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Sample records for highly dispersed anchored

  1. Highly Dispersed Nickel-Containing Mesoporous Silica with Superior Stability in Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane: The Effect of Anchoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjia Cai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of nickel-containing mesoporous silica samples (Ni-SiO2 with different nickel content (3.1%–13.2% were synthesized by the evaporation-induced self-assembly method. Their catalytic activity was tested in carbon dioxide reforming of methane. The characterization results revealed that the catalysts, e.g., 6.7%Ni-SiO2, with highly dispersed small nickel particles, exhibited excellent catalytic activity and long-term stability. The metallic nickel particle size was significantly affected by the metal anchoring effect between metallic nickel particles and unreduced nickel ions in the silica matrix. A strong anchoring effect was suggested to account for the remaining of small Ni particle size and the improved catalytic performance.

  2. Synthesis of highly dispersed Pt nanoclusters anchored graphene composites and their application for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Huang, Qiwei; Oyama, Munetaka; Ji, Kai; Liu, Xiong; He, Yunbin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PtNCs/graphene (PVP) composites were obtained by a clean and facile method. • The addition of graphene effectively promotes the catalytic performance of composites. • The highly dispersed PtNCs show superior electrocatalytic activity to glucose oxidation. • PtNCs/graphene (PVP) composites exhibit excellent stability and selectivity for nonenzymatic glucose detection. - Abstract: A facile and clean method by using ascorbic acid as mild reductant was developed to synthesize nanocomposites of graphene and platinum nanoclusters (PtNCs/graphene), in which Polyvinyl-Pyrrolidone (PVP) was added during the one-step reductive process so as to improve the dispersity of PtNCs on the graphene and decrease the size of PtNCs. By several characterization methods such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we demonstrated that Pt nanoclusters have successfully anchored on the surface of graphene sheets with average diameter of 22 nm. It was found that with the assistant of PVP, Pt nanoclusters appeared with smaller particle size and narrower particle size distribution. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometric methods were used to evaluate the electro-catalytic activity of the synthesized nanocomposites toward the oxidation of glucose in neutral media (0.1 M PBS, pH 7.4). The PtNCs/graphene exhibited a rapid response time (about 3 s), a broad linear range (1 mM to 25 mM), good stability, and sensitivity estimated to be 1.21 μA cm −2 mM −1 (R = 0.995, 71.9 μA cm −2 mM −1 vs. geometric area). Additionally, the impact from the oxidation of interferences can be effectively limited by choosing the appropriate detection potential. These results indicated a great potential of PtNCs/graphene in fabricating novel non-enzymatic glucose sensors with high performance

  3. Facile solid-state synthesis of highly dispersed Cu nanospheres anchored on coal-based activated carbons as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Gao, Shasha; Tang, Yakun; Wang, Lei; Jia, Dianzeng; Liu, Lang

    2018-04-01

    Coal-based activated carbons (AC) were acted as the support, Cu/AC catalysts were synthesized by a facile solid-state reaction combined with subsequent heat treatment. In Cu/AC composites, highly dispersed Cu nanospheres were anchored on AC. The catalytic activity for 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) was investigated, the effects of activation temperature and copper loading on the catalytic performance were studied. The catalysts exhibited very high catalytic activity and moderate chemical stability due to the unique characteristics of the particle-assembled nanostructures, the high surface area and the porous structure of coal-based AC and the good dispersion of metal particles. Design and preparation of non-noble metal composite catalysts provide a new direction for improving the added value of coal.

  4. End-anchored polymers in good solvents from the single chain limit to high anchoring densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mark D; Grest, Gary S; Douglas, Jack F; Kent, Michael S; Suo, Tongchuan

    2016-11-07

    An increasing number of applications utilize grafted polymer layers to alter the interfacial properties of solid substrates, motivating refinement in our theoretical understanding of such layers. To assess existing theoretical models of them, we have investigated end-anchored polymer layers over a wide range of grafting densities, σ, ranging from a single chain to high anchoring density limits, chain lengths ranging over two orders of magnitude, for very good and marginally good solvent conditions. We compare Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations, numerical self-consistent field calculations, and experimental measurements of the average layer thickness, h, with renormalization group theory, the Alexander-de Gennes mushroom theory, and the classical brush theory. Our simulations clearly indicate that appreciable inter-chain interactions exist at all simulated areal anchoring densities so that there is no mushroom regime in which the layer thickness is independent of σ. Moreover, we find that there is no high coverage regime in which h follows the predicted scaling, h ∼ Nσ 1/3 , for classical polymer brushes either. Given that no completely adequate analytic theory seems to exist that spans wide ranges of N and σ, we applied scaling arguments for h as a function of a suitably defined reduced anchoring density, defined in terms of the solution radius of gyration of the polymer chains and N. We find that such a scaling approach enables a smooth, unified description of h in very good solvents over the full range of anchoring density and chain lengths, although this type of data reduction does not apply to marginal solvent quality conditions.

  5. Well-dispersed LiFePO4 nanoparticles anchored on a three-dimensional graphene aerogel as high-performance positive electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yingke; Tu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhongtang; Du, Guodong

    2017-02-01

    A three-dimensional graphene aerogel supporting LiFePO4 nanoparticles (LFP/GA) has been synthesized by a hydrothermal process. The morphology and microstructure of LFP/GA were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by constant-current charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Well-distributed LFP nanoparticles are anchored on both sides of graphene and then assemble into a highly porous three-dimensional aerogel architecture. Conductive graphene networks provide abundant paths to facilitate the transfer of electrons, while the aerogel structures offer plenty of interconnected open pores for the storage of electrolyte to enable the fast supply of Li ions. The LFP and graphene aerogel composites present superior specific capacity, rate capability and cycling performance in comparison to the pristine LFP or LFP supported on graphene sheets and are thus promising for lithium-ion battery applications.

  6. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  7. Small-angle light scattering symmetry breaking in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films with inhomogeneous electrically controlled interface anchoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiko, V. A., E-mail: loiko@ifanbel.bas-net.by; Konkolovich, A. V. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus); Zyryanov, V. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center “Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center,” Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Miskevich, A. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Stepanov Institute of Physics (Belarus)

    2017-03-15

    We have described the method of analyzing and reporting on the results of calculation of the small-angle structure of radiation scattered by a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film with electrically controlled interfacial anchoring. The method is based on the interference approximation of the wave scattering theory and the hard disk model. Scattering from an individual liquid crystal droplet has been described using the anomalous diffraction approximation extended to the case of droplets with uniform and nonuniform interface anchoring at the droplet–polymer boundary. The director field structure in an individual droplet is determined from the solution of the problem of minimizing the volume density of the free energy. The electrooptical effect of symmetry breaking in the angular distribution of scattered radiation has been analyzed. This effect means that the intensities of radiation scattered within angles +θ{sub s} and–θ{sub s} relative to the direction of illumination in the scattering plane can be different. The effect is of the interference origin and is associated with asymmetry of the phase shift of the wavefront of an incident wave from individual parts of the droplet, which appears due to asymmetry of the director field structure in the droplet, caused by nonuniform anchoring of liquid crystal molecules with the polymer on its surface. This effect is analyzed in the case of normal illumination of the film depending on the interfacial anchoring at the liquid crystal–polymer interface, the orientation of the optical axes of droplets, their concentration, sizes, anisometry, and polydispersity.

  8. Homogeneously Dispersed Co9S8 Anchored on Nitrogen and Sulfur Co-Doped Carbon Derived from Soybean as Bifunctional Oxygen Electrocatalysts and Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhen; Xiao, Guozheng; Shi, Minhao; Zhu, Ying

    2018-05-16

    Developing low-cost and highly active multifunctional electrocatalysts to replace noble metal catalysts is crucial for the commercialization of future clean energy technology. Herein, homogeneous Co 9 S 8 nanoparticles anchored on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped porous carbon nanomaterials (CoS@NSCs) are fabricated by pyrolysis of natural soybean treated with cobalt nitrate. The unique porous structures of the soybean are utilized to provide space for the oxidation and complexation reactions for cobalt compounds, thus leading to in situ generation of homogenously dispersed cobalt sulfide nanoparticles that anchored on the N,S co-doped carbon framework. Because of the coupling effect of cobalt sulfide and doping heteroatoms, CoS@NSC-800 not only displays excellent electrocatalytic performances with low overpotential and high current density toward both oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst and IrO 2 catalyst, but also might be a promising candidate for high-performance supercapacitors. The method for the preparation of the multifunctional hybrids is simple but effective for the formation of uniformly distributed metal sulfide nanoparticles anchored on carbon materials, therefore providing a new perspective for the design and synthesis of multifunctional electrocatalysts for electrochemical energy conversion and storage at a large scale.

  9. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  10. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. High Performance Flexible Pseudocapacitor based on Nano-architectured Spinel Nickel Cobaltite Anchored Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-step fabrication method for nano-architectured spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) anchored MWCNTs composite. • High performance flexible energy-storage devices. • The NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs Exhibits 2032 Fg −1 capacitance which is 1.62 times greater than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 at 1 Ag −1 . - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile two-step fabrication method for nano-architectured spinel nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) anchored multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based electrodes for high performance flexible energy-storage devices. As electrode materials for flexible supercapacitors, the NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs exhibits a high specific capacitance of 2032 Fg −1 , which is nearly 1.62 times greater than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 nanoflakes at 1 Ag −1 . The synthesized NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs composite shows excellent rate performance (83.96% capacity retention at 30 Ag −1 ) and stability with coulombic efficiency over 96% after 5,000 cycles when being fully charged/discharged at 1 Ag −1 . Furthermore, NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs achieve a maximum energy density of 48.32 Whkg −1 at a power density of 480 Wkg −1 which is 60% higher than pristine NiCo 2 O 4 electrode and significantly outperformed electrode materials based on NiCo 2 O 4 which are currently used in the state-of-the-art supercapacitors throughout the literature. This superior rate performance and high-capacity value offered by NiCo 2 O 4 anchored MWCNTs is mainly due to enhanced electronic and ionic conductivity, which provides a short diffusion path for ions and an easy access of electrolyte flow to nickel cobaltite redox centers besides the high conductivity of MWCNTs

  12. High-resolution structure of TBP with TAF1 reveals anchoring patterns in transcriptional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandapadamanaban, Madhanagopal; Andresen, Cecilia; Helander, Sara; Ohyama, Yoshifumi; Siponen, Marina I; Lundström, Patrik; Kokubo, Tetsuro; Ikura, Mitsuhiko; Moche, Martin; Sunnerhagen, Maria

    2013-08-01

    The general transcription factor TFIID provides a regulatory platform for transcription initiation. Here we present the crystal structure (1.97 Å) and NMR analysis of yeast TAF1 N-terminal domains TAND1 and TAND2 bound to yeast TBP, together with mutational data. We find that yeast TAF1-TAND1, which in itself acts as a transcriptional activator, binds TBP's concave DNA-binding surface by presenting similar anchor residues to TBP as does Mot1 but from a distinct structural scaffold. Furthermore, we show how TAF1-TAND2 uses an aromatic and acidic anchoring pattern to bind a conserved TBP surface groove traversing the basic helix region, and we find highly similar TBP-binding motifs also presented by the structurally distinct TFIIA, Mot1 and Brf1 proteins. Our identification of these anchoring patterns, which can be easily disrupted or enhanced, provides insight into the competitive multiprotein TBP interplay critical to transcriptional regulation.

  13. Highly dispersive transparency in coupled metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy, V T T; Park, J W; Lee, Y P; Tung, N T; Lam, V D; Rhee, J Y

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the coupling between bright and quasi-dark eigenmodes in a planar metamaterial supporting highly dispersive transparency. The specific design of such a metamaterial consists of a cut wire (CW) and a single-gap split-ring resonator (SRR). Through the numerical simulation and the equivalent-circuit analysis, we demonstrate that the response of the SRR, which is weakly excited by external electric field, plays the role of a quasi-dark eigenmode in the presence of a strongly radiative CW. Furthermore, by extending and relating our study to the trapped mode resonances and the coupling between dark and bright modes, a more comprehensive perspective for the metamaterial realization of highly dispersive transmission and slow-light applications is provided

  14. Utilities for high performance dispersion model PHYSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1992-09-01

    The description and usage of the utilities for the dispersion calculation model PHYSIC were summarized. The model was developed in the study of developing high performance SPEEDI with the purpose of introducing meteorological forecast function into the environmental emergency response system. The procedure of PHYSIC calculation consists of three steps; preparation of relevant files, creation and submission of JCL, and graphic output of results. A user can carry out the above procedure with the help of the Geographical Data Processing Utility, the Model Control Utility, and the Graphic Output Utility. (author)

  15. High-Performance Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring in Granular Media for NEO Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Jain, Abhinandan; Negrut, Dan; Mazhar, Hammad

    2012-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a near-Earth object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission would require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO, in an environment characterized by very low gravity levels; such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy, and upon mission completion, easy to remove. The design philosophy used in this task relies on the simulation capability of a high-performance multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth, it is difficult to create low-gravity conditions, and testing in low-gravity environments, whether artificial or in space, can be costly and very difficult to achieve. Through simulation, the effect of gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine, a simulation pack age capable of utilizing massively parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) hardware, several validation experiments were performed. Modeling of the regolith interaction has been carried out, after which the anchor penetration tests were performed and analyzed. The regolith was modeled by a granular medium composed of very large numbers of convex three-dimensional rigid bodies, subject to microgravity levels and interacting with each other with contact, friction, and cohesional forces. The multibody dynamics simulation approach used for simulating anchors penetrating a soil uses a differential variational inequality (DVI) methodology to solve the contact problem posed as a linear complementarity method (LCP). Implemented within a GPU processing environment, collision detection is greatly accelerated compared to traditional CPU (central processing unit)- based collision detection. Hence, systems of millions of particles interacting with complex dynamic systems can be efficiently analyzed, and design recommendations can be made in a much shorter time. The figure

  16. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  17. Amide group anchored glucose oxidase based anodic catalysts for high performance enzymatic biofuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yongjin; Ahn, Yeonjoo; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Kwon, Yongchai

    2017-01-01

    A new enzyme catalyst is formed by fabricating gold nano particle (GNP)-glucose oxidase (GOx) clusters that are then attached to polyethyleneimine (PEI) and carbon nanotube (CNT) with cross-linkable terephthalaldehyde (TPA) (TPA/[CNT/PEI/GOx-GNP]). Especially, amide bonds belonging to TPA play an anchor role for incorporating rigid bonding among GNP, GOx and CNT/PEI, while middle size GNP is well bonded with thiol group of GOx to form strong GNP-GOx cluster. Those bonds are identified by chemical and electrochemical characterizations like XPS and cyclic voltammogram. The anchording effect of amide bonds induces fast electron transfer and strong chemical bonding, resulting in enhancements in (i) catalytic activity, (ii) amount of immobilized GOx and (ii) performance of enzymatic biofuel cell (EBC) including the catalyst. Regarding the catalytic activity, the TPA/[CNT/PEI/GOx-GNP] produces high electron transfer rate constant (6 s-1), high glucose sensitivity (68 μA mM-1 cm-2), high maximum current density (113 μA cm-2), low charge transfer resistance (17.0 Ω cm2) and long-lasting durability while its chemical structure is characterized by XPS confirming large portion of amide bond. In EBC measurement, it has high maximum power density (0.94 mW cm-2) compatible with catalytic acitivity measurements.

  18. Anchoring samarium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Hamid Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Samarium oxide nanoparticles have been anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide for the first time. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite can serve as efficient electrode material for energy storage. • The best composite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 321 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: We have synthesized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (SmNs) and anchored them onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through a self-assembly thereof by utilizing a facile sonochemical procedure. The nanomaterials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the next step, the supercapacitive behavior of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated when used as electrode material, through with cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The SmNs decorated RGO (SmN-RGO) nanocomposites were found to possess a specific capacitance (SC) of 321 F g{sup −1} when used in a 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as an electrolyte, in a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup −1}. The SC of the SmN-RGO based electrodes were also found to be 268 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} through galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The outstanding properties of the SmN-RGOs were attributed to synergy of the high charge mobility of SmNs and the flexibility of the sheets of RGOs. Additionally, the nano-composite revealed a unique cycling durability (maintaining 99% of its SC even after 4000 cycles).

  19. One pot synthesis of highly luminescent polyethylene glycol anchored carbon dots functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide for cell nucleus imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Jiang, Weihua; Qiu, Lipeng; Jiang, Xuewei; Zuo, Daiying; Wang, Dongkai; Yang, Li

    2015-04-14

    Strong blue fluorescent polyethylene glycol (PEG) anchored carbon nitride dots (CDs@PEG) with a high quantum yield (QY) of 75.8% have been synthesized by a one step hydrothermal treatment. CDs with a diameter of ca. 6 nm are well dispersed in water and present a graphite-like structure. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that CDs display excitation-dependent behavior and are stable under various test conditions. Based on the as-prepared CDs, we designed novel cell nucleus targeting imaging carbon dots functionalized with a nuclear localization signal (NLS) peptide. The favourable biocompatibilities of CDs and NLS modified CDs (NLS-CDs) are confirmed by in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Importantly, intracellular localization experiments in MCF7 and A549 cells demonstrate that NLS-CDs could be internalized in the nucleus and show blue light, which indicates that CDs may serve as cell nucleus imaging probes.

  20. Protein kinase C zeta suppresses low- or high-grade colorectal cancer (CRC) phenotypes by interphase centrosome anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Ravi Kiran; Javadi, Arman; McClements, Jane; Vohhodina, Jekaterina; Savage, Kienan; Loughrey, Maurice Bernard; Evergren, Emma; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2018-04-01

    Histological grading provides prognostic stratification of colorectal cancer (CRC) by scoring heterogeneous phenotypes. Features of aggressiveness include aberrant mitotic spindle configurations, chromosomal breakage, and bizarre multicellular morphology, but pathobiology is poorly understood. Protein kinase C zeta (PKCz) controls mitotic spindle dynamics, chromosome segregation, and multicellular patterns, but its role in CRC phenotype evolution remains unclear. Here, we show that PKCz couples genome segregation to multicellular morphology through control of interphase centrosome anchoring. PKCz regulates interdependent processes that control centrosome positioning. Among these, interaction between the cytoskeletal linker protein ezrin and its binding partner NHERF1 promotes the formation of a localized cue for anchoring interphase centrosomes to the cell cortex. Perturbation of these phenomena induced different outcomes in cells with single or extra centrosomes. Defective anchoring of a single centrosome promoted bipolar spindle misorientation, multi-lumen formation, and aberrant epithelial stratification. Collectively, these disturbances induce cribriform multicellular morphology that is typical of some categories of low-grade CRC. By contrast, defective anchoring of extra centrosomes promoted multipolar spindle formation, chromosomal instability (CIN), disruption of glandular morphology, and cell outgrowth across the extracellular matrix interface characteristic of aggressive, high-grade CRC. Because PKCz enhances apical NHERF1 intensity in 3D epithelial cultures, we used an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay of apical NHERF1 intensity as an indirect readout of PKCz activity in translational studies. We show that apical NHERF1 IHC intensity is inversely associated with multipolar spindle frequency and high-grade morphology in formalin-fixed human CRC samples. To conclude, defective PKCz control of interphase centrosome anchoring may underlie distinct categories of

  1. Supramolecule-Inspired Fabrication of Carbon Nanoparticles In Situ Anchored Graphene Nanosheets Material for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yulan; Gao, Aimei; Song, Xiaona; Shu, Dong; Yi, Fenyun; Zhong, Jie; Zeng, Ronghua; Zhao, Shixu; Meng, Tao

    2016-10-12

    The remarkable electrochemical performance of graphene-based materials has drawn a tremendous amount of attention for their application in supercapacitors. Inspired by supramolecular chemistry, the supramolecular hydrogel is prepared by linking β-cyclodextrin to graphene oxide (GO). The carbon nanoparticles-anchored graphene nanosheets are then assembled after the hydrothermal reduction and carbonization of the supramolecular hydrogels; here, the β-cyclodextrin is carbonized to carbon nanoparticles that are uniformly anchored on the graphene nanosheets. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that carbon nanoparticles with several nanometers are uniformly anchored on both sides of graphene nanosheets, and X-ray diffraction spectra demonstrate that the interlayer spacing of graphene is enlarged due to the anchored nanoparticles among the graphene nanosheets. The as-prepared carbon nanoparticles-anchored graphene nanosheets material (C/r-GO-1:3) possesses a high specific capacitance (310.8 F g -1 , 0.5 A g -1 ), superior rate capability (242.5 F g -1 , 10 A g -1 ), and excellent cycle stability (almost 100% after 10 000 cycles, at the scan rate of 50 mV s -1 ). The outstanding electrochemical performance of the resulting C/r-GO-1:3 is mainly attributed to (i) the presence of the carbon nanoparticles, (ii) the enlarged interlayer spacing of the graphene sheets, and (iii) the accelerated ion transport rates toward the interior of the electrode material. The supramolecule-inspired approach for the synthesis of high-performance carbon nanoparticles-modified graphene sheets material is promising for future application in graphene-based energy storage devices.

  2. Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.

  3. High-throughput physical map anchoring via BAC-pool sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cviková, Kateřina; Cattonaro, F.; Alaux, M.; Stein, N.; Mayer, K.F.X.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bartoš, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, APR 11 (2015) ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08786S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Physical map * Contig anchoring * Next generation sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.631, year: 2015

  4. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Mingkai Liu; Yuqing Liu; Yuting Zhang; Yiliao Li; Peng Zhang; Yan Yan; Tianxi Liu

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of ?closed? pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersio...

  5. Polymer-mediated synthesis of a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles for enhanced electrocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Kim, Gil-Pyo; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Lee, Minzae; Lee, Yoon Jae; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Bae, Seongjun; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Song, Hyeon Dong; Song, In Kyu; 2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (World Class University (WCU) Program of Chemical Convergence for Energy & Environment C2E2, School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Seoul National University (SNU), Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of))" >Yi, Jongheop

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on N-doped carbon aerogel were synthesized for ORR. • Poly(ethyleneimine) was used as nitrogen source and as nucleation sites for Pt. • Precise discussion were conducted to clarify the effect of poly(ethyleneimine). • High Pt dispersion and N-doping results in superior electrocatalytic activity. - Abstract: A simple chemical process for the direct synthesis of a nitrogen (N)-doped carbon aerogel (NCA) with highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles via a poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)-assisted strategy is described. A resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel was treated with water soluble cationic PEI, which mainly functions as an anchoring site for metal ions. The functionalized PEI chains on the surface of the RF gel resulted in the unique formation of chemical complexes, with PtCl 6 2− anchored to the RF gel, and subsequent homogeneous metal nanoparticle growth. The abundant amino groups containing PEI grafted to the RF gel also allowed the nitrogen atoms to be incorporated into the carbon framework, which can directly be converted into a NCA. The spherical Pt nanoparticles in the resulting material (Pt/NCA) were highly dispersed on the surface of the NCA without any evidenced of agglomeration, even after a thermal annealing at 900 °C. Compared with a Pt/CA synthesized by a conventional reduction method, the Pt/NCA showed enhanced electrochemical performance with a high electrochemically active surface area (191.1 cm 2 g −1 ) and electrocatalytic activity (V onset = 0.95 V vs. RHE) with respect to oxygen reduction. The superior electrocatalytic activities of the Pt/NCA can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles and the N-doped carbon supports that were prepared using the PEI-assisted strategy. The findings reported herein suggest that the use of PEI can be effectively extended to broad applications that require the homogeneous deposition of metal nanoparticles.

  6. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  7. High temperature mechanical properties of unirradiated dispersion strengthened copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentzbittel, J.M.; Rigollet, C.; Robert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) copper material, due to its excellent thermal conductivity associated with a high temperature strength is a candidate material for structural applications as divertor plasma facing components of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Tensile and creep results of oxide dispersion strengthened copper are presented. The most important features of ODS copper high temperature behaviour are the high strength corresponding to low creep rates, high stress creep rate dependence, a poor ductility and a brittleness which result in a premature creep fracture at high applied stress. (R.P.) 2 refs.; 6 figs

  8. Highly Dispersed Alloy Catalyst for Durability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthi, Vivek S.; Izzo, Elise; Bi, Wu; Guerrero, Sandra; Protsailo, Lesia

    2013-01-08

    Achieving DOE's stated 5000-hr durability goal for light-duty vehicles by 2015 will require MEAs with characteristics that are beyond the current state of the art. Significant effort was placed on developing advanced durable cathode catalysts to arrive at the best possible electrode for high performance and durability, as well as developing manufacturing processes that yield significant cost benefit. Accordingly, the overall goal of this project was to develop and construct advanced MEAs that will improve performance and durability while reducing the cost of PEMFC stacks. The project, led by UTC Power, focused on developing new catalysts/supports and integrating them with existing materials (membranes and gas diffusion layers (GDLs)) using state-of-the-art fabrication methods capable of meeting the durability requirements essential for automotive applications. Specifically, the project work aimed to lower platinum group metals (PGM) loading while increasing performance and durability. Appropriate catalysts and MEA configuration were down-selected that protects the membrane, and the layers were tailored to optimize the movements of reactants and product water through the cell to maximize performance while maintaining durability.

  9. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Universidade de São Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  10. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  11. Bone-anchored hearing aids are effective and associated with a high degree of satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardell, Ida Sofie Kristina; Andresen, Kathrine; Faber, Christian Emil

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction with bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA). METHODS: This study was retrospective and based on a postal questionnaire. The study sample consisted of patients undergoing surgery at Odense University Hospital in the 1992......-2013-period. The questionnaire was a combination of Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life questions from the Hearing Aid Research Lab at the University of Memphis and questions used in a previous Danish study. We also used data from each patient's medical records. All information was collected...... in a database. RESULTS: The response rate was 80% and the user percentage 88. The majority of the patients used their BAHA seven days a week and most of the day. 88% reported that it was in their best interest that they had received a BAHA. 80% of the respondents were able to communicate better using their BAHA...

  12. Effect of dewatering on seismic performance of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo; Sato, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Previous research reported that the ground water in the backfill of reinforced soil wall made it deteriorate. According to the damage investigation of Great East Earthquake 2011, the reinforced soil structure due to high ground water level by seismic wave were deformed remarkably. Some of them classified ultimate limit state or restorability limit state. However, more than 90% of reinforced soil structure, which suffered from this earthquake, were classified into no damage condition. Therefore, it is necessary that the seismic behaviors of multi-anchor wall due to seepage flow should be clarified in order to adopt the performance-based design in such reinforced soil structure. In this study, a series of centrifugal shaking table tests were conducted to investigate the seismic behavior of multi-anchor wall due to high ground water level. The reinforced drainage pipes were installed into the backfill in order to verify the dewatering effect and additional reinforcement. Furthermore, to check only the dewatering effect, the model tests was carried out with several ground water table that was modeled the case reinforced drainage pipes installed. The test results show unique behavior of reinforced region that moved integrally. This implies that the reinforced region has been behaved as if it became one mass, and this behavior make this structure increase seismic performance. Thus, the effectiveness of dewatering was observed remarkably because of decreasing the inertial force during earthquake.

  13. Coupled thermo-fluid stress analysis of Kambara Reactor with various anchors in the stirring of molten iron at extremely high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, De-Shau; Huang, Feng-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Kambara Reactors (KR) are commonly used to reduce sulfur content in steel making, achieving efficiency levels exceeding 85% at 1300 °C. Unfortunately, the operational lifespan of the KR impeller is somewhat limited due to fracturing of the refractory material via thermal shock, resulting in the penetration of molten iron into the inner core. Few studies have investigated the coupled thermo-fluid stress of KR impellers at extremely high temperatures. This study employed CFX and FEM to simulate and analyze the molten iron and the resulting thermal stress imposed on the KR impeller. Simulation results including flow field, temperature, and thermal stress under extremely high temperatures are in strong agreement with empirical data. V-type anchors for the KR impeller outperformed Y-type anchors. - Highlights: • A thermo-fluid coupling approach is proposed to analyze the thermal stress. • The temperature and stress of the impeller are 790 °C and 744 MPa at the final stage. • The highest temperatures occur at the tip of anchors, which causes material crack. • The thermal stress in impellers with Y-type anchors is greater than V-type anchors

  14. High dispersity of carbon nanotubes diminishes immunotoxicity in spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soyoung; Khang, Dongwoo; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    From the various physiochemical material properties, the chemical functionalization order of single-walled carbon nanotubes (swCNTs) has not been considered as a critical factor for modulating immunological responses and toxicological aspects in drug delivery applications. Although most nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes, are specifically accumulated in spleen, few studies have focused on spleen immunotoxicity. For this reason, this study demonstrated that the dispersity of swCNTs significantly influenced immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. For cytotoxicity of swCNTs, MTT assay, reactive oxygen species production, superoxide dismutase activity, cellular uptake, and confocal microscopy were used in macrophages. In the in vivo study, female BALB/c mice were intravenously administered with 1 mg/kg/day of swCNTs for 2 weeks. The body weight, organ weight, hematological change, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and lymphocyte population were evaluated. Different orders of chemical functionalization of swCNTs controlled immunotoxicity. In short, less-dispersed swCNTs caused cytotoxicity in macrophages and abnormalities in immune organs such as spleen, whereas highly dispersed swCNTs did not result in immunotoxicity. This study clarified that increasing carboxyl groups on swCNTs significantly mitigated immunotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings clarified the effective immunotoxicological factors of swCNTs by increasing dispersity of swCNTs and provided useful guidelines for the effective use of nanomaterials.

  15. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-01-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 for U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm 3 for U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 in U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm 3 U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U 3 Si 2 -Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U 3 O 8 -Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm 3 showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U 3 Si 2 production at 4.8 gU/cm 3 , with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  16. Giant High-Flow Type Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation: Coil Embolization with Flow Control by Balloon Occlusion and an Anchored Detachable Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Watanabe, Haruo; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) are often treated by pushable fibered or non-fibered microcoils, using an anchor or scaffold technique or with an Amplatzer plug through a guiding sheath. When performing percutaneous transcatheter microcoil embolization, there is a risk of coil migration, particularly with high-flow type PAVMs. The authors report on a unique treatment in a patient with a giant high-flow PAVM whose nidus had a maximum diameter of 6 cm. A detachable coil, not detached from a delivery wire (an anchored detachable coil), was first placed in the feeding artery under flow control by balloon occlusion, and then multiple microcoils were packed proximally to the anchored detachable coil. After confirming the stability of the microcoils during a gradual deflation of the balloon, we finally released the first detachable coil. The nidus was reduced in size to 15 mm at one year postoperatively.

  17. 3D polyaniline porous layer anchored pillared graphene sheets: enhanced interface joined with high conductivity for better charge storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Pandiaraj; Anothumakkool, Bihag; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2015-04-15

    Here, we report synthesis of a 3-dimensional (3D) porous polyaniline (PANI) anchored on pillared graphene (G-PANI-PA) as an efficient charge storage material for supercapacitor applications. Benzoic acid (BA) anchored graphene, having spatially separated graphene layers (G-Bz-COOH), was used as a structure controlling support whereas 3D PANI growth has been achieved by a simple chemical oxidation of aniline in the presence of phytic acid (PA). The BA groups on G-Bz-COOH play a critical role in preventing the restacking of graphene to achieve a high surface area of 472 m(2)/g compared to reduced graphene oxide (RGO, 290 m(2)/g). The carboxylic acid (-COOH) group controls the rate of polymerization to achieve a compact polymer structure with micropores whereas the chelating nature of PA plays a crucial role to achieve the 3D growth pattern of PANI. This type of controlled interplay helps G-PANI-PA to achieve a high conductivity of 3.74 S/cm all the while maintaining a high surface area of 330 m(2)/g compared to PANI-PA (0.4 S/cm and 60 m(2)/g). G-PANI-PA thus conceives the characteristics required for facile charge mobility during fast charge-discharge cycles, which results in a high specific capacitance of 652 F/g for the composite. Owing to the high surface area along with high conductivity, G-PANI-PA displays a stable specific capacitance of 547 F/g even with a high mass loading of 3 mg/cm(2), an enhanced areal capacitance of 1.52 F/cm(2), and a volumetric capacitance of 122 F/cm(3). The reduced charge-transfer resistance (RCT) of 0.67 Ω displayed by G-PANI-PA compared to pure PANI (0.79 Ω) stands out as valid evidence of the improved charge mobility achieved by the system by growing the 3D PANI layer along the spatially separated layers of the graphene sheets. The low RCT helps the system to display capacitance retention as high as 65% even under a high current dragging condition of 10 A/g. High charge/discharge rates and good cycling stability are the other

  18. 1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes

  19. Rheological behavior of high-concentration sodium caseinate dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveday, Simon M; Rao, M Anandha; Creamer, Lawrence K; Singh, Harjinder

    2010-03-01

    Apparent viscosity and frequency sweep (G', G'') data for sodium caseinate dispersions with concentrations of approximately 18% to 40% w/w were obtained at 20 degrees C; colloidal glass behavior was exhibited by dispersions with concentration >or=23% w/w. The high concentrations were obtained by mixing frozen powdered buffer with sodium caseinate in boiling liquid nitrogen, and allowing the mixtures to thaw and hydrate at 4 degrees C. The low-temperature G'-G'' crossover seen in temperature scans between 60 and 5 degrees C was thought to indicate gelation. Temperature scans from 5 to 90 degrees C revealed gradual decrease in G' followed by plateau values. In contrast, G'' decreased gradually and did not reach plateau values. Increase in hydrophobicity of the sodium caseinate or a decrease in the effective volume fraction of its aggregates may have contributed to these phenomena. The gelation and end of softening temperatures of the dispersions increased with the concentration of sodium caseinate. From an Eldridge-Ferry plot, the enthalpy of softening was estimated to be 29.6 kJ mol(-1). The results of this study should be useful for creating new products with high concentrations of sodium caseinate.

  20. 1-D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently, inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness of steel pipes. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pitch-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. After dispersion correction the data collapses to a short pulse, any residual dispersion indicates wall loss. The phase spectrum is used to invert for the wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. The approach is evaluated on numerically simulated and on measured data. The method is intended for rapid, semi-quantitative screening of pipes.

  1. Development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.; Totev, T.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities at Argonne National Laboratory have been involved in development of LEU dispersion fuel for research and test reactors from the beginning of RERTR program. This paper presents development of technology of high density LEU dispersion fuel fabrication for full size plate type fuel elements. A brief description of Advanced Materials Fabrication Facilities where development of the technology was carried out is given. A flow diagram of the manufacturing process is presented. U-Mo powder was manufactured by the rotating electrode process. The atomization produced a U-Mo alloy powder with a relatively uniform size distribution and a nearly spherical shape. Test plates were fabricated using tungsten and depleted U-7 wt.% Mo alloy, 4043 Al and Al-2 wt% Si matrices with Al 6061 aluminum alloy for the cladding. During the development of the technology of manufacturing of full size high density LEU dispersion fuel plates special attention was paid to meet the required homogeneity, bonding, dimensions, fuel out of zone and other mechanical characteristics of the plates.

  2. Support the Design of Improved IUE NEWSIPS High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms: Improved IUE High Dispersion Extraction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Pat

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to support the design of improved IUE NEWSIPS high dispersion extraction algorithms. The purpose of this work was to evaluate use of the Linearized Image (LIHI) file versus the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file, evaluate various extraction, and design algorithms for evaluation of IUE High Dispersion spectra. It was concluded the use of the Re-Sampled Image (SIHI) file was acceptable. Since the Gaussian profile worked well for the core and the Lorentzian profile worked well for the wings, the Voigt profile was chosen for use in the extraction algorithm. It was found that the gamma and sigma parameters varied significantly across the detector, so gamma and sigma masks for the SWP detector were developed. Extraction code was written.

  3. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M.

    2010-01-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm 3 by using the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm 3 for the U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  4. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de; Durazzo, Michelangelo, E-mail: jasouza@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 g U/c m3 by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 g U/c m3 for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian- Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  5. Nano assembly of N-doped graphene quantum dots anchored Fe3O4/halloysite nanotubes for high performance supercapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganganboina, Akhilesh Babu; Chowdhury, Ankan Dutta; Doong, Ruey-an

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Halloysite coated Fe 3 O 4 is served as the framework for supporting graphene quantum dots. •GQDs can be well distributed onto Fe 3 O 4 /HNTs to prevent structural failure. •High specific capacitance of 418 F g −1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 neutral electrolyte is observed. •The composites show excellent electrochemical performance with energy density of 10.4–29.0 Wh kg −1 . -- Abstract: The development of robust and low cost electrode materials with superior electrochemical properties has been a subject of focus on energy storage devices. Herein, the development of N-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) deposited on Fe 3 O 4 -halloysite nanotubes (Fe 3 O 4 -HNTs) as active anode materials has been established for supercapacitor applications. The Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles synthesised by coprecipitation have been in-situ deposited on HNT surfaces following by the coating of (3-aminopropyl)-triexthoxysilane to anchor 4–10 nm N-GQDs via the formation of amide linkage. The N-GQD@Fe 3 O 4 -HNTs exhibits a high specific capacitance of 418 F g −1 and maintains good rate capability in neutral electrolyte solutions. In addition, the anode materials show excellent electrochemical performance with energy and power densities of 10.4–29 W h kg −1 and 0.25–5.2 kW kg −1 , respectively. Such excellent electrochemical features can be attributed to the synergistic contribution from individual components. The Fe 3 O 4 -HNTs provide 1-dimensional matrix to shorten the diffusion path of electrons and electrolyte ions as well as to absorb the mechanical stress during cycling along with excess sites for charge storage, while N-GQDs offer abundantly accessible electroactive sites for rapid electrons and electrolyte ions transport as well as enhance electrical conductivity of Fe 3 O 4 -HNTs. Results obtained in this study clearly demonstrate that metal oxide-HNTs are promising support to anchor N-GQDs nanomaterials as the high performance anode materials for next

  6. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  7. Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying

    2012-07-30

    We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.

  8. Monolayer graphene dispersion and radiative cooling for high power LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Eyassu, Tsehaye; Henderson, Kimberly; Kim, Taesam; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2013-10-01

    Molecular fan, a radiative cooling by thin film, has been developed and its application for compact electronic devices has been evaluated. The enhanced surface emissivity and heat dissipation efficiency of the molecular fan coating are shown to correlate with the quantization of lattice modes in active nanomaterials. The highly quantized G and 2D bands in graphene are achieved by our dispersion technique, and then incorporated in an organic-inorganic acrylate emulsion to form a coating assembly on heat sinks (for LED and CPU). This water-based dielectric layer coating has been formulated and applied on metal core printed circuit boards. The heat dissipation efficiency and breakdown voltage are evaluated by a temperature-monitoring system and a high-voltage breakdown tester. The molecular fan coating on heat dissipation units is able to decrease the equilibrium junction temperature by 29.1 ° C, while functioning as a dielectric layer with a high breakdown voltage (>5 kV). The heat dissipation performance of the molecular fan coating applied on LED devices shows that the coated 50 W LED gives an enhanced cooling of 20% at constant light brightness. The schematics of monolayer graphene dispersion, undispersed graphene platelet, and continuous graphene sheet are illustrated and discussed to explain the mechanisms of radiative cooling, radiative/non-radiative, and non-radiative heat re-accumulation.

  9. Monolayer graphene dispersion and radiative cooling for high power LED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Tun-Jen; Eyassu, Tsehaye; Henderson, Kimberly; Kim, Taesam; Lin, Chhiu-Tsu

    2013-01-01

    Molecular fan, a radiative cooling by thin film, has been developed and its application for compact electronic devices has been evaluated. The enhanced surface emissivity and heat dissipation efficiency of the molecular fan coating are shown to correlate with the quantization of lattice modes in active nanomaterials. The highly quantized G and 2D bands in graphene are achieved by our dispersion technique, and then incorporated in an organic-inorganic acrylate emulsion to form a coating assembly on heat sinks (for LED and CPU). This water-based dielectric layer coating has been formulated and applied on metal core printed circuit boards. The heat dissipation efficiency and breakdown voltage are evaluated by a temperature-monitoring system and a high-voltage breakdown tester. The molecular fan coating on heat dissipation units is able to decrease the equilibrium junction temperature by 29.1 ° C, while functioning as a dielectric layer with a high breakdown voltage (>5 kV). The heat dissipation performance of the molecular fan coating applied on LED devices shows that the coated 50 W LED gives an enhanced cooling of 20% at constant light brightness. The schematics of monolayer graphene dispersion, undispersed graphene platelet, and continuous graphene sheet are illustrated and discussed to explain the mechanisms of radiative cooling, radiative/non-radiative, and non-radiative heat re-accumulation. (paper)

  10. Tongue Images Classification Based on Constrained High Dispersal Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer aided tongue diagnosis has a great potential to play important roles in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, the majority of the existing tongue image analyses and classification methods are based on the low-level features, which may not provide a holistic view of the tongue. Inspired by deep convolutional neural network (CNN, we propose a novel feature extraction framework called constrained high dispersal neural networks (CHDNet to extract unbiased features and reduce human labor for tongue diagnosis in TCM. Previous CNN models have mostly focused on learning convolutional filters and adapting weights between them, but these models have two major issues: redundancy and insufficient capability in handling unbalanced sample distribution. We introduce high dispersal and local response normalization operation to address the issue of redundancy. We also add multiscale feature analysis to avoid the problem of sensitivity to deformation. Our proposed CHDNet learns high-level features and provides more classification information during training time, which may result in higher accuracy when predicting testing samples. We tested the proposed method on a set of 267 gastritis patients and a control group of 48 healthy volunteers. Test results show that CHDNet is a promising method in tongue image classification for the TCM study.

  11. VS4 Nanoparticles Anchored on Graphene Sheets as a High-Rate and Stable Electrode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qiang; Zhao, Yingying; Yu, Yanhao; Bian, Xiaofei; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Yingjin; Gao, Yu; Chen, Gang

    2018-02-22

    The size and conductivity of the electrode materials play a significant role in the kinetics of sodium-ion batteries. Various characterizations reveal that size-controllable VS 4 nanoparticles can be successfully anchored on the surface of graphene sheets (GSs) by a simple cationic-surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. When used as an electrode material for sodium-ion batteries, these VS 4 @GS nanocomposites show large specific capacity (349.1 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles), excellent long-term stability (84 % capacity retention after 1200 cycles), and high rate capability (188.1 mAh g -1 at 4000 mA g -1 ). A large proportion of the capacity was contributed by capacitive processes. This remarkable electrochemical performance was attributed to synergistic interactions between nanosized VS 4 particles and a highly conductive graphene network, which provided short diffusion pathways for Na + ions and large contact areas between the electrolyte and electrode, resulting in considerably improved electrochemical kinetic properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. High Temperature Strength of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clauer, A.H.; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    constant (except for the material with the lowest oxide content). The high temperature values of the modulus-corrected yield stresses are approximately two-thirds of the low temperature value. During high temperature creep, there is a definite indication of a threshold stress. This threshold stress......The tensile flow stress of coarse-grained dispersion strengthened Al-Al2O3 materials were measured as a function of temperature (77–873 K) and volume fraction (0.19-0.92 vol.%) of aluminium oxide. For the same material, the creep strength was determined as a function of temperature in the range 573......–873 K. The modulus-corrected yield stress (0.01 offset) is found to be temperature independent at low temperature (195–472 K). Between 473 and 573 K, the yield stress starts to decrease with increasing temperature. At high temperatures (573–873 K), the modulus-corrected yield stress is approximately...

