar concentration). All these modifications resulted in significant enhancement in the EER of the baseline WAC. Further, an economic analysis of the new WAC revealed an encouraging payback period

  6. High efficiency carbon nanotube thread antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amram Bengio, E.; Senic, Damir; Taylor, Lauren W.; Tsentalovich, Dmitri E.; Chen, Peiyu; Holloway, Christopher L.; Babakhani, Aydin; Long, Christian J.; Novotny, David R.; Booth, James C.; Orloff, Nathan D.; Pasquali, Matteo

    2017-10-01

    Although previous research has explored the underlying theory of high-frequency behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and CNT bundles for antennas, there is a gap in the literature for direct experimental measurements of radiation efficiency. These measurements are crucial for any practical application of CNT materials in wireless communication. In this letter, we report a measurement technique to accurately characterize the radiation efficiency of λ/4 monopole antennas made from the CNT thread. We measure the highest absolute values of radiation efficiency for CNT antennas of any type, matching that of copper wire. To capture the weight savings, we propose a specific radiation efficiency metric and show that these CNT antennas exceed copper's performance by over an order of magnitude at 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz. We also report direct experimental observation that, contrary to metals, the radiation efficiency of the CNT thread improves significantly at higher frequencies. These results pave the way for practical applications of CNT thread antennas, particularly in the aerospace and wearable electronics industries where weight saving is a priority.

  7. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    The topic of this thesis is the design of high efficiency power electronic dc-to-dc converters for high-power, low-input-voltage to high-output-voltage applications. These converters are increasingly required for emerging sustainable energy systems such as fuel cell, battery or photo voltaic based...

  8. ON THE EFFECT OF ADAPTIVE USER INTERFACES ON RELIABILITY AND EFFICIENCY OF THE AUTOMATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Furtat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern automated systems users often have to face the information overload problem because of ever increasing volumes of information with short time processing requirements. Working in such conditions affects the system operator’s work quality and the systems reliability. One possible approach to solving the information overload problem is to create personalized interfaces that take into account the user’s information management particularities. System operator’s features, which determine the shape and pace of information representation preferred by him, form the user’s cognitive portrait. To determine the values of portrait characteristics professional testing with the assistance of psychologists or operational testing at the user’s workplace is performed. The second option is more preferable for use in automated systems, since it has no issue with lack of psychologists. Cognitive portrait is then built as a result of user interaction with the software diagnostic tools that are based on the cognitive psychology methods. The effect of personalized user interface application in an automated system can be estimated by quantifying how the reduction in user’s response time to critical events affects the system reliability and efficiency. For this purpose, the formulae of reliability theory for complex automated systems are used, showing the dependence between the system reliability and user’s response time to critical event.

  9. Efficient simulations of the aqueous bio-interface of graphitic nanostructures with a polarisable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Zak E.; Tomásio, Susana M.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2014-04-01

    To fully harness the enormous potential offered by interfaces between graphitic nanostructures and biomolecules, detailed connections between adsorbed conformations and adsorption behaviour are needed. To elucidate these links, a key approach, in partnership with experimental techniques, is molecular simulation. For this, a force-field (FF) that can appropriately capture the relevant physics and chemistry of these complex bio-interfaces, while allowing extensive conformational sampling, and also supporting inter-operability with known biological FFs, is a pivotal requirement. Here, we present and apply such a force-field, GRAPPA, designed to work with the CHARMM FF. GRAPPA is an efficiently implemented polarisable force-field, informed by extensive plane-wave DFT calculations using the revPBE-vdW-DF functional. GRAPPA adequately recovers the spatial and orientational structuring of the aqueous interface of graphene and carbon nanotubes, compared with more sophisticated approaches. We apply GRAPPA to determine the free energy of adsorption for a range of amino acids, identifying Trp, Tyr and Arg to have the strongest binding affinity and Asp to be a weak binder. The GRAPPA FF can be readily incorporated into mainstream simulation packages, and will enable large-scale polarisable biointerfacial simulations at graphitic interfaces, that will aid the development of biomolecule-mediated, solution-based graphene processing and self-assembly strategies.To fully harness the enormous potential offered by interfaces between graphitic nanostructures and biomolecules, detailed connections between adsorbed conformations and adsorption behaviour are needed. To elucidate these links, a key approach, in partnership with experimental techniques, is molecular simulation. For this, a force-field (FF) that can appropriately capture the relevant physics and chemistry of these complex bio-interfaces, while allowing extensive conformational sampling, and also supporting inter

  10. High efficiency lithium-thionyl chloride cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doddapaneni, N.

    1982-08-01

    The polarization characteristics and the specific cathode capacity of Teflon bonded carbon electrodes in the Li/SOCl2 system have been evaluated. Doping of electrocatalysts such as cobalt and iron phthalocyanine complexes improved both cell voltage and cell rate capability. High efficiency Li/SOCl2 cells were thus achieved with catalyzed cathodes. The electrochemical reduction of SOCl2 seems to undergo modification at catalyzed cathode. For example, the reduction of SOCl2 at FePc catalyzed cathode involves 2-1/2 e-/mole of SOCl2. Furthermore, the reduction mechanism is simplified and unwanted chemical species are eliminated by the catalyst. Thus a potentially safer high efficiency Li/SOCl2 can be anticipated.

  11. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  12. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  13. Application of MCU to intelligent interface of high precision magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ruinian; Li Deming

    2004-01-01

    Application of the high-capability MCU in the intelligent interface is introduced in this paper. A prototype of intelligent interface for high precision huge magnet power supply was developed successfully. This intelligent interface was composed of two parts: operation panel and main board, both of which adopt a MCU of PIC16F877 respectively. The interface has many advantages, such as small size, low cost and good interference immunity. (authors)

  14. High efficiency inverter and ballast circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilssen, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    A high efficiency push-pull inverter circuit employing a pair of relatively high power switching transistors is described. The switching on and off of the transistors is precisely controlled to minimize power losses due to common-mode conduction or due to transient conditions that occur in the process of turning a transistor on or off. Two current feed-back transformers are employed in the transistor base drives; one being saturable for providing a positive feedback, and the other being non-saturable for providing a subtractive feedback

  15. Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-10-01

    The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing X-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.

  16. Rational construction of multiple interfaces in ternary heterostructure for efficient spatial separation and transfer of photogenerated carriers in the application of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Wen; Ma, Dandan; Zou, Yajun; Fan, Zhaoyang; Shi, Jinwen; Cheng, Linhao; Ji, Xin; Niu, Chunming

    2018-03-01

    The design of efficient and stable photocatalyst plays a critical role in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water splitting. Herein, we develop a novel ZnS/CdS/ZnO ternary heterostructure by the in-situ sulfuration of CdS/ZnO, which includes four contact interfaces: CdS-ZnS interface, ZnS-ZnO interface, CdS-ZnO interface and ZnS-CdS-ZnO ternary interface, forming three charge carrier-transfer modes (type-I, type-II and direct Z-scheme) through five carrier-transfer pathways. As a result, the separation and transfer of photoexcited electron-hole pairs are promoted significantly, resulting in a high hydrogen evolution rate of 44.70 mmol h-1 g-1, which is 2, 3.7 and 8 times higher than those of binary heterostructures, CdS/ZnO, CdS/ZnS and ZnS/ZnO, respectively, and 26.5, 280 and 298 times higher than those of single CdS, ZnO and ZnS, respectively. As a counterpart ternary heterostructure, CdS/ZnS/ZnO contains only two interfaces: CdS-ZnS interface and ZnS-ZnO interface, which form two charge carrier-transfer modes (type-I and type-II) through two carrier-transfer pathways, leading to its much lower hydrogen evolution rate (27.25 mmol h-1 g-1) than ZnS/CdS/ZnO ternary heterostructure. This work is relevant for understanding the charge-transfer pathways between multi-interfaces in multicomponent heterojunctions.

  17. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  18. Configurable Radiation Hardened High Speed Isolated Interface ASIC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NVE Corporation will design and build an innovative, low cost, flexible, configurable, radiation hardened, galvanically isolated, interface ASIC chip set that will...

  19. High Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahen, Keith

    2013-12-31

    The project showed that non-Cd containing, InP-based nanocrystals (semiconductor materials with dimensions of ~6 nm) have high potential for enabling next-generation, nanocrystal-based, on chip phosphors for solid state lighting. Typical nanocrystals fall short of the requirements for on chip phosphors due to their loss of quantum efficiency under the operating conditions of LEDs, such as, high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high optical flux (up to 200 W/cm2). The InP-based nanocrystals invented during this project maintain high quantum efficiency (>80%) in polymer-based films under these operating conditions for emission wavelengths ranging from ~530 to 620 nm. These nanocrystals also show other desirable attributes, such as, lack of blinking (a common problem with nanocrystals which limits their performance) and no increase in the emission spectral width from room to 150 °C (emitters with narrower spectral widths enable higher efficiency LEDs). Prior to these nanocrystals, no nanocrystal system (regardless of nanocrystal type) showed this collection of properties; in fact, other nanocrystal systems are typically limited to showing only one desirable trait (such as high temperature stability) but being deficient in other properties (such as high flux stability). The project showed that one can reproducibly obtain these properties by generating a novel compositional structure inside of the nanomaterials; in addition, the project formulated an initial theoretical framework linking the compositional structure to the list of high performance optical properties. Over the course of the project, the synthetic methodology for producing the novel composition was evolved to enable the synthesis of these nanomaterials at a cost approximately equal to that required for forming typical conventional nanocrystals. Given the above results, the last major remaining step prior to scale up of the nanomaterials is to limit the oxidation of these materials during the tens of

  20. Highly Efficient Estimators of Multivariate Location with High Breakdown Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopuhaa, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    We propose an affine equivariant estimator of multivariate location that combines a high breakdown point and a bounded influence function with high asymptotic efficiency. This proposal is basically a location $M$-estimator based on the observations obtained after scaling with an affine equivariant

  1. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1993-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  2. High-efficiency organic glass scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Patrick L.; Carlson, Joseph S.

    2017-12-19

    A new family of neutron/gamma discriminating scintillators is disclosed that comprises stable organic glasses that may be melt-cast into transparent monoliths. These materials have been shown to provide light yields greater than solution-grown trans-stilbene crystals and efficient PSD capabilities when combined with 0.01 to 0.05% by weight of the total composition of a wavelength-shifting fluorophore. Photoluminescence measurements reveal fluorescence quantum yields that are 2 to 5 times greater than conventional plastic or liquid scintillator matrices, which accounts for the superior light yield of these glasses. The unique combination of high scintillation light-yields, efficient neutron/gamma PSD, and straightforward scale-up via melt-casting distinguishes the developed organic glasses from existing scintillators.

  3. High efficiency motors; Motores de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga Favela, Ivan Jaime [Energia Controlada de Mexico, S. A. de C. V., Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    This paper is a technical-financial study of the high efficiency and super-premium motors. As it is widely known, more than 60% of the electrical energy generated in the country is used for the operation of motors, in industry as well as in commerce. Therefore the importance that the motors have in the efficient energy use. [Espanol] El presente trabajo es un estudio tecnico-financiero de los motores de alta eficiencia y los motores super premium. Como es ampliamente conocido, mas del 60% de la energia electrica generada en el pais, es utilizada para accionar motores, dentro de la industria y el comercio. De alli la importancia que los motores tienen en el uso eficiente de la energia.

  4. Interfacing Lab-on-a-Chip Embryo Technology with High-Definition Imaging Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Hall, Christopher J; Crosier, Philip S; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-08-01

    To spearhead deployment of zebrafish embryo biotests in large-scale drug discovery studies, automated platforms are needed to integrate embryo in-test positioning and immobilization (suitable for high-content imaging) with fluidic modules for continuous drug and medium delivery under microperfusion to developing embryos. In this work, we present an innovative design of a high-throughput three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip-based device for automated immobilization and culture and time-lapse imaging of developing zebrafish embryos under continuous microperfusion. The 3D Lab-on-a-Chip array was fabricated in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining, while the off-chip interfaces were fabricated using additive manufacturing processes (fused deposition modelling and stereolithography). The system's design facilitated rapid loading and immobilization of a large number of embryos in predefined clusters of traps during continuous microperfusion of drugs/toxins. It was conceptually designed to seamlessly interface with both upright and inverted fluorescent imaging systems and also to directly interface with conventional microtiter plate readers that accept 96-well plates. Compared with the conventional Petri dish assays, the chip-based bioassay was much more convenient and efficient as only small amounts of drug solutions were required for the whole perfusion system running continuously over 72 h. Embryos were spatially separated in the traps that assisted tracing single embryos, preventing interembryo contamination and improving imaging accessibility.

  5. A memory efficient user interface for CLIPS micro-computer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterle, Mark E.; Mayer, Richard J.; Jordan, Janice A.; Brodale, Howard N.; Lin, Min-Jin

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Southern Pine Beetle Expert System (ISPBEX) is to provide expert level knowledge concerning treatment advice that is convenient and easy to use for Forest Service personnel. ISPBEX was developed in CLIPS and delivered on an IBM PC AT class micro-computer, operating with an MS/DOS operating system. This restricted the size of the run time system to 640K. In order to provide a robust expert system, with on-line explanation, help, and alternative actions menus, as well as features that allow the user to back up or execute 'what if' scenarios, a memory efficient menuing system was developed to interface with the CLIPS programs. By robust, we mean an expert system that (1) is user friendly, (2) provides reasonable solutions for a wide variety of domain specific problems, (3) explains why some solutions were suggested but others were not, and (4) provides technical information relating to the problem solution. Several advantages were gained by using this type of user interface (UI). First, by storing the menus on the hard disk (instead of main memory) during program execution, a more robust system could be implemented. Second, since the menus were built rapidly, development time was reduced. Third, the user may try a new scenario by backing up to any of the input screens and revising segments of the original input without having to retype all the information. And fourth, asserting facts from the menus provided for a dynamic and flexible fact base. This UI technology has been applied successfully in expert systems applications in forest management, agriculture, and manufacturing. This paper discusses the architecture of the UI system, human factors considerations, and the menu syntax design.

  6. High performance as-grown and annealed high band gap tunnel junctions: Te behavior at the interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedair, S. M., E-mail: bedair@ncsu.edu; Harmon, Jeffrey L.; Carlin, C. Zachary; Hashem Sayed, Islam E.; Colter, P. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2016-05-16

    The performance of n{sup +}-InGaP(Te)/p{sup +}-AlGaAs(C) high band gap tunnel junctions (TJ) is critical for achieving high efficiency in multijunction photovoltaics. Several limitations for as grown and annealed TJ can be attributed to the Te doping of InGaP and its behavior at the junction interface. Te atoms in InGaP tend to get attached at step edges, resulting in a Te memory effect. In this work, we use the peak tunneling current (J{sub pk}) in this TJ as a diagnostic tool to study the behavior of the Te dopant at the TJ interface. Additionally, we used our understanding of Te behavior at the interface, guided by device modeling, to modify the Te source shut-off procedure and the growth rate. These modifications lead to a record performance for both the as-grown (2000 A/cm{sup 2}) and annealed (1000 A/cm{sup 2}) high band gap tunnel junction.

  7. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  8. High Quantum Efficiency OLED Lighting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, Joseph [General Electric (GE) Global Research, Fairfield, CT (United States)

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal of the program was to apply improvements in light outcoupling technology to a practical large area plastic luminaire, and thus enable the product vision of an extremely thin form factor high efficiency large area light source. The target substrate was plastic and the baseline device was operating at 35 LPW at the start of the program. The target LPW of the program was a >2x improvement in the LPW efficacy and the overall amount of light to be delivered was relatively high 900 lumens. Despite the extremely difficult challenges associated with scaling up a wet solution process on plastic substrates, the program was able to make substantial progress. A small molecule wet solution process was successfully implemented on plastic substrates with almost no loss in efficiency in transitioning from the laboratory scale glass to large area plastic substrates. By transitioning to a small molecule based process, the LPW entitlement increased from 35 LPW to 60 LPW. A further 10% improvement in outcoupling efficiency was demonstrated via the use of a highly reflecting cathode, which reduced absorptive loss in the OLED device. The calculated potential improvement in some cases is even larger, ~30%, and thus there is considerable room for optimism in improving the net light coupling efficacy, provided absorptive loss mechanisms are eliminated. Further improvements are possible if scattering schemes such as the silver nanowire based hard coat structure are fully developed. The wet coating processes were successfully scaled to large area plastic substrate and resulted in the construction of a 900 lumens luminaire device.

  9. High-efficiency concentrator silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, R.A.; Cuevas, A.; King, R.R.; Swanson, R.M. (Stanford Univ., CA (USA). Solid-State Electronics Lab.)

    1990-11-01

    This report presents results from extensive process development in high-efficiency Si solar cells. An advanced design for a 1.56-cm{sup 2} cell with front grids achieved 26% efficiency at 90 suns. This is especially significant since this cell does not require a prismatic cover glass. New designs for simplified backside-contact solar cells were advanced from a status of near-nonfunctionality to demonstrated 21--22% for one-sun cells in sizes up to 37.5 cm{sup 2}. An efficiency of 26% was achieved for similar 0.64-cm{sup 2} concentrator cells at 150 suns. More fundamental work on dopant-diffused regions is also presented here. The recombination vs. various process and physical parameters was studied in detail for boron and phosphorous diffusions. Emitter-design studies based solidly upon these new data indicate the performance vs design parameters for a variety of the cases of most interest to solar cell designers. Extractions of p-type bandgap narrowing and the surface recombination for p- and n-type regions from these studies have a generality that extends beyond solar cells into basic device modeling. 68 refs., 50 figs.

  10. Nanooptics for high efficient photon managment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrowski, Frank; Schimmel, Hagen

    2005-09-01

    Optical systems for photon management, that is the generation of tailored electromagnetic fields, constitute one of the keys for innovation through photonics. An important subfield of photon management deals with the transformation of an incident light field into a field of specified intensity distribution. In this paper we consider some basic aspects of the nature of systems for those light transformations. It turns out, that the transversal redistribution of energy (TRE) is of central concern to achieve systems with high transformation efficiency. Besides established techniques nanostructured optical elements (NOE) are demanded to implement transversal energy redistribution. That builds a bridge between the needs of photon management, optical engineering, and nanooptics.

  11. Highly Efficient Compression Algorithms for Multichannel EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laxmi; Rahman, Daleef; Routray, Aurobinda

    2018-05-01

    The difficulty associated with processing and understanding the high dimensionality of electroencephalogram (EEG) data requires developing efficient and robust compression algorithms. In this paper, different lossless compression techniques of single and multichannel EEG data, including Huffman coding, arithmetic coding, Markov predictor, linear predictor, context-based error modeling, multivariate autoregression (MVAR), and a low complexity bivariate model have been examined and their performances have been compared. Furthermore, a high compression algorithm named general MVAR and a modified context-based error modeling for multichannel EEG have been proposed. The resulting compression algorithm produces a higher relative compression ratio of 70.64% on average compared with the existing methods, and in some cases, it goes up to 83.06%. The proposed methods are designed to compress a large amount of multichannel EEG data efficiently so that the data storage and transmission bandwidth can be effectively used. These methods have been validated using several experimental multichannel EEG recordings of different subjects and publicly available standard databases. The satisfactory parametric measures of these methods, namely percent-root-mean square distortion, peak signal-to-noise ratio, root-mean-square error, and cross correlation, show their superiority over the state-of-the-art compression methods.

  12. Dissolution-recrystallization method for high efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Fei; Luo, Junsheng; Wan, Zhongquan; Liu, Xingzhao; Jia, Chunyang, E-mail: cyjia@uestc.edu.cn

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve perovskite crystallization. • Dissolution-recrystallization method can improve TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. • The optimal perovskite solar cell obtains the champion PCE of 16.76%. • The optimal devices are of high reproducibility. - Abstract: In this work, a dissolution-recrystallization method (DRM) with chlorobenzene and dimethylsulfoxide treating the perovskite films during the spin-coating process is reported. This is the first time that DRM is used to control perovskite crystallization and improve the device performance. Furthermore, the DRM is good for reducing defects and grain boundaries, improving perovskite crystallization and even improving TiO{sub 2}/perovskite interface. By optimizing, the DRM2-treated perovskite solar cell (PSC) obtains the best photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.76% under AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm{sup −2}) with enhanced J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} compared to CB-treated PSC.

  13. High efficiency double sided solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1990-06-01

    Silicon technology state of the art for single crystalline was given to be limited to less than 20% efficiency. A proposed new form of photovoltaic solar cell of high current high efficiency with double sided structures has been given. The new forms could be n ++ pn ++ or p ++ np ++ double side junctions. The idea of double sided devices could be understood as two solar cells connected back-to-back in parallel electrical connection, in which the current is doubled if the cell is illuminated from both sides by a V-shaped reflector. The cell is mounted to the reflector such that each face is inclined at an angle of 45 deg. C to each side of the reflector. The advantages of the new structure are: a) High power devices. b) Easy to fabricate. c) The cells are used vertically instead of horizontal use of regular solar cell which require large area to install. This is very important in power stations and especially for satellite installation. If the proposal is made real and proved to be experimentally feasible, it would be a new era for photovoltaic solar cells since the proposal has already been extended to even higher currents. The suggested structures could be stated as: n ++ pn ++ Vp ++ np ++ ;n ++ pn ++ Vn ++ pn ++ ORp ++ np ++ Vp ++ np ++ . These types of structures are formed in wedged shape to employ indirect illumination by either parabolic; conic or V-shaped reflectors. The advantages of these new forms are low cost; high power; less in size and space; self concentrating; ... etc. These proposals if it happens to find their ways to be achieved experimentally, I think they will offer a short path to commercial market and would have an incredible impact on solar cell technology and applications. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  14. Simple Motor Control Concept Results High Efficiency at High Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starin, Scott; Engel, Chris

    2013-09-01

    The need for high velocity motors in space applications for reaction wheels and detectors has stressed the limits of Brushless Permanent Magnet Motors (BPMM). Due to inherent hysteresis core losses, conventional BPMMs try to balance the need for torque verses hysteresis losses. Cong-less motors have significantly less hysteresis losses but suffer from lower efficiencies. Additionally, the inherent low inductance in cog-less motors result in high ripple currents or high switching frequencies, which lowers overall efficiency and increases performance demands on the control electronics.However, using a somewhat forgotten but fully qualified technology of Isotropic Magnet Motors (IMM), extremely high velocities may be achieved at low power input using conventional drive electronics. This paper will discuss the trade study efforts and empirical test data on a 34,000 RPM IMM.

  15. High speed digital interfacing for a neural data acquisition system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diseases like schizophrenia and genetic epilepsy are supposed to be caused by disorders in the early development of the brain. For the further investigation of these relationships a custom designed application specific integrated circuit (ASIC was developed that is optimized for the recording from neonatal mice [Bahr A, Abu-Saleh L, Schroeder D, Krautschneider W. 16 Channel Neural Recording Integrated Circuit with SPI Interface and Error Correction Coding. Proc. 9th BIOSTEC 2016. Biodevices: Rome, Italy, 2016; 1: 263; Bahr A, Abu-Saleh L, Schroeder D, Krautschneider W. Development of a neural recording mixed signal integrated circuit for biomedical signal acquisition. Biomed Eng Biomed Tech Abstracts 2015; 60(S1: 298–299; Bahr A, Abu-Saleh L, Schroeder D, Krautschneider WH. 16 Channel Neural Recording Mixed Signal ASIC. CDNLive EMEA 2015 Conference Proceedings, 2015.]. To enable the live display of the neural signals a multichannel neural data acquisition system with live display functionality is presented. It implements a high speed data transmission from the ASIC to a computer with a live display functionality. The system has been successfully implemented and was used in a neural recording of a head-fixed mouse.

  16. High-energy photoemission studies of oxide interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Ralph

    2015-03-01

    The interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures can host novel quantum phases not existing in the bulk of the constituents, with the high-mobility 2D electron system (2DES) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) representing a prominent example. Despite extensive research the origin of the 2DES and its unusual properties - including the supposed coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism - are still a matter of intense debate. Photoelectron spectroscopy, recently extended into the soft (SX-ARPES) and hard (HAXPES) X-ray regime, is a powerful method to provide detailed insight into the electronic structure of these heterostructures and, in particular, of the buried interface. This includes the identification of the orbital character of the 2DES as well as the determination of vital band structure information, such as band alignment, band bending, and even k-resolved band dispersions and Fermi surface topology. Moreover, resonant photoemission at the Ti L-edge reveals the existence of two different species of Ti 3d states, localized and itinerant, which can be distinguished and identified by their different resonance behavior. The role of oxygen vacancies is studied by controlled in-situ oxidation, which allows us to vary the composition from fully stoichiometric to strongly O-deficient. By comparison to free STO surfaces we can thus demonstrate that the metallicity of the heteointerfaces is intrinsic, i . e . it persists even in the absence of O defects. I will discuss our photoemission results on LAO/STO heterostructures in both (100) and (111) orientation as well as on the related system γ-Al2O3/STO(100), which also hosts a 2DES with an even higher mobility. Work in collaboration with J. Mannhart (MPI-FKF, Stuttgart), N. Pryds (TU Denmark), G. Rijnders (U Twente), S. Suga (U Osaka), M. Giorgoi (BESSY, HZB), W. Drube (DESY Photon Science), V.N. Strocov (Swiss Light Source), J. Denlinger (Advanced Light Source, LBNL), and T.-L. Lee (Diamond Light Source). Support by

  17. Optimal Multi-Interface Selection for Mobile Video Streaming in Efficient Battery Consumption and Data Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonghoon Moon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of high-performance, large-screen mobile devices, users’ expectations of having access to high-resolution video content in smooth network environments are steadily growing. To guarantee such stable streaming, a high cellular network bandwidth is required; yet network providers often charge high prices for even limited data plans. Moreover, the costs of smoothly streaming high-resolution videos are not merely monetary; the device’s battery life must also be accounted for. To resolve these problems, we design an optimal multi-interface selection system for streaming video over HTTP/TCP. An optimization problem including battery life and LTE data constraints is derived and then solved using binary integer programming. Additionally, the system is designed with an adoption of split-layer scalable video coding, which provides direct adaptations of video quality and prevents out-of-order packet delivery problems. The proposed system is evaluated using a prototype application in a real, iOS-based device as well as through experiments conducted in heterogeneous mobile scenarios. Results show that the system not only guarantees the highest-possible video quality, but also prevents reckless consumption of LTE data and battery life.

  18. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown

  19. Multiscale approaches to high efficiency photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly James Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While renewable energies are achieving parity around the globe, efforts to reach higher solar cell efficiencies becomes ever more difficult as they approach the limiting efficiency. The so-called third generation concepts attempt to break this limit through a combination of novel physical processes and new materials and concepts in organic and inorganic systems. Some examples of semi-empirical modelling in the field are reviewed, in particular for multispectral solar cells on silicon (French ANR project MultiSolSi. Their achievements are outlined, and the limits of these approaches shown. This introduces the main topic of this contribution, which is the use of multiscale experimental and theoretical techniques to go beyond the semi-empirical understanding of these systems. This approach has already led to great advances at modelling which have led to modelling software, which is widely known. Yet, a survey of the topic reveals a fragmentation of efforts across disciplines, firstly, such as organic and inorganic fields, but also between the high efficiency concepts such as hot carrier cells and intermediate band concepts. We show how this obstacle to the resolution of practical research obstacles may be lifted by inter-disciplinary cooperation across length scales, and across experimental and theoretical fields, and finally across materials systems. We present a European COST Action “MultiscaleSolar” kicking off in early 2015, which brings together experimental and theoretical partners in order to develop multiscale research in organic and inorganic materials. The goal of this defragmentation and interdisciplinary collaboration is to develop understanding across length scales, which will enable the full potential of third generation concepts to be evaluated in practise, for societal and industrial applications.

  20. High efficiency thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Hans-Werner [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany). Solar Energy

    2012-11-01

    Production of photovoltaics is growing worldwide on a gigawatt scale. Among the thin film technologies, Cu(In,Ga)S,Se{sub 2} (CIS or CIGS) based solar cells have been the focus of more and more attention. This paper aims to analyze the success of CIGS based solar cells and the potential of this technology for future photovoltaics large-scale production. Specific material properties make CIS unique and allow the preparation of the material with a wide range of processing options. The huge potential lies in the possibility to take advantage of modern thin film processing equipment and combine it with very high efficiencies beyond 20% already achieved on the laboratory scale. A sustainable development of this technology could be realized by modifying the materials and replacing indium by abundant elements. (orig.)

  1. Design of High Efficient MPPT Solar Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha K. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to design a High Efficient Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT Solar Inverter. A boost converter is designed in the system to boost the power from the photovoltaic panel. By this experimental setup a room consisting of 500 Watts load (eight fluorescent tubes is completely controlled. It is aimed to decrease the maintenance cost. A microcontroller is introduced for tracking the P&O (Perturb and Observe algorithm used for tracking the maximum power point. The duty cycle for the operation of the boost convertor is optimally adjusted by using MPPT controller. There is a MPPT charge controller to charge the battery as well as fed to inverter which runs the load. Both the P&O scheme with the fixed variation for the reference current and the intelligent MPPT algorithm were able to identify the global Maximum power point, however the performance of the MPPT algorithm was better.

  2. High Efficiency Ka-Band Spatial Combiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Passi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Ka-Band, High Efficiency, Small Size Spatial Combiner (SPC is proposed in this paper, which uses an innovatively matched quadruple Fin Lines to microstrip (FLuS transitions. At the date of this paper and at the Author's best knowledge no such FLuS innovative transitions have been reported in literature before. These transitions are inserted into a WR28 waveguide T-junction, in order to allow the integration of 16 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC Solid State Power Amplifiers (SSPA's. A computational electromagnetic model using the finite elements method has been implemented. A mean insertion loss of 2 dB is achieved with a return loss better the 10 dB in the 31-37 GHz bandwidth.

  3. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen-Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2018-05-15

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaflop-scale includes node architectures based upon System-On-a-Chip technology, where each processing node comprises a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The ASIC nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency. The network implements collective network and a global asynchronous network that provides global barrier and notification functions. Integrated in the node design include a list-based prefetcher. The memory system implements transaction memory, thread level speculation, and multiversioning cache that improves soft error rate at the same time and supports DMA functionality allowing for parallel processing message-passing.

  4. The CRRES high efficiency solar panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the High Efficiency Solar Panel (HESP) experiments which is to provide both engineering and scientific information concerning the effects of space radiation on advanced gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells. The HESP experiment consists of an ambient panel, and annealing panel and a programmable load. This experiment, in conjunction with the radiation measurement experiments abroad the CREES, provides the first opportunity to simultaneously measure the trapped radiation belts and the results of radiation damage to solar cells. The engineering information will result in a design guide for selecting the optimum solar array characteristics for different orbits and different lifetimes. The scientific information will provide both correlation of laboratory damage effects to space damage effects and a better model for predicting effective solar cell panel lifetimes

  5. Interface bonding of SA508-3 steel under deformation and high temperature diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Shao, Chunjuan; Sun, Mingyue

    2018-05-01

    There are mainly two parameters affecting high temperature interface bonding: deformation and diffusion. To study these two parameters, interface bonding of SA508-3 bainitic steel at 1100°C are simulated by gleeble3500 thermal simulator. The results show that interface of SA508-3 steel can be bonded under deformation and high temperature. For a specimen pressed at 1100°C without further high temperature diffusion, a reduction ratio of 30% can make the interface begun to bond, but the interface is still part of the grain boundary and small grains exist near the interface. When reduction ratio reaches 50%, the interface can be completely bonded and the microstructure near the interface is the same as that of the base material. When deformation is small, long time diffusion can also help the interface bonding. The results show that when the diffusion time is long enough, the interface under small deformation can also be bonded. For a specimen holding for 24h at 1100°C, only 13% reduction ratio is enough for interface bonding.

  6. Zerodur polishing process for high surface quality and high efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesar, A.; Fuchs, B.

    1992-08-01

    Zerodur is a glass-ceramic composite importance in applications where temperature instabilities influence optical and mechanical performance, such as in earthbound and spaceborne telescope mirror substrates. Polished Zerodur surfaces of high quality have been required for laser gyro mirrors. Polished surface quality of substrates affects performance of high reflection coatings. Thus, the interest in improving Zerodur polished surface quality has become more general. Beyond eliminating subsurface damage, high quality surfaces are produced by reducing the amount of hydrated material redeposited on the surface during polishing. With the proper control of polishing parameters, such surfaces exhibit roughnesses of < l Angstrom rms. Zerodur polishing was studied to recommend a high surface quality polishing process which could be easily adapted to standard planetary continuous polishing machines and spindles. This summary contains information on a polishing process developed at LLNL which reproducibly provides high quality polished Zerodur surfaces at very high polishing efficiencies

  7. Highly efficient catalytic systems based on Pd-coated microbeads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Hyun; Cho, Ahyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Bumkyo; Kang, Dong Woo; Koo, Chong Min; Yu, Taekyung; Park, Bum Jun

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of two prototype catalysis systems using palladium (Pd)-coated microparticles was investigated with regard to the recovery and recyclability of the catalytic particles. One such system was the interface-adsorption method, in which polymer particles coated with Pd nanoparticles strongly and irreversibly attach to the oil-water interface. Due to the irreversible adsorption of the catalytic particles to the interface, particle loss was completely prevented while mixing the aqueous solution and while collecting the products. The other system was based on the magnetic field-associated particle recovery method. The use of polymeric microparticles containing Pd nanoparticles and magnetite nanoparticles accelerated the sedimentation of the particles in the aqueous phase by applying a strong magnetic field, consequently suppressing drainage of the particles from the reactor along the product stream. Upon multiple runs of the catalytic reactions, it was found that conversion does not change significantly, demonstrating the excellent recyclability and performance efficiency in the catalytic processes.

  8. Highly efficient red electrophosphorescent devices at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Youzhi; Zhu Wenqing; Zheng Xinyou; Sun, Runguang; Jiang Xueyin; Zhang Zhilin; Xu Shaohong

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency decrease at high current densities in red electrophosphorescent devices is drastically restrained compared with that from conventional electrophosphorescent devices by using bis(2-methyl-8-quinolinato)4-phenylphenolate aluminum (BAlq) as a hole and exciton blocker. Ir complex, bis(2-(2'-benzo[4,5-α]thienyl) pyridinato-N,C 3' ) iridium (acetyl-acetonate) is used as an emitter, maximum external quantum efficiency (QE) of 7.0% and luminance of 10000cd/m 2 are obtained. The QE is still as high as 4.1% at higher current density J=100mA/cm 2 . CIE-1931 co-ordinates are 0.672, 0.321. A carrier trapping mechanism is revealed to dominate in the process of electroluminescence

  9. High thermal stability of abrupt SiO2/GaN interface with low interface state density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Taoka, Noriyuki; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Yamada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tokio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2018-04-01

    The effects of postdeposition annealing (PDA) on the interface properties of a SiO2/GaN structure formed by remote oxygen plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RP-CVD) were systematically investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy clarified that PDA in the temperature range from 600 to 800 °C has almost no effects on the chemical bonding features at the SiO2/GaN interface, and that positive charges exist at the interface, the density of which can be reduced by PDA at 800 °C. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current density-SiO2 electric field characteristics of the GaN MOS capacitors also confirmed the reduction in interface state density (D it) and the improvement in the breakdown property of the SiO2 film after PDA at 800 °C. Consequently, a high thermal stability of the SiO2/GaN structure with a low fixed charge density and a low D it formed by RP-CVD was demonstrated. This is quite informative for realizing highly robust GaN power devices.

  10. Tailored Materials for High Efficiency CIDI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, G.J.; Jana, S.

    2012-03-30

    The overall goal of the project, Tailored Materials for High Efficiency Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines, is to enable the implementation of new combustion strategies, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), that have the potential to significantly increase the energy efficiency of current diesel engines and decrease fuel consumption and environmental emissions. These strategies, however, are increasing the demands on conventional engine materials, either from increases in peak cylinder pressure (PCP) or from increases in the temperature of operation. The specific objective of this project is to investigate the application of a new material processing technology, friction stir processing (FSP), to improve the thermal and mechanical properties of engine components. The concept is to modify the surfaces of conventional, low-cost engine materials. The project focused primarily on FSP in aluminum materials that are compositional analogs to the typical piston and head alloys seen in small- to mid-sized CIDI engines. Investigations have been primarily of two types over the duration of this project: (1) FSP of a cast hypoeutectic Al-Si-Mg (A356/357) alloy with no introduction of any new components, and (2) FSP of Al-Cu-Ni alloys (Alloy 339) by physically stirring-in various quantities of carbon nanotubes/nanofibers or carbon fibers. Experimental work to date on aluminum systems has shown significant increases in fatigue lifetime and stress-level performance in aluminum-silicon alloys using friction processing alone, but work to demonstrate the addition of carbon nanotubes and fibers into aluminum substrates has shown mixed results due primarily to the difficulty in achieving porosity-free, homogeneous distributions of the particulate. A limited effort to understand the effects of FSP on steel materials was also undertaken during the course of this project. Processed regions were created in high-strength, low-alloyed steels up to 0.5 in

  11. High efficiency diffusion molecular retention tumor targeting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Here we introduce diffusion molecular retention (DMR tumor targeting, a technique that employs PEG-fluorochrome shielded probes that, after a peritumoral (PT injection, undergo slow vascular uptake and extensive interstitial diffusion, with tumor retention only through integrin molecular recognition. To demonstrate DMR, RGD (integrin binding and RAD (control probes were synthesized bearing DOTA (for (111 In(3+, a NIR fluorochrome, and 5 kDa PEG that endows probes with a protein-like volume of 25 kDa and decreases non-specific interactions. With a GFP-BT-20 breast carcinoma model, tumor targeting by the DMR or i.v. methods was assessed by surface fluorescence, biodistribution of [(111In] RGD and [(111In] RAD probes, and whole animal SPECT. After a PT injection, both probes rapidly diffused through the normal and tumor interstitium, with retention of the RGD probe due to integrin interactions. With PT injection and the [(111In] RGD probe, SPECT indicated a highly tumor specific uptake at 24 h post injection, with 352%ID/g tumor obtained by DMR (vs 4.14%ID/g by i.v.. The high efficiency molecular targeting of DMR employed low probe doses (e.g. 25 ng as RGD peptide, which minimizes toxicity risks and facilitates clinical translation. DMR applications include the delivery of fluorochromes for intraoperative tumor margin delineation, the delivery of radioisotopes (e.g. toxic, short range alpha emitters for radiotherapy, or the delivery of photosensitizers to tumors accessible to light.

  12. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  13. Targeting an efficient target-to-target interval for P300 speller brain–computer interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Eric W.; Wang, Xingyu

    2013-01-01

    Longer target-to-target intervals (TTI) produce greater P300 event-related potential amplitude, which can increase brain–computer interface (BCI) classification accuracy and decrease the number of flashes needed for accurate character classification. However, longer TTIs requires more time for each trial, which will decrease the information transfer rate of BCI. In this paper, a P300 BCI using a 7 × 12 matrix explored new flash patterns (16-, 18- and 21-flash pattern) with different TTIs to assess the effects of TTI on P300 BCI performance. The new flash patterns were designed to minimize TTI, decrease repetition blindness, and examine the temporal relationship between each flash of a given stimulus by placing a minimum of one (16-flash pattern), two (18-flash pattern), or three (21-flash pattern) non-target flashes between each target flashes. Online results showed that the 16-flash pattern yielded the lowest classification accuracy among the three patterns. The results also showed that the 18-flash pattern provides a significantly higher information transfer rate (ITR) than the 21-flash pattern; both patterns provide high ITR and high accuracy for all subjects. PMID:22350331

  14. High bandgap III-V alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberi, Kirstin; Mascarenhas, Angelo; Wanlass, Mark

    2017-01-10

    High bandgap alloys for high efficiency optoelectronics are disclosed. An exemplary optoelectronic device may include a substrate, at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer, and a step-grade buffer between the substrate and at least one Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP layer. The buffer may begin with a layer that is substantially lattice matched to GaAs, and may then incrementally increase the lattice constant in each sequential layer until a predetermined lattice constant of Al.sub.1-xIn.sub.xP is reached.

  15. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  16. Performance of a high efficiency high power UHF klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, G.T.

    1977-03-01

    A 500 kW c-w klystron was designed for the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The tube operates at 353.2 MHz, 62 kV, a microperveance of 0.75, and a gain of approximately 50 dB. Stable operation is required for a VSWR as high as 2 : 1 at any phase angle. The design efficiency is 70%. To obtain this value of efficiency, a second harmonic cavity is used in order to produce a very tightly bunched beam in the output gap. At the present time it is planned to install 12 such klystrons in PEP. A tube with a reduced size collector was operated at 4% duty at 500 kW. An efficiency of 63% was observed. The same tube was operated up to 200 kW c-w for PEP accelerator cavity tests. A full-scale c-w tube reached 500 kW at 65 kV with an efficiency of 55%. In addition to power and phase measurements into a matched load, some data at various load mismatches are presented

  17. A high performance two degree-of-freedom kinesthetic interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Bernard D.; Rosen, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    This summary focuses on the kinesthetic interface of a virtual environment system that was developed at the Newman Laboratory for Biomechanics and Human Rehabilitation at M.I.T. for the study of manual control in both motorically impaired and able-bodied individuals.

  18. Series-Tuned High Efficiency RF-Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidkjær, Jens

    2008-01-01

    An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits.......An approach to high efficiency RF-power amplifier design is presented. It addresses simultaneously efficiency optimization and peak voltage limitations when transistors are pushed towards their power limits....

  19. The high level programmer and user interface of the NSLS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.N.; Smith, J.D.; Sathe, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the major components of the high level software in the NSLS upgraded control system. Both programmer and user interfaces are discussed. The use of the high-speed work stations, fast network communications, UNIX system, X-window and Motif have greatly changed and improved these interfaces

  20. High resolution microprofiling, fractionation and speciation at sediment water interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Duester, Lars; Ecker, Dennis; Ternes, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    Within aquatic environments, the exchange between the sediment and the overlaying water is often driven by steep gradients of, e.g., the oxygen concentration, the redox potential or the pH value at the sediment water interface (SWI). Important transport processes at the SWI are sedimentation and resuspension of particulate matter and diffusional fluxes of dissolved substances. To gain a better understanding of the key factors and processes determining the fate of substances at the SWI, methods with a spatial high resolution are required that enable the investigation of several sediment parameters in parallel to different analytes of interest in the sediment pore water. Moreover, beside the total content, questions concerning the speciation and fractionation are of concern in studying the different (transport) processes. Due to the availability of numerous micro-sensors and -electrodes (e.g., O2, redox potential, pH value, H2S, N2O) and the development of methods for pore water sampling [1], the toolbox to study the heterogeneous and often dynamic conditions at the SWI at a sub-millimetre scale were considerably improved. Nevertheless, the methods available for pore water sampling often require the installation of the sampling devices at the sampling site and/or intensive preparation procedures that may influence the conditions at the area studied and/or the characteristics of the samples taken. By combination of a micro profiling system with a new micro filtration probe head connected to a pump and a fraction collector, a micro profiling and micro sampling system ("missy") was developed that enables for the first time a direct, automate and low invasive sampling of small volumes (content of metal(loid)s, but also their fractionation (size dependent and micelle mediated) or speciation related distributions along sediment depth profiles in parallel to different sediment parameters (O2, redox and pH). Together with the results of missy-experiments, the results of

  1. Multi-petascale highly efficient parallel supercomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaad, Sameh; Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Boyle, Peter; Brunheroto, Jose R.; Chen, Dong; Cher, Chen -Yong; Chiu, George L.; Christ, Norman; Coteus, Paul W.; Davis, Kristan D.; Dozsa, Gabor J.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Eisley, Noel A.; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Evans, Kahn C.; Fleischer, Bruce M.; Fox, Thomas W.; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Gschwind, Michael K.; Gunnels, John A.; Hall, Shawn A.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Inglett, Todd A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Kumar, Sameer; Mamidala, Amith R.; Marcella, James A.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Douglas R.; Miller, Samuel J.; Muff, Adam J.; Mundy, Michael B.; O'Brien, John K.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Poole, Ruth J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Salapura, Valentina; Satterfield, David L.; Senger, Robert M.; Smith, Brian; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Stockdell, William M.; Stunkel, Craig B.; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Sugawara, Yutaka; Takken, Todd E.; Trager, Barry M.; Van Oosten, James L.; Wait, Charles D.; Walkup, Robert E.; Watson, Alfred T.; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Wu, Peng

    2015-07-14

    A Multi-Petascale Highly Efficient Parallel Supercomputer of 100 petaOPS-scale computing, at decreased cost, power and footprint, and that allows for a maximum packaging density of processing nodes from an interconnect point of view. The Supercomputer exploits technological advances in VLSI that enables a computing model where many processors can be integrated into a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Each ASIC computing node comprises a system-on-chip ASIC utilizing four or more processors integrated into one die, with each having full access to all system resources and enabling adaptive partitioning of the processors to functions such as compute or messaging I/O on an application by application basis, and preferably, enable adaptive partitioning of functions in accordance with various algorithmic phases within an application, or if I/O or other processors are underutilized, then can participate in computation or communication nodes are interconnected by a five dimensional torus network with DMA that optimally maximize the throughput of packet communications between nodes and minimize latency.

  2. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Highly efficient silicon light emitting diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a

  4. A novel high efficiency solar photovoltalic pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepens, J.F.L.; Smulders, P.T.; Vries, de D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The daily average overall efficiency of a solar pump system is not only influenced by the maximum efficiency of the components of the system, but just as much by the correct matching of the components to the local irradiation pattern. Normally centrifugal pumps are used in solar pump systems. The

  5. Concrete lining of the core-foundation interface to prevent internal erosion: An efficiency assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Granados García, Alfredo; Garrote de Marcos, Luis; Granados García, Isabel; Remesal, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The core-foundation interface of the embankment dams requires particular attention during design and construction, and specific surveillance during operation. A deficient treatment of this area may facilitate seepage along the interface and erosion of the core-base which, in turn, could lead to a major internal erosion process. Several dam incidents and failures were initiated following this mechanism. For instance, an imperfect core-foundation treatment was one of the causes of the Teton Dam...

  6. High efficiency targets for high gain inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, J.H.; Bodner, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rocket efficiencies as high as 15% are possible using short wavelength lasers and moderately high aspect ratio pellet designs. These designs are made possible by two recent breakthroughs in physics constraints. First is the development of the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) technique which allows uniform illumination of the pellet and relaxes the constraint of thermal smoothing, permitting the use of short wavelength laser light. Second is the discovery that the Rayleigh-Taylor growth rate is considerably reduced at the short laser wavelengths. By taking advantage of the reduced constraints imposed by nonuniform laser illumination and Rayleigh-Taylor instability, pellets using 1/4 micron laser light and initial aspect ratios of about 10 (with in flight aspect ratios of about 150 to 200) may produce energy gains as high as 200 to 250

  7. High power klystrons for efficient reliable high power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1980-11-01

    This report covers the design of reliable high efficiency, high power klystrons which may be used in both existing and proposed troposcatter radio systems. High Power (10 kW) klystron designs were generated in C-band (4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz), S-band (2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz), and L-band or UHF frequencies (755 MHz to 985 MHz). The tubes were designed for power supply compatibility and use with a vapor/liquid phase heat exchanger. Four (4) S-band tubes were developed in the course of this program along with two (2) matching focusing solenoids and two (2) heat exchangers. These tubes use five (5) tuners with counters which are attached to the focusing solenoids. A reliability mathematical model of the tube and heat exchanger system was also generated.

  8. High-performance parallel interface to synchronous optical network gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Wallace B.; DuBois, David H.

    1998-08-11

    A digital system provides sending and receiving gateways for HIPPI interfaces. Electronic logic circuitry formats data signals and overhead signals in a data frame that is suitable for transmission over a connecting fiber optic link. Multiplexers route the data and overhead signals to a framer module. The framer module allocates the data and overhead signals to a plurality of 9-byte words that are arranged in a selected protocol. The formatted words are stored in a storage register for output through the gateway.

  9. A HIGH-LEVEL PYTHON INTERFACE TO THE FERMILAB ACNET CONTROL SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P. [Fermilab; Halavanau, A. [Fermilab

    2016-10-19

    This paper discusses the implementation of a python- based high-level interface to the Fermilab acnet control system. The interface has been successfully employed during the commissioning of the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility. Specifically, we present examples of applications at FAST which include the interfacing of the elegant program to assist lattice matching, an automated emittance measurement via the quadrupole-scan method and tranverse transport matrix measurement of a superconducting RF cavity.

  10. Estimation of interface resistivity in bonded Si for the development of high performance radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Onabe, Hideaki

    2007-01-01

    For the development of high performance radiation detectors, direct bonding of Si wafers would be an useful method. Previously, p-n bonded Si were fabricated and they showed diode characteristics. The interface resistivity was, however, not investigated in detail. For the study of interface resistivity, n-type Si wafers with different resistivities were bonded. The resistivity of bonded Si wafers were measured and the interface resistivity was estimated by comparing with the results of model calculations. (author)

  11. High efficiency quasi-monochromatic infrared emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucoli, Giovanni; Besbes, Mondher; Benisty, Henri, E-mail: henri.benisty@institutoptique.fr; Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d’Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad [Office National d’Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales, Chemin de la Hunière, 91761 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-02-24

    Incandescent radiation sources are widely used as mid-infrared emitters owing to the lack of alternative for compact and low cost sources. A drawback of miniature hot systems such as membranes is their low efficiency, e.g., for battery powered systems. For targeted narrow-band applications such as gas spectroscopy, the efficiency is even lower. In this paper, we introduce design rules valid for very generic membranes demonstrating that their energy efficiency for use as incandescent infrared sources can be increased by two orders of magnitude.

  12. Microcolumn high pressure liquid chromatography with a glass-frit nebulizer interface for plasma emission detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.; Nisamaneepong, W.; Caruso, J.

    1985-01-01

    Microcolumn high pressure liquid chromatography (micro-HPLC) is rapidly gaining recognition as a practical separation tool for organometallic compounds. The use of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) as a detector for micro-HPLC is studied. Several miniaturized glass-frit nebulizers are investigated as interfaces between the output of the microbore column and the ICP torch. Their performance with aqueous and methanolic solutions is evaluated by direct nebulization and flow injection analysis. The most efficient of these nebulizers is used in the micro-HPLC/ICP study of some Cd, Pb, and Zn organometallic compounds. Detection limits of 1.92 ng of Pb for tetramethyllead and 5.01 ng of Pb for tetraethyllead are obtained and compared with regular HPLC/ICP of these same compounds. Approximately equivalent detection limits were obtained when using a microwave induced plasma as an alternate plasma source

  13. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  14. High Efficiency Refrigeration Process, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It has been proposed by NASA JSC studies, that the most mass efficient (non-nuclear) method of Lunar habitat cooling is via photovoltaic (PV) direct vapor...

  15. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanti, Shaila

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack. PMID:28116350

  16. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanti, Shaila; Naik, G M

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack.

  17. Interface and oxide traps in high-κ hafnium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.; Zhan, N.; Ng, K.L.; Poon, M.C.; Kok, C.W.

    2004-01-01

    The origins of the interface trap generation and the effects of thermal annealing on the interface and bulk trap distributions are studied in detail. We found that oxidation of the HfO 2 /Si interface, removal of deep trap centers, and crystallization of the as-deposited film will take place during the post-deposition annealing (PDA). These processes will result in the removal of interface traps and deep oxide traps and introduce a large amount of shallow oxide traps at the grain boundaries of the polycrystalline film. Thus, trade-off has to be made in considering the interface trap density and oxide trap density when conducting PDA. In addition, the high interface trap and oxide trap densities of the HfO 2 films suggest that we may have to use the SiO 2 /HfO 2 stack or hafnium silicate structure for better device performance

  18. High Power High Efficiency Diode Laser Stack for Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hui; Fu, Yueming; Cui, Yan

    2018-03-01

    High-power diode lasers based on GaAs semiconductor bars are well established as reliable and highly efficient laser sources. As diode laser is simple in structure, small size, longer life expectancy with the advantages of low prices, it is widely used in the industry processing, such as heat treating, welding, hardening, cladding and so on. Respectively, diode laser could make it possible to establish the practical application because of rectangular beam patterns which are suitable to make fine bead with less power. At this power level, it can have many important applications, such as surgery, welding of polymers, soldering, coatings and surface treatment of metals. But there are some applications, which require much higher power and brightness, e.g. hardening, key hole welding, cutting and metal welding. In addition, High power diode lasers in the military field also have important applications. So all developed countries have attached great importance to high-power diode laser system and its applications. This is mainly due their low performance. In this paper we will introduce the structure and the principle of the high power diode stack.

  19. Interface investigation of solution processed high- κ ZrO2/Si MOS structure by DLTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Mondal, Sandip; Rao, Ksr Koteswara

    The interfacial region is dominating due to the continuous downscaling and integration of high- k oxides in CMOS applications. The accurate characterization of high- k oxides/semiconductor interface has the significant importance towards its usage in memory and thin film devices. The interface traps at the high - k /semiconductor interface can be quantified by deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) with better accuracy in contrast to capacitance-voltage (CV) and conductance technique. We report the fabrication of high- k ZrO2 films on p-Si substrate by a simple and inexpensive sol-gel spin-coating technique. Further, the ZrO2/Si interface is characterized through DLTS. The flat-band voltage (VFB) and the density of slow interface states (oxide trapped charges) extracted from CV characteristics are 0.37 V and 2x10- 11 C/cm2, respectively. The activation energy, interface state density and capture cross-section quantified by DLTS are EV + 0.42 eV, 3.4x1011 eV- 1 cm- 2 and 5.8x10- 18 cm2, respectively. The high quality ZrO2 films own high dielectric constant 15 with low leakage current density might be an appropriate insulating layer in future electronic application. The low value of interface state density and capture cross-section are the indication of high quality interface and the defect present at the interface may not affect the device performance to a great extent. The DLTS study provides a broad understanding about the traps present at the interface of spin-coated ZrO2/Si.

  20. International workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krummacher, S.; Gudat, W.

    1986-05-01

    The present 'book of abstracts' consists of the abstracts of 23 lectures, held at the international workshop on the 'Physics of interfaces by synchrotron radiation and other high energy probes', April 1986, Bad Honnef, FRG. The subjects are: The use of photoemission in the study of interfaces and adsorbates, EEL spectroscopy applications, spin polarization, photoionization processes and EXAFS. (BHO)

  1. Designing high efficient solar powered lighting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Lindén, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Some major challenges in the development of L2L products is the lack of efficient converter electronics, modelling tools for dimensioning and furthermore, characterization facilities to support the successful development of the products. We report the development of 2 Three-Port-Converters respec...

  2. CMOS analog integrated circuits high-speed and power-efficient design

    CERN Document Server

    Ndjountche, Tertulien

    2011-01-01

    High-speed, power-efficient analog integrated circuits can be used as standalone devices or to interface modern digital signal processors and micro-controllers in various applications, including multimedia, communication, instrumentation, and control systems. New architectures and low device geometry of complementary metaloxidesemiconductor (CMOS) technologies have accelerated the movement toward system on a chip design, which merges analog circuits with digital, and radio-frequency components. CMOS: Analog Integrated Circuits: High-Speed and Power-Efficient Design describes the important tren

  3. Workflow efficiency of two 1.5 T MR scanners with and without an automated user interface for head examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenninghoff, Christoph; Umutlu, Lale; Kloeters, Christian; Ringelstein, Adrian; Ladd, Mark E; Sombetzki, Antje; Lauenstein, Thomas C; Forsting, Michael; Schlamann, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Workflow efficiency and workload of radiological technologists (RTs) were compared in head examinations performed with two 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanners equipped with or without an automated user interface called "day optimizing throughput" (Dot) workflow engine. Thirty-four patients with known intracranial pathology were examined with a 1.5 T MR scanner with Dot workflow engine (Siemens MAGNETOM Aera) and with a 1.5 T MR scanner with conventional user interface (Siemens MAGNETOM Avanto) using four standardized examination protocols. The elapsed time for all necessary work steps, which were performed by 11 RTs within the total examination time, was compared for each examination at both MR scanners. The RTs evaluated the user-friendliness of both scanners by a questionnaire. Normality of distribution was checked for all continuous variables by use of the Shapiro-Wilk test. Normally distributed variables were analyzed by Student's paired t-test, otherwise Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare means. Total examination time of MR examinations performed with Dot engine was reduced from 24:53 to 20:01 minutes (P user interface (P = .001). According to this preliminary study, the Dot workflow engine is a time-saving user assistance software, which decreases the RTs' effort significantly and may help to automate neuroradiological examinations for a higher workflow efficiency. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Materials Science of Electrodes and Interfaces for High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The science of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has made dramatic advances over the past three years with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) now reaching ~12%. The upper PCE limit of light-to-electrical power conversion for single-junction OPVs as predicted by theory is ~23%. With further basic research, the vision of such devices, composed of non-toxic, earth-abundant, readily easily processed materials replacing/supplementing current-generation inorganic solar cells may become a reality. Organic cells offer potentially low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and durable solar power for diverse in-door and out-door applications. Importantly, further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with inorganic PVs, will require fundamental, understanding-based advances in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This team-science research effort brought together an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary group with expertise in hard and soft matter materials chemistry, materials electronic structure theory, solar cell fabrication and characterization, microstructure characterization, and low temperature materials processing. We addressed in unconventional ways critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance -- controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organic active-materials, addressing current loss/leakage phenomena at interfaces, and new techniques in cost-effective low temperature and large area cell fabrication. The research foci were: 1) Theory-guided design and synthesis of advanced crystalline and amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers which test our basic understanding of TCO structure-transport property relationships, and have high conductivity, transparency, and tunable work functions but without (or minimizing) the dependence on indium. 2) Development of theory-based understanding of optimum configurations for the interfaces between oxide electrodes

  5. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  6. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili; Wickens, Zachary K.; Dong, Guangbin; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  9. A self-powered piezoelectric energy harvesting interface circuit with efficiency-enhanced P-SSHI rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianxi; Pang, Yanbo; Yuan, Wenzhi; Zhu, Zhangming; Yang, Yintang

    2018-04-01

    The key to self-powered technique is initiative to harvest energy from the surrounding environment. Harvesting energy from an ambient vibration source utilizing piezoelectrics emerged as a popular method. Efficient interface circuits become the main limitations of existing energy harvesting techniques. In this paper, an interface circuit for piezoelectric energy harvesting is presented. An active full bridge rectifier is adopted to improve the power efficiency by reducing the conduction loss on the rectifying path. A parallel synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (P-SSHI) technique is used to improve the power extraction capability from piezoelectric harvester, thereby trying to reach the theoretical maximum output power. An intermittent power management unit (IPMU) and an output capacitor-less low drop regulator (LDO) are also introduced. Active diodes (AD) instead of traditional passive ones are used to reduce the voltage loss over the rectifier, which results in a good power efficiency. The IPMU with hysteresis comparator ensures the interface circuit has a large transient output power by limiting the output voltage ranges from 2.2 to 2 V. The design is fabricated in a SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Simulation results show that the flipping efficiency of the P-SSHI circuit is over 80% with an off-chip inductor value of 820 μH. The output power the proposed rectifier can obtain is 44.4 μW, which is 6.7× improvement compared to the maximum output power of a traditional rectifier. Both the active diodes and the P-SSHI help to improve the output power of the proposed rectifier. LDO outputs a voltage of 1.8 V with the maximum 90% power efficiency. The proposed P-SSHI rectifier interface circuit can be self-powered without the need for additional power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61574103, U1709218) and the Key Research and Development Program of Shaanxi Province (No. 2017ZDXM-GY-006).

  10. Recent Advances in High Efficiency Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshio; Ohshita; Hidetoshi; Suzuki; Kenichi; Nishimura; Masafumi; Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity is limited around 25%,when we use single junction solar cells. In the single junction cells,the major energy losses arise from the spectrum mismatching. When the photons excite carriers with energy well in excess of the bandgap,these excess energies were converted to heat by the rapid thermalization. On the other hand,the light with lower energy than that of the bandgap cannot be absorbed by the semiconductor,resulting in the losses. One way...

  11. High efficiency cyclotron trap assisted positron moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Gerchow, L.; Cooke, D. A.; Braccini, S.; Döbeli, M.; Kirch, K.; Köster, U.; Müller, A.; Van Der Meulen, N. P.; Vermeulen, C.; Rubbia, A.; Crivelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    We report the realisation of a cyclotron trap assisted positron tungsten moderator for the conversion of positrons with a broad keV- few MeV energy spectrum to a mono-energetic eV beam with an efficiency of 1.8(2)% defined as the ratio of the slow positrons divided by the $\\beta^+$ activity of the radioactive source. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude compared to the state of the art of tungsten moderators. The simulation validated with this measurement suggests that usi...

  12. Fast and Efficient Radiological Interventions via a Graphical User Interface Commanded Magnetic Resonance Compatible Robotic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Alpay; Christoforou, Eftychios; Brown, Daniel; Tsekos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The graphical user interface for an MR compatible robotic device has the capability of displaying oblique MR slices in 2D and a 3D virtual environment along with the representation of the robotic arm in order to swiftly complete the intervention. Using the advantages of the MR modality the device saves time and effort, is safer for the medical staff and is more comfortable for the patient. PMID:17946067

  13. A high-efficiency electromechanical battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.; Fowler, T. K.; Post, Stephen F.

    1993-03-01

    In our society there is a growing need for efficient cost-effective means for storing electrical energy. The electric auto is a prime example. Storage systems for the electric utilities, and for wind or solar power, are other examples. While electrochemical cells could in principle supply these needs, the existing E-C batteries have well-known limitations. This article addresses an alternative, the electromechanical battery (EMB). An EMB is a modular unit consisting of an evacuated housing containing a fiber-composite rotor. The rotor is supported by magnetic bearings and contains an integrally mounted permanent magnet array. This article addresses design issues for EMBs with rotors made up of nested cylinders. Issues addressed include rotational stability, stress distributions, generator/motor power and efficiency, power conversion, and cost. It is concluded that the use of EMBs in electric autos could result in a fivefold reduction (relative to the IC engine) in the primary energy input required for urban driving, with a concomitant major positive impact on our economy and on air pollution.

  14. Characterization of the GaN-MgO Transistor Interface: More Power and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jose; Kumah, Divine; Walker, Fred

    2012-02-01

    In this age of high-energy consumption, the development of more efficient and more reliable devices is indispensable. Gallium nitride (GaN)-based devices are an option in achieving this goal. GaN's wide bandgap of 3.4 eV allows the device to handle large amount of current before leakage makes its energy consumption inefficient. The characteristics of GaN, in conjunction with those of Magnesium oxide (MgO), would allow for improvement of different electronic applications such as mobile phone communication technology. In this work, the fabrication of the GaN/MgO device was done by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. This device was grown under a variety of parameters where the growth temperature, growth chamber pressure, and the rate of material deposition were changed. To determine the optimal growth parameters, current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements were conducted on to evaluate the effects of these growth conditions. Atomic Force Microscopy was also used in characterizing the crystallinity and morphology of the samples. A conclusion of the research is that by improving the roughness of the substrate, the breakdown voltage of the MgO layer and the overall performance of the device can be improve, yielding a device with very low energy loss in the current transmission process.

  15. BEAGLE: an application programming interface and high-performance computing library for statistical phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Daniel L; Darling, Aaron; Zwickl, Derrick J; Beerli, Peter; Holder, Mark T; Lewis, Paul O; Huelsenbeck, John P; Ronquist, Fredrik; Swofford, David L; Cummings, Michael P; Rambaut, Andrew; Suchard, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic inference is fundamental to our understanding of most aspects of the origin and evolution of life, and in recent years, there has been a concentration of interest in statistical approaches such as Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood estimation. Yet, for large data sets and realistic or interesting models of evolution, these approaches remain computationally demanding. High-throughput sequencing can yield data for thousands of taxa, but scaling to such problems using serial computing often necessitates the use of nonstatistical or approximate approaches. The recent emergence of graphics processing units (GPUs) provides an opportunity to leverage their excellent floating-point computational performance to accelerate statistical phylogenetic inference. A specialized library for phylogenetic calculation would allow existing software packages to make more effective use of available computer hardware, including GPUs. Adoption of a common library would also make it easier for other emerging computing architectures, such as field programmable gate arrays, to be used in the future. We present BEAGLE, an application programming interface (API) and library for high-performance statistical phylogenetic inference. The API provides a uniform interface for performing phylogenetic likelihood calculations on a variety of compute hardware platforms. The library includes a set of efficient implementations and can currently exploit hardware including GPUs using NVIDIA CUDA, central processing units (CPUs) with Streaming SIMD Extensions and related processor supplementary instruction sets, and multicore CPUs via OpenMP. To demonstrate the advantages of a common API, we have incorporated the library into several popular phylogenetic software packages. The BEAGLE library is free open source software licensed under the Lesser GPL and available from http://beagle-lib.googlecode.com. An example client program is available as public domain software.

  16. Interface COMSOL-PHREEQC (iCP), an efficient numerical framework for the solution of coupled multiphysics and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Albert; Idiart, Andrés; Trinchero, Paolo; de Vries, Luis Manuel; Molinero, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the development, verification and application of an efficient interface, denoted as iCP, which couples two standalone simulation programs: the general purpose Finite Element framework COMSOL Multiphysics® and the geochemical simulator PHREEQC. The main goal of the interface is to maximize the synergies between the aforementioned codes, providing a numerical platform that can efficiently simulate a wide number of multiphysics problems coupled with geochemistry. iCP is written in Java and uses the IPhreeqc C++ dynamic library and the COMSOL Java-API. Given the large computational requirements of the aforementioned coupled models, special emphasis has been placed on numerical robustness and efficiency. To this end, the geochemical reactions are solved in parallel by balancing the computational load over multiple threads. First, a benchmark exercise is used to test the reliability of iCP regarding flow and reactive transport. Then, a large scale thermo-hydro-chemical (THC) problem is solved to show the code capabilities. The results of the verification exercise are successfully compared with those obtained using PHREEQC and the application case demonstrates the scalability of a large scale model, at least up to 32 threads.

  17. Development of high efficiency neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, M.M.; Menlove, H.O.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have designed a novel neutron detector system using conventional 3 He detector tubes and composites of polyethylene and graphite. At this time the design consists entirely of MCNP simulations of different detector configurations and materials. These detectors are applicable to low-level passive and active neutron assay systems such as the passive add-a-source and the 252 Cf shuffler. Monte Carlo simulations of these neutron detector designs achieved efficiencies of over 35% for assay chambers that can accommodate 55-gal. drums. Only slight increases in the number of detector tubes and helium pressure are required. The detectors also have reduced die-away times. Potential applications are coincident and multiplicity neutron counting for waste disposal and safeguards. The authors will present the general design philosophy, underlying physics, calculation mechanics, and results

  18. High efficient white organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Krause, Ralf [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Kozlowski, Fryderyk; Schmid, Guenter; Hunze, Arvid [Siemens AG, CT MM 1, Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Due to the rapid progress in the last years the performance of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) has reached a level where general lighting presents a most interesting application target. We demonstrate, how the color coordinates of the emission spectrum can be adjusted using a combinatorial evaporation tool to lie on the desired black body curve representing cold and warm white, respectively. The evaluation includes phosphorescent and fluorescent dye approaches to optimize lifetime and efficiency, simultaneously. Detailed results are presented with respect to variation of layer thicknesses and dopant concentrations of each layer within the OLED stack. The most promising approach contains phosphorescent red and green dyes combined with a fluorescent blue one as blue phosphorescent dopants are not yet stable enough to achieve long lifetimes.

  19. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  20. A high-efficiency superconductor distributed amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Q P, E-mail: quentin.herr@ngc.co [Northrop Grumman Corporation, 7323 Aviation Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21240 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A superconductor output amplifier that converts single-flux-quantum signals to a non-return-to-zero pattern is reported using a twelve-stage distributed amplifier configuration. The output amplitude is measured to be 1.75 mV over a wide bias current range of {+-} 12%. The bit error rate is measured using a Delta-Sigma data pattern to be less than 1 x 10{sup -9} at 10 Gb s{sup -1} per channel. Analysis of the eye diagram suggests that the actual bit error rate may be much lower. The amplifier has power efficiency of 12% neglecting the termination resistor, which may be eliminated from the circuit with a small modification. (rapid communication)

  1. Interfaces between transport and geological disposal systems for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document is an IAEA publication which identifies and discusses the interfaces and the interface requirements between high level waste, the waste transport system used for carriage of the waste to the disposal facility, and the high level waste disposal facility. The development of this document was prompted in part by the initiatives in various Member States to select, characterize and design the facilities for potential high level waste geological repositories. These initiatives have progressed to the point where an international document would be useful in calling attention to the need for establishing, in a systematic way, interfaces and interface requirements between the transport systems to be used and the waste disposal packages and geological repository. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. High Efficiency Regenerative Helium Compressor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Helium plays several critical rolls in spacecraft propulsion. High pressure helium is commonly used to pressurize propellant fuel tanks. Helium cryocoolers can be...

  3. Highly Efficient, Durable Regenerative Solid Oxide Stack, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) proposes to develop a highly efficient regenerative solid oxide stack design. Novel structural elements allow direct internal...

  4. Efficient neuroplasticity induction in chronic stroke patients by an associative brain-computer interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Jiang, Ning; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have the potential to improve functionality in chronic stoke patients when applied over a large number of sessions. Here, we evaluate the effect and the underlying mechanisms of three BCI training sessions in a double-blind-sham-controlled design. The applied BCI......-associative group. Fugl-Meyer motor scores (0.8±0.46 point difference p=0.01), foot (but not finger) tapping frequency, and 10-m walking speed improved significantly for the BCIassociative group, indicating clinically relevant improvements. For the BCI as applied here, the precise coupling between the brain command...

  5. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of sulfidation of brass at the rubber/brass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya; Mase, Kazuhiko; Komatsu, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface is investigated. ► The 2-min vulcanization reaction is enough to convert the interface composition. ► Five S-containing species are identified at the interface. ► Strong rubber–brass adhesion is related to the Cu 2 S/CuS ratio. ► Degradation of adhesion proceeds along with desulfidation of the interface. - Abstract: High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface to elucidate the origin of strong adhesion as well as the degradation between rubber and brass. Special attention has been given to copper sulfides formed at the interface during the vulcanization reaction at 170 °C. At least five sulfur-containing species are identified in the adhesive interlayer including crystalline CuS and amorphous Cu x S (x ≃ 2). These copper sulfide species are not uniformly distributed within the layer, but there exits the concentration gradation; the concentration of Cu x S is high in the region on the rubber side and is diminished in the deeper region, while vice versa for that of CuS. Degradation of the interface adhesive strength by prolonged vulcanization arises from the decrease in the Cu x S/CuS ratio accompanying desulfurization of the adhesive layer.

  6. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of sulfidation of brass at the rubber/brass interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kenichi, E-mail: ozawa.k.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya [Yokohama Rubber Co., Ltd., Oiwake, Hiratsuka 254-8601 (Japan); Mase, Kazuhiko [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Komatsu, Takayuki [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 2-min vulcanization reaction is enough to convert the interface composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five S-containing species are identified at the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong rubber-brass adhesion is related to the Cu{sub 2}S/CuS ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of adhesion proceeds along with desulfidation of the interface. - Abstract: High resolution photoelectron spectroscopy is utilized to investigate the chemical composition at the rubber/brass interface to elucidate the origin of strong adhesion as well as the degradation between rubber and brass. Special attention has been given to copper sulfides formed at the interface during the vulcanization reaction at 170 Degree-Sign C. At least five sulfur-containing species are identified in the adhesive interlayer including crystalline CuS and amorphous Cu{sub x}S (x Asymptotically-Equal-To 2). These copper sulfide species are not uniformly distributed within the layer, but there exits the concentration gradation; the concentration of Cu{sub x}S is high in the region on the rubber side and is diminished in the deeper region, while vice versa for that of CuS. Degradation of the interface adhesive strength by prolonged vulcanization arises from the decrease in the Cu{sub x}S/CuS ratio accompanying desulfurization of the adhesive layer.

  7. High-efficiency airfoil rudders applied to submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHOU Yimei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern submarine design puts forward higher and higher requirements for control surfaces, and this creates a requirement for designers to constantly innovate new types of rudder so as to improve the efficiency of control surfaces. Adopting the high-efficiency airfoil rudder is one of the most effective measures for improving the efficiency of control surfaces. In this paper, we put forward an optimization method for a high-efficiency airfoil rudder on the basis of a comparative analysis of the various strengths and weaknesses of the airfoil, and the numerical calculation method is adopted to analyze the influence rule of the hydrodynamic characteristics and wake field by using the high-efficiency airfoil rudder and the conventional NACA rudder comparatively; at the same time, a model load test in a towing tank was carried out, and the test results and simulation calculation obtained good consistency:the error between them was less than 10%. The experimental results show that the steerage of a high-efficiency airfoil rudder is increased by more than 40% when compared with the conventional rudder, but the total resistance is close:the error is no more than 4%. Adopting a high-efficiency airfoil rudder brings much greater lifting efficiency than the total resistance of the boat. The results show that high-efficiency airfoil rudder has obvious advantages for improving the efficiency of control, giving it good application prospects.

  8. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification Version 2.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Levenhagen, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, H. Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Younge, Andrew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  9. An efficient ERP-based brain-computer interface using random set presentation and face familiarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ki Yeom

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP-based P300 spellers are commonly used in the field of brain-computer interfaces as an alternative channel of communication for people with severe neuro-muscular diseases. This study introduces a novel P300 based brain-computer interface (BCI stimulus paradigm using a random set presentation pattern and exploiting the effects of face familiarity. The effect of face familiarity is widely studied in the cognitive neurosciences and has recently been addressed for the purpose of BCI. In this study we compare P300-based BCI performances of a conventional row-column (RC-based paradigm with our approach that combines a random set presentation paradigm with (non- self-face stimuli. Our experimental results indicate stronger deflections of the ERPs in response to face stimuli, which are further enhanced when using the self-face images, and thereby improving P300-based spelling performance. This lead to a significant reduction of stimulus sequences required for correct character classification. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the speed and thus fluency of BCI-enhanced communication with the widely used P300-based BCI setup.