  13. Lipid Effects of Icosapent Ethyl in Women with Diabetes Mellitus and Persistent High Triglycerides on Statin Treatment: ANCHOR Trial Subanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Eliot A; Ballantyne, Christie M; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Mosca, Lori

    2018-03-27

    High triglycerides (TG) and diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) are stronger predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women than in men, but few randomized, controlled clinical trials have investigated lipid-lowering interventions in women and none have reported results specifically in women with high TG and DM2. Icosapent ethyl (Vascepa) is pure prescription eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at 4 g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce TG ≥500 mg/dL. The 12-week ANCHOR trial randomized 702 statin-treated patients (73% with DM; 39% women) at increased CVD risk with TG 200-499 mg/dL despite controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 40-99 mg/dL) to receive icosapent ethyl 2 g/day, 4 g/day, or placebo. This post hoc analysis included 146 women with DM2 (97% white, mean age 62 years) randomized to icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (n = 74) or placebo (n = 72). Icosapent ethyl significantly reduced TG (-21.5%; p women with DM2 at high CVD risk with persistently high TG on statins, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day reduced potentially atherogenic parameters with safety and tolerability comparable to placebo. Potential CVD benefits of icosapent ethyl are being tested in ∼8000 men and women at high CVD risk with high TG on statins in the ongoing Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl - Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular (CV) outcome trial.

  14. Facile synthesis of NiS anchored carbon nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinling; Zhang, Li; Xu, Guancheng; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chi; Ma, Xin; Qi, Chunling; Zhang, Lu; Jia, Dianzeng

    2018-03-01

    Transition metal sulfide compounds with carbon materials are promising for high-performance supercapacitors. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) wrapped with NiS nanoparticles were herein obtained through electrospinning and calcination. NiS nanoparticles in composite nanofibers are covered by a layer of graphitic carbon, which not only increase the conductivity but also provide active regions for nanoparticle growth to prevent aggregation. The CNFs-NiS electrode has high specific capacity of 177.1 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1 (0.41 mAh cm-2 at a current density of 2.3 mA cm-2) and long-term cycling stability, with 88.7% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. The excellent electrochemical activity may be attributed to the accessible specific surface, unique porous structure of CNFs and high specific capacitance of NiS. In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor has an enhanced volumetric energy density of 13.32 mWh cm-3 at a volumetric power density of 180 mW cm-3 and high cycling stability, with 89.5% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles. It also successfully lights up a light-emitting diode. The CNFs-NiS composite has significant potential applications in supercapacitor.

  15. High-conductance surface-anchoring of a mechanically flexible platform-based porphyrin complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptmann, Nadine; Buchmann, Kristof; Scheil, Katharina; Berndt, Richard; Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen; Schütt, Christian; Otte, Franziska L; Herges, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The conductances of molecular model junctions comprising a triazatriangulenium platform with or without an ethynyl spacer and an upright Zn-porphyrin are probed with a low-temperature scanning probe microscope. The platform alone is found to be highly conductive. The ethynyl-linked Zn-porphyrin moiety reduces the conductance by three orders of magnitude and leads to an unexpected, non-monotonous variation of the force that was measured simultaneously at the tip of the microscope. Density functional theory calculations show that this variation results from an induced tilting of the porphyrin. (paper)

  16. The Ogden Anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, W E; Cerniglia, M W; Carro, A

    1998-06-01

    Many procedures performed by podiatric surgeons today require the use of a soft-tissue anchoring device. In recent years, many new anchoring devices have become available for use in the foot and ankle. The authors introduce a new soft-tissue anchoring device that has yet to be described in the podiatric literature and present two cases in which the new anchor was used.

  17. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  18. Change of lattice parameters in highly disperse nickel powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamarnik, M.Ya.

    1991-01-01

    A monotonous increase of the lattice parameters with the decrease of particle size is established by an X-ray study for highly disperse nickel powders in the interval of sizes from 4.9 to 35 nm. The relative changes of lattice parameters are from 4.9x10 -3 ±5x10 -4 up to 3x10 -4 ±1x10 -4 . The effect is explained by the decrease of the intracrystalline pressure in small particles stipulated by electrostatic interaction of the elements of crystal charge lattice. A calculated dependence of the lattice parameters which agrees with experimental curve is obtained in the framework of the model suggested by the charge lattice represented by an ion-electron lattice of positive ions and collectivized electrons with regard of the lattice of atomic neutral cores (the contribution of the latter is proved very small as found from the calculations). (orig.)

  19. Dispersion compensated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Y. Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromatic dispersion control plays an underlying role in optoelectronics and spectroscopy owing to its enhancement to nonlinear interactions by reducing the phase mismatching. This is particularly important to optical frequency combs based on quantum cascade lasers which require negligible dispersions for efficient mode locking of the dispersed modes into equally spaced comb modes. Here, we demonstrated a dispersion compensated mid-IR quantum cascade laser frequency comb with high power output at room temperature. A low-loss dispersive mirror has been engineered to compensate the device’s dispersion residue for frequency comb generation. Narrow intermode beating linewidths of 40 Hz in the comb-working currents were identified with a high power output of 460 mW and a broad spectral coverage of 80 cm-1. This dispersion compensation technique will enable fast spectroscopy and high-resolution metrology based on QCL combs with controlled dispersion and suppressed noise.

  20. Energy dissipation and high-strain rate dynamic response of E-glass fiber composites with anchored carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study explores the mechanical properties of an E-glass fabric composite reinforced with anchored multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNTs were grown on the E-glass fabric using a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition procedure. The E-glass fabric with attached CNTs was then incorpor...

  1. Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchut, P.; Decruppe, D.; Delrive, L.

    2004-01-01

    A continuous CO 2 laser is focused to locally anneal small fused silica spots. A noncontact radiometry diagnostic enables us to follow surface temperature variation that occurs from site to site. A 'steady state' dispersion of surface temperature is observed across our sample. We show that nonhomogeneous silica thermal conductivity, above 1000 K is responsible for this temperature dispersion

  2. Ribbon-wise customized lingual appliance and orthodontic anchor screw for the treatment of skeletal high-angle maxillary protrusion without bowing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Toru; Ito, Goshi; Miyazawa, Ken; Tabuchi, Masako; Goto, Shigemi

    2018-05-02

    This case report demonstrates the treatment of a skeletal Class II high-angle adult patient with bimaxillary protrusion, angle Class I occlusion, and crowded anterior teeth. A ribbon-wise arch wire and a customized lingual appliance with anterior vertical slots were used to achieve proper torque control of the maxillary anterior teeth. An orthodontic anchor screw and a palatal bar were used for vertical control to avoid increasing the Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA) by maxillary molar extrusion. Through the combined use of the ribbon-wise customized lingual appliance, palatal bar, and orthodontic anchor screw, vertical control and an excellent treatment result were achieved without the vertical and horizontal bowing effects peculiar to conventional lingual treatment.

  3. Synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets for high dispersion of platinum nanoparticles based on the reduction of graphene oxide via 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Yinjie; Zheng, Xingliang; Zhou, Qionghua; Lu, Cuihong; Chen, Jinhua; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    A one-step reduction/functionalization strategy for the synthesis of carboxylate-functionalized graphene nanosheets is reported in this paper. 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde (PCA) is introduced as a new reductant for the chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO), serving three roles: reducing GO to graphene nanosheets (GNs), stabilizing the as-prepared GNs due to the electrostatic repulsion of the oxidation products of PCA (1-pyrenecarboxylate, PC − ) on the surface of the GNs and anchoring Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) with high dispersion and small particle size. Transmission electron microscopy shows that Pt NPs with an average diameter of 1.3 ± 0.2 nm are uniformly dispersed on the surface of the PC − -functionalized GNs (PC − -GNs). The obtained Pt NPs/PC − -GNs nanohybrids have higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards methanol oxidation in comparison with Pt NPs supported on GNs obtained by the chemical reduction of GO with the typical reductant, hydrazine. (paper)

  4. 1D profiling using highly dispersive guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Enthoven, Daniel; Verburg, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Currently inspections are conducted at regular intervals to ensure a sufficient integrity level of these assets. Cost reduction while maintaining a high level of reliability and safety of installations is a major challenge. There are many situations where the actual defect location is not accessible, e.g., a pipe support or a partially buried pipe. Guided wave tomography has been developed to reconstruct the wall thickness. In case of bottom of the line corrosion, i.e., a single corrosion pit, a simpler approach may be followed. Data is collected in a pit-catch configuration at the 12 o'clock position using highly dispersive guided waves. The phase spectrum is used to invert for a wall thickness profile in the circumferential direction, assuming a Gaussian defect profile. An EMAT sensor design has been made to measure at the 12 o'clock position of a pipe. The concept is evaluated on measured data, showing good sizing capabilities on a variety simple defect profiles

  5. High Resilience of Seed Dispersal Webs Highlighted by the Experimental Removal of the Dominant Disperser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Sérgio; Ramos, Jaime Albino; Vaughan, Ian Phillip; Memmott, Jane

    2016-04-04

    The pressing need to conserve and restore habitats in the face of ongoing species loss [1, 2] requires a better understanding of what happens to communities when species are lost or reinstated [3, 4]. Theoretical models show that communities are relatively insensitive to species loss [5, 6]; however, they disagree with field manipulations showing a cascade of extinctions [7, 8] and have seldom been tested under field conditions (e.g., [9]). We experimentally removed the most abundant seed-dispersing ant species from seed dispersal networks in a Mediterranean landscape, replicating the experiment in three types of habitat, and then compared these communities to un-manipulated control communities. Removal did not result in large-scale changes in network structure. It revealed extensive structural plasticity of the remaining community, which rearranged itself through rewiring, while maintaining its functionality. The remaining ant species widened their diet breadth in a way that maintained seed dispersal, despite the identity of many interactions changing. The species interaction strength decreased; thus, the importance of each ant species for seed dispersal became more homogeneous, thereby reducing the dependence of seed species on one dominant ant species. Compared to the experimental results, a simulation model that included rewiring considerably overestimated the effect of species loss on network robustness. If community-level species loss models are to be of practical use in ecology or conservation, they need to include behavioral and population responses, and they need to be routinely tested under field conditions; doing this would be to the advantage of both empiricists and theoreticians. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  7. Irradiation testing of high density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-10-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 microplates. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U-10Mo-0.05Sn, U 2 Mo, or U 3 Si 2 . These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of 40% and 80%. Of particular interest is the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions

  8. Postirradiation examination of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Strain, R.V.

    1998-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles, designated RERTR-2, were inserted into the Advanced Test reactor in Idaho in August 1997. These tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels, including U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru and U-10Mo-0.05Sn: the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U-10Mo-0.-5Sn; the intermetallic compounds U 2 Mo and U 3 Si 2 were also included in the fuel test matrix. These fuels are included in the experiments as microplates (76 mm x 22 mm x 1.3mm outer dimensions) with a nominal fuel volume loading of 25% and irradiated at relatively low temperature (∼100 deg C). RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 were discharged from the reactor in November 1997 and July 1998, respectively at calculated peak fuel burnups of 45 and 71 at %-U 235 Both experiments are currently under examination at the Alpha Gamma Hot Cell Facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago. This paper presents the postirradiation examination results available to date from these experiments. (author)

  9. Irradiation testing of high-density uranium alloy dispersion fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Trybus, C.L.; Meyer, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    Two irradiation test vehicles have been designed, fabricated, and inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor in Idaho. Irradiation of these experiments began in August 1997. These irradiation tests were designed to obtain irradiation performance information on a variety of potential new, high-density dispersion fuels. Each of the two irradiation vehicles contains 32 'microplates'. Each microplate is aluminum clad, having an aluminum matrix phase and containing one of the following compositions as the fuel phase: U-10Mo, U-8Mo, U-6Mo, U-4Mo, U-9Nb-3Zr, U-6Nb-4Zr, U-5Nb-3Zr, U-6Mo-1Pt, U-6Mo-0.6Ru, U10Mo-0.05Sn, U2Mo, or U 3 Si 2 . These experiments will be discharged at peak fuel burnups of approximately 40 and 80 at.% U 235 . Of particular interest are the extent of reaction of the fuel and matrix phases and the fission gas retention/swelling characteristics of these new fuel alloys. This paper presents the design of the irradiation vehicles and the irradiation conditions. (author)

  10. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  11. High Explosive Radiological Dispersion Device: Time and Distance Multiscale Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharon, A.; Sattinger, I.; Halevy, D.; Banaim, P.; Yaar, I.; Krantz, L.

    2014-01-01

    A wide range of explosion tests imitates different explosive RDD scenarios were conducted and aimed at increasing the preparedness for possible terrorism events, where radioactive (RA) materials disperse via an explosive charge. About 20 atmospheric dispersion tests were conducted using6-8 Ci of 99mTc which were coupled to TNT charges within the range of 0.2525 kg. Tests performed above different typical urban ground surfaces (in order to study the surface effect on the activity ground deposition pattern due to different in particles size distribution). We have used an efficient aerosolizing devices, means that most of the RA particles were initially created within the size of fine aerosols, mostly respirable. Ground activity measurements were performed both, around the dispersion point and up to few hundred meters downwind. Micrometeorology parameters (wind intensity and direction, potential temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and atmospheric stability) were collected allowing comparisons topredictions of existing atmospheric dispersion models’1. Based on the experimental results, new model parameterizations were performed. Improvements in the models’ predictions were achieved and a set of thumb rules for first responders was formulated. This paper describes the project objectives, some of the experimental setups and results obtained. Post detonation nuclear forensic considerations can be made based upon results achieved

  12. Fluorine-doped SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on reduced graphene oxide as a high-performance lithium ion battery anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dongming; Zheng, Zhong; Peng, Xue; Li, Teng; Sun, Tingting; Yuan, Liangjie

    2017-09-01

    The composite of fluorine-doped SnO2 anchored on reduced graphene oxide (F-SnO2/rGO) has been synthesized through a hydrothermal method. F-SnO2 particles with average size of 8 nm were uniformly anchored on the surfaces of rGO sheets and the resulting composite had a high loading of F-SnO2 (ca. 90%). Benefiting from the remarkably improved electrical conductivity and Li-ion diffusion in the electrode by F doping and rGO incorporation, the composite material exhibited high reversible capacity, excellent long-term cycling stability and superior rate capability. The electrode delivered a large reversible capacity of 1037 mAh g-1 after 150 cycles at 100 mA g-1 and high rate capacities of 860 and 770 mAh g-1 at 1 and 2 A g-1, respectively. Moreover, the electrode could maintain a high reversible capacities of 733 mAh g-1 even after 250 cycles at 500 mA g-1. The outstanding electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized composite make it a promising anode material for high-energy lithium ion batteries.

  13. Polarization dependent dispersion and its impact on optical parametric process in high nonlinear microstructure fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Li; Zhang Wei; Huang Yidong; Peng Jiangde

    2008-01-01

    High nonlinear microstructure fibre (HNMF) is preferred in nonlinear fibre optics, especially in the applications of optical parametric effects, due to its high optical nonlinear coefficient. However, polarization dependent dispersion will impact the nonlinear optical parametric process in HNMFs. In this paper, modulation instability (MI) method is used to measure the polarization dependent dispersion of a piece of commercial HNMF, including the group velocity dispersion, the dispersion slope, the fourth-order dispersion and group birefringence. It also experimentally demonstrates the impact of the polarization dependent dispersion on the continuous wave supercontinuum (SC) generation. On one axis MI sidebands with symmetric frequency detunings are generated, while on the other axis with larger MI frequency detuning, SC is generated by soliton self-frequency shift

  14. SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on vertically aligned graphene with a high rate, high capacity, and long life for lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Na; Sonsg, Huawei; Cui, Hao; Wang, Chengxin

    2014-01-01

    As a high-theoretical-capacity (782 mA hg-1), low-cost and low-toxicity material, SnO2 has attracted intense interest for use as an anode electrode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Despite intensive study, the practical use of SnO2-based anodes is hindered by their poor capacity retention and low rate capacity resulting from their large specific-volume changes and kinetic limitations in ion/electron transfer during the lithium ion insertion/extraction process. Improving the performance of SnO2-based electrodes has become one of the most popular scientific and industrial efforts. Herein, we present a type of SnO2-graphene composite anode in which SnO2 nanoparticles are uniformly anchored on both sides of vertically aligned graphene nanosheets (SnO2-VAGN-SnO2). The VAGNs sandwiched by the nanoparticles can supply rapid ion and electron transport pathways for Li+ and e-. Such integrated electrodes exhibit high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability, even at high current densities. The cells can cycle more than 5,000 times and retain a reversible capacity of 210 mA h g-1 at 9 A g-1. A high current density of up to 20 A g-1 is achieved, and the power and energy density can reach 1576.75 W kg-1 and 110.14 Wh kg-1, respectively. These performances indicate that the composite could offer the advantages of both LIBs (high energy density) and supercapacitors (high power density)

  15. Nano-micro carbon spheres anchored on porous carbon derived from dual-biomass as high rate performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaobo; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Baihui; Xia, Hui; Zhou, Jianfei; Xie, Wenke; Li, Hongjian

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical nano-micro carbon spheres@rice straw-derived porous carbon composites are successfully synthesized by the in situ decoration of the porous carbon with carbon spheres from glucose under the assistance of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide micelles and further activated by KOH. The scanning electron microscope images clearly show the carbon spheres disperse homogeneously and orderly onto the surface and in the inner macropores of the porous carbon. The diameter of the carbon spheres varies from 475 nm to 1.6 μm, which can be easily controlled by introducing extra inducing agent. The optimal composites exhibit a large specific surface area (1122 m2 g-1), rich content of oxygen (14.2 wt %), and tunable hierarchical porous structure. When used as supercapacitor electrodes, the novel composites with abundant fruits present a high specific capacitance of 337 F g-1 at 1 A g-1, excellent rate retention of 83% from 1 to 20 A g-1 and a good cycling stability with 96% capacitance retention after 10000 cycles. In this strategy, the thought of shared ion-buffering reservoirs is proposed and the mutual promotion effects between the carbon spheres and porous carbon in the composites are also practically demonstrated to contribute the enhanced electrochemical performances.

  16. On the possibility of high-dispersed composite material obtaining in impulsive high-enthalpy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, I.V.; Brodyagin, A.G.; Ivanov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Thermodynamic possibility for the formation of TiC-Mo composite dispersed material in 1200-2800 K temperature interval and effect of H/Cl, C/Ti relation on the composite material composition are demonstrated. Investigation into the plasmo-chemical process of producing high-dispersed composite material in the pulsed regime has pointed out to a possibility of the product chemical composition regulation by changing the energy, flow-rate parameters and by conditions of component introduction into the plasmochemical reactor. Molybdenum-carbide composition powders produced are characterized by the particle size of ∼ 10 nm and high Mo and TiC distribution steadyness which allows one to exclude the stage of a long-term component mixing under the composition production

  17. High-order FDTD methods for transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan

    2011-08-15

    This Letter introduces a novel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) formulation for solving transverse electromagnetic systems in dispersive media. Based on the auxiliary differential equation approach, the Debye dispersion model is coupled with Maxwell's equations to derive a supplementary ordinary differential equation for describing the regularity changes in electromagnetic fields at the dispersive interface. The resulting time-dependent jump conditions are rigorously enforced in the FDTD discretization by means of the matched interface and boundary scheme. High-order convergences are numerically achieved for the first time in the literature in the FDTD simulations of dispersive inhomogeneous media. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  18. Fabrication of manganese dioxide nanoplates anchoring on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiju; Yu, Neng; Yan, Peng; Li, Yuguang; Zhou, Xuemei; Chen, Shuangling; Wang, Guiling; Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, MnO2 nanoplates loading on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets have been prepared by a two-step synthesis. At first, the cross-linked carbon nanosheets derived from willow catkin are synthesized by one-step pyrolysis and activation method, then the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets is prepared via in-situ hydrothermal deposition. The asymmetric supercapacitor with terrific energy and power density is assembled by employing the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the positive electrode and the cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the negative electrode in a 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitor displays a high energy density of 23.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 188.8 W kg-1 within a wide voltage rage of 0-1.9 V. In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with only 1.4% capacitance loss after 10000 cycles at 1 A g-1. These discoveries open up the prospect of biomass/biowaste derived carbon-based composites for high-voltage asymmetric supercapacitors with superb energy and power density performance.

  19. Preparation of Highly Dispersed Copper Particles in Zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Shuji; Matsumoto, Hiroshige

    1986-01-01

    Temperature programmed reduction and desorption techniques have been used to investigate the reduction process of CuY. The reduction of Cu^2+ ions in zeolite with H_2 occurs via a two-step mechanism in which Cu^+ is first formed and then reduced to metal. In the first step of reduction NH_3 was used as the reducing agent instead of H_2. Cu particles in the reduced CuY with NH_3 pretreatment were uniformly dispersed compared with those of CuY without one. The average particle size of Cu metal ...

  20. THz Tube Waveguides With Low Loss, Low Dispersion, and High Bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Hualong; Nielsen, Kristian; Bang, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We propose, model and experimentally characterize a novel class of terahertz hollow-core tube waveguides with high-loss cladding material, resulting in propagation with low loss, low dispersion, and high useful bandwidth.......We propose, model and experimentally characterize a novel class of terahertz hollow-core tube waveguides with high-loss cladding material, resulting in propagation with low loss, low dispersion, and high useful bandwidth....

  1. Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...

  2. Preparation and demonstration of poly(dopamine)-triggered attapulgite-anchored polyurethane as a high-performance rod-like elastomer to reinforce soy protein-isolated composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shujun; Wen, Yingying; Wang, Zhong; Kang, Haijiao; Li, Jianzhang; Zhang, Shifeng; Ji, Yong

    2018-06-01

    Nanophase modification is an effective path to improve composite properties, however, it remains a great challenge to increase the mechanical strength of the modified materials without sacrificing elongation and toughness. This study presents a novel and efficient design for interface anchoring of a waterborne polyurethane (WPU) elastomer with attapulgite (ATP) triggered by poly(dopamine) (PDA) formation due to self-polymerization of the dopamine moieties. The WPU-PDA-ATP (WDA) rod-like elastomer served as an active enhancer for a soy protein isolate (SPI)-based composite to facilitate multiple interactions between SPI and the elastomer. As expected, the PDA layer was coated onto ATP, inducing the nanofiller to successfully anchor onto the WPU elastomer, as confirmed by solid-state 13C NMR, XPS, and ATR-FTIR results. Compared with the control SPI-based film, the tensile strength and toughness increased by 145.6% and 118.3% respectively by introducing WDA rod-like elastomer. The water resistance and thermal stability of the prepared SPI composites were also favorable. The proposed approach represents an efficient way to utilize high-performance elastomer in biobased materials to concurrently enhance strength and toughness.

  3. Facile Synthesis of SiO2@C Nanoparticles Anchored on MWNT as High-Performance Anode Materials for Li-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yongguang; Mentbayeva, Almagul; Wang, Xin; Maximov, M. Yu.; Liu, Baoxi; Bakenov, Zhumabay; Yin, Fuxing

    2017-07-01

    Carbon-coated silica nanoparticles anchored on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SiO2@C/MWNT composite) were synthesized via a simple and facile sol-gel method followed by heat treatment. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) studies confirmed densely anchoring the carbon-coated SiO2 nanoparticles onto a flexible MWNT conductive network, which facilitated fast electron and lithium-ion transport and improved structural stability of the composite. As prepared, ternary composite anode showed superior cyclability and rate capability compared to a carbon-coated silica counterpart without MWNT (SiO2@C). The SiO2@C/MWNT composite exhibited a high reversible discharge capacity of 744 mAh g-1 at the second discharge cycle conducted at a current density of 100 mA g-1 as well as an excellent rate capability, delivering a capacity of 475 mAh g-1 even at 1000 mA g-1. This enhanced electrochemical performance of SiO2@C/MWNT ternary composite anode was associated with its unique core-shell and networking structure and a strong mutual synergistic effect among the individual components.

  4. A high-density genetic map for anchoring genome sequences and identifying QTLs associated with dwarf vine in pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyu; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Haiying; Jia, Zhangcai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong; Li, Haizhen

    2015-12-24

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is an economically important crop belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family. However, very few genomic and genetic resources are available for this species. As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence the pumpkin genome, high-density genetic map is essential for anchoring and orienting the assembled scaffolds. In addition, a saturated genetic map can facilitate quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A set of 186 F2 plants derived from the cross of pumpkin inbred lines Rimu and SQ026 were genotyped using the genotyping-by-sequencing approach. Using the SNPs we identified, a high-density genetic map containing 458 bin-markers was constructed, spanning a total genetic distance of 2,566.8 cM across the 20 linkage groups of C. maxima with a mean marker density of 5.60 cM. Using this map we were able to anchor 58 assembled scaffolds that covered about 194.5 Mb (71.7%) of the 271.4 Mb assembled pumpkin genome, of which 44 (183.0 Mb; 67.4%) were oriented. Furthermore, the high-density genetic map was used to identify genomic regions highly associated with an important agronomic trait, dwarf vine. Three QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 1, 3 and 4, respectively, were recovered. One QTL, qCmB2, which was located in an interval of 0.42 Mb on LG 3, explained 21.4% phenotypic variations. Within qCmB2, one gene, Cma_004516, encoding the gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase in the GA biosynthesis pathway, had a 1249-bp deletion in its promoter in bush type lines, and its expression level was significantly increased during the vine growth and higher in vine type lines than bush type lines, supporting Cma_004516 as a possible candidate gene controlling vine growth in pumpkin. A high-density pumpkin genetic map was constructed, which was used to successfully anchor and orient the assembled genome scaffolds, and to identify QTLs highly associated with pumpkin vine length. The map provided a valuable resource for gene cloning and marker assisted breeding in pumpkin and

  5. High seed dispersal ability of Pinus canariensis in stands of contrasting density inferred from genotypic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai López de Heredia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Models that combine parentage analysis from molecular data with spatial information of seeds and seedlings provide a framework to describe and identify the factors involved in seed dispersal and recruitment of forest species. In the present study we used a spatially explicit method (the gene shadow model in order to assess primary and effective dispersal in Pinus canariensis. Area of study: Pinus canariensis is endemic to the Canary Islands (Spain. Sampling sites were a high density forest in southern slopes of Tenerife and a low density stand in South Gran Canaria. Materials and methods: We fitted models based on parentage analysis from seeds and seedlings collected in two sites with contrasting stand density, and then compared the resulting dispersal distributions. Main results: The results showed that: 1 P. canariensis has a remarkable dispersal ability compared to other pine species; 2 there is no discordance between primary and effective dispersals, suggesting limited secondary dispersal by animals and lack of Janzen-Connell effect; and 3 low stand densities enhance the extent of seed dispersal, which was higher in the low density stand. Research highlights: The efficient dispersal mechanism of P. canariensis by wind inferred by the gene shadow model is congruent with indirect measures of gene flow, and has utility in reconstructing past demographic events and in predicting future distribution ranges for the species.

  6. Improving performance by anchoring movement and "nerves".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E; Dotson, Charles O; Jagodinsky, Adam E; Clark, Lily C; Smallwood, Lorraine L; Wilburn, Christopher; Weimar, Wendi H; Miller, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Golf's governing bodies' recent decision to ban all putting styles "anchoring one end of the club against the body" bridges an important practical problem with psychological theory. We report the first experiment testing whether anchoring provides technical and/or psychological advantage in competitive performance. Many "greats" of professional golf from Arnold Palmer and Jack Nicklaus to Tiger Woods have argued against anchoring, believing that it takes "nerves" out of competitive performance and therefore artificially levels the playing field. To shed more light on the issue, we tested participants' performance with anchored and unanchored putters under low and high pressure when controlling for the putter length. We found no statistically significant evidence for a technical advantage due to anchoring but a clear psychological advantage: participants who anchored their putters significantly outperformed unanchored counterparts under high, but not low, pressure. Results provide tentative evidence for the ban's justification from a competitive standpoint. However, before any definite conclusions can be made, more research is needed when using high-level golfers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Observations of High Dispersion Clusters of Galaxies: Constraints on Cold Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oegerle, William R.; Hill, John M.; Fitchett, Michael J.

    1995-07-01

    We have studied the dynamics of several Abell clusters of galaxies, which were previously reported to have large velocity dispersions, and hence very large masses. In particular, we have investigated the assertion of Frenk et al. (1990) that clusters with intrinsic velocity dispersions ~> 1200 km s^-1^ are extremely rare in the universe, and that large observed dispersions are due to projection effects. We report redshifts for 303 galaxies in the fields of A1775, A2029, A2142, and A2319, obtained with the Nessie multifiber spectrograph at the Mayall 4 m telescope. A1775 appears to be two poor, interacting clusters, separated in velocity space by ~3075 km s^-1^ (in the cluster rest frame). A2029 has a velocity dispersion of 1436 km s^-1^, based on 85 cluster member redshifts. There is evidence that a group or poor cluster of galaxies of slightly different redshift is projected onto (or is merging with) the core of A2029. However, the combined kinematic and x-ray data for A2029 argue for an intrinsically large dispersion for this cluster. Based on redshifts for 103 members of A2142, we find a dispersion of 1280 km s^-1^, and evidence for subclustering. With 130 redshifts in the A2319 field, we have isolated a subcluster ~10' NW of the cD galaxy. After its removal, A2319 has a velocity dispersion of 1324 km s^-1^. The data obtained here have been combined with recent optical and X-ray data for other supposedly high-mass clusters to study the cluster velocity dispersion distribution in a sample of Abell clusters. We find that clusters with true velocity dispersions ~> 1200 km s^-1^ are not extremely rare, but account for ~5% of all Abell clusters with R >= 0. If these clusters are in virial equilibrium, then our results are inconsistent with a high-bias (b~>22), high-density CDM model.

  8. Anchoring effects on early autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daniel L; Bishara, Anthony J; Mugayar-Baldocchi, Marino A

    2017-10-01

    Studies of childhood memory typically show that our earliest memories come from between three and four years of age. This finding is not universal, however. The age estimate varies across cultures and is affected by social influences. Research from the judgments and decision-making literature suggests that these estimates might also involve a judgment under uncertainty. Therefore, they might be susceptible to less social influences such as heuristics and biases. To investigate this possibility, we conducted two experiments that used anchoring paradigms to influence participants' estimates of their age during early autobiographical memories. In Experiment 1, participants answered either a high-anchor or a low-anchor question, and were warned that the anchor was uninformative; they went on to estimate their age during their earliest autobiographical memory. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 and extended the design to examine additional early autobiographical memories. In both experiments, participants in the low-anchor condition gave earlier age estimates than those in the high-anchor condition. These results provide new insights into the methods used to investigate autobiographical memory. Moreover, they show that reports of early autobiographical memories can be influenced by a relatively light touch - a change to a single digit in a single question.

  9. A highly accurate finite-difference method with minimum dispersion error for solving the Helmholtz equation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2018-04-05

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic wave equation in either isotropic or anisotropic media is crucial to seismic modeling, imaging and inversion. Actually, it represents the core computation cost of these highly advanced seismic processing methods. However, the conventional finite-difference method suffers from severe numerical dispersion errors and S-wave artifacts when solving the acoustic wave equation for anisotropic media. We propose a method to obtain the finite-difference coefficients by comparing its numerical dispersion with the exact form. We find the optimal finite difference coefficients that share the dispersion characteristics of the exact equation with minimal dispersion error. The method is extended to solve the acoustic wave equation in transversely isotropic (TI) media without S-wave artifacts. Numerical examples show that the method is is highly accurate and efficient.

  10. Fabrication of highly dispersed ZnO nanoparticles embedded in graphene nanosheets for high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Linxia; Zhang, Baoliang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Jizhong; Huang, Kejing; Zhang, Qiuyu

    2014-01-01

    We report a facile strategy to synthesize ZnO-graphene nanocomposites as an advanced electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors. The ZnO-graphene nanocomposites have been fabricated via a facile, low-temperature in situ wet chemistry process. During this process, high dispersed ZnO nanoparticles are embedded in graphene nanosheets, leading to sandwich-structured ZnO-graphene nanocomposites. Thus, intimate interfacial contact between ZnO nanoparticles and graphene nanosheets are achieved, which facilitates electrochemical activity and enhance electrochemical properties due to fast electron transfer. The as-prepared ZnO-graphene nanocomposites exhibit a maximum specific capacitance of 786 F g −1 and excellent cycle life with capacity retention of about 92% after 500 cycles. This facile design and rational synthesis offers an effective strategy to enhance the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors and shows promising potential for large-scale application in energy storage

  11. High-order optical nonlinearities in nanocomposite films dispersed with semiconductor quantum dots at high concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Yasuo; Matsushima, Shun-suke; Yamagami, Ryu-ichi; Jinzenji, Taka-aki; Sakuma, Shohei; Liu, Xiangming; Izuishi, Takuya; Shen, Qing

    2017-01-01

    We describe the nonlinear optical properties of inorganic-organic nanocomposite films in which semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as high as 6.8 vol.% are dispersed. Open/closed Z-scan measurements, degenerate multi-wave mixing and femtosecond pump-probe/transient grating measurements are conducted. It is shown that the observed fifth-order optical nonlinearity has the cascaded third-order contribution that becomes prominent at high concentrations of CdSe QDs. It is also shown that there are picosecond-scale intensity-dependent and nanosecond-scale intensity-independent decay components in absorptive and refractive nonlinearities. The former is caused by the Auger process, while the latter comes from the electron-hole recombination process. (paper)

  12. Comment on "Design of a broadband highly dispersive pure silica photonic crystal fiber"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper, Subbaraman et al. [Appl. Opt. 46, 3263–3268 (2007)] reported a theoretical and numerical study of highly dispersive pure silica photonic crystal fiber supporting group-velocity dispersion exceeding −2 × 104 ps=nm=km. This Comment argues that the authors consider only one of two...... sides of the same coin by not taking the corresponding beating length into account....

  13. Dispersion engineering of thick high-Q silicon nitride ring-resonators via atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemensberger, Johann; Hartinger, Klaus; Herr, Tobias; Brasch, Victor; Holzwarth, Ronald; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2012-12-03

    We demonstrate dispersion engineering of integrated silicon nitride based ring resonators through conformal coating with hafnium dioxide deposited on top of the structures via atomic layer deposition. Both, magnitude and bandwidth of anomalous dispersion can be significantly increased. The results are confirmed by high resolution frequency-comb-assisted-diode-laser spectroscopy and are in very good agreement with the simulated modification of the mode spectrum.

  14. Dynamic performance of concrete undercut anchors for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Behavior of undercut anchors under dynamic actions simulating earthquakes. • First high frequency load and crack cycling tests on installed concrete anchors ever. • Comprehensive review of anchor qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. - Abstract: Post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and nonstructural connections to concrete. In many countries, concrete anchors used for Nuclear Power Plants have to be qualified to ensure reliable behavior even under extreme conditions. The tests required for qualification of concrete anchors are carried out at quasi-static loading rates well below the rates to be expected for dynamic actions deriving from earthquakes, airplane impacts or explosions. To investigate potentially beneficial effects of high loading rates and cycling frequencies, performance tests on installed undercut anchors were conducted. After introductory notes on anchor technology and a comprehensive literature review, this paper discusses the qualification of anchors for Nuclear Power Plants and the testing carried out to quantify experimentally the effects of dynamic actions on the load–displacement behavior of undercut anchors.

  15. Highly Dispersed PVP Supported Ir-Ni Bimetallic Nanoparticles as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    8

    comparison to Ir-Ni (1:2) due to their small size and high stability for the oxidation of ... reason, but also because many dyes and their breakdown products are toxic to ..... which may be due to the involvement of same type of interaction amongst ...

  16. Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kwok, K.C.S.; Liu, X.-P.; Niu, J.-L.

    2015-01-01

    A numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. The computed results of the pollutant diffusion around a typical Hong Kong high-rise building model (at a linear scale of 1:30), were found to show a similar trend to the outcomes of self-conducted experimental measurements that the pathways of pollutant migration for windward and leeward pollutant emission are different. For the case with windward pollutant emission at the 3rd floor within a re-entry, the pollutant migrated downwards due to the downwash created by the wind. In contrast, for the case with leeward pollution emission, dispersion is dominated by intense turbulent mixing in the near wake and characterized by the upward migration of the pollutant in the leeward re-entry. The simulated results of haze-fog (HF) studies confirm that the pathway of pollutant migration is dominated by wind–structure interaction and buoyancy effect only plays a minor role in the dispersion process. - Highlights: • A self-developed numerical wind tunnel model was proposed. • Characteristics of air pollutant dispersion with windward/leeward emission were discussed. • Wind–structure interaction controls the air pollutant dispersion around the building. - The different characteristics of air pollutant dispersion around a high-rise building, for both cases of a dispersion source in either the windward face or leeward face, are dominated by wind–structure interaction, with buoyancy effect playing only a minor role

  17. Mild Hydroprocessing with Dispersed Catalyst of Highly Asphaltenic Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isquierdo, Fernanda

    Asphaltene are known to have diverse negative impacts on heavy oil extraction and hydroprocessing. This research then, explores the optimal conditions to convert asphaltenes into lighter material using mild conditions of pressure and temperature, and investigates changes in asphaltene structure during hydroprocessing. Feedstock and products were characterized by Simulated Distillation, Microdeasphalting, Sulfur content, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Solid catalysts were analyzed by Themogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Dynamic light scattering. Based on the results obtained from X-ray diffraction and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis a mechanism for the asphaltene hydroprocessing at mild conditions is proposed in which the alky peripheric portion from the original asphaltenes is partially removed during the reaction. The consequence of that process being an increase in the stacking of the aromatics sheets in the remaining asphaltenes. Also, this study investigates different for ultradispersed catalyst compositions, where CoWS, CoMoS, NiWS, FeWS, NiMo/NaHFeSi 2O6 and NaHFeSi2O6 showed a high asphaltene conversion as determined by asphaltene microdeasphalting, FeMoS and NaHFeSi 2O6 presented a high Vacuum Residue as determined by distillation (SIMDIST) analysis conversion, and in terms of sulfur removal CoMoS gave the higher conversion. In addition, all the catalyst tested showed a coke production lower than 1%. Finally, a kinetic study for the pitch hydroprocessing using CoMoS as catalysts gave a global activation energy of 97.3 kJ/mol.

  18. Combined microfluidization and ultrasonication: a synergistic protocol for high-efficient processing of SWCNT dispersions with high quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sida, E-mail: s.luo@buaa.edu.cn [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Liu, Tao, E-mail: tliu@fsu.edu [Florida State University, High-Performance Materials Institute (United States); Wang, Yong; Li, Liuhe [Beihang University, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation (China); Wang, Guantao; Luo, Yun [China University of Geosciences, Center of Safety Research, School of Engineering and Technology (China)

    2016-08-15

    High-efficient and large-scale production of high-quality CNT dispersions is necessary for meeting the future needs to develop various CNT-based electronic devices. Herein, we have designed novel processing protocols by combining conventional ultrasonication process with a new microfluidization technique to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with improved processing efficiency. To judge the quality of SWCNT dispersions, one critical factor is the degree of exfoliation, which could be quantified by both geometrical dimension of the exfoliated nanotubes and percentage of individual tubes in a given dispersion. In this paper, the synergistic effect of the combined protocols was systematically investigated through evaluating SWCNT dispersions with newly developed characterization techniques, namely preparative ultracentrifuge method (PUM) and simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence spectroscopy (SRSPL). The results of both techniques draw similar conclusions that as compared with either of the processes operated separately, a low-pass microfluidization followed by a reasonable duration of ultrasonication could substantially improve the processing efficiency to produce high-quality SWCNT dispersions with averaged particle length and diameter as small as ~600 and ~2 nm, respectively.Graphical abstract.

  19. Characterization of exoplanet atmospheres using high-dispersion spectroscopy with the E-ELT and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snellen Ignas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based high-dispersion (R ∼ 100,000 spectroscopy provides unique information on exoplanet atmospheres, inaccessible from space - even using the JWST or other future space telescopes. Recent successes in transmission- and dayside spectroscopy using CRIRES on the Very Large Telescope prelude the enormous discovery potential of high-dispersion spectrographs on the E-ELT, such as METIS in the thermal infrared, and HIRES in the optical/near-infrared. This includes the orbital inclination and masses of hundred(s of non-transiting planets, line-by-line molecular band spectra, planet rotation and global wind patterns, longitudinal spectral variations, and possibly isotopologue ratios. Thinking beyond the E-ELT, we advocate that ultimately a systematic search for oxygen in atmospheres of nearby Earth-like planets can be conducted using large arrays of relatively low-cost flux collector telescopes equipped with high-dispersion spectrographs.

  20. Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed bimetallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Junrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of 40 kHz ultrasonic irradiation in order to enhance disparity and reactivity, and simultaneously avoid agglomeration. Influential factors of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-Cl BP reductive dechlorination by highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles were investigated. Experimental results showed that highly dispersed Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared in the in the presence of ultrasound could further improve the dechlorination efficiency of 2-Cl BP, meanwhile the biphenyl (BP formation rates increased obviously and increased from 47.4% (in the absence of ultrasound to 95.3% (in the presence of ultrasound within 300 min. The catalytic reductive dechlorination effciency of 2-Cl BP was dependent on Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles prepared methods, Pd-Fe0 nanoparticles dosage, Pd loading percentage over Fe0 and initial pH values

  1. Unearthing a Well-Defined Highly Active Bimetallic W/Ti Precatalyst Anchored on a Single Silica Surface for Metathesis of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja; Kavitake, Santosh Giridhar; Morlanes, Natalia Sanchez; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Dey, Raju; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Two compatible organometallic complexes, W(Me)(6) (1) and TiNp4 (2), were successively anchored on a highly dehydroxylated single silica support (SiO2-700) to synthesize the well-defined bimetallic precatalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)(equivalent to Si-O-)Ti(Np)(3)] (4). Precatalyst 4 was characterized at the molecular level using advanced surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) characterization techniques. The strong autocorrelation observed between methyl of W and Ti in H-1-H-1 multiple-quantum NMR spectra demonstrates that W and Ti species are in close proximity to each other. The bimetallic precatalyst 4, with a turnover number (TON) of 9784, proved to be significantly more efficient than the silica-supported monometallic catalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] (3), with a TON of 98, for propane metathesis at 150 degrees C in a flow reactor. The dramatic improvement in the activity signifies the cooperativity between Ti and W and indicates that the key step of alkane metathesis (C-H bond activation followed by beta-H elimination) occurs on Ti, followed by olefin metathesis, which occurs on W. We have demonstrated the influence and importance of proximity of Ti to W for achieving such a significantly high activity. This is the first report demonstrating the considerably high activity (TON = 9784) in propane metathesis at moderate temperature (150 degrees C) using a well-defined bimetallic system prepared via the SOMC approach.