  10. Highly efficient integrated rectifier and voltage boosting circuits for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maurath

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents novel circuit concepts for integrated rectifiers and voltage converting interfaces for energy harvesting micro-generators. In the context of energy harvesting, usually only small voltages are supplied by vibration-driven generators. Therefore, rectification with minimum voltage losses and low reverse currents is an important issue. This is realized by novel integrated rectifiers which were fabricated and are presented in this article. Additionally, there is a crucial need for dynamic load adaptation as well as voltage up-conversion. A circuit concept is presented, which is able to obtain both requirements. This generator interface adapts its input impedance for an optimal energy transfer efficiency. Furthermore, this generator interface provides implicit voltage up-conversion, whereas the generator output energy is stored on a buffer, which is connected to the output of the voltage converting interface. As simulations express, this fully integrated converter is able to boost ac-voltages greater than |0.35 V| to an output dc-voltage of 2.0 V–2.5 V. Thereby, high harvesting efficiencies above 80% are possible within the entire operational range.

  11. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment

  12. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  13. High efficiency grating couplers based on shared process with CMOS MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chao; Sheng Zhen; Wu Ai-Min; Wang Xi; Zou Shi-Chang; Gan Fu-Wan; Li Le; Albert Pang

    2013-01-01

    Grating couplers are widely investigated as coupling interfaces between silicon-on-insulator waveguides and optical fibers. In this work, a high-efficiency and complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor (CMOS) process compatible grating coupler is proposed. The poly-Si layer used as a gate in the CMOS metal—oxide—semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is combined with a normal fully etched grating coupler, which greatly enhances its coupling efficiency. With optimal structure parameters, a coupling efficiency can reach as high as ∼ 70% at a wavelength of 1550 nm as indicated by simulation. From the angle of fabrication, all masks and etching steps are shared between MOSFETs and grating couplers, thereby making the high performance grating couplers easily integrated with CMOS circuits. Fabrication errors such as alignment shift are also simulated, showing that the device is quite tolerant in fabrication. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  14. Efficient numerical methods for simulating surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng

    2015-08-01

    Surface tension significantly impacts subsurface flow and transport, and it is the main cause of capillary effect, a major immiscible two-phase flow mechanism for systems with a strong wettability preference. In this paper, we consider the numerical simulation of the surface tension of multi-component mixtures with the gradient theory of fluid interfaces. Major numerical challenges include that the system of the Euler-Lagrange equations is solved on the infinite interval and the coefficient matrix is not positive definite. We construct a linear transformation to reduce the Euler-Lagrange equations, and naturally introduce a path function, which is proven to be a monotonic function of the spatial coordinate variable. By using the linear transformation and the path function, we overcome the above difficulties and develop the efficient methods for calculating the interface and its interior compositions. Moreover, the computation of the surface tension is also simplified. The proposed methods do not need to solve the differential equation system, and they are easy to be implemented in practical applications. Numerical examples are tested to verify the efficiency of the proposed methods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Crystal interface and high-resolution electron microscopy—the best partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ichinose

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Several contributions of HRTEM on the interface science are reviewed in chronological order. The first contribution of HRTEM is the observation of gold (113Σ°11 boundary, giving experimental proof of the CSL model. An observation of the asymmetric (112Σ°3 boundary follows. A SiC grain boundary is effectively assessed not by the density of CSL point but the number of dangling bonds in the boundary. A ZnO/Pd interface provides an example that a misfit dislocation does not necessarily accommodate the lattice mismatch. Segregated interface shows characteristic HRTEM image contrast, suggesting change in atomic bonding. An atomic height step in the semiconductor hetero interface is observed by the Chemical Lattice Image technique. In the diamond grain boundary a dangling bond may not elevate the boundary energy, being contradictory of the least dangling bond rule. Super-high resolution of the HVHRTEM enable us to determine atomic species in the grain boundary. Combined use of HRTEM and EELSE allows us to discuss the correlation between atomic structure and nature of the corresponding interface. It is not exaggeration to say that modern interface science does not exist witout HRTEM. On the other hand, many complicated interfaces found by HRTEM remained as unaswered questions. An innovative structural model is requested to appear on the scene.

  16. 40 CFR 761.71 - High efficiency boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High efficiency boilers. 761.71... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.71 High efficiency boilers. (a) To burn mineral oil dielectric fluid containing a PCB concentration of ≥50 ppm, but boiler shall comply with the following...

  17. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirban Mukherjee; Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv of less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} has been developed and the products have been characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} have been prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Phase separation did not occur when the solid solutions were heat treated at 700 C. A flow reactor system constructed of quartz and teflon has been constructed, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) suitable for measuring sub-ppmv levels of H{sub 2}S has been purchased with LSU matching funds. Preliminary desulfurization tests using commercial CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} in highly reducing gas compositions has confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} is more effective than CeO{sub 2} in removing H{sub 2}S. At 700 C the product H{sub 2}S concentration using CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbent was near the 0.1 ppmv PFPD detection limit during the prebreakthrough period.

  18. Highly efficient induction of chirality in intramolecular

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio; Arrieta; Lecea; Alajarin; Vidal; Tovar

    2000-06-16

    Highly stereocontrolled, intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloadditions between ketenimines and imines leading to 1,2-dihydroazeto[2, 1-b]quinazolines have been achieved. The source of stereocontrol is a chiral carbon atom adjacent either to the iminic carbon or nitrogen atom. In the first case, the stereocontrol stems from the preference for the axial conformer in the first transition structure. In the second case, the origin of the stereocontrol lies on the two-electron stabilizing interaction between the C-C bond being formed and the sigma orbital corresponding to the polar C-X bond, X being an electronegative atom. These models can be extended to other related systems for predicting the stereochemical outcome in this intramolecular reaction.

  19. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  20. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  1. Doping efficiency analysis of highly phosphorous doped epitaxial/amorphous silicon emitters grown by PECVD for high efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Gohary, H.G.; Sivoththaman, S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2008-08-15

    The efficient doping of hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon thin films is a key factor in the fabrication of silicon solar cells. The most popular method for developing those films is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) because it minimizes defect density and improves doping efficiency. This paper discussed the preparation of different structure phosphorous doped silicon emitters ranging from epitaxial to amorphous films at low temperature. Phosphine (PH{sub 3}) was employed as the doping gas source with the same gas concentration for both epitaxial and amorphous silicon emitters. The paper presented an analysis of dopant activation by applying a very short rapid thermal annealing process (RTP). A spreading resistance profile (SRP) and SIMS analysis were used to detect both the active dopant and the dopant concentrations, respectively. The paper also provided the results of a structural analysis for both bulk and cross-section at the interface using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, for epitaxial and amorphous films. It was concluded that a unity doping efficiency could be achieved in epitaxial layers by applying an optimized temperature profile using short time processing rapid thermal processing technique. The high quality, one step epitaxial layers, led to both high conductive and high doping efficiency layers.

  2. Interface-controlled, high-mobility organic transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurchescu, Oana D.; Popinciuc, Mihaita; van Wees, Bart J.; Palstra, Thomas T. M.

    2007-01-01

    The achievement of high mobilities in field-effect transistors (FETs) is one of the main challenges for the widespread application of organic conductors in devices. Good device performance of a single-crystal pentacene FET requires both removal of impurity molecules from the bulk and the

  3. Energy Technology Investments: Maximizing Efficiency Through a Maritime Energy Portfolio Interface and Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Investment (ROI) and Break Even Point ( BEP ). These metrics are essential for determining whether an initiative would be worth pursuing. Balanced...is Unlimited Energy Decision Framework Identify Inefficiencies 2. Perform Analyses 3. Examine Technology Candidates 1. Improve Energy...Unlimited Energy Decision Framework Identify Inefficiencies 2. Perform Analyses 3. Examine Technology Candidates 1. Improve Energy Efficiency 4

  4. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Anirban Mukherjee; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-03-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing ceria and zirconia have been studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents with the objective of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S in the product gas. The research was justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and was postulated to have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that were exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S were constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time was determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations from approximately 0.1 to 10 ppmv, and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, were obtained

  5. Nitride passivation of the interface between high-k dielectrics and SiGe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardashti, Kasra [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Hu, Kai-Ting [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Madisetti, Shailesh; Oktyabrsky, Serge [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan [TD Research, GLOBALFOUNDRIES US, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Yoshida, Naomi; Kachian, Jessica; Dong, Lin [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Fruhberger, Bernd [California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0436 (United States); Kummel, Andrew C., E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0358 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    In-situ direct ammonia (NH{sub 3}) plasma nitridation has been used to passivate the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interfaces with Si nitride and oxynitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the buried Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interface shows that NH{sub 3} plasma pre-treatment should be performed at high temperatures (300 °C) to fully prevent Ge nitride and oxynitride formation at the interface and Ge out-diffusion into the oxide. C-V and I-V spectroscopy results show a lower density of interface traps and smaller gate leakage for samples with plasma nitridation at 300 °C.

  6. High-Efficiency Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics via Robust Self-Assembled Monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Gi-Hwan

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The optoelectronic tunability offered by colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) is attractive for photovoltaic applications but demands proper band alignment at electrodes for efficient charge extraction at minimal cost to voltage. With this goal in mind, self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) can be used to modify interface energy levels locally. However, to be effective SAMs must be made robust to treatment using the various solvents and ligands required for to fabricate high quality CQD solids. We report robust self-assembled monolayers (R-SAMs) that enable us to increase the efficiency of CQD photovoltaics. Only by developing a process for secure anchoring of aromatic SAMs, aided by deposition of the SAMs in a water-free deposition environment, were we able to provide an interface modification that was robust against the ensuing chemical treatments needed in the fabrication of CQD solids. The energy alignment at the rectifying interface was tailored by tuning the R-SAM for optimal alignment relative to the CQD quantum-confined electron energy levels. This resulted in a CQD PV record power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.7% with enhanced reproducibility relative to controls.

  7. All passive architecture for high efficiency cascaded Raman conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaswamy, V.; Arun, S.; Chayran, G.; Supradeepa, V. R.

    2018-02-01

    Cascaded Raman fiber lasers have offered a convenient method to obtain scalable, high-power sources at various wavelength regions inaccessible with rare-earth doped fiber lasers. A limitation previously was the reduced efficiency of these lasers. Recently, new architectures have been proposed to enhance efficiency, but this came at the cost of enhanced complexity, requiring an additional low-power, cascaded Raman laser. In this work, we overcome this with a new, all-passive architecture for high-efficiency cascaded Raman conversion. We demonstrate our architecture with a fifth-order cascaded Raman converter from 1117nm to 1480nm with output power of ~64W and efficiency of 60%.

  8. Functionalized Graphene Enables Highly Efficient Solar Thermal Steam Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junlong; Pang, Yunsong; Huang, Weixin; Shaw, Scott K; Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Pillers, Michelle Anne; Mu, Xin; Luo, Shirui; Zhang, Teng; Huang, Yajiang; Li, Guangxian; Ptasinska, Sylwia; Lieberman, Marya; Luo, Tengfei

    2017-06-27

    The ability to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy to enable liquid-to-vapor phase transition has great technological implications for a wide variety of applications, such as water treatment and chemical fractionation. Here, we demonstrate that functionalizing graphene using hydrophilic groups can greatly enhance the solar thermal steam generation efficiency. Our results show that specially functionalized graphene can improve the overall solar-to-vapor efficiency from 38% to 48% at one sun conditions compared to chemically reduced graphene oxide. Our experiments show that such an improvement is a surface effect mainly attributed to the more hydrophilic feature of functionalized graphene, which influences the water meniscus profile at the vapor-liquid interface due to capillary effect. This will lead to thinner water films close to the three-phase contact line, where the water surface temperature is higher since the resistance of thinner water film is smaller, leading to more efficient evaporation. This strategy of functionalizing graphene to make it more hydrophilic can be potentially integrated with the existing macroscopic heat isolation strategies to further improve the overall solar-to-vapor conversion efficiency.

  9. High resolution microstructure characterization of the interface between cold sprayed Al coating and Mg alloy substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang; Qiu, Dong; Xiong, Yuming; Birbilis, Nick; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) has validated the intimate metallurgical (atomic) bond formed along the interface of a cold-sprayed Al coating upon an Mg-alloy (AZ91) substrate. The compressive impact led to the formation of nanostructured layers of about 300–500 nm into the substrate. A highly distorted lattice structure with the inclusion of small amorphous zones was observed at the periphery of the particle/substrate interface, as a result of adiabatic shear plastic deformation at a high strain rate.

  10. Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsinhan; Asadpour, Reza; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Durand, Olivier; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Chen, Bo; Verduzco, Rafael; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Tretiak, Sergei; Even, Jacky; Alam, Muhammad Ashraf; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2018-04-01

    Light-induced structural dynamics plays a vital role in the physical properties, device performance, and stability of hybrid perovskite–based optoelectronic devices. We report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5 to 20.5%. The lattice expansion leads to the relaxation of local lattice strain, which lowers the energetic barriers at the perovskite-contact interfaces, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The light-induced lattice expansion did not compromise the stability of these high-efficiency photovoltaic devices under continuous operation at full-spectrum 1-sun (100 milliwatts per square centimeter) illumination for more than 1500 hours.

  11. Semi-automated high-efficiency reflectivity chamber for vacuum UV measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, James; Fleming, Brian; Renninger, Nicholas; Egan, Arika

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the design and theory of operation for a semi-automated reflectivity chamber for ultraviolet optimized optics. A graphical user interface designed in LabVIEW controls the stages, interfaces with the detector system, takes semi-autonomous measurements, and monitors the system in case of error. Samples and an optical photodiode sit on an optics plate mounted to a rotation stage in the middle of the vacuum chamber. The optics plate rotates the samples and diode between an incident and reflected position to measure the absolute reflectivity of the samples at wavelengths limited by the monochromator operational bandpass of 70 nm to 550 nm. A collimating parabolic mirror on a fine steering tip-tilt motor enables beam steering for detector peak-ups. This chamber is designed to take measurements rapidly and with minimal oversight, increasing lab efficiency for high cadence and high accuracy vacuum UV reflectivity measurements.

  12. Stabilization void-fill encapsulation high-efficiency particulate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, R.G.; Stewart, W.E.; Phillips, S.J.; Serkowski, M.M.; England, J.L.; Boynton, H.C.

    1994-05-01

    This report discusses high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter systems that which are contaminated with radionuclides are part of the nuclear fuel processing systems conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and require replacement and safe and efficient disposal for plant safety. Two K-3 HEPA filters were removed from service, placed burial boxes, buried, and safely and efficiently stabilized remotely which reduced radiation exposure to personnel and the environment

  13. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yong-Nong; Cheng, Hung-Liang; Kuo, Chih-Ming

    2013-01-01

    A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against de...

  14. An area-efficient network interface for a TDM-based Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    used by the routers and links in the NOC. The paper addresses the design of a NI for a NOC that uses time division multiplexing (TDM). By keeping the essence of TDM in mind, we have developed a new area-efficient NI micro-architecture. The new design completely eliminates the need for FIFO buffers...... and credit based flow control - resources which are reported to account for 50–85% of the area in existing NI designs. The paper discusses the design considerations, presents the new NI micro-architecture, and reports area figures for a range of implementations....

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  16. The Energy Efficiency of High Intensity Proton Driver Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab; Grillenberger, Joachim [PSI, Villigen; Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL, Oak Ridge (main); Seidel, Mike [PSI, Villigen; Yoshii, Masahito [JAEA, Ibaraki

    2017-05-01

    For MW class proton driver accelerators the energy efficiency is an important aspect; the talk reviews the efficiency of different accelerator concepts including s.c./n.c. linac, rapid cycling synchrotron, cyclotron; the potential of these concepts for very high beam power is discussed.

  17. An Efficient Framework for EEG Analysis with Application to Hybrid Brain Computer Interfaces Based on Motor Imagery and P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid brain computer interface (BCI based on motor imagery (MI and P300 has been a preferred strategy aiming to improve the detection performance through combining the features of each. However, current methods used for combining these two modalities optimize them separately, which does not result in optimal performance. Here, we present an efficient framework to optimize them together by concatenating the features of MI and P300 in a block diagonal form. Then a linear classifier under a dual spectral norm regularizer is applied to the combined features. Under this framework, the hybrid features of MI and P300 can be learned, selected, and combined together directly. Experimental results on the data set of hybrid BCI based on MI and P300 are provided to illustrate competitive performance of the proposed method against other conventional methods. This provides an evidence that the method used here contributes to the discrimination performance of the brain state in hybrid BCI.

  18. Efficient interfacing of light and surface plasmon polaritons for quantum optics applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot

    interaction are the window to the underlying quantum world. It is no surprise then that there has always been push to find more, and gain better control over systems in which this interaction can be studied. In the past two decades, this end was further motivated as applications were envisioned to coherent...... control of matter. These include applications such as efficient photon collection, single-photon switching and transistors, and long-range optical coupling of quantum bits for quantum communications. However, generating and controlling strong coherent interaction between otherwise very weakly interacting...... light and quantum emitters proves a difficult task. Current days solutions range from cavities, atomic ensembles, photonic band gaps structures, ion traps and optical latices are all being improved and studied but none has yet to emerge as superior. Recently, another proposal for such a strong coupling...

  19. Molecular-dynamics method for the simulation of bulk-solid interfaces at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsko, J.F.; Wolf, D.; Yip, S.; Phillpot, S.R.; Nguyen, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for the molecular-dynamics simulation of bulk planar interfaces at high temperatures is presented. The method uses the basic Parrinello-Rahman (constant-stress) scheme, modified for the application to inhomogeneous systems. Since our computational cell contains only one interface with two-dimensional (2D) periodic border conditions, we are able to study isolated interfaces all the way up to melting. The interaction between boundaries which may lead to their annihilation at higher temperatures, which is a problem when 3D periodic borders are applied, is thus avoided. As an application, the method is used to study the stability of a grain boundary at high temperatures. Observations on a possible connection between grain-boundary migration and ''premelting'' are discussed

  20. High toughness alumina/aluminate: The role of hetero-interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, M.E.; Yasuoka, M.; Kanzaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    Silica doped alumina/aluminate materials present a combination of high strength and high toughness not achieved before in other alumina systems, except for transformation toughened alumina. The authors have associated the increase in toughness to crack bridging by anisotropically grown alumina grains with concurrent interfacial debonding of these grains. A HREM study of grain boundaries and hetero-interface structures in this material shows the absence of amorphous phases at grain boundaries. Local Auger electron analysis of fractured surfaces revealed the coexistence of Si and La at the grain facets exposed by the noticeable intergranular fracture mode of this material. It is concluded that a certain and important degree of boundaries weakness is related to both presence of Si at the interfaces and existence of alumina/aluminate hetero-interfaces

  1. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the continued development of the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system. Solar radiation is not a viable...

  2. High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed project is the development of High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) systems to drive plant growth. Solar...

  3. Efficiency of poly-generating high temperature fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margalef, Pere; Brown, Tim; Brouwer, Jacob; Samuelsen, Scott [National Fuel Cell Research Center (NFCRC), University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3550 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    High temperature fuel cells can be designed and operated to poly-generate electricity, heat, and useful chemicals (e.g., hydrogen) in a variety of configurations. The highly integrated and synergistic nature of poly-generating high temperature fuel cells, however, precludes a simple definition of efficiency for analysis and comparison of performance to traditional methods. There is a need to develop and define a methodology to calculate each of the co-product efficiencies that is useful for comparative analyses. Methodologies for calculating poly-generation efficiencies are defined and discussed. The methodologies are applied to analysis of a Hydrogen Energy Station (H{sub 2}ES) showing that high conversion efficiency can be achieved for poly-generation of electricity and hydrogen. (author)

  4. An Improved, Highly Efficient Method for the Synthesis of Bisphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of bisphenols is described by condensation of substituted phenols with corresponding cyclic ketones in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride and 3-mercaptopropionic acid as a catalyst in extremely high purity and yields.

  5. High Efficiency S-Band 20 Watt Amplifier

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project includes the design and build of a prototype 20 W, high efficiency, S-Band amplifier.   The design will incorporate the latest semiconductor technology,...

  6. DataHigh: graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin R.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Butler, Zachary S.; Churchland, Mark M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Yu, Byron M.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Analyzing and interpreting the activity of a heterogeneous population of neurons can be challenging, especially as the number of neurons, experimental trials, and experimental conditions increases. One approach is to extract a set of latent variables that succinctly captures the prominent co-fluctuation patterns across the neural population. A key problem is that the number of latent variables needed to adequately describe the population activity is often greater than 3, thereby preventing direct visualization of the latent space. By visualizing a small number of 2-d projections of the latent space or each latent variable individually, it is easy to miss salient features of the population activity. Approach. To address this limitation, we developed a Matlab graphical user interface (called DataHigh) that allows the user to quickly and smoothly navigate through a continuum of different 2-d projections of the latent space. We also implemented a suite of additional visualization tools (including playing out population activity timecourses as a movie and displaying summary statistics, such as covariance ellipses and average timecourses) and an optional tool for performing dimensionality reduction. Main results. To demonstrate the utility and versatility of DataHigh, we used it to analyze single-trial spike count and single-trial timecourse population activity recorded using a multi-electrode array, as well as trial-averaged population activity recorded using single electrodes. Significance. DataHigh was developed to fulfil a need for visualization in exploratory neural data analysis, which can provide intuition that is critical for building scientific hypotheses and models of population activity.

  7. DataHigh: graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin R; Kaufman, Matthew T; Butler, Zachary S; Churchland, Mark M; Ryu, Stephen I; Shenoy, Krishna V; Yu, Byron M

    2013-12-01

    Analyzing and interpreting the activity of a heterogeneous population of neurons can be challenging, especially as the number of neurons, experimental trials, and experimental conditions increases. One approach is to extract a set of latent variables that succinctly captures the prominent co-fluctuation patterns across the neural population. A key problem is that the number of latent variables needed to adequately describe the population activity is often greater than 3, thereby preventing direct visualization of the latent space. By visualizing a small number of 2-d projections of the latent space or each latent variable individually, it is easy to miss salient features of the population activity. To address this limitation, we developed a Matlab graphical user interface (called DataHigh) that allows the user to quickly and smoothly navigate through a continuum of different 2-d projections of the latent space. We also implemented a suite of additional visualization tools (including playing out population activity timecourses as a movie and displaying summary statistics, such as covariance ellipses and average timecourses) and an optional tool for performing dimensionality reduction. To demonstrate the utility and versatility of DataHigh, we used it to analyze single-trial spike count and single-trial timecourse population activity recorded using a multi-electrode array, as well as trial-averaged population activity recorded using single electrodes. DataHigh was developed to fulfil a need for visualization in exploratory neural data analysis, which can provide intuition that is critical for building scientific hypotheses and models of population activity.

  8. DataHigh: Graphical user interface for visualizing and interacting with high-dimensional neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Benjamin R.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Butler, Zachary S.; Churchland, Mark M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Yu, Byron M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Analyzing and interpreting the activity of a heterogeneous population of neurons can be challenging, especially as the number of neurons, experimental trials, and experimental conditions increases. One approach is to extract a set of latent variables that succinctly captures the prominent co-fluctuation patterns across the neural population. A key problem is that the number of latent variables needed to adequately describe the population activity is often greater than three, thereby preventing direct visualization of the latent space. By visualizing a small number of 2-d projections of the latent space or each latent variable individually, it is easy to miss salient features of the population activity. Approach To address this limitation, we developed a Matlab graphical user interface (called DataHigh) that allows the user to quickly and smoothly navigate through a continuum of different 2-d projections of the latent space. We also implemented a suite of additional visualization tools (including playing out population activity timecourses as a movie and displaying summary statistics, such as covariance ellipses and average timecourses) and an optional tool for performing dimensionality reduction. Main results To demonstrate the utility and versatility of DataHigh, we used it to analyze single-trial spike count and single-trial timecourse population activity recorded using a multi-electrode array, as well as trial-averaged population activity recorded using single electrodes. Significance DataHigh was developed to fulfill a need for visualization in exploratory neural data analysis, which can provide intuition that is critical for building scientific hypotheses and models of population activity. PMID:24216250

  9. Process development for high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, J.M.; Basore, P.A.; Buck, M.E.; Ruby, D.S.; Schubert, W.K.; Silva, B.L.; Tingley, J.W.

    1991-12-31

    Fabrication of high-efficiency silicon solar cells in an industrial environment requires a different optimization than in a laboratory environment. Strategies are presented for process development of high-efficiency silicon solar cells, with a goal of simplifying technology transfer into an industrial setting. The strategies emphasize the use of statistical experimental design for process optimization, and the use of baseline processes and cells for process monitoring and quality control. 8 refs.

  10. Highly efficient procedure for the transesterification of vegetable oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xuezheng; Gao, Shan; He, Mingyuan [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Yang, Jianguo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry and Chemical Process, Department of Chemistry, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Energy Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The highly efficient procedure has been developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methanol. The KF/MgO has been selected as the most efficient catalyst for the reactions with the yield of 99.3%. Operational simplicity, without need of the purification of raw vegetable oil, low cost of the catalyst used, high activities, no saponification and reusability are the key features of this methodology. (author)

  11. The photonic nanowire: A highly efficient single-photon source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency.......The photonic nanowire represents an attractive platform for a quantum light emitter. However, careful optical engineering using the modal method, which elegantly allows access to all relevant physical parameters, is crucial to ensure high efficiency....

  12. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  13. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  14. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  15. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1999-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  16. An Efficient Multi-objective Approach for Designing of Communication Interfaces in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemkhani, Amir; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of power systems require to use smart grid technologies due to their unique features like high speed, reliable and secure data communications to monitor, control and protect system effectively. Hence, one of the main requirements of achieving a smart grid is optimal designing...... of telecommunication systems. In this study, a novel dynamic Multi-Objective Shortest Path (MOSP) algorithm is presented to design a spanning graph of a communication infrastructure using high speed Optimal Power Ground Wire (OPGW) cables and Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs). Applicability of the proposed model...

  17. Improvement in IBC-silicon solar cell performance by insertion of highly doped crystalline layer at heterojunction interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri, Hadi; Azim Karami, Mohammad; Mohammadnejad, Shahramm

    2017-01-01

    By inserting a thin highly doped crystalline silicon layer between the base region and amorphous silicon layer in an interdigitated back-contact (IBC) silicon solar cell, a new passivation layer is investigated. The passivation layer performance is characterized by numerical simulations. Moreover, the dependence of the output parameters of the solar cell on the additional layer parameters (doping concentration and thickness) is studied. By optimizing the additional passivation layer in terms of doping concentration and thickness, the power conversion efficiency could be improved by a factor of 2.5%, open circuit voltage is increased by 30 mV and the fill factor of the solar cell by 7.4%. The performance enhancement is achieved due to the decrease of recombination rate, a decrease in solar cell resistivity and improvement of field effect passivation at heterojunction interface. The above-mentioned results are compared with reported results of the same conventional interdigitated back-contact silicon solar cell structure. Furthermore, the effect of a-Si:H/c-Si interface defect density on IBC silicon solar cell parameters with a new passivation layer is studied. The additional passivation layer also reduces the sensitivity of output parameter of solar cell to interface defect density. (paper)

  18. Charge transport in highly efficient iridium cored electrophosphorescent dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Jonathan P. J.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Lo, Shih-Chun; Burn, Paul L.; Weiter, Martin; Bässler, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Electrophosphorescent dendrimers are promising materials for highly efficient light-emitting diodes. They consist of a phosphorescent core onto which dendritic groups are attached. Here, we present an investigation into the optical and electronic properties of highly efficient phosphorescent dendrimers. The effect of dendrimer structure on charge transport and optical properties is studied using temperature-dependent charge-generation-layer time-of-flight measurements and current voltage (I-V) analysis. A model is used to explain trends seen in the I-V characteristics. We demonstrate that fine tuning the mobility by chemical structure is possible in these dendrimers and show that this can lead to highly efficient bilayer dendrimer light-emitting diodes with neat emissive layers. Power efficiencies of 20 lm/W were measured for devices containing a second-generation (G2) Ir(ppy)3 dendrimer with a 1,3,5-tris(2-N-phenylbenzimidazolyl)benzene electron transport layer.

  19. Very-High Efficiency, High Power Laser Diodes, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AdTech Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR) at UMBC, is pleased to submit this proposal entitled ?Very-High...

  20. Thin-Film layers with Interfaces that reduce RF Losses on High-Resistivity Silicon Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evseev, S. B.; Milosavljevic, S.; Nanver, L. K.

    2017-01-01

    Radio-Frequency (RF) losses on High-Resistivity Silicon (HRS) substrates were studied for several different surface passivation layers comprising thin-films of SiC, SiN and SiO2 In many combinations, losses from conductive surface channels were reduced and increasing the number of interfaces between

  1. Design and Fabrication of Cryostat Interface and Electronics for High Performance Antimatter Trap (HI-PAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald A.

    1999-01-01

    Included in Appendix I to this report is a complete set of design and assembly schematics for the high vacuum inner trap assembly, cryostat interfaces and electronic components for the MSFC HI-PAT. Also included in the final report are summaries of vacuum tests, and electronic tests performed upon completion of the assembly.

  2. [Characteristics of phosphorus uptake and use efficiency of rice with high yield and high phosphorus use efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Li, Tinx-Xuan; Yu, Hai-Ying; Ji, Lin; Chen, Guang-Deng

    2014-07-01

    A total of twenty seven middle maturing rice varieties as parent materials were divided into four types based on P use efficiency for grain yield in 2011 by field experiment with normal phosphorus (P) application. The rice variety with high yield and high P efficiency was identified by pot experiment with normal and low P applications, and the contribution rates of various P efficiencies to yield were investigated in 2012. There were significant genotype differences in yield and P efficiency of the test materials. GRLu17/AiTTP//Lu17_2 (QR20) was identified as a variety with high yield and high P efficiency, and its yields at the low and normal rates of P application were 1.96 and 1.92 times of that of Yuxiang B, respectively. The contribution rate of P accumulation to yield was greater than that of P grain production efficiency and P harvest index across field and pot experiments. The contribution rates of P accumulation and P grain production efficiency to yield were not significantly different under the normal P condition, whereas obvious differences were observed under the low P condition (66.5% and 26.6%). The minimal contribution to yield was P harvest index (11.8%). Under the normal P condition, the contribution rates of P accumulation to yield and P harvest index were the highest at the jointing-heading stage, which were 93.4% and 85.7%, respectively. In addition, the contribution rate of P accumulation to grain production efficiency was 41.8%. Under the low P condition, the maximal contribution rates of P accumulation to yield and grain production efficiency were observed at the tillering-jointing stage, which were 56.9% and 20.1% respectively. Furthermore, the contribution rate of P accumulation to P harvest index was 16.0%. The yield, P accumulation, and P harvest index of QR20 significantly increased under the normal P condition by 20.6%, 18.1% and 18.2% respectively compared with that in the low P condition. The rank of the contribution rates of P

  3. High Efficiency of Two Efficient QSDC with Authentication Is at the Cost of Their Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su-Juan, Qin; Qiao-Yan, Wen; Luo-Ming, Meng; Fu-Chen, Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Two efficient protocols of quantum secure direct communication with authentication [Chin. Phys. Lett. 25 (2008) 2354] were recently proposed by Liu et al. to improve the efficiency of two protocols presented in [Phys. Rev. A 75 (2007) 026301] by four Pauli operations. We show that the high efficiency of the two protocols is at the expense of their security. The authenticator Trent can reach half the secret by a particular attack strategy in the first protocol. In the second protocol, not only Trent but also an eavesdropper outside can elicit half-information about the secret from the public declaration

  4. A high speed, selective multi-ADC to computer data transfer interface, for nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctaedius, T.; Ekstroem, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    A link connecting up to fifteen Analog to Digital Converters with a computer, through a Direct Memory Access interface, is described. The interface decides which of the connected ADC:s that participate in an event, and transfers the output-data from these to the computer, accompanied with a 2-byte word identifying the participating ADC:s. This data format can be recorded on tape without further transformations, and is easy to unfold at the off-line analysis. Data transfer is accomplished in less than a few microseconds, which is made possible by the use of high speed TTL circuits. (authors)

  5. Ultrathin high band gap solar cells with improved efficiencies from the world's oldest photovoltaic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Teodor K; Singh, Saurabh; Bishop, Douglas M; Gunawan, Oki; Lee, Yun Seog; Gershon, Talia S; Brew, Kevin W; Antunez, Priscilla D; Haight, Richard

    2017-09-25

    Selenium was used in the first solid state solar cell in 1883 and gave early insights into the photoelectric effect that inspired Einstein's Nobel Prize work; however, the latest efficiency milestone of 5.0% was more than 30 years ago. The recent surge of interest towards high-band gap absorbers for tandem applications led us to reconsider this attractive 1.95 eV material. Here, we show completely redesigned selenium devices with improved back and front interfaces optimized through combinatorial studies and demonstrate record open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of 970 mV and efficiency of 6.5% under 1 Sun. In addition, Se devices are air-stable, non-toxic, and extremely simple to fabricate. The absorber layer is only 100 nm thick, and can be processed at 200 ˚C, allowing temperature compatibility with most bottom substrates or sub-cells. We analyze device limitations and find significant potential for further improvement making selenium an attractive high-band-gap absorber for multi-junction device applications.Wide band gap semiconductors are important for the development of tandem photovoltaics. By introducing buffer layers at the front and rear side of solar cells based on selenium; Todorov et al., reduce interface recombination losses to achieve photoconversion efficiencies of 6.5%.

  6. High-Order Finite-Difference Solution of the Poisson Equation with Interface Jump Conditions II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Alexandre; Nave, Jean-Christophe; Rosales, Rodolfo

    2010-11-01

    The Poisson equation with jump discontinuities across an interface is of central importance in Computational Fluid Dynamics. In prior work, Marques, Nave, and Rosales have introduced a method to obtain fourth-order accurate solutions for the constant coefficient Poisson problem. Here we present an extension of this method to solve the variable coefficient Poisson problem to fourth-order of accuracy. The extended method is based on local smooth extrapolations of the solution field across the interface. The extrapolation procedure uses a combination of cubic Hermite interpolants and a high-order representation of the interface using the Gradient-Augmented Level-Set technique. This procedure is compatible with the use of standard discretizations for the Laplace operator, and leads to modified linear systems which have the same sparsity pattern as the standard discretizations. As a result, standard Poisson solvers can be used with only minimal modifications. Details of the method and applications will be presented.

  7. Nano features of Al/Au ultrasonic bond interface observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Hongjun; Li Mingyu; Kim, Jong-Myung; Kim, Dae-Won; Wang Chunqing

    2008-01-01

    Nano-scale interfacial details of ultrasonic AlSi1 wire wedge bonding to a Au/Ni/Cu pad were investigated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The intermetallic phase Au 8 Al 3 formed locally due to diffusion and reaction activated by ultrasound at the Al/Au bond interface. Multilayer sub-interfaces roughly parallel to the wire/pad interface were observed among this phase, and interdiffusional features near the Au pad resembled interference patterns, alternately dark and bright bars. Solid-state diffusion theory cannot be used to explain why such a thick compound formed within milliseconds at room temperature. The major formation of metallurgical bonds was attributed to ultrasonic cyclic vibration

  8. High Performance Computing - Power Application Programming Interface Specification Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laros III, James H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); DeBonis, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grant, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelly, Suzanne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Levenhagen, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Olivier, Stephen Lecler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Measuring and controlling the power and energy consumption of high performance computing systems by various components in the software stack is an active research area [13, 3, 5, 10, 4, 21, 19, 16, 7, 17, 20, 18, 11, 1, 6, 14, 12]. Implementations in lower level software layers are beginning to emerge in some production systems, which is very welcome. To be most effective, a portable interface to measurement and control features would significantly facilitate participation by all levels of the software stack. We present a proposal for a standard power Application Programming Interface (API) that endeavors to cover the entire software space, from generic hardware interfaces to the input from the computer facility manager.

  9. The emerging High Efficiency Video Coding standard (HEVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais

    2013-01-01

    High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC

  10. High quality, high efficiency welding technology for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeyuki; Nagura, Yasumi

    1996-01-01

    For nuclear power plants, it is required to ensure the safety under the high reliability and to attain the high rate of operation. In the manufacture and installation of the machinery and equipment, the welding techniques which become the basis exert large influence to them. For the purpose of improving joint performance and excluding human errors, welding heat input and the number of passes have been reduced, the automation of welding has been advanced, and at present, narrow gap arc welding and high energy density welding such as electron beam welding and laser welding have been put to practical use. Also in the welding of pipings, automatic gas metal arc welding is employed. As for the welding of main machinery and equipment, there are the welding of the joints that constitute pressure boundaries, the build-up welding on the internal surfaces of pressure vessels for separating primary water from them, and the sealing welding of heating tubes and tube plates in steam generators. These weldings are explained. The welding of pipings and the state of development and application of new welding methods are reported. (K.I.)