  2. Unearthing a Well-Defined Highly Active Bimetallic W/Ti Precatalyst Anchored on a Single Silica Surface for Metathesis of Propane

    KAUST Repository

    Samantaray, Manoja

    2017-02-10

    Two compatible organometallic complexes, W(Me)(6) (1) and TiNp4 (2), were successively anchored on a highly dehydroxylated single silica support (SiO2-700) to synthesize the well-defined bimetallic precatalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)(equivalent to Si-O-)Ti(Np)(3)] (4). Precatalyst 4 was characterized at the molecular level using advanced surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) characterization techniques. The strong autocorrelation observed between methyl of W and Ti in H-1-H-1 multiple-quantum NMR spectra demonstrates that W and Ti species are in close proximity to each other. The bimetallic precatalyst 4, with a turnover number (TON) of 9784, proved to be significantly more efficient than the silica-supported monometallic catalyst [(equivalent to Si-O-)W(Me)(5)] (3), with a TON of 98, for propane metathesis at 150 degrees C in a flow reactor. The dramatic improvement in the activity signifies the cooperativity between Ti and W and indicates that the key step of alkane metathesis (C-H bond activation followed by beta-H elimination) occurs on Ti, followed by olefin metathesis, which occurs on W. We have demonstrated the influence and importance of proximity of Ti to W for achieving such a significantly high activity. This is the first report demonstrating the considerably high activity (TON = 9784) in propane metathesis at moderate temperature (150 degrees C) using a well-defined bimetallic system prepared via the SOMC approach.

  3. Clearly Transparent Nanopaper from Highly Concentrated Cellulose Nanofiber Dispersion Using Dilution and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kasuga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanopaper prepared from holocellulose pulp is one of the best substrates for flexible electronics because of its high thermal resistance and high clear transparency. However, the clearness of nanopaper decreases with increasing concentration of the starting cellulose nanofiber dispersion—with the use of a 2.2 wt % dispersion, for example—resulting in translucent nanopaper with a high haze of 44%. To overcome this problem, we show that the dilution of this high-concentration dispersion with water followed by sonication for 10 s reduces the haze to less than 10% while maintaining the high thermal resistance of the nanopaper. Furthermore, the combination of water dilution and a short sonication treatment improves the clearness of the nanopaper, which would translate into cost savings for the transportation and storage of this highly concentrated cellulose nanofiber dispersion. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the electrical conductivity of clear transparent nanopaper prepared from an initially high-concentration dispersion by dropping and heating silver nanowire ink on the nanopaper. These achievements will pave the way toward the realization of the mass production of nanofiber-based flexible devices.

  4. High-order dispersion control of 10-petawatt Ti:sapphire laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Yanqi; Xu, Yi; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Xingyan; Gan, Zebiao; Yu, Lianghong; Liang, Xiaoyan; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin

    2017-07-24

    A grism pair is utilized to control the high-order dispersion of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Lasers Facility, which is a large-scale project aimed at delivering 10-PW laser pulses. We briefly present the characteristics of the laser system and calculate the cumulative B-integral, which determines the nonlinear phase shift influence on material dispersion. Three parameters are selected, grism separation, angle of incidence and slant distance of grating compressor, to determine their optimal values through an iterative searching procedure. Both the numerical and experimental results confirm that the spectral phase distortion is controlled, and the recompressed pulse with a duration of 24 fs is obtained in the single-shot mode. The distributions and stabilities of the pulse duration at different positions of the recompressed beam are also investigated. This approach offers a new feasible solution for the high-order dispersion compensation of femtosecond petawatt laser systems.

  5. Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)

  6. Anchoring ZnO Nanoparticles in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel binary nanocomposite, ZnO/nitrogen-doped graphene (ZnO/NG, is synthesized via a facile solution method. In this prepared ZnO/NG composite, highly-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are anchored uniformly on the N-doped graphene nanosheets. Electrochemical properties of the ZnO/NG composite as anode materials are systematically investigated in lithium-ion batteries. Specifically, the ZnO/NG composite can maintain the reversible specific discharge capacity at 870 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1. Besides the enhanced electronic conductivity provided by interlaced N-doped graphene nanosheets, the excellent lithium storage properties of the ZnO/NG composite can be due to nanosized structure of ZnO particles, shortening the Li+ diffusion distance, increasing reaction sites, and buffering the ZnO volume change during the charge/discharge process.

  7. Construction of a genome-anchored, high-density genetic map for melon (Cucumis melo L.) and identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Sandra E; Levi, Amnon; Katawczik, Melanie; Fei, Zhangjun; Wechter, W Patrick

    2018-04-01

    Four QTLs and an epistatic interaction were associated with disease severity in response to inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis race 1 in a recombinant inbred line population of melon. The USDA Cucumis melo inbred line, MR-1, harbors a wealth of alleles associated with resistance to several major diseases of melon, including powdery mildew, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf blight, and Fusarium wilt. MR-1 was crossed to an Israeli cultivar, Ananas Yok'neam, which is susceptible to all of these diseases, to generate a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 172 lines. In this study, the RIL population was genotyped to construct an ultra-dense genetic linkage map with 5663 binned SNPs anchored to the C. melo genome and exhibits the overall high quality of the assembly. The utility of the densely genotyped population was demonstrated through QTL mapping of a well-studied trait, resistance to Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (Fom) race 1. A major QTL co-located with the previously validated resistance gene Fom-2. In addition, three minor QTLs and an epistatic interaction contributing to Fom race 1 resistance were identified. The MR-1 × AY RIL population provides a valuable resource for future QTL mapping studies and marker-assisted selection of disease resistance in melon.

  8. Ultrathin molybdenum diselenide nanosheets anchored on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as anode composites for high performance sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhian; Yang, Xing; Fu, Yun; Du, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Ultrathin molybdenum diselenide nanosheets are decorated on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via a one-step hydrothermal method. Uniform MoSe2 nanosheets are firmly anchored on MWCNT according to the characterizations of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM). When evaluated as anodes for sodium storage, the MoSe2@MWCNT composites deliver a reversible specific capacity of 459 mAh g-1 at a current of 200 mA g-1 over 90 cycles, and a specific capacity of 385 mAh g-1 even at a current rate of 2000 mAh g-1, which is better than the MoSe2 nanosheets. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the MoSe2@MWCNT composites can be ascribed to the synergic effects of MoSe2 nanosheets and MWCNT. The high capacity and good rate performance reveal that the MoSe2@MWCNT composites are very promising for applications in sodium-ion batteries.

  9. COBRA, an Arabidopsis extracellular glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein, specifically controls highly anisotropic expansion through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, François; Fernandez, Anita G; Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Borner, Georg H H; Schindelman, Gary; Song, Shuang; Baskin, Tobias I; Dupree, Paul; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Benfey, Philip N

    2005-06-01

    The orientation of cell expansion is a process at the heart of plant morphogenesis. Cellulose microfibrils are the primary anisotropic material in the cell wall and thus are likely to be the main determinant of the orientation of cell expansion. COBRA (COB) has been identified previously as a potential regulator of cellulose biogenesis. In this study, characterization of a null allele, cob-4, establishes the key role of COB in controlling anisotropic expansion in most developing organs. Quantitative polarized-light and field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveal that loss of anisotropic expansion in cob mutants is accompanied by disorganization of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils and subsequent reduction of crystalline cellulose. Analyses of the conditional cob-1 allele suggested that COB is primarily implicated in microfibril deposition during rapid elongation. Immunodetection analysis in elongating root cells revealed that, in agreement with its substitution by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, COB was polarly targeted to both the plasma membrane and the longitudinal cell walls and was distributed in a banding pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. Our observations suggest that COB, through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation, is an essential factor in highly anisotropic expansion during plant morphogenesis.

  10. Proposal of highly sensitive optofluidic sensors based on dispersive photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    Optofluidic sensors based on highly dispersive two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides are studied theoretically. Results show that these structures are strongly sensitive to the refractive index of the infiltrated liquid (nl), which is used to tune dispersion of the photonic crystal waveguide....... The waveguide mode-gap edge shifts about 1.2 nm for δnl = 0.002. The shifts can be explained well by band structure theory combined with first-order perturbation theory. These devices are potentially interesting for chemical sensing applications....

  11. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J

    2013-02-04

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  12. Synthesis and properties of highly dispersed ionic silica-poly(ethylene oxide) nanohybrids.

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil J; Akbarzadeh, Johanna; Peterlik, Herwig; Giannelis, Emmanuel P

    2013-01-01

    We report an ionic hybrid based on silica nanoparticles as the anion and amine-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a cation. The charge on the nanoparticle anion is carried by the surface hydroxyls. SAXS and TEM reveal an exceptional degree of dispersion of the silica in the polymer and high degree of order in both thin film and bulk forms. In addition to better dispersion, the ionic hybrid shows improved flow characteristics compared to silica/PEO mixtures in which the ionic interactions are absent.

  13. An analysis of superluminal propagation becoming subluminal in highly dispersive media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this article the time-moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse are used to characterize the traversal time and the pulse width as the pulse propagates through highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with propagation distance is analyzed in two physical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, and Raman gain doublet amplifying medium. It is found that the superluminal pulse propagation in these two cases with anomalous dispersion is always accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation.

  14. Considering the Geographic Dispersion of Homeless and Highly Mobile Students and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter M.; Bourgeois, Alexis K.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses school and community-level issues associated with the expanding crisis of student homelessness in the United States. We note that while an increased geographic dispersion of homeless and highly mobile (HHM) families is largely attributed to the widespread effects of the economic recession, it is also furthered by shifting…

  15. Use of polysulfides of alkali and alkaline-earth metals to obtain highly dispersed sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massalimov, I.A.; Vikhareva, I.N.; Kireeva, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Possibilities of obtaining polysulfides of alkali and alkaline earth metals (M is Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) in aqueous solutions were considered. The composition of the polysulfides and their concentration in solutions were found. The efficiencies of application of highly dispersed sulfur, produced from calcium polysulfide, and colloid sulfur as a fungicide were compared [ru

  16. Synthesis and magnetic properties of highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles decorated on carbon spheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhattacharjee, K

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The decoration of carbon spheres (CS) by highly dispersed tantalum carbide nanoparticles (TaC NPs) was achieved, for the first time by a unique carbothermal reduction method at 1350 °C for 30 min under reduced oxygen partial pressure. TaC NPs...

  17. Two simple ansaetze for obtaining exact solutions of high dispersive nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Sergio L.

    2004-01-01

    We propose two simple ansaetze that allow us to obtain different analytical solutions of the high dispersive cubic and cubic-quintic nonlinear Schroedinger equations. Among these solutions we can find solitary wave and periodic wave solutions representing the propagation of different waveforms in nonlinear media

  18. SnO2 nanocrystals anchored on N-doped graphene for high-performance lithium storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jinxian; Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Shumin; Wang, Jianwei; Yin, Dongming; Wang, Limin

    2015-02-28

    A SnO2-N-doped graphene (SnO2-NG) composite is synthesized by a rapid, facile, one-step microwave-assisted solvothermal method. The composite exhibits excellent lithium storage capability and high durability, and is a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

  19. High-Resolution FRET Microsopy of Cholera Toxin B-Subunit and GPI-anchored Proteins in Cell Plasma Mambranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kenworthy, A. K.; Brdičková, Naděžda; Edidin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2000), s. 1645-1655 ISSN 0248-4900 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7052904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : High-Resolution * Cholera Toxin * Cell Plasma Membrane s Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2000

  20. Preparation of highly dispersed palladium–phosphorus nanoparticles and its electrocatalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hanjun; Xu Jiangfeng; Fu Gengtao; Mao Xinbiao; Zhang, Lu; Chen Yu; Zhou Yiming; Lu Tianhong; Tang Yawen

    2012-01-01

    Highly dispersed and ultrafine palladium–phosphorus (Pd–P) nanoparticles (NPs) are prepared with a novel phosphorus reduction method. The structural and electronic properties of Pd–P NPs are characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrooxidation of formic acid on Pd–P NPs are investigated by using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and CO-stripping measurements. The physical characterizations indicate the doped P element can enhance the content of Pd 0 species in Pd NPs, decrease the particle size and improve the dispersion of Pd–P NPs. The electrochemical measurements show the Pd–P NPs have a better catalytic performance for formic acid electrooxidation than Pd NPs.

  1. Time moments of the energy flow of optical pulses in highly dispersive media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Lipsa; Wanare, Harshawardhan; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2010-01-01

    We use the time moments of the Poynting vector associated with an electromagnetic pulse to characterize the traversal times and temporal pulse widths as the pulse propagates in highly dispersive media. The behaviour of these quantities with the propagation distance is analysed in three canonical cases: Lorentz absorptive medium, a Raman gain doublet amplifying medium and a medium exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency. We find that superluminal pulse propagation in the first two cases with anomalous dispersion is usually accompanied by pulse compression and eventually the pulse becomes subluminal with increasing distance of propagation. In a medium with electromagnetically induced transparency with large normal dispersion, we identify a range of frequencies for which the pulse undergoes minimal temporal expansion while propagating with ultra-slow speed.

  2. Model Equation for Acoustic Nonlinear Measurement of Dispersive Specimens at High Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Kushibiki, Junichi; Zou, Wei

    2006-10-01

    We present a theoretical model for acoustic nonlinearity measurement of dispersive specimens at high frequency. The nonlinear Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation governs the nonlinear propagation in the SiO2/specimen/SiO2 multi-layer medium. The dispersion effect is considered in a special manner by introducing the frequency-dependant sound velocity in the KZK equation. Simple analytic solutions are derived by applying the superposition technique of Gaussian beams. The solutions are used to correct the diffraction and dispersion effects in the measurement of acoustic nonlinearity of cottonseed oil in the frequency range of 33-96 MHz. Regarding two different ultrasonic devices, the accuracies of the measurements are improved to ±2.0% and ±1.3% in comparison with ±9.8% and ±2.9% obtained from the previous plane wave model.

  3. In Situ Activation of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Anchored on Graphite Foam for a High-Capacity Anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Junyi; Liu, Jilei; Lai, Linfei; Zhao, Xin; Zhen, Yongda; Lin, Jianyi; Zhu, Yanwu; Ji, Hengxing; Zhang, Li Li; Ruoff, Rodney S

    2015-08-25

    We report the fabrication of a three-dimensional free-standing nitrogen-doped porous graphene/graphite foam by in situ activation of nitrogen-doped graphene on highly conductive graphite foam (GF). After in situ activation, intimate "sheet contact" was observed between the graphene sheets and the GF. The sheet contact produced by in situ activation is found to be superior to the "point contact" obtained by the traditional drop-casting method and facilitates electron transfer. Due to the intimate contact as well as the use of an ultralight GF current collector, the composite electrode delivers a gravimetric capacity of 642 mAh g(-1) and a volumetric capacity of 602 mAh cm(-3) with respect to the whole electrode mass and volume (including the active materials and the GF current collector). When normalized based on the mass of the active material, the composite electrode delivers a high specific capacity of up to 1687 mAh g(-1), which is superior to that of most graphene-based electrodes. Also, after ∼90 s charging, the anode delivers a capacity of about 100 mAh g(-1) (with respect to the total mass of the electrode), indicating its potential use in high-rate lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Anchoring Proteins as Regulators of Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perino, Alessia; Ghigo, Alessandra; Scott, John D.; Hirsch, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    Spatial and temporal organization of signal transduction is coordinated through the segregation of signaling enzymes in selected cellular compartments. This highly evolved regulatory mechanism ensures the activation of selected enzymes only in the vicinity of their target proteins. In this context, cAMP-responsive triggering of protein kinase A is modulated by a family of scaffold proteins referred to as A-kinase anchoring proteins. A-kinase anchoring proteins form the core of multiprotein complexes and enable simultaneous but segregated cAMP signaling events to occur in defined cellular compartments. In this review we will focus on the description of A-kinase anchoring protein function in the regulation of cardiac physiopathology. PMID:22859670

  5. Nickel cobaltite nanosheets strongly anchored on boron and nitrogen co-doped graphene for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xinyan; Xia, Xifeng; Liu, Peng; Lei, Wu; Ouyang, Yu; Hao, Qingli

    2017-08-01

    Strongly coupled boron and nitrogen co-doped graphene (BN-G) hybrids with nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4) nanosheets (NCO/BN-G) were fabricated by a facile soft-chemical method for asymmetric supercapacitors with high-performance. The strong interaction between BN-G and NiCo2O4 nanosheets are explored by various techniques. The effect of heteroatom doping on electrochemical properties of the hybrids is systematically investigated. The strong synergistic effect between NiCo2O4 and BN-G leads to a specific capacitance of 106.5 mA h g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 and capacitance retention of 96.8% after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g-1, much better than those of the pure NiCo2O4 and its hybrid with N-doped graphene. Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor device, assembled with NCO/BN-G and activated carbon (NCO/BN-G//AC), exhibits a maximum energy density of 45.6 Wh kg-1 and an excellent cycling stability. The improved electrochemical performance of the NCO/BN-G hybrid is attributed to the good conductivity of BN-G and the synergistic effect between NiCo2O4 nanosheets and BN-G combined together through a plane-to-plane contact mode.

  6. Antimony Anchored with Nitrogen-Doping Porous Carbon as a High-Performance Anode Material for Na-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tianjing; Hou, Hongshuai; Zhang, Chenyang; Ge, Peng; Huang, Zhaodong; Jing, Mingjun; Qiu, Xiaoqing; Ji, Xiaobo

    2017-08-09

    Antimony represents a class of unique functional materials in sodium-ion batteries with high theoretical capacity (660 mA h g -1 ). The utilization of carbonaceous materials as a buffer layer has been considered an effective approach to alleviate rapid capacity fading. Herein, the antimony/nitrogen-doping porous carbon (Sb/NPC) composite with polyaniline nanosheets as a carbon source has been successfully achieved. In addition, our strategy involves three processes, a tunable organic polyreaction, a thermal annealing process, and a cost-effective reduction reaction. The as-prepared Sb/NPC electrode demonstrates a great reversible capacity of 529.6 mA h g -1 and an outstanding cycling stability with 97.2% capacity retention after 100 cycles at 100 mA g -1 . Even at 1600 mA g -1 , a superior rate capacity of 357 mA h g -1 can be retained. Those remarkable electrochemical performances can be ascribed to the introduction of a hierarchical porous NPC material to which tiny Sb nanoparticles of about 30 nm were well-wrapped to buffer volume expansion and improve conductivity.

  7. Independent control of arbitrary orders of dispersion at the high power end of CPA lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerbe, M.; Jojart, P.; Szeged University, Szeged; Kovacs, M.; Osvay, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the most crucial issues in chirped pulse amplification (CPA) systems is the precise temporal recompression of the pulses hitting the target. In case of few cycle high intensity lasers, the stabilization of the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of the pulses is also required. An acousto-optical programmable dispersion filter can satisfy both aims, providing dispersion (pre)compensation up to the fourth order of dispersion and make the CEP shift stable. Its use is, however, limited to a pulse intensity of 100 MW/cm 2 , hence its application is restricted to the front end of the (OP)CPA laser systems. A simple optical arrangement consisting of wedges with different materials and different apex angles was proposed recently for isochronic control of CEP of a pulse train. In this paper we show that assembly of wedges can be specifically designed to tune only one of the dispersion coefficients, while all the others, including CEP, remain practically unchanged. Wedge pairs changing solely the zeroth (CEP) and second order (group delay) dispersion (GDD) are experimentally presented along with a triplet of wedges tuning the third order dispersion (TOD) only. The experiment was carried out with the use of spectrally resolved interferometry (SRI). A Michelson-interferometer was illuminated by 100 nm bandwidth laser pulses of a Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The sample arm of the interferometer contained the wedge assembly, set to near Brewster-angle incidence at each surfaces, designed for tuning the required order of dispersion. At the output of the interferometer the spectral interference between the pulses from the sample and reference arms was resolved with a spectrograph. The dispersion was tuned by perpendicular shift of the entire wedge assembly to the laser beam. In the measurements spectral interferograms were recorded and evaluated at each spatial position of the assembly. Three different wedge combinations, two doublets and a triplet

  8. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijun; Li, Xiutao; Cao, Quan; Mu, Xindong

    2011-02-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that -SO3H, -COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  9. Acid functionalized, highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres: an effective solid acid for hydrolysis of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yijun; Li Xiutao; Cao Quan; Mu Xindong

    2011-01-01

    Highly dispersed carbonaceous spheres with sulfonic acid groups were successfully prepared from glucose by hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the as-synthesized carbonaceous materials were uniform, spherical in shape with an average diameter of about 450 nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) proved that –SO 3 H, –COOH, OH groups were grafted on the surface of the carbonaceous spheres during the sulfonation. Interestingly, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres exhibited high dispersibility in the polar solvent due to the hydrophilic groups on the surface. The mechanism of the formation for the carbonaceous spheres was also discussed based on the analysis of structure and composition. At last, the functionalized carbonaceous spheres were employed as solid acid to hydrolyze starch and cellulose. By comparison, the as-synthesized catalyst showed considerable high yield of glucose.

  10. Gum tragacanth dispersions: Particle size and rheological properties affected by high-shear homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Mina; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeed; Safari, Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin

    2015-08-01

    The effect of high-shear homogenization on the rheological and particle size characteristics of three species of gum tragacanth (GT) was detected. Dispersions were subjected to 0-20 min treatment. Static light scattering techniques and rheological tests were used to study the effect of treatment. The results showed that the process caused a decrease in particle size parameters for all three species, but interestingly, the apparent viscosities increased. The highest increase of apparent viscosity was found for solutions containing Astragalus gossypinus, which possessed the highest insoluble fraction. The viscoelastic behaviors of dispersions were also significantly influenced by the process. Homogenization caused an increase in both G' and G″, in all three species. The alterations seem to be highly dependent on GT species and structure. The results could be of high importance in the industry, since the process will lead to textural modifications of food products containing GT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Extreme genetic structure in a social bird species despite high dispersal capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinha, Francisco; Dávila, José A; Bastos, Estela; Cabral, João A; Frías, Óscar; González, José L; Travassos, Paulo; Carvalho, Diogo; Milá, Borja; Blanco, Guillermo

    2017-05-01

    Social barriers have been shown to reduce gene flow and contribute to genetic structure among populations in species with high cognitive capacity and complex societies, such as cetaceans, apes and humans. In birds, high dispersal capacity is thought to prevent population divergence unless major geographical or habitat barriers induce isolation patterns by dispersal, colonization or adaptation limitation. We report that Iberian populations of the red-billed chough, a social, gregarious corvid with high dispersal capacity, show a striking degree of genetic structure composed of at least 15 distinct genetic units. Monitoring of marked individuals over 30 years revealed that long-distance movements over hundreds of kilometres are common, yet recruitment into breeding populations is infrequent and highly philopatric. Genetic differentiation is weakly related to geographical distance, and habitat types used are overall qualitatively similar among regions and regularly shared by individuals of different populations, so that genetic structure is unlikely to be due solely to isolation by distance or isolation by adaptation. Moreover, most population nuclei showed relatively high levels of genetic diversity, suggesting a limited role for genetic drift in significantly differentiating populations. We propose that social mechanisms may underlie this unprecedented level of genetic structure in birds through a pattern of isolation by social barriers not yet described, which may have driven this remarkable population divergence in the absence of geographical and environmental barriers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evidence for Amino Acid Snorkeling from a High-Resolution, In Vivo Analysis of Fis1 Tail-Anchor Insertion at the Mitochondrial Outer Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Abdurrahman; Akdoğan, Emel; Dunn, Cory D

    2017-02-01

    Proteins localized to mitochondria by a carboxyl-terminal tail anchor (TA) play roles in apoptosis, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial protein import. To reveal characteristics of TAs that may be important for mitochondrial targeting, we focused our attention upon the TA of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fis1 protein. Specifically, we generated a library of Fis1p TA variants fused to the Gal4 transcription factor, then, using next-generation sequencing, revealed which Fis1p TA mutations inhibited membrane insertion and allowed Gal4p activity in the nucleus. Prompted by our global analysis, we subsequently analyzed the ability of individual Fis1p TA mutants to localize to mitochondria. Our findings suggest that the membrane-associated domain of the Fis1p TA may be bipartite in nature, and we encountered evidence that the positively charged patch at the carboxyl terminus of Fis1p is required for both membrane insertion and organelle specificity. Furthermore, lengthening or shortening of the Fis1p TA by up to three amino acids did not inhibit mitochondrial targeting, arguing against a model in which TA length directs insertion of TAs to distinct organelles. Most importantly, positively charged residues were more acceptable at several positions within the membrane-associated domain of the Fis1p TA than negatively charged residues. These findings, emerging from the first high-resolution analysis of an organelle targeting sequence by deep mutational scanning, provide strong, in vivo evidence that lysine and arginine can "snorkel," or become stably incorporated within a lipid bilayer by placing terminal charges of their side chains at the membrane interface. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. High-value utilization of eucalyptus kraft lignin: Preparation and characterization as efficient dye dispersant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Yu, Boming; Zhou, Wanpeng; Liu, Xinxin; Chen, Fangeng

    2018-04-01

    The dark color of industrial lignin is the main obstacle for their high value-added use in areas such as dyestuff dispersants. A kind of light-colored lignosulfonate with favorable dispersibility and remarkable stain resistance is prepared using fractionated eucalyptus kraft lignin. The fractionated lignins named as D (insoluble part) and X (soluble part) and sulfonated lignin fractions named as SD and SX are characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, 1 H NMR spectroscopy, GPC and brightness test. The results reveal that fraction X presents a lower molecular weight but a higher hydroxyl content than that of fraction D, which lead to the differences on the SO 3 H content, dispersibility and color performance of SD and SX. The sulfonated fractions perform a similar molecular weight to that of unsulfonated lignins and show light color due to the phenolic hydroxyl blocking of 1,4-BS (1,4-butane sultone) and the postprocessing of sodium borohydride. The SX that performs the best of all exhibits obvious decrease on phenolic hydroxyl groups and increase on brightness value which is improved by 85.8% compared with control sample. The SX reaches the highest level (grade 5) in the dispersibility test and presents remarkable stain resistance on different textiles, especially on the dacron and cotton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Diamond dispersed cemented carbide produced without using ultra high pressure equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, H.; Tsuzuki, K.; Ikegaya, A.

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a composite material of dispersed diamond particles in cemented carbide without using ultra high pressure equipment. The developed diamond dispersed cemented carbide combines the excellent properties of cemented carbide with diamond and also provides 1.5 times improved fracture toughness over that of cemented carbide. They also show 10 times higher wear resistance over that of cemented carbide in a wear resistance test against bearing steel, and 5 times greater grindability than diamond compacts. Because ultra high pressure equipment is not used to produce the developed material, large compacts over 100 mm in diameter can be manufactured. The developed material showed 10-25 times higher wear resistance in real use as wear-resistant tools such as centerless blades and work-rests. (author)

  15. High heat load properties of TiC dispersed Mo alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Yoshida, Naoaki; Miura, Yasushi; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Kitsunai, Yuji; Kayano, Hideo.

    1996-01-01

    Electron beam high heat load experiment of new developed three kinds of TiC dispersed Mo alloys (Mo-0.1wt%TiC, Mo-0.5wt%TiC and Mo-1.0wt%TiC) was studied so as to evaluate it's high heat load at using as the surface materials of divertor. The obtained results indicated that cracks were not observed by embrittlement by recrystallization until about 2200degC of surface temperature and the gas emission properties were not different from sintered molibdenum. However, at near melting point, deep cracks on grain boundary and smaller gas emission than that of sintered Mo were observed. So that, we concluded that TiC dispersed Mo alloy was good surface materials used under the conditions of the stationary heat flux and less than the melting point, although not good one to be melted under nonstationary large heat flux. (S.Y.)

  16. The Holding Power of Anchors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The efficiency of an anchor may be expressed as the ratio (holding force + weight of anchor). In dry sand .... the market at the beginning of the coming season in three sizes, namely 20, 35 and. 60 lb. These are ... Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis.

  17. Development of local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. Part 3: turbulent flow and plume dispersion in building arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nakayama, H.; Jurčáková, Klára; Nagai, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2013), s. 503-519 ISSN 0022-3131 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : local-scale high-resolution dispersion model * nuclear emergency response system * large-eddy simulation * spatially developing turbulent boundary layer flow Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.452, year: 2013

  18. High-quality poly-dispersed mixtures applied in additive 3D technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimov, M. D.; Brazhnik, Yu V.; Gorshkov, P. S.; Latyshev, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes the new mixer design to obtain high-quality poly-dispersed powders applied in additive 3D technologies. It also considers a new mixing principle of dry powder particles ensuring the distribution of such particles in the total volume, which is close to ideal. The paper presents the mathematical model of mixer operation providing for the quality assessment of the ready mixtures. Besides, it demonstrates experimental results and obtained rational values of mixer process parameters.

  19. Not all Anchors Weigh Equally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Michael; Velazquez, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    The anchoring bias is a reliable effect wherein a person's judgments are affected by initially presented information, but it is unknown specifically why this effect occurs. Research examining this bias suggests that elements of both numeric and semantic priming may be involved. To examine this, the present research used a phenomenon wherein people treat numeric information presented differently in Arabic numeral or verbal formats. We presented participants with one of many forms of an anchor that represented the same value (e.g., twelve hundred or 1,200). Thus, we could examine how a concept's meaning and its absolute numeric value affect anchoring. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that people respond to Arabic and verbal anchors differently. Experiment 3 showed that these differences occurred largely because people tend to think of numbers in digit format. This suggests that one's conceptual understanding of the anchored information matters more than its strict numeric value.

  20. On-sky Closed-loop Correction of Atmospheric Dispersion for High-contrast Coronagraphy and Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P.; Guyon, O.; Jovanovic, N.; Lozi, J.; Martinache, F.; Minowa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kotani, T.; Takami, H.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive optic (AO) systems delivering high levels of wavefront correction are now common at observatories. One of the main limitations to image quality after wavefront correction comes from atmospheric refraction. An atmospheric dispersion compensator (ADC) is employed to correct for atmospheric refraction. The correction is applied based on a look-up table consisting of dispersion values as a function of telescope elevation angle. The look-up table-based correction of atmospheric dispersion results in imperfect compensation leading to the presence of residual dispersion in the point spread function (PSF) and is insufficient when sub-milliarcsecond precision is required. The presence of residual dispersion can limit the achievable contrast while employing high-performance coronagraphs or can compromise high-precision astrometric measurements. In this paper, we present the first on-sky closed-loop correction of atmospheric dispersion by directly using science path images. The concept behind the measurement of dispersion utilizes the chromatic scaling of focal plane speckles. An adaptive speckle grid generated with a deformable mirror (DM) that has a sufficiently large number of actuators is used to accurately measure the residual dispersion and subsequently correct it by driving the ADC. We have demonstrated with the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system on-sky closed-loop correction of residual dispersion to instruments which require sub-milliarcsecond correction.

  1. Dispersion and Reinforcement of Nanotubes in High Temperature Polymers for Ultrahigh Strength and Thermally Conductive Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Arnold C

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental approaches for controlled dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in polymers and the molecular reinforcement in their nanocomposites were studied to design and fabricate well-dispersed...

  2. Dispersion-engineered and highly-nonlinear microstructured polymer optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch; Nielsen, Kristian; Hlubina, Petr

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate dispersion-engineering of microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs) made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). A significant shift of the total dispersion from the material dispersion is confirmed through measurement of the mPOF dispersion using white-light spectral interferome......We demonstrate dispersion-engineering of microstructured polymer optical fibres (mPOFs) made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). A significant shift of the total dispersion from the material dispersion is confirmed through measurement of the mPOF dispersion using white-light spectral...

  3. Elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of carbon nanotubes: a novel way of fabricating high performance elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Siwu; Lin, Tengfei; Guo, Baochun

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art processes cannot achieve rubber/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites with satisfactory performance by using pristine MWCNTs and conventional processing equipment. In this work, high performance rubber/MWCNT composites featuring a combination of good mechanical properties, electrical and thermal conductivities and damping capacity over a wide temperature range are fabricated based on a well-developed master batch process. It is demonstrated that the MWCNTs are dispersed homogeneously due to the disentanglement induced by well-wetting and shearing, and the elastic-resilience-induced dispersion of the MWCNTs by rubber chains via the novel processing method. To further enhance the efficacy of elastic-resilience-induced dispersion for MWCNTs, a slightly pre-crosslinked network is constructed in the master batch. Consequently, we obtain rubber/MWCNT composites with unprecedented performance by amplifying the reinforcing effect of relatively low MWCNT loading. This work provides a novel insight into the fabrication of high performance functional elastomeric composites with pristine CNTs by taking advantage of the unique elastic resilience of rubber chains as the driving force for the disentanglement of CNTs. (paper)

  4. Bio-Inspired Supramolecular Chemistry Provides Highly Concentrated Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polythiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first observation, through X-ray diffraction, of noncovalent uracil–uracil (U–U dimeric π-stacking interactions in carbon nanotube (CNT–based supramolecular assemblies. The directionally oriented morphology determined using atomic force microscopy revealed highly organized behavior through π-stacking of U moieties in a U-functionalized CNT derivative (CNT–U. We developed a dispersion system to investigate the bio-inspired interactions between an adenine (A-terminated poly(3-adeninehexyl thiophene (PAT and CNT–U. These hybrid CNT–U/PAT materials interacted through π-stacking and multiple hydrogen bonding between the U moieties of CNT–U and the A moieties of PAT. Most importantly, the U···A multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between CNT–U and PAT enhanced the dispersion of CNT–U in a high-polarity solvent (DMSO. The morphology of these hybrids, determined using transmission electron microscopy, featured grape-like PAT bundles wrapped around the CNT–U surface; this tight connection was responsible for the enhanced dispersion of CNT–U in DMSO.

  5. High-performance 3D printing of hydrogels by water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amol A; Saada, Gabriel; Cooperstein, Ido; Larush, Liraz; Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Cho, Nam-Joon; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    In the absence of water-soluble photoinitiators with high absorbance in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible range, rapid three-dimensional (3D) printing of hydrogels for tissue engineering is challenging. A new approach enabling rapid 3D printing of hydrogels in aqueous solutions is presented on the basis of UV-curable inks containing nanoparticles of highly efficient but water-insoluble photoinitiators. The extinction coefficient of the new water-dispersible nanoparticles of 2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl-diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) is more than 300 times larger than the best and most used commercially available water-soluble photoinitiator. The TPO nanoparticles absorb significantly in the range from 385 to 420 nm, making them suitable for use in commercially available, low-cost, light-emitting diode-based 3D printers using digital light processing. The polymerization rate at this range is very fast and enables 3D printing that otherwise is impossible to perform without adding solvents. The TPO nanoparticles were prepared by rapid conversion of volatile microemulsions into water-dispersible powder, a process that can be used for a variety of photoinitiators. Such water-dispersible photoinitiator nanoparticles open many opportunities to enable rapid 3D printing of structures prepared in aqueous solutions while bringing environmental advantages by using low-energy curing systems and avoiding the need for solvents.

  6. Highly water-dispersible silver sulfadiazine decorated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone and its antibacterial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ping; Wu, Longlong [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Binjie, E-mail: lbj821@163.com [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Medical School of Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhao, Yanbao [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Qu, Peng [Department of Chemistry, Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000 (China)

    2016-03-01

    Highly water-dispersible silver sulfadiazine (SSD) was prepared by liquid phase method with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a surface modification agent. The structure and morphology of the PVP-modified silver sulfadiazine (P-SSD) were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. The produced particles are ginkgo leaf-like architecture with the sizes of micron-nanometer. Due to hydrophilic PVP decorated on the surface, the P-SSD has excellent dispersion in water over a period of 24 h, which is obviously stable by comparison to that of the commercial silver sulfadiazine (C-SSD). In addition, the P-SSD exhibits good antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). - Highlights: • Polyvinyl pyrrolidone decorated silver sulfadiazine was synthesized via a one-pot protocol. • The produced particles present ginkgo leaf-like architectures with sizes of micro-nanometer. • The resulted silver sulfadiazine has highly dispersible in water over a period of 24 h. • The obtained sliver sulfadiazine exhibits excellent antibacterial activities against E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

  7. Novel star-like surfactant as dispersant for multi-walled carbon nanotubes in aqueous suspensions at high concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Min; Ran, Qianping; Wu, Shishan

    2018-03-01

    A kind of novel surfactant with star-like molecular structure and terminated sulfonate was synthesized, and it was used as the dispersant for multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous suspensions compared with a traditional single-chained surfactant. The star-like surfactant showed good dispersing ability for multi-walled CNTs in aqueous suspensions. Surface tension analysis, total organic carbon analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy were performed to research the effect of star-like surfactant on the dispersion of multi-walled CNTs in aqueous suspensions. With the assistance of star-like surfactant, the CNTs could disperse well in aqueous suspension at high concentration of 50 g/L for more than 30 days, while the CNTs precipitated completely in aqueous suspension after 1 day without any dispersant or after 10 days with sodium 4-dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dispersant.

  8. Analysis of Anchoring Mechanism of Fully Grouted Prestressed Anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN Zhi-jie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some researchers have been carried out on analysis of the influence of the full grouted prestressed anchor shape of borehole wall on its carrying capacity. Based on the self-affine fractal feature of anchor borehole wall structural plane, the relation equation among structural plane shear strength, liquid injection pressure, tensile load and structural plane fractal dimension D was built, the instability judgment criterion of anchoring bearing strata and rock structural plane was determined, the solving equations of disintegrated rock support density were derived. Based on the experimental results, the theoretical basis of support design under the disintegrated rock condition was offered.

  9. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8 m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  10. A Soft X-ray Spectrometer using a Highly Dispersive Multilayer Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard; Voronov, Dmitriy; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for higher resolution spectrometers as a tool for inelastic x-ray scattering. Currently, resolving power around R = 10,000 is advertised. Measured RIXS spectra are often limited by this instrumental resolution and higher resolution spectrometers using conventional gratings would be prohibitively large. We are engaged in a development program to build blazed multilayer grating structures for diffracting soft x-rays in high order. This leads to spectrometers with dispersion much higher than is possible using metal coated-gratings. The higher dispersion then provides higher resolution and the multilayer gratings are capable of operating away from grazing incidence as required. A spectrometer design is presented with a total length 3.8m and capable of 10 5 resolving power.

  11. Electric field driven plasmon dispersion in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Ren-Bing; Qin Hua; Zhang Xiao-Yu; Xu Wen

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study on the electric field driven plasmon dispersion of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). By introducing a drifted Fermi—Dirac distribution, we calculate the transport properties of the 2DEG in the AlGaN/GaN interface by employing the balance-equation approach based on the Boltzmann equation. Then, the nonequilibrium Fermi—Dirac function is obtained by applying the calculated electron drift velocity and electron temperature. Under random phase approximation (RPA), the electric field driven plasmon dispersion is investigated. The calculated results indicate that the plasmon frequency is dominated by both the electric field E and the angle between wavevector q and electric field E. Importantly, the plasmon frequency could be tuned by the applied source—drain bias voltage besides the gate voltage (change of the electron density)

  12. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny, E-mail: eh@udsu.ru [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation); Kostenkov, Sergey [Udmurt State University, 426034 Universitetskaya St., 1, Izhevsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law.

  13. Modeling of laser radiation transport in powder beds with high-dispersive metal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharanzhevskiy, Evgeny; Kostenkov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► Transport of laser energy in dispersive powder beds was numerically simulated. ► The results of simulating are compared with physicals experiments. ► We established the dependence of the extinction coefficient from powder properties. ► A confirmation of a geometric optic approach for monodisperse powders was proposed. -- Abstract: Two-dimensional transfer of laser radiation in a high-dispersive powder heterogeneous media is numerically calculated. The size of particles is comparable with the wave length of laser radiation so the model takes into account all known physical effects that are occurred on the vacuum–metal surface interface. It is shown that in case of small particles size both morphology of powder particles and porosity of beds influence on absorptance by the solid phase and laser radiation penetrate deep into the area of geometric shadow. Intensity of laser radiation may be described as a function corresponded to the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law

  14. Non-dispersive method for measuring longitudinal neutron coherence length using high frequency cold neutron pulser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, T.; Tasaki, S.; Ebisawa, T.; Hino, M.; Yamazaki, D.; Achiwa, N.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A non-dispersive method is proposed for measuring the longitudinal coherence length of a neutron using a high frequency cold neutron pulser (hf-CNP) placed between two multilayer spin splitters (MSS) which composes the cold neutron spin interferometer. Two spin eigenstates of a neutron polarized x-y plane are split non-dispersively and longitudinally in time by the hf-CNP which could reflect two components alternatively in time. The reduction of the visibility of interference fringes after being superposed by the second MSS is measured as a function of the frequency of the pulser by TOF method. From the zero visibility point obtained by extrapolation one could obtain the longitudinal coherence length of the neutron. (author)

  15. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous halfspace, two, three and multilayered sections were analyzed in frequency and time domains. The calculations for different values of chargeability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers. In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong changes in transient curves. In some cases quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of "high-resolution" electroprospecting in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is nonunique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably necessary to complement them by soundings of other type.