  11. High-concentration planar microtracking photovoltaic system exceeding 30% efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jared S.; Grede, Alex J.; Wang, Baomin; Lipski, Michael V.; Fisher, Brent; Lee, Kyu-Tae; He, Junwen; Brulo, Gregory S.; Ma, Xiaokun; Burroughs, Scott; Rahn, Christopher D.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Rogers, John A.; Giebink, Noel C.

    2017-08-01

    Prospects for concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) power are growing as the market increasingly values high power conversion efficiency to leverage now-dominant balance of system and soft costs. This trend is particularly acute for rooftop photovoltaic power, where delivering the high efficiency of traditional CPV in the form factor of a standard rooftop photovoltaic panel could be transformative. Here, we demonstrate a fully automated planar microtracking CPV system 660× concentration ratio over a 140∘ full field of view. In outdoor testing over the course of two sunny days, the system operates automatically from sunrise to sunset, outperforming a 17%-efficient commercial silicon solar cell by generating >50% more energy per unit area per day in a direct head-to-head competition. These results support the technical feasibility of planar microtracking CPV to deliver a step change in the efficiency of rooftop solar panels at a commercially relevant concentration ratio.

  12. Development of high-efficiency solar cells on silicon web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D. L.; Greggi, J.; Okeeffe, T. W.; Rai-Choudhury, P.

    1986-01-01

    Work was performed to improve web base material with a goal of obtaining solar cell efficiencies in excess of 18% (AM1). Efforts in this program are directed toward identifying carrier loss mechanisms in web silicon, eliminating or reducing these mechanisms, designing a high efficiency cell structure with the aid of numerical models, and fabricating high efficiency web solar cells. Fabrication techniques must preserve or enhance carrier lifetime in the bulk of the cell and minimize recombination of carriers at the external surfaces. Three completed cells were viewed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to investigate further the relation between structural defects and electrical performance of web cells. Consistent with past TEM examinations, the cell with the highest efficiency (15.0%) had no dislocations but did have 11 twin planes.

  13. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2016-04-19

    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  14. High-efficiency THz modulator based on phthalocyanine-compound organic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ting; Zhang, Bo; Shen, Jingling; Zang, Mengdi; Chen, Tianji; Hu, Yufeng; Hou, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    We report a high efficiency, broadband terahertz (THz) modulator following a study of phthalocyanine-compound organic films irradiated with an external excitation laser. Both transmission and reflection modulations of each organic/silicon bilayers were measured using THz time-domain and continuous-wave systems. For very low intensities, the experimental results show that AlClPc/Si can achieve a high modulation factor for transmission and reflection, indicating that AlClPc/Si has a superior modulation efficiency compared with the other films (CuPc and SnCl 2 Pc). In contrast, the strong attenuation of the transmitted and reflected THz waves revealed that a nonlinear absorption process takes place at the organic/silicon interface

  15. Efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    A general theory of efficient estimation for ergodic diffusions sampled at high fre- quency is presented. High frequency sampling is now possible in many applications, in particular in finance. The theory is formulated in term of approximate martingale estimating functions and covers a large class...

  16. High-Efficiency Klystron Design for the CLIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Mollard, Antoine; Peauger, Franck; Plouin, Juliette; Beunas, Armel; Marchesin, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    The CLIC project requests new type of RF sources for the high power conditioning of the accelerating cavities. We are working on the development of a new kind of high-efficiency klystron to fulfill this need. This work is performed under the EuCARD-2 European program and involves theoretical and experimental study of a brand new klystron concept.

  17. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...... and web duplicate detection tasks....

  18. Design of High Efficiency Illumination for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficiency illumination for LED street lighting is proposed. For energy saving, this paper uses Class-E resonant inverter as main electric circuit to improve efficiency. In addition, single dimming control has the best efficiency, simplest control scheme and lowest circuit cost among other types of dimming techniques. Multiple serial-connected transformers used to drive the LED strings as they can provide galvanic isolation and have the advantage of good current distribution against device difference. Finally, a prototype circuit for driving 112 W LEDs in total was built and tested to verify the theoretical analysis.

  19. Correlating oxygen vacancies and phase ratio/interface with efficient photocatalytic activity in mixed phase TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Ranjana; Samdarshi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The correlation of interfacial behavior and oxygen vacancies in mixed phase titania nanoparticles on their performance as photocatalyst has been investigated to explain the impact of photoactivity under UV and visible irradiation compared to pristine counterparts. The defects at the junction effectively reduce the band gap as well decrease the carrier recombination to enhance the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Pristine and mixed phases (A/R ratio) TiO 2 synthesized by sol gel route. • Photoactivity variation has been correlated with the changes in the phase ratio. • Enhanced UV and visible activity attributable to oxygen vacancy present at the interface. • Role of A/R ratio and oxygen vacancy in the photoactivity of mixed TiO 2 depicted through a model. - Abstract: The photocatalytic activity is a result of the synergy of a succession of phenomena-photogeneration, separation, and participation of the charge carriers in redox reaction at the catalyst surface. While the extent of photogeneration is assessable in terms of absorption spectrum (band gap), the redox reaction can be correlated to specific surface area. However the respective change in the photocatalytic activity has not been rationally and consistently correlated with the above mentioned parameters. A satisfactory explanation of suppression of recombination based on separation of carriers due to differential mobility/diffusivity in the material phase(s) and/or intrinsic potential barrier exists but its correlation with common identifiable parameter/characteristics is still elusive. This paper attempts to address this issue by correlating the carrier separation with the phase ratio (phase interface) in mixed phase titania and generalizing it with the presence of oxygen vacancy at the phase interface. It essentially appears to complete the quest for identifiable parameters in the sequence of phenomena, which endow a photocatalyst with an efficient activity level. It has

  20. High-Efficient Low-Cost Photovoltaics Recent Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova-Koch, Vesselinka; Goetzberger, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of the development and problems of recent photovoltaic cells and systems and prospects for Si feedstock is presented. High-efficient low-cost PV modules, making use of novel efficient solar cells (based on c-Si or III-V materials), and low cost solar concentrators are in the focus of this book. Recent developments of organic photovoltaics, which is expected to overcome its difficulties and to enter the market soon, are also included.

  1. High strength bimetallic composite material fabricated by electroslag casting and characteristics of its composite interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-shun Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel was produced with electroslag casting process, and element distribution of its composite interface was investigated by theoretical calculation and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. Results show that the tensile strength (1,450 MPa, hardness (HRC 41-47 and impact toughness (94.7J·cm-2 of bainitic steel were comparatively high, while its elongation was slightly low (4.0%. Tensile strength (1,100 MPa, hardness (>HRC 31 and elongation (7.72% of the interface were also relatively high, but its impact toughness was low at 20.4 J·cm-2. Results of theoretical calculation of the element distribution in the interface region were basically consistent with that of EDS. Therefore, electroslag casting is a practical process to produce bimetallic composite material of bainitic steel and PD3 steel, and theoretical calculation also is a feasible method to study element distribution of their interface.

  2. Catastrophic degradation of the interface of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeepkumar, Aiswarya; Mishra, Neeraj; Kermany, Atieh Ranjbar; Iacopi, Francesca [Queensland Micro and Nanotechnology Centre and Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD 4111 (Australia); Boeckl, John J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratories, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Hellerstedt, Jack; Fuhrer, Michael S. [Monash Centre for Atomically Thin Materials, Monash University, Monash, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2016-07-04

    Epitaxial cubic silicon carbide on silicon is of high potential technological relevance for the integration of a wide range of applications and materials with silicon technologies, such as micro electro mechanical systems, wide-bandgap electronics, and graphene. The hetero-epitaxial system engenders mechanical stresses at least up to a GPa, pressures making it extremely challenging to maintain the integrity of the silicon carbide/silicon interface. In this work, we investigate the stability of said interface and we find that high temperature annealing leads to a loss of integrity. High–resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows a morphologically degraded SiC/Si interface, while mechanical stress measurements indicate considerable relaxation of the interfacial stress. From an electrical point of view, the diode behaviour of the initial p-Si/n-SiC junction is catastrophically lost due to considerable inter-diffusion of atoms and charges across the interface upon annealing. Temperature dependent transport measurements confirm a severe electrical shorting of the epitaxial silicon carbide to the underlying substrate, indicating vast predominance of the silicon carriers in lateral transport above 25 K. This finding has crucial consequences on the integration of epitaxial silicon carbide on silicon and its potential applications.

  3. A turbulence model for large interfaces in high Reynolds two-phase CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, P.; Laviéville, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-phase CFD commonly involves interfaces much larger than the computational cells. • A two-phase turbulence model is developed to better take them into account. • It solves k–epsilon transport equations in each phase. • The special treatments and transfer terms at large interfaces are described. • Validation cases are presented. - Abstract: A model for two-phase (six-equation) CFD modelling of turbulence is presented, for the regions of the flow where the liquid–gas interface takes place on length scales which are much larger than the typical computational cell size. In the other regions of the flow, the liquid or gas volume fractions range from 0 to 1. Heat and mass transfer, compressibility of the fluids, are included in the system, which is used at high Reynolds numbers in large scale industrial calculations. In this context, a model based on k and ε transport equations in each phase was chosen. The paper describes the model, with a focus on the large interfaces, which require special treatments and transfer terms between the phases, including some approaches inspired from wall functions. The validation of the model is based on high Reynolds number experiments with turbulent quantities measurements of a liquid jet impinging a free surface and an air water stratified flow. A steam–water stratified condensing flow experiment is also used for an indirect validation in the case of heat and mass transfer

  4. Design Strategies for High-Efficiency CdTe Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao

    With continuous technology advances over the past years, CdTe solar cells have surged to be a leading contributor in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) field. While empirical material and device optimization has led to considerable progress, further device optimization requires accurate device models that are able to provide an in-depth understanding of CdTe device physics. Consequently, this thesis is intended to develop a comprehensive model system for high-efficiency CdTe devices through applying basic design principles of solar cells with numerical modeling and comparing results with experimental CdTe devices. The CdTe absorber is central to cell performance. Numerical simulation has shown the feasibility of high energy-conversion efficiency, which requires both high carrier density and long minority carrier lifetime. As the minority carrier lifetime increases, the carrier recombination at the back surface becomes a limitation for cell performance with absorber thickness cell performance, since it can induce a large valence-band bending which suppresses the hole injection near the interface for the electron-hole recombination, but too large a spike is detrimental to photocurrent transport. In a heterojunction device with many defects at the emitter/absorber interface (high SIF), a thin and highly-doped emitter can induce strong absorber inversion and hence help maintain good cell performance. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. In terms of specific emitter materials, the calculations suggest that the (Mg,Zn)O alloy with 20% Mg, or a similar type-I heterojunction partner with moderate DeltaE C (e.g., Cd(S,O) or (Cd,Mg)Te with appropriate oxygen or magnesium ratios) should yield higher voltages and would therefore be better candidates for the CdTe-cell emitter. The CdTe/substrate interface is also of great importance, particularly in the growth of epitaxial

  5. High efficiency heat transport and power conversion system for cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Bourque, R.F.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Cascade ICF reactor features a flowing blanket of solid BeO and LiAlO 2 granules with very high temperature capability (up to approx. 2300 K). The authors present here the design of a high temperature granule transport and heat exchange system, and two options for high efficiency power conversion. The centrifugal-throw transport system uses the peripheral speed imparted to the granules by the rotating chamber to effect granule transport and requires no additional equipment. The heat exchanger design is a vacuum heat transfer concept utilizing gravity-induced flow of the granules over ceramic heat exchange surfaces. A reference Brayton power cycle is presented which achieves 55% net efficiency with 1300 K peak helium temperature. A modified Field steam cycle (a hybrid Rankine/Brayton cycle) is presented as an alternate which achieves 56% net efficiency

  6. Highly Efficient Coherent Optical Memory Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Pin-Ju; Chen, Hung-Shiue; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Hung, Chih-Chiao; Lee, Chih-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yong-Fan; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%. Both are the best record to date in all kinds of schemes for the realization of optical memory. Our work significantly advances the pursuit of a high-performance optical memory and should have important applications in quantum information science.

  7. Simulation of High Efficiency Heterojunction Solar Cells with AFORS-HET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lisheng; Chen Fengxiang; Ai Yu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the high efficiency TCO/a-Si:H (n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/uc-Si(p + )/Al HIT (heterojunction with intrinsic thin-layer) solar cells was analyzed and designed by AFORS-HET software. The influences of emitter, intrinsic layer and back surface field (BSF) on the photovoltaic characteristics of solar cell were discussed. The simulation results show that the key role of the intrinsic layer inserted between the a-Si:H and crystalline silicon substrate is to decrease the interface states density. If the interface states density is lower than 10 10 cm -2 V -1 thinner intrinsic layer is better than thicker one. The increase of the thickness of the emitter will decrease the short-current density and affect the conversion efficiency. Microcrystalline BSF can increase conversion efficiency more than 2 percentage points compared with HIT solar cell with no BSF. But this BSF requires the doping concentration must exceed 10 20 cm -3 . Considered the band mismatch between crystalline silicon and microcrystalline silicon, the optimal band gap of microcrystalline silicon BSF is about 1.4-1.6eV.

  8. High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, Tukaram K.; Spindler, Jeffrey P.; Ricks, M. L.; Young, Ralph H.; Hamada, Yuuhiko; Saito, N.; Mameno, Kazunobu; Nishikawa, Ryuji; Takahashi, Hisakazu; Rajeswaran, G.

    2004-02-01

    Eastman Kodak Company and SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. recently demonstrated a 15" full-color, organic light-emitting diode display (OLED) using a high-efficiency white emitter combined with a color-filter array. Although useful for display applications, white emission from organic structures is also under consideration for other applications, such as solid-state lighting, where high efficiency and good color rendition are important. By incorporating adjacent blue and orange emitting layers in a multi-layer structure, highly efficient, stable white emission has been attained. With suitable host and dopant combinations, a luminance yield of 20 cd/A and efficiency of 8 lm/W have been achieved at a drive voltage of less than 8 volts and luminance level of 1000 cd/m2. The estimated external efficiency of this device is 6.3% and a high level of operational stability is observed. To our knowledge, this is the highest performance reported so far for white organic electroluminescent devices. We will review white OLED technology and discuss the fabrication and operating characteristics of these devices.

  9. Interface Engineering and Gate Dielectric Engineering for High Performance Ge MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, germanium has attracted intensive interests for its promising applications in the microelectronics industry. However, to achieve high performance Ge channel devices, several critical issues still have to be addressed. Amongst them, a high quality gate stack, that is, a low defect interface layer and a dielectric layer, is of crucial importance. In this work, we first review the existing methods of interface engineering and gate dielectric engineering and then in more detail we discuss and compare three promising approaches (i.e., plasma postoxidation, high pressure oxidation, and ozone postoxidation. It has been confirmed that these approaches all can significantly improve the overall performance of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET device.

  10. Interface between path and orbital angular momentum entanglement for high-dimensional photonic quantum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Huber, Marcus; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Zeilinger, Anton

    2014-07-30

    Photonics has become a mature field of quantum information science, where integrated optical circuits offer a way to scale the complexity of the set-up as well as the dimensionality of the quantum state. On photonic chips, paths are the natural way to encode information. To distribute those high-dimensional quantum states over large distances, transverse spatial modes, like orbital angular momentum possessing Laguerre Gauss modes, are favourable as flying information carriers. Here we demonstrate a quantum interface between these two vibrant photonic fields. We create three-dimensional path entanglement between two photons in a nonlinear crystal and use a mode sorter as the quantum interface to transfer the entanglement to the orbital angular momentum degree of freedom. Thus our results show a flexible way to create high-dimensional spatial mode entanglement. Moreover, they pave the way to implement broad complex quantum networks where high-dimensionally entangled states could be distributed over distant photonic chips.

  11. Low Cost, High Efficiency, High Pressure Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Leavitt

    2010-03-31

    A technical and design evaluation was carried out to meet DOE hydrogen fuel targets for 2010. These targets consisted of a system gravimetric capacity of 2.0 kWh/kg, a system volumetric capacity of 1.5 kWh/L and a system cost of $4/kWh. In compressed hydrogen storage systems, the vast majority of the weight and volume is associated with the hydrogen storage tank. In order to meet gravimetric targets for compressed hydrogen tanks, 10,000 psi carbon resin composites were used to provide the high strength required as well as low weight. For the 10,000 psi tanks, carbon fiber is the largest portion of their cost. Quantum Technologies is a tier one hydrogen system supplier for automotive companies around the world. Over the course of the program Quantum focused on development of technology to allow the compressed hydrogen storage tank to meet DOE goals. At the start of the program in 2004 Quantum was supplying systems with a specific energy of 1.1-1.6 kWh/kg, a volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L and a cost of $73/kWh. Based on the inequities between DOE targets and Quantum’s then current capabilities, focus was placed first on cost reduction and second on weight reduction. Both of these were to be accomplished without reduction of the fuel system’s performance or reliability. Three distinct areas were investigated; optimization of composite structures, development of “smart tanks” that could monitor health of tank thus allowing for lower design safety factor, and the development of “Cool Fuel” technology to allow higher density gas to be stored, thus allowing smaller/lower pressure tanks that would hold the required fuel supply. The second phase of the project deals with three additional distinct tasks focusing on composite structure optimization, liner optimization, and metal.

  12. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  13. High Throughput, High Yield Fabrication of High Quantum Efficiency Back-Illuminated Photon Counting, Far UV, UV, and Visible Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, M. E.; Carver, A. G.; Jones, T. J.; Greer, F.; Hamden, E.; Goodsall, T.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the high throughput end-to-end post fabrication processing of high performance delta-doped and superlattice-doped silicon imagers for UV, visible, and NIR applications. As an example, we present our results on far ultraviolet and ultraviolet quantum efficiency (QE) in a photon counting, detector array. We have improved the QE by nearly an order of magnitude over microchannel plates (MCPs) that are the state-of-the-art UV detectors for many NASA space missions as well as defense applications. These achievements are made possible by precision interface band engineering of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD).

  14. Innovative-Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Efficiency Evaluation with High-Efficiency Steam Injector System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Goto; Shuichi, Ohmori; Michitsugu, Mori

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to establish simplified system with reduced space and total equipment weight using high-efficiency Steam Injectors (SI) instead of low-pressure feedwater heaters in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The SI works as a heat exchanger through direct contact between feedwater from condensers and extracted steam from turbines. It can get higher pressure than supplied steam pressure. The maintenance and reliability are still higher than the feedwater ones because SI has no movable parts. This paper describes the analysis of the heat balance, plant efficiency and the operation of this Innovative-Simplified NPP with high-efficiency SI. The plant efficiency and operation are compared with the electric power of 1100 MWe-class BWR system and the Innovative-Simplified BWR system with SI. The SI model is adapted into the heat balance simulator with a simplified model. The results show that plant efficiencies of the Innovated-Simplified BWR system are almost equal to original BWR ones. The present research is one of the projects that are carried out by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Toshiba Corporation, and six Universities in Japan, funded from the Institute of Applied Energy (IAE) of Japan as the national public research-funded program. (authors)

  15. Selenium Interlayer for High-Efficiency Multijunction Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-junction solar cell is provided and includes multiple semiconducting layers and an interface layer disposed between the multiple semiconducting layers. The interface layer is made from an interface bonding material that has a refractive index such that a ratio of a refractive index of each of the multiple semiconducting layers to the refractive index of the interface bonding material is less than or equal to 1.5.

  16. Passivation of Ge/highinterface using RF Plasma nitridation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushaq, Ghada; Nayfeh, Ammar; Rasras, Mahmoud

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, plasma nitridation of a germanium surface using NH3 and N2 gases is performed with a standard RF-PECVD method at a substrate temperature of 250 °C. The structural and optical properties of the Ge surface have been investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometery (VASE). Study of the Ge (100) surface revealed that it is nitrated after plasma treatment while the GeO2 regrowth on the surface has been suppressed. Also, stability of the treated surface under air exposure is observed, where all the measurements were performed at room ambient. The electrical characteristics of fabricated Al/Ti/HfO2/GeON/p-Ge capacitors using the proposed surface treatment technique have been investigated. The C-V curves indicated a negligible hysteresis compared to ˜500 mV observed in untreated samples. Additionally, the C-V characteristic is used to extract the high-κ/Ge interface trap density using the most commonly used methods in determining the interface traps. The discussion includes the Dit calculation from the high-low frequency (Castagné-Vapaille) method and Terman (high-frequency) method. The high-low frequency method indicated a low interface trap density of ˜2.5 × 1011 eV-1.cm-2 compared to the Terman method. The J-V measurements revealed more than two orders of magnitude reduction of the gate leakage. This improved Ge interface quality is a promising low-temperature technique for fabricating high-performance Ge MOSFETs.

  17. Auger electron spectroscopy analysis for growth interface of cubic boron nitride single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Meizhe; Xu, Bin; Cai, Lichao; Guo, Xiaofei; Yuan, Xingdong

    2018-05-01

    After rapid cooling, cubic boron nitride (c-BN) single crystals synthesized under high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) are wrapped in the white film powders which are defined as growth interface. In order to make clear that the transition mechanism of c-BN single crystals, the variation of B and N atomic hybrid states in the growth interface is analyzed with the help of auger electron spectroscopy in the Li-based system. It is found that the sp2 fractions of B and N atoms decreases, and their sp3 fractions increases from the outer to the inner in the growth interface. In addition, Lithium nitride (Li3N) are not found in the growth interface by X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiment. It is suggested that lithium boron nitride (Li3BN2) is produced by the reaction of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and Li3N at the first step, and then B and N atoms transform from sp2 into sp3 state with the catalysis of Li3BN2 in c-BN single crystals synthesis process.

  18. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Cui, Hui-Juan; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2016-01-06

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  19. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  20. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  1. The thermodynamic characteristics of high efficiency, internal-combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The thermodynamics of an automotive engine are determined using a cycle simulation. ► The net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. ► High compression ratio, lean mixtures and high EGR were the important features. ► Efficiency increased due to lower heat losses, and increased work conversion. ► The nitric oxides were essentially zero due to the low combustion temperatures. - Abstract: Recent advancements have demonstrated new combustion modes for internal combustion engines that exhibit low nitric oxide emissions and high thermal efficiencies. These new combustion modes involve various combinations of stratification, lean mixtures, high levels of EGR, multiple injections, variable valve timings, two fuels, and other such features. Although the exact combination of these features that provides the best design is not yet clear, the results (low emissions with high efficiencies) are of major interest. The current work is directed at determining some of the fundamental thermodynamic reasons for the relatively high efficiencies and to quantify these factors. Both the first and second laws are used in this assessment. An automotive engine (5.7 l) which included some of the features mentioned above (e.g., high compression ratios, lean mixtures, and high EGR) was evaluated using a thermodynamic cycle simulation. These features were examined for a moderate load (bmep = 900 kPa), moderate speed (2000 rpm) condition. By the use of lean operation, high EGR levels, high compression ratio and other features, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% to 53.9%. These increases are explained in a step-by-step fashion. The major reasons for these improvements include the higher compression ratio and the dilute charge (lean mixture, high EGR). The dilute charge resulted in lower temperatures which in turn resulted in lower heat loss. In addition, the lower temperatures resulted in higher ratios of the specific heats which

  2. Propagation of high frequency electrostatic surface waves along the planar interface between plasma and dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.

    2018-04-01

    An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.

  3. Role of interfaces i nthe design of ultra-high strength, radiation damage tolerant nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nastasi, Michael A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baldwin, Jon K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wei, Qiangmin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Nan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mara, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Xinghang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fu, Engang [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hongqi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharyya, Dhriti [NON LANL

    2010-12-09

    The combination of high strength and high radiation damage tolerance in nanolaminate composites can be achieved when the individual layers in these composites are only a few nanometers thick and contain special interfaces that act both as obstacles to slip, as well as sinks for radiation-induced defects. The morphological and phase stabilities and strength and ductility of these nano-composites under ion irradiation are explored as a function of layer thickness, temperature and interface structure. Magnetron sputtered metallic multilayers such as Cu-Nb and V-Ag with a range of individual layer thickness from approximately 2 nm to 50 nm and the corresponding 1000 nm thick single layer films were implanted with helium ions at room temperature. Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to measure the distribution of helium bubbles and correlated with the helium concentration profile measured vis ion beam analysis techniques to obtain the helium concentration at which bubbles are detected in TEM. It was found that in multilayers the minimum helium concentration to form bubbles (approximately I nm in size) that are easily resolved in through-focus TEM imaging was several atomic %, orders of magnitude higher than that in single layer metal films. This observation is consistent with an increased solubility of helium at interfaces that is predicted by atomistic modeling of the atomic structures of fcc-bcc interfaces. At helium concentrations as high as 7 at.%, a uniform distribution of I nm diameter bubbles results in negligible irradiation hardening and loss of deformability in multi layers with layer thicknesses of a few nanometers. The control of atomic structures of interfaces to produce high helium solubility at interfaces is crucial in the design of nano-composite materials that are radiation damage tolerant. Reduced radiation damage also leads to a reduction in the irradiation hardening, particularly at layer thickness of approximately 5 run

  4. A nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber for iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianmin; Qian Yinge

    1988-08-01

    The structure of a nuclear standard high-efficiency adsorber, adsorbent and its performance are introduced. The performance and structure were compared with the same kind product of other firms. The results show that the leakage rate is less than 0.005%

  5. Efficiency criteria for high reliability measured system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of structural redundancy are usually used to develop high reliability measured systems. To estimate efficiency of such structures the criteria to compare different systems has been developed. So it is possible to develop more exact system by inspection of redundant system data unit stochastic characteristics in accordance with the developed criteria [ru

  6. Optimization of high-efficiency components; Optimieren auf hohem Niveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Eva

    2009-07-01

    High efficiency is a common feature of modern current inverters and is not a unique selling proposition. Other factors that influence the buyer's decision are cost reduction, reliability and service, optimum grid integration, and the challenges of the competitive thin film technology. (orig.)

  7. Orion, a high efficiency 4π neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crema, E.; Piasecki, E.; Wang, X.M.; Doubre, H.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Pouthas, J.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    1990-01-01

    In intermediate energy heavy ion collisions the multiplicity of emitted neutrons is strongly connected to energy dissipation and to impact parameter. We present the 4π detector ORION, a high efficiency liquid scintillator detector which permits to get information on the multiplicity of neutrons measured event-wise and on the spatial distribution of these neutrons [fr

  8. High efficiency hydrodynamic DNA fragmentation in a bubbling system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lanhui; Jin, Mingliang; Sun, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xie, Shuting; Zhou, Guofu; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Shui, Lingling

    2017-01-01

    DNA fragmentation down to a precise fragment size is important for biomedical applications, disease determination, gene therapy and shotgun sequencing. In this work, a cheap, easy to operate and high efficiency DNA fragmentation method is demonstrated based on hydrodynamic shearing in a bubbling

  9. High efficiency confinement mode by electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funahashi, Akimasa

    1987-01-01

    In the medium size nuclear fusion experiment facility JFT-2M in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the research on the high efficiency plasma confinement mode has been advanced, and in the experiment in June, 1987, the formation of a high efficiency confinement mode was successfully controlled by electron cyclotron heating, for the first time in the world. This result further advanced the control of the formation of a high efficiency plasma confinement mode and the elucidation of the physical mechanism of that mode, and promoted the research and development of the plasma heating by electron cyclotron heating. In this paper, the recent results of the research on a high efficiency confinement mode at the JFT-2M are reported, and the role of the JFT-2M and the experiment on the improvement of core plasma performance are outlined. Now the plasma temperature exceeding 100 million deg C has been attained in large tokamaks, and in medium size facilities, the various measures for improving confinement performance are to be brought forth and their scientific basis is elucidated to assist large facilities. The JFT-2M started the operation in April, 1983, and has accumulated the results smoothly since then. (Kako, I.)

  10. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  11. High-efficient solar cells with porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migunova, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that the porous silicon is multifunctional high-efficient coating on silicon solar cells, modifies its surface and combines in it self antireflection and passivation properties., The different optoelectronic effects in solar cells with porous silicon were considered. The comparative parameters of uncovered photodetectors also solar cells with porous silicon and other coatings were resulted. (author)

  12. Benefits of high aerodynamic efficiency to orbital transfer vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G.; Norris, R. B.; Paris, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    The benefits and costs of high aerodynamic efficiency on aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicles (AOTV) are analyzed. Results show that a high lift to drag (L/D) AOTV can achieve significant velocity savings relative to low L/D aerobraked OTV's when traveling round trip between low Earth orbits (LEO) and alternate orbits as high as geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). Trajectory analysis is used to show the impact of thermal protection system technology and the importance of lift loading coefficient on vehicle performance. The possible improvements in AOTV subsystem technologies are assessed and their impact on vehicle inert weight and performance noted. Finally, the performance of high L/D AOTV concepts is compared with the performances of low L/D aeroassisted and all propulsive OTV concepts to assess the benefits of aerodynamic efficiency on this class of vehicle.

  13. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  14. How high are option values in energy-efficiency investments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Blumstein, C.; Stoft, S.E.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA,

    1995-01-01

    High implicit discount rates in consumers' energy-efficiency investments have long been a source of controversy. In several recent papers, Hassett and Metcalf argue that the uncertainty and irreversibility attendant to such investments, and the resulting option value, account for this anomalously high implicit discounting. Using their model and data, we show that, to the contrary, their analysis falls well short of providing an explanation of this pattern. (author)

  15. X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirkert, Florian J; Paulus, Michael; Nase, Julia; Möller, Johannes; Kujawski, Simon; Sternemann, Christian; Tolan, Metin

    2014-01-01

    A high-pressure cell for in situ X-ray reflectivity measurements of liquid/solid interfaces at hydrostatic pressures up to 500 MPa (5 kbar), a pressure regime that is particularly important for the study of protein unfolding, is presented. The original set-up of this hydrostatic high-pressure cell is discussed and its unique properties are demonstrated by the investigation of pressure-induced adsorption of the protein lysozyme onto hydrophobic silicon wafers. The presented results emphasize the enormous potential of X-ray reflectivity studies under high hydrostatic pressure conditions for the in situ investigation of adsorption phenomena in biological systems.

  16. Leveraging Open Standard Interfaces in Providing Efficient Discovery, Retrieval, and Information of NASA-Sponsored Observations and Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M.; Alameh, N.; Bambacus, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Applied Sciences Program at NASA focuses on extending the results of NASA's Earth-Sun system science research beyond the science and research communities to contribute to national priority applications with societal benefits. By employing a systems engineering approach, supporting interoperable data discovery and access, and developing partnerships with federal agencies and national organizations, the Applied Sciences Program facilitates the transition from research to operations in national applications. In particular, the Applied Sciences Program identifies twelve national applications, listed at http://science.hq.nasa.gov/earth-sun/applications/, which can be best served by the results of NASA aerospace research and development of science and technologies. The ability to use and integrate NASA data and science results into these national applications results in enhanced decision support and significant socio-economic benefits for each of the applications. This paper focuses on leveraging the power of interoperability and specifically open standard interfaces in providing efficient discovery, retrieval, and integration of NASA's science research results. Interoperability (the ability to access multiple, heterogeneous geoprocessing environments, either local or remote by means of open and standard software interfaces) can significantly increase the value of NASA-related data by increasing the opportunities to discover, access and integrate that data in the twelve identified national applications (particularly in non-traditional settings). Furthermore, access to data, observations, and analytical models from diverse sources can facilitate interdisciplinary and exploratory research and analysis. To streamline this process, the NASA GeoSciences Interoperability Office (GIO) is developing the NASA Earth-Sun System Gateway (ESG) to enable access to remote geospatial data, imagery, models, and visualizations through open, standard web protocols. The gateway (online

  17. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  18. Direct evidence of chemically inhomogeneous, nanostructured, Si-O buried interfaces and their effect on the efficiency of carbon nanotube/Si photovoltaic heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Pintossi, Chiara; Salvinelli, Gabriele; Drera, Giovanni; Pagliara, Stefania; Sangaletti, L.; Del Gobbo, Silvano; Morbidoni, Maurizio; Scarselli, Manuela A.; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Castrucci, Paola

    2013-01-01

    An angle resolved X-ray photoemission study of carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells is reported, providing a direct probe of a chemically inhomogeneous, Si-O buried interface between the carbon nanotube (CNT) networked layer and the n-type Si substrate. By changing the photoelectron takeoff angle of the analyzer, a nondestructive in-depth profiling of a CNT/SiOx/SiO2/Si complex interface is achieved. Data are interpreted on the basis of an extensive modeling of the photoemission process from layered structures, which fully accounts for the depth distribution function of the photoemitted electrons. As X-ray photoemission spectroscopy provides direct access to the buried interface, the aging and the effects of chemical etching on the buried interface have been highlighted. This allowed us to show how the thickness and the composition of the buried interface can be related to the efficiency of the PV cell. The results clearly indicate that while SiO2 is related to an increase of the efficiency, acting as a buffer layer, SiOx is detrimental to cell performances, though it can be selectively removed by etching in HF vapors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. Direct evidence of chemically inhomogeneous, nanostructured, Si-O buried interfaces and their effect on the efficiency of carbon nanotube/Si photovoltaic heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Pintossi, Chiara

    2013-09-12

    An angle resolved X-ray photoemission study of carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid photovoltaic (PV) cells is reported, providing a direct probe of a chemically inhomogeneous, Si-O buried interface between the carbon nanotube (CNT) networked layer and the n-type Si substrate. By changing the photoelectron takeoff angle of the analyzer, a nondestructive in-depth profiling of a CNT/SiOx/SiO2/Si complex interface is achieved. Data are interpreted on the basis of an extensive modeling of the photoemission process from layered structures, which fully accounts for the depth distribution function of the photoemitted electrons. As X-ray photoemission spectroscopy provides direct access to the buried interface, the aging and the effects of chemical etching on the buried interface have been highlighted. This allowed us to show how the thickness and the composition of the buried interface can be related to the efficiency of the PV cell. The results clearly indicate that while SiO2 is related to an increase of the efficiency, acting as a buffer layer, SiOx is detrimental to cell performances, though it can be selectively removed by etching in HF vapors. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Heat pumps; Synergy of high efficiency and low carbon electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Akio

    2010-09-15

    Heat pump is attracting wide attention for its high efficiency to utilize inexhaustible and renewable ambient heat in the environment. With its rapid innovation and efficiency improvement, this technology has a huge potential to reduce CO2 emissions by replacing currently widespread fossil fuel combustion systems to meet various heat demands from the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. Barriers to deployment such as low public awareness and a relatively long pay-back period do exist, so it is strongly recommended that each country implement policies to promote heat pumps as a renewable energy option and an effective method to combat global warming.

  1. Development of large area, high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, K.S.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.W. [Yu Kong Taedok Institute of Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    The objective of the research is to develop the mass-production technologies of high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells in order to reduce the costs of solar cells and dissemination of solar cells. Amorphous silicon solar cell is the most promising option of thin film solar cells which are relatively easy to reduce the costs. The final goal of the research is to develop amorphous silicon solar cells having the efficiency of 10%, the ratio of light-induced degradation 15% in the area of 1200 cm{sup 2} and test the cells in the form of 2 Kw grid-connected photovoltaic system. (author) 35 refs., 8 tabs., 67 figs.

  2. Iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohla, K; Witte, K J

    1976-07-01

    The scaling laws of an iodine laser of high efficiency and fast repetition rate are reported. The laser is pumped with a new kind of low pressure Hg-UV-lamps which convert 32% of the electrical input in UV-light in the absorption band of the iodine laser and which can be fired up to 100 Hz. Details of a 10 kJ/1 nsec system as dimensions, energy density, repetition rate, flow velocity, gas composition and gas pressure and the overall efficiency are given which is expected to be about 2%.