  16. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasiwave and quasistatic phenomena made EM sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of EM sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type

  17. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetov, B.S.; Ageev, V.V. [Geoelectromagnetic Research Institute, Institute of Physics of the Earth, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-08-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous half space, two, three and multilayered section were analyzed in frequency and tim domains. The calculations for different values of charge ability and time constants of polarization were performed. In the far zone of a source, the IP of rocks led to quasi-wave phenomena. They produced rapid fluctuations of frequency and transient sounding curves (interference phenomena, multireflections in polarizable layers). In the case of transient sounding in the near zone of a source quasistatic distortions prevailed, caused by the counter electromotive force arising in polarizable layers which may lead to strong change in transient curves. In same case in quasi wave and quasistatic phenomena made Em sounding curves non-interpretable in the class of quasistationary curves over non-dispersive sections. On the other hand, they could increase the resolution and depth of investigation of Em sounding. This was confirmed by an experience of 'high-resolution' electroprospectring in Russia. The problem of interpretation of EM sounding data in polarizable sections is non unique. To achieve uniqueness it is probably to complement them by sounding of other type.

  18. Dispersive effects in radiation transport and radiation hydrodynamics in matter at high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, B.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    In a recent research program (reported in AWRE 0 20/82) I have investigated the generalisation of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics when electromagnetic radiation is assumed to obey a linear-response dispersion relation of the form nω=kc where the refractive index n depends on the frequency ω and/or wave number k. From the application of the Boltzmann-Liouville transport theory to photons in the short-wavelength (geometrical optics) limit, I derive the energy and momentum equations which, when combined with a classical (Euler-Lagrange-Navier-Stokes) treatment of a fluid material medium in LTE, yield a complete dynamical theory of linear interactions (+ stimulated processes) between incoherent (thermal) radiation and dense, locally isotropic matter. The theory includes an account of pondero-motive forces and electro (magneto) striction. Moreover, it is apparently capable of being generalised to non-linear interactions in which the refractive index depends on the local specific intensity of the radiation field, and, to some extent, to the treatment of high-frequency coherent radiation. The generalisation of various approximated forms of radiation-transport theory (esp. diffusion) has been considered in detail. Some problems remain however. One such is the treatment of anomalous dispersion. Current research work is concentrating on the interesting atomic physics aspects of electromagnetic (esp. radiative) properties of a dispersive material medium

  19. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parente, P.; Savoini, B.; Ferrari, B.; Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R.; Sanchez-Herencia, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y 2 O 3 ) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y 2 O 3 has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y 2 O 3 addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y 2 O 3 addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y 2 O 3 as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca 2+ with Y 3+ ions appears to promote the formation of OH − vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: ► We reveal the influence of Y 2 O 3 on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. ► Incorporation of Y 2 O 3 delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. ► Addition of Y 2 O 3 enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  20. Genetic diversity of dispersed seeds is highly variable among leks of the long-wattled umbrellabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewell, Kym; Browne, Luke; Cabrera, Domingo; Olivo, Jorge; Karubian, Jordan

    2018-01-01

    Frugivorous animals frequently generate clumped distributions of seeds away from source trees, but genetic consequences of this phenomenon remain poorly resolved. Seed dispersal of the palm Oenocarpus bataua by long-wattled umbrellabirds Cephalopterus penduliger generates high seed densities in leks (i.e., multi-male display sites), providing a suitable venue to investigate how dispersal by this frugivore may influence seed source diversity and genetic structure at local and landscape levels. We found moderate levels of maternal seed source diversity in primary seed rain across five leks in northwest Ecuador (unweighted mean alpha diversity α = 9.52, weighted mean αr = 3.52), with considerable variation among leks (αr range: 1.81-24.55). Qualitatively similar findings were obtained for allelic diversity and heterozygosity. Higher densities of O. bataua adults around leks were associated with higher values of αr and heterozygosity (non-significant trends) and allelic diversity (significant correlation). Seed source overlap between different leks was not common but did occur at low frequency, providing evidence for long-distance seed dispersal by umbrellabirds into leks. Our findings are consistent with the idea that seed pool diversity within leks may be shaped by the interaction between density of local trees, which can vary considerably between leks, and umbrellabird foraging ecology, particularly a lack of territorial defense of fruiting trees. Taken as a whole, this work adds to our growing appreciation of the ways resource distribution and associated frugivore foraging behaviors mechanistically shape seed dispersal outcomes and the distribution of plant genotypes across the landscape.

  1. Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Dong, Fengliang; Li, Qi-Tong; Yang, Dong; Sun, Chengwei; Chen, Jianjun; Song, Zhiwei; Xu, Lihua; Chu, Weiguo; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Gong, Qihuang; Li, Yan

    2016-08-10

    Dielectric metasurfaces built up with nanostructures of high refractive index represent a powerful platform for highly efficient flat optical devices due to their easy-tuning electromagnetic scattering properties and relatively high transmission efficiencies. Here we show visible-frequency silicon metasurfaces formed by three kinds of nanoblocks multiplexed in a subwavelength unit to constitute a metamolecule, which are capable of wavefront manipulation for red, green, and blue light simultaneously. Full phase control is achieved for each wavelength by independently changing the in-plane orientations of the corresponding nanoblocks to induce the required geometric phases. Achromatic and highly dispersive meta-holograms are fabricated to demonstrate the wavefront manipulation with high resolution. This technique could be viable for various practical holographic applications and flat achromatic devices.

  2. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  3. Creep and rupture of an ODS alloy with high stress rupture ductility. [Oxide Dispersion Strengthened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcalarney, M. E.; Arsons, R. M.; Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Baranow, S.

    1982-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture properties of an oxide (Y2O3) dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy, which also is strengthened by gamma-prime precipitates, was studied at 760 and 1093 C. At both temperatures, the alloy YDNiCrAl exhibits unusually high stress rupture ductility as measured by both elongation and reduction in area. Failure was transgranular, and different modes of failure were observed including crystallographic fracture at intermediate temperatures and tearing or necking almost to a chisel point at higher temperatures. While the rupture ductility was high, the creep strength of the alloy was low relative to conventional gamma prime strengthened superalloys in the intermediate temperature range and to ODS alloys in the higher temperature range. These findings are discussed with respect to the alloy composition; the strengthening oxide phases, which are inhomogeneously dispersed; the grain morphology, which is coarse and elongated and exhibits many included grains; and the second phase inclusion particles occurring at grain boundaries and in the matrix. The creep properties, in particular the high stress dependencies and high creep activation energies measured, are discussed with respect to the resisting stress model of creep in particle strengthened alloys.

  4. Mild hydrothermal treatment to prepare highly dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Hashimoto, Yoshio; Taishi, Toshinori; Ni Qingqing

    2011-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with improved dispersion property have been prepared by a mild and fast hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal process avoids using harsh oxidants and organic solvents, which is environmental friendly and greatly decreases the damage to intrinsic structure of MWCNTs. The modified MWCNTs were highly soluble in polar solvents such as water, ethanol and dimethylformamide. Morphological observation by TEM indicated that the diameter and inherent structure were well reserved in modified MWCNTs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to quantify functional groups created on the MWCNT surface, and to determine rational parameters of hydrothermal process.

  5. High transmittance optical films based on quantum dot doped nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sahil Sandesh; Chien, Liang-Chy

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple way to fabricate highly transparent nanoscale polymer dispersed liquid crystal (nano-PDLC) films between glass substrates and investigate their incident angle dependent optical transmittance properties with both collimated and Lambertian intensity distribution light sources. We also demonstrate that doping nano-PDLC films with 0.1% InP/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QD) results in a higher optical transmittance. This work lays the foundation for such nanostructured composites to potentially serve as roll-to-roll coatable light extraction or brightness enhancement films in emissive display applications, superior to complex nanocorrugation techniques proposed in the past.

  6. In situ polymerization of highly dispersed polypyrrole on reduced graphite oxide for dopamine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2013-12-15

    A composite consisting of reduced graphite oxide and highly dispersed polypyrrole nanospheres was synthesized by a straightforward technique, by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The novel polypyrrole nanospheres can prevent the aggregation of reduced graphite oxide sheets by electrostatic repulsive interaction, and enhance their electrochemical properties in the nano-molar measurement of dopamine in biological systems with a linear range of 1-8000 nM and a detection limit as low as 0.3 nM. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxide dispersion strengthened CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadraba, Hynek; Chlup, Zdeněk; Dlouhý, Antonín; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Roupcová, Pavla; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 689, MAR (2017), s. 252-256 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25246S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : Creep * High-entropy alloy (HEA) * Mechanical alloying * Oxide dispersion strength ened (ODS) alloy * Powder metallurgy * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy; JG - Metallurgy (UFP-V) OBOR OECD: Materials engineering; Materials engineering (UFM-A); Materials engineering (UFP-V) Impact factor: 3.094, year: 2016

  8. The study on preparation of high dispersion and pure cerium dioxide for producing automotive exhaust catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Minh Tuan; Nguyen Trong Hung; Nguyen Thanh Chung

    2003-01-01

    The multi-stage counter-current solvent extraction process using TBP as the solvent has been carried out for purifying cerium and the ammonium carbonate precipitation method has been used to produce the cerium oxide of high dispersion and pure. The flow sheet of extraction system includes 3 extraction stages with O/A = 0.7,2 stripping stages and 4 scrubbing stages with O/A = 5. The condition for ammonium carbonate precipitation, drying and calcination have been investigated and a procedure that seem to be practically suitable to prepare cerium dioxide powder with great specific surface area for producing automotive exhaust catalyst has been proposed. (LMT)

  9. High resolution neutron diffraction crystallographic investigation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened steels of interest for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppola, R.; Rodriguez-Carvajal, J.; Wang, M.; Zhang, G.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution neutron diffraction measurements have been carried out to characterize the crystallographic phases present in different Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels of interest for fusion technology. The different lattice structures, Im3m for the ferritic ODS and Fm3m for the austenitic ODS, are resolved showing line anisotropy effects possibly correlated with differences in dislocation densities and texture. Many contributions from minority phases are detected well above the background noise; none of the expected crystallographic phases, such as M 23 C 6 and including Y 2 O 3 , fits them, but the TiN phase is identified in accordance with results of other microstructural techniques

  10. High-energy pulse compressor using self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (3) with a net positive dispersion. Furthermore, the net positive dispersion in the dispersive unit at least partially compensates for the negative nonlinear phase variation and the negative group-velocity dispersion produced by the bulk quadratic nonlinear medium when the optical pulse passes......A method and a pulse compressor (1) for compressing an optical pulse, wherein the pulse compressor comprising a bulk quadratic nonlinear medium (2) adapted for generating a negative nonlinear phase variation on the optical pulse and having a negative group-velocity dispersion, and a dispersive unit...

  11. Imaging the Formation of High-Energy Dispersion Anomalies in the Actinide UCoGa_{5}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Das

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to image the emergence of substantial dispersion and spectral-weight anomalies in the electronic renormalization of the actinide compound UCoGa_{5} that was presumed to belong to a conventional Fermi-liquid family. Kinks or abrupt breaks in the slope of the quasiparticle dispersion are detected both at low (approximately 130 meV and high (approximately 1 eV binding energies below the Fermi energy, ruling out any significant contribution of phonons. We perform numerical calculations to demonstrate that the anomalies are adequately described by coupling between itinerant fermions and spin fluctuations arising from the particle-hole continuum of the spin-orbit-split 5f states of uranium. These anomalies resemble the “waterfall” phenomenon of the high-temperature copper-oxide superconductors, suggesting that spin fluctuations are a generic route toward multiform electronic phases in correlated materials as different as high-temperature superconductors and actinides.

  12. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; Di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-26

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp 2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL -1 , which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  13. Controllable Edge Oxidation and Bubbling Exfoliation Enable the Fabrication of High Quality Water Dispersible Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Suyun; Sun, Jing; Yang, Siwei; He, Peng; Wang, Gang; di, Zengfeng; Ding, Guqiao; Xie, Xiaoming; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant progresses made on mass production of chemically exfoliated graphene, the quality, cost and environmental friendliness remain major challenges for its market penetration. Here, we present a fast and green exfoliation strategy for large scale production of high quality water dispersible few layer graphene through a controllable edge oxidation and localized gas bubbling process. Mild edge oxidation guarantees that the pristine sp2 lattice is largely intact and the edges are functionalized with hydrophilic groups, giving rise to high conductivity and good water dispersibility at the same time. The aqueous concentration can be as high as 5.0 mg mL-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than previously reports. The water soluble graphene can be directly spray-coated on various substrates, and the back-gated field effect transistor give hole and electron mobility of ~496 and ~676 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively. These results achieved are expected to expedite various applications of graphene.

  14. Development of dispersion interferometer for magnetic confinement plasmas and high-pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.; Urabe, K.; Terashima, K.; Shirai, N.

    2015-09-01

    A CO2 laser dispersion interferometer (DI) has been developed for both magnetically fusion plasmas and high pressure industrial plasmas. The DI measures the phase shift caused by dispersion in a medium. Therefore, it is insensitive to the mechanical vibrations and changes in the neutral gas density, which degrade the resolution of the electron density measurement. We installed the DI on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and demonstrated a high density resolution of 2× 1017 m-3 without any vibration-free bench. The measured electron density with the DI shows good agreement with results of the existing far infrared laser (a wavelength of 119 μ m) interferometer. The DI system is also applied to the electron density measurement of high-pressure small-scale plasmas. The significant suppression of the phase shift caused by the neutral gas is proven. The achieved density resolution was 1.5× 1019 m-3 with a response time of 100 μ s. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  15. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass (M/C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/C ratio, with larger M/C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  16. Terminal velocity of liquids and granular materials dispersed by a high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, J.; Pontalier, Q.; Milne, A. M.; Goroshin, S.; Frost, D. L.

    2018-05-01

    The explosive dispersal of a layer of solid particles or a layer of liquid surrounding a spherical high-explosive charge generates a turbulent, multiphase flow. Shock compression of the material layer during the initial acceleration may partially consolidate the material, leading to the formation of jet-like structures when the layer fragments and sheds particles upon release. Similarly, release of a shock-compressed liquid shell causes the nucleation of cavitation sites, leading to the radial breakup of the shell and the formation of jets upon expansion. In the current study, a wide variety of granular materials and liquids were explosively dispersed. The maximum terminal jet tip or shell velocity was measured using high-speed videography. Charges were constructed using thin-walled glass bulbs of various diameters and contained a central C-4 charge surrounded by the material to be dispersed. This permitted variation of the ratio of material mass to charge mass ( M/ C) from 4 to 300. Results indicated that material velocity broadly correlates with predictions of the Gurney model. For liquids, the terminal velocity was accurately predicted by the Gurney model. For granular materials, Gurney over-predicted the terminal velocity by 25-60%, depending on the M/ C ratio, with larger M/ C values exhibiting larger deficits. These deficits are explained by energy dissipation during the collapse of voids in the granular material bed. Velocity deficits were insensitive to the degree of jetting and granular material properties. Empirical corrections to the Gurney model are presented with improved agreement with the dry powder experimental velocities.

  17. Preparation and characterization of CeO2 highly dispersed on activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano-Ruiz, J.C.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Silvestre-Albero, J.; Sepulveda-Escribano, A.; Rodriguez-Reinoso, F.

    2008-01-01

    A new material constituted by cerium dioxide highly dispersed on activated carbon (CeO 2 /AC) was prepared by an impregnation method using cerium(III) nitrate as CeO 2 precursor. In order to evaluate the degree of ceria dispersion on the carbon support, CeO 2 /AC was characterized by a number of techniques: thermogravimetry coupled with a mass spectrometer (TG-MS), N 2 adsorption at 77 K, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis of the decomposition process under inert atmosphere indicated that cerium nitrate decomposes at 440-460 K, with the evolution of NO. Furthermore, this process produces an additional oxidation of the carbon surface (with evolution of N 2 O) and the subsequent onset of new oxygen surface groups, detected by means of temperature-programmed desorption. The ceria deposition process takes place with a decrease in the N 2 adsorption capacity of the starting carbon support, and the analysis of the pore size distribution showed that the majority of ceria particles are situated at the most internal part of the carbon porosity. The temperature-programmed reduction profile of CeO 2 /AC was very different to that shown by unsupported CeO 2 , with only one continuous reduction process at low temperatures (800-900 K). Finally, TEM pictures gave direct evidence that ceria is highly dispersed on the carbon surface, with a narrow CeO 2 particle distribution centred around 3 nm

  18. Self-dispersible nanocrystals of albendazole produced by high pressure homogenization and spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Alejandro Javier; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Bruni, Sergio; Allemandi, Daniel; Palma, Santiago Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug used in the treatment of human or animal infections. Although ABZ has shown a high efficacy for repeated doses in monogastric mammals, its low aqueous solubility leads to erratic bioavailability. The aim of this work was to optimize a procedure in order to obtain ABZ self-dispersible nanocrystals (SDNC) by combining high pressure homogenization (HPH) and spray-drying (SD). The material thus obtained was characterized and the variables affecting both the HPH and SD processes were studied. As expected, the homogenizing pressure and number of cycles influenced the final particle size, while the stabilizer concentration had a strong impact on SD output and redispersion of powders upon contact with water. ABZ SDNC were successfully obtained with high process yield and redispersibility. The characteristic peaks of ABZ were clearly identified in the X-ray patterns of the processed samples. A noticeable increase in the dissolution rate was observed in the aqueous environment.

  19. Efficient Hydrogenolysis of Guaiacol over Highly Dispersed Ni/MCM-41 Catalyst Combined with HZSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songbai Qiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of MCM-41 supported Ni catalysts with high metal dispersion was successfully synthesized by simple co-impregnation using proper ethylene glycol (EG. The acquired Ni-based catalysts performed the outstanding hydrogenolysis activity of guaiacol. The effects of the synthesis parameters including drying temperature, calcination temperature, and metal loading on the physical properties of NiO nanoparticles were investigated through the use of X-ray diffraction (XRD. The drying temperature was found to significantly influence the particle sizes of NiO supported on MCM-41, but the calcination temperature and metal loading had less influence. Interestingly, the small particle size (≤3.3 nm and the high dispersion of NiO particles were also obtained for co-impregnation on the mixed support (MCM-41:HZSM-5 = 1:1, similar to that on the single MCM-41 support, leading to excellent hydrogenation activity at low temperature. The guaiacol conversion could reach 97.9% at 150 °C, and the catalytic activity was comparative with that of noble metal catalysts. The hydrodeoxygenation (HDO performance was also promoted by the introduction of acidic HZSM-5 zeolite and an 84.1% yield of cyclohexane at 240 °C was achieved. These findings demonstrate potential applications for the future in promoting and improving industrial catalyst performance.

  20. Allopatric speciation of Meteterakis (Heterakoidea: Heterakidae), a highly dispersible parasitic nematode, in the East Asian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sata, Naoya

    2018-04-25

    To clarify how the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites has developed, molecular phylogenetic analyses of Meteterakis spp., multi-host endoparasitic nematodes of reptiles and amphibians from the East Asian islands, were conducted. The results demonstrated the existence of two major clades, the J- and A-groups, with exclusive geographic ranges that are discordant with the host faunal province. However, diversification within the J-group was concordant with the host biogeography and suggested co-divergence of this group with vicariance of the host fauna. In contrast, the phylogenetic pattern within the A-group was discordant with host biogeography and implied diversification by repeated colonization. In addition, the mosaic distribution pattern of a J-group and an A-group species in the Japanese Archipelago, along with comparison of population genetic parameters and the genetic distance from their closest relatives, suggested the initial occurrence of a J-group lineage followed by exclusion in the western part of this region caused by invasion of an A-group lineage. Thus, the present study suggested that the species diversity of highly dispersible parasites including Meteterakis is formed not only by co-divergence with host faunal vicariance but also by peripatric speciation and exclusive interactions between species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. FINDING EXTRATERRESTRIAL LIFE USING GROUND-BASED HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snellen, I. A. G.; Le Poole, R.; Brogi, M.; Birkby, J.; De Kok, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Exoplanet observations promise one day to unveil the presence of extraterrestrial life. Atmospheric compounds in strong chemical disequilibrium would point to large-scale biological activity just as oxygen and methane do in the Earth's atmosphere. The cancellation of both the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin missions means that it is unlikely that a dedicated space telescope to search for biomarker gases in exoplanet atmospheres will be launched within the next 25 years. Here we show that ground-based telescopes provide a strong alternative for finding biomarkers in exoplanet atmospheres through transit observations. Recent results on hot Jupiters show the enormous potential of high-dispersion spectroscopy to separate the extraterrestrial and telluric signals, making use of the Doppler shift of the planet. The transmission signal of oxygen from an Earth-twin orbiting a small red dwarf star is only a factor of three smaller than that of carbon monoxide recently detected in the hot Jupiter τ Boötis b, albeit such a star will be orders of magnitude fainter. We show that if Earth-like planets are common, the planned extremely large telescopes can detect oxygen within a few dozen transits. Ultimately, large arrays of dedicated flux-collector telescopes equipped with high-dispersion spectrographs can provide the large collecting area needed to perform a statistical study of life-bearing planets in the solar neighborhood.

  2. Interplay between absorption, dispersion and refraction in high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dachraoui, H; Helmstedt, A; Bartz, P; Michelswirth, M; Mueller, N; Pfeiffer, W; Heinzmann, U; Auguste, T; Salieres, P

    2009-01-01

    We report a detailed experimental and theoretical study on high-order harmonic generation of a femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser focused at an intensity of around 10 15 W cm -2 onto a high-pressure (50-210 mbar) neon gas cell of variable length (1-3 mm). Using thorough three-dimensional simulations, we discuss the interplay between the different factors influencing the harmonic-generation efficiency, i.e. phase matching determined by the electronic and atomic dispersions, re-absorption of the harmonics by the medium and refraction of the generating laser beam. Generically, we find that, in our generation conditions, the emission yield of harmonics from the plateau region of the spectrum is absorption limited, whereas the emission from harmonics in the cut-off is strongly reduced due to both electron dispersion and ionization-induced refraction of the laser beam. A good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data is obtained for the harmonic yield dependence on the various generation parameters (gas pressure, medium length and laser intensity).

  3. High performance graphene- and MWCTNs-based PS/PPO composites obtained via organic solvent dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghislandi, M.G.; Tkalya, E.; Schillinger, S.; Koning, C.E.; With, de G.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of liquid-phase dispersion was applied for the preparation of well-dispersed suspensions of MWCNTs and graphene in chloroform, using long-time ultra-sonication without the use of surfactants. The dispersions with pre-defined filler concentration (0.5 mg/ml) were monitored via UV–Vis

  4. Operational mesoscale atmospheric dispersion prediction using high performance parallel computing cluster for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.V.; Venkatesan, R.; Muralidharan, N.V.; Das, Someshwar; Dass, Hari; Eswara Kumar, P.

    2005-08-01

    An operational atmospheric dispersion prediction system is implemented on a cluster super computer for 'Online Emergency Response' for Kalpakkam nuclear site. The numerical system constitutes a parallel version of a nested grid meso-scale meteorological model MM5 coupled to a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The system provides 48 hour forecast of the local weather and radioactive plume dispersion due to hypothetical air borne releases in a range of 100 km around the site. The parallel code was implemented on different cluster configurations like distributed and shared memory systems. Results of MM5 run time performance for 1-day prediction are reported on all the machines available for testing. A reduction of 5 times in runtime is achieved using 9 dual Xeon nodes (18 physical/36 logical processors) compared to a single node sequential run. Based on the above run time results a cluster computer facility with 9-node Dual Xeon is commissioned at IGCAR for model operation. The run time of a triple nested domain MM5 is about 4 h for 24 h forecast. The system has been operated continuously for a few months and results were ported on the IMSc home page. Initial and periodic boundary condition data for MM5 are provided by NCMRWF, New Delhi. An alternative source is found to be NCEP, USA. These two sources provide the input data to the operational models at different spatial and temporal resolutions and using different assimilation methods. A comparative study on the results of forecast is presented using these two data sources for present operational use. Slight improvement is noticed in rainfall, winds, geopotential heights and the vertical atmospheric structure while using NCEP data probably because of its high spatial and temporal resolution. (author)

  5. A high resolution complex terrain dispersion study in the Rocky Flats, Colorado vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO under the auspices of the Department of Energy Atmospheric Studies over Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km 2 scale. Simultaneously, an SF 6 tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF 6 plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM), a component of the RAMS system, to model the dispersion of the SF 6 . We have chosen the 4--5 February, 1991 overnight period as our case study. This night was characterized by strong drainage flows from the Rocky Mountains to the west of Rocky Flats, southerly winds in a layer about lkm thick above the drainage flows, and northwesterly winds above that layer extending to the tropopause

  6. Release behavior of fission products from irradiated dispersion fuels at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Takashi; Shimizu, Michio; Nakagawa, Tetsuya

    1990-02-01

    As a framework of reduced enrichment fuel program of JMTR Project, the measurements of fission products release rates at high temperatures (600degC - 1100degC) were performed in order to take the data to use for safety evaluation of LEU fuel. Three type miniplates of dispersion silicide and aluminide fuel, 20% enrichment LEU fuel with 4.8 gU/cc (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % and U 3 Si 2 50 %, U 3 Si 50 % dispersed in aluminium) and 45 % enrichment MEU fuel with 1.6 gU/cc, were irradiated in JMTR. The burnups attained by one cycle (22 days) irradiation were within 21.6 % - 22.5 % of initial 235 U. The specimens cut down from miniplates were measured on fission products release rates by means of new apparatus specially designed for this experiment. The specimens were heated up within 600degC - 1100degC in dry air. Then fission products such as 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 137 Cs, 103 Ru, 129m Te were collected at each temperature and measured on release rates. In the results of measurement, the release rates of 85 Kr, 133 Xe, 131 I, 129m Te from all specimens were slightly less than that of G.W. Parker's data on U-Al alloy fuel. For 137 Cs and 103 Ru from a silicide specimen (U 3 Si 2 90 %, USi 10 % dispersed in aluminium) and 137 Cs from an aluminide specimen, the release rates were slightly higher than that of G.W. Parker's. (author)

  7. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P., E-mail: pparente@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Ferrari, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Sanchez-Herencia, A.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} with Y{sup 3+} ions appears to promote the formation of OH{sup -} vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal the influence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  8. Elongated membrane tethers, individually anchored by high affinity α4β1/VCAM-1 complexes, are the quantal units of monocyte arrests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Chu

    Full Text Available The α4β1 integrin facilitates both monocyte rolling and adhesion to the vascular endothelium and is physiologically activated by monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1. The current study investigated the initial events in the adhesion of THP-1 cells to immobilized Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1. Using AFM force measurements, cell adhesion was shown to be mediated by two populations of α4β1/VCAM-1 complexes. A low affinity form of α4β1 was anchored to the elastic elements of the cytoskeleton, while a higher affinity conformer was coupled to the viscous elements of the cell membrane. Within 100 ms of contact, THP-1 cells, stimulated by co-immobilized MCP-1, exhibited a tremendous increase in adhesion to VCAM-1. Enhanced cell adhesion was accompanied by a local decoupling of the cell membrane from the cytoskeleton and the formation of long membrane tethers. The tethers were individually anchored by multiple α4β1/VCAM-1 complexes that prolonged the extension of the viscous tethers. In vivo, the formation of these membrane tethers may provide the quantal structural units for the arrest of rolling monocytes within the blood vessels.

  9. Polyacrylonitrile Fibers Anchored Cobalt/Graphene Sheet Nanocomposite: A Low-Cost, High-Performance and Reusable Catalyst for Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Huang, Guoji; Hou, Chengyi; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt and its composites are known to be active and inexpensive catalysts in sodium borohydride (NaBH4) hydrolysis to generate clean and renewable hydrogen energy. A novel fiber catalyst, cobalt/graphene sheet nanocomposite anchored on polyacrylonitrile fibers (Co/GRs-PANFs), which can be easily recycled and used in any reactor with different shapes, were synthesized by anchoring cobalt/graphene (Co/GRs) on polyacrylonitrile fibers coated with graphene (GRs-PANFs) at low temperature. The unique structure design effectively prevents the inter-sheet restacking of Co/GRs and fully exploits the large surface area of novel hybrid material for generate hydrogen. And the extra electron transfer path supplied by GRs on the surface of GRs-PANFs can also enhance their catalysis performances. The catalytic activity of the catalyst was investigated by the hydrolysis of NaBH4 in aqueous solution with GRs-PANFs. GRs powders and Co powders were used as control groups. It was found that both GRs and fiber contributed to the hydrogen generation rate of Co/GRs-PANFs (3222 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)), which is much higher than that of cobalt powders (915 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)) and Co/GRs (995 mL x min(-1) x g(-1)). The improved hydrogen generation rate, low cost and uncomplicated recycling make the Co/GRs-PANFs promising candidate as catalysts for hydrogen generation.

  10. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x

  11. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Frequency Dispersion of High-k Materials in Capacitance-Voltage Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In capacitance-voltage (C-V measurements, frequency dispersion in high-k dielectrics is often observed. The frequency dependence of the dielectric constant (k-value, that is the intrinsic frequency dispersion, could not be assessed before suppressing the effects of extrinsic frequency dispersion, such as the effects of the lossy interfacial layer (between the high-k thin film and silicon substrate and the parasitic effects. The effect of the lossy interfacial layer on frequency dispersion was investigated and modeled based on a dual frequency technique. The significance of parasitic effects (including series resistance and the back metal contact of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitor on frequency dispersion was also studied. The effect of surface roughness on frequency dispersion is also discussed. After taking extrinsic frequency dispersion into account, the relaxation behavior can be modeled using the Curie-von Schweidler (CS law, the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW relationship and the Havriliak-Negami (HN relationship. Dielectric relaxation mechanisms are also discussed.

  12. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction at high pressure in CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoff, A.L.; Baublitz, M.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray techniques were used with a diamond anvil cell in the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS). It was shown that quantitative relative intensity measurement could be made when the pressure was hydrostatic and the crystals were relatively defect free. The crystal structures of the high pressure polymorphs of Ge, GaAs, GaP, and AlSb were studied. Ge exhibits the β-tetragonal structure as found by Jamieson; however, the transition pressure is 80 +- 5 kbars. GaAs exhibits an orthorhombic structure above 172 +- 7 kbars, GaP the β-Sn structure above 215 +- 8 kbars, and AlSb an orthorhombic structure above 77 +- 5 kbars. (Auth.)

  13. Supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole-reduced graphene oxide composite with a folded surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anqi; Zhou, Xi; Qian, Tao; Yu, Chenfei; Wu, Shishan; Shen, Jian

    2015-08-01

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole particles were decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composite, which obtained a folded surface, shows remarkable performance as the electrode material of supercapacitors. The specific capacitance reaches 564.1 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1 and maintains 86.4 % after 1000 charging-discharging cycles at a current density of 20 A g-1, which indicates a good cycling stability. Furthermore, the prepared supercapacitor demonstrates an ultrahigh energy density of 50.13 Wh kg-1 at power density of 0.40 kW kg-1, and remains of 45.33 Wh kg-1 even at high power density of 8.00 kW kg-1, which demonstrate that the hybrid supercapacitor can be a promising energy storage system for fast and efficient energy storage in the future.

  14. Magnetic properties of Ni nanoparticles dispersed in silica prepared by high-energy ball milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, E. M.; Montero, M. I.; Cebollada, F.; de Julián, C.; Vicent, J. L.; González, J. M.

    1998-04-01

    We analyze the magnetic properties of mechanically ground nanosized Ni particles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix. Our magnetic characterization of the as-milled samples show the occurrence of two blocking processes and that of non-monotonic milling time evolutions of the magnetic-order temperature, the high-field magnetization and the saturation coercivity. The measured coercivities exhibit giant values and a uniaxial-type temperature dependence. Thermal treatment carried out in the as-prepared samples result in a remarkable coercivity reduction and in an increase of the high-field magnetization. We conclude, on the basis of the consideration of a core (pure Ni) and shell (Ni-Si inhomogeneous alloy) particle structure, that the magnetoelastic anisotropy plays the dominant role in determining the magnetic properties of our particles.

  15. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on a Potassium Faraday Dispersive Filter for Daytime Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is proposed for measuring the profiles of atmospheric temperature in daytime. Based on the theory of high resolution Rayleigh scattering, the feasibility and advantages of using potassium (K Faraday dispersive optical filters as blocking filters for measuring atmospheric temperature are demonstrated with a numerical simulation. It was found that temperature profiles could be measured within 1K error for the height of 9 km with a 500 m range resolution in 60 min by using laser pulses with 1mJ/pulse and 1 kHz, and a 50 cm diameter telescope. Furthermore, we are developing compact pulsed laser system for temperature lidar transmitter.

  16. FOUR HIGHLY DISPERSED MILLISECOND PULSARS DISCOVERED IN THE ARECIBO PALFA GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, P.O. Box 3003, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Stovall, K. [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Nice, D. J. [Department of Physics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States); Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Lazarus, P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Freire, P. C. C.; Champion, D. J.; Desvignes, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Allen, B. [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Bhat, N. D. R.; Camilo, F. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Bogdanov, S. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cognard, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie de l' Environnement et de l' Espace, LPC2E, CNRS et Universite d' Orleans, and Station de radioastronomie de Nancay, Observatoire de Paris, F-18330 Nancay (France); Deneva, J. S., E-mail: fcrawfor@fandm.edu [Arecibo Observatory, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States); and others

    2012-09-20

    We present the discovery and phase-coherent timing of four highly dispersed millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the Arecibo PALFA Galactic plane survey: PSRs J1844+0115, J1850+0124, J1900+0308, and J1944+2236. Three of the four pulsars are in binary systems with low-mass companions, which are most likely white dwarfs, and which have orbital periods on the order of days. The fourth pulsar is isolated. All four pulsars have large dispersion measures (DM >100 pc cm{sup -3}), are distant ({approx}> 3.4 kpc), faint at 1.4 GHz ({approx}< 0.2 mJy), and are fully recycled (with spin periods P between 3.5 and 4.9 ms). The three binaries also have very small orbital eccentricities, as expected for tidally circularized, fully recycled systems with low-mass companions. These four pulsars have DM/P ratios that are among the highest values for field MSPs in the Galaxy. These discoveries bring the total number of confirmed MSPs from the PALFA survey to 15. The discovery of these MSPs illustrates the power of PALFA for finding weak, distant MSPs at low-Galactic latitudes. This is important for accurate estimates of the Galactic MSP population and for the number of MSPs that the Square Kilometer Array can be expected to detect.

  17. Design of compact dispersion interferometer with a high efficiency nonlinear crystal and a low power CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Yoshimura, S.; Tomita, K.; Shirai, N.; Murakami, T.; Urabe, K.

    2017-12-01

    When the electron density of a plasma generated in high pressure environment is measured by a conventional interferometer, the phase shifts due to changes of the neutral gas density cause significant measurement errors. A dispersion interferometer, which measures the phase shift that arises from dispersion of medium between the fundamental and the second harmonic wavelengths of laser light, can suppress the measured phase shift due to the variations of neutral gas density. In recent years, the CO2 laser dispersion interferometer has been applied to the atmospheric pressure plasmas and its feasibility has been demonstrated. By combining a low power laser and a high efficiency nonlinear crystal for the second harmonic component generation, a compact dispersion interferometer can be designed. The optical design and preliminary experiments are conducted.

  18. Cyclic biomechanical testing of biocomposite lateral row knotless anchors in a human cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Bava, Eric D; Spenciner, David B; Piccirillo, Justin

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mechanical performance of biocomposite knotless lateral row anchors based on both anchor design and the direction of pull. Two lateral row greater tuberosity insertion sites (anterior and posterior) were identified in matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) scanned to verify comparability. The humeri were stripped of all soft tissue and 3 different biocomposite knotless lateral row anchors: HEALIX Knotless BR (DePuy Mitek, Raynham MA), BioComposite PushLock (Arthrex, Naples, FL), and Bio-SwiveLock (Arthrex). Fifty-two anchors were distributed among the insertion locations and tested them with either an anatomic or axial pull. A fixed-gauge loop (15 mm) of 2 high-strength sutures from each anchor was created. After a 10-Nm preload, anchors were cycled from 10 to 45 Nm at 0.5 Hz for 200 cycles and tested to failure at 4.23 mm/second. The load to reach 3 mm and 5 mm displacement, ultimate failure load, displacement at ultimate failure, and failure mode were recorded. Threaded anchors (Bio-SwiveLock, P = .03; HEALIX Knotless, P = .014) showed less displacement with anatomic testing than did the nonthreaded anchor (BioComposite PushLock), and the HEALIX Knotless showed less overall displacement than did the other 2 anchors. The Bio-SwiveLock exhibited greater failure loads than did the other 2 anchors (P < .05). Comparison of axial and anatomic loading showed no maximum load differences for all anchors as a whole (P = .1084). Yet, anatomic pulling produced higher failure loads than did axial pulling for the Bio-SwiveLock but not for the BioComposite PushLock or the HEALIX Knotless. The nonthreaded anchor (BioComposite PushLock) displayed lower failure loads than did both threaded anchors with axial pulling. Threaded biocomposite anchors (HEALIX Knotless BR and Bio-SwiveLock) show less anatomic loading displacement and higher axial failure loads than do the nonthreaded

  19. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Highly Water-dispersible Anatase Nanoparticles with Large Specific Surface Area and Their Adsorptive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hu Xueting; Zhang Dongyun; Zhao Siqin; Asuha Sin

    2016-01-01

    Highly water-dispersible and very small TiO2 nanoparticles (~3 nm anatase) with large specific surface area have been synthesized by hydrolysis and hydrothermal reactions of titanium butoxide and used for the removal of three azo dyes (Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange) with different molecular structure from simulated wastewaters. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in water with large specific surface area up to 417 m2 g−1. Adsorption experiments demonstrated that th...

  20. Experimental study and modelling of the high temperature mechanical behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckmeyer, A.

    2012-01-01

    The strength of metals, and therefore their maximum operating temperature, can be improved by oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS). Numerous research studies are carried out at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in order to develop a cladding tube material for Gen IV nuclear power reactors. Oxide dispersion strengthened steels appear to be the most promising candidates for such application, which demands a minimum operating temperature of 650 C. The present dissertation intends to improve the understanding of the mechanical properties of ODS steels, in terms of creep lifetime and mechanical anisotropy. The methodology of this work includes mechanical tests between room temperature and 900 C as well as macroscopic and polycrystalline modelling. These tests are carried out on a Fe-14Cr1W0,26Ti + 0,3 Y 2 O 3 ODS ferritic steel processed at CEA by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion. The as-received material is a bar with a circular section. The mechanical tests reveal the high mechanical strength of this steel at high temperature. A strong influence of the strain rate on the ductility and the mechanical strength is also observed. A macroscopic mechanical model has been developed on the basis of some experimental statements such as the high kinematic contribution to the flow stress. This model has a strong ability to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of the studied material. Two different polycrystalline models have also been developed in order to reproduce the mechanical anisotropy of the material. They are based on its specific grain morphology and crystallographic texture. The discrepancy between the predictions of both models and experimental results reveal the necessity to formulate alternate assumptions on the deformation mechanisms of ODS ferritic steels. (author) [fr

  1. Microwave-induced synthesis of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles within the pore channels of mesoporous silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jinlou; Fan Wei; Shimojima, Atsushi; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    Highly dispersed gold nanoparticles have been incorporated into the pore channels of SBA-15 mesoporous silica through a newly developed strategy assisted by microwave radiation (MR). The sizes of gold are effectively controlled attributed to the rapid and homogeneous nucleation, simultaneous propagation and termination of gold precursor by MR. Diol moieties with high dielectric and dielectric loss constants, and hence a high microwave activation, were firstly introduced to the pore channels of SBA-15 by a simple addition reaction between amino group and glycidiol and subsequently served as the reduction centers for gold nanoparticles. Extraction of the entrapped gold from the nanocomposite resulted in milligram quantities of gold nanoparticles with low dispersity. The successful assembly process of diol groups and formation of gold nanoparticles were monitored and tracked by solid-state NMR and UV-vis measurements. Characterization by small angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the incorporation of gold nanoparticles would not breakup the structural integrity and long-range periodicity of SBA-15. The gold nanoparticles had a narrow size distribution with diameters in the size range of 5-10 nm through TEM observation. The average particles size is 7.9 nm via calculation by the Scherrer formula and TEM measurements. Nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms gave further evidence that the employed method was efficient and gold nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the pore channels of SBA-15. - Graphical abstract: A facile and novel strategy has been developed to incorporate gold nanoparticles into the pore channels of mesoporous SBA-15 assisted by microwave radiation (MR) with mild reaction condition and rapid reaction speed. Due to the rapid and homogeneous nucleation, simultaneous propagation and termination by MR, the size of gold nanoparticles are effectively controlled

  2. Co3O4 nanocrystals with exposed low-surface-energy planes anchored on chemically integrated graphitic carbon nitride-modified nitrogen-doped graphene: A high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyao; Fu, Yongsheng; Wang, Xin

    2018-05-01

    A facile strategy to synthesize a composite composed of cubic Co3O4 nanocrystals anchored on chemically integrated g-C3N4-modified N-graphene (CN-NG) as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries is reported. It is found that the morphology of the Co3O4 nanocrystals contains blunt-edge nanocubes with well-demarcated boundaries and numerous exposed low-index (1 1 1) crystallographic facets. These planes can be directly involved in the electrochemical reactions, providing rapid Li-ion transport channels for charging and discharging and thus enhancing the round-trip diffusion efficiency. On the other hand, the CN-NG support displays unusual textural features, such as superior structural stability, accessible active sites, and good electrical conductivity. The experimental results reveal that the chemical and electronic coupling of graphitic carbon nitride and nitrogen-doped graphene synergistically facilitate the anchoring of Co3O4 nanocrystals and prevents their migration. The resulting Co3O4/CN-NG composite exhibits a high specific reversible capacity of up to 1096 mAh g-1 with excellent cycling stability and rate capability. We believe that such a hybrid carbon support could open a new path for applications in electrocatalysis, sensors, supercapacitors, etc., in the near future.

  3. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  4. Instantaneous strain measurements during high-temperature stress cycling of a dispersion-strengthened niobium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, D.M.; Mishra, R.S.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results obtained from stress cycling tests performed during high-temperature creep of a dispersion strengthened niobium alloy indicate that the instantaneous strain following the stress change decreases with accumulated strain. The true work-hardening rate was shown to be a small fraction of the elastic modulus which remained fairly constant throughout the strain history. The instantaneous strain change from a stress addition was typically greater than the strain from the corresponding stress reduction. This effect is quite pronounced for small stress changes and diminishes as the magnitude of the stress change increases. This implies that the mobility of dislocations is impeded in the reverse direction unless the magnitude of stress reduction exceeds the value of the internal stress

  5. Fast adsorption kinetics of highly dispersed ultrafine nickel/carbon nanoparticles for organic dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taek-Seung; Song, Hee Jo; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Lee, Hack-Jun; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic metal/carbon nano-materials are attractive for pollutant adsorption and removal. In this study, ultrafine nickel/carbon nanoparticles are successfully prepared via electrical wire explosion processing in ethanol media for the elimination of pollutant organic dyes such as Rhodamine B and methylene blue in aqueous solutions. High specific surface areas originating from both the nano-sized particles and the existence of carbon on the surface of Ni nanoparticles enhance dye adsorption capacity. In addition to this, the excellent dispersity of Ni/C nanoparticles in aqueous dye solutions leads to superior adsorption rates. The adsorption kinetics for the removal of organic dyes by Ni/C nanoparticles agree with a pseudo-second-order model and follow Freundlich adsorption isotherm behavior.