  3. The problems of high efficient extraction from the isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwabe, J.

    1994-06-01

    The problem of high efficient extraction (η ≥ 50%) from isochronous cyclotrons (with the exception of the stripping method) is not completely solved up to this day. This problem is specifically important, because these cyclotrons are being also applied in the production of medical radioisotopes, labeled pharmaceuticals as well as in neutron therapy (oncology), machine industry, agriculture (plant mutagenesis), etc. The aim of the proposed topic is to solve this problem on the AIC-144 isochronous cyclotron in the INP (Institute of Nuclear Physics). Lately, a beam of 20 MeV deuterons with an efficiency of ca. 15% was extracted from this cyclotron. (author). 25 refs, 14 figs

  4. Highly Flexible and Efficient Solar Steam Generation Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaoji; Li, Yiju; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Zhi; Kuang, Yudi; Hitz, Emily; Jia, Chao; Gong, Amy; Jiang, Feng; Zhu, J Y; Yang, Bao; Xie, Jia; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-08-01

    Solar steam generation with subsequent steam recondensation has been regarded as one of the most promising techniques to utilize the abundant solar energy and sea water or other unpurified water through water purification, desalination, and distillation. Although tremendous efforts have been dedicated to developing high-efficiency solar steam generation devices, challenges remain in terms of the relatively low efficiency, complicated fabrications, high cost, and inability to scale up. Here, inspired by the water transpiration behavior of trees, the use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified flexible wood membrane (F-Wood/CNTs) is demonstrated as a flexible, portable, recyclable, and efficient solar steam generation device for low-cost and scalable solar steam generation applications. Benefitting from the unique structural merits of the F-Wood/CNTs membrane-a black CNT-coated hair-like surface with excellent light absorbability, wood matrix with low thermal conductivity, hierarchical micro- and nanochannels for water pumping and escaping, solar steam generation device based on the F-Wood/CNTs membrane demonstrates a high efficiency of 81% at 10 kW cm -2 , representing one of the highest values ever-reported. The nature-inspired design concept in this study is straightforward and easily scalable, representing one of the most promising solutions for renewable and portable solar energy generation and other related phase-change applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Highly Efficient Light-Emitting Diodes of Colloidal Metal-Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals beyond Quantum Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Wolf, Christoph; Kim, Young-Tae; Cho, Himchan; Kwon, Woosung; Do, Sungan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Park, Chan Gyung; Rhee, Shi-Woo; Im, Sang Hyuk; Friend, Richard H; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2017-07-25

    Colloidal metal-halide perovskite quantum dots (QDs) with a dimension less than the exciton Bohr diameter D B (quantum size regime) emerged as promising light emitters due to their spectrally narrow light, facile color tuning, and high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE). However, their size-sensitive emission wavelength and color purity and low electroluminescence efficiency are still challenging aspects. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on the colloidal perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) in a dimension > D B (regime beyond quantum size) by using a multifunctional buffer hole injection layer (Buf-HIL). The perovskite NCs with a dimension greater than D B show a size-irrespective high color purity and PLQE by managing the recombination of excitons occurring at surface traps and inside the NCs. The Buf-HIL composed of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and perfluorinated ionomer induces uniform perovskite particle films with complete film coverage and prevents exciton quenching at the PEDOT:PSS/perovskite particle film interface. With these strategies, we achieved a very high PLQE (∼60.5%) in compact perovskite particle films without any complex post-treatments and multilayers and a high current efficiency of 15.5 cd/A in the LEDs of colloidal perovskite NCs, even in a simplified structure, which is the highest efficiency to date in green LEDs that use colloidal organic-inorganic metal-halide perovskite nanoparticles including perovskite QDs and NCs. These results can help to guide development of various light-emitting optoelectronic applications based on perovskite NCs.

  6. Simple processing of high efficiency silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamammu, I.M.; Ibrahim, K.

    2006-01-01

    Cost effective photovoltaic devices have been an area research since the development of the first solar cells, as cost is the major factor in their usage. Silicon solar cells have the biggest share in the photovoltaic market, though silicon os not the optimal material for solar cells. This work introduces a simplified approach for high efficiency silicon solar cell processing, by minimizing the processing steps and thereby reducing cost. The suggested procedure might also allow for the usage of lower quality materials compared to the one used today. The main features of the present work fall into: simplifying the diffusion process, edge shunt isolation and using acidic texturing instead of the standard alkaline processing. Solar cells of 17% efficiency have been produced using this procedure. Investigations on the possibility of improving the efficiency and using less quality material are still underway

  7. High efficiency graphene coated copper based thermocells connected in series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhuja, Mani; Indubala, Emayavaramban; Sudha, Venkatachalam; Harinipriya, Seshadri

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60ºC of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  8. High Efficiency Graphene Coated Copper Based Thermocells Connected in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Sindhuja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of low-grade waste heat into electricity had been studied employing single thermocell or flowcells so far. Graphene coated copper electrodes based thermocells connected in series displayed relatively high efficiency of thermal energy harvesting. The maximum power output of 49.2 W/m2 for normalized cross sectional electrode area is obtained at 60°C of inter electrode temperature difference. The relative carnot efficiency of 20.2% is obtained from the device. The importance of reducing the mass transfer and ion transfer resistance to improve the efficiency of the device is demonstrated. Degradation studies confirmed mild oxidation of copper foil due to corrosion caused by the electrolyte.

  9. Rigid-beam model of a high-efficiency magnicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, D.E.; Tallerico, P.J.; Humphries, S.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The magnicon is a new type of high-efficiency deflection-modulated amplifier developed at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk, Russia. The prototype pulsed magnicon achieved an output power of 2.4 MW and an efficiency of 73% at 915 MHz. This paper presents the results of a rigid-beam model for a 700-MHz, 2.5-MW 82%-efficient magnicon. The rigid-beam model allows for characterization of the beam dynamics by tracking only a single electron. The magnicon design presented consists of a drive cavity; passive cavities; a pi-mode, coupled-deflection cavity; and an output cavity. It represents an optimized design. The model is fully self-consistent, and this paper presents the details of the model and calculated performance of a 2.5-MW magnicon

  10. HIGH JET EFFICIENCY AND SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE MAGNETOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punsly, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports on a growing body of observational evidence that many powerful lobe-dominated (FR II) radio sources likely have jets with high efficiency. This study extends the maximum efficiency line (jet power ∼25 times the thermal luminosity) defined in Fernandes et al. so as to span four decades of jet power. The fact that this line extends over the full span of FR II radio power is a strong indication that this is a fundamental property of jet production that is independent of accretion power. This is a valuable constraint for theorists. For example, the currently popular 'no-net-flux' numerical models of black hole accretion produce jets that are two to three orders of magnitude too weak to be consistent with sources near maximum efficiency.

  11. High efficiency particulate removal with sintered metal filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, B.E.; Paplawsky, W.J.; Pence, D.T.; Hedahl, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Because of their particle removal efficiencies and durability, sintered metal filters have been chosen for high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter protection in the off-gas treatment system for the proposed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility. Process evaluation of sintered metal filters indicated a lack of sufficient process design data to ensure trouble-free operation. Subsequence pilot scale testing was performed with flyash as the test particulate. The test results showed that the sintered metal filters can have an efficiency greater than 0.9999999 for the specific test conditions used. Stable pressure drop characteristics were observed in pulsed and reversed flow blowback modes of operation. Over 4900 hours of operation were obtained with operating conditions ranging up to approximately 90 0 C and 24 vol % water vapor in the gas stream

  12. High-Efficiency BODIPY-Based Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, John J.; Conron, Sarah M.; Erwin, Patrick; Dimitriou, Michael; McAlahney, Kyle; Thompson, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. A benzannulated boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY, bDIP) molecule exhibiting strong absorption at 640 nm was synthesized. The organic dye was used in an organic solar cell as the electron donor with C60 as the acceptor. The BODIPY dye demonstrated the best performance in lamellar architecture (indium tin oxide (ITO)/bDIP/C60/bathocuproine/Al), giving power conversion efficiency up to 4.5% with short-circuit current (JSC) of 8.7 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.81 V. Neutron reflectivity experiments were performed on the bilayer film to investigate the thickness dependence of JSC. A 13 nm mixed layer was found to be present at the donor/acceptor interface in the bilayer device, formed when the C60 was deposited onto a room temperature bDIP film. Planar-mixed heterojunction devices were fabricated to understand the extent of spontaneous mixing between the donor and acceptor materials. The native mixed region in the bilayer device was shown to most resemble 1:3 bDIP:C60 layer in the structure: (ITO/bDIP/bDIP:C60 blend/C60/bathocuproine/Al).

  13. High-Efficiency BODIPY-Based Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, John J.

    2015-01-14

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. A benzannulated boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY, bDIP) molecule exhibiting strong absorption at 640 nm was synthesized. The organic dye was used in an organic solar cell as the electron donor with C60 as the acceptor. The BODIPY dye demonstrated the best performance in lamellar architecture (indium tin oxide (ITO)/bDIP/C60/bathocuproine/Al), giving power conversion efficiency up to 4.5% with short-circuit current (JSC) of 8.7 mA/cm2 and an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.81 V. Neutron reflectivity experiments were performed on the bilayer film to investigate the thickness dependence of JSC. A 13 nm mixed layer was found to be present at the donor/acceptor interface in the bilayer device, formed when the C60 was deposited onto a room temperature bDIP film. Planar-mixed heterojunction devices were fabricated to understand the extent of spontaneous mixing between the donor and acceptor materials. The native mixed region in the bilayer device was shown to most resemble 1:3 bDIP:C60 layer in the structure: (ITO/bDIP/bDIP:C60 blend/C60/bathocuproine/Al).

  14. High accuracy interface characterization of three phase material systems in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Hansen, Karin Vels; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of interface properties such as two phase boundary area and triple phase boundary length is important in the characterization ofmanymaterial microstructures, in particular for solid oxide fuel cell electrodes. Three-dimensional images of these microstructures can be obtained...... by tomography schemes such as focused ion beam serial sectioning or micro-computed tomography. We present a high accuracy method of calculating two phase surface areas and triple phase length of triple phase systems from subvoxel accuracy segmentations of constituent phases. The method performs a three phase...... polygonization of the interface boundaries which results in a non-manifold mesh of connected faces. We show how the triple phase boundaries can be extracted as connected curve loops without branches. The accuracy of the method is analyzed by calculations on geometrical primitives...

  15. High-Density Signal Interface Electromagnetic Radiation Prediction for Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    Radiated power calculation approaches for practical scenarios of incomplete high- density interface characterization information and incomplete incident power information are presented. The suggested approaches build upon a method that characterizes power losses through the definition of power loss constant matrices. Potential radiated power estimates include using total power loss information, partial radiated power loss information, worst case analysis, and statistical bounding analysis. A method is also proposed to calculate radiated power when incident power information is not fully known for non-periodic signals at the interface. Incident data signals are modeled from a two-state Markov chain where bit state probabilities are derived. The total spectrum for windowed signals is postulated as the superposition of spectra from individual pulses in a data sequence. Statistical bounding methods are proposed as a basis for the radiated power calculation due to the statistical calculation complexity to find a radiated power probability density function.

  16. A high voltage SOI pLDMOS with a partial interface equipotential floating buried layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lijuan; Zhang Wentong; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji

    2013-01-01

    A novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) high-voltage pLDMOS is presented with a partial interface equipotential floating buried layer (FBL) and its analytical model is analyzed in this paper. The surface heavily doped p-top layers, interface floating buried N + /P + layers, and three-step field plates are designed carefully in the FBL SOI pLDMOS to optimize the electric field distribution of the drift region and reduce the specific resistance. On the condition of ESIMOX (epoxy separated by implanted oxygen), it has been shown that the breakdown voltage of the FBL SOI pLDMOS is increased from −232 V of the conventional SOI to −425 V and the specific resistance R on,sp is reduced from 0.88 to 0.2424 Ω·cm 2 . (semiconductor devices)

  17. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  18. A Strategy to Enhance the Efficiency of Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells by Decreasing Electron Recombination with Polyoxometalate/TiO2 as the Electronic Interface Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Chen, Weilin; Li, Jianping; Wang, Jiabo; Wang, Enbo

    2017-07-21

    Electron recombination occurring at the TiO 2 /quantum dot sensitizer/electrolyte interface is the key reason for hindering further efficiency improvements to quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSCs). Polyoxometalate (POM) can act as an electron-transfer medium to decrease electron recombination in a photoelectric device owing to its excellent oxidation/reduction properties and thermostability. A POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layer prepared by a simple layer-by-layer self-assembly method was added between fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and mesoporous TiO 2 in the photoanode of QDSCs, and the effect on the photovoltaic performance was systematically investigated. Photovoltaic experimental results and the electron transmission mechanism show that the POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layer in the QDSCs can clearly suppress electron recombination, increase the electron lifetime, and result in smoother electron transmission. In summary, the best conversion efficiency of QDSCs with POM/TiO 2 electronic interface layers increases to 8.02 %, which is an improvement of 25.1 % compared with QDSCs without POM/TiO 2 . This work first builds an electron-transfer bridge between FTO and the quantum dot sensitizer and paves the way for further improved efficiency of QDSCs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Thiol-ene Monolithic Pepsin Microreactor with a 3D-Printed Interface for Efficient UPLC-MS Peptide Mapping Analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Alexander; Svejdal, Rasmus R; Bøgelund, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    To improve the sample handling, and reduce cost and preparation time, of peptide mapping LC-MS workflows in protein analytical research, we here investigate the possibility of replacing conventional enzymatic digestion methods with a polymer microfluidic chip based enzyme reactor. Off-stoichiomet...... used in LC-MS based protein analyses. The chip IMER is found to rival the conventional column in terms of digestion efficiency at comparable residence time and, using a 3D-printed interface, be directly interfaceable with LC-MS....

  20. Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.; Tyler, Tony R.; Piper, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Lightweight high efficiency electric motors are needed across a wide range of space applications from - thrust vector actuator control for launch and flight applications to - general vehicle, base camp habitat and experiment control for various mechanisms to - robotics for various stationary and mobile space exploration missions. QM Power?s Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors have slowly proven themselves to be a leading motor technology in this area; winning a NASA Phase II for "Lightweight High Efficiency Electric Motors and Actuators for Low Temperature Mobility and Robotics Applications" a US Army Phase II SBIR for "Improved Robot Actuator Motors for Medical Applications", an NSF Phase II SBIR for "Novel Low-Cost Electric Motors for Variable Speed Applications" and a DOE SBIR Phase I for "High Efficiency Commercial Refrigeration Motors" Parallel Path Magnetic Technology obtains the benefits of using permanent magnets while minimizing the historical trade-offs/limitations found in conventional permanent magnet designs. The resulting devices are smaller, lower weight, lower cost and have higher efficiency than competitive permanent magnet and non-permanent magnet designs. QM Power?s motors have been extensively tested and successfully validated by multiple commercial and aerospace customers and partners as Boeing Research and Technology. Prototypes have been made between 0.1 and 10 HP. They are also in the process of scaling motors to over 100kW with their development partners. In this paper, Parallel Path Magnetic Technology Motors will be discussed; specifically addressing their higher efficiency, higher power density, lighter weight, smaller physical size, higher low end torque, wider power zone, cooler temperatures, and greater reliability with lower cost and significant environment benefit for the same peak output power compared to typically motors. A further discussion on the inherent redundancy of these motors for space applications will be provided.

  1. Ion transfer from an atmospheric pressure ion funnel into a mass spectrometer with different interface options: Simulation-based optimization of ion transmission efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Thomas; Borsdorf, Helko

    2016-02-15

    We optimized an atmospheric pressure ion funnel (APIF) including different interface options (pinhole, capillary, and nozzle) regarding a maximal ion transmission. Previous computer simulations consider the ion funnel itself and do not include the geometry of the following components which can considerably influence the ion transmission into the vacuum stage. Initially, a three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) model of our setup was created using Autodesk Inventor. This model was imported to the Autodesk Simulation CFD program where the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) were calculated. The flow field was transferred to SIMION 8.1. Investigations of ion trajectories were carried out using the SDS (statistical diffusion simulation) tool of SIMION, which allowed us to evaluate the flow regime, pressure, and temperature values that we obtained. The simulation-based optimization of different interfaces between an atmospheric pressure ion funnel and the first vacuum stage of a mass spectrometer require the consideration of fluid dynamics. The use of a Venturi nozzle ensures the highest level of transmission efficiency in comparison to capillaries or pinholes. However, the application of radiofrequency (RF) voltage and an appropriate direct current (DC) field leads to process optimization and maximum ion transfer. The nozzle does not hinder the transfer of small ions. Our high-resolution SIMION model (0.01 mm grid unit(-1) ) under consideration of fluid dynamics is generally suitable for predicting the ion transmission through an atmospheric-vacuum system for mass spectrometry and enables the optimization of operational parameters. A Venturi nozzle inserted between the ion funnel and the mass spectrometer permits maximal ion transmission. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  3. Efficient Smoothed Concomitant Lasso Estimation for High Dimensional Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Eugene; Fercoq, Olivier; Gramfort, Alexandre; Leclère, Vincent; Salmon, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    In high dimensional settings, sparse structures are crucial for efficiency, both in term of memory, computation and performance. It is customary to consider ℓ 1 penalty to enforce sparsity in such scenarios. Sparsity enforcing methods, the Lasso being a canonical example, are popular candidates to address high dimension. For efficiency, they rely on tuning a parameter trading data fitting versus sparsity. For the Lasso theory to hold this tuning parameter should be proportional to the noise level, yet the latter is often unknown in practice. A possible remedy is to jointly optimize over the regression parameter as well as over the noise level. This has been considered under several names in the literature: Scaled-Lasso, Square-root Lasso, Concomitant Lasso estimation for instance, and could be of interest for uncertainty quantification. In this work, after illustrating numerical difficulties for the Concomitant Lasso formulation, we propose a modification we coined Smoothed Concomitant Lasso, aimed at increasing numerical stability. We propose an efficient and accurate solver leading to a computational cost no more expensive than the one for the Lasso. We leverage on standard ingredients behind the success of fast Lasso solvers: a coordinate descent algorithm, combined with safe screening rules to achieve speed efficiency, by eliminating early irrelevant features.

  4. High Efficiency, High Temperature Foam Core Heat Exchanger for Fission Surface Power Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fission-based power systems with power levels of 30 to ≥100 kWe will be needed for planetary surface bases. Development of high temperature, high efficiency heat...

  5. Combustion phasing for maximum efficiency for conventional and high efficiency engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion phasing for max efficiency is a function of engine parameters. • Combustion phasing is most affected by heat transfer, compression ratio, burn duration. • Combustion phasing is less affected by speed, load, equivalence ratio and EGR. • Combustion phasing for a high efficiency engine was more advanced. • Exergy destruction during combustion as functions of combustion phasing is reported. - Abstract: The importance of the phasing of the combustion event for internal-combustion engines is well appreciated, but quantitative details are sparse. The objective of the current work was to examine the optimum combustion phasing (based on maximum bmep) as functions of engine design and operating variables. A thermodynamic, engine cycle simulation was used to complete this assessment. As metrics for the combustion phasing, both the crank angle for 50% fuel mass burned (CA 50 ) and the crank angle for peak pressure (CA pp ) are reported as functions of the engine variables. In contrast to common statements in the literature, the optimum CA 50 and CA pp vary depending on the design and operating variables. Optimum, as used in this paper, refers to the combustion timing that provides the maximum bmep and brake thermal efficiency (MBT timing). For this work, the variables with the greatest influence on the optimum CA 50 and CA pp were the heat transfer level, the burn duration and the compression ratio. Other variables such as equivalence ratio, EGR level, engine speed and engine load had a much smaller impact on the optimum CA 50 and CA pp . For the conventional engine, for the conditions examined, the optimum CA 50 varied between about 5 and 11°aTDC, and the optimum CA pp varied between about 9 and 16°aTDC. For a high efficiency engine (high dilution, high compression ratio), the optimum CA 50 was 2.5°aTDC, and the optimum CA pp was 7.8°aTDC. These more advanced values for the optimum CA 50 and CA pp for the high efficiency engine were

  6. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with GNS/MWCNT/PANI as a counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-bahrani, Majid Raissan; Xu, Xiaobao; Ahmad, Waqar; Ren, Xiaoliang; Su, Jun; Cheng, Ze; Gao, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High-performance PANI/MWCNT-CE was incorporated in a Pt-CE in DSSCs. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE exhibits a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52%. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a high catalytic activity for the reduction of I 3 − . • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a low R CT on the electrolyte/CE interface. - Abstract: A graphene-based nanosheet composite/multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (GNS/MWCNT/PANI) was synthesized via an in situ polymerization technique and applied by the spin-coating method as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combination of the high catalytic activity of PANI and outstanding conductivity of GNS/MWCNT improved the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid CE. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has high catalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide to iodide and low charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE has a rough and porous structure and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of PANI coating on the surface of the GNS/CNT. In particular, current–voltage measurements showed the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52% of the DSSC based on GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE compared to the PCE of 6.69% of the DSSC based on Pt-CE

  7. Highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cell with GNS/MWCNT/PANI as a counter electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-bahrani, Majid Raissan [Center for Nanoscale Characterization and Devices (CNCD), Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - HUST, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Faculty of Science, Thi-Qar University, Nassiriya (Iraq); Xu, Xiaobao [Michael Grätzel Center for Mesoscopic Solar Cells, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Ahmad, Waqar; Ren, Xiaoliang; Su, Jun [Center for Nanoscale Characterization and Devices (CNCD), Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - HUST, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheng, Ze [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gao, Yihua, E-mail: gaoyihua@hust.edu.cn [Center for Nanoscale Characterization and Devices (CNCD), Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics (WNLO)-School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology - HUST, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • High-performance PANI/MWCNT-CE was incorporated in a Pt-CE in DSSCs. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE exhibits a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52%. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a high catalytic activity for the reduction of I{sub 3}{sup −}. • GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has a low R{sub CT} on the electrolyte/CE interface. - Abstract: A graphene-based nanosheet composite/multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (GNS/MWCNT/PANI) was synthesized via an in situ polymerization technique and applied by the spin-coating method as a counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The combination of the high catalytic activity of PANI and outstanding conductivity of GNS/MWCNT improved the photovoltaic performance of the hybrid CE. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI composite has high catalytic activity for the reduction of triiodide to iodide and low charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/electrode interface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE has a rough and porous structure and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of PANI coating on the surface of the GNS/CNT. In particular, current–voltage measurements showed the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.52% of the DSSC based on GNS/MWCNT/PANI-CE compared to the PCE of 6.69% of the DSSC based on Pt-CE.

  8. Light-induced lattice expansion leads to high-efficiency perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Hsinhan; Asadpour, Reza; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Durand, Olivier; Strzalka, Joseph W.; Chen, Bo; Verduzco, Rafael; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Tretiak, Sergei; Even, Jacky; Alam, Muhammad Ashraf; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2018-04-05

    Hybrid-perovskite based high-performance optoelectronic devices and clues from their operation has led to the realization that light-induced structural dynamics play a vital role on their physical properties, device performance and stability. Here, we report that continuous light illumination leads to a uniform lattice expansion in hybrid perovskite thin-films, which is critical for obtaining high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. Correlated, in-situ structural and device characterizations reveal that light-induced lattice expansion significantly benefits the performances of a mixed-cation pure-halide planar device, boosting the power conversion efficiency from 18.5% to 20.5%. This is a direct consequence of the relaxation of local lattice strains during lattice expansion, which results in the reduction of the energetic barriers at the perovskite/contact interfaces in devices, thus improving the open circuit voltage and fill factor. The light-induced lattice expansion stabilizes these high-efficiency photovoltaic devices under continuous operation of full-spectrum 1-Sun illumination for over 1500 hours. One Sentence Summary: Light-induced lattice expansion improves crystallinity, relaxes lattice strain, which enhances photovoltaic performance in hybrid perovskite device.

  9. High resolution PET breast imager with improved detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw

    2010-06-08

    A highly efficient PET breast imager for detecting lesions in the entire breast including those located close to the patient's chest wall. The breast imager includes a ring of imaging modules surrounding the imaged breast. Each imaging module includes a slant imaging light guide inserted between a gamma radiation sensor and a photodetector. The slant light guide permits the gamma radiation sensors to be placed in close proximity to the skin of the chest wall thereby extending the sensitive region of the imager to the base of the breast. Several types of photodetectors are proposed for use in the detector modules, with compact silicon photomultipliers as the preferred choice, due to its high compactness. The geometry of the detector heads and the arrangement of the detector ring significantly reduce dead regions thereby improving detection efficiency for lesions located close to the chest wall.

  10. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs

  11. High efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Conner, J.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Turner, C.; Vahla, G.; Violet, C.; Williams, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiently particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing steel filters, they first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, prototype filters were then built for venting compressed gases and evaluated in their automated filter tester

  12. Blanket options for high-efficiency fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  13. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  14. Fusion blanket for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Powell, J.R.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Taussig, R.

    1980-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperature (500 0 C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project two-zone blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by Ar) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approx. 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum Ar temperature is 2230 0 C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case

  15. Fusion blankets for high-efficiency power cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, J.L.; Lazareth, O.W.; Fillo, J.A.; Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The efficiencies of blankets for fusion reactors are usually in the range of 30 to 40%, limited by the operating temperatures (500 deg C) of conventional structural materials such as stainless steels. In this project 'two-zone' blankets are proposed; these blankets consist of a low-temperature shell surrounding a high-temperature interior zone. A survey of nucleonics and thermal hydraulic parameters has led to a reference blanket design consisting of a water-cooled stainless steel shell around a BeO, ZrO 2 interior (cooled by argon) utilizing Li 2 O for tritium breeding. In this design, approximately 60% of the fusion energy is deposited in the high-temperature interior. The maximum argon temperature is 2230 deg C leading to an overall efficiency estimate of 55 to 60% for this reference case. (author)

  16. Irradiation effects on high efficiency Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duy, T.; Amingual, D.; Colardelle, P.; Bernard, J.

    1974-01-01

    By optimizing the diffusion parameters, high efficiency cells are obtained with 2ohmsxcm (13.5% AMO) and 10ohmsxcm (12.5% AMO) silicon material. These new cells have been submitted to radiation tests under 1MeV, 2MeV electrons and 2.5MeV protons. Their behavior under irradiation is found to be dependent only on the bulk material. By using the same resistivity silicon, the rate of degradation is exactly the same than those of conventional cells. The power increase, due to a better superficial response of the cell, is maintained after irradiation. These results show that new high efficiency cells offer an E.O.L. power higher than conventional cells [fr

  17. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grillo, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.grillo@nano.cnr.it [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Carlo Gazzadi, Gian [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Karimi, Ebrahim [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mafakheri, Erfan [Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Boyd, Robert W. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Frabboni, Stefano [CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Centro S3, Via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Informatica e Matematica, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, via G Campi 213/a, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2014-01-27

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science.

  18. Holography as a highly efficient RG flow I: Rephrasing gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Behr, Nicolas; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Mukhopadhyay, Ayan

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how the holographic correspondence can be reformulated as a generalisation of Wilsonian RG flow in a strongly interacting large $N$ quantum field theory. We firstly define a \\textit{highly efficient RG flow} as one in which the Ward identities related to local conservation of energy, momentum and charges preserve the same form at each scale -- to achieve this it is necessary to redefine the background metric and external sources at each scale as functionals of the effective sin...

  19. Sm , Bi phosphors with high efficiency white-light-emittin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-29

    Aug 29, 2017 ... Therefore, researches on high efficiency red phos- phors are very important. So far ..... ing concentration and reached a maximum at y = 8 mol%. A .... [10] Xue L P, Wang Y J, Lv P W, Chen D G, Lin Z, Liang J K et al. 2009 Crystal ... [28] Liu J, Xu B, Song C, Luo H, Zou X, Han L et al 2012 Cryst-. EngComm.

  20. High-efficiency pumps drastically reduce energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2002-05-01

    Wilo's Stratos pumps for air conditioning and other domestic heating applications combine the advantages of wet runner technology with an innovative electronic commutator motor. The energy consumption of these high-efficiency pumps is halved compared with similar wet runner designs. With vast numbers of pumps used in buildings across Europe alone, the adoption of this technology potentially offers significant energy sayings. (Author)

  1. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-04-05

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  2. Highly efficient electron vortex beams generated by nanofabricated phase holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grillo, Vincenzo; Carlo Gazzadi, Gian; Karimi, Ebrahim; Mafakheri, Erfan; Boyd, Robert W.; Frabboni, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We propose an improved type of holographic-plate suitable for the shaping of electron beams. The plate is fabricated by a focused ion beam on a silicon nitride membrane and introduces a controllable phase shift to the electron wavefunction. We adopted the optimal blazed-profile design for the phase hologram, which results in the generation of highly efficient (25%) electron vortex beams. This approach paves the route towards applications in nano-scale imaging and materials science

  3. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Xu, Guang-Hua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710054 (China)

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  4. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25 Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40 Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25 Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n n with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method

  5. High voltage generator circuit with low power and high efficiency applied in EEPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Zhang Shilin; Zhao Yiqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a low power and high efficiency high voltage generator circuit embedded in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM). The low power is minimized by a capacitance divider circuit and a regulator circuit using the controlling clock switch technique. The high efficiency is dependent on the zero threshold voltage (V th ) MOSFET and the charge transfer switch (CTS) charge pump. The proposed high voltage generator circuit has been implemented in a 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS process. Measured results show that the proposed high voltage generator circuit has a low power consumption of about 150.48 μW and a higher pumping efficiency (83.3%) than previously reported circuits. This high voltage generator circuit can also be widely used in low-power flash devices due to its high efficiency and low power dissipation. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Weber, F.; Wilson, P.; Lopez, R.; Valha, G.; Conner, J.; Garr, J.; Williams, K.; Biermann, A.; Wilson, K.; Moore, P.; Gellner, C.; Rapchun, D.; Simon, K.; Turley, J.; Frye, L.; Monroe, D.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m 2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m 3 /hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO 2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m 3 /hr slip stream from the 10,200 m 3 /hr exhaust system

  7. Telescoping Solar Array Concept for Achieving High Packaging Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulas, Martin; Pappa, Richard; Warren, Jay; Rose, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight, high-efficiency solar arrays are required for future deep space missions using high-power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). Structural performance metrics for state-of-the art 30-50 kW flexible blanket arrays recently demonstrated in ground tests are approximately 40 kW/cu m packaging efficiency, 150 W/kg specific power, 0.1 Hz deployed stiffness, and 0.2 g deployed strength. Much larger arrays with up to a megawatt or more of power and improved packaging and specific power are of interest to mission planners for minimizing launch and life cycle costs of Mars exploration. A new concept referred to as the Compact Telescoping Array (CTA) with 60 kW/cu m packaging efficiency at 1 MW of power is described herein. Performance metrics as a function of array size and corresponding power level are derived analytically and validated by finite element analysis. Feasible CTA packaging and deployment approaches are also described. The CTA was developed, in part, to serve as a NASA reference solar array concept against which other proposed designs of 50-1000 kW arrays for future high-power SEP missions could be compared.

  8. Covalently Bonded Graphene-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for High-Performance Thermal Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jie; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable thermal properties of graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been the subject of intensive investigations for the thermal management of integrated circuits. However, the small contact area of CNTs and the large anisotropic heat conduction of graphene have hindered...... their applications as effective thermal interface materials (TIMs). Here, a covalently bonded graphene–CNT (G-CNT) hybrid is presented that multiplies the axial heat transfer capability of individual CNTs through their parallel arrangement, while at the same time it provides a large contact area for efficient heat...... extraction. Through computer simulations, it is demonstrated that the G-CNT outperforms few-layer graphene by more than 2 orders of magnitude for the c-axis heat transfer, while its thermal resistance is 3 orders of magnitude lower than the state-of-the-art TIMs. We show that heat can be removed from the G...

  9. Design and implementation of interface units for high speed fiber optics local area networks and broadband integrated services digital networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.

  10. The Effect of High Concentration and Small Size of Nanodiamonds on the Strength of Interface and Fracture Properties in Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir A. Haleem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and small size of nanodiamonds (NDs plays a crucial role in the mechanical performance of epoxy-based nanocomposites by modifying the interface strength. Herein, we systemically analyzed the relation between the high concentration and small size of ND and the fracture properties of its epoxy-based nanocomposites. It was observed that there is a two-fold increase in fracture toughness and a three-fold increase in fracture energy. Rationally, functionalized-NDs (F-NDs showed a much better performance for the nanocomposite than pristine NDs (P-NDs because of additional functional groups on its surface. The F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites exhibited rougher surface in contrast with the P-ND/epoxy, indicating the presence of a strong interface. We found that the interfaces in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites at high concentrations of NDs overlap by making a web, which can efficiently hinder further crack propagation. In addition, the de-bonding in P-ND/epoxy nanocomposites occurred at the interface with the appearance of plastic voids or semi-naked particles, whereas the de-bonding for F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites happened within the epoxy molecular network instead of the interface. Because of the strong interface in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites, at high concentrations the de-bonding within the epoxy molecular network may lead to subsequent cracks, parallel to the parent crack, via crack splitting which results in a fiber-like structure on the fracture surface. The plastic void growth, crack deflection and subsequent crack growth were correlated to higher values of fracture toughness and fracture energy in F-ND/epoxy nanocomposites.

  11. High precision efficiency calibration of a HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nica, N.; Hardy, J.C.; Iacob, V.E.; Helmer, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Many experiments involving measurements of γ rays require a very precise efficiency calibration. Since γ-ray detection and identification also requires good energy resolution, the most commonly used detectors are of the coaxial HPGe type. We have calibrated our 70% HPGe to ∼ 0.2% precision, motivated by the measurement of precise branching ratios (BR) in superallowed 0 + → 0 + β decays. These BRs are essential ingredients in extracting ft-values needed to test the Standard Model via the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, a test that it currently fails by more than two standard deviations. To achieve the required high precision in our efficiency calibration, we measured 17 radioactive sources at a source-detector distance of 15 cm. Some of these were commercial 'standard' sources but we achieved the highest relative precision with 'home-made' sources selected because they have simple decay schemes with negligible side feeding, thus providing exactly matched γ-ray intensities. These latter sources were produced by us at Texas A and M by n-activation or by nuclear reactions. Another critical source among the 17 was a 60 Co source produced by Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany: its absolute activity was quoted to better than 0.06%. We used it to establish our absolute efficiency, while all the other sources were used to determine relative efficiencies, extending our calibration over a large energy range (40-3500 keV). Efficiencies were also determined with Monte Carlo calculations performed with the CYLTRAN code. The physical parameters of the Ge crystal were independently determined and only two (unmeasurable) dead-layers were adjusted, within physically reasonable limits, to achieve precise absolute agreement with our measured efficiencies. The combination of measured efficiencies at more than 60 individual energies and Monte Carlo calculations to interpolate between them allows us to quote the efficiency of our

  12. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Kazuo, E-mail: kazuo3_ikeda@ndc.mhi.co.jp

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  13. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  14. Metamaterial Receivers for High Efficiency Concentrated Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yellowhair, Julius E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Kwon, Hoyeong [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Alu, Andrea [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Jarecki, Robert L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Shinde, Subhash L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Operation of concentrated solar power receivers at higher temperatures (>700°C) would enable supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles for improved power cycle efficiencies (>50%) and cost-effective solar thermal power. Unfortunately, radiative losses at higher temperatures in conventional receivers can negatively impact the system efficiency gains. One approach to improve receiver thermal efficiency is to utilize selective coatings that enhance absorption across the visible solar spectrum while minimizing emission in the infrared to reduce radiative losses. Existing coatings, however, tend to degrade rapidly at elevated temperatures. In this report, we report on the initial designs and fabrication of spectrally selective metamaterial-based absorbers for high-temperature, high-thermal flux environments important for solarized sCO2 power cycles. Metamaterials are structured media whose optical properties are determined by sub-wavelength structural features instead of bulk material properties, providing unique solutions by decoupling the optical absorption spectrum from thermal stability requirements. The key enabling innovative concept proposed is the use of structured surfaces with spectral responses that can be tailored to optimize the absorption and retention of solar energy for a given temperature range. In this initial study through the Academic Alliance partnership with University of Texas at Austin, we use Tungsten for its stability in expected harsh environments, compatibility with microfabrication techniques, and required optical performance. Our goal is to tailor the optical properties for high (near unity) absorptivity across the majority of the solar spectrum and over a broad range of incidence angles, and at the same time achieve negligible absorptivity in the near infrared to optimize the energy absorbed and retained. To this goal, we apply the recently developed concept of plasmonic Brewster angle to suitably designed

  15. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar

    2016-06-23

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  16. Highly Efficient Thermoresponsive Nanocomposite for Controlled Release Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Yassine, Omar; Zaher, Amir; Li, Erqiang; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Perez, Jose E.; Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Contreras, Maria F.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T; Khashab, Niveen M.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Highly efficient magnetic release from nanocomposite microparticles is shown, which are made of Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogel with embedded iron nanowires. A simple microfluidic technique was adopted to fabricate the microparticles with a high control of the nanowire concentration and in a relatively short time compared to chemical synthesis methods. The thermoresponsive microparticles were used for the remotely triggered release of Rhodamine (B). With a magnetic field of only 1 mT and 20 kHz a drug release of 6.5% and 70% was achieved in the continuous and pulsatile modes, respectively. Those release values are similar to the ones commonly obtained using superparamagnetic beads but accomplished with a magnetic field of five orders of magnitude lower power. The high efficiency is a result of the high remanent magnetization of the nanowires, which produce a large torque when exposed to a magnetic field. This causes the nanowires to vibrate, resulting in friction losses and heating. For comparison, microparticles with superparamagnetic beads were also fabricated and tested; while those worked at 73 mT and 600 kHz, no release was observed at the low field conditions. Cytotoxicity assays showed similar and high cell viability for microparticles with nanowires and beads.