  6. High Methanol Oxidation Activity of Well-Dispersed Pt Nanoparticles on Carbon Nanotubes Using Nitrogen Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wei-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pt nanoparticles (NPs with the average size of 3.14 nm well dispersed on N-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs without any pretreatment have been demonstrated. Structural properties show the characteristic N bonding within CNTs, which provide the good support for uniform distribution of Pt NPs. In electrochemical characteristics, N-doped CNTs covered with Pt NPs show superior current density due to the fact that the so-called N incorporation could give rise to the formation of preferential sites within CNTs accompanied by the low interfacial energy for immobilizing Pt NPs. Therefore, the substantially enhanced methanol oxidation activity performed by N-incorporation technique is highly promising in energy-generation applications.

  7. Role of Acetone in the Formation of Highly Dispersed Cationic Polystyrene Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernawati Lusi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A modified emulsion polymerisation synthesis route for preparing highly dispersed cationic polystyrene (PS nanoparticles is reported. The combined use of 2,2′-azobis[2-(2-imidazolin- 2-ylpropane] di-hydrochloride (VA-044 as the initiator and acetone/water as the solvent medium afforded successful synthesis of cationic PS particles as small as 31 nm in diameter. A formation mechanism for the preparation of PS nanoparticles was proposed, whereby the occurrence of rapid acetone diffusion caused spontaneous rupture of emulsion droplets into smaller droplets. Additionally, acetone helped to reduce the surface tension and increase the solubility of styrene, thus inhibiting aggregation and coagulation among the particles. In contrast, VA-044 initiator could effectively regulate the stability of the PS nanoparticles including both the surface charge and size. Other reaction parameters i.e. VA-044 concentration and reaction time were examined to establish the optimum polymerisation conditions.

  8. A compact spectrum splitting concentrator for high concentration photovoltaics based on the dispersion of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J.; Flowers, C. A.; Yao, Y.; Atwater, H. A.; Rockett, A. A.; Nuzzo, R. G.

    2018-06-01

    Photovoltaic devices used in conjunction with functional optical elements for light concentration and spectrum splitting are known to be a viable approach for highly efficient photovoltaics. Conventional designs employ discrete optical elements, each with the task of either performing optical concentration or separating the solar spectrum. In the present work, we examine the performance of a compact photovoltaic architecture in which a single lens plays a dual role as both a concentrator and a spectrum splitter, the latter made possible by exploiting its intrinsic dispersion. A four-terminal two-junction InGaP/GaAs device is prepared to validate the concept and illustrates pathways for improvements. A spectral separation in the visible range is demonstrated at the focal point of a plano-convex lens with a geometric concentration ratio of 1104X with respect to the InGaP subcell.

  9. Improvement of the homogeneity of atomized particles dispersed in high uranium density research reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Jong-Man; Lee, Yoon-Sang; Lee, Don-Bae; Sohn, Woong-Hee; Hong, Soon-Hyung

    1998-01-01

    A study on improving the homogeneous dispersion of atomized spherical particles in fuel meats has been performed in connection with the development of high uranium density fuel. In comparing various mixing methods, the better homogeneity of the mixture could be obtained as in order of Spex mill, V-shape tumbler mixer, and off-axis rotating drum mixer. The Spex mill mixer required some laborious work because of its small capacity per batch. Trough optimizing the rotating speed parameter for the V-shape tumbler mixer, almost the same homogeneity as with the Spex mill could be obtained. The homogeneity of the extruded fuel meats appeared to improve through extrusion. All extruded fuel meats with U 3 Si powder of 50-volume % had fairly smooth surfaces. The homogeneity of fuel meats by V-shaped tumbler mixer revealed to be fairly good on micrographs. (author)

  10. Dispersion-optimized optical fiber for high-speed long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jindong; Chen, Liuhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Wenwen; Sun, Keyuan; Wu, Xingkun

    2011-07-01

    Four non-zero-dispersion-shifted fibers with almost the same large effective area (Aeff) and optimized dispersion properties are realized by novel index profile designing and modified vapor axial deposition and modified chemical vapor deposition processes. An Aeff of greater than 71 μm2 is obtained for the designed fibers. Three of the developed fibers with positive dispersion are improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.072ps/nm2/km to 0.063ps/nm2/km or 0.05ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from 4.972ps/nm/km to 5.679ps/nm/km or 7.776ps/nm/km, and shifting the zero-dispersion wavelength from 1500nm to 1450nm. One of these fibers is in good agreement with G655D and G.656 fibers simultaneously, and another one with G655E and G.656 fibers; both fibers are beneficial to high-bit long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing systems over S-, C-, and L-bands. The fourth developed fiber with negative dispersion is also improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.12ps/nm2/km to 0.085ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from -4ps/nm/km to -6.016ps/nm/km, providing facilities for a submarine transmission system. Experimental measurements indicate that the developed fibers all have excellent optical transmission and good macrobending and splice performances.

  11. Influence of dispersing additives and blend composition on stability of marine high-viscosity fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. Н. Митусова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article offers a definition of the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel from the point of view of the colloid-chemical concept of oil dispersed systems. The necessity and importance of the inclusion in the current regulatory requirements of this quality parameter of high-viscosity marine fuel is indicated. The objects of the research are high-viscosity marine fuels, the basic components of which are heavy oil residues: fuel oil that is the atmospheric residue of oil refining and viscosity breaking residue that is the product of light thermal cracking of fuel oil. As a thinning agent or distillate component, a light gas oil was taken from the catalytic cracking unit. The stability of the obtained samples was determined through the xylene equivalent index, which characterizes the stability of marine high-viscosity fuel to lamination during storage, transportation and operation processes. To improve performance, the resulting base compositions of high-viscosity marine fuels were modified by introducing small concentrations (0.05 % by weight of stabilizing additives based on oxyethylated amines of domestic origin and alkyl naphthalenes of foreign origin.

  12. Modeling of high-density U-MO dispersion fuel plate performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, S.L.; Meyer, M.K.; Hofman, G.L.; Rest, J.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Results from postirradiation examinations (PIE) of highly loaded U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates over the past several years have shown that the interaction between the metallic fuel particles and the matrix aluminum can be extensive, reducing the volume of the high-conductivity matrix phase and producing a significant volume of low-conductivity reaction-product phase. This phenomenon results in a significant decrease in fuel meat thermal conductivity during irradiation. PIE has further shown that the fuel-matrix interaction rate is a sensitive function of irradiation temperature. The interplay between fuel temperature and fuel-matrix interaction makes the development of a simple empirical correlation between the two difficult. For this reason a comprehensive thermal model has been developed to calculate temperatures throughout the fuel plate over its lifetime, taking into account the changing volume fractions of fuel, matrix and reaction-product phases within the fuel meat owing to fuel-matrix interaction; this thermal model has been incorporated into the dispersion fuel performance code designated PLATE. Other phenomena important to fuel thermal performance that are also treated in PLATE include: gas generation and swelling in the fuel and reaction-product phases, incorporation of matrix aluminum into solid solution with the unreacted metallic fuel particles, matrix extrusion resulting from fuel swelling, and cladding corrosion. The phenomena modeled also make possible a prediction of fuel plate swelling. This paper presents a description of the models and empirical correlations employed within PLATE as well as validation of code predictions against fuel performance data for U-Mo experimental fuel plates from the RERTR-3 irradiation test. (author)

  13. High resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of a milled oxide dispersion strengthened steel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyer-Prost, M., E-mail: marie.loyer-prost@cea.fr [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Physique, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Merot, J.-S. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Ribis, J. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Le Bouar, Y. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures – UMR 104, CNRS/ONERA, BP72-29, Avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92 322, Châtillon (France); Chaffron, L. [DEN-Service de Recherches de Métallurgie Appliquée, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Legendre, F. [DEN-Service de la Corrosion et du Comportement des Matériaux dans leur Environnement, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels are promising materials for generation IV fuel claddings as their dense nano-oxide dispersion provides good creep and irradiation resistance. Even if they have been studied for years, the formation mechanism of these nano-oxides is still unclear. Here we report for the first time a High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Filtered Transmission Electron Microscopy characterization of an ODS milled powder. It provides clear evidence of the presence of small crystalline nanoclusters (NCs) enriched in titanium directly after milling. Small NCs (<5 nm) have a crystalline structure and seem partly coherent with the matrix. They have an interplanar spacing close to the (011) {sub bcc} iron structure. They coexist with larger crystalline spherical precipitates of 15–20 nm in size. Their crystalline structure may be metastable as they are not consistent with any Y-Ti-O or Ti-O structure. Such detailed observations in the as-milled grain powder confirm a mechanism of Y, Ti, O dissolution in the ferritic matrix followed by a NC precipitation during the mechanical alloying process of ODS materials. - Highlights: • We observed an ODS ball-milled powder by high resolution transmission microscopy. • The ODS ball-milled powder exhibits a lamellar microstructure. • Small crystalline nanoclusters were detected in the milled ODS powder. • The nanoclusters in the ODS milled powder are enriched in titanium. • Larger NCs of 15–20 nm in size are, at least, partly coherent with the matrix.

  14. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Highly Water-dispersible Anatase Nanoparticles with Large Specific Surface Area and Their Adsorptive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xueting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly water-dispersible and very small TiO2 nanoparticles (~3 nm anatase with large specific surface area have been synthesized by hydrolysis and hydrothermal reactions of titanium butoxide and used for the removal of three azo dyes (Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange with different molecular structure from simulated wastewaters. The synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles are well dispersed in water with large specific surface area up to 417 m2 g−1. Adsorption experiments demonstrated that the water-dispersible TiO2 nanoparticles possess excellent adsorption capacities for Congo red, orange II, and methyl orange, which could be attributed to their good water-dispersibility and large specific surface area.

  15. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of (239)Pu due to non-nuclear detonation of high explosive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L. L.; Harvey, T. F.; Freis, R. P.; Pitovranov, S. E.; Chernokozhin, E. V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of (239)Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal 'coupling coefficient' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of (239)Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported.

  16. Integration of measurements with atmospheric dispersion models: Source term estimation for dispersal of 239Pu due to non- nuclear detonation of high explosive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Freis, R.P.; Pitovranov, S.E.; Chernokozhin, E.V.

    1992-10-01

    The accuracy associated with assessing the environmental consequences of an accidental release of radioactivity is highly dependent on our knowledge of the source term characteristics and, in the case when the radioactivity is condensed on particles, the particle size distribution, all of which are generally poorly known. This paper reports on the development of a numerical technique that integrates the radiological measurements with atmospheric dispersion modeling. This results in a more accurate particle-size distribution and particle injection height estimation when compared with measurements of high explosive dispersal of 239 Pu. The estimation model is based on a non-linear least squares regression scheme coupled with the ARAC three-dimensional atmospheric dispersion models. The viability of the approach is evaluated by estimation of ADPIC model input parameters such as the ADPIC particle size mean aerodynamic diameter, the geometric standard deviation, and largest size. Additionally we estimate an optimal ''coupling coefficient'' between the particles and an explosive cloud rise model. The experimental data are taken from the Clean Slate 1 field experiment conducted during 1963 at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada. The regression technique optimizes the agreement between the measured and model predicted concentrations of 239 Pu by varying the model input parameters within their respective ranges of uncertainties. The technique generally estimated the measured concentrations within a factor of 1.5, with the worst estimate being within a factor of 5, very good in view of the complexity of the concentration measurements, the uncertainties associated with the meteorological data, and the limitations of the models. The best fit also suggest a smaller mean diameter and a smaller geometric standard deviation on the particle size as well as a slightly weaker particle to cloud coupling than previously reported

  17. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Draheim, Hope M; Etter, Dwayne; Winterstein, Scott; Scribner, Kim T

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540) from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus) harvested in a large (47,739 km2), geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337). We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed) but a small proportion (21%) of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km) were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km). Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1) intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2) high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  18. Application of large-scale parentage analysis for investigating natal dispersal in highly vagile vertebrates: a case study of American black bears (Ursus americanus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Moore

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that affect dispersal is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology, particularly as populations are faced with increasing anthropogenic impacts. Here we collected georeferenced genetic samples (n = 2,540 from three generations of black bears (Ursus americanus harvested in a large (47,739 km2, geographically isolated population and used parentage analysis to identify mother-offspring dyads (n = 337. We quantified the effects of sex, age, habitat type and suitability, and local harvest density at the natal and settlement sites on the probability of natal dispersal, and on dispersal distances. Dispersal was male-biased (76% of males dispersed but a small proportion (21% of females also dispersed, and female dispersal distances (mean ± SE  =  48.9±7.7 km were comparable to male dispersal distances (59.0±3.2 km. Dispersal probabilities and dispersal distances were greatest for bears in areas with high habitat suitability and low harvest density. The inverse relationship between dispersal and harvest density in black bears suggests that 1 intensive harvest promotes restricted dispersal, or 2 high black bear population density decreases the propensity to disperse. Multigenerational genetic data collected over large landscape scales can be a powerful means of characterizing dispersal patterns and causal associations with demographic and landscape features in wild populations of elusive and wide-ranging species.

  19. Carbon encapsulated ultrasmall SnO2 nanoparticles anchoring on graphene/TiO2 nanoscrolls for lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinlu; Zhang, Yonglai; Li, Tongtao; Zhong, Qineng; Li, Hongyi; Huang, Jiamu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly-dispersive ultrasmall SnO 2 nanoparticles (4∼8 nm) are anchored on the substrate of graphene/TiO 2 nanoscrolls. • The encapsulated glucose-derived carbon layer effectively immobilizes SnO 2 nanoparticles. • The enhanced cycling performance is owing to the synergetic effects between the multicomposites. - Abstract: Amorphous carbon is coated on the surface of ultrasmall SnO 2 nanoparticles which are anchored on graphene/TiO 2 nanoscrolls via hydrothermal treatment, followed by annealing process. Transmission electron microscope images show that ultrasmall SnO 2 nanoparticles are anchored on graphene/TiO 2 nanoscrolls and further immobilized by the outermost amorphous carbon layer. The carbon encapsulated SnO 2 @graphene/TiO 2 nanocomposites deliver high reversible capacities around 1131, 793, 621 and 476 mAh g −1 at the current densities of 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mA g −1 , respectively. It is found that SnO 2 nanoparticles play a dominant role in the contributions of reversible capacity according to the cyclic voltammetry curves, voltage-capacity curves and dQ/dV vs. potential curves. The substrate of graphene/TiO 2 nanoscrolls provides sufficient transport channels for lithium ions and high electron conductivity. While the outermost amorphous carbon layer prevents the peeling of SnO 2 nanoparticles from the substrate, therefore making them desirable alternative anode materials for lithium ion batteries

  20. High temperature oxidation test of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steel claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Takeshi; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kaito, Takeji; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Matsuda, Yasushi

    2006-07-01

    In a feasibility study of ODS steel cladding, its high temperature oxidation resistance was evaluated. Although addition of Cr is effective for preventing high temperature oxidation, excessively higher amount of Cr leads to embrittlement due to the Cr-rich α' precipitate formation. In the ODS steel developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the Cr content is controlled in 9Cr-ODS martensite and 12Cr-ODS ferrite. In this study, high temperature oxidation test was conducted for ODS steels, and their results were compared with that of conventional austenitic stainless steel and ferritic-martensitic stainless steel. Following results were obtained in this study. (1) 9Cr-ODS martensitic and 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel have superior high temperature oxidation resistance compared to 11mass%Cr PNC-FMS and even 17mass% SUS430 and equivalent to austenitic PNC316. (2) The superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel was attributed to earlier formation of the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer at the matrix and inner oxide scale interface. The grain size of ODS steel is finer than that of PNC-FMS, so the superior oxidation resistance of ODS steel can be attributed to the enhanced Cr-supplying rate throughout the accelerated grain boundary diffusion. Finely dispersed Y 2 O 3 oxide particles in the ODS steel matrix may also stabilized the adherence between the protective alpha-Cr 2 O 3 layer and the matrix. (author)

  1. Dispersion of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) at high and low densities and consequences of mismatching dispersions of wild and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meats, A.

    2007-01-01

    Both wild and released (sterile) Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and wild Bactrocera papayae (Drew and Hancock) in Australia had patchy distributions and comparisons with predictions of the negative binomial model indicated that the degree of clumping was sometimes very high, particularly at low densities during eradication. An increase of mean recapture rate of sterile B. tryoni on either of 2 trap arrays was not accompanied by a reduction in its coefficient of variation and when recapture rates were high, the percentage of traps catching zero decreased only slightly with increase in recapture rate, indicating that it is not practicable to decrease the heterogeneity of dispersion of sterile flies by increasing the number released. There was often a mismatch between the dispersion patterns of the wild and sterile flies, and the implications of this for the efficiency of the sterile insect technique (SIT) were investigated with a simulation study with the observed degrees of mismatch obtained from the monitoring data and assuming the overall ratio of sterile to wild flies to be 100:1. The simulation indicated that mismatches could result in the imposed rate of increase of wild flies being up to 3.5 times higher than that intended (i.e., 0.35 instead of 0.1). The effect of a mismatch always reduces the efficiency of SIT. The reason for this asymmetry is discussed and a comparison made with host-parasitoid and other systems. A release strategy to counter this effect is suggested. (author) [es

  2. The origin of high eccentricity planets: The dispersed planet formation regime for weakly magnetized disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Imaeda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the tandem planet formation regime, planets form at two distinct sites where solid particles are densely accumulated due to the on/off state of the magnetorotational instability (MRI. We found that tandem planet formation can reproduce the solid component distribution of the Solar System and tends to produce a smaller number of large planets through continuous pebble flow into the planet formation sites. In the present paper, we investigate the dependence of tandem planet formation on the vertical magnetic field of the protoplanetary disk. We calculated two cases of Bz=3.4×10−3 G and Bz=3.4×10−5 G at 100 AU as well as the canonical case of Bz=3.4×10−4 G. We found that tandem planet formation holds up well in the case of the strong magnetic field (Bz=3.4×10−3 G. On the other hand, in the case of a weak magnetic field (Bz=3.4×10−5 G at 100 AU, a new regime of planetary growth is realized: the planets grow independently at different places in the dispersed area of the MRI-suppressed region of r=8−30 AU at a lower accretion rate of M˙<10−7.4 M⊙yr−1. We call this the “dispersed planet formation” regime. This may lead to a system with a larger number of smaller planets that gain high eccentricity through mutual collisions.

  3. Fabrication of conductive and high-dispersed Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts for removing various pollutants in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhi; Tang, Xu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Ma, Changchang [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Song, Minshan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology (China); Gao, Nailing; Wang, Youshan; Huo, Pengwei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Lu, Ziyang, E-mail: mrzhuzhi007@163.com [School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University (China); Yan, Yongsheng, E-mail: gchxz206@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The high-dispersed Ag modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}) was successfully synthesized in situ deposited on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} during calcined melamine. • The as-prepared Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} could remove of various organic pollutants in water. • The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} comes from π conjugated electronic structures of Ppy and Ag species as the electron transfer mediator between Ppy and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • The Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample also showed a relatively good recycling stability. - Abstract: The ternary conductive Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} composite photocatalysts was successfully synthesized by polymerization process and surface polymerization technique. And the as-prepared Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample exhibited the higher photocatalytic activity for various pollutant (MO, DM, TC, CIP, GFLX and EH) remove than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under visible light irradiation. It mainly originated from the Ag nanoparticles anchored between g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and Ppy acted as electron transfer mediator that facilitated the charge carrier separation and then expending the lifetime of the carriers. Meanwhile, the obtained Ppy@Ag/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} sample also showed a relatively good recycling stability which was the crucial factor for photocatalyst practical application. This work provided a new facile strategy for improving photo-degradation activity of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst.

  4. The Holding Power of Anchors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as the chain begins to drag along the ground; and it also serves, by lying flat on the ground, to keep the palm set at the correct angle as it buries itself. In stockless anchors there are two digging blades set on opposite sides of the shank, and hinged to it by a horizontal hinge which allows them to set themselves at the correct.

  5. Combustion of Shock-Dispersed Flake Aluminum - High-Speed Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H; Kuhl, A

    2006-06-19

    Charges of 0.5 g PETN were used to disperse 1 g of flake aluminum in a rectangular test chamber of 4 liter inner volume and inner dimensions of approximately 10 cm x 10 cm x 40 cm. The subsequent combustion of the flake aluminum with the ambient air in the chamber gave rise to a highly luminous flame. The evolution of the luminous region was studied by means of high-speed cinematography. The high-speed camera is responsive to a broad spectral range in the visible and near infra-red. For a number of tests this response range was narrowed down by means of a band-pass filter with a center wavelength of 488 nm and a half-width of 23 nm. The corresponding images were expected to have a stronger temperature dependence than images obtained without the filter, thus providing better capability to highlight hot-spots. Emission in the range of the pass-band of the filter can be due to continuous thermal radiation from hot Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles or to molecular band emission from gaseous AlO. A time-resolving spectrometer was improvised to inspect this topic. The results suggest that AlO emission occurs, but that the continuous spectrum is the dominating effect in our experiments.

  6. Hyperbolic Method for Dispersive PDEs: Same High-Order of Accuracy for Solution, Gradient, and Hessian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Alireza; Ricchiuto, Mario; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new hyperbolic first-order system for general dispersive partial differential equations (PDEs). We then extend the proposed system to general advection-diffusion-dispersion PDEs. We apply the fourth-order RD scheme of Ref. 1 to the proposed hyperbolic system, and solve time-dependent dispersive equations, including the classical two-soliton KdV and a dispersive shock case. We demonstrate that the predicted results, including the gradient and Hessian (second derivative), are in a very good agreement with the exact solutions. We then show that the RD scheme applied to the proposed system accurately captures dispersive shocks without numerical oscillations. We also verify that the solution, gradient and Hessian are predicted with equal order of accuracy.

  7. Characterisation of high-temperature damage mechanisms of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon-Legagneur, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The development of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants relies on the improvement of cladding materials, in order to achieve resistance to high temperature, stress and irradiation dose levels. Strengthening of ferritic steels through nano-oxide dispersion allows obtaining good mechanical strength at high temperature and good resistance to irradiation induced swelling. Nonetheless, studies available from open literature evidenced an unusual creep behavior of these materials: high anisotropy in time to rupture and flow behavior, low ductility and quasi-inexistent tertiary creep stage. These phenomena, and their still unclear origin are addressed in this study. Three 14Cr ODS steels rods have been studied. Their mechanical behavior is similar to those of other ODS steels from open literature. During creep tests, the specimens fractured by through crack nucleation and propagation from the lateral surfaces, followed by ductile tearing once the critical stress intensity factor was reached at the crack tip. Tensile and creep properties did not depend on the chemical environment of specimens. Crack propagation tests performed at 650 C showed a low value of the stress intensity factor necessary to start crack propagation. The cracks followed an intergranular path through the smaller-grained regions, which partly explains the anisotropy of high temperature strength. Notched specimens have been used to study the impact of the main loading parameters (deformation rate, temperature, stress triaxiality) on macroscopic crack initiation and stable propagation, from the central part of the specimens. These tests allowed revealing cavities created during high temperature loading, but unexposed to the external environment. These cavities showed a high chemical reactivity of the free surfaces in this material. The performed tests also evidenced different types of grain boundaries, which presented different damage development behaviors, probably due to differences in local

  8. Three-Dimensional Graphene/Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Aerogel Anchored with SnO2 Nanoparticles for High Performance Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Fang, Fang; Yuan, Tao; Yang, Junhe; Chen, Liang; Yao, Chi; Zheng, Shiyou; Sun, Dalin

    2017-02-01

    A unique 3D graphene-single walled carbon nanotube (G-SWNT) aerogel anchored with SnO 2 nanoparticles (SnO 2 @G-SWCNT) is fabricated by the hydrothermal self-assembly process. The influences of mass ratio of SWCNT to graphene on structure and electrochemical properties of SnO 2 @G-SWCNT are investigated systematically. The SnO 2 @G-SWCNT composites show excellent electrochemical performance in Li-ion batteries; for instance, at a current density of 100 mA g -1 , a specific capacity of 758 mAh g -1 was obtained for the SnO 2 @G-SWCNT with 50% SWCNT in G-SWCNT and the Coulombic efficiency is close to 100% after 200 cycles; even at current density of 1 A g -1 , it can still maintain a stable specific capacity of 537 mAh g -1 after 300 cycles. It is believed that the 3D G-SWNT architecture provides a flexible conductive matrix for loading the SnO 2 , facilitating the electronic and ionic transportation and mitigating the volume variation of the SnO 2 during lithiation/delithiation. This work also provides a facile and reasonable strategy to solve the pulverization and agglomeration problem of other transition metal oxides as electrode materials.

  9. Fuel dispersal in high-speed aircraft/soil impact scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieszen, S.R.; Attaway, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine how the jet fuel contained in aircraft wing tanks disperses on impact with a soft terrain, i.e., soils, at high impact velocities. The approach used in this study is to combine experimental and numerical methods. Tests were conducted with an approximately 1/42 linear-scale mass-model of a 1/4 span section of a C-141 wing impacting a sand/clay mixture. The test results showed that within the uncertainty of the data, the percentage of incident liquid mass remaining in the crater is the same as that qualitatively described in earlier napalm bomb development studies. Namely, the percentage of fuel in the crater ranges from near zero for grazing impacts to 25%--50% for high angles of impact. To support a weapons system safety assessment (WSSA), the data from the current study have been reduced to correlations. The numerical model used in the current study is a unique coupling of a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO. Qualitatively, the splash, erosion, and soil compression phenomena are all numerically predicted. Quantitatively, the numerical method predicted a smaller crater cross section than was observed in the tests

  10. Design of high density gamma-phase uranium alloys for LEU dispersion fuel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Gerard L.; Meyer, Mitchell K.; Ray, Allison E.

    1998-01-01

    Uranium alloys are candidates for the fuel phase in aluminium matrix dispersion fuels requiring high uranium loading. Certain uranium alloys have been shown to have good irradiation performance at intermediate burnup. previous studies have shown that acceptable fission gas swelling behavior and fuel-aluminium interaction is possible only if the fuel alloy can be maintained in the high temperature body-centered-cubic γ-phase during fabrication and irradiation, at temperatures at which αU is the equilibrium phase. transition metals in Groups V through VIII are known to allow metastable retention of the gamma phase below the equilibrium isotherm. These metals have varying degrees of effectiveness in stabilizing the gamma phase. Certain alloys are metastable for very long times at the relatively low fuel temperatures seen in research operation. In this paper, the existing data on the gamma stability of binary and ternary uranium alloys is analysed. The mechanism and kinetics of decomposition of the gamma phase are assessed with the help of metal alloy theory. Alloys with the highest possible uranium content, good gamma-phase stability, and good neutronic performance are identified for further metallurgical studies and irradiation tests. Results from theory will be compared with experimentally generated data. (author)

  11. Novel highly dispersible, thermally stable core/shell proppants for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childers, Ian M.; Endres, Mackenzie; Burns, Carolyne; Garcia, Benjamin J.; Liu, Jian; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Bonneville, Alain; Moore, Joseph; Leavy, Ian I.; Zhong, Lirong; Schaef, Herbert T.; Fu, Li; Wang, Hong-Fei; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2017-11-01

    The use of proppants during reservoir stimulation in tight oil and gas plays requires the introduction of highly viscous fluids to transport the proppants (µm–mm) with the fracturing fluid. The highly viscous fluids required result in increased pump loads and energy costs. Furthermore, although proppant deployment with fracturing fluids is a standard practice for unconventional oil and gas stimulation operations, there are only a few examples in the US of the applying proppant technology to geothermal energy production. This is due to proppant dissolution, proppant flowback and loss of permeability associated with the extreme temperatures found in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). This work demonstrates proof-of-concept of a novel, CO2-responsive, lightweight sintered-bauxite/polymer core/shell proppant. The polymer shell has two main roles; 1) increase the stability of the proppant dispersion in water without the addition of rheology modifiers, and 2) once at the fracture network react with CO2 to promote particle aggregation and prop fractures open. In this work, both of these roles are demonstrated together with the thermal and chemical stability of the materials showing the potential of these CO2-responsive proppants as an alternative proppant technology for geothermal and unconventional oil/gas applications.

  12. Accurate, high-throughput typing of copy number variation using paralogue ratios from dispersed repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, John A L; Palla, Raquel; Zeeuwen, Patrick L J M; den Heijer, Martin; Schalkwijk, Joost; Hollox, Edward J

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated an unexpected prevalence of copy number variation in the human genome, and has highlighted the part this variation may play in predisposition to common phenotypes. Some important genes vary in number over a high range (e.g. DEFB4, which commonly varies between two and seven copies), and have posed formidable technical challenges for accurate copy number typing, so that there are no simple, cheap, high-throughput approaches suitable for large-scale screening. We have developed a simple comparative PCR method based on dispersed repeat sequences, using a single pair of precisely designed primers to amplify products simultaneously from both test and reference loci, which are subsequently distinguished and quantified via internal sequence differences. We have validated the method for the measurement of copy number at DEFB4 by comparison of results from >800 DNA samples with copy number measurements by MAPH/REDVR, MLPA and array-CGH. The new Paralogue Ratio Test (PRT) method can require as little as 10 ng genomic DNA, appears to be comparable in accuracy to the other methods, and for the first time provides a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for copy number analysis, suitable for application to typing thousands of samples in large case-control association studies.

  13. Local-scale high-resolution atmospheric dispersion model using large-eddy simulation. LOHDIM-LES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Hiromasa; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2016-03-01

    We developed LOcal-scale High-resolution atmospheric DIspersion Model using Large-Eddy Simulation (LOHDIM-LES). This dispersion model is designed based on LES which is effective to reproduce unsteady behaviors of turbulent flows and plume dispersion. The basic equations are the continuity equation, the Navier-Stokes equation, and the scalar conservation equation. Buildings and local terrain variability are resolved by high-resolution grids with a few meters and these turbulent effects are represented by immersed boundary method. In simulating atmospheric turbulence, boundary layer flows are generated by a recycling turbulent inflow technique in a driver region set up at the upstream of the main analysis region. This turbulent inflow data are imposed at the inlet of the main analysis region. By this approach, the LOHDIM-LES can provide detailed information on wind velocities and plume concentration in the investigated area. (author)

  14. High temperature monitoring of silicon carbide ceramics by confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • X-ray scattering was used for monitoring oxidation situation of SiC ceramics. • A calibration curve was obtained. • The confocal X-ray scattering technology was based on polycapillary X-ray optics. • The variations of contents of components of SiC ceramics were obtained. - Abstract: In the present work, we presented an alternative method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics at various high temperatures in air by measuring the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratios (I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra}) and effective atomic numbers (Z{sub eff}) of SiC ceramics with the confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer. A calibration curve of the relationship between I{sub Co}/I{sub Ra} and Z{sub eff} was established by using a set of 8 SiC calibration samples. The sensitivity of this approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished samples of Z{sub eff} differing from each other by only 0.01. The linear relationship between the variation of Z{sub eff} and the variations of contents of C, Si and O of SiC ceramics were found, and the corresponding calculation model of the relationship between the ΔZ and the ΔC{sub C}, ΔC{sub Si}, and ΔC{sub O} were established. The variation of contents of components of the tested SiC ceramics after oxidation at high temperature was quantitatively calculated based on the model. It was shown that the results of contents of carbon, silicon and oxygen obtained by this method were in good agreement with the results obtained by XPS, giving values of relative deviation less than 1%. It was concluded that the practicality of this proposed method for monitoring of the oxidation situation of SiC ceramics at high temperatures was acceptable.

  15. The bone-anchored hearing aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) was introduced in 1977 by Tjellström and colleagues and has now been used clinically for over 30 years. Generally, the outcomes are good, and several studies have shown improved audiological- and quality of life outcomes. The principle of the Baha is, that sou...... vibrations are led directly to the inner ear via the mastoid bone, bypassing the middle ear. This is achieved via an osseointegrated implant and a skin-penetrating abutment. Studies report high success rates and a majority of complications as typically minor in nature....

  16. Unusually high dispersion of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes in DNA solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kataoka, Masakazu; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Tojo, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Vega-Díaz, Sofía M; Tristán-López, F; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2011-12-08

    The dispersibility in a DNA solution of bundled multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), having different chemical functional groups on the CNT sidewall, was investigated by optical spectroscopy. We observed that the dispersibility of nitrogen (N)-doped MWCNTs was significantly higher than that of pure MWCNTs and MWCNTs synthesized in the presence of ethanol. This result is supported by the larger amount of adsorbed DNA on N-doped MWCNTs, as well as by the higher binding energy established between nucleobases and the N-doped CNTs. Pure MWCNTs are dispersed in DNA solution via van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions; in contrast, the nitrogenated sites within N-doped MWCNTs provided additional sites for interactions that are important to disperse nanotubes in DNA solutions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. High-temperature deformation of dispersion-strengthened Cu-Zr-Ti-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palma, Rodrigo H.; Sepulveda, Aquiles; Espinoza, Rodrigo; Dianez, M. Jesus; Criado, Jose M.; Sayagues, M. Jesus

    2005-01-01

    The hot mechanical behaviour and microstructure of Cu-5 vol.% TiC, Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 and Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys prepared by reaction milling were studied. After a test of 1 h annealing at 1173 K, the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloy presented the lower softening resistance to annealing, while the other two ones kept their initial room-temperature hardness (about 2 GPa). Hot-compression tests at 773 and 1123 K, at initial true strain rates of 0.85 x 10 -3 and 0.85 x 10 -4 s -1 were performed. The Cu-2.5 vol.% TiC-2.5 vol.% ZrO 2 and the Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys were the strongest and softest materials, respectively. Moreover, by electron microscopy, nanometric TiC and micrometric particles were detected in the Cu-5 vol.% TiC and Cu-5 vol.% ZrO 2 alloys, respectively. A possible explanation for the observed behaviour of these materials is proposed. In the compression tests, it was also found that strain rate has a low effect on flow stress, as it has been previously observed by various authors in dispersion-strengthened alloys deformed at high temperatures

  18. Lanthanide-containing polymer microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization for highly multiplexed bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed I; Dai, Sheng; Thickett, Stuart C; Ornatsky, Olga; Bandura, Dmitry; Baranov, Vladimir; Winnik, Mitchell A

    2009-10-28

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of metal-encoded polystyrene microspheres by multiple-stage dispersion polymerization with diameters on the order of 2 mum and a very narrow size distribution. Different lanthanides were loaded into these microspheres through the addition of a mixture of lanthanide salts (LnCl(3)) and excess acrylic acid (AA) or acetoacetylethyl methacrylate (AAEM) dissolved in ethanol to the reaction after about 10% conversion of styrene, that is, well after the particle nucleation stage was complete. Individual microspheres contain ca. 10(6)-10(8) chelated lanthanide ions, of either a single element or a mixture of elements. These microspheres were characterized one-by-one utilizing a novel mass cytometer with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) ionization source and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry detection. Microspheres containing a range of different metals at different levels of concentration were synthesized to meet the requirements of binary encoding and enumeration encoding protocols. With four different metals at five levels of concentration, we could achieve a variability of 624, and the strategy we report should allow one to obtain much larger variability. To demonstrate the usefulness of element-encoded beads for highly multiplexed immunoassays, we carried out a proof-of-principle model bioassay involving conjugation of mouse IgG to the surface of La and Tm containing particles and its detection by an antimouse IgG bearing a metal-chelating polymer with Pr.

  19. Artificial dispersion via high-order homogenization: magnetoelectric coupling and magnetism from dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guenneau, Sébastien; Gralak, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a high-order homogenization (HOH) algorithm for periodic multi-layered stacks. The mathematical tool of choice is a transfer matrix method. Expressions for effective permeability, permittivity and magnetoelectric coupling are explored by frequency power expansions. On the physical side, this HOH uncovers a magnetoelectric coupling effect (odd-order approximation) and artificial magnetism (even-order approximation) in moderate contrast photonic crystals. Comparing the effective parameters' expressions of a stack with three layers against that of a stack with two layers, we note that the magnetoelectric coupling effect vanishes while the artificial magnetism can still be achieved in a centre-symmetric periodic structure. Furthermore, we numerically check the effective parameters through the dispersion law and transmission property of a stack with two dielectric layers against that of an effective bianisotropic medium: they are in good agreement throughout the low-frequency (acoustic) band until the first stop band, where the analyticity of the logarithm function of the transfer matrix () breaks down. PMID:24101891

  20. High-temperature behavior of oxide dispersion strengthening CoNiCrAlY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unocic, Kinga A. [ORNL; Bergholz, Jan [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH; Huang, T [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, IEK-2, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH; Naumenko, Dymtro [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH (Julich Research Centre), Germany; Pint, Bruce A. [ORNL; Vaßen, Robert [Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany; Quadakkers, Willem Joseph [Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany

    2017-11-01

    To fabricate oxide dispersion strengthened bond coatings, commercial Co–30wt-%Ni–20Cr–8Al–0•4Y powder was milled with 2% additions of Al2O3, Y2O3 or Y2O3 + HfO2. Low-pressure plasma sprayed, free-standing specimens were oxidised in air + 10%H2O at 1100 °C both isothermally (100 h) and in 500, 1-h cycles. Dry air cyclic testing conducted at both ORNL and FZJ showed remarkably similar results. In general, the water vapour addition caused more scale spallation. Two LPPS specimens without oxide additions were tested for comparison. The specimens with 2%Al2O3 addition exhibited the best behaviour as the powder already contained 0•4%Y. Additions of 2%Y2O3 and especially 1%Y2O3 + 1%HfO2 resulted in over-doping as evidenced by high mass gains and the formation of Y- and Hf-rich pegs. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of the isothermal specimens showed no Hf and/or Y segregation to the alumina scale grain boundaries in the over-doped specimens.

  1. High resolution electromagnetic methods and low frequency dispersion of rock conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Svetov, B. S.; Ageev, V. V.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of frequency dispersion of conductivity (induced polarization) of rocks on the results of electromagnetic (EM) sounding was studied on the basis of calculation of electric field of vertical magnetic dipole above horizontally layered polarizable sections. Frequency dispersion was approximated by the Debye formula. Polarizable homogeneous halfspace, two, three and multilayered sections were analyzed in frequency and time domains. The calculations for different values of chargeabil...

  2. High dispersal in a frog species suggests that it is vulnerable to habitat fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Funk, W. Chris; Greene, Allison E; Corn, Paul Stephen; Allendorf, Fred W

    2005-01-01

    Global losses of amphibian populations are a major conservation concern and their causes have generated substantial debate. Habitat fragmentation is considered one important cause of amphibian decline. However, if fragmentation is to be invoked as a mechanism of amphibian decline, it must first be established that dispersal is prevalent among contiguous amphibian populations using formal movement estimators. In contrast, if dispersal is naturally low in amphibians, fragmentation can be disreg...

  3. Synthesis of highly dispersed platinum particles on carbon nanotubes by an in situ vapor-phase method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Zúñiga, C. [Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Vargas-García, J.R., E-mail: rvargasga@ipn.mx [Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Hernández-Pérez, M.A. [Depto. Ing. Metalurgia y Materiales, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico 07300 D.F. (Mexico); Figueroa-Torres, M.Z. [Depto. Eco-Materiales y Energia, Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Cervantes-Sodi, F. [Depto. Fisica y Matematicas, Univ. Iberoamericana, Mexico 01209 D.F. (Mexico); Torres-Martínez, L.M. [Depto. Eco-Materiales y Energia, Univ. Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized carbon nanotubes. • A simple and competitive vapor-phase method was employed. • Carbonyl groups were assumed to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac. • Pt particles were highly dispersed because carbonyl groups served as reaction sites. • Particles of 2.3 nm in size were highly dispersed even the high loading (27 wt%Pt). - Abstract: Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) using a simple in situ vapor-phase method. The method consisted in two-step procedure in which an initial mixture of Pt precursor (Pt-acac) and f-MWCNTs was heated in a quartz tube reactor, first at 180 °C and then at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR–ATR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to follow the chemical and structural transformations of mixture components during heating steps. The functionalization of MWCNTs with HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution resulted in formation of surface carbonyl groups. The FTIR–ATR and XRD results indicated that individual Pt-acac withstood heating at 180 °C, whereas it was dissociated when heated in contact with f-MWCNTs at the same temperature. Thus, the functional carbonyl groups were found to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac at 180 °C. Since carbonyl groups served as reaction sites for decomposition of Pt-acac, the resulting particles were highly and homogeneously dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs even the relatively high metallic loading of 27 wt%. TEM observations revealed that crystalline Pt particles exhibit narrow size distribution with a mean size of 2.3 nm.