  17. High Efficiency Heat Exchanger for High Temperature and High Pressure Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    CompRex, LLC (CompRex) specializes in the design and manufacture of compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for high temperature and high pressure applications. CompRex’s proprietary compact technology not only increases heat exchange efficiency by at least 25 % but also reduces footprint by at least a factor of ten compared to traditional shell-and-tube solutions of the same capacity and by 15 to 20 % compared to other currently available Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) solutions. As a result, CompRex’s solution is especially suitable for Brayton cycle supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems given its high efficiency and significantly lower capital and operating expenses. CompRex has already successfully demonstrated its technology and ability to deliver with a pilot-scale compact heat exchanger that was under contract by the Naval Nuclear Laboratory for sCO2 power cycle development. The performance tested unit met or exceeded the thermal and hydraulic specifications with measured heat transfer between 95 to 98 % of maximum heat transfer and temperature and pressure drop values all consistent with the modeled values. CompRex’s vision is to commercialize its compact technology and become the leading provider for compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for various applications including Brayton cycle sCO2 systems. One of the limitations of the sCO2 Brayton power cycle is the design and manufacturing of efficient heat exchangers at extreme operating conditions. Current diffusion-bonded heat exchangers have limitations on the channel size through which the fluid travels, resulting in excessive solid material per heat exchanger volume. CompRex’s design allows for more open area and shorter fluid proximity for increased heat transfer efficiency while sustaining the structural integrity needed for the application. CompRex is developing a novel improvement to its current heat exchanger design where fluids are directed to alternating

  18. Development of a High-Temperature Smart Transducer Interface Node and Telemetry System (HSTINTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.A. et al.

    2006-11-03

    Halliburton Energy Services and Oak Ridge National Laboratory established a CRADA to conduct applied research to develop a general purpose, High-Temperature, Smart Transducer Interface Node and Telemetry System (HSTINTS) capable of temporally-coherent multiple-channel, high speed, high-resolution data transuction and acquisition while operating in a hostile thermal, chemical, and pressure environment for extended periods of time over a single coaxial cable. This ambitious, high-risk effort required development of custom dielectric isolated integrated circuits, amplified hybrid couplers for telemetry and an audio-frequency based power supply and distribution system using an engineered application of standing waves to compensate voltage drop along a 2 mile long cable. Several goals were achieved but underestimated challenges and a couple of mistakes hampered progress. When it was determined that an additional year of concerted effort would be required to complete the system demonstration, the sponsor withdrew funding and terminated the effort.

  19. Recombination mechanisms in highly efficient thin film Zn(S,O)/Cu(In,Ga)S2 based solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdes, S.; Sáez-Araoz, R.; Ennaoui, A.; Klaer, J.; Lux-Steiner, M. Ch.; Klenk, R.

    2009-11-01

    Progress in fabricating Cu(In,Ga)S2 based solar cells with Zn(S,O) buffer is presented. An efficiency of 12.9% was achieved. Using spectral response, current-voltage and temperature dependent current-voltage measurements, current transport in this junction was studied and compared to that of a highly efficient CdS/Cu(In,Ga)S2 solar cell with a special focus on recombination mechanisms. Independently of the buffer type and despite the difference in band alignment of the two junctions, interface recombination is found to be the main recombination channel in both cases. This was unexpected since it is generally assumed that a cliff facilitates interface recombination while a spike suppresses it.

  20. A high efficiency hybrid stirling-pulse tube cryocooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presented a hybrid cryocooler which combines the room temperature displacers and the pulse tube in one system. Compared with a traditional pulse tube cryocooler, the system uses the rod-less ambient displacer to recover the expansion work from the pulse tube cold end to improve the efficiency while still keeps the advantage of the pulse tube cryocooler with no moving parts at the cold region. In the meantime, dual-opposed configurations for both the compression pistons and displacers reduce the cooler vibration to a very low level. In the experiments, a lowest no-load temperature of 38.5 K has been obtained and the cooling power at 80K was 26.4 W with an input electric power of 290 W. This leads to an efficiency of 24.2% of Carnot, marginally higher than that of an ordinary pulse tube cryocooler. The hybrid configuration herein provides a very competitive option when a high efficiency, high-reliability and robust cryocooler is desired.

  1. High-efficiency ballistic electrostatic generator using microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanbo; Bos, Diederik; de Vreede, Lennart J.; de Boer, Hans L.; van der Meulen, Mark-Jan; Versluis, Michel; Sprenkels, Ad J.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2014-04-01

    The strong demand for renewable energy promotes research on novel methods and technologies for energy conversion. Microfluidic systems for energy conversion by streaming current are less known to the public, and the relatively low efficiencies previously obtained seemed to limit the further applications of such systems. Here we report a microdroplet-based electrostatic generator operating by an acceleration-deceleration cycle (‘ballistic’ conversion), and show that this principle enables both high efficiency and compact simple design. Water is accelerated by pumping it through a micropore to form a microjet breaking up into fast-moving charged droplets. Droplet kinetic energy is converted to electrical energy when the charged droplets decelerate in the electrical field that forms between membrane and target. We demonstrate conversion efficiencies of up to 48%, a power density of 160 kW m-2 and both high- (20 kV) and low- (500 V) voltage operation. Besides offering striking new insights, the device potentially opens up new perspectives for low-cost and robust renewable energy conversion.

  2. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  3. Highly Efficient Spectrally Stable Red Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yu; Zhou, Chenkun; Worku, Michael; Wang, Xi; Ling, Yichuan; Gao, Hanwei; Zhou, Yan; Miao, Yu; Guan, Jingjiao; Ma, Biwu

    2018-05-01

    Perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have recently attracted great research interest for their narrow emissions and solution processability. Remarkable progress has been achieved in green perovskite LEDs in recent years, but not blue or red ones. Here, highly efficient and spectrally stable red perovskite LEDs with quasi-2D perovskite/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer are reported. By controlling the molar ratios of organic salt (benzylammonium iodide) to inorganic salts (cesium iodide and lead iodide), luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films are obtained with tunable emission colors from red to deep red. The perovskite/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Electrically driven LEDs with emissions peaked at 638, 664, 680, and 690 nm have been fabricated to exhibit high brightness and external quantum efficiencies (EQEs). For instance, the perovskite LED with an emission peaked at 680 nm exhibits a brightness of 1392 cd m -2 and an EQE of 6.23%. Moreover, exceptional electroluminescence spectral stability under continuous device operation has been achieved for these red perovskite LEDs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Design Strategies for Ultra-high Efficiency Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmann, Emily Cathryn

    While concentrator photovoltaic cells have shown significant improvements in efficiency in the past ten years, once these cells are integrated into concentrating optics, connected to a power conditioning system and deployed in the field, the overall module efficiency drops to only 34 to 36%. This efficiency is impressive compared to conventional flat plate modules, but it is far short of the theoretical limits for solar energy conversion. Designing a system capable of achieving ultra high efficiency of 50% or greater cannot be achieved by refinement and iteration of current design approaches. This thesis takes a systems approach to designing a photovoltaic system capable of 50% efficient performance using conventional diode-based solar cells. The effort began with an exploration of the limiting efficiency of spectrum splitting ensembles with 2 to 20 sub cells in different electrical configurations. Incorporating realistic non-ideal performance with the computationally simple detailed balance approach resulted in practical limits that are useful to identify specific cell performance requirements. This effort quantified the relative benefit of additional cells and concentration for system efficiency, which will help in designing practical optical systems. Efforts to improve the quality of the solar cells themselves focused on the development of tunable lattice constant epitaxial templates. Initially intended to enable lattice matched multijunction solar cells, these templates would enable increased flexibility in band gap selection for spectrum splitting ensembles and enhanced radiative quality relative to metamorphic growth. The III-V material family is commonly used for multijunction solar cells both for its high radiative quality and for the ease of integrating multiple band gaps into one monolithic growth. The band gap flexibility is limited by the lattice constant of available growth templates. The virtual substrate consists of a thin III-V film with the desired

  5. Research Update: Behind the high efficiency of hybrid perovskite solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Fakharuddin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite solar cells (PSCs marked tremendous progress in a short period of time and offer bright hopes for cheap solar electricity. Despite high power conversion efficiency >20%, its poor operational stability as well as involvement of toxic, volatile, and less-abundant materials hinders its practical deployment. The fact that degradation and toxicity are typically observed in the most successful perovskite involving organic cation and toxic lead, i.e., CH3NH3PbX3, requires a deep understanding of their role in photovoltaic performance in order to envisage if a non-toxic, stable yet highly efficient device is feasible. Towards this, we first provide an overview of the basic chemistry and physics of halide perovskites and its correlation with its extraordinary properties such as crystal structure, bandgap, ferroelectricity, and electronic transport. We then discuss device related aspects such as the various device designs in PSCs and role of interfaces in origin of PV parameters particularly open circuit voltage, various film processing methods and their effect on morphology and characteristics of perovskite films, and the origin and elimination of hysteresis and operational stability in these devices. We then identify future perspectives for stable and efficient PSCs for practical deployment.

  6. Current-voltage analysis of the record-efficiency CuGaSe2 solar cell: Application of the current separation method and the interface recombination model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kasis, A.

    2011-01-01

    Current-voltage (j-V) characteristics of the record-efficiency CuGaSe 2 solar cell measured under several illumination levels are analyzed using a two-diode equation for a more accurate description of cell behavior. The contribution of each diode to the total cell j-V characteristic under illumination was estimated using the current separation method presented recently. This is performed in an effort to identify the distinctive features of this record-efficiency cell which have led to the up-to-date highest open circuit voltage of V o c = 946 mV and fill factor of FF = 66.5% for CuGaSe 2 solar cells. Furthermore, the interface recombination component of the cell current under illumination is quantitatively discussed applying the interface recombination model presented earlier. (author)

  7. Efficient Four-Parametric with-and-without-Memory Iterative Methods Possessing High Efficiency Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Cordero

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a family of derivative-free optimal iterative methods without memory to approximate a simple zero of a nonlinear function. Error analysis demonstrates that the without-memory class has eighth-order convergence and is extendable to with-memory class. The extension of new family to the with-memory one is also presented which attains the convergence order 15.5156 and a very high efficiency index 15.51561/4≈1.9847. Some particular schemes of the with-memory family are also described. Numerical examples and some dynamical aspects of the new schemes are given to support theoretical results.

  8. Microbial electrolytic disinfection process for highly efficient Escherichia coli inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Shaofeng; Huang, Shaobin; Li, Xiaohu

    2018-01-01

    extensively studied for recalcitrant organics removal, its application potential towards water disinfection (e.g., inactivation of pathogens) is still unknown. This study investigated the inactivation of Escherichia coli in a microbial electrolysis cell based bio-electro-Fenton system (renamed as microbial......Water quality deterioration caused by a wide variety of recalcitrant organics and pathogenic microorganisms has become a serious concern worldwide. Bio-electro-Fenton systems have been considered as cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment platform technology. While it has been......]OH was identified as one potential mechanism for disinfection. This study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of bio-electro-Fenton process for pathogens inactivation, which offers insight for the future development of sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective biological water treatment technology....

  9. Improved entropy encoding for high efficient video coding standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Sunil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has better coding efficiency, but the encoding performance has to be improved to meet the growing multimedia applications. This paper improves the standard entropy encoding by introducing the optimized weighing parameters, so that higher rate of compression can be accomplished over the standard entropy encoding. The optimization is performed using the recently introduced firefly algorithm. The experimentation is carried out using eight benchmark video sequences and the PSNR for varying rate of data transmission is investigated. Comparative analysis based on the performance statistics is made with the standard entropy encoding. From the obtained results, it is clear that the originality of the decoded video sequence is preserved far better than the proposed method, though the compression rate is increased. Keywords: Entropy, Encoding, HEVC, PSNR, Compression

  10. Study on a Novel High-Efficiency Bridgeless PFC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Taiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement a high-efficiency bridgeless power factor correction converter, a new topology and operation principles of continuous conduction mode (CCM and DC steady-state character of the converter are analyzed, which show that the converter not only has bipolar-gain characteristic but also has the same characteristic as the traditional Boost converter, while the voltage transfer ratio is not related with the resonant branch parameters and switching frequency. Based on the above topology, a novel bridgeless Bipolar-Gain Pseudo-Boost PFC converter is proposed. With this converter, the diode rectifier bridge of traditional AC-DC converter is eliminated, and zero-current switching of fast recovery diode is achieved. Thus, the efficiency is improved. Next, we also propose the one-cycle control policy of this converter. Finally, experiments are provided to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed converter.

  11. Highly Efficient and Reliable Transparent Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Li-Chuan; Yan, Ding-Xiang; Liu, Xiaofeng; Ma, Rujun; Wu, Hong-Yuan; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2018-04-11

    Electromagnetic protection in optoelectronic instruments such as optical windows and electronic displays is challenging because of the essential requirements of a high optical transmittance and an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Herein, we demonstrate the creation of an efficient transparent EMI shielding film that is composed of calcium alginate (CA), silver nanowires (AgNWs), and polyurethane (PU), via a facile and low-cost Mayer-rod coating method. The CA/AgNW/PU film with a high optical transmittance of 92% achieves an EMI SE of 20.7 dB, which meets the requirements for commercial shielding applications. A superior EMI SE of 31.3 dB could be achieved, whereas the transparent film still maintains a transmittance of 81%. The integrated efficient EMI SE and high transmittance are superior to those of most previously reported transparent EMI shielding materials. Moreover, our transparent films exhibit a highly reliable shielding ability in a complex service environment, with 98 and 96% EMI SE retentions even after 30 min of ultrasound treatment and 5000 bending cycles (1.5 mm radius), respectively. The comprehensive performance that is associated with the facile fabrication strategy imparts the CA/AgNW/PU film with great potential as an optimized EMI shielding material in emerging optoelectronic devices, such as flexible solar cells, displays, and touch panels.

  12. Research & Implementation of AC - DC Converter with High Power Factor & High Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiou-Hsian Nien

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we design and develop a high power factor, high efficiency two-stage AC - DC power converter. This paper proposes a two-stage AC - DC power converter. The first stage is boost active power factor correction circuit. The latter stage is near constant frequency LLC resonant converter. In addition to traditional LLC high efficiency advantages, light-load conversion efficiency of this power converter can be improved. And it possesses high power factor and near constant frequency operating characteristics, can significantly reduce the electromagnetic interference. This paper first discusses the main structure and control manner of power factor correction circuit. And then by the LLC resonant converter equivalent model proceed to circuit analysis to determine the important parameters of the converter circuit elements. Then design a variable frequency resonant tank. The resonant frequency can change automatically on the basis of the load to reach near constant frequency operation and a purpose of high efficiency. Finally, actually design and produce an AC – DC power converter with output of 190W to verify the characteristics and feasibility of this converter. The experimental results show that in a very light load (9.5 W the efficiency is as high as 81%, the highest efficiency of 88% (90 W. Full load efficiency is 87%. At 19 W ~ 190 W power changes, the operating frequency change is only 0.4 kHz (AC 110 V and 0.3 kHz (AC 220 V.

  13. Approaches to achieve high grain yield and high resource use efficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchang YANG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses approaches to simultaneously increase grain yield and resource use efficiency in rice. Breeding nitrogen efficient cultivars without sacrificing rice yield potential, improving grain fill in later-flowering inferior spikelets and enhancing harvest index are three important approaches to achieving the dual goal of high grain yield and high resource use efficiency. Deeper root distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic N use efficiency at lower N rates could be used as selection criteria to develop N-efficient cultivars. Enhancing sink activity through increasing sugar-spikelet ratio at the heading time and enhancing the conversion efficiency from sucrose to starch though increasing the ratio of abscisic acid to ethylene in grains during grain fill could effectively improve grain fill in inferior spikelets. Several practices, such as post-anthesis controlled soil drying, an alternate wetting and moderate soil drying regime during the whole growing season, and non-flooded straw mulching cultivation, could substantially increase grain yield and water use efficiency, mainly via enhanced remobilization of stored carbon from vegetative tissues to grains and improved harvest index. Further research is needed to understand synergistic interaction between water and N on crop and soil and the mechanism underlying high resource use efficiency in high-yielding rice.

  14. The Plasma Window: A Windowless High Pressure-Vacuum Interface for Various Accelerator Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A. I.; Johnson, E. D.; Lanza, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Plasma Window is a stabilized plasma arc used as an interface between accelerator vacuum and pressurized targets. There is no solid material introduced into the beam and thus it is also capable of transmitting particle beams and electromagnetic radiation with low loss and of sustaining high beam currents without damage. Measurements on a prototype system with a 3 mm diameter opening have shown that pressure differences of more than 2.5 atmospheres can be sustained with an input pressure of ∼ 10 -6 Torr. The system is capable of scaling to higher-pressure differences and larger apertures. Various plasma window applications for synchrotron light sources, high power lasers, internal targets, high current accelerators such as the HAWK, ATW, APT, DARHT, spallation sources, as well as for a number of commercial applications, is discussed

  15. High efficiency electrophosphorescence from bilayer organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Minghang; Lin, Ming-Te; Shepherd, Nigel D [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Chen, Wei-Hsuan; Oswald, Iain; Omary, Mohammad [Department of Chemeistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States)

    2011-09-14

    An electron mobility of 2.7 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} was measured for the phosphorescent emitter bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II)(Pt(ptp)2), which prompted its evaluation as both the emissive layer and electron transport layer in organic light emitting diodes with a simple bilayer structure. Power and external quantum efficiencies of 54.0 {+-} 0.2 lm W{sup -1} and 15.9% were obtained, which as far as we could ascertain are amongst the highest reported values for bilayer devices. We ascribe the high device efficiency to the combination of the high electron mobility, short excited-state lifetime (117 ns) and high luminescence quantum yield (60%) of the bis[3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazolato]platinum(II). The colour temperature of the devices was 2855 K at 5 V, which places the emission in the 'warm' light spectral region.

  16. Detecting Android Malwares with High-Efficient Hybrid Analyzing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle the security issues caused by malwares of Android OS, we proposed a high-efficient hybrid-detecting scheme for Android malwares. Our scheme employed different analyzing methods (static and dynamic methods to construct a flexible detecting scheme. In this paper, we proposed some detecting techniques such as Com+ feature based on traditional Permission and API call features to improve the performance of static detection. The collapsing issue of traditional function call graph-based malware detection was also avoided, as we adopted feature selection and clustering method to unify function call graph features of various dimensions into same dimension. In order to verify the performance of our scheme, we built an open-access malware dataset in our experiments. The experimental results showed that the suggested scheme achieved high malware-detecting accuracy, and the scheme could be used to establish Android malware-detecting cloud services, which can automatically adopt high-efficiency analyzing methods according to the properties of the Android applications.

  17. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  18. High-efficiency target-ion sources for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of high-efficiency ion sources which have been developed or are under development at ISOL facilities which show particular promise for use at existing, future, or radioactive ion beam (RIB) facilities now under construction. Emphasis will be placed on those sources which have demonstrated high ionization efficiency, species versatility, and operational reliability and which have been carefully designed for safe handling in the high level radioactivity radiation fields incumbent at such facilities. Brief discussions will also be made of the fundamental processes which affect the realizable beam intensities in target-ion sources. Among the sources which will be reviewed will be selected examples of state-of-the-art electron-beam plasma-type ion sources, thermal-ionization, surface-ionization, ECR, and selectively chosen ion source concepts which show promise for radioactive ion beam generation. A few advanced, chemically selective target-ion sources will be described, such as sources based on the use of laser-resonance ionization, which, in principle, offer a more satisfactory solution to isobaric contamination problems than conventional electromagnetic techniques. Particular attention will be given to the sources which have been selected for initial or future use at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  19. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Ashraf, Raja; Abdelsamie, Maged; Pont, Sebastian; Little, Mark; Moser, Maximilian; Hamid, Zeinab; Neophytou, Marios; Zhang, Weimin; Amassian, Aram; Durrant, James R.; Baran, Derya; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  20. Highly efficient solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2011-12-19

    The recent progress in solar-pumped laser with Fresnel lens and Cr:Nd:YAG ceramic medium has revitalized solar laser researches, revealing a promising future for renewable reduction of magnesium from magnesium oxide. Here we show a big advance in solar laser collection efficiency by utilizing an economical Fresnel lens and a most widely used Nd:YAG single-crystal rod. The incoming solar radiation from the sun is focused by a 0.9 m diameter Fresnel lens. A dielectric totally internally reflecting secondary concentrator is employed to couple the concentrated solar radiation from the focal zone to a 4 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod within a conical pumping cavity. 12.3 W cw laser power is produced, corresponding to 19.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency, which is 2.9 times larger than the previous results with Nd:YAG single-crystal medium. Record-high slope efficiency of 3.9% is also registered. Laser beam quality is considerably improved by pumping a 3 mm diameter Nd:YAG rod.

  1. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolan, P J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of {approx} 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  2. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  3. Highly Efficient and Reproducible Nonfullerene Solar Cells from Hydrocarbon Solvents

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    With chlorinated solvents unlikely to be permitted for use in solution-processed organic solar cells in industry, there must be a focus on developing nonchlorinated solvent systems. Here we report high-efficiency devices utilizing a low-bandgap donor polymer (PffBT4T-2DT) and a nonfullerene acceptor (EH-IDTBR) from hydrocarbon solvents and without using additives. When mesitylene was used as the solvent, rather than chlorobenzene, an improved power conversion efficiency (11.1%) was achieved without the need for pre- or post-treatments. Despite altering the processing conditions to environmentally friendly solvents and room-temperature coating, grazing incident X-ray measurements confirmed that active layers processed from hydrocarbon solvents retained the robust nanomorphology obtained with hot-processed chlorinated solvents. The main advantages of hydrocarbon solvent-processed devices, besides the improved efficiencies, were the reproducibility and storage lifetime of devices. Mesitylene devices showed better reproducibility and shelf life up to 4000 h with PCE dropping by only 8% of its initial value.

  4. A High Efficiency PSOFC/ATS-Gas Turbine Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; M.D. Moeckel; S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann

    2001-02-01

    A study is described in which the conceptual design of a hybrid power system integrating a pressurized Siemens Westinghouse solid oxide fuel cell generator and the Mercury{trademark} 50 gas turbine was developed. The Mercury{trademark} 50 was designed by Solar Turbines as part of the US. Department of Energy Advanced Turbine Systems program. The focus of the study was to develop the hybrid power system concept that principally would exhibit an attractively-low cost of electricity (COE). The inherently-high efficiency of the hybrid cycle contributes directly to achieving this objective, and by employing the efficient, power-intensive Mercury{trademark} 50, with its relatively-low installed cost, the higher-cost SOFC generator can be optimally sized such that the minimum-COE objective is achieved. The system cycle is described, major system components are specified, the system installed cost and COE are estimated, and the physical arrangement of the major system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the system design point are also presented. In addition, two bottoming cycle options are described, and estimates of their effects on overall-system performance, cost, and COE are provided.

  5. EUROGAM: A high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    EUROGAM is a UK-France collaboration to develop and build a high efficiency escape suppressed spectrometer array. The project has involved the development of both germanium (Ge) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors to produce crystals which are both bigger and have a more complex geometry. As a major investment for the future, the collaboration has developed a new electronics and data acquisition system based on the VXI and VME standards. The array will start its experimental programme in mid 1992 at the Nuclear Structure Facility at Daresbury, U.K. At this stage it will have a total photopeak efficiency (for 1.33 MeV gamma-rays) of ∼ 4.5%. This will give an improvement in sensitivity (relative to presently operating arrays) of a factor of about 10. When EUROGAM moves to France in mid 1993 its photopeak efficiency will have increased to about 8.5% which will result in an increase in sensitivity of a further factor of about 10. In this article I will concentrate on the array which will operate at Daresbury in 1992 and only briefly cover the developments which will take place for the full array before it is used in France in 1993. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  6. Software implementation of a high speed interface between a PDP-10 and several PDP-11s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mesa, N.P. III.

    1975-01-01

    The DMA10 is a high speed link between a PDP-10 and up to eight PDP-11s; specifically, the PDP-10 shares sections of its memory with the PDP-11s. The two segment concept on the PDP-10 of shared/reentrant code and non-shared code is implemented. The inclusion of read only memory on the PDP-11s allows for the development of ''PROM'' software which all the PDP-11s may share. The principal difference between the DMA10 and other communications interfaces is that it is not a block transfer device. Because of the shared memory concept the features of the DMA10 are high data bandwidth and minimal processor intervention between data transfers. Communication programs between the PDP-10 and the PDP-11 may be tested wholly in either processor, independent of the DMA10 interface. In the current mode of operation the PDP-11's simply act as device controllers. Future plans include separate operating systems in various PDP-11s

  7. Cascade: a high-efficiency ICF power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade attains a net power-plant efficiency of 49% and its cost is competitive with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, pressurized-water reactor, and coal-fired power plants. The Cascade reactor and blanket are made of ceramic materials and activation is 6 times less than that of the MARS Tandem Mirror Reactor operating at comparable power. Hands-on maintenance of the heat exchangers is possible one day after shutdown. Essentially all tritium is recovered in the vacuum system, with the remainder recovered from the helium power conversion loop. Tritium leakage external to the vacuum system and power conversion loop is only 0.03 Ci/d

  8. High-efficiency ventilated metamaterial absorber at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Au-Yeung, Ka Yan; Li, Xin; Roberts, Robert Christopher; Tian, Jingxuan; Hu, Chuandeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Wang, Shuxia; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate a ventilated metamaterial absorber operating at low frequency (90%) has been achieved in both simulations and experiments. This high-efficiency absorption under the ventilation condition originates from the weak coupling of two identical split tube resonators constituting the absorber, which leads to the hybridization of the degenerate eigenmodes and breaks the absorption upper limit of 50% for conventional transmissive symmetric acoustic absorbers. The absorber can also be extended to an array and work in free space. The absorber should have potential applications in acoustic engineering where both noise reduction and ventilation are required.

  9. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  10. High efficiency power production from biomass and waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van Leijenhorst, R.J.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environment, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Two-stage gasification allows power production from biomass and waste with high efficiency. The process involves pyrolysis at about 550C followed by heating of the pyrolysis gas to about 1300C in order to crack hydrocarbons and obtain syngas, a mixture of H2, CO, H2O and CO2. The second stage produces soot as unwanted by-product. Experimental results are reported on the suppression of soot formation in the second stage for two different fuels: beech wood pellets and Rofire pellets, made from rejects of paper recycling. Syngas obtained from these two fuels and from an industrial waste fuel has been cleaned and fed to a commercial SOFC stack for 250 hours in total. The SOFC stack showed comparable performance on real and synthetic syngas and no signs of accelerated degradation in performance over these tests. The experimental results have been used for the design and analysis of a future 25 MWth demonstration plant. As an alternative, a 2.6 MWth system was considered which uses the Green MoDem approach to convert waste fuel into bio-oil and syngas. The 25 MWth system can reach high efficiency only if char produced in the pyrolysis step is converted into additional syngas by steam gasification, and if SOFC off-gas and system waste heat are used in a steam bottoming cycle for additional power production. A net electrical efficiency of 38% is predicted. In addition, heat can be delivered with 37% efficiency. The 2.6 MWth system with only a dual fuel engine to burn bio-oil and syngas promises nearly 40% electrical efficiency plus 41% efficiency for heat production. If syngas is fed to an SOFC system and off-gas and bio-oil to a dual fuel engine, the electrical efficiency can rise to 45%. However, the efficiency for heat production drops to 15%, as waste heat from the SOFC system cannot be used effectively. The economic analysis makes clear that at -20 euro/tonne fuel, 70 euro/MWh for electricity and 7 euro/GJ for heat the 25 MWth system is not economically viable at the

  11. Realization of highly efficient polymer solar cell based on PBDTTT-EFT and [71]PCBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vishal; Chand, Suresh; Dutta, Viresh

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we have fabricated highly efficient polymer solar cells based on the blend of PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM in the inverted device configuration. By using low temperature processed zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles as an electron-transport layer (ETL) and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) as additive in chlorobenzene (CB) solvent we have achieved PCE of 9.43% with an excellent short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 17.6 mAcm-2, open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.80 V and fill factor (FF) of 0.67. These results reveals that addition of 3% DIO additive in CB solvent improve the morphology (lower charge carrier recombination and better metal/organic semiconductor interface) and provide uniform interpenetrating networks in PBDTTT-EFT:PC71BM blend active layer.

  12. Next generation of high-efficient waste incinerators. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappe Frandsen, F.

    2010-11-15

    Modern society produces increasing amounts of combustible waste which may be utilized for heat and power production, at a lower emission of CO{sub 2}, e.g. by substituting a certain fraction of energy from fossil fuel-fired power stations. In 2007, 20.4 % of the district heating and 4.5 % of the power produced in Denmark came from thermal conversion of waste, and waste is a very important part of a future sustainable, and independent, Danish energy supply [Frandsen et al., 2009; Groen Energi, 2010]. In Denmark, approx 3.3 Mtons of waste was produced in 2005, an amount predicted to increase to 4.4 Mtons by the year 2030. According to Affald Danmark, 25 % of the current WtE plant capacity in Denmark is older than 20 years, which is usually considered as the technical and economical lifetime of WtE plants. Thus, there is a need for installation of a significant fraction of new waste incineration capacity, preferentially with an increased electrical efficiency, within the next few years. Compared to fossil fuels, waste is difficult to handle in terms of pre-treatment, combustion, and generation of reusable solid residues. In particular, the content of inorganic species (S, Cl, K, Na, etc.) is problematic, due to enhanced deposition and corrosion - especially at higher temperatures. This puts severe constraints on the electrical efficiency of grate-fired units utilizing waste, which seldom exceeds 26-27%, campared to 46-48 % for coal combustion in suspension. The key parameters when targeting higher electrical efficiency are the pressure and temperature in the steam cycle, which are limited by high-temperature corrosion, boiler- and combustion-technology. This report reviews some of the means that can be applied in order to increase the electrical efficiency in plants firing waste on a grate. (Author)

  13. Advances in a high efficiency commercial pulse tube cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibing; Li, Haibing; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Yang, Zhaohui; Luo, Ercang

    2017-12-01

    The pulse tube cryocooler has the advantage of no moving part at the cold end and offers a high reliability. To further extend its use in commercial applications, efforts are still needed to improve efficiency, reliability and cost effectiveness. This paper generalizes several key innovations in our newest cooler. The cooler consists of a moving magnet compressor with dual-opposed pistons, and a co-axial cold finger. Ambient displacers are employed to recover the expansion work to increase cooling efficiency. Inside the cold finger, the conventional flow straightener screens are replaced by a tapered throat between the cold heat exchanger and the pulse tube to strengthen its immunity to the working gas contamination as well as to simplify the manufacturing processes. The cold heat exchanger is made by copper forging process which further reduces the cost. Inside the compressor, a new gas bearing design has brought in assembling simplicity and running reliability. Besides the cooler itself, electronic controller is also important for actual application. A dual channel and dual driving mode control mechanism has been selected, which reduces the vibration to a minimum, meanwhile the cool-down speed becomes faster and run-time efficiency is higher. With these innovations, the cooler TC4189 reached a no-load temperature of 44 K and provided 15 W cooling power at 80K, with an input electric power of 244 W and a cooling water temperature of 23 ℃. The efficiency reached 16.9% of Carnot at 80 K. The whole system has a total mass of 4.3 kg.

  14. Hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors with high detection efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, A.; Grenadier, S. J.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.

    2018-01-01

    Neutron detectors fabricated from 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h-10BN or h-BN) epilayers have demonstrated the highest thermal neutron detection efficiency among solid-state neutron detectors to date at about 53%. In this work, photoconductive-like vertical detectors with a detection area of 1 × 1 mm2 were fabricated from 50 μm thick free-standing h-BN epilayers using Ni/Au and Ti/Al bilayers as ohmic contacts. Leakage currents, mobility-lifetime (μτ) products under UV photoexcitation, and neutron detection efficiencies have been measured for a total of 16 different device configurations. The results have unambiguously identified that detectors incorporating the Ni/Au bilayer on both surfaces as ohmic contacts and using the negatively biased top surface for neutron irradiation are the most desired device configurations. It was noted that high growth temperatures of h-10BN epilayers on sapphire substrates tend to yield a higher concentration of oxygen impurities near the bottom surface, leading to a better device performance by the chosen top surface for irradiation than by the bottom. Preferential scattering of oxygen donors tends to reduce the mobility of holes more than that of electrons, making the biasing scheme with the ability of rapidly extracting holes at the irradiated surface while leaving the electrons to travel a large average distance inside the detector at a preferred choice. When measured against a calibrated 6LiF filled micro-structured semiconductor neutron detector, it was shown that the optimized configuration has pushed the detection efficiency of h-BN neutron detectors to 58%. These detailed studies also provided a better understanding of growth-mediated impurities in h-BN epilayers and their effects on the charge collection and neutron detection efficiencies.

  15. High efficiency, multiterawatt x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Emma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present undulator magnet tapering methods for obtaining high efficiency and multiterawatt peak powers in x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs, a key requirement for enabling 3D atomic resolution single molecule imaging and nonlinear x-ray science. The peak power and efficiency of tapered XFELs is sensitive to time dependent effects, like synchrotron sideband growth. To analyze this dependence in detail we perform a comparative numerical optimization for the undulator magnetic field tapering profile including and intentionally disabling these effects. We show that the solution for the magnetic field taper profile obtained from time independent optimization does not yield the highest extraction efficiency when time dependent effects are included. Our comparative optimization is performed for a novel undulator designed specifically to obtain TW power x-ray pulses in the shortest distance: superconducting, helical, with short period and built-in strong focusing. This design reduces the length of the breaks between modules, decreasing diffraction effects, and allows using a stronger transverse electron focusing. Both effects reduce the gain length and the overall undulator length. We determine that after a fully time dependent optimization of a 100 m long Linac coherent light source-like XFEL we can obtain a maximum efficiency of 7%, corresponding to 3.7 TW peak radiation power. Possible methods to suppress the synchrotron sidebands, and further enhance the FEL peak power, up to about 6 TW by increasing the seed power and reducing the electron beam energy spread, are also discussed.

  16. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from

  17. High energy photoelectron spectroscopy in basic and applied science: Bulk and interface electronic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knut, Ronny; Lindblad, Rebecka [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Gorgoi, Mihaela [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Rensmo, Håkan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Karis, Olof, E-mail: olof.karis@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrate how hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to investigate interface properties of multilayers. •By combining HAXPES and statistical methods we are able to provide quantitative analysis of the interface diffusion process. •We show how photoionization cross sections can be used to map partial density of states contributions to valence states. •We use HAXPES to provide insight into the valence electronic structure of e.g. multiferroics and dye-sensitized solar cells. -- Abstract: With the access of new high-performance electron spectrometers capable of analyzing electron energies up to the order of 10 keV, the interest for photoelectron spectroscopy has grown and many new applications of the technique in areas where electron spectroscopies were considered to have limited use have been demonstrated over the last few decades. The technique, often denoted hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES or HAXPES), to distinguish the experiment from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy performed at lower energies, has resulted in an increasing interest in photoelectron spectroscopy in many areas. The much increased mean free path at higher kinetic energies, in combination with the elemental selectivity of the core level spectroscopies in general has led to this fact. It is thus now possible to investigate the electronic structure of materials with a substantially enhanced bulk sensitivity. In this review we provide examples from our own research using HAXPES which to date has been performed mainly at the HIKE facility at the KMC-1 beamline at HZB, Berlin. The review exemplifies the new opportunities using HAXPES to address both bulk and interface electronic properties in systems relevant for applications in magnetic storage, energy related research, but also in purely curiosity driven problems.

  18. High energy photoelectron spectroscopy in basic and applied science: Bulk and interface electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knut, Ronny; Lindblad, Rebecka; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Rensmo, Håkan; Karis, Olof

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We demonstrate how hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to investigate interface properties of multilayers. •By combining HAXPES and statistical methods we are able to provide quantitative analysis of the interface diffusion process. •We show how photoionization cross sections can be used to map partial density of states contributions to valence states. •We use HAXPES to provide insight into the valence electronic structure of e.g. multiferroics and dye-sensitized solar cells. -- Abstract: With the access of new high-performance electron spectrometers capable of analyzing electron energies up to the order of 10 keV, the interest for photoelectron spectroscopy has grown and many new applications of the technique in areas where electron spectroscopies were considered to have limited use have been demonstrated over the last few decades. The technique, often denoted hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES or HAXPES), to distinguish the experiment from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy performed at lower energies, has resulted in an increasing interest in photoelectron spectroscopy in many areas. The much increased mean free path at higher kinetic energies, in combination with the elemental selectivity of the core level spectroscopies in general has led to this fact. It is thus now possible to investigate the electronic structure of materials with a substantially enhanced bulk sensitivity. In this review we provide examples from our own research using HAXPES which to date has been performed mainly at the HIKE facility at the KMC-1 beamline at HZB, Berlin. The review exemplifies the new opportunities using HAXPES to address both bulk and interface electronic properties in systems relevant for applications in magnetic storage, energy related research, but also in purely curiosity driven problems

  19. Experimental evaluation of interfaces using atomic-resolution high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Paul D.; Finnie, Michael; Longo, Paolo; Craven, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Aberration-corrected high angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) can now be performed at atomic-resolution. This is an important tool for the characterisation of the latest semiconductor devices that require individual layers to be grown to an accuracy of a few atomic layers. However, the actual quantification of interfacial sharpness at the atomic-scale can be a complicated matter. For instance, it is not clear how the use of the total, atomic column or background HAADF signals can affect the measured sharpness or individual layer widths. Moreover, a reliable and consistent method of measurement is necessary. To highlight these issues, two types of AlAs/GaAs interfaces were studied in-depth by atomic-resolution HAADF imaging. A method of analysis was developed in order to map the various HAADF signals across an image and to reliably determine interfacial sharpness. The results demonstrated that the level of perceived interfacial sharpness can vary significantly with specimen thickness and the choice of HAADF signal. Individual layer widths were also shown to have some dependence on the choice of HAADF signal. Hence, it is crucial to have an awareness of which part of the HAADF signal is chosen for analysis along with possible specimen thickness effects for future HAADF studies performed at the scale of a few atomic layers. -- Highlights: ► Quantification of interfaces using atomic-scale HAADF imaging is considered. ► The sharpness of AlAs/GaAs interfaces is investigated. ► A method of analysis was developed to map the various HAADF signals in an image. ► Measured sharpness varies with specimen thickness and HAADF signal type.