  4. Synthesis of highly dispersed platinum particles on carbon nanotubes by an in situ vapor-phase method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Zúñiga, C.; Vargas-García, J.R.; Hernández-Pérez, M.A.; Figueroa-Torres, M.Z.; Cervantes-Sodi, F.; Torres-Martínez, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized carbon nanotubes. • A simple and competitive vapor-phase method was employed. • Carbonyl groups were assumed to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac. • Pt particles were highly dispersed because carbonyl groups served as reaction sites. • Particles of 2.3 nm in size were highly dispersed even the high loading (27 wt%Pt). - Abstract: Highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles were prepared on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) using a simple in situ vapor-phase method. The method consisted in two-step procedure in which an initial mixture of Pt precursor (Pt-acac) and f-MWCNTs was heated in a quartz tube reactor, first at 180 °C and then at 400 °C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR–ATR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to follow the chemical and structural transformations of mixture components during heating steps. The functionalization of MWCNTs with HNO 3 /H 2 SO 4 solution resulted in formation of surface carbonyl groups. The FTIR–ATR and XRD results indicated that individual Pt-acac withstood heating at 180 °C, whereas it was dissociated when heated in contact with f-MWCNTs at the same temperature. Thus, the functional carbonyl groups were found to be responsible for assisted decomposition of Pt-acac at 180 °C. Since carbonyl groups served as reaction sites for decomposition of Pt-acac, the resulting particles were highly and homogeneously dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs even the relatively high metallic loading of 27 wt%. TEM observations revealed that crystalline Pt particles exhibit narrow size distribution with a mean size of 2.3 nm

  5. High-concentration graphene dispersion stabilized by block copolymers in ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Hyang Moo; Cheong, In Woo

    2017-07-01

    This article describes a comprehensive study for the preparation of graphene dispersions by liquid-phase exfoliation using amphiphilic diblock copolymers; poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(styrene) (PEO-b-PS), poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PEO-b-PVP), and poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(pyrenemethyl methacrylate) (PEO-b-PPy) with similar block lengths. Block copolymers were prepared from PEO using the Steglich coupling reaction followed by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Graphite platelets (G) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were used as graphene sources. The dispersion stability of graphene in ethanol was comparatively investigated by on-line turbidity, and the graphene concentration in the dispersions was determined gravimetrically. Our results revealed that the graphene dispersions with PEO-b-PVP were much more stable and included graphene with fewer defects than that with PEO-b-PS or PEO-b-PPy, as confirmed by turbidity and Raman analyses. Gravimetry confirmed that graphene concentrations up to 1.7 and 1.8mg/mL could be obtained from G and rGO dispersions, respectively, using PEO-b-PVP after one week. Distinctions in adhesion forces of PS, VP, PPy block units with graphene surface and the variation in solubility of the block copolymers in ethanol medium significantly affected the stability of the graphene dispersion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nacre-Templated Synthesis of Highly Dispersible Carbon Nanomeshes for Layered Membranes with High-Flux Filtration and Sensing Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Meng; Li, Mingjie; Shang, Ruoxu; Wu, Jingyu; Yan, Peisong; Xu, Dongmei; Li, Chaoxu

    2018-01-24

    Marine shells not only represent a rapidly accumulating type of fishery wastes but also offer a unique sort of hybrid nanomaterials produced greenly and massively in nature. The elaborate "brick and mortar" structures of nacre enabled the synthesis of carbon nanomeshes with <1 nm thickness, hierarchical porosity, and high specific surface area through pyrolysis, in which two-dimensional (2D) organic layers served as the carbonaceous precursor and aragonite platelets as the hard template. Mineral bridges within 2D organic layers templated the formation of mesh pores of 20-70 nm. In contrast to other hydrophobic carbon nanomaterials, these carbon nanomeshes showed super dispersibility in diverse solvents and thus processability for membranes through filtration, patterning, spray-coating, and ink-writing. The carbon membranes with layered structures were capable of serving not only for high-flux filtration and continuous flow absorption but also for electrochemical and strain sensing with high sensitivity. Thus, utilization of marine shells, on one hand, relieves the environmental concern of shellfish waste, on the other hand, offers a facile, green, low-cost, and massive approach to synthesize unique carbon nanomeshes alternative to graphene nanomeshes and applicable in environmental adsorption, filtration, wearable sensors, and flexible microelectronics.

  7. Nominal Anchors in the CIS

    OpenAIRE

    Peter M Keller; Thomas J Richardson

    2003-01-01

    Monetary policy has become increasingly important in the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as fiscal adjustment and structural reforms have taken root. Inflation has been brought down to relatively low levels in almost all of these countries, raising the question of what should be the appropriate nominal anchor at this stage. Formally, almost all CIS countries have floating exchange rate regimes, yet in practice they manage their exchange rates very heavily, perhaps be...

  8. Transparent 1T-MoS2 nanofilm robustly anchored on substrate by layer-by-layer self-assembly and its ultra-high cycling stability as supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danqin; Zhou, Weiqiang; Zhou, Qianjie; Ye, Guo; Wang, Tongzhou; Wu, Jing; Chang, Yanan; Xu, Jingkun

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional MoS2 materials have attracted more and more interest and been applied to the field of energy storage because of its unique physical, optical, electronic and electrochemical properties. However, there are no reports on high-stable transparent MoS2 nanofilms as supercapacitors electrode. Here, we describe a transparent 1T-MoS2 nanofilm electrode with super-long stability anchored on the indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by a simple alternate layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly of a highly charged cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negative single-/few-layer 1T MoS2 nanosheets. The ITO/(PDDA/MoS2)20 electrode shows a transmittance of 51.6% at 550 nm and obviously exhibits excellent transparency by naked eye observation. Ultrasonic damage test validates that the (PDDA/MoS2)20 film with the average thickness about 50 nm is robustly anchored on ITO substrate. Additionally, the electrochemical results indicate that the ITO/(PDDA/MoS2)20 film shows areal capacitance of 1.1 mF cm-2 and volumetric capacitance of 220 F cm-3 at 0.04 mA cm-2, 130.6% retention of the original capacitance value after 5000 cycles. Further experiments indicate that the formation of transparent (PDDA/MoS2) x nanofilm by LBL self-assembly can be extended to other substrates, e.g., slide glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Thus, the easily available (PDDA/MoS2) x nanofilm electrode has great potential for application in transparent and/or flexible optoelectronic and electronics devices.

  9. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides, mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi's Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi's Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation

  10. High-accuracy alignment based on atmospherical dispersion - technological approaches and solutions for the dual-wavelength transmitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, Boeckem

    1999-01-01

    In the course of the progressive developments of sophisticated geodetic systems utilizing electromagnetic waves in the visible or near IR-range a more detailed knowledge of the propagation medium and coevally solutions of atmospherically induced limitations will become important. An alignment system based on atmospherical dispersion, called a dispersometer, is a metrological solution to the atmospherically induced limitations, in optical alignment and direction observations of high accuracy. In the dispersometer we are using the dual-wavelength method for dispersive air to obtain refraction compensated angle measurements, the detrimental impact of atmospheric turbulence notwithstanding. The principle of the dual-wavelength method utilizes atmospherical dispersion, i.e. the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. The difference angle between two light beams of different wavelengths, which is called the dispersion angle Δβ, is to first approximation proportional to the refraction angle: β IR ν(β blue - β IR ) = ν Δβ, this equation implies that the dispersion angle has to be measured at least 42 times more accurate than the desired accuracy of the refraction angle for the wavelengths used in the present dispersometer. This required accuracy constitutes one major difficulty for the instrumental performance in applying the dispersion effect. However, the dual-wavelength method can only be successfully used in an optimized transmitter-receiver combination. Beyond the above mentioned resolution requirement for the detector, major difficulties in instrumental realization arise in the availability of a suitable dual-wavelength laser light source, laser light modulation with a very high extinction ratio and coaxial emittance of mono-mode radiation at both wavelengths. Therefore, this paper focuses on the solutions of the dual-wavelength transmitter introducing a new hardware approach and a complete re-design of the in [1] proposed conception of the dual

  11. CNTs/Al5083 Composites of High-performance Uniform and Dispersion Fabricated by High-energy Ball-milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs, mass fraction of 0%-2% reinforced Al5083 composites were fabricated by horizontal high-energy ball milling. The effects of ball milling time and CNTs contents on the properties of composite materials were studied. The micro morphology of CNTs/Al5083 composites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy(SEM and transmission electron microscopy(TEM, the tensile strength and microhardness of the composites were tested. The results indicate that after high-energy ball milling for 1.5h, the carbon nanotubes are dispersed homogeneously in the Al5083 matrix, and good interfacial bonding strength between CNTs and Al5083 is obtained at the addition of 1.5%CNTs. Under these conditions, the tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are 188.8MPa and 136HV, respectively. Compared to Al5083 matrix without CNTs reinforcement, tensile strength and microhardness of CNTs/Al5083 composites are increased by 32.2% and 36%, respectively.

  12. DNA-dispersed graphene/NiO hybrid materials for highly sensitive non-enzymatic glucose sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Wei; Jin Fengmin; Guo Quangui; Yang Quanhong; Kang Feiyu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated the potential of GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid used as a nonenzymatic sensor. ► DNA is a highly efficient disperse agent for GNS/NiO hybrid than ionic surfactants. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows fast electron transfer in the electrochemical reaction. ► GNS/NiO/DNA hybrid shows good detection performance towards glucose. - Abstract: We demonstrate graphene nanosheet/NiO hybrids (GNS/NiO) as the active material for high-performance non-enzymatic glucose sensors. Such sensors are fabricated by DNA-dispersed GNS/NiO suspension deposited on glassy carbon electrodes. ss-DNA shows strong dispersing ability for the GNS/NiO hybrid materials resulting in stable water-dispersible GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids with fully separated layers. The GNS/NiO/DNA hybrids show enhanced electron transfer in the electrocatalytic reaction process, and accordingly, such hybrids modified electrodes show good sensing performance towards glucose and are characterized by large detection ranges, short response periods, low detection limit and high sensitivity and stability.

  13. Synthesis of a highly dispersed CuO catalyst on CoAl-HT for the epoxidation of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Yang, Pengfei; Pan, Yongning; Li, Yunpeng; He, Yufei; Feng, Junting; Li, Dianqing

    2017-10-10

    A highly dispersed CuO catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and evaluated for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as the oxidant under solvent acetonitrile conditions. Compared with MgAl hydrotalcite (MgAl-HT)-, MgO-, TiO 2 -, C-, and MCM-22-supported catalysts, CuO/CoAl-HT exhibited preferable activity and selectivity towards styrene oxide (72% selectivity at 99.5% styrene conversion) due to its high dispersion of CuO and surface area of Cu. The improved dispersion of CuO/CoAl-HT could be ascribed to the nature of HT support, especially the synergistic effect of acidic and basic sites on the surface, which facilitated the formation of highly dispersed CuO species. A structure-performance relationship study indicated that copper(ii) in CuO was the active site for the epoxidation and oxidation of styrene, and that Cu II of rich electronic density favored the improvement of selectivity of styrene oxide. Based on these results, a reaction mechanism was proposed. Moreover, the preferred catalytic performance of CuO/CoAl-HT could be maintained in five reused cycles.

  14. Development of high dispersed TiO2 paste for transparent screen-printable self-cleaning coatings on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanhao; Lu, Lin; Yang Hongxing; Che Quande

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a cheap and facile method to fabricate transparent self-cleaning coatings on glass by screen-printing high dispersed TiO 2 paste. Three kinds of ZrO 2 beads with diameter of 2, 1, and 0.1–0.2 mm were utilized to investigate their influence on the grinding and dispersion of the commercial TiO 2 powder in the ball mill. From the SEM images, surface profiler and transmittance spectrum it could be demonstrated that the smallest ZrO 2 bead with the diameter of 0.1–0.2 mm was the best candidate to disperse the TiO 2 powder into nanoscale size to make the high dispersed TiO 2 paste which was the key factor to achieve a smooth, high transparent TiO 2 coating. The surface wettability measurement showed that all the screen-printed coatings had super hydrophilic surfaces, which was independent to the surface morphology. However, the coating with the highest transparency showed the lowest photocatalytic activity which is mainly due to the light loss.

  15. A scalable synthesis of highly stable and water dispersible Ag 44(SR)30 nanoclusters

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Lina G.; Ashraf, Sumaira; Katsiev, Khabiboulakh; Kirmani, Ahmad R.; Kothalawala, Nuwan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Abbas, Sikandar Zameer; Amassian, Aram; Stellacci, Francesco; Dass, Amala; Hussain, Irshad; Bakr, Osman

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of atomically monodisperse thiol-protected silver nanoclusters [Ag44(SR)30] m, (SR = 5-mercapto-2-nitrobenzoic acid) in which the product nanocluster is highly stable in contrast to previous preparation methods. The method is one-pot, scalable, and produces nanoclusters that are stable in aqueous solution for at least 9 months at room temperature under ambient conditions, with very little degradation to their unique UV-Vis optical absorption spectrum. The composition, size, and monodispersity were determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and analytical ultracentrifugation. The produced nanoclusters are likely to be in a superatom charge-state of m = 4-, due to the fact that their optical absorption spectrum shares most of the unique features of the intense and broadly absorbing nanoparticles identified as [Ag44(SR) 30]4- by Harkness et al. (Nanoscale, 2012, 4, 4269). A protocol to transfer the nanoclusters to organic solvents is also described. Using the disperse nanoclusters in organic media, we fabricated solid-state films of [Ag44(SR)30]m that retained all the distinct features of the optical absorption spectrum of the nanoclusters in solution. The films were studied by X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy in order to investigate their crystallinity, atomic composition and valence band structure. The stability, scalability, and the film fabrication method demonstrated in this work pave the way towards the crystallization of [Ag44(SR)30]m and its full structural determination by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Moreover, due to their unique and attractive optical properties with multiple optical transitions, we anticipate these clusters to find practical applications in light-harvesting, such as photovoltaics and photocatalysis, which have been hindered so far by the instability of previous generations of the cluster. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Molten Corium Dispersion during Hypothetical High-Pressure Accidents in APR1400 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Tae; Ha, Kwang Soon; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong; Jeong, Jae Sik

    2010-01-01

    During a hypothetical high-pressure accident in a nuclear power plant (NPP), molten corium can be ejected through a breach of a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and dispersed by the following jet of a high pressure steam in the RPV. The dispersed corium is fragmented into smaller droplets in a reactor cavity of the NPP by the steam jet with very high velocity and is released into the upper compartment of the NPP by an overpressure in the cavity. The heat-carrying fragments of the corium transfer the thermal energy to the ambient air in the containment and react chemically with steam and generate hydrogen which may be burnt in the containment. The thermal loads from the ejected molten corium on the containment which is called direct containment heating (DCH) can threaten the integrity of the containment. New generation NPPs such as APR1400 and EPR have been designed in consideration of reducing the possibility of the containment failure from the DCH. In order for that, APR1400 has a convolute-type corium chamber connected to the reactor cavity. In the case of EPR, severe-accident dedicated depressurization valves are installed to preclude a high pressure melt ejection (HPME). DCH in a NPP containment is related to many physical phenomena such as multi-phase hydrodynamics, thermodynamics and chemical reaction. In the evaluation of the DCH load, the melt dispersion rates depending on the RPV pressure are the most important parameter. Mostly, DCH was evaluated by using lumped-analysis codes with some correlations obtained from experiments for the dispersion rates. The corium dispersion rates for many types of the NPP containments had been obtained by experiments in 90s. And some correlations from the experimental data were developed. As mentioned above, APR1400 has a corium chamber to reduce the corium dispersion rate. But there is no experimental data for the dispersion rate specific to the APR1400 cavity geometry. So its performance for capturing of the dispersed corium

  17. Optimised dispersion management and modulation formats for high speed optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokle, Torger

    2004-01-01

    both narrow spectral width and good transmission properties. The cost of an optical communication system can be lowered by using longer span lengths to reduce the number of amplifier stations. We experimentally study optimum dispersion compensation schemes for systems with 160 km fibre spans made...... modulated signals. In summary, we show that dispersion management using recently developed fibres in combination with advanced modulation formats significantly improves the transmission performance compared to traditional systems. Multi-level phase modulation is demonstrated at bit rates up to 80 Gbit......This thesis studies dispersion management and modulation formats for optical communication systems using per channel bit rates at and above 10 Gbit/s. Novel modulation formats—including recently proposed multilevel phase modulation—are investigated and demonstrated at bit rates up to 80 Gbit/s. New...

  18. On the Optimum Dispersion of a Storage Ring for Electron Cooling with High Space Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; Chanel, M; Marié, L; Möhl, D; Tranquille, G

    2000-01-01

    With the intense electron beams used for cooling, matching of the ion and electron velocity over the largest possible fraction of the beam profile becomes important. In this situation, a finite dispersion from the ring in the cooling section can lead to an appreciable gain in the transverse cooling speed. Based on a simple model of the cooling force, an expression for the "optimum" dispersion as a function of the electron beam intensity, the momentum spread and other properties of the ion beam will be derived. This simple theory will be compared to measurements made on the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN during 1997.

  19. Dispersive XAS on a High Brilliance Source: Highlights and Future Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascarelli, S.; Aquilanti, G.; Guilera, G.; Mathon, O.; Newton, M. A.; Trapananti, A.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Munoz, M.; Pasquale, M.

    2007-01-01

    Energy Dispersive X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is a now a well-established method which has been applied to a broad range of applications. Ten years from the construction of beamline ID24 at the ESRF, the first dispersive XAS spectrometer using undulator radiation on a third generation source, we report an overview of recent results in very diverse fields of research, ranging from automotive catalysts to magnetism at extreme conditions. We also illustrate how pushing the instrument to its limits has opened new opportunities, such as an enhanced sensitivity to detection of tiny atomic displacements and the potential for micro-probe redox and speciation imaging

  20. Post-installed concrete anchors in nuclear power plants: Performance and qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrenholtz, Philipp; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Review of qualification and design regulations for anchors in nuclear power plants. • First complete set of nuclear anchor load–displacement data and its evaluation ever. • Demonstration of robust test behavior of a qualified post-installed anchor product. - Abstract: In nuclear power plants (NPPs), post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and non-structural connections to concrete. In many countries, anchor products employed for safety relevant applications have to be approved by the authorities. For the high safety standards in force for NPPs, special requirements have to be met to allow for extreme design situations. This paper presents an experimental test program conducted to evaluate the performance of anchors according to the German Guideline for Anchorages in Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Technology Installations (DIBt KKW Leitfaden, 2010). After a brief introduction to anchor behavior and the regulative context, the results of tension and shear tests carried out on undercut anchors are discussed. Robust load capacities and relatively small displacements determined for demanding load and crack cycling tests demonstrated the suitability of anchors qualified according to a state-of-the-art qualification guideline

  1. Fast high-temperature consolidation of Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) steels: process, microstructure, precipitation, properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulnat, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to lighten the understanding of the behavior of a class of metallic materials called Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels. ODS steels are produced by powder metallurgy with various steps including atomization, mechanical alloying and high-temperature consolidation. The consolidation involves the formation of nanoparticles in the steel and various evolutions of the microstructure of the material that are not fully understood. In this thesis, a novel consolidation technique assisted by electric field called 'Spark Plasma Sintering' (SPS) or 'Field-Assisted Sintering Technique' (FAST) was assessed. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained by SPS, comparable to those of conventional hot isostatic pressed (HIP) materials but with much shorter processing time. Also, a broad range of microstructures and thus of tensile strength and ductility were obtained by performing SPS on either milled or atomized powder at different temperatures. However, SPS consolidation failed to avoid heterogeneous microstructure composed of ultrafine-grained regions surrounded by micron grains despite of the rapid consolidation kinetics. A multi-scale characterization allowed to understand and model the evolution of this complex microstructure. An analytical evaluation of the contributing mechanisms can explain the appearance of the complex grain structure and its thermal stability during further heat treatments. Inhomogeneous distribution of plastic deformation in the powder is argued to be the major cause of heterogeneous recrystallization and further grain growth during hot consolidation. Even if increasing the solute content of yttrium, titanium and oxygen does not impede abnormal growth, it permits to control the fraction and the size of the retained ultrafine grains, which is a key-factor to tailor the mechanical properties. Since precipitation through grain boundary pinning plays a significant role on grain growth, a careful

  2. Dispersion-Flattened Composite Highly Nonlinear Fibre Optimised for Broadband Pulsed Four-Wave Mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    We present a segmented composite HNLF optimised for mitigation of dispersion-fluctuation impairments for broadband pulsed four-wave mixing. The HNLF-segmentation allows for pulsed FWMprocessing of a 13-nm wide input WDM-signal with -4.6-dB conversion efficiency...

  3. The improvement of technology for high-uranium-density Al-base dispersion fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouhui, Dai; Rongxian, Sun; Hejian, Mao; Baosheng, Zhao; Changgen, Yin

    1987-01-01

    An improved rolling process was developed for manufacturing Al-base dispersion fuel plates. When the fuel content in the meat increased up to 50 vol%, the non-uniformity of uranium is not more than ± 7.2%, and the minimum cladding thickness is not less than 0.32 mm. (Author)

  4. Dispersion-modulation by high material loss in microstructured polymer optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosz, Michael Henoch

    2009-01-01

    The influence of strong loss peaks on the dispersion (through the Kramers-Kronig relations) of a nonlinear waveguide is investigated theore­ti­cally. It is found specifically for degenerate four-wave mixing in a poly(methyl methacrylate) microstructured polymer optical fiber that the loss...

  5. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowire and reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenfei; Ma, Peipei; Zhou, Xi; Wang, Anqi; Qian, Tao; Wu, Shishan; Chen, Qiang

    2014-10-22

    Highly dispersed polypyrrole nanowires are decorated on reduced graphene oxide sheets using a facile in situ synthesis route. The prepared composites exhibit high dispersibility, large effective surface area, and high electric conductivity. All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors are assembled based on the prepared composites, which show excellent electrochemical performances with a specific capacitance of 434.7 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1). The as-fabricated supercapacitor also exhibits excellent cycling stability (88.1% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles) and exceptional mechanical flexibility. In addition, outstanding power and energy densities were obtained, demonstrating the significant potential of prepared material for flexible and portable energy storage devices.

  6. Biomechanical advantages of triple-loaded suture anchors compared with double-row rotator cuff repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Schroeder, F Alexander; Aziz-Jacobo, Jorge; Mays, Matthew M; Rapley, Jay H

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the strength and suture-tendon interface security of various suture anchors triply and doubly loaded with ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene-containing sutures and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of placing these anchors in a single-row or double-row arrangement by cyclic loading and then destructive testing. The infraspinatus muscle was reattached to the original humeral footprint by use of 1 of 5 different repair patterns in 40 bovine shoulders. Two single-row repairs and three double-row repairs were tested. High-strength sutures were used for all repairs. Five groups were studied: group 1, 2 triple-loaded screw suture anchors in a single row with simple stitches; group 2, 2 triple-loaded screw anchors in a single row with simple stitches over a fourth suture passed perpendicularly ("rip-stop" stitch); group 3, 2 medial and 2 lateral screw anchors with a single vertical mattress stitch passed from the medial anchors and 2 simple stitches passed from the lateral anchors; group 4, 2 medial double-loaded screw anchors tied in 2 mattress stitches and 2 push-in lateral anchors capturing the medial sutures in a "crisscross" spanning stitch; and group 5, 2 medial double-loaded screw anchors tied in 2 mattress stitches and 2 push-in lateral anchors creating a "suture-bridge" stitch. The specimens were cycled between 10 and 180 N at 1.0 Hz for 3,500 cycles or until failure. Endpoints were cyclic loading displacement (5 and 10 mm), total displacement, and ultimate failure load. A single row of triply loaded anchors was more resistant to stretching to a 5- and 10-mm gap than the double-row repairs with or without the addition of a rip-stop suture (P row repair (P row created by 2 medial double-loaded suture anchors and 2 lateral push-in anchors stretched more than any other group (P row repairs with either crossing sutures or 4 separate anchor points were more likely to fail (5- or 10-mm gap) than a single-row repair loaded with 3 simple sutures

  7. Spatio-temporal Genetic Structure of a Tropical Bee Species Suggests High Dispersal Over a Fragmented Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suni, Sevan S; Bronstein, Judith L; Brosi, Berry J

    2014-03-01

    Habitat destruction threatens biodiversity by reducing the amount of available resources and connectivity among geographic areas. For organisms living in fragmented habitats, population persistence may depend on dispersal, which maintains gene flow among fragments and can prevent inbreeding within them. It is centrally important to understand patterns of dispersal for bees living in fragmented areas given the importance of pollination systems and recently documented declines in bee populations. We used population and landscape genetic techniques to characterize patterns of dispersal over a large fragmented area in southern Costa Rica for the orchid bee species Euglossa championi . First, we estimated levels of genetic differentiation among forest fragments as φ pt , an analog to the traditional summary statistic F st , as well as two statistics that may more adequately represent levels of differentiation, G ' st and D est . Second, we used a Bayesian approach to determine the number and composition of genetic groups in our sample. Third we investigated how genetic differentiation changes with distance. Fourth, we determined the extent to which deforested areas restrict dispersal. Finally, we estimated the extent to which there were temporal differences in allele frequencies within the same forest fragments. Within years we found low levels of differentiation even over 80 km, and no effect of land use type on level of genetic differentiation. However, we found significant genetic differentiation between years. Taken together our results suggest that there are high levels of gene flow over this geographic area, and that individuals show low site fidelity over time.

  8. Simultaneous pore enlargement and introduction of highly dispersed Fe active sites in MSNs for enhanced catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Jinlou; Dong Xu; Elangovan, S.P.; Li Yongsheng; Zhao Wenru; Iijima, Toshio; Yamazaki, Yasuo; Shi Jianlin

    2012-01-01

    An effective post-hydrothermal treatment strategy has been developed to dope highly dispersed iron catalytical centers into the framework of mesoporous silica, to keep the particle size in nanometric scale, and in the meanwhile, to expand the pore size of the synthesized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs). Characterization techniques such as XRD, BET, SEM and TEM support that the synthesized samples are long period ordered with particles size about 100 nm and a relatively large pore size of ca. 3.5 nm. UV–vis, XPS and EPR measurements demonstrate that the introduced iron active centers are highly dispersed in a coordinatively unsaturated status. NH 3 -TPD verifies that the acid amount of iron-doped MSNs is quite high. The synthesized nanocatalysts show an excellent catalytic performance for benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride, and they present relatively higher yield and selectivity to diphenylmethane with a lower iron content and much shorter reaction time. - Graphical abstract: Uniform MSNs with iron active centers and large pore size have been prepared by a newly developed strategy, which demonstrates enhanced catalytic performance for benzylation of benzene by benzyl chloride. Highlights: ► Iron species were introduced into the framework of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with uniform dispersion. ► The pore sizes of the synthesized nanocatalysts were expanded. ► The acidic site quantities were quite high and the acidic centers were accessible. ► The nanocatalysts presented higher yield and selectivity to diphenylmethane with significantly lower Fe content.

  9. High-dispersion spectroscopy of extrasolar planets: from CO in hot Jupiters to O2 in exo-Earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snellen, Ignas

    2014-04-28

    Ground-based high-dispersion spectroscopy could reveal molecular oxygen as a biomarker gas in the atmospheres of twin-Earths transiting red dwarf stars within the next 25 years. The required contrasts are only a factor of 3 lower than that already achieved for carbon monoxide in hot Jupiter atmospheres today but will need much larger telescopes because the target stars will be orders of magnitude fainter. If extraterrestrial life is very common and can therefore be found on planets around the most nearby red dwarf stars, it may be detectable via transmission spectroscopy with the next-generation extremely large telescopes. However, it is likely that significantly more collecting area is required for this. This can be achieved through the development of low-cost flux collector technology, which combines a large collecting area with a low but sufficient image quality for high-dispersion spectroscopy of bright stars.

  10. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  11. Description and validation of ERAD: An atmospheric dispersion model for high explosive detonations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boughton, B.A.; DeLaurentis, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion (ERAD) model is a three-dimensional numerical simulation of turbulent atmospheric transport and diffusion. An integral plume rise technique is used to provide a description of the physical and thermodynamic properties of the cloud of warm gases formed when the explosive detonates. Particle dispersion is treated as a stochastic process which is simulated using a discrete time Lagrangian Monte Carlo method. The stochastic process approach permits a more fundamental treatment of buoyancy effects, calm winds and spatial variations in meteorological conditions. Computational requirements of the three-dimensional simulation are substantially reduced by using a conceptualization in which each Monte Carlo particle represents a small puff that spreads according to a Gaussian law in the horizontal directions. ERAD was evaluated against dosage and deposition measurements obtained during Operation Roller Coaster. The predicted contour areas average within about 50% of the observations. The validation results confirm the model`s representation of the physical processes.

  12. Experimental testing of anchoring devices for bottom rails in partially anchored timber frame shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have presented a new plastic design method of wood-framed shear walls at ultimate limit state. This method allows the designer to calculate the load-carrying capacity of shear walls partially anchored, where the leading stud is not anchored against the uplift.The anchorage system of shear walls is provided from anchor bolts and hold downs. Anchor bolts provide horizontal shear continuity between the bottom rail and the foundation. Hold downs are directly connected from ...

  13. Computing the spectrum of black hole radiation in the presence of high frequency dispersion: an analytical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Corley, Steven

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for computing the spectrum of black hole radiation of a scalar field satisfying a wave equation with high frequency dispersion. The method involves a combination of Laplace transform and WKB techniques for finding approximate solutions to ordinary differential equations. The modified wave equation is obtained by adding a higher order derivative term suppressed by powers of a fundamental momentum scale $k_0$ to the ordinary wave equation. Depending on the sign of this new t...

  14. Synthesis of subnanometer-diameter vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes with copper-anchored cobalt catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kehang; Kumamoto, Akihito; Xiang, Rong; An, Hua; Wang, Benjamin; Inoue, Taiki; Chiashi, Shohei; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2016-01-01

    We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high-quality SWNTs are expected to pave the way to replace silicon for next-generation optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.We synthesize vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) with subnanometer diameters on quartz (and SiO2/Si) substrates by alcohol CVD using Cu-anchored Co catalysts. The uniform VA-SWNTs with a nanotube diameter of 1 nm are synthesized at a CVD temperature of 800 °C and have a thickness of several tens of μm. The diameter of SWNTs was reduced to 0.75 nm at 650 °C with the G/D ratio maintained above 24. Scanning transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS-STEM) and high angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) imaging of the Co/Cu bimetallic catalyst system showed that Co catalysts were captured and anchored by adjacent Cu nanoparticles, and thus were prevented from coalescing into a larger size, which contributed to the small diameter of SWNTs. The correlation between the catalyst size and the SWNT diameter was experimentally clarified. The subnanometer-diameter and high

  15. In-situ synthesized ZnFe2O4 firmly anchored to the surface of MWCNTs as a long-life anode material with high lithium storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianbo; Zhang, Wanxi; Li, Linlin; Jin, Bo; Jin, Enmei; Jeong, Sangmoon; Jiang, Qing

    2017-12-01

    Because of two different metal cations in the crystal structures, binary transition metal oxides possess a lot of unique properties. ZnFe2O4 emerges from these transition metal oxides on account of its high theoretical capacity (1072 mAh g-1). One-dimensional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) would be a desirable conductive additive for ZnFe2O4, thereby improving the electrochemical performance of ZnFe2O4. In this work, we prepare ZnFe2O4/MWCNTs by solvothermal method with further heat-treatment. ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles are firmly anchored to the surface of MWCNTs. ZnFe2O4/MWCNTs nanocomposite displays high specific capacity (1278 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 200 cycles, and 565 mAh g-1 at a current density of 1500 mA g-1 after 500 cycles), and good rate performance (367 mAh g-1 even at a current density of 6000 mAh g-1 after 80 cycles). The superior electrochemical performance may promote ZnFe2O4 to be a promising alternative anode in lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Atomic layer deposition of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on a high surface area electrode backbone for electrochemical promotion of catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajar, Y.; di Palma, V.; Kyriakou, V.; Verheijen, M. A.; Baranova, E. A.; Vernoux, P.; Kessels, W. M. M.; Creatore, M.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Tsampas, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    A novel catalyst design for electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) is proposed which overcomes the main bottlenecks that limit EPOC commercialization, i.e., the low dispersion and small surface area of metal catalysts. We have increased the surface area by using a porous composite electrode

  17. Opto-mechanical design of a new cross dispersion unit for the CRIRES+ high resolution spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, Jean Louis; Klein, Barbara; Oliva, Ernesto; Löwinger, Tom; Anglada Escude, Guillem; Baade, Dietrich; Bristow, Paul; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Grunhut, Jason; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Ives, Derek; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Lockhart, Matt; Marquart, Thomas; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jerome; Piskunov, N.; Pozna, Eszter; Reiners, Ansgar; Smette, Alain; Smoker, Jonathan; Seemann, Ulf; Stempels, Eric; Valenti, Elena

    2014-07-01

    CRIRES is one of the few IR (0.92-5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrographs in operation at the VLT since 2006. Despite good performance it suffers a limitation that significantly hampers its ability: a small spectral coverage per exposure. The CRIRES upgrade (CRIRES+) proposes to transform CRIRES into a cross-dispersed spectrograph while maintaining the high resolution (100000) and increasing the wavelength coverage by a factor 10 compared to the current capabilities. A major part of the upgrade is the exchange of the actual cryogenic pre-disperser module by a new cross disperser unit. In addition to a completely new optical design, a number of important changes are required on key components and functions like the slit unit and detectors units. We will outline the design of these new units fitting inside a predefined and restricted space. The mechanical design of the new functions including a description and analysis will be presented. Finally we will present the strategy for the implementation of the changes.

  18. Anchor Bolt Position in Base Plate In Terms Of T and J Anchor Bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    b Osman Mohamad Hairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, L anchor bolt system has been used for a long period of time in construction industry as one of the distributing load structures. However, there are some weaknesses in L anchor bolt which may straighten and pullup when charged with tensile load. Current practices prefer to use other types of anchor bolt systems, such as headed studs anchor bolt system to replace the L anchor bolt design. There has been lack of studies to prove that it is more effective in terms of performance. A new T anchor bolt which was basically modified from headed studs anchor bolt was proposed in this study to compare its performance of tensile loading in concrete failure to typical L design. This study aims to determine whether the T anchor bolt system gives better performance as compared to an L anchor bolt system. The performance was rated based on tensile loading on concrete failure pattern. A pullout test was conducted on two different anchor bolt systems, namely L and T. The anchor bolt embedded depth, h in concrete were varied according to their hook or bend radius. Each sample was repeated twice. There were totally eight samples. The hook or bend radius used were 50 mm and 57.5 mm for sample L1 and L2, respectively. 90-degree bend were used on sample T1 and T2. Based on test results, it can be seen that the performance of concrete failure pattern under tensile load on both L and T anchor bolt design samples with 200 mm embedment depth was better than deeper embedment depth of 230 mm. But the L anchor bolt design gives the best results as compared to T design. Although T anchor bolt design shows higher resistance before first bond failure to the concrete sample. T anchor bolt was analysed and needed deeper embedment depth to allow formation of cone pull-out shape to acquire better performance.

  19. The response of dispersion-strengthened copper alloys to high fluence neutron irradiation at 415 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.J.; Newkirk, J.W.; Garner, F.A.; Hamilton, M.L.; Nadkarni, A.; Samal, P.

    1993-01-01

    Various oxide-dispersion-strengthened copper alloys have been irradiated to 150 dpa at 415 degrees C in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The Al 2 O 3 -strengthened GlidCop TM alloys, followed closely by a HfO 2 -strengthened alloy, displayed the best swelling resistance, electrical conductivity, and tensile properties. The conductivity of the HfO 2 -strengthened alloy reached a plateau at the higher levels of irradiation, instead of exhibiting the steady decrease in conductivity observed in the other alloys. A high initial oxygen content results in significantly higher swelling for a series of castable oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloys, while a Cr 2 O 3 -strengthened alloy showed poor resistance to radiation

  20. Link Anchors in Images: Is there Truth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aly, Robin; McGuinness, Kevin; Kleppe, Martijn; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; O'Connor, Noel; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    2012-01-01

    While automatic linking in text collections is well understood, little is known about links in images. In this work, we investigate two aspects of anchors, the origin of a link, in images: 1) the requirements of users for such anchors, e.g. the things users would like more information on, and 2)

  1. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 48 CFR Part 1812 RIN 2700-AD64 Commercial... consistent with NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into multi-year anchor tenancy contracts for commercial space goods or services. Anchor...

  2. Factors influencing formation of highly dispersed BaTiO3 nanospheres with uniform sizes in static hydrothermal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Jiabing; Shi, Haiyue; Dong, Huina; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres with uniform sizes have important applications in micro/nanoscale functional devices. To achieve well-dispersed spherical BaTiO 3 nanocrystals, we carried out as reported in this paper the systematic investigation on the factors that influence the formation of BaTiO 3 nanospheres by the static hydrothermal process, including the NaOH concentrations [NaOH], molar Ba/Ti ratios (R Ba/Ti ), hydrothermal temperatures, and durations, with an emphasis on understanding the related mechanisms. Barium nitrate and TiO 2 sols derived from tetrabutyl titanate were used as the starting materials. The as-synthesized BaTiO 3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, and FT-IR spectra. The highly dispersed BaTiO 3 nanospheres (76 ± 13 nm) were achieved under the optimum hydrothermal conditions at 200 °C for 10 h: [NaOH] = 2.0 mol L −1 and R Ba/Ti  = 1.5. Higher NaOH concentrations, higher Ba/Ti ratios, higher hydrothermal temperatures, and longer hydrothermal durations are favorable in forming BaTiO 3 nanospheres with larger fractions of tetragonal phase and higher yields; but too long hydrothermal durations resulted in abnormal growth and reduced the uniformity in particle sizes. The possible formation mechanisms for BaTiO 3 nanocrystals under the static hydrothermal conditions were investigated

  3. Air pollutant dispersion from a large semi-enclosed stadium in an urban area: high-resolution CFD modeling versus full-scale measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, van T.A.J.; Blocken, B.J.E.; Seppelt, R.; Voinov, A.A.; Lange, S.; Bankamp, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: High-resolution CFD simulations and full-scale measurements have been performed to assess the dispersion of air pollutants (CO2) from the large semi-enclosed Amsterdam ArenA football stadium. The dispersion process is driven by natural ventilation by the urban wind flow and by buoyancy,

  4. Homozygous missense mutation (G56R in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPI-HBP1 in two siblings with fasting chylomicronemia (MIM 144650

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegele Robert A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice with a deleted Gpihbp1 gene encoding glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPI-HBP1 develop severe chylomicronemia. We screened the coding regions of the human homologue – GPIHBP1 – from the genomic DNA of 160 unrelated adults with fasting chylomicronemia and plasma triglycerides >10 mmol/L, each of whom had normal sequence of the LPL and APOC2 genes. Results One patient with severe type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia (MIM 144650, fasting chylomicronemia and relapsing pancreatitis resistant to standard therapy was found to be homozygous for a novel GPIHBP1 missense variant, namely G56R. This mutation was absent from the genomes of 600 control subjects and 610 patients with hyperlipidemia. The GPIHBP1 G56 residue has been conserved throughout evolution and the G56R mutation was predicted to have compromised function. Her homozygous brother also had refractory chylomicronemia and relapsing pancreatitis together with early coronary heart disease. G56R heterozygotes in the family had fasting mild hypertriglyceridemia. Conclusion Thus, a very rare GPIHBP1 missense mutation appears to be associated with severe hypertriglyceridemia and chylomicronemia.

  5. Ringstone anchors from Gujarat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    of Dwarka and Somanath have yielded several ringstone anchors along with other stone anchors such as triangular and grapnel types. The raw material used for these ring stones comprises basalt, sandstone and limestone. Earlier, these anchors were identified...

  6. Kinetics of Low Temperature Polyester Dyeing with High Molecular Weight Disperse Dyes by Solvent Microemulsion and AgroSourced Auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Radei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on the evaluation of the kinetics of dyeing polyester fabrics with high molecular weight disperse dyes, at low temperature by solvent microemulsion. This study also compared the effect of two non-toxic agro-sourced auxiliaries (o-vanillin and coumarin using a non-toxic organic solvent. A dyeing bath consisting of a micro-emulsion system involving a small proportion of n-butyl acetate was used, and the kinetics of dyeing were analysed at four temperatures (83, 90, 95 and 100 °C. Moreover, the dyeing rate constants, correlation coefficient and activation energies were proposed for this system. It was found that o-vanillin yielded higher dye absorption levels than coumarin, leading to exhaustions of 88% and 87% for Disperse Red 167 and Disperse Blue 79, respectively. K/S values of dyed polyester were also found to be higher for dye baths containing o-vanillin with respect to the ones with coumarin. In terms of hot pressing fastness and wash fastness, generally no adverse influence on fastness properties was reported, while o-vanillin showed slightly better results compared to coumarin.

  7. TS-1 supported highly dispersed sub-5 nm gold nanoparticles toward direct propylene epoxidation using H2 and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Naixu; Chen, Yong; Shen, Quanhao; Yang, Bin; Liu, Ming; Wei, Lingfei; Tian, Wei; Zhou, Jiancheng

    2018-05-01

    We report a simple and efficient method for the preparation of highly dispersed Au nanoparticles (< 5 nm) on TS-1 substrate. The synthesis relies on the use of NaBH4 as a reductant for rapid Au atom generation, as well as PVA as a capping agent confining the particle size and dispersion. The samples were characterized by N2 physisorption, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, power X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, CO pulse chemisorption and thermogravimetric analysis. The size of Au particles can be controlled in the range of 3-5 nm. The supported catalyst shows both good activity and selectivity for propylene oxide (PO) generation from direct propylene epoxidation. An optimal performance with PO formation rate of 102.94 gPO h-1 kg-1cat and selectivity of 84.83% is achieved over 2.0 wt% Au/TS-1 catalyst, which is prepared by controlling PVA/Au3+ mass ratio of 1.5/1 and NaBH4/Au3+ mole ratio of 5/1. After 50 h test at 200 °C, no significant decrement of both catalytic activity and PO selectivity can be observed, indicating the excellent thermally stability of the catalyst. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism is described on basis of the previous researches and our experimental results.

  8. Analysis of chlorpheniramine in human urine samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Maham

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and environmentally friendly microextraction technique was used for determination of chlorpheniramine (CPM, an antihistamine drug, in human urine samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. In this extraction technique, an appropriate mixture of acetonitrile (disperser solvent and carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent was rapidly injected into the urine sample containing the target analyte. Tiny droplets of extractant were formed and dispersed into the sample solution and then sedimented at the bottom of the conical test tube by centrifugation. Under optimal conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.055-5.5 µg mL-1, with a detection limit of 16.5 ng mL-1. This proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of real urine samples. Low consumption of toxic organic solvents, simplicity of operation, low cost and acceptable figures of merit are the main advantages of the proposed technique.

  9. Vertically oriented CoO@FeOOH nanowire arrays anchored on carbon cloth as a highly efficient electrode for oxygen evolution reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yin; Ni, Yuanman; Liu, Bing; Shang, Shuxia; Yang, Song; Cao, Minhua; Hu, Changwen

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Three-dimensional CoO@FeOOH nanowire arrays grown on carbon cloth were constructed, which exhibit good electrocatalytic activity towards OER in alkaline solution. Display Omitted -- Abstract: Developing high efficiency electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a key to water splitting. In this work, we demonstrate the preparation of CoO@FeOOH core-shell nanowire (NWs) grown on three-dimensional (3D) carbon cloth (CC@CoO@FeOOH-NWAs) by hydrothermal method followed by electrodeposition process as well as its highly efficient activity for water oxidation. In this hybrid structure, CoO@FeOOH-NWs with an average diameter of 100 nm is vertically grown on the surface of carbon fibers of the carbon cloth. The combination of CoO@FeOOH catalyst with good electron transfer substrate exhibits exceptionally good electrocatalytic activity and long-term durability towards oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline solution. It needs an overpotential as low as 255 mV to achieve the current density of 10 mA cm −2 , with a Tafel slope of 82 mV dec −1 and also exhibits a good stability in 20 h. In addition, the nanowire array structure is well retained after the durability test with high current density of 50 mA cm −2 . Our strategy provides a guide to rational design of micro-structures of the materials to achieve their high performance.