  20. The analysis of energy efficiency in water electrolysis under high temperature and high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourng, L. W.; Tsai, T. T.; Lin, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to analyze the energy efficiency of water electrolysis under high pressure and high temperature conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on four different kinds of reaction mechanisms, namely, reversible voltage, activation polarization, ohmic polarization, and concentration polarization, are investigated in details. Results show that the ohmic and concentration over-potentials are increased as temperature is increased, however, the reversible and activation over-potentials are decreased as temperature is increased. Therefore, the net efficiency is enhanced as temperature is increased. The efficiency of water electrolysis at 350°C/100 bars is increased about 17%, compared with that at 80°C/1bar.

  1. High-Order Dielectric Metasurfaces for High-Efficiency Polarization Beam Splitters and Optical Vortex Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhongyi; Zhu, Lie; Guo, Kai; Shen, Fei; Yin, Zhiping

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a high-order dielectric metasurface based on silicon nanobrick array is proposed and investigated. By controlling the length and width of the nanobricks, the metasurfaces could supply two different incremental transmission phases for the X-linear-polarized (XLP) and Y-linear-polarized (YLP) light with extremely high efficiency over 88%. Based on the designed metasurface, two polarization beam splitters working in high-order diffraction modes have been designed successfully, which demonstrated a high transmitted efficiency. In addition, we have also designed two vortex-beam generators working in high-order diffraction modes to create vortex beams with the topological charges of 2 and 3. The employment of dielectric metasurfaces operating in high-order diffraction modes could pave the way for a variety of new ultra-efficient optical devices.

  2. Development of bonded semiconductor device for high counting rate high efficiency photon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    2008-01-01

    We are trying to decrease dose exposure in medical diagnosis by way of measuring the energy of X-rays. For this purpose, radiation detectors for X-ray energy measurement with high counting rate should be developed. Direct bonding of Si wafers was carried out to make a radiation detector, which had separated X-ray absorber and detector. The resistivity of bonding interface was estimated with the results of four-probe measurements and model calculations. Direct bonding of high resistivity p and n-Si wafers was also performed. The resistance of the pn bonded diode was 0.7 MΩ. The resistance should be increased in the future. (author)

  3. A critical study of high efficiency deep grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Iain

    2002-01-01

    The recent years, the aerospace industry in particular has embraced and actively pursued the development of stronger high performance materials, namely nickel based superalloys and hardwearing steels. This has resulted in a need for a more efficient method of machining, and this need was answered with the advent of High Efficiency Deep Grinding (HEDG). This relatively new process using Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) electroplated grinding wheels has been investigated through experimental and theoretical means applied to two widely used materials, M50 bearing steel and IN718 nickel based superalloy. It has been shown that this grinding method using a stiff grinding centre such as the Edgetek 5-axis machine is a viable process. Using a number of experimental designs, produced results which were analysed using a variety of methods including visual assessment, sub-surface microscopy and surface analysis using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), residual stress measurement using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques, Barkhausen Noise Amplitude (BNA) measurements, surface roughness and Vickers micro-hardness appraisal. It has been shown that the fundamentals of the HEDG process have been understood through experimental as well as theoretical means and that through the various thermal models used, grinding temperatures can be predicted to give more control over this dynamic process. The main contributions to knowledge are made up of a number of elements within the grinding environment, the most important being the demonstration of the HEDG effect, explanation of the phenomenon and the ability to model the process. It has also been shown that grinding is a dynamic process and factors such as wheel wear will result in a continuous change in the optimum grinding conditions for a given material and wheel combination. With the significance of these factors recognised, they can be accounted for within an industrial adaptive control scenario with the process engineer confident of a

  4. High Efficiency Inverted Organic Solar Cells with a Neutral Fulleropyrrolidine Electron Collecting Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Weidong; Yan, Congfei; Kan, Zhipeng; Wang, Yang; Lai, Wen-Yong; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel fulleropyrrolidine derivative, named as FPNOH, was designed, synthesized and utilized as an efficient electron-collecting (EC) layer for inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs). The grafted diethanolamino-polar moieties can not only trigger its function as an EC interlayer, but also induce orthogonal solubility that guarantees subsequent multi-layer processing without interfacial mixing. A higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 8.34% was achieved for i-OSC devices with ITO/FPNOH EC electrode, compared to that of the sol-gel ZnO based reference devices with an optimized PCE value of 7.92%. High efficiency exceeding 7.7% was still achieved even for the devices with a relatively thick PFNOH film (16.9 nm). It is worthwhile to mention that this kind of material exhibits less thickness dependent performance, in contrast to widely utilized p-type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as well as the non-conjugated polyelectrolytes (NCPEs). Further investigation on illuminating intensity dependent parameters revealed the role of FPNOH in reducing interfacial traps-induced recombination at ITO/active layer interface.

  5. High Efficiency Inverted Organic Solar Cells with a Neutral Fulleropyrrolidine Electron Collecting Interlayer

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Weidong

    2016-05-20

    A novel fulleropyrrolidine derivative, named as FPNOH, was designed, synthesized and utilized as an efficient electron-collecting (EC) layer for inverted organic solar cells (i-OSCs). The grafted diethanolamino-polar moieties can not only trigger its function as an EC interlayer, but also induce orthogonal solubility that guarantees subsequent multi-layer processing without interfacial mixing. A higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) value of 8.34% was achieved for i-OSC devices with ITO/FPNOH EC electrode, compared to that of the sol-gel ZnO based reference devices with an optimized PCE value of 7.92%. High efficiency exceeding 7.7% was still achieved even for the devices with a relatively thick PFNOH film (16.9 nm). It is worthwhile to mention that this kind of material exhibits less thickness dependent performance, in contrast to widely utilized p-type conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) as well as the non-conjugated polyelectrolytes (NCPEs). Further investigation on illuminating intensity dependent parameters revealed the role of FPNOH in reducing interfacial traps-induced recombination at ITO/active layer interface.

  6. MXene molecular sieving membranes for highly efficient gas separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Wei, Yanying; Li, Libo; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Haihui; Xue, Jian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Wang, Suqing; Caro, Jürgen; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-01-11

    Molecular sieving membranes with sufficient and uniform nanochannels that break the permeability-selectivity trade-off are desirable for energy-efficient gas separation, and the arising two-dimensional (2D) materials provide new routes for membrane development. However, for 2D lamellar membranes, disordered interlayer nanochannels for mass transport are usually formed between randomly stacked neighboring nanosheets, which is obstructive for highly efficient separation. Therefore, manufacturing lamellar membranes with highly ordered nanochannel structures for fast and precise molecular sieving is still challenging. Here, we report on lamellar stacked MXene membranes with aligned and regular subnanometer channels, taking advantage of the abundant surface-terminating groups on the MXene nanosheets, which exhibit excellent gas separation performance with H 2 permeability >2200 Barrer and H 2 /CO 2 selectivity >160, superior to the state-of-the-art membranes. The results of molecular dynamics simulations quantitatively support the experiments, confirming the subnanometer interlayer spacing between the neighboring MXene nanosheets as molecular sieving channels for gas separation.

  7. High efficiency video coding coding tools and specification

    CERN Document Server

    Wien, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The video coding standard High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) targets at improved compression performance for video resolutions of HD and beyond, providing Ultra HD video at similar compressed bit rates as for HD video encoded with the well-established video coding standard H.264 | AVC. Based on known concepts, new coding structures and improved coding tools have been developed and specified in HEVC. The standard is expected to be taken up easily by established industry as well as new endeavors, answering the needs of todays connected and ever-evolving online world. This book presents the High Efficiency Video Coding standard and explains it in a clear and coherent language. It provides a comprehensive and consistently written description, all of a piece. The book targets at both, newbies to video coding as well as experts in the field. While providing sections with introductory text for the beginner, it suits as a well-arranged reference book for the expert. The book provides a comprehensive reference for th...

  8. Large-area high-efficiency flexible PHOLED lighting panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huiqing; Mandlik, Prashant; Levermore, Peter A.; Silvernail, Jeff; Ma, Ruiqing; Brown, Julie J.

    2012-09-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) provide various attractive features for next generation illumination systems, including high efficiency, low power, thin and flexible form factor. In this work, we incorporated phosphorescent emitters and demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent OLED (PHOLED) devices on flexible plastic substrates. The 0.94 cm2 small-area device has total thickness of approximately 0.25 mm and achieved 63 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 85 and CCT = 2920 K. We further designed and fabricated a 15 cm x 15 cm large-area flexible white OLED lighting panels, finished with a hybrid single-layer ultra-low permeability single layer barrier (SLB) encapsulation film. The flexible panel has an active area of 116.4 cm2, and achieved a power efficacy of 47 lm/W at 1,000 cd/m2 with CRI = 83 and CCT = 3470 K. The efficacy of the panel at 3,000 cd/m2 is 43 lm/W. The large-area flexible PHOLED lighting panel is to bring out enormous possibilities to the future general lighting applications.

  9. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Teng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  10. Development and characterization of high-efficiency, high-specific impulse xenon Hall thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard Robert

    This dissertation presents research aimed at extending the efficient operation of 1600 s specific impulse Hall thruster technology to the 2000--3000 s range. While recent studies of commercially developed Hall thrusters demonstrated greater than 4000 s specific impulse, maximum efficiency occurred at less than 3000 s. It was hypothesized that the efficiency maximum resulted as a consequence of modern magnetic field designs, optimized for 1600 s, which were unsuitable at high-specific impulse. Motivated by the industry efforts and mission studies, the aim of this research was to develop and characterize xenon Hall thrusters capable of both high-specific impulse and high-efficiency operation. The research divided into development and characterization phases. During the development phase, the laboratory-model NASA-173M Hall thrusters were designed with plasma lens magnetic field topographies and their performance and plasma characteristics were evaluated. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 1 (v1) validated the plasma lens design by showing how changing the magnetic field topography at high-specific impulse improved efficiency. Experiments with the NASA-173M version 2 (v2) showed there was a minimum current density and optimum magnetic field topography at which efficiency monotonically increased with voltage. Between 300--1000 V, total specific impulse and total efficiency of the NASA-173Mv2 operating at 10 mg/s ranged from 1600--3400 s and 51--61%, respectively. Comparison of the thrusters showed that efficiency can be optimized for specific impulse by varying the plasma lens design. During the characterization phase, additional plasma properties of the NASA-173Mv2 were measured and a performance model was derived accounting for a multiply-charged, partially-ionized plasma. Results from the model based on experimental data showed how efficient operation at high-specific impulse was enabled through regulation of the electron current with the magnetic field. The

  11. Microstructural characterization of phases and interfaces of Portland cement mortar using high resolution microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G.

    2014-01-01

    In Portland cement mortars it is of paramount importance to investigate the bond strength between mortar and masonry by means of the study of interfaces and surfaces that make up the system mortar/ceramic block. In this work the aim was to characterize the chemical compositions, microstructures, surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied on ceramic blocks. Therefore, two important characterization tools were used: field-effect gun (FEG) scanning electron microscope (SEM) - FEI Quanta 200 with energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer (EDS) and SEM system with EGF Nanofabrication FIB - FEI Quanta 3D FEG also with an EDS coupled. To date the results obtained from the research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with high resolution SEM is an important tool in the detection and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), ettringite and calcium carbonate by means of morphological, topographical and chemical data, thus providing extremely reliable as well as qualitative data from the structure of cementitious materials. (author)

  12. Microstructural characterization of phases and interfaces of Portland cement mortar using high resolution microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, M.F.O.; Brandao, P.R.G., E-mail: matheusfob@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pbrandao@demin.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), MG (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In Portland cement mortars it is of paramount importance to investigate the bond strength between mortar and masonry by means of the study of interfaces and surfaces that make up the system mortar/ceramic block. In this work the aim was to characterize the chemical compositions, microstructures, surfaces and interfaces of mortars applied on ceramic blocks. Therefore, two important characterization tools were used: field-effect gun (FEG) scanning electron microscope (SEM) - FEI Quanta 200 with energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometer (EDS) and SEM system with EGF Nanofabrication FIB - FEI Quanta 3D FEG also with an EDS coupled. To date the results obtained from the research show that the characterization of cementitious materials with high resolution SEM is an important tool in the detection and differentiation of hydrated calcium silicates (CSH), calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), ettringite and calcium carbonate by means of morphological, topographical and chemical data, thus providing extremely reliable as well as qualitative data from the structure of cementitious materials. (author)

  13. Highly Efficient TADF Polymer Electroluminescence with Reduced Efficiency Roll-off via Interfacial Exciplex Host Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xingdong; Zhu, Yunhui; Zhang, Baohua; Zhao, Xiaofei; Yao, Bing; Cheng, Yanxiang; Li, Zhanguo; Qu, Yi; Xie, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-10

    Solution-processed organic light-emitting diodes (s-OLED) consisting of TAPC/TmPyPB interfacial exciplex host and polymer PAPTC TADF emitter are prepared, simultaneously displaying ultralow voltages (2.50/2.91/3.51/4.91 V at luminance of 1/100/1000/1000 cd m -2 ), high efficiencies (14.9%, 50.1 lm W -1 ), and extremely low roll-off rates (J 50 of 63.16 mA cm -2 , L 50 of ca. 15000 cd m -2 ). Such performance is distinctly higher than that of pure-PAPTC s-OLED. Compared to pure-PAPTC, the advanced emissive layer structure of TAPC:PAPTC/TmPyPB is unique in much higher PL quantum yield (79.5 vs 36.3%) and nearly 4-fold enhancement in k RISC of the PAPTC emitter to 1.48 × 10 7 s -1 .

  14. Highly Efficient Flexible Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Improved Electron Extraction Using MgZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Santra, Pralay Kanti; Tian, Lei; Johansson, Malin B; Rensmo, Håkan; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-08-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have high potential for realizing an efficient and lightweight energy supply for flexible or wearable electronic devices. To achieve highly efficient and flexible CQD solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL), extracting electrons from the CQD solid layer, needs to be processed at a low-temperature and should also suppress interfacial recombination. Herein, a highly stable MgZnO nanocrystal (MZO-NC) layer is reported for efficient flexible PbS CQD solar cells. Solar cells fabricated with MZO-NC ETL give a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.4% and 9.4%, on glass and flexible plastic substrates, respectively. The reported flexible CQD solar cell has the record efficiency to date of flexible CQD solar cells. Detailed theoretical simulations and extensive characterizations reveal that the MZO-NCs significantly enhance charge extraction from CQD solids and diminish the charge accumulation at the ETL/CQD interface, suppressing charge interfacial recombination. These important results suggest that the low-temperature processed MZO-NCs are very promising for use in efficient flexible solar cells or other flexible optoelectronic devices.

  15. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  16. High Efficiency and Low Cost Thermal Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Bucknor, Matthew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    BgtL, LLC (BgtL) is focused on developing and commercializing its proprietary compact technology for processes in the energy sector. One such application is a compact high efficiency Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system that utilizes the heat of fusion through phase change between solid and liquid to store and release energy at high temperatures and incorporate state-of-the-art insulation to minimize heat dissipation. BgtL’s TES system would greatly improve the economics of existing nuclear and coal-fired power plants by allowing the power plant to store energy when power prices are low and sell power into the grid when prices are high. Compared to existing battery storage technology, BgtL’s novel thermal energy storage solution can be significantly less costly to acquire and maintain, does not have any waste or environmental emissions, and does not deteriorate over time; it can keep constant efficiency and operates cleanly and safely. BgtL’s engineers are experienced in this field and are able to design and engineer such a system to a specific power plant’s requirements. BgtL also has a strong manufacturing partner to fabricate the system such that it qualifies for an ASME code stamp. BgtL’s vision is to be the leading provider of compact systems for various applications including energy storage. BgtL requests that all technical information about the TES designs be protected as proprietary information. To honor that request, only non-proprietay summaries are included in this report.

  17. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  18. A new approach to a high efficiency inductive store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zowarka, R.C. Jr.; Kajs, J.P.; Price, J.H.; Weldon, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In the Spring of 1989, Parker Kinetic Design, Inc. (PKD) and the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) conducted a study to examine the basic technologies to be used in the construction and operation of a feasible and reliable electromagnetic (EM) gun system. This work was performed for Brown and Root Vickers, Ltd. (BRV) in response to a feasibility analysis requirement of the Royal Armament and Development Establishment (RARDE), Ministry of Defence (MD) of the United Kingdom. This paper summarizes that this study focused on the analysis and evaluation of the suitability and applicability of various pulsed power supply options for the performance goals of the RARDE EM gun program. The existing technologies considered included batteries, compulsators, capacitors, and homopolar generators (HPGs). Primary performance specifications for the electrical energy radius system were that it be capable of providing 12 MJ of muzzle energy; velocities between 2.0 and 3.5 km/s; and a repetitive shot rate of up to 10 shots per day, with no more than a 30-min interval between shots. In addition, the recommended system needed to be reliable, easily maintainable, and capable of routinely firing large numbers of shots. Strict adherence to the goal of designing a system based only on demonstrated technology results in power supplies that are prohibitively expensive and large. As a consequence, candidate system designs represent a modest extrapolation from demonstrated technology well within an acceptable design envelope. A new topology has been developed for a highly efficient inductive store suitable for pulsed-power applications. The new design features high L/R ratios without having to cryogenically cool the conductors. This allows for high efficiency charging of the inductor from low impedance dc sources such as batteries of HPGs

  19. Energy-Efficient Office Buildings at High Latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerum, V.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis describes a method for energy efficient office building design at high latitudes and cold climates. The method combines daylighting, passive solar heating, solar protection, and ventilative cooling. The thesis focuses on optimal design of an equatorial-facing fenestration system. A spreadsheet framework linking existing simplified methods is used. The daylight analysis uses location specific data on frequency distribution of diffuse daylight on vertical surfaces to estimate energy savings from optimal window and room configurations in combination with a daylight-responsive electric lighting system. The passive solar heating analysis is a generalization of a solar load ratio method adapted to cold climates by combining it with the Norwegian standard NS3031 for winter months when the solar savings fraction is negative. The emphasis is on very high computational efficiency to permit rapid and comprehensive examination of a large number of options early in design. The procedure is illustrated for a location in Trondheim, Norway, testing the relative significance of various design improvement options relative to a base case. The method is also tested for two other locations in Norway, at latitudes 58 and 70 degrees North. The band of latitudes between these limits covers cities in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Finland, Russia, and Northern Japan. A comprehensive study of the ``whole building approach`` shows the impact of integrated daylighting and low-energy design strategies. In general, consumption of lighting electricity may be reduced by 50-80%, even at extremely high latitudes. The reduced internal heat from electric lights is replaced by passive solar heating. 113 refs., 85 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Impedance Discontinuity Reduction Between High-Speed Differential Connectors and PCB Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidi, Sal; Agdinaoay, Rodell; Walter, Keith

    2013-01-01

    High-speed serial communication (i.e., Gigabit Ethernet) requires differential transmission and controlled impedances. Impedance control is essential throughout cabling, connector, and circuit board construction. An impedance discontinuity arises at the interface of a high-speed quadrax and twinax connectors and the attached printed circuit board (PCB). This discontinuity usually is lower impedance since the relative dielectric constant of the board is higher (i.e., polyimide approx. = 4) than the connector (Teflon approx. = 2.25). The discontinuity can be observed in transmit or receive eye diagrams, and can reduce the effective link margin of serial data networks. High-speed serial data network transmission improvements can be made at the connector-to-board interfaces as well as improving differential via hole impedances. The impedance discontinuity was improved by 10 percent by drilling a 20-mil (approx. = 0.5-mm) hole in between the pin of a differential connector spaced 55 mils (approx. = 1.4 mm) apart as it is attached to the PCB. The effective dielectric constant of the board can be lowered by drilling holes into the board material between the differential lines in a quadrax or twinax connector attachment points. The differential impedance is inversely proportional to the square root of the relative dielectric constant. This increases the differential impedance and thus reduces the above described impedance discontinuity. The differential via hole impedance can also be increased in the same manner. This technique can be extended to multiple smaller drilled holes as well as tapered holes (i.e., big in the middle followed by smaller ones diagonally).

  1. Quality and efficiency in high dimensional Nearest neighbor search

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei; Yi, Ke; Sheng, Cheng; Kalnis, Panos

    2009-01-01

    Nearest neighbor (NN) search in high dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. Ideally, a practical solution (i) should be implementable in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should grow sub-linearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Despite the bulk of NN literature, no solution fulfills both requirements, except locality sensitive hashing (LSH). The existing LSH implementations are either rigorous or adhoc. Rigorous-LSH ensures good quality of query results, but requires expensive space and query cost. Although adhoc-LSH is more efficient, it abandons quality control, i.e., the neighbor it outputs can be arbitrarily bad. As a result, currently no method is able to ensure both quality and efficiency simultaneously in practice. Motivated by this, we propose a new access method called the locality sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) that enables fast highdimensional NN search with excellent quality. The combination of several LSB-trees leads to a structure called the LSB-forest that ensures the same result quality as rigorous-LSH, but reduces its space and query cost dramatically. The LSB-forest also outperforms adhoc-LSH, even though the latter has no quality guarantee. Besides its appealing theoretical properties, the LSB-tree itself also serves as an effective index that consumes linear space, and supports efficient updates. Our extensive experiments confirm that the LSB-tree is faster than (i) the state of the art of exact NN search by two orders of magnitude, and (ii) the best (linear-space) method of approximate retrieval by an order of magnitude, and at the same time, returns neighbors with much better quality. © 2009 ACM.

  2. High resolution electron microscopy studies of interfaces between Al2O3 substrates and MBE grown Nb films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, J.; Ruhle, M.; Dura, J.; Flynn, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on single crystal niobium films grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on (001) S sapphire substrates. Cross-sectional specimens with thickness of 2 O 3 interface could be investigated by high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The orientation relationship between the metal film and the ceramic substrate was verified by selected area diffraction: (111) Nb parallel (0001) S and [1 bar 10] Nb parallel [2 bar 1 bar 10] S . The atomistic structure of the interface was identified by HREM

  3. Energy deposition at the bone-tissue interface from nuclear fragments produced by high-energy nucleons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Hajnal, Ferenc; Wilson, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The transport of nuclear fragmentation recoils produced by high-energy nucleons in the region of the bone-tissue interface is considered. Results for the different flux and absorbed dose for recoils produced by 1 GeV protons are presented in a bidirectional transport model. The energy deposition in marrow cavities is seen to be enhanced by recoils produced in bone. Approximate analytic formulae for absorbed dose near the interface region are also presented for a simplified range-energy model.

  4. High Current Planar Transformer for Very High Efficiency Isolated Boost DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac-resistance a......This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac......-resistance and transformer leakage inductance. Design and optimization procedures are validated based on an experimental prototype of a 6 kW dcdc isolated full bridge boost converter developed on fully planar magnetics. The prototype is rated at 30-80 V 0-80 A on the low voltage side and 700-800 V on the high voltage side...... with a peak efficiency of 97.8% at 80 V 3.5 kW. Results highlights that thick copper windings can provide good performance at low switching frequencies due to the high transformer filling factor. PCB windings can also provide very high efficiency if stacked in parallel utilizing the transformer winding window...

  5. In-situ high efficiency filter testing at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses experience in the testing of high efficiency filters in a variety of reactor and plant installations at AEE Winfrith. There is rarely any concern about the effectiveness of the filter as supplied by any reputable manufacturer. Experience has shown there is a need to check for defects in the installation of filters which could lead to by-passing of aerosols and it is desirable to perform periodical re-tests to ensure that no subsequent deterioration occurs. It is important to use simple, portable apparatus for such tests; methods based on the use of sodium chloride aerosols, although suitable for the testing of filters prior to installation, involve apparatus which is too bulky for in-situ testing. At Winfrith a double automatic Pollak counter has been developed and used routinely since 1970. The aerosol involved has a particle size far smaller than the size most likely to penetrate intact filters, but this is irrelevant when one is primarily interested in particles which by-pass the filter. Comparisons with other methods of testing filters will be described. There is remarkably good agreement between the efficiency of the filter installation as measured by a Pollak counter compared with techniques involving aerosols of sodium chloride and Dioctyl Phthalate (DOP), presumably because the leakage around the filter is independent of particle size

  6. Prospects for development of powerful, highly efficient, relativistic gyrodevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G.S.; Granatstein, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    For various applications the required parameters of sources of powerful microwave radiation lie far beyond the capabilities of existing tubes. This provokes an interest in reconsidering basic principles of relevant microwave sources in order to search for alternative concepts in their development. One of the most promising devices in the short-wavelength region of microwaves is the cyclotron resonance maser (CRM). During the last decade, two important varieties of CRMs have been distinguished, namely, gyrotrons, which operate at frequencies close to cut-off, and cyclotron autoresonance masers (CARMs), which operate at frequencies far from cut-off. When the axial phase velocity of the wave in properly adjusted to the beam voltage and electron pitch-ratio, the efficiency of relativistic CRMs may be high (≥50%). The method of optimizing efficiency based on a partial compensation of the shift in the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency by the change in the Doppler term can be, in principle, accompanied by a corresponding profiling of the external magnetic field and/or the wave phase velocity in a slightly irregular waveguide. These methods can be used in such relativistic CRMs as relativistic gyrotrons, gyroklystrons, gyro-traveling-wave-tubes and gyrotwistrons. The most important point is their sensitivity to a spread in electron parameters. As the beam voltage grows, the operation becomes more sensitive. However, at relatively low voltages such devices are quite tolerant to electron velocity spread

  7. Novel Intermode Prediction Algorithm for High Efficiency Video Coding Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-seob Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint collaborative team on video coding (JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called high efficiency video coding (HEVC. In the HEVC, there are three units in block structure: coding unit (CU, prediction unit (PU, and transform unit (TU. The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock (MB. Each CU performs recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the tree block. In this paper, we propose a fast CU depth decision algorithm for HEVC technology to reduce its computational complexity. In 2N×2N PU, the proposed method compares the rate-distortion (RD cost and determines the depth using the compared information. Moreover, in order to speed up the encoding time, the efficient merge SKIP detection method is developed additionally based on the contextual mode information of neighboring CUs. Experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm achieves the average time-saving factor of 44.84% in the random access (RA at Main profile configuration with the HEVC test model (HM 10.0 reference software. Compared to HM 10.0 encoder, a small BD-bitrate loss of 0.17% is also observed without significant loss of image quality.

  8. High Efficiency Driving Electronics for General Illumination LED Luminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Anand

    2012-10-31

    New generation of standalone LED driver platforms developed, which are more efficient These LED Drivers are more efficient (≥90%), smaller in size ( 0.15 in3/watt), lower in cost ( 12 cents/watt in high volumes in millions of units). And these products are very reliable having an operating life of over 50,000 hours. This technology will enable growth of LED light sources in the use. This will also help in energy saving and reducing total life cycle cost of LED units. Two topologies selected for next generation of LED drivers: 1) Value engineered single stage Flyback topology. This is suitable for low powered LED drivers up to 50W power. 2) Two stage boost power factor correction (PFC) plus LLC half bridge platform for higher powers. This topology is suitable for 40W to 300W LED drivers. Three new product platforms were developed to cover a wide range of LED drivers: 1) 120V 40W LED driver, 2) Intellivolt 75W LED driver, & 3) Intellivolt 150W LED driver. These are standalone LED drivers for rugged outdoor lighting applications. Based on these platforms number of products are developed and successfully introduced in the market place meeting key performance, size and cost goals.

  9. Characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive silicon photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, Adam Nepomuk, E-mail: otte@gatech.edu; Garcia, Distefano; Nguyen, Thanh; Purushotham, Dhruv

    2017-02-21

    We report about the optical and electrical characterization of three high efficiency and blue sensitive Silicon photomultipliers from FBK, Hamamatsu, and SensL. Key features of the tested devices when operated at 90% breakdown probability are peak photon detection efficiencies between 40% and 55%, temperature dependencies of gain and PDE that are less than 1%/°C, dark rates of ∼50 kHz/mm{sup 2} at room temperature, afterpulsing of about 2%, and direct optical crosstalk between 6% and 20%. The characteristics of all three devices impressively demonstrate how the Silicon-photomultiplier technology has improved over the past ten years. It is further demonstrated how the voltage and temperature characteristics of a number of quantities can be parameterized on the basis of physical models. The models provide a deeper understanding of the device characteristics over a wide bias and temperature range. They also serve as examples how producers could provide the characteristics of their SiPMs to users. A standardized parameterization of SiPMs would enable users to find the optimal SiPM for their application and the operating point of SiPMs without having to perform measurements thus significantly reducing design and development cycles.

  10. Gamma-ray spectrometer system with high efficiency and high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Bernard, W.; Dowdy, E.J.; Garcia, C.; Lucas, M.C.; Pratt, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Our gamma-ray spectrometer system, designed for field use, offers high efficiency and high resolution for safeguards applications. The system consists of three 40% high-purity germanium detectors and a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system that calculates a composite spectrum for the three detectors. The LeCroy 3500 mainframe can be operated remotely from the detector array with control exercised through modems and the telephone system. System performance with a mixed source of 125 Sb, 154 Eu, and 155 Eu confirms the expected efficiency of 120% with the overall resolution showing little degradation over that of the worst detector

  11. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology

  12. Capillary Isotachophoresis-Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Selected Reaction Monitoring MS via a Novel Sheathless Interface for High Sensitivity Sample Quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenchen (Chloe); Lee, Cheng S.; Smith, Richard D.; Tang, Keqi

    2013-06-21

    A novel sheathless CITP/CZE-MS interface featuring a large i.d. separation capillary and a detachable small i.d. ESI emitter was developed in this study to simultaneously achieve large sample loading capacity and stable nanoESI operation. Crucial operating parameters, including sample loading volume, flow rate, and separation window, were systematically investigated to attain optimum CITP/CZE separation efficiency and MS detection sensitivity. The performance of CITP/CZE-nanoESI-MS using the new sheathless interface was evaluated for its achievable low limit of quantitation (LOQ) by analyzing targeted peptides, leu-enkephalin and angiotensin II, spiked in a BSA tryptic digest matrix at different concentrations. A linear dynamic range spanning 4.5 orders of magnitude and a 10 pM LOQ with excellent measurement reproducibility were obtained experimentally for both targeted peptides, representing a 5-fold sensitivity improvement as compared to using the sheath liquid interface developed previously.

  13. Dense Vertically Aligned Copper Nanowire Composites as High Performance Thermal Interface Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barako, Michael T; Isaacson, Scott G; Lian, Feifei; Pop, Eric; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Goodson, Kenneth E; Tice, Jesse

    2017-12-06

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are essential for managing heat in modern electronics, and nanocomposite TIMs can offer critical improvements. Here, we demonstrate thermally conductive, mechanically compliant TIMs based on dense, vertically aligned copper nanowires (CuNWs) embedded into polymer matrices. We evaluate the thermal and mechanical characteristics of 20-25% dense CuNW arrays with and without polydimethylsiloxane infiltration. The thermal resistance achieved is below 5 mm 2 K W -1 , over an order of magnitude lower than commercial heat sink compounds. Nanoindentation reveals that the nonlinear deformation mechanics of this TIM are influenced by both the CuNW morphology and the polymer matrix. We also implement a flip-chip bonding protocol to directly attach CuNW composites to copper surfaces, as required in many thermal architectures. Thus, we demonstrate a rational design strategy for nanocomposite TIMs that simultaneously retain the high thermal conductivity of aligned CuNWs and the mechanical compliance of a polymer.

  14. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dimensioning storage and computing clusters for efficient High Throughput Computing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Scientific experiments are producing huge amounts of data, and they continue increasing the size of their datasets and the total volume of data. These data are then processed by researchers belonging to large scientific collaborations, with the Large Hadron Collider being a good example. The focal point of Scientific Data Centres has shifted from coping efficiently with PetaByte scale storage to deliver quality data processing throughput. The dimensioning of the internal components in High Throughput Computing (HTC) data centers is of crucial importance to cope with all the activities demanded by the experiments, both the online (data acceptance) and the offline (data processing, simulation and user analysis). This requires a precise setup involving disk and tape storage services, a computing cluster and the internal networking to prevent bottlenecks, overloads and undesired slowness that lead to losses cpu cycles and batch jobs failures. In this paper we point out relevant features for running a successful s...

  16. Additive Manufacturing for Highly Efficient Window Inserts CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roschli, Alex C. [ORNL; Chesser, Phillip C. [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J. [ORNL

    2018-04-01

    ORNL partnered with the Mackinac Technology Company to demonstrate how additive manufacturing can be used to create highly energy efficient window inserts for retrofit in pre-existing buildings. Many early iterations of the window inserts were fabricated using carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics and polycarbonate films as a stand in for the low-e coated films produced by the Mackinac Technology Company. After demonstration of the proof of concept, i.e. custom window inserts with tensioned film, the materials used for the manufacture of the frames was more closely examined. Hollow particle-filled syntactic foam and low-density polymer composites formed by expandable microspheres were explored as the materials used to additively manufacture the frames of the inserts. It was concluded that low-cost retrofit window inserts in custom sizes could be easily fabricated using large scale additive manufacturing. Furthermore, the syntactic and expanded foams developed and tested satisfy the mechanical performance requirements for the application.

  17. High Efficiency EBCOT with Parallel Coding Architecture for JPEG2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Jen-Shiun

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a parallel context-modeling coding architecture and a matching arithmetic coder (MQ-coder for the embedded block coding (EBCOT unit of the JPEG2000 encoder. Tier-1 of the EBCOT consumes most of the computation time in a JPEG2000 encoding system. The proposed parallel architecture can increase the throughput rate of the context modeling. To match the high throughput rate of the parallel context-modeling architecture, an efficient pipelined architecture for context-based adaptive arithmetic encoder is proposed. This encoder of JPEG2000 can work at 180 MHz to encode one symbol each cycle. Compared with the previous context-modeling architectures, our parallel architectures can improve the throughput rate up to 25%.

  18. Disposal of aqueous condensate from high efficiency gas boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, G J; Pattison, J R

    1984-01-01

    If highly efficient gas-fired condensing heating appliances are installed in Britain, the aqueous condensate produced can be conveniently run into existing sewage drains. The part of the drainage system that is most vulnerable to corrosion from the mildly acid condensate is that portion adjacent to the domestic premises. The tests described indicate that this is not at risk and the only precaution that might be considered necessary is to avoid running the condensate over galvanized drain covers in order to prevent unsightly staining. Water authorities in Britain and detailed studies in the US and Holland confirm that the condensate - after dilution by domestic waste, sewage, and rainwater - would be harmless to municipal sewage systems and would not, either in volume or chemical composition, affect the working of existing sewage treatment plants.

  19. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui; Liu, Jingyuan; Cevey-Ha, Ngoc-Le; Moon, Soo-Jin; Liska, Paul; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grä tzel, Carole; Wang, Peng; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.

    2010-01-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Highly Efficient Catalytic Cyclic Carbonate Formation by Pyridyl Salicylimines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Saravanan; Park, Joonho; Byun, Jeehye; Jung, Yousung; Yavuz, Cafer T

    2018-03-21

    Cyclic carbonates as industrial commodities offer a viable nonredox carbon dioxide fixation, and suitable heterogeneous catalysts are vital for their widespread implementation. Here, we report a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst for CO 2 addition to epoxides based on a newly identified active catalytic pocket consisting of pyridine, imine, and phenol moieties. The polymeric, metal-free catalyst derived from this active site converts less-reactive styrene oxide under atmospheric pressure in quantitative yield and selectivity to the corresponding carbonate. The catalyst does not need additives, solvents, metals, or co-catalysts, can be reused at least 10 cycles without the loss of activity, and scaled up easily to a kilogram scale. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the nucleophilicity of pyridine base gets stronger due to the conjugated imines and H-bonding from phenol accelerates the reaction forward by stabilizing the intermediate.