  10. Sonogashira Reaction of Aryl and Heteroaryl Halides with Terminal Alkynes Catalyzed by a Highly Efficient and Recyclable Nanosized MCM-41 Anchored Palladium Bipyridyl Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yuan Mou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A heterogeneous catalyst, nanosized MCM-41-Pd, was used to catalyze the Sonogashira coupling of aryl and heteroaryl halides with terminal alkynes in the presence of CuI and triphenylphosphine. The coupling products were obtained in high yields using low Pd loadings to 0.01 mol%, and the nanosized MCM-41-Pd catalyst was recovered by centrifugation of the reaction solution and re-used in further runs without significant loss of reactivity.

  11. Bimetallic CoNiSx nanocrystallites embedded in nitrogen-doped carbon anchored on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qidi; Miao, Jinkang; Quan, Liang; Cai, Daoping; Zhan, Hongbing

    2018-02-22

    Exploring high-performance and low-priced electrode materials for supercapacitors is important but remains challenging. In this work, a unique sandwich-like nanocomposite of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-supported N-doped carbon embedded with ultrasmall CoNiS x nanocrystallites (rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite) has been successfully designed and synthesized by a simple one-step carbonization/sulfurization treatment of the rGO/Co-Ni precursor. The intriguing structural/compositional/morphological advantages endow the as-synthesized rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite with excellent electrochemical performance as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors. Compared with the other two rGO/CoNiO x and rGO/CoNiS x nanocomposites, the rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite exhibits much enhanced performance, including a high specific capacitance (1028.2 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 ), excellent rate capability (89.3% capacitance retention at 10 A g -1 ) and good cycling stability (93.6% capacitance retention over 2000 cycles). In addition, an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) device based on the rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite as the cathode and activated carbon (AC) as the anode is also fabricated, which can deliver a high energy density of 32.9 W h kg -1 at a power density of 229.2 W kg -1 with desirable cycling stability. These electrochemical results evidently indicate the great potential of the sandwich-like rGO/CoNiS x /N-C nanocomposite for applications in high-performance supercapacitors.

  12. HYDRODYNAMICS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXY COLLISIONS: FROM GAS-RICH DISKS TO DISPERSION-DOMINATED MERGERS AND COMPACT SPHEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bournaud, Frederic; Chapon, Damien; Teyssier, Romain; Powell, Leila C.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Contini, Thierry; Epinat, Benoit; Shapiro, Kristen L.

    2011-01-01

    Disk galaxies at high redshift (z ∼ 2) are characterized by high fractions of cold gas, strong turbulence, and giant star-forming clumps. Major mergers of disk galaxies at high redshift should then generally involve such turbulent clumpy disks. Merger simulations, however, model the interstellar medium as a stable, homogeneous, and thermally pressurized medium. We present the first merger simulations with high fractions of cold, turbulent, and clumpy gas. We discuss the major new features of these models compared to models where the gas is artificially stabilized and warmed. Gas turbulence, which is already strong in high-redshift disks, is further enhanced in mergers. Some phases are dispersion dominated, with most of the gas kinetic energy in the form of velocity dispersion and very chaotic velocity fields, unlike merger models using a thermally stabilized gas. These mergers can reach very high star formation rates, and have multi-component gas spectra consistent with SubMillimeter Galaxies. Major mergers with high fractions of cold turbulent gas are also characterized by highly dissipative gas collapse to the center of mass, with the stellar component following in a global contraction. The final galaxies are early type with relatively small radii and high Sersic indices, like high-redshift compact spheroids. The mass fraction in a disk component that survives or re-forms after a merger is severely reduced compared to models with stabilized gas, and the formation of a massive disk component would require significant accretion of external baryons afterwards. Mergers thus appear to destroy extended disks even when the gas fraction is high, and this lends further support to smooth infall as the main formation mechanism for massive disk galaxies.

  13. Novel all-optical dispersion monitoring technique for ultra-high-speed WDM networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Sheng; Li Li; Liu Deming, E-mail: cuisheng@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, No.1037, Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    This paper represents a novel all-optical dispersion monitoring technique based on fiber parametric amplifiers (FOPAs). The monitoring method is truly bit-rate transparent because it is enabled by the exponential power transfer function (PTF) provided by the FOPA gain. The slope of the PTF is increased from 2 to 3 by choosing appropriate phase-matching conditions. Due to the steeper PTF the monitoring sensitivity is greatly improved compared to the other PTF-based methods proposed before. The PTF obtained by numerical simulations agrees very well with the experimental results. Numerical simulations are then used to demonstrate that our method can be used to monitor signals in various modulation formats.

  14. Characterizing the flow of stirred vessels with anchor type impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.C. Peixoto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance in chemical industries, there are few works which studies anchor type impellers and only a fraction of the works investigate these systems under a computational approach. The great majority refers to turbine impellers, specially Rushton turbines, under turbulent flow. Anchor impellers are used specially for highly viscous flow, typical of polymer reactions. The viscosity is normally in the range 1000-10000 cp. Since this range of viscosity describe highly viscous flows, the reactions for anchor agitated systems are normally carried out under laminar flow. This work presents a detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach to study the behaviour of stirred vessels using anchor impellers. The axial plane of the tank, which is being modelled, is divided into small control volumes, which collectively is referred to as the mesh, or grid. In each of these cells the momentum balance, energy and mass conservation, which describes the model, are rewritten algebraically using the finite volumes method to relate such variables as velocity, pressure and temperature to values in neighbouring cells. The equations are then solved numerically, and the results yield the flow corresponding to the model. Since the geometry of a vessel with anchor impellers strictly calls for a three dimensional method, an approximation is made to account for the effect of the blades (Kuncewics, 1992. The main objective of this work is to give a detailed description of the flow generated by this axial impeller with a view to indicate ways in which the design and operation of these systems can be improved.

  15. Free-standing ultrathin CoMn2O4 nanosheets anchored on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guoxin; Lu, Shiyao; Xiang, Yang; Dong, Bitao; Yan, Wei; Ding, Shujiang

    2015-11-21

    Ultrathin CoMn2O4 nanosheets supported on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) are successfully synthesized through a simple co-precipitation method with a post-annealing treatment. With the assistance of citrate, the free-standing CoMn2O4 ultrathin nanosheets can form porous overlays on both sides of the rGO sheets. Such a novel hybrid nanostructure can effectively promote charge transport and accommodate volume variation upon prolonged charge/discharge cycling. When evaluated as a promising electrode for supercapacitors in a 6 M KOH solution electrolyte, the hybrid nanocomposites demonstrate highly enhanced capacitance and excellent cycling stability.

  16. Anchoring ultrafine Pd nanoparticles and SnO2 nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance room temperature NO2 sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziying; Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Chen; Han, Tianyi; Fei, Teng; Liu, Sen; Lu, Geyu

    2018-03-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate room-temperature NO 2 gas sensors using Pd nanoparticles (NPs) and SnO 2 NPs decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pd-SnO 2 -RGO) hybrids as sensing materials. It is found that ultrafine Pd NPs and SnO 2 NPs with particle sizes of 3-5 nm are attached to RGO nanosheets. Compared to SnO 2 -RGO hybrids, the sensor based on Pd-SnO 2 -RGO hybrids exhibited higher sensitivity at room temperature, where the response to 1 ppm NO 2 was 3.92 with the response time and recovery time being 13 s and 105 s. Moreover, such sensor exhibited excellent selectivity, and low detection limit (50 ppb). In addition to high transport capability of RGO as well as excellent NO 2 adsorption ability derived from ultrafine SnO 2 NPs and Pd NPs, the superior sensing performances of the hybrids were attributed to the synergetic effect of Pd NPs, SnO 2 NPs and RGO. Particularly, the excellent sensing performances were related to high conductivity and catalytic activity of Pd NPs. Finally, the sensing mechanism for NO 2 sensing and the reason for enhanced sensing performances by introduction of Pd NPs are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of particle size on the low and high strain rate behavior of dense colloidal dispersions of nanosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asija, Neelanchali; Chouhan, Hemant; Gebremeskel, Shishay Amare; Bhatnagar, Naresh, E-mail: nareshb@mech.iitd.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Mechanical Engineering Department (India)

    2017-01-15

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian flow behavior characterized by the increase in apparent viscosity with the increase in applied shear rate, particularly when the shear rate exceeds a critical value termed as the critical shear rate (CSR). Due to this remarkable property of shear-thickening fluids (STFs), they are extensively used in hip protection pads, protective gear for athletes, and more recently in body armor. The use of STFs in body armor has led to the development of the concept of liquid body armor. In this study, the effect of particle size is explored on the low and high strain rate behavior of nanosilica dispersions, so as to predict the efficacy of STF-aided personal protection systems (PPS), specifically for ballistic applications. The low strain rate study was conducted on cone and plate rheometer, whereas the high strain rate characterization of STF was conducted on in-house fabricated split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Spherical nanosilica particles of three different sizes (100, 300, and 500 nm) as well as fumed silica particles of four different specific surface areas (Aerosil A-90, A-130, A-150, and A-200), respectively, were used in this study. The test samples were prepared by dispersing nanosilica particles in polypropylene glycol (PPG) using ultrasonic homogenization method. The low strain rate studies aided in determining the CSR of the synthesized STF dispersions, whereas the high strain rate studies explored the impact-resisting ability of STFs in terms of the impact toughness and the peak stress attained during the impact loading of STF in SHPB testing.

  18. Finite-difference modeling and dispersion analysis of high-frequency love waves for near-surface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    Love-wave propagation has been a topic of interest to crustal, earthquake, and engineering seismologists for many years because it is independent of Poisson's ratio and more sensitive to shear (S)-wave velocity changes and layer thickness changes than are Rayleigh waves. It is well known that Love-wave generation requires the existence of a low S-wave velocity layer in a multilayered earth model. In order to study numerically the propagation of Love waves in a layered earth model and dispersion characteristics for near-surface applications, we simulate high-frequency (>5 Hz) Love waves by the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method. The air-earth boundary (the shear stress above the free surface) is treated using the stress-imaging technique. We use a two-layer model to demonstrate the accuracy of the staggered-grid modeling scheme. We also simulate four-layer models including a low-velocity layer (LVL) or a high-velocity layer (HVL) to analyze dispersive energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that: (1) the staggered-grid FD code and stress-imaging technique are suitable for treating the free-surface boundary conditions for Love-wave modeling, (2) Love-wave inversion should be treated with extra care when a LVL exists because of a lack of LVL information in dispersions aggravating uncertainties in the inversion procedure, and (3) energy of high modes in a low-frequency range is very weak, so that it is difficult to estimate the cutoff frequency accurately, and "mode-crossing" occurs between the second higher and third higher modes when a HVL exists. ?? 2010 Birkh??user / Springer Basel AG.

  19. Spatially Extended and High-Velocity Dispersion Molecular Component in Spiral Galaxies: Single-Dish Versus Interferometric Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Schruba, Andreas; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%-74% for NGC 4736 and 81%-92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ˜(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(˜1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (˜3″ or ˜100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  20. Spatially extended and high-velocity dispersion molecular component in spiral galaxies: Single-dish versus interferometric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldú-Primo, Anahi; Walter, Fabian; Schruba, Andreas; Leroy, Adam; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of the molecular medium in nearby galaxies have provided mounting evidence that the molecular gas can exist in two phases: one that is clumpy and organized as molecular clouds and another one that is more diffuse. This last component has a higher velocity dispersion than the clumpy one. In order to investigate these two molecular components further, we compare the fluxes and line widths of CO in NGC 4736 and NGC 5055, two nearby spiral galaxies for which high-quality interferometric as well as single-dish data sets are available. Our analysis leads to two main results: (1) employing three different methods, we determine the flux recovery of the interferometer as compared to the single-dish to be within a range of 35%–74% for NGC 4736 and 81%–92% for NGC 5055, and (2) when focusing on high (S/N ≥ 5) lines of sight (LOSs), the single-dish line widths are larger by ∼(40 ± 20)% than the ones derived from interferometric data, which is in agreement with stacking all LOSs. These results point to a molecular gas component that is distributed over spatial scales larger than 30″(∼1 kpc), and is therefore filtered out by the interferometer. The available observations do not allow us to distinguish between a truly diffuse gas morphology and a uniform distribution of small clouds that are separated by less than the synthesized beam size (∼3″ or ∼100 pc), as they would both be invisible for the interferometer. This high velocity dispersion component has a dispersion similar to what is found in the atomic medium, as traced through observations of the H i line.

  1. Kinetics of low temperature polyester dyeing with high molecular weight disperse dyes by solvent microemulsion and agrosourced auxiliaries

    OpenAIRE

    Radei, Shahram; Carrión-Fité, Francisco Javier; Ardanuy Raso, Mònica; Canal Arias, José Ma

    2018-01-01

    This work focused on the evaluation of the kinetics of dyeing polyester fabrics with high molecular weight disperse dyes, at low temperature by solvent microemulsion. This study also compared the effect of two non-toxic agro-sourced auxiliaries (o-vanillin and coumarin) using a non-toxic organic solvent. A dyeing bath consisting of a micro-emulsion system involving a small proportion of n-butyl acetate was used, and the kinetics of dyeing were analysed at four temperatures (83, 90, 95 and 100...

  2. Kinetics of Low Temperature Polyester Dyeing with High Molecular Weight Disperse Dyes by Solvent Microemulsion and AgroSourced Auxiliaries

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Radei; F. Javier Carrión-Fité; Mònica Ardanuy; José María Canal

    2018-01-01

    This work focused on the evaluation of the kinetics of dyeing polyester fabrics with high molecular weight disperse dyes, at low temperature by solvent microemulsion. This study also compared the effect of two non-toxic agro-sourced auxiliaries (o-vanillin and coumarin) using a non-toxic organic solvent. A dyeing bath consisting of a micro-emulsion system involving a small proportion of n-butyl acetate was used, and the kinetics of dyeing were analysed at four temperatures (83, 90, 95 and 100...

  3. Diagnostics for liquid dispersion due to a high-speed impact with accident or vulnerability assessment application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepsen, Richard A; O'Hern, Timothy; Demosthenous, Byron; Bystrom, Ed; Nissen, Mark; Romero, Edward; Yoon, Sam S

    2009-01-01

    The high-speed impact and subsequent dispersion of a large liquid slug is of interest for assessing vulnerability of structures when subjected to such an event. The Weber number associated with such liquid impacts is generally between 10 5 and 10 8 . Because of the experiment scale and destructive nature of these high-energy impacts, most traditional diagnostics are difficult to implement. Therefore, unique diagnostics were employed in several tests to gather information on impact force, spreading instability, slug break-up, ejection velocity, droplet deformation and spray characteristics. Measurement techniques discussed here include high-speed photometrics, particle image velocimetry (PIV), TrackEye particle analysis, speckle correlation, single-pass schlieren imaging, phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA) and load cell measurements as applied to large-scale, high-speed liquid impacts

  4. Three-Dimensional Porous Nickel Frameworks Anchored with Cross-Linked Ni(OH)2 Nanosheets as a Highly Sensitive Nonenzymatic Glucose Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weiwei; He, Haiping; Sun, Pengcheng; Ye, Zhizhen; Huang, Jingyun

    2018-05-02

    A facile and scalable in situ microelectrolysis nanofabrication technique is developed for preparing cross-linked Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets on a novel three-dimensional porous nickel template (Ni(OH) 2 @3DPN). For the constructed template, the porogen of NaCl particles not only induces a self-limiting surficial hot corrosion to claim the "start engine stop" mechanism but also serves as the primary battery electrolyte to greatly accelerate the growth of Ni(OH) 2 . As far as we know, the microelectrolysis nanofabrication is superior to the other reported Ni(OH) 2 synthesis methods due to the mild condition (60 °C, 6 h, NaCl solution, ambient environment) and without any post-treatment. The integrated Ni(OH) 2 @3DPN electrode with a highly suitable microstructure and a porous architecture implies a potential application in electrochemistry. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the electrode was employed for nonenzymatic glucose sensing, which exhibits an outstanding sensitivity of 2761.6 μA mM -1 cm -2 ranging from 0.46 to 2100 μM, a fast response, and a low detection limit. The microelectrolysis nanofabrication is a one-step, binder-free, entirely green, and therefore it has a distinct advantage to improve clean production and reduce energy consumption.

  5. Improved anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; Foreste, A; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Quesnel, J

    2009-01-01

    As presented in the previous speech, the incident in sector 3-4 of the LHC caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum resulting in high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers. This resulted in braking floor and floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barrier. The strategy of improving anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement is presented and discussed.

  6. Arthroscopic repair of lateral ankle ligament complex by suture anchor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwei; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Shiyi; Li, Hongyun; Zhang, Jian; Li, Yunxia

    2014-06-01

    Arthroscopic repair of the lateral ligament complex with suture anchors is increasingly used to treat chronic ankle instability (CAI). Our aims are (1) to analyze and evaluate the literature on arthroscopic suture anchor repair of the anterior talofibular ligament and (2) to conduct a systematic review of the clinical evidence on the reported outcomes and complications of treating CAI with this technique. We performed a systematic review of the literature using PubMed, Ovid, Elsevier ScienceDirect, Web of Science-Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1987 to September 2013. Clinical studies using the arthroscopic suture anchor technique to treat CAI were included. Outcome measures consisted of clinical assessment of postoperative ligament stability and complications. In addition, the methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed by use of the modified Coleman Methodology Score. After reviewing 371 studies, we identified 6 studies (5 retrospective case series and 1 prospective case series, all Level IV) that met the inclusion criteria, with a mean Coleman Methodology Score of 71.8 ± 7.52 (range, 63 to 82). In these studies 178 patients (179 ankles) underwent arthroscopic suture anchor repair of the anterior talofibular ligament with a mean follow-up period of 38.9 months (range, 6 to 117.6 months). All patients were reported to have subjective improvement of their ankle instability, with complications in 31 cases. Studies of arthroscopic suture anchor technique to treat CAI are sparse, with moderate mean methodologic quality. The included studies suggest that the arthroscopic technique is a feasible procedure to restore ankle stability; however, on the basis of our review, this technique seems to be associated with a relatively high complication rate. Extensive cadaveric studies, clinical trials, and comparative studies comparing arthroscopic and open repair should be performed in the future. Level

  7. Metallurgical evaluation of failed post-tensioned containment tendon anchors at Joseph M. Farley Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    A metallurgical examination has been performed on three failed post-tensioned containment tendon anchors and one intact anchor from the Farley Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station. The evaluation consisted of chemical/mechanical testing, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The conclusions drawn from the investigation were: 1) the anchors met the chemical and mechanical properties of AISI 4140/4142 steel; 2) there was no evidence of phosphorous segregation to the grain boundary (by ethereal picral etch); 3) the observed cracking was generally a mixed mode of intergranular and quasi-cleavage as well as ductile rupture with the intergranular cracking occurring along prior austenite grain boundaries; 4) the results of the mechanical tests coupled with the discontinuous nature of the intergranular areas and the elimination of other modes of failure give sufficient indication that the failure was a hydrogen induced cracking phenomenon

  8. Atmospheric and dispersion modeling in areas of highly complex terrain employing a four-dimensional data assimilation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, J.D.; O'Steen, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that the current data assimilation technique can have a positive impact on the mesoscale flow fields; however, care must be taken in its application to grids of relatively fine horizontal resolution. Continuous FDDA is a useful tool in producing high-resolution mesoscale analysis fields that can be used to (1) create a better initial conditions for mesoscale atmospheric models and (2) drive transport models for dispersion studies. While RAMS is capable of predicting the qualitative flow during this evening, additional experiments need to be performed to improve the prognostic forecasts made by RAMS and refine the FDDA procedure so that the overall errors are reduced even further. Despite the fact that a great deal of computational time is necessary in executing RAMS and LPDM in the configuration employed in this study, recent advances in workstations is making applications such as this more practical. As the speed of these machines increase in the next few years, it will become feasible to employ prognostic, three-dimensional mesoscale/transport models to routinely predict atmospheric dispersion of pollutants, even to highly complex terrain. For example, the version of RAMS in this study could be run in a ''nowcasting'' model that would continually assimilate local and regional observations as soon as they become available. The atmospheric physics in the model would be used to determine the wind field where no observations are available. The three-dimensional flow fields could be used as dynamic initial conditions for a model forecast. The output from this type of modeling system will have to be compared to existing diagnostic, mass-consistent models to determine whether the wind field and dispersion forecasts are significantly improved

  9. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods for photocatalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Chao; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Mingyu; Yang, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Here we present a facile method for the preparation of highly dispersive ZnO materials by using ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-[3‧-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] imidazolium chloride as the template. The influence of ionic liquid concentration and calcined atmosphere on the photoactivity is studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 gas sorption and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results showed that the as-fabricated ZnO materials consisted of individual microrods with self-assembled bowknot-like architecture whose size was about 1 μm. The formation mechanism of the bowknot-like ZnO materials which is based on the self-assembly of ionic liquid is tentatively elucidated. Moreover, the ZnO-2.6N sample exhibited the higher activity for the photodegradation of MB than the photodegradation of MO and RhB. Furthermore, it was found that the ZnO materials calcined under air atmosphere showed the better photocatalytic activities than that of samples calcined under nitrogen atmosphere in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. And the special structure, surface area, adsorption capability of dye, the separation rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs and band gap had effects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO photocatalysts. O2rad - was the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of MB. It is valuable to develop this facile route preparing the highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO materials and the ZnO materials can be beneficial for environmental protection.

  10. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shuo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhang, Yiwei, E-mail: zhangchem@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhou, Yuming, E-mail: ymzhou@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Zhang, Chao; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Mingyu [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangsu Optoelectronic Functional Materials and Engineering Laboratory, Nanjing 211189 (China); Yang, Yong [School of Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiao Ling Wei St, Nanjing 210094, Jiangsu (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Ionic liquid was used as template for dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods. • The bowknot-like ZnO consists of individual microrods whose size is about 1 μm. • The formation mechanism of the ZnO materials is tentatively elucidated. • The bowknot-like ZnO exhibited the high catalytic activity in the photodegradation. • Photocatalytic activity is a result of the combination of various factors. - Abstract: Here we present a facile method for the preparation of highly dispersive ZnO materials by using ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-[3′-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] imidazolium chloride as the template. The influence of ionic liquid concentration and calcined atmosphere on the photoactivity is studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N{sub 2} gas sorption and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results showed that the as-fabricated ZnO materials consisted of individual microrods with self-assembled bowknot-like architecture whose size was about 1 μm. The formation mechanism of the bowknot-like ZnO materials which is based on the self-assembly of ionic liquid is tentatively elucidated. Moreover, the ZnO-2.6N sample exhibited the higher activity for the photodegradation of MB than the photodegradation of MO and RhB. Furthermore, it was found that the ZnO materials calcined under air atmosphere showed the better photocatalytic activities than that of samples calcined under nitrogen atmosphere in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. And the special structure, surface area, adsorption capability of dye, the separation rate of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and band gap had effects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO photocatalysts. O{sub 2}·{sup −} was the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of MB. It is valuable to develop this facile

  11. Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of highly dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods for photocatalytic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Shuo; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Chao; Sheng, Xiaoli; Fang, Jiasheng; Zhang, Mingyu; Yang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ionic liquid was used as template for dispersive bowknot-like ZnO microrods. • The bowknot-like ZnO consists of individual microrods whose size is about 1 μm. • The formation mechanism of the ZnO materials is tentatively elucidated. • The bowknot-like ZnO exhibited the high catalytic activity in the photodegradation. • Photocatalytic activity is a result of the combination of various factors. - Abstract: Here we present a facile method for the preparation of highly dispersive ZnO materials by using ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-[3′-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] imidazolium chloride as the template. The influence of ionic liquid concentration and calcined atmosphere on the photoactivity is studied. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N_2 gas sorption and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results showed that the as-fabricated ZnO materials consisted of individual microrods with self-assembled bowknot-like architecture whose size was about 1 μm. The formation mechanism of the bowknot-like ZnO materials which is based on the self-assembly of ionic liquid is tentatively elucidated. Moreover, the ZnO-2.6N sample exhibited the higher activity for the photodegradation of MB than the photodegradation of MO and RhB. Furthermore, it was found that the ZnO materials calcined under air atmosphere showed the better photocatalytic activities than that of samples calcined under nitrogen atmosphere in the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV irradiation. And the special structure, surface area, adsorption capability of dye, the separation rate of photogenerated electron–hole pairs and band gap had effects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO photocatalysts. O_2·"− was the main active species for the photocatalytic degradation of MB. It is valuable to develop this facile route preparing

  12. Final Technical Report - High-Performance, Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Tubes for Production of Ethylene adn Other Industrial Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKimpson, Marvin G.

    2006-04-06

    This project was undertaken by Michigan Technological University and Special Metals Corporation to develop creep-resistant, coking-resistant oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) tubes for use in industrial-scale ethylene pyrolysis and steam methane reforming operations. Ethylene pyrolysis tubes are exposed to some of the most severe service conditions for metallic materials found anywhere in the chemical process industries, including elevated temperatures, oxidizing atmospheres and high carbon potentials. During service, hard deposits of carbon (coke) build up on the inner wall of the tube, reducing heat transfer and restricting the flow of the hydrocarbon feedstocks. About every 20 to 60 days, the reactor must be taken off-line and decoked by burning out the accumulated carbon. This decoking costs on the order of $9 million per year per ethylene plant, accelerates tube degradation, and requires that tubes be replaced about every 5 years. The technology developed under this program seeks to reduce the energy and economic cost of coking by creating novel bimetallic tubes offering a combination of improved coking resistance, creep resistance and fabricability not available in current single-alloy tubes. The inner core of this tube consists of Incoloy(R) MA956, a commercial ferritic Fe-Cr-Al alloy offering a 50% reduction in coke buildup combined with improved carburization resistance. The outer sheath consists of a new material - oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Alloy 803(R) developed under the program. This new alloy retains the good fireside environmental resistance of Alloy 803, a commercial wrought alloy currently used for ethylene production, and provides an austenitic casing to alleviate the inherently-limited fabricability of the ferritic Incoloy(R) MA956 core. To provide mechanical compatibility between the two alloys and maximize creep resistance of the bimetallic tube, both the inner Incoloy(R) MA956 and the outer ODS Alloy 803 are oxide dispersion

  13. Spectroscopic and magnetic studies of highly dispersible superparamagnetic silica coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadyszak, Krzysztof [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Mariana Smo.luchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Kertmen, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmet.kertmen@pg.gda.pl [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Coy, Emerson [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Andruszkiewicz, Ryszard; Milewski, Sławomir [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland); Kardava, Irakli; Scheibe, Błażej; Jurga, Stefan [NanoBioMedical Centre, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Chybczyńska, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyna.chybczynska@ifmpan.poznan.pl [Institute of Molecular Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Mariana Smo.luchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}@Silica were obtained. • Magnetic response was studied by DC, AC magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy. • Nanoparticles show magnetite structure with a well-defined Verwey transition. • Samples show no inter particle magnetic interactions or agglomeration. - Abstract: Superparamagnetic behavior in aqueously well dispersible magnetite core-shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is presented. The magnetic properties of core-shell nanoparticles were measured with use of the DC, AC magnetometry and EPR spectroscopy. Particles where characterized by HR-TEM and Raman spectroscopy, showing a crystalline magnetic core of 11.5 ± 0.12 nm and an amorphous silica shell of 22 ± 1.5 nm in thickness. The DC, AC magnetic measurements confirmed the superparamagnetic nature of nanoparticles, additionally the EPR studies performed at much higher frequency than DC, AC magnetometry (9 GHz) have confirmed the paramagnetic nature of the nanoparticles. Our results show the excellent magnetic behavior of the particles with a clear magnetite structure, which are desirable properties for environmental remediation and biomedical applications.

  14. An investigation on fuel meats extruded with atomized U-10wt% Mo powder for uranium high-density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Park, Jong-Man; Lee, Don-Bae; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    1997-01-01

    The RERTR program has been making an effort to develop dispersion fuels with uranium densities of 8 to 9 g U/cm3 for research and test reactors. Using atomized U-10wt%Mo powder, fuel meats have been fabricated successfully up to 55 volume % of fuel powder. The uranium density of an extruded meat with a 55 volume % of fuel powder was obtained to be 7.7 g/cm3. A relatively high porosity of 7.3% was formed due to cracking of particles, presumably induced by the impingement among agglomerated particles. Tensile test results indicated that the strength of fuel meats with 55% volume fraction decreased some and a little of ductility was maintained. Examination on the fracture surface revealed that some U-10%Mo particles appeared to be broken by the tensile force in brittle rupture mode. The increase of broken particles in high fuel fraction is considered to be induced mainly by the impingement among agglomerated particles. Uranium loading density is assumed to be improved through the development of the better homogeneous dispersion technology. (author)

  15. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  16. An earth anchor system: installation and design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.L. Copstead; D.D. Studier

    1990-01-01

    A system for anchoring the guylines and skylines of cable yarding equipment is presented. A description of three types of tipping plate anchors is given. Descriptions of the installation equipment and methods specific to each type are given. Procedures for determining the correct number of anchors to install are included, as are guidelines for installing the anchors so...

  17. Mixed matrix membranes prepared from high impact polystyrene with dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles for gas separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Safaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents synthesis and characterization of high impact polystyrene - TiO2 nanoparticles mixed matrix membranes for separation of carbon dioxide from nitrogen. The solution-casting method was used for preparation of membranes. The nano mixed matrix membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy to ensure the suitable dispersion of nano particles in high impact polystyrene matrix. The effect of TiO2 nanoparticles loading on membrane performance was investigated. The separation performance of synthesized membranes was investigated in separation of CO2 from CO2/N2 mixture. Effect of feed pressure and TiO2 content on separation of CO2 was studied. The results revealed that increase of feed pressure decreases flux of gases through the mixed matrix membrane. The results also confirmed that the best separation performance can be obtained at TiO2 nanoparticles loading of 7 wt.%.

  18. Highly dispersed TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk

    2013-06-06

    Based on the chemical stability of group IV and V elements in acidic solutions, TaOx nanoparticles prepared by electrodeposition in an ethanol-based Ta plating bath at room temperature were investigated as novel nonplatinum electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Electrodeposition conditions of Ta complexes and subsequent various heat treatments for the deposited TaOx were examined for the best performance of the ORR. TaOx particles on carbon black (CB), electrodeposited at a constant potential of -0.5 V Ag/AgCl for 10 s and then heat-treated by pure H2 flow at 523 K for 1 h, showed excellent catalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.93 VRHE (for 2 μA cm-2) for the ORR. Surface characterizations of the catalysts were performed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The loading amounts of the electrodeposited material on the CB were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). All the physical results suggested that high dispersion of TaOx particles on the CB surface with 2-3 nm size was critical and key for high activity. The chemical identity and modified surface structure for the deposited TaOx catalysts before and after H 2 heat treatment were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The formation of more exposed active sites on the electrode surface and enhanced electroconductivity of the tantalum oxide promoted from the H 2 treatment greatly improved the ORR performance of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles on CB. Finally, the highly retained ORR activity after an accelerated durability test in an acidic solution confirmed and proved the chemical stability of the oxide nanoparticles. The high utilization of the electrodeposited TaOx nanoparticles uniformly dispersed on CB for the ORR was comparable to that of commercial Pt/CB catalysts

  19. The influence of selected containment structures on debris dispersal and transport following high pressure melt ejection from the reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilch, M.; Tarbell, W.W.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    High pressure expulsion of molten core debris from the reactor pressure vessel may result in dispersal of the debris from the reactor cavity. In most plants, the cavity exits into the containment such that the debris impinges on structures. Retention of the debris on the structures may affect the further transport of the debris throughout the containment. Two tests were done with scaled structural shapes placed at the exit of 1:10 linear scale models of the Zion cavity. The results show that the debris does not adhere significantly to structures. The lack of retention is attributed to splashing from the surface and reentrainment in the gas flowing over the surface. These processes are shown to be applicable to reactor scale. A third experiment was done to simulate the annular gap between the reactor vessel and cavity wall. Debris collection showed that the fraction of debris exiting through the gap was greater than the gap-to-total flow area ratio. Film records indicate that dispersal was primarily by entrainment of the molten debris in the cavity. 29 refs., 36 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Cross-phase modulation instability in optical fibres with exponential saturable nonlinearity and high-order dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian-Qiong, Zhong; An-Ping, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing the linear-stability analysis, this paper analytically investigates and calculates the condition and gain spectra of cross-phase modulation instability in optical fibres in the case of exponential saturable nonlinearity and high-order dispersion. The results show that, the modulation instability characteristics here are similar to those of conventional saturable nonlinearity and Kerr nonlinearity. That is to say, when the fourth-order dispersion has the same sign as that of the second-order one, a new gain spectral region called the second one which is far away from the zero point may appear. The existence of the exponential saturable nonlinearity will make the spectral width as well as the peak gain of every spectral region increase with the input powers before decrease. Namely, for every spectral regime, this may lead to a unique value of peak gain and spectral width for two different input powers. In comparison with the case of conventional saturable nonlinearity, however, when the other parameters are the same, the variations of the spectral width and the peak gain with the input powers will be faster in case of exponential saturable nonlinearity. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  1. Smoke Dispersion Modeling Over Complex Terrain Using High-Resolution Meteorological Data and Satellite Observations: The FireHub Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomos, S.; Amiridis, V.; Zanis, P.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Sofiou, F. I.; Herekakis, T.; Brioude, J.; Stohl, A.; Kahn, R. A.; Kontoes, C.

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 20,212 fire hot spots were recorded by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument over Greece during the period 2002e2013. The Fire Radiative Power (FRP) of these events ranged from 10 up to 6000 MW at 1 km resolution, and many of these fire episodes resulted in long-range transport of smoke over distances up to several hundred kilometers. Three different smoke episodes over Greece are analyzed here using real time hot-spot observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) satellite instrument as well as from MODIS hot-spots. Simulations of smoke dispersion are performed with the FLEXPART-WRF model and particulate matter emissions are calculated directly from the observed FRP. The modeled smoke plumes are compared with smoke stereo-heights from the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) instrument and the sensitivities to atmospheric and modeling parameters are examined. Driving the simulations with high resolution meteorology (4 4 km) and using geostationary satellite data to identify the hot spots allows the description of local scale features that govern smoke dispersion. The long-range transport of smoke is found to be favored over the complex coastline environment of Greece due to the abrupt changes between land and marine planetary boundary layers (PBL) and the decoupling of smoke layers from the surface.

  2. High resolution modelling of aerosol dispersion regimes during the CAPITOUL field experiment: from regional to local scale interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aouizerats

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available High resolution simulation of complex aerosol particle evolution and gaseous chemistry over an atmospheric urban area is of great interest for understanding air quality and processes. In this context, the CAPITOUL (Canopy and Aerosol Particle Interactions in the Toulouse Urban Layer field experiment aims at a better understanding of the interactions between the urban dynamics and the aerosol plumes. During a two-day Intensive Observational Period, a numerical model experiment was set up to reproduce the spatial distribution of specific particle pollutants, from the regional scales and the interactions between different cities, to the local scales with specific turbulent structures. Observations show that local dynamics depends on the day-regime, and may lead to different mesoscale dynamical structures. This study focuses on reproducing these fine scale dynamical structures, and investigate the impact on the aerosol plume dispersion. The 500-m resolution simulation manages to reproduce convective rolls at local scale, which concentrate most of the aerosol particles and can locally affect the pollutant dispersion and air quality.

  3. Practice for dispersing pigments and other materials into water-based suspensions with a high intensity mixer

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 In preparing ceramic glazes and slurries for use, it is often necessary to add pigments to develop a desired fired color, to incorporate viscosity control agents for developing, or providing to develop the desired thickness of the glaze on the ware, to add materials which stabilize the suspension, control bacterial growth, and develop the desired hardness of the glaze on the ware to allow moving and handling before firing. While it is convenient to add these materials to the glaze or slurry in the dry form, it is often possible to use slurries where these materials are dispersed in a slurry and the slurry then added to the liquid glaze. Regardless of the state of the additions (dry or slurry), the dispersion can be done efficiently and effectively by the use of a high intensity mixer (sometimes referred to as a dissolver) and the procedure used is described here. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if...

  4. Highly dispersed PVP-supported Ir–Ni bimetallic nanoparticles as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-05-23

    May 23, 2018 ... high performance catalyst for degradation of metanil yellow ... Department of Chemistry, KGC, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar 249407, India. ∗. Author for ... dyes possess one or more azo groups and are widely used ... streams from textile plants are highly coloured in most cases. The ... from toxicity.

  5. High temperature creep strength of Advanced Radiation Resistant Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Austenitic stainless steel may be one of the candidates because of good strength and corrosion resistance at the high temperatures, however irradiation swelling well occurred to 120dpa at high temperatures and this leads the decrease of the mechanical properties and dimensional stability. Compared to this, ferritic/martensitic steel is a good solution because of excellent thermal conductivity and good swelling resistance. Unfortunately, the available temperature range of ferritic/martensitic steel is limited up to 650 .deg. C. ODS steel is the most promising structural material because of excellent creep and irradiation resistance by uniformly distributed nano-oxide particles with a high density which is extremely stable at the high temperature in ferritic/martensitic matrix. In this study, high temperature strength of advanced radiation resistance ODS steel was investigated for the core structural material of next generation nuclear systems. ODS martensitic steel was designed to have high homogeneity, productivity and reproducibility. Mechanical alloying, hot isostactic pressing and hot rolling processes were employed to fabricate the ODS steels, and creep rupture test as well as tensile test were examined to investigate the behavior at high temperatures. ODS steels were fabricated by a mechanical alloying and hot consolidation processes. Mechanical properties at high temperatures were investigated. The creep resistance of advanced radiation resistant ODS steels was more superior than those of ferritic/ martensitic steel, austenitic stainless steel and even a conventional ODS steel.

  6. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  7. Development of Highly Nano-Dispersed NiO/GDC Catalysts from Ion Exchange Resin Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Caravaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel NiO/GDC (Gadolinium-doped Ceria cermet catalysts were developed by the Weak Acid Resin (WAR method using an ion exchange resin template. In addition, the specific surface area of these tunable materials was enhanced by NiO partial dissolution in aqueous acid solution. The whole procedure highly improved the micro-structural properties of these materials compared to previous studies. Catalysts with high metal loadings (≥10%, small Ni nanoparticles (<10 nm, and high specific surface areas (>70 m2/g were achieved. These properties are promising for catalytic applications such as methane steam reforming for H2 production.

  8. Highly water-dispersible, mixed ionic-electronic conducting, polymer acid-doped polyanilines as ionomers for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Arun; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2011-06-28

    Highly water-dispersible polymer acid-doped polyanilines have been synthesized and evaluated as an alternative for expensive Nafion ionomers in the anode of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). These polymers as ionomers lead to higher performance in single cell DMFC compared to Nafion ionomers due to mixed ionic-electronic conduction, water dispersibility, and co-catalytic activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  9. A highly accurate finite-difference method with minimum dispersion error for solving the Helmholtz equation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the acoustic wave equation in either isotropic or anisotropic media is crucial to seismic modeling, imaging and inversion. Actually, it represents the core computation cost of these highly advanced seismic processing methods

  10. ESA Gaia & the multifrequency behavior of high-energy sources with ultra-low dispersion spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, L.; Hudcová, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 1 (2012), s. 342-346 ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on multifrequency behaviour of high energy cosmic sources. Vulcano, 23.05.2011-28.05.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * high-energy sources * satellites Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. Using thermal limits to assess establishment of fish dispersing to high-latitude and high-elevation watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmall, Karen M.; Mochnacz, Neil J.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Lean, Charles; Reist, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Distributional shifts of biota to higher latitudes and elevations are presumably influenced by species-specific physiological tolerances related to warming temperatures. However, it is establishment rather than dispersal that may be limiting colonizations in these cold frontier areas. In freshwater ecosystems, perennial groundwater springs provide critical winter thermal refugia in these extreme environments. By reconciling the thermal characteristics of these refugia with the minimum thermal tolerances of life stages critical for establishment, we develop a strategy to focus broad projections of northward and upward range shifts to the specific habitats that are likely for establishments. We evaluate this strategy using chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) that seem poised to colonize Arctic watersheds. Stream habitats with a minimum temperature of 4 °C during spawning and temperatures above 2 °C during egg incubation were most vulnerable to establishments by chum and pink salmon. This strategy will improve modelling forecasts of range shifts for cold freshwater habitats and focus proactive efforts to conserve both newly emerging fisheries and native species at northern and upper distributional extremes.

  12. High Emigration Propensity and Low Mortality on Transfer Drives Female-Biased Dispersal of Pyriglena leucoptera in Fragmented Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Awade

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a biological process performed in three stages: emigration, transfer and immigration. Intra-specific variation on dispersal behavior, such as sex-bias, is very common in nature, particularly in birds and mammals. However, dispersal is difficult to measure in the field and many hypotheses concerning the causes of sex-biased dispersal remain without empirical confirmation. An important limitation of most empirical studies is that inferences about sex-biased dispersal are based only on emigration proneness or immigration success data. Thus, we still do not know whether sex-biased immigration in fragmented landscapes occurs during emigration, transfer or in both stages. We conducted translocation and radiotracking experiments to assess i whether inter-patch dispersal movements of a rainforest bird (Pyriglena leucoptera is sex-biased and ii how dispersal stages and the perceptual range of the individuals are integrated to generate dispersal patterns. Our results showed that inter-patch dispersal is sex-biased at all stages for P. leucoptera, as females not only exhibit a higher emigration propensity but are subjected to a lower risk of predation when moving through the matrix. Moreover, our data support a perceptual range of 80 m and our results showed that dispersal success decreases considerably when inter-patch distances exceeds this perceptual range. In this case, birds have a higher probability of travelling over longer routes and, as a consequence, the risk of predation increases, specially for males. Overall, results supported that assuming dispersal as a single-stage process to describe dispersal behavior may be misleading. In this way, our study advanced our understanding of processes and patterns related to inter-patch dispersal of neotropical forest birds, shedding light on potential implications for population dynamics and for the management of fragmented landscapes.