  1. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  2. Comparison of high efficiency particulate filter testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are used for the removal of submicron size particulates from air streams. In nuclear industry they are used as an important engineering safeguard to prevent the release of air borne radioactive particulates to the environment. HEPA filters used in the nuclear industry should therefore be manufactured and operated under strict quality control. There are three levels of testing HEPA filters: i) testing of the filter media; ii) testing of the assembled filter including filter media and filter housing; and iii) on site testing of the complete filter installation before putting into operation and later for the purpose of periodic control. A co-ordinated research programme on particulate filter testing methods was taken up by the Agency and contracts were awarded to the Member Countries, Belgium, German Democratic Republic, India and Hungary. The investigations carried out by the participants of the present co-ordinated research programme include the results of the nowadays most frequently used HEPA filter testing methods both for filter medium test, rig test and in-situ test purposes. Most of the experiments were carried out at ambient temperature and humidity, but indications were given to extend the investigations to elevated temperature and humidity in the future for the purpose of testing the performance of HEPA filter under severe conditions. A major conclusion of the co-ordinated research programme was that it was not possible to recommend one method as a reference method for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters. Most of the present conventional methods are adequate for current requirements. The reasons why no method is to be recommended were multiple, ranging from economical aspects, through incompatibility of materials to national regulations

  3. Efficient high-performance ultrasound beamforming using oversampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Steven R.; Quick, Marshall K.; Morin, Marc A.; Anderson, R. C.; Desilets, Charles S.; Linnenbrink, Thomas E.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    1998-05-01

    High-performance and efficient beamforming circuitry is very important in large channel count clinical ultrasound systems. Current state-of-the-art digital systems using multi-bit analog to digital converters (A/Ds) have matured to provide exquisite image quality with moderate levels of integration. A simplified oversampling beamforming architecture has been proposed that may a low integration of delta-sigma A/Ds onto the same chip as digital delay and processing circuitry to form a monolithic ultrasound beamformer. Such a beamformer may enable low-power handheld scanners for high-end systems with very large channel count arrays. This paper presents an oversampling beamformer architecture that generates high-quality images using very simple; digitization, delay, and summing circuits. Additional performance may be obtained with this oversampled system for narrow bandwidth excitations by mixing the RF signal down in frequency to a range where the electronic signal to nose ratio of the delta-sigma A/D is optimized. An oversampled transmit beamformer uses the same delay circuits as receive and eliminates the need for separate transmit function generators.

  4. Efficient binning for bitmap indices on high-cardinality attributes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2004-11-17

    Bitmap indexing is a common technique for indexing high-dimensional data in data warehouses and scientific applications. Though efficient for low-cardinality attributes, query processing can be rather costly for high-cardinality attributes due to the large storage requirements for the bitmap indices. Binning is a common technique for reducing storage costs of bitmap indices. This technique partitions the attribute values into a number of ranges, called bins, and uses bitmap vectors to represent bins (attribute ranges) rather than distinct values. Although binning may reduce storage costs, it may increase the access costs of queries that do not fall on exact bin boundaries (edge bins). For this kind of queries the original data values associated with edge bins must be accessed, in order to check them against the query constraints.In this paper we study the problem of finding optimal locations for the bin boundaries in order to minimize these access costs subject to storage constraints. We propose a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal partitioning of attribute values into bins that takes into account query access patterns as well as data distribution statistics. Mathematical analysis and experiments on real life data sets show that the optimal partitioning achieved by this algorithm can lead to a significant improvement in the access costs of bitmap indexing systems for high-cardinality attributes.

  5. Efficient Ultra-High Speed Communication with Simultaneous Phase and Amplitude Regenerative Sampling (SPARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowitz, Christian; Girg, Thomas; Ghaleb, Hatem; Du, Xuan-Quang

    2017-09-01

    For ultra-high speed communication systems at high center frequencies above 100 GHz, we propose a disruptive change in system architecture to address major issues regarding amplifier chains with a large number of amplifier stages. They cause a high noise figure and high power consumption when operating close to the frequency limits of the underlying semiconductor technologies. Instead of scaling a classic homodyne transceiver system, we employ repeated amplification in single-stage amplifiers through positive feedback as well as synthesizer-free self-mixing demodulation at the receiver to simplify the system architecture notably. Since the amplitude and phase information for the emerging oscillation is defined by the input signal and the oscillator is only turned on for a very short time, it can be left unstabilized and thus come without a PLL. As soon as gain is no longer the most prominent issue, relaxed requirements for all the other major components allow reconsidering their implementation concepts to achieve further improvements compared to classic systems. This paper provides the first comprehensive overview of all major design aspects that need to be addressed upon realizing a SPARS-based transceiver. At system level, we show how to achieve high data rates and a noise performance comparable to classic systems, backed by scaled demonstrator experiments. Regarding the transmitter, design considerations for efficient quadrature modulation are discussed. For the frontend components that replace PA and LNA amplifier chains, implementation techniques for regenerative sampling circuits based on super-regenerative oscillators are presented. Finally, an analog-to-digital converter with outstanding performance and complete interfaces both to the analog baseband as well as to the digital side completes the set of building blocks for efficient ultra-high speed communication.

  6. Highly Efficient Fiber Lasers for Wireless Power Transmission, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop ytterbium (Yb) fiber lasers with an electrical-to-optical efficiency of nominally 64% by directly coupling 80%-efficient diode lasers with Yb...

  7. A MATLAB Graphical User Interface Dedicated to the Optimal Design of the High Power Induction Motor with Heavy Starting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brojboiu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Matlab graphical user interface dedicated to the optimal design of the high power induction motor with heavy starting conditions is presented. This graphical user interface allows to input the rated parameters, the selection of the induction motor type and the optimization criterion of the induction motor design also. For the squirrel cage induction motor the graphical user interface allows the selection of the rotor bar geometry, the material of the rotor bar as well as the fastening technology of the shorting ring on the rotor bar. The Matlab graphical user interface is developed and applied to the general optimal design program of the induction motor described in [1], [2].

  8. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  9. High efficiency, monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for high energy femtosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Kim, Kyungbum; Mielke, Michael; Jennings, Stephen; Masor, Gordon; Stohl, Dave; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Nguyen, Dan T; Rhonehouse, Dan; Zong, Jie; Churin, Dmitriy; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-10-21

    A novel monolithic fiber-optic chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system for high energy, femtosecond pulse generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By employing a high gain amplifier comprising merely 20 cm of high efficiency media (HEM) gain fiber, an optimal balance of output pulse energy, optical efficiency, and B-integral is achieved. The HEM amplifier is fabricated from erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber and yields gain of 1.443 dB/cm with slope efficiency >45%. We experimentally demonstrate near diffraction-limited beam quality and near transform-limited femtosecond pulse quality at 1.55 µm wavelength. With pulse energy >100 µJ and pulse duration of 636 fs (FWHM), the peak power is estimated to be ~160 MW. NAVAIR Public Release Distribution Statement A-"Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited".

  10. High-efficiency cavity-dumped micro-chip Yb:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, M.; Maruko, A.; Inoue, M.; Takama, M.; Matsubara, S.; Okunishi, H.; Kato, K.; Kyomoto, K.; Yoshida, T.; Shimabayashi, K.; Morioka, M.; Inayoshi, S.; Yamagata, S.; Kawato, S.

    2014-09-01

    High-efficiency cavity-dumped ytterbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Yb:YAG) laser was developed. Although the high quantum efficiency of ytterbium-doped laser materials is appropriate for high-efficiency laser oscillation, the efficiency is decreased by their quasi-three/four laser natures. High gain operation by high intensity pumping is suitable for high efficiency oscillation on the quasi-three/four lasers without extremely low temperature cooling. In our group, highest efficiency oscillations for continuous wave, nanosecond to picosecond pulse lasers were achieved at room temperature by the high gain operation in which pump intensities were beyond 100 kW/cm2.

  11. Perovskite Solar Cells for High-Efficiency Tandems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGehee, Michael [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Buonassisi, Tonio [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The first monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem was made with a diffused silicon p-n junction, a tunnel junction made of n++ hydrogenated amorphous silicon, a titania electron transport layer, a methylammonium lead iodide absorber, and a Spiro-OMeTAD hole transport layer (HTL). The power conversion efficiency (PCE) was only 13.7% due to excessive parasitic absorption of light in the HTL, limiting the matched current density to 11.5 mA/cm2. Werner et al.15 raised the PCE to a record 21.2% by switching to a silicon heterojunction bottom cell and carefully tuning layer thicknesses to achieve lower optical loss and a higher current density of 15.9 mA/cm2. It is clear from these reports that minimizing parasitic absorption in the window layers is crucial to achieving higher current densities and efficiencies in monolithic tandems. To this end, the window layers through which light first passes before entering the perovskite and silicon absorber materials must be highly transparent. The front electrode must also be conductive to carry current laterally across the top of the device. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is widely utilized as a transparent electrode in optoelectronic devices such as flat-panel displays, smart windows, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells due to its high conductivity and broadband transparency. ITO is typically deposited through magnetron sputtering; however, the high kinetic energy of sputtered particles can damage underlying layers. In perovskite solar cells, a sputter buffer layer is required to protect the perovskite and organic carrier extraction layers from damage during sputter deposition. The ideal buffer layer should also be energetically well aligned so as to act as a carrier-selective contact, have a wide bandgap to enable high optical transmission, and have no reaction with the halides in the perovskite. Additionally, this buffer layer should act as a diffusion barrier layer to prevent both

  12. Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Maxwell; Heinecke, Alexander; Pabst, Hans; Henry, Greg; Parsani, Matteo; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.

  13. Efficiency of High Order Spectral Element Methods on Petascale Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Maxwell

    2016-06-14

    High order methods for the solution of PDEs expose a tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy on a per degree of freedom basis. In many cases, the cost increases due to higher arithmetic intensity while affecting data movement minimally. As architectures tend towards wider vector instructions and expect higher arithmetic intensities, the best order for a particular simulation may change. This study highlights preferred orders by identifying the high order efficiency frontier of the spectral element method implemented in Nek5000 and NekBox: the set of orders and meshes that minimize computational cost at fixed accuracy. First, we extract Nek’s order-dependent computational kernels and demonstrate exceptional hardware utilization by hardware-aware implementations. Then, we perform productionscale calculations of the nonlinear single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability on BlueGene/Q and Cray XC40-based supercomputers to highlight the influence of the architecture. Accuracy is defined with respect to physical observables, and computational costs are measured by the corehour charge of the entire application. The total number of grid points needed to achieve a given accuracy is reduced by increasing the polynomial order. On the XC40 and BlueGene/Q, polynomial orders as high as 31 and 15 come at no marginal cost per timestep, respectively. Taken together, these observations lead to a strong preference for high order discretizations that use fewer degrees of freedom. From a performance point of view, we demonstrate up to 60% full application bandwidth utilization at scale and achieve ≈1PFlop/s of compute performance in Nek’s most flop-intense methods.

  14. [Tobacco--a highly efficient producer of vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Along with the depreciation of tobacco as a source of nicotine-containing commercial products, the increase of its appreciation as a potential producer of recombinant therapeutical proteins can be observed. Two species of tobacco--Nicotiana tabacum L. and N. benthamiana are easily grown by well established methods of field or green-house cultivation or cell culture, yield high biomass and soluble protein content, can be easily transformed by several methods and are not food for humans or feed for animals. Expression of foreign proteins, including vaccines, can be achieved in those plants either through stable transformation of nuclear or plastid (chloroplast) genomes or by transient transformation using infection with plant virus or bacteria--Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration). The most advanced mode of agrofiltration termed magnifection, which combines benefits of virus and Agrobacterium and depends on using Agrobacterium with viral pro-vectors, enables high-yield and rapid expression of therapeutical proteins, even in a few days, and can be employed on an industrial scale. Expression of many antigenic proteins, which may serve as antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoan and anticancer vaccines, and additionally a few autoantigens designed for the treatment of autoimunogenic diseases, like diabetes, have been achieved in tobacco. To date, a vaccine against Newcastle virus disease in poultry produced by tobacco cell culture has been approved for commercial application and several other vaccines are in advanced stage of development. The possibility of a high-level production of vaccines in tobacco against pandemic influenza or anthrax and plague due to a bioterroristic attack, as well as of individualised anticancer vaccines against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a much shorter period of time than by traditional methods became realistic and hence caused increased interest in tobacco as a high-efficient producer of vaccines not only of specialistic

  15. Using high-throughput barcode sequencing to efficiently map connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikon, Ian D; Kebschull, Justus M; Vagin, Vasily V; Ravens, Diana I; Sun, Yu-Chi; Brouzes, Eric; Corrêa, Ivan R; Bressan, Dario; Zador, Anthony M

    2017-07-07

    The function of a neural circuit is determined by the details of its synaptic connections. At present, the only available method for determining a neural wiring diagram with single synapse precision-a 'connectome'-is based on imaging methods that are slow, labor-intensive and expensive. Here, we present SYNseq, a method for converting the connectome into a form that can exploit the speed and low cost of modern high-throughput DNA sequencing. In SYNseq, each neuron is labeled with a unique random nucleotide sequence-an RNA 'barcode'-which is targeted to the synapse using engineered proteins. Barcodes in pre- and postsynaptic neurons are then associated through protein-protein crosslinking across the synapse, extracted from the tissue, and joined into a form suitable for sequencing. Although our failure to develop an efficient barcode joining scheme precludes the widespread application of this approach, we expect that with further development SYNseq will enable tracing of complex circuits at high speed and low cost. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. High efficiency video coding (HEVC) algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Budagavi, Madhukar; Sullivan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This book provides developers, engineers, researchers and students with detailed knowledge about the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. HEVC is the successor to the widely successful H.264/AVC video compression standard, and it provides around twice as much compression as H.264/AVC for the same level of quality. The applications for HEVC will not only cover the space of the well-known current uses and capabilities of digital video – they will also include the deployment of new services and the delivery of enhanced video quality, such as ultra-high-definition television (UHDTV) and video with higher dynamic range, wider range of representable color, and greater representation precision than what is typically found today. HEVC is the next major generation of video coding design – a flexible, reliable and robust solution that will support the next decade of video applications and ease the burden of video on world-wide network traffic. This book provides a detailed explanation of the various parts ...

  17. Hot nuclei studied with high efficiency neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galin, J.

    1990-01-01

    We have shown the invaluable benefit that a high efficiency 4π neutron detector can bring to the study of reaction mechanisms following collisions of heavy nuclei at intermediate energy. Analysis requires Monte-Carlo simulations for comparison between experimental data and any emission model. In systematic measurements with projectiles of velocity corresponding to energies between 27 and 77 MeV/u, where both the influence of beam velocity and mass have been investigated separately, it has been shown that the projectile-target mass asymmetry, much more than velocity, has a decisive influence on energy dissipation. The closer the projectile mass to the target mass, the more energy is dissipated per unit mass of the considered projectile plus target system. The latter presents all the characteristics of a thermalized system, evaporating a copious number of light particles: up to about 40 neutrons (after efficiency correction) and 11 light charged particles in the most dissipative collisions between Kr+Au, and 90 neutrons for Pb+U with a yet unknown number of l.c.p. In the Kr experiment, these particles are isotropically emitted in the frame of a fused system, excited with 1.2 GeV. Moreover, l.c.p. exhibit Maxwellian energy distributions as in any standard evaporation process. We are now eager to better characterize the properties of the Pb+Au (U) systems for which about 1/3 of the neutrons are freed in a rather large fraction of all collisions. The thermalized energy should then approach very closely the total binding energy of the two interacting nuclei

  18. Progress of High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor Simulations Using TURBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sameer; Beach, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional, time-accurate, and phase-lagged computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the High Efficiency Centrifugal Compressor (HECC) stage were generated using the TURBO solver. Changes to the TURBO Parallel Version 4 source code were made in order to properly model the no-slip boundary condition along the spinning hub region for centrifugal impellers. A startup procedure was developed to generate a converged flow field in TURBO. This procedure initialized computations on a coarsened mesh generated by the Turbomachinery Gridding System (TGS) and relied on a method of systematically increasing wheel speed and backpressure. Baseline design-speed TURBO results generally overpredicted total pressure ratio, adiabatic efficiency, and the choking flow rate of the HECC stage as compared with the design-intent CFD results of Code Leo. Including diffuser fillet geometry in the TURBO computation resulted in a 0.6 percent reduction in the choking flow rate and led to a better match with design-intent CFD. Diffuser fillets reduced annulus cross-sectional area but also reduced corner separation, and thus blockage, in the diffuser passage. It was found that the TURBO computations are somewhat insensitive to inlet total pressure changing from the TURBO default inlet pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (101.35 kilopascals) down to 11.0 pounds per square inch (75.83 kilopascals), the inlet pressure of the component test. Off-design tip clearance was modeled in TURBO in two computations: one in which the blade tip geometry was trimmed by 12 mils (0.3048 millimeters), and another in which the hub flow path was moved to reflect a 12-mil axial shift in the impeller hub, creating a step at the hub. The one-dimensional results of these two computations indicate non-negligible differences between the two modeling approaches.

  19. Interface circuit for a multiple-beam tuning-fork gyroscope with high quality factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren

    This research work presents the design, theoretical analysis, fabrication, interface electronics, and experimental results of a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) based Multiple-Beam Tuning-Fork Gyroscope (MB-TFG). Based on a numerical model of Thermo-Elastic Damping (TED), a Multiple-Beam Tuning-Fork Structure (MB-TFS) is designed with high Quality factors (Qs) in its two operation modes. A comprehensive theoretical analysis of the MB-TFG design is conducted to relate the design parameters to its operation parameters and further performance parameters. In conjunction with a mask that defines the device through trenches to alleviate severe fabrication effect on anchor loss, a simple one-mask fabrication process is employed to implement this MB-TFG design on SOI wafers. The fabricated MB-TFGs are tested with PCB-level interface electronics and a thorough comparison between the experimental results and a theoretical analysis is conducted to verify the MB-TFG design and accurately interpret the measured performance. The highest measured Qs of the fabricated MB-TFGs in vacuum are 255,000 in the drive-mode and 103,000 in the sense-mode, at a frequency of 15.7kHz. Under a frequency difference of 4Hz between the two modes (operation frequency is 16.8kHz) and a drive-mode vibration amplitude of 3.0um, the measured rate sensitivity is 80mVpp/°/s with an equivalent impedance of 6MQ. The calculated overall rate resolution of this device is 0.37/hrhiElz, while the measured Angle Random Walk (ARW) and bias instability are 6.67°/'vhr and 95°/hr, respectively.

  20. Understanding interface properties from high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy and first principles theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granroth, Sari; Olovsson, Weine; Holmstroem, Erik; Knut, Ronny; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Svensson, Svante; Karis, Olof

    2011-01-01

    Advances in instrumentation regarding 3rd generation synchrotron light sources and electron spectrometers has enabled the field of high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy (HIKE) (also often denoted hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES or HAXPES)). Over the last years, the amount of investigations that relies on the HIKE method has increased dramatically and can arguably be said to have given a rebirth of the interest in photoelectron spectroscopy in many areas. It is in particular the much increased mean free path at higher kinetic energies in combination with the elemental selectivity of the core level spectroscopies in general that has lead to this fact, as it makes it possible to investigate the electronic structure of materials with a substantially reduced surface sensitivity. In this review we demonstrate how HIKE can be used to investigate the interface properties in multilayer systems. Relative intensities of the core level photoelectron peaks and their chemical shifts derived from binding energy changes are found to give precise information on physico-chemical properties and quality of the buried layers. Interface roughening, including kinetic properties such as the rate of alloying, and temperature effects on the processes can be analyzed quantitatively. We will also provide an outline of the theoretical framework that is used to support the interpretation of data. We provide examples from our own investigations of multilayer systems which comprises both systems of more model character and a multilayer system very close to real applications in devices that are considered to be viable alternative to the present read head technology. The experimental data presented in this review is exclusively recorded at the BESSY-II synchrotron at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie. This HIKE facility is placed at the bending magnet beamline KMC-1, which makes it different from several other facilities which relies on undulators as

  1. High-precision efficiency calibration of a high-purity co-axial germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, B., E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Souin, J.; Ascher, P.; Audirac, L.; Canchel, G.; Gerbaux, M.; Grévy, S.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guérin, H.; Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Matea, I. [Centre d' Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, 33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Bouzomita, H.; Delahaye, P.; Grinyer, G.F.; Thomas, J.C. [Grand Accélérateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM, CNRS/IN2P3, Bvd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 CAEN Cedex 5 (France)

    2015-03-11

    A high-purity co-axial germanium detector has been calibrated in efficiency to a precision of about 0.15% over a wide energy range. High-precision scans of the detector crystal and γ-ray source measurements have been compared to Monte-Carlo simulations to adjust the dimensions of a detector model. For this purpose, standard calibration sources and short-lived online sources have been used. The resulting efficiency calibration reaches the precision needed e.g. for branching ratio measurements of super-allowed β decays for tests of the weak-interaction standard model.

  2. Highly Adaptive Solid-Liquid Interfacing Triboelectric Nanogenerator for Harvesting Diverse Water Wave Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Jiao; Kuang, Shuang Yang; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2018-05-22

    Harvesting water wave energy presents a significantly practical route to energy supply for self-powered wireless sensing networks. Here we report a networked integrated triboelectric nanogenerator (NI-TENG) as a highly adaptive means of harvesting energy from interfacing interactions with various types of water waves. Having an arrayed networking structure, the NI-TENG can accommodate diverse water wave motions and generate stable electric output regardless of how random the water wave is. Nanoscaled surface morphology consisting of dense nanowire arrays is the key for obtaining high electric output. A NI-TENG having an area of 100 × 70 mm 2 can produce a stable short-circuit current of 13.5 μA and corresponding electric power of 1.03 mW at a water wave height of 12 cm. This merit promises practical applications of the NI-TENG in real circumstances, where water waves are highly variable and unpredictable. After energy storage, the generated electric energy can drive wireless sensing by autonomously transmitting data at a period less than 1 min. This work proposes a viable solution for powering individual standalone nodes in a wireless sensor network. Potential applications include but are not limited to long-term environment monitoring, marine surveillance, and off-shore navigation.

  3. SUGAR: graphical user interface-based data refiner for high-throughput DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukuto; Kojima, Kaname; Nariai, Naoki; Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Kawai, Yosuke; Takahashi, Mamoru; Mimori, Takahiro; Nagasaki, Masao

    2014-08-08

    Next-generation sequencers (NGSs) have become one of the main tools for current biology. To obtain useful insights from the NGS data, it is essential to control low-quality portions of the data affected by technical errors such as air bubbles in sequencing fluidics. We develop a software SUGAR (subtile-based GUI-assisted refiner) which can handle ultra-high-throughput data with user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) and interactive analysis capability. The SUGAR generates high-resolution quality heatmaps of the flowcell, enabling users to find possible signals of technical errors during the sequencing. The sequencing data generated from the error-affected regions of a flowcell can be selectively removed by automated analysis or GUI-assisted operations implemented in the SUGAR. The automated data-cleaning function based on sequence read quality (Phred) scores was applied to a public whole human genome sequencing data and we proved the overall mapping quality was improved. The detailed data evaluation and cleaning enabled by SUGAR would reduce technical problems in sequence read mapping, improving subsequent variant analysis that require high-quality sequence data and mapping results. Therefore, the software will be especially useful to control the quality of variant calls to the low population cells, e.g., cancers, in a sample with technical errors of sequencing procedures.

  4. An efficient word typing P300-BCI system using a modified T9 interface and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Faraz; Han, Seung Moo; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    A typical P300-based spelling brain computer interface (BCI) system types a single character with a character presentation paradigm and a P300 classification system. Lately, a few attempts have been made to type a whole word with the help of a smart dictionary that suggests some candidate words with the input of a few initial characters. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm utilizing initial character typing with word suggestions and a novel P300 classifier to increase word typing speed and accuracy. The novel paradigm involves modifying the Text on 9 keys (T9) interface, which is similar to the keypad of a mobile phone used for text messaging. Users can type the initial characters using a 3×3 matrix interface and an integrated custom-built dictionary that suggests candidate words as the user types the initials. Then the user can select one of the given suggestions to complete word typing. We have adopted a random forest classifier, which significantly improves P300 classification accuracy by combining multiple decision trees. We conducted experiments with 10 subjects using the proposed BCI system. Our proposed paradigms significantly reduced word typing time and made word typing more convenient by outputting complete words with only a few initial character inputs. The conventional spelling system required an average time of 3.47 min per word while typing 10 random words, whereas our proposed system took an average time of 1.67 min per word, a 51.87% improvement, for the same words under the same conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  6. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  7. Low Temperature Combustion Demonstrator for High Efficiency Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda, William de

    2010-07-31

    The project which extended from November 2005 to May of 2010 demonstrated the application of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) with engine out NOx levels of 0.2 g/bhp-hr throughout the program target load of 12.6bar BMEP. The project showed that the range of loads could be extended to 16.5bar BMEP, therefore matching the reference lug line of the base 2007 MY Navistar 6.4L V8 engine. Results showed that the application of LTC provided a dramatic improvement over engine out emissions when compared to the base engine. Furthermore LTC improved thermal efficiency by over 5% from the base production engine when using the steady state 13 mode composite test as a benchmark. The key enablers included improvements in the air, fuel injection, and cooling systems made in Phases I and II. The outcome was the product of a careful integration of each component under an intelligent control system. The engine hardware provided the conditions to support LTC and the controller provided the necessary robustness for a stable combustion. Phase III provided a detailed account on the injection strategy used to meet the high load requirements. During this phase, the control strategy was implemented in a production automotive grade ECU to perform cycle-by-cycle combustion feedback on each of the engine cylinders. The control interacted on a cycle base with the injection system and with the Turbo-EGR systems according to their respective time constants. The result was a unique system that could, first, help optimize the combustion system and maintain high efficiency, and secondly, extend the steady state results to the transient mode of operation. The engine was upgraded in Phase IV with a Variable Valve Actuation system and a hybrid EGR loop. The impact of the more versatile EGR loop did not provide significant advantages, however the application of VVA proved to be an enabler to further extend the operation of LTC and gain considerable benefits in fuel economy and soot reduction. Finally

  8. Second Generation Advanced Reburning for High Efficiency NOx Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamansky, Vladimir M.; Maly, Peter M.; Sheldon, Mark; Seeker, W. Randall; Folsom, Blair A.

    1997-01-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corporation is developing a family of high efficiency and low cost NO x control technologies for coal fired utility boilers based on Advanced Reburning (AR), a synergistic integration of basic reburning with injection of an N-agent. In conventional AR, injection of the reburn fuel is followed by simultaneous N-agent and overfire air injection. The second generation AR systems incorporate several components which can be used in different combinations. These components include: (1) Reburning Injection of the reburn fuel and overfire air. (2) N-agent Injection The N-agent (ammonia or urea) can be injected at different locations: into the reburning zone, along with the overfire air, and downstream of the overfire air injection. (3) N-agent Promotion Several sodium compounds can considerably enhance the NO x control from N-agent injection. These ''promoters'' can be added to aqueous N-agents. (4) Two Stages of N-agent Injection and Promotion Two N-agents with or without promoters can be injected at different locations for deeper NO x control. AR systems are intended for post-RACT applications in ozone non-attainment areas where NO x control in excess of 80% is required. AR will provide flexible installations that allow NO x levels to be lowered when regulations become more stringent. The total cost of NO x control for AR systems is approximately half of that for SCR. Experimental and kinetic modeling results for development of these novel AR systems are presented. Tests have been conducted in a 1.0 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulator Facility with coal as the main fuel and natural gas as the reburning fuel. The results show that high efficiency NO x control, in the range 84-95%, can be achieved with various elements of AR. A comparative byproduct emission study was performed to compare the emissions from different variants of AR with commercial technologies (reburning and SNCR). For each technology sampling included: CO, SO 2 , N 2 O, total

  9. Interface States in AlGaN/GaN Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor High Electron Mobility Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qian; Du Kai; Li Yu-Kun; Shi Peng; Feng Qing

    2013-01-01

    Frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance measurements are performed on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and NbAlO/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor HEMTs (MISHEMTs) to extract density and time constants of the trap states at NbAlO/AlGaN interface and gate/AlGaN interface with the gate-voltage biased into the accumulation region and that at the AlGaN/GaN interface with the gate-voltage biased into the depletion region in different circuit models. The measurement results indicate that the trap density at NbAlO/AlGaN interface is about one order lower than that at gate/AlGaN interface while the trap density at AlGaN/GaN interface is in the same order, so the NbAlO film can passivate the AlGaN surface effectively, which is consistent with the current collapse results

  10. Low-Cost, High Efficiency, Silicon Based Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    for photovoltaic applications. Figure 14: (a) Absorption and scattering efficiencies versus sizes of Au nanoparticle at 550 nm, (b) scattering...efficiency as a function of wavelength for different Au nanoparticles sizes . 32 Review of plasmonics light trapping for photovoltaic application...ensure that the irradiation variation was within 3%. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) system used a 300W Xenon light source with a spot size of 1mm

  11. Bonding of Si wafers by surface activation method for the development of high efficiency high counting rate radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Yamashita, Makoto; Onabe, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    Si wafers with two different resistivities ranging over two orders of magnitude were bonded by the surface activation method. The resistivities of bonded Si wafers were measured as a function of annealing temperature. Using calculations based on a model, the interface resistivities of bonded Si wafers were estimated as a function of the measured resistivities of bonded Si wafers. With thermal treatment from 500degC to 900degC, all interfaces showed high resistivity, with behavior that was close to that of an insulator. Annealing at 1000degC decreased the interface resistivity and showed close to ideal bonding after thermal treatment at 1100degC. (author)

  12. Compact high efficiency, light weight 200-800 MHz high power RF source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrader, M.B.; Preist, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    There has long been a need for a new more efficient less bulky high power RF power source to drive accelerators in the 200 to 800 MHz region. Results on a recent 5-year EIMAC sponsored R and D program which have lead to the introduction of the Klystrode for UHF television and troposcatter applications indicate that at power levels of 1MW or more efficiencies in excess of 75% can be obtained at 450 MHz. Efficiencies of this order coupled with potential size and weight parameters which are a fraction of those of existing high power UHF generators open up new applications which heretofore would have been impractical if not impossible. Measurements at 470 MHz on existing Klystrodes are given. Projected operating conditions for a 1MW 450 MHz Klystrode having an overall length of 60 inches and a total tube, circuit, and magnet weight of 250 pounds is presented

  13. A Low Input Current and Wide Conversion Ratio Buck Regulator with 75% Efficiency for High-Voltage Triboelectric Nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Chuan; Bao, De-Chun; Yu, Wu-Qi; Zhang, Zhao-Hua; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    It is meaningful to research the Triboelectric Nanogenerators (TENG), which can create electricity anywhere and anytime. There are many researches on the structures and materials of TENG to explain the phenomenon that the maximum voltage is stable and the current is increasing. The output voltage of the TENG is high about 180-400 V, and the output current is small about 39 μA, which the electronic devices directly integration of TENG with Li-ion batteries will result in huge energy loss due to the ultrahigh TENG impedance. A novel interface circuit with the high-voltage buck regulator for TENG is introduced firstly in this paper. The interface circuit can transfer the output signal of the TENG into the signal fit to a lithium ion battery. Through the circuit of the buck regulator, the average output voltage is about 4.0 V and the average output current is about 1.12 mA. Further, the reliability and availability for the lithium ion battery and the circuit are discussed. The interface circuit is simulated using the Cadence software and verified through PCB experiment. The buck regulator can achieve 75% efficiency for the High-Voltage TENG. This will lead to a research hot and industrialization applications.

  14. Interdigitated Pt-GaN Schottky interfaces for high-temperature soot-particulate sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Hongyun; Hou, Minmin; Jain, Sambhav R.; Lim, Jongwoo; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-04-01

    A microscale soot-particulate sensor using interdigitated platinum-gallium nitride (Pt-GaN) Schottky interfaces was developed to monitor fine soot particles within high-temperature environments (e.g., combustion exhausts and flues). Upon exposure to soot particles (30 to 50 nm in diameter) from an experimental chimney, an increased current (∼43.6%) is observed through the back-to-back Schottky contact to n-type GaN. This is attributed to a reduction in the effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) of ∼10 meV due to the electric field from the charged soot particles in the depletion region and exposed GaN surface. Furthermore, the microfabricated sensor was shown to recover sensitivity and regenerate the sensing response (∼11 meV SBH reduction) after exposure to temperature as high as 550 °C. This study supports the feasibility of a simple and reliable soot sensor to meet the increasing market demand for particulate matter sensing in harsh environments.

  15. Josephson junction between two high Tc superconductors with arbitrary transparency of interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GhR Rashedi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dc Josephson junction between two singlet superconductors (d-wave and s-wave with arbitrary reflection coefficient has been investigated theoretically. For the case of high Tc superconductors, the c-axes are parallel to an interface with finite transparency and their ab-planes have a mis-orientation. The physics of potential barrier will be demonstrated by a transparency coefficient via which the tunneling will occur. We have solved the nonlocal Eilenberger equations and obtained the corresponding and suitable Green functions analytically. Then, using the obtained Green functions, the current-phase diagrams have been calculated. The effect of the potential barrier and mis-orientation on the currents is studied analytically and numerically. It is observed that, the current phase relations are totally different from the case of ideal transparent Josephson junctions between d-wave superconductors and two s-wave superconductors. This apparatus can be used to demonstrate d-wave order parameter in high Tc superconductors.

  16. Glutathione is a highly efficient thermostabilizer of poliovirus Sabin strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnabi, Rana; Delang, Leen; Neyts, Johan

    2017-03-07

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant thiol peptide in animal cells and has a critical role in antioxidation. GSH was reported to be essential for stabilization of some enteroviruses, including poliovirus (PV), during viral morphogenesis. Here, we explored the potential use of GSH as a thermostabilizer of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) formulations. GSH significantly protected the three types of PV from heat-inactivation in a concentration-dependent manner. At a GSH concentration of 20mM, nearly complete protection was observed against heating temperatures up to 53°C for 2min.GSH also markedly protected PV1 from heat-inactivation and this up to 6 h at temperatures of 44°C and 46°C and 3 h at 48°C. The fact that GSH is naturally present at high concentration in the human body makes it an efficient candidate stabilizer for OPV formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiplexing a high-throughput liability assay to leverage efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, John; Anthony, Monique; Stewart, Jeremy; Connors, David; Chen, Taosheng; Banks, Martyn; Petrillo, Edward W; Agler, Michele

    2009-06-01

    In order to identify potential cytochrome P-450 3A4 (drug-metabolizing enzyme) inducers at an early stage of the drug discovery process, a cell-based transactivation high-throughput luciferase reporter assay for the human pregnane X receptor (PXR) in HepG2 cells has been implemented and multiplexed with a viability end point for data interpretation, as part of a Lead Profiling portfolio of assays. As a routine part of Lead Profiling operations, assays are periodically evaluated for utility as well as for potential improvements in technology or process. We used a recent evaluation of our PXR-transactivation assay as a model for the application of Lean Thinking-based process analysis to lab-bench assay optimization and automation. This resulted in the development of a 384-well multiplexed homogeneous assay simultaneously detecting PXR transactivation and HepG2 cell cytotoxicity. In order to multiplex fluorescent and luminescent read-outs, modifications to each assay were necessary, which included optimization of multiple assay parameters such as cell density, plate type, and reagent concentrations. Subsequently, a set of compounds including known cytotoxic compounds and PXR inducers were used to validate the multiplexed assay. Results from the multiplexed assay correlate well with those from the singleplexed assay formats measuring PXR transactivation and viability separately. Implementation of the multiplexed assay for routine compound profiling provides improved data quality, sample conservation, cost savings, and resource efficiencies.

  18. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  19. Improper ferroelectrics as high-efficiency energy conversion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamatsu, Toru; Tanabe, Kenji; Terasaki, Ichiro; Taniguchi, Hiroki [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    An improper ferroelectric is a certain type of ferroelectrics whose primary order parameter is not polarization but another physical quantity such as magnetization. In contrast to a conventional proper ferroelectrics as represented by Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} and BaTiO{sub 3}, the improper ferroelectrics has been inconceivable for practical applications thus far. Herein, we illustrate the great potential of improper ferroelectrics for efficient conversion of temperature fluctuation to electric energy, as demonstrated with (Ca{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}){sub 8}[AlO{sub 2}]{sub 12}(MoO{sub 4}){sub 2} (CSAM-16). The present study has experimentally proven that CSAM-16 achieves an excellent electrothermal coupling factor and high electric field sensitivity for pyroelectric energy conversion that approach a practical level for application to self-powered autonomous electronic devices for rapidly spreading wireless sensor networks. The present results provide a novel approach to developing innovative pyroelectric energy harvesting devices using improper ferroelectrics. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Liu, Hongfeng [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Qu, Fengyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Cai, Xue, E-mail: xuecai@mail.sdu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Wu, Xiang, E-mail: wuxiang@hrbnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.