  13. Organization, 'Anchoring' of Knowledge, and Innovative Activity in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Vinding, Anker Lund

    2006-01-01

    The construction industry is characterised by the widespread use of project organisation. It has been suggested that the relatively low level of innovative activity in the industry can be explained by the temporary nature of firm boundary-crossing projects. Survey data from the Danish construction...... industry is used to investigate the importance of learning and 'anchoring' of project-specific knowledge at the firm level for participation in innovative activities. The data cover both the overall Danish construction industry and a specific region, North Jutland, which has a relatively high...... specialisation of construction workers. Latent class and regression analyses reveal that firms that make extensive use of partnering, together with internal product and process evaluation and knowledge diffusion (labelled 'knowledge-anchoring mechanisms'), are more likely to participate in innovative activities...

  14. Liquid crystal droplet formation and anchoring dynamics in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Ben; Shen, Amy; Feng, James; Link, Darren

    2004-11-01

    Liquid crystal drops dispersed in a continuous phase of silicon oil are generated with a narrow distribution in droplet size in microfluidic devices both above and below the nematic to isotropic transition temperature. For these two cases, we observe not only the different LC droplet generation and coalescence dynamics, but also distinct droplet morphology. Our experiments show that the nematic liquid crystalline order is important for the LC droplet formation and anchoring dynamics.

  15. A comparison between different oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel ongoing in situ oxide dissolution in High Voltage Electron Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnet, I.; Van den Berghe, T.; Dubuisson, Ph.

    2012-01-01

    ODS materials are considered for nuclear applications but previous experimental studies have shown a partial dissolution of some oxides under neutron irradiation. In this work, electron irradiations were used to evaluate the stability of the oxides depending on the chemical composition of the oxide dispersion. Four ferritic steels based on EM10 (Fe–9Cr–1Mo) and reinforced respectively by Al 2 O 3 , MgO, MgAl 2 O 4 and Y 2 O 3 , were studied. These materials were irradiated with 1 MeV or 1.2 MeV electrons in a High Voltage Electron Microscope. This technique allows to follow one single oxide and to determine the evolution of its size during the irradiation. In situ HVEM observations indicate that the dissolution rate depends on the chemical composition of the oxide, on the temperature and on the irradiation dose.

  16. Eco-friendly one-pot synthesis of highly dispersible functionalized graphene nanosheets with free amino groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiting; Duan Xuezhi; Qian Gang; Zhou Xinggui; Yuan Weikang

    2013-01-01

    An eco-friendly, facile and scalable hydrothermal approach, in which the reduction and functionalization of graphite oxide (GO) are completed in one pot, is proposed for the synthesis of monolayer 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized graphenes (A-FGs). Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses indicate that the as-synthesized A-FGs consist of only one or a few layered graphenes, while x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that APTES is bonded to graphene by the dehydration reaction between the Si–OH (produced by APTES hydration) and the –OH on the GO surface. As a result, free amino groups are left on the A-FGs. Moreover, A-FGs are highly dispersible in dimethylsulfoxide, APTES and ethylene glycol, and their solubilities are up to 0.89, 4.03 and 0.90 mg ml −1 , respectively. (paper)

  17. Highly dispersed Pt-Ni nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes for application in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shujuan; Ma, Yanwen; Tao, Haisheng; Jian, Guoqiang; Wang, Xizhang; Fan, Yining; Zhu, Jianmin; Hu, Zheng

    2010-06-01

    Binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) have been facilely constructed without pre-modification by making use of the active sites in NCNTs due to the N-participation. So-obtained binary Pt-Ni alloyed nanoparticles have been highly dispersed on the outer surface of the support with the size of about 3-4 nm. The electrochemical properties of the catalysts for methanol oxidation have been systematically evaluated. Binary Pt-Ni alloyed composites with molar ratio (Pt:Ni) of 3:2 and 3:1 present enhanced electrocatalytic activities and improved tolerance to CO poisoning as well as the similar stability, in comparison with the commercial Pt/C catalyst and the monometallic Pt/NCNTs catalysts. These results imply that so-constructed nanocomposite catalysts have the potential for applications in direct methanol fuel cells.

  18. Effects of fourth-order dispersion in very high-speed optical time-division multiplexed transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, J; Pastor, D; Sales, S; Ortega, B

    2002-06-01

    We present a closed-form expression for computation of the output pulse's rms time width in an optical fiber link with up to fourth-order dispersion (FOD) by use of an optical source with arbitrary linewidth and chirp parameters. We then specialize the expression to analyze the effect of FOD on the transmission of very high-speed linear optical time-division multiplexing systems. By suitable source chirping, FOD can be compensated for to an upper link-length limit above which other techniques must be employed. Finally, a design formula to estimate the maximum attainable bit rate limited by FOD as a function of the link length is also presented.

  19. The variance of dispersion measure of high-redshift transient objects as a probe of ionized bubble size during reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Shintaro; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2018-01-01

    The dispersion measure (DM) of high-redshift (z ≳ 6) transient objects such as fast radio bursts can be a powerful tool to probe the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization. In this paper, we study the variance of the DMs of objects with the same redshift as a potential probe of the size distribution of ionized bubbles. We calculate the DM variance with a simple model with randomly distributed spherical bubbles. It is found that the DM variance reflects the characteristics of the probability distribution of the bubble size. We find that the variance can be measured precisely enough to obtain the information on the typical size with a few hundred sources at a single redshift.

  20. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  1. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  2. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  3. High dielectric permittivity elastomers from well-dispersed expanded graphite in low concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Kostrzewska, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The development of elastomer materials with a high dielectric permittivity has attracted increased interest over the last years due to their use in for example dielectric electroactive polymers. For this particular use, both the electrically insulating properties - as well as the mechanical...

  4. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  5. Accurate, high-throughput typing of copy number variation using paralogue ratios from dispersed repeats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armour, J.A.; Palla, R.; Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Heijer, M. den; Schalkwijk, J.; Hollox, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated an unexpected prevalence of copy number variation in the human genome, and has highlighted the part this variation may play in predisposition to common phenotypes. Some important genes vary in number over a high range (e.g. DEFB4, which commonly varies between two and

  6. Career anchors and learning plan (part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is divided into three parts. The first part concentrates on how important career is for an individual, organization and society. The author establishes that understanding of career has changed dramatically and does not only refer to climbing up the career ladder, but also moving off or even down the career ladder. The notion of career, as a lifelong and professional path, encompasses all aspects of human personality and their roles acquired through one's life. On basis of vast and longitudinal research, where the author has studied career anchors of individuals, it is the objective of the author to find out on basis of what grounds do the individuals decide to take certain directions in their careers and how learning contributes to such decisions. As a source the author has used Shein's theory of career anchors. Part one describes in greater detail 8 different career anchors and introduces their main features with the findings of the research, which refer to the analysis of professions (work positions and established career anchors. The author thus verifies the hypothesis that career anchors do exist in our area.

  7. Status of fuel element technology for plate type dispersion fuels with high uranium density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Huschka, H.; Koch, K.H.; Nazare, S.; Ondracek, G.

    1983-01-01

    A number of about 20 Material Test and Research Reactors in Germany and abroad is supplied with fuel elements by the company NUKEM. The power of these reactors differs widely ranging from up to about 100 MW. Consequently, the uranium density of the fuel elements in the meat varies considerably depending on the reactor type and is usually within the range from 0.4 to 1.3 g U/cm 3 if HEU is used. In order to convert these reactors to lower uranium enrichment (19.75% 235-U) extensive work is carried out at NUKEM since about two years with the goal to develop fuel elements with high U-density. This work is sponsored by the German Ministry for Research and Technology in the frame of the AF-program. This paper reports on the present state of development for fuel elements with high U-density fuels at NUKEM is reported. The development works were so far concentrated on UAl x , U 3 O 8 and UO 2 fuels which will be described in more detail. In addition fuel plates with new fuels like e.g. U-Si or U-Fe compounds are developed in collaboration with KfK. The required uranium densities for some typical reactors with low, medium, and high power are listed allowing a comparison of HEU and LEU uranium density requirements. The 235-U-content in the case of LEU is raised by 18%. Two different meat thicknesses are considered: Standard thickness of 0.5 mm; and increased thickness of 0.76 mm. From this data compilation the objective follows: in the case of conversion to LEU (19.75% 235-U-enrichment), uranium densities have to be made available up to 24 gU/cm 3 meat for low power level reactors, up to 33 gU/cm 3 meat for medium power level reactors, and between 5.75 and 7.03 g/cm 3 meat for high power level reactors according to this consideration

  8. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  9. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Drury, O.; Niedermayr, T.; Cunningham, M.F.; Van den Berg, M.L.; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution x-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 24 hours hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance

  10. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, S; Drury, O B; Cunningham, M F; Berg, M L; Ullom, J N; Loshak, A; Funk, T; Cramer, S P; Batteux, J D; See, E; Frank, M; Labov, S E

    2001-01-01

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  11. A superconducting detector endstation for high-resolution energy-dispersive SR-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; Niedermayr, T.; Drury, O.; Cunningham, M.F.; Berg, M.L. van den; Ullom, J.N.; Loshak, A.; Funk, T.; Cramer, S.P.; Batteux, J.D.; See, E.; Frank, M.; Labov, S.E

    2001-07-21

    We have built a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) to operate cryogenic high-resolution X-ray detectors in synchrotron-based fluorescence applications. The detector is held at the end of a 40 cm cold finger that extends into a UHV sample chamber. The ADR attains a base temperature below 100 mK with about 20 h hold time below 400 mK, and does not require pumping on the liquid He bath. We will discuss cryostat design and performance.

  12. Highly dispersive ion exchangers in the analytical chemistry of uranium, particularly regarding separation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoening, R.

    1975-01-01

    The reaction of water-insoluble polyvinyl pyrrolidon with uranium VI was investigated and a determination method for uranium was worked out in which the polyvinyl pyrrolidon was used as specific exchanger. Good separations of uranium from numerous transition metal ions were achieved here. The application of this exchanger for a fast and simple elution and determination method was of particular importance. A possible sorption mechanism was suggested based on the capacity curve of uranium with polyvinyl pyrrolidon and nitrogen and chloride content at maximum load. The sorption occurs by coordination of the carbonyl oxygen of single pyrrolidon rings with the protons of the complex acides and uranium. This assumption is supported by IR investigations. The sorbability of other inorganic acids was also investigated and possible structures were formulated for the sorption mechanism. In addition to this, ion exchangers were prepared based on cellulose by converting cellulose powder with aziridine and tris-1-aziridinyl-phosphine oxide. A polyethylene imine cellulose of high capacity was obtained in the conversion of cellulose powder with aziridine. This exchanger absorbs cobalt III very strongly. The exchanger loaded with cobalt III was used to separate the uranium as cyanato complex. The exchanger obtained in converting chlorated cellulose with tris-1-aziridinyl phosphine oxide also absorbs uranium VI very strongly. Thus a separation method of high specifity and selectivity was developed. (orig.) [de

  13. Determination of five antiarrhythmic drugs in human plasma by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouyban, Abolghasem; Sorouraddin, Mohammad Hossein; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Fazeli-Bakhtiyari, Rana

    2015-03-01

    A fast and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantitation of five antiarrhythmic drugs (metoprolol, propranolol, carvedilol, diltiazem, and verapamil) in human plasma samples. It involves dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) of the desired drugs from 660 µL plasma and separation using isocratic elution with UV detection at 200 nm. The complete separation of all analytes was achieved within 7 min. Acetonitrile (as disperser solvent) resulting from the protein precipitation procedure was mixed with 100 µL dichloromethane (as an extraction solvent) and rapidly injected into 5 mL aqueous solution (pH 11.5) containing 1% (w/v), NaCl. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase containing enriched analytes was collected and evaporated to dryness. The residue was re-dissolved in 50 µL de-ionized water (acidified to pH 3) and injected into the HPLC system for analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the enrichment factors and extraction recoveries ranged between 4.4-10.8 and 33-82%, respectively. The suggested method was linear (r(2) ≥0.997) over a dynamic range of 0.02-0.80 µg mL(-1) in plasma. The intra- and inter-days relative standard deviation (RSD%) and relative error (RE%) values of the method were below 20%, which shows good precision and accuracy. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of real plasma samples obtained from the patients treated with these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of drugs of abuse in human plasma by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, P; Regenjo, M; Bermejo, A M; Fernández, A M; Lorenzo, R A; Carro, A M

    2015-04-01

    Opioids and cocaine are widely used at present, both for recreational purposes and as drugs of abuse. This raises the need to develop new analytical methods specifically designed for the simultaneous detection of several drugs of abuse in biological samples. In this work, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was assessed as a new sample treatment for the simultaneous extraction of morphine (MOR), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BZE) and methadone (MET) from human plasma. Preliminary assays were done before developing an experimental design based on a Uniform Network Doehlert which allowed the optimum extraction conditions to be identified, namely: a volume of extractant solvent (chloroform) and dispersant solvent (acetonitrile) of 220 µl and 3.2 ml, respectively; 0.2 g of NaCl as a salting-out additive; pH 10.6 and ultrasound stirring for 3.5 min. The resulting extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA), using an XBridge® RP18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size). Calibration graphs were linear over the concentration range 0.1-10 µg ml⁻¹, and detection limits ranged from 13.9 to 28.5 ng ml⁻¹. Precision calculated at three different concentration levels in plasma was included in the range 0.1-6.8% RSD. Recoveries of the five drugs were all higher than 84% on average. Finally the proposed method was successfully applied to 22 plasma samples from heroin, cocaine and/or methadone users, and the most frequently detected drug was benzoylecgonine, followed by methadone, cocaine and morphine. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  16. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre L. by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry combined with matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zuofu; Pan, Youzhi; Li, Lu; Huang, Yuyang; Qi, Xiaolin; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Fu, Yujie

    2014-11-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is presented for the extraction and determination of phenolic compounds in Equisetum palustre. This method combines the high efficiency of matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction and the rapidity, sensitivity, and accuracy of ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The influential parameters of the matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction were investigated and optimized. The optimized conditions were as follows: silica gel was selected as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of silica gel to sample was selected to be 2:1 (400/200 mg), and 8 mL of 80% methanol was used as elution solvent. Furthermore, a fast and sensitive ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of nine phenolic compounds in E. palustre. This method was carried out within <6 min, and exhibited satisfactory linearity, precision, and recovery. Compared with ultrasound-assisted extraction, the proposed matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure possessed higher extraction efficiency, and was more convenient and time saving with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. All these results suggest that the developed method represents an excellent alternative for the extraction and determination of active components in plant matrices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Magnetic fluid with high dispersion and heating performance using nano-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Mikio, E-mail: kishimoto.mikio.gb@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Miyamoto, Ryoichi; Oda, Tatsuya [Department of Surgery, Division of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Yanagihara, Hideto [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro [Department of Surgery, Division of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Kita, Eiji [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic fluid with high dispersion and heating performance was developed using 30 to 50 nm platelet Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. This fluid was prepared by mechanical dispersion in ethyl alcohol with a silane coupling agent, bonding with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and removal of aggregates formed by precipitation. The peak diameter of the resulting Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles, measured by dynamic light scattering, was approximately 150 nm. The fluid exhibited a 300 W/g specific loss power (measured at 114 kHz by a 50.9 kA/m magnetic field). Distribution of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles in tissues was observed by intravenously administrating the fluid in mice. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles passed through the lungs, and were uniformly distributed throughout the liver and spleen. High dispersion and high heating performance were simultaneously achieved in the magnetic fluid using platelet Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles surface modified with PEG. - Highlights: • Magnetic fluid with high dispersion and heating performance using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles. • Fluid prepared by mechanical dispersion, bonding with polyethylene glycol. • TEM observation and measurements of particle size distribution and specific loss power of fluid. • Observation of distribution of particles in mice tissues intravenously administrated fluid.

  18. High-temperature deformation and processing maps of Zr-4 metal matrix with dispersed coated surrogate nuclear fuel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Liu, Huiqun; Zhang, Ruiqian; Li, Gang; Yi, Danqing; Lin, Gaoyong; Guo, Zhen; Liu, Shaoqiang

    2018-06-01

    High-temperature compression deformation of a Zr-4 metal matrix with dispersed coated surrogate nuclear fuel particles was investigated at 750 °C-950 °C with a strain rate of 0.01-1.0 s-1 and height reduction of 20%. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to investigate the influence of the deformation conditions on the microstructure of the composite and damage to the coated surrogate fuel particles. The results indicated that the flow stress of the composite increased with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. The true stress-strain curves showed obvious serrated oscillation characteristics. There were stable deformation ranges at the initial deformation stage with low true strain at strain rate 0.01 s-1 for all measured temperatures. Additionally, the coating on the surface of the surrogate nuclear fuel particles was damaged when the Zr-4 matrix was deformed at conditions of high strain rate and low temperature. The deformation stability was obtained from the processing maps and microstructural characterization. The high-temperature deformation activation energy was 354.22, 407.68, and 433.81 kJ/mol at true strains of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.15, respectively. The optimum deformation parameters for the composite were 900-950 °C and 0.01 s-1. These results are expected to provide guidance for subsequent determination of possible hot working processes for this composite.

  19. Highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with ultra-flattened negative dispersion over S + C + L + U bands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Selim; Khandker, Emran

    2015-01-01

    We present a new cladding design for photonic crystal fiber (PCF) on a decagonal structure to simultaneously achieve ultra-flattened large negative dispersion and ultrahigh birefringence. Numerical results confirm that the proposed PCFexhibits ultra-flattened large negative dispersion over the S ...

  20. Appearance of ferroelectricity by suppressing superconductivity in nanoparticle dispersed glassy precursor for high Tc superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Soma; Chaudhuri, B.K.; Sakata, H.

    2003-01-01

    The multicomponent Bi 1.8 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 2.8 K 0.2 O δ (FG) glass is found to show ferroelectric (FE) transition around T fc = 530K. Microstructural (TEM) studies of these glasses indicated the presence of nano-crystalline particles/ clusters (∼10-30 nm size). In this glass-nanoparticle composite (GNC), presence of ferroelectric nano-particles/ islands is considered to be responsible for the FE behavior. The K-free FG type glasses showing no dielectric anomaly (or ferroelectricity) are precursors of high T c superconductors which become superconductors (T c ∼80K) by annealing around 840 degC. The K-doped (FG) GNC is, however, not superconducting in the corresponding annealed phase which indicates suppression of superconductivity due to the presence of K or by the appearance of ferroelectricity. Transport and dielectric properties of both K doped and undoped GNC have been studied and they are found to be semiconducting and follow non-adiabatic small polaron hopping conduction mechanism. (author)

  1. Should high-level nuclear waste be disposed of at geographically dispersed sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration of the technical feasibility of Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the site for a high-level nuclear waste repository has led to an intense debate regarding the economic, social, and political impacts of the repository. Impediments to the siting process mean that the nuclear waste problem is being resolved by adhering to the status quo, in which nuclear waste is stored at scattered sites near major population centers. To assess the merits of alternative siting strategies--including both the permanent repository and the status quo- we consider the variables that would be included in a model designed to select (1) the optimal number of disposal facilities, (2) the types of facilities (e.g., permanent repository or monitored retrievable facility), and (3) the geographic location of storage sites. The objective function in the model is an all-inclusive measure of social cost. The intent of the exercise is not to demonstrate the superiority of any single disposal strategy; uncertainties preclude a conclusive proof of optimality for any of the disposal options. Instead, we want to assess the sensitivity of a variety of proposed solutions to variations in the physical, economic, political, and social variables that influence a siting strategy

  2. Dispersal of suspended sediments in the turbid and highly stratified Red River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maren, D. S.; Hoekstra, P.

    2005-03-01

    The Red River, annually transporting 100 million tons of sediment, flows into a shallow shelf sea where it rapidly deposits most of its sediment on a prograding delta front. Oceanographic cruises were carried out in February-March and July-August 2000 to determine the vertical structure of the Ba Lat river plume and sediment transport patterns on the delta front. The surface waters in the coastal zone were strongly stratified with a low density and high sediment concentration during the larger part of the wet season, caused by low mixing rates of river plumes with ambient water. The river plume is advected to the south by a well-developed coastal current which originates from the river plumes that enter the Gulf of Tonkin North of the Ba Lat and are deflected southward by the Coriolis force. Sediment predominantly leaves the surface plume by settling from suspension and less by mixing of fresh and marine water. A one-dimensional model for plume deposition valid for fair weather conditions indicates that most sediment is deposited within 10 km and southward of the river mouth. Of prime importance for this depositional pattern is the phase relation between river outflow and tidal currents, in combination with the southward surface flow; alongshore advection is very low during outflow of the turbid river plume. The agreement of modeled plume sedimentation patterns with long-term bathymetric changes strongly suggests that fair weather depositional processes determine delta front development. This may be related to the fact that reworking of sediment mainly occurs several months after the peak deposition period; in the meantime sediment compaction and consolidation have increased the shear strength of deposited sediments.

  3. Population genomics of Pacific lamprey: adaptive variation in a highly dispersive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Close, David A; Docker, Margaret F; Narum, Shawn R

    2013-06-01

    Unlike most anadromous fishes that have evolved strict homing behaviour, Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) seem to lack philopatry as evidenced by minimal population structure across the species range. Yet unexplained findings of within-region population genetic heterogeneity coupled with the morphological and behavioural diversity described for the species suggest that adaptive genetic variation underlying fitness traits may be responsible. We employed restriction site-associated DNA sequencing to genotype 4439 quality filtered single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci for 518 individuals collected across a broad geographical area including British Columbia, Washington, Oregon and California. A subset of putatively neutral markers (N = 4068) identified a significant amount of variation among three broad populations: northern British Columbia, Columbia River/southern coast and 'dwarf' adults (F(CT) = 0.02, P ≪ 0.001). Additionally, 162 SNPs were identified as adaptive through outlier tests, and inclusion of these markers revealed a signal of adaptive variation related to geography and life history. The majority of the 162 adaptive SNPs were not independent and formed four groups of linked loci. Analyses with matsam software found that 42 of these outlier SNPs were significantly associated with geography, run timing and dwarf life history, and 27 of these 42 SNPs aligned with known genes or highly conserved genomic regions using the genome browser available for sea lamprey. This study provides both neutral and adaptive context for observed genetic divergence among collections and thus reconciles previous findings of population genetic heterogeneity within a species that displays extensive gene flow. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Damage in agitated vessels of large visco-elastic particles dispersed in a highly viscous fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier, Laurent; Moreau, Anne; Line, Alain; Fatah, Nouria; Delaplace, Guillaume

    2011-01-01

    Many food recipes entail several homogenization steps for solid particles in hot or cold viscous liquids, such as pureed fruit and sugar, jam or sauce with mushroom pieces. Unfortunately, these unavoidable processes induce damage to the solid particles. To date, little is known of the extent and nature of the damage caused. Consequently, few clear guidelines are available for monitoring solid particle integrity when mixing solid/liquid suspensions in an agitated tank. In this study, an attempt is made to quantify the impact of various physical parameters including the influence of the rotational speed of the impeller and the processing time on particle attrition, when a suspension of large visco-elastic particles in a highly viscous fluid is mixed under isothermal condition. Pectin gel particles were immerged in a viscous liquid and homogenized for various times and rotational speeds, while the evolution of the particle's morphological parameters was monitored. Then, a set of dimensionless numbers governing the attrition mechanism is established and some empirical process relationships are proposed to correlate these numbers to the morphological characteristics and mass balance ratios. From the conditions observed, it is clear that 2 dimensionless ratios could be responsible for a change in the damaging mechanisms. These 2 ratios are the Froude and impeller rotation numbers. Finally, in the conditions tested, mass balance ratios appear to be mainly sensitive to the impeller rotational number, while the shape ratios are both impacted by the Froude and impeller rotational numbers. Damage to solid particles suspended in a stirred vessel reduce the final product quality in industrial cooking processes. Examples of this are fruit in jam or sauces with mushroom pieces. The attrition phenomenon was measured and the influences of the impeller rotational speed and processing time were evaluated quantitatively in function of dimensionless numbers. This study contributes key

  5. Relative neutronic performance of proposed high-density dispersion fuels in water-moderated and D2O-reflected research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the neutronic performance of an idealized research reactor using several high density LEU fuels that are being developed by the RERTR program. High-density LEU dispersion fuels are needed for new and existing high-performance research reactors and to extend the lifetime of fuel elements in other research reactors. This paper discusses the anticipated neutronic behavior of proposed advanced fuels containing dispersions of U 3 Si 2 , UN, U 2 Mo and several uranium alloys with Mo, or Zr and Nb. These advanced fuels are ranked based on the results of equilibrium depletion calculations for a simplified reactor model having a small H 2 O-cooled core and a D 2 O reflector. Plans have been developed to fabricate and irradiate several uranium alloy dispersion fuels in order to test their stability and compatibility with the matrix material and to establish practical loading limits

  6. Relative neutronic performance of proposed high-density dispersion fuels in water-moderated and D2O-reflected research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.; Matos, J.E.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the neutronic performance of an idealized research reactor using several high density Leu fuels that are being developed by the Rarita program. High-density Leu dispersion fuels are needed for new and existing high-performance research reactors and to extend the lifetime of fuel elements in other research reactors. This paper discusses the anticipated neutronic behavior of proposed advanced fuels containing dispersions of U 3 Si 2 , UN, U 2 Mo and several uranium alloys with Mo, or Zr and Nb. These advanced fuels are ranked based on the results of equilibrium depletion calculations for a simplified reactor model having a small H 2 O-cooled core and a D 2 O reflector. Plans have been developed to fabricate and irradiate several uranium alloy dispersion fuels in order to test their stability and compatibility with the matrix material and to establish practical loading limits. (author)

  7. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  8. Comparison of Suture-Based Anchors and Traditional Bioabsorbable Anchors in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, W Chad; Tsai, Michael A; Parks, Brent G; Miller, Stuart D

    We compared the pullout strength of a suture-based anchor versus a bioabsorbable anchor in the distal fibula and calcaneus and evaluated the relationship between bone mineral density and peak load to failure. Eight paired cadaveric specimens underwent a modified Broström procedure and Achilles tendon reattachment. The fibula and calcaneus in the paired specimens received either a suture-based anchor or a bioabsorbable suture anchor. The fibular and calcaneal specimens were loaded to failure, defined as a substantial decrease in the applied load or pullout from the bone. In the fibula, the peak load to failure was significantly greater with the suture-based versus the bioabsorbable anchors (133.3 ± 41.8 N versus 76.8 ± 35.3 N; p = .002). No significant difference in load with 5 mm of displacement was found between the 2 groups. In the calcaneus, no difference in the peak load to failure was found between the 2 groups, and the peak load to failure with 5 mm of displacement was significantly lower with the suture-based than with the bioabsorbable anchors (52.2 ± 9.8 N versus 75.9 ± 12.4 N; p = .003). Bone mineral density and peak load to failure were significantly correlated in the fibula with the suture-based anchor. An innovative suture-based anchor had a greater peak load to failure compared with a bioabsorbable anchor in the fibula. In the calcaneus, the load at 5 mm of displacement was significantly lower in the suture-based than in the bioabsorbable group. The correlation findings might indicate the need for a cortical bone shelf with the suture-based anchor. Suture-based anchors could be a viable alternative to bioabsorbable anchors for certain foot and ankle procedures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mesostructured Au/C materials obtained by replication of functionalized SBA-15 silica containing highly dispersed gold nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Kerdi, Fatmé

    2011-04-01

    The preparation and characterization of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles in ordered mesoporous carbons CMK-3 are reported. These carbons were obtained using gold-containing functionalized SBA-15 silicas as hard templates. Two series of Au/SiO2 templates were prepared, depending on the nature of the functionalization molecule. While ammonium-functionalized silicas gave gold particles with a size determined by the pores of the silica support, the use of mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane as grafting molecule afforded the possibility to control the particle size inside the mesopores. Both series gave highly ordered mesoporous carbons with gold particles incorporated in the carbon nanorods. However, the gold particle size in mesoporous carbons was the same for both series and apparently did not depend on the nature of the silica template. Both Au/SiO2 templates and their corresponding Au/CMK-3 materials have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, chemical analysis, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and transmission electron microscopy. They were also used as catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of cyclohexene and trans-stilbene in the liquid phase. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peroxymonosulfate activation and pollutants degradation over highly dispersed CuO in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Peng; Fang, Jia; Wang, Manye; Wu, Deming; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-11-01

    Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) supported CuO catalysts were synthesized, characterized and used in the removal of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution by an oxidation process involving peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that the CuO species were highly dispersed in OMS-2 with a high ratio of easily reduced surface oxygen species. The synergetic effect between CuO and OMS-2 significantly improved the dye degradation rate and catalytic stability, compared with CuO, OMS-2 and supported CuO on other materials. About 97% of the dye was removed within 15 min at neutral solution pH by using 0.2 g/L of CuO/OMS-2 and PMS. The effect of initial solution pH, PMS concentration, reaction temperature and CuO content in the composites on AO7 degradation was also investigated. Mechanism study indicated that SO4-rad radicals generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn and Cu species with different oxidation states, mainly accounted for the degradation.

  11. Program for in-pile qualification of high density silicide dispersion fuel at IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose E.R. da; Silva, Antonio T. e; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Durazzo, Michelangelo

    2009-01-01

    The development of high density nuclear fuel (U 3 Si 2 -Al) with 4,8 gU/cm 3 is on going at IPEN, at this time. This fuel has been considered to be utilized at the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), planned to be constructed up to 2014. As Brazil does not have hot-cell facilities available for post-irradiation analysis, an alternative qualifying program for this fuel is proposed based on the same procedures used at IPEN since 1988 for qualifying its own U 3 O 8 -Al (1,9 and 2,3 gU/cm 3 ) and U 3 Si 2 -Al (3,0 gU/cm 3 ) dispersion fuels. The fuel miniplates and full-size fuel elements irradiations should be tested at IEA-R1 core. The fuel characterization along the irradiation time should be made by means of non-destructive methods, including periodical visual inspections with an underwater video camera system, sipping tests for fuel elements suspected of leakage, and underwater dimensional measurements for swelling evaluation, performed inside the reactor pool. This work presents the program description for the qualification of the high density nuclear fuel (U 3 Si 2 -Al) with 4,8 gU/cm 3 , and describes the IPEN fuel fabrication infrastructure and some basic features of the available systems for non-destructive tests at IEA-R1 research reactor. (author)

  12. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Tramontana, A.; Amato, A.; Caruso, G.F.; Salamone, S.; Maggiore, M.; Velyhan, A.; Margarone, D.; Palumbo, G. Parasiliti; Russo, G.

    2014-01-01

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy

  13. Stability Analysis of Anchored Soil Slope Based on Finite Element Limit Equilibrium Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the condition of the plane strain, finite element limit equilibrium method is used to study some key problems of stability analysis for anchored slope. The definition of safe factor in slices method is generalized into FEM. The “true” stress field in the whole structure can be obtained by elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then, the optimal search for the most dangerous sliding surface with Hooke-Jeeves optimized searching method is introduced. Three cases of stability analysis of natural slope, anchored slope with seepage, and excavation anchored slope are conducted. The differences in safety factor quantity, shape and location of slip surface, anchoring effect among slices method, finite element strength reduction method (SRM, and finite element limit equilibrium method are comparatively analyzed. The results show that the safety factor given by the FEM is greater and the unfavorable slip surface is deeper than that by the slice method. The finite element limit equilibrium method has high calculation accuracy, and to some extent the slice method underestimates the effect of anchor, and the effect of anchor is overrated in the SRM.

  14. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  15. Chemical biology of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    CSIR-IIIM. Chemical biology of. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. Ram Vishwakarma. CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu. N ti l I tit t f I l. N. D lhi. National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi. Piramal Life Sciences Ltd, Mumbai ...

  16. Method and apparatus for dismantling mechanical anchors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovskiy, Yu P; Chendev, F S; Gritsayuk, B I; Gubin, N I; Osipov, S P

    1982-01-01

    This apparatus is designed to reduce the amount of labor required to dismantle mechanical anchors while at the same time lowering expenditures for lumber. Longwall beams and timber skips are used to support the cap and any fractured rock faces. The apparatus itself has grooves, vertical guides, and a drive system to position the longwall beams.

  17. Highly dispersed metal catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; West, William L.; Rhodes, William D.

    2016-11-08

    A supported catalyst having an atomic level single atom structure is provided such that substantially all the catalyst is available for catalytic function. A process of forming a single atom catalyst unto a porous catalyst support is also provided.

  18. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  19. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    During marine archaeological explorations since 1983, off Dwarka, a large number of stone anchors were discovered and dated to 1400 BC, comparing with anchors found in Mediterranean waters. In recent archaeological explorations off Dwarka, Bet...

  20. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  1. Grinding as an approach to the production of high-strength, dispersion-strengthened nickel-base alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, N. W.; Quatinetz, M.; Weeton, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    Mechanical process produces dispersion-strengthened metal alloys. Power surface contamination during milling is removed by a cleaning method that involves heating thin shapes or partially-compacted milled powder blends in hydrogen to carefully controlled temperature schedules.

  2. Dispersing Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} at high solids loading - applied to protein forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckfeldt, O.; Palmqvist, L. [Swedish Ceramic Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Poeydemenge, F. [ENSCI, Limoges (France)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersing of a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder (UBE SN-E10) at high solids loading in aqueous media was investigated. The powder was used in the as-received (raw) state, after thermal (calcinations) and/or mechanical pre-treatments (ball milling{yields}freeze granulation{yields}freeze-drying). Slips were prepared using pH adjustment with NH{sub 4}OH or an addition of Tiron (low-M{sub w} sulphonic acid). Zeta potential measurements of diluted systems and rheological evaluations of concentrated suspensions were conducted. The effect of adding whey protein concentrate (WPC) was also studied. Zeta potential measurements showed a clear decrease in pH{sub iep} by calcination, whereas Tiron slightly increased the pH{sub iep} of calcined powder and decreased the pH{sub iep} of the as-received powder. Rheological data showed that pH adjustment to 10 was more efficient in stabilising the as-received powder than the calcined powder. pH adjustment was also considered to be the most important effect of adding small amounts of Tiron (0.08 wt%). However, for calcined powder, Tiron was shown to be equally efficient as pH adjustment. Pre-milling followed by freeze granulation/freeze-drying resulted in de-agglomerated powders with improved ability to rapidly disperse and, hence, extend the possibility of achieving extreme solids loadings. When approaching the practical limits in solids loading of these pre-milled powders, slips with 49.5 vol% of as-received and 46.6 vol% of calcined powders displayed clear shear thickening behaviour. However, addition of WPC (12 wt% based on water) significantly decreased the degree of shear thickening although the viscosity at lower shear rates increased. The gelling of WPC was distinct and rapid in suspensions with the two pre-milled powders, as-received stabilised at pH 10 and calcined stabilised with Tiron. (orig.)

  3. Effects of eddy current and dispersion of magnetic anisotropy on the high-frequency permeability of Fe-based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, M., E-mail: mangui@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films & Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China); Rozanov, K.N.; Zezyulina, P.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Wu, Yan-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films & Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu (China)

    2015-06-01

    Fe–Cu–Nb–Si–B microflakes have been prepared by ball milling. The structural, magnetostatic and microwave permeability of the flakes and flake-filled composites have been studied. Two ferromagnetic phases, nanograins and amorphous matrix, are found in the flakes. The Mössbauer study shows that the nanograins are α-Fe{sub 3}(Si) with D0{sub 3} superlattice structure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanograins are well dispersed in the matrix. The microwave permeability of composites containing the flakes has been measured. The comparison of the intrinsic permeability of the flakes obtained from the permeability measurements and from the anisotropy field distribution reveals a disagreement in the magnetic loss peak location. It is concluded that the low-frequency loss in the composites is not due to the effect of eddy currents. The low-frequency loss may be attributed to other sources, such as domain wall motion or peculiarities of the magnetic structure of the flakes in the composite. - Highlights: • Hyperfine interactions have been studied for the Fe-based nanocomposites. Please see Fig. 3. • The distribution of magnetic anisotropy has been derived from the initial magnetization curve of the composite. Please see Fig. 6. • The magnetic loss peak has been reconstructed from the measured permeability of composites and from the anisotropy field distribution. Please see Fig. 9.

  4. Effects of eddy current and dispersion of magnetic anisotropy on the high-frequency permeability of Fe-based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, M.; Rozanov, K.N.; Zezyulina, P.A.; Wu, Yan-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fe–Cu–Nb–Si–B microflakes have been prepared by ball milling. The structural, magnetostatic and microwave permeability of the flakes and flake-filled composites have been studied. Two ferromagnetic phases, nanograins and amorphous matrix, are found in the flakes. The Mössbauer study shows that the nanograins are α-Fe 3 (Si) with D0 3 superlattice structure. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows that the nanograins are well dispersed in the matrix. The microwave permeability of composites containing the flakes has been measured. The comparison of the intrinsic permeability of the flakes obtained from the permeability measurements and from the anisotropy field distribution reveals a disagreement in the magnetic loss peak location. It is concluded that the low-frequency loss in the composites is not due to the effect of eddy currents. The low-frequency loss may be attributed to other sources, such as domain wall motion or peculiarities of the magnetic structure of the flakes in the composite. - Highlights: • Hyperfine interactions have been studied for the Fe-based nanocomposites. Please see Fig. 3. • The distribution of magnetic anisotropy has been derived from the initial magnetization curve of the composite. Please see Fig. 6. • The magnetic loss peak has been reconstructed from the measured permeability of composites and from the anisotropy field distribution. Please see Fig. 9

  5. Highly Dispersed Pseudo-Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalysts Synthesized via Inverse Micelle Solutions for the Liquefaction of Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampden-Smith, M.; Kawola, J.S.; Martino, A.; Sault, A.G.; Yamanaka, S.A.

    1999-01-05

    The mission of this project was to use inverse micelle solutions to synthesize nanometer sized metal particles and test the particles as catalysts in the liquefaction of coal and other related reactions. The initial focus of the project was the synthesis of iron based materials in pseudo-homogeneous form. The frost three chapters discuss the synthesis, characterization, and catalyst testing in coal liquefaction and model coal liquefaction reactions of iron based pseudo-homogeneous materials. Later, we became interested in highly dispersed catalysts for coprocessing of coal and plastic waste. Bifunctional catalysts . to hydrogenate the coal and depolymerize the plastic waste are ideal. We began studying, based on our previously devised synthesis strategies, the synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts with a bifunctional nature. In chapter 4, we discuss the fundamental principles in heterogeneous catalysis synthesis with inverse micelle solutions. In chapter 5, we extend the synthesis of chapter 4 to practical systems and use the materials in catalyst testing. Finally in chapter 6, we return to iron and coal liquefaction now studied with the heterogeneous catalysts.

  6. Dispersion of silicon carbide nanoparticles in a AA2024 aluminum alloy by a high-energy ball mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreño-Gallardo, C.; Estrada-Guel, I.; López-Meléndez, C.; Martínez-Sánchez, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of 2024-SiC NP nanocomposite by mechanical milling process. • SiC nanoparticles improved mechanical properties of aluminum alloy 2024 matrix. • A homogeneous distribution of SiC nanoparticles were observed in the matrix • Compressive and hardness properties of the composite are improved significantly. -- Abstract: Al 2024 alloy was reinforced with silicon carbide nanoparticles (SiC NP ), whose concentration was varied in the range from 0 to 5 wt.%; some composites were synthesized with the mechanical milling (MM) process. Structure and microstructure of the consolidated samples were studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while mechanical properties were investigated by compressive tests and hardness measurements. The microstructural evidence shows that SiC NP were homogeneously dispersed into the Al 2024 alloy using high-energy MM after 2 h of processing. On the other hand, an increase of the mechanical properties (yield stress, maximum strength and hardness) was observed in the synthesized composites as a direct function of the SiC NP content. In this research several strengthening mechanisms were observed, but the main was the obstruction of dislocations movement by the addition of SiC NP

  7. Dispersal limitation does not control high elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of elevational distribution of alien plant species in the southern Sierra Nevada of California were used to test the hypothesis that alien plant species invading high elevations around the world are typically climate generalists capable of growing across a wide elevational range. The Sierra Nevada has been heavily impacted for more than a century and a half, first by heavy grazing up into high elevation meadows, followed by major logging, and finally, by impacts associated with recreational use. The comparative elevational patterns of distribution and growth form were compared for native and alien plant species in the four families (Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae) that contribute the majority of naturalized aliens in the study area. The distribution of realized climatic niche breadth, as measured by elevational range of occurrence, was virtually identical for alien and native species, with both groups showing a roughly Gaussian distribution peaking with species whose range covers a span of 1500–1999 m. In contrast to alien species, which only rarely occurred at higher elevations, native species showed a distribution of upper elevation limits peaking at 3000–3499 m, an elevation that corresponds to the zone of upper montane and subalpine forests. Consistent with a hypothesis of abiotic limitations, only a few alien species have been ecologically successful invaders at subalpine and alpine elevations above 2500 m. The low diversity of aliens able to become established in these habitats is unlikely due to dispersal limitations, given the long history of heavy grazing pressure at high elevations across this region. Instead, this low diversity is hypothesized to be a function of life history traits and multiple abiotic stresses that include extremes of cold air and soil temperature, heavy snowfall, short growing seasons, and low resource availability. These findings have significant implications for resource managers.

  8. Evaluation of field-collected drifter and subsurface fluorescein dye concentration data and comparisons to high frequency radar surface current mapping data for dispersed oil transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.R. [Payne Environmental Consultants Inc., Encinitas, CA (United States); Terrill, E.; Carter, M.; Otero, M.; Middleton, W.; Chen, A. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); French McCay, D.; Mueller, C.; Jayko, K. [Applied Science Associates Inc., Narragansett, RI (United States); Nordhausen, W.; Lewis, R.; Lampinen, M.; Evans, T. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, San Diego, CA (United States). Office of Spill Prevention and Response; Ohlmann, C. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Via, G.L.; Ruiz-Santana, H.; Maly, M.; Willoughby, B.; Varela, C. [United States Coast Guard Pacific Strike Team, Novato, CA (United States); Lynch, P.; Sanchez, P. [Marine Spill Response Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Extensive coastal areas in the United States have been designated as pre-approved zones for dispersant applications in the event of an oil spill. Although the use of dispersants may reduce impacts to wildlife and shoreline habitats, it is recognized that the dispersed oil may cause impacts to organisms in the water column. The State of California Department of Fish and Game Office of Spill Prevention and Response is currently using oil spill fate and transport modeling to address this issue. The purpose is to develop the time and spatial scales, and equipment needs for a formal dispersed oil monitoring plan (DOMP) to document hydrocarbon water column concentrations, potentially exposed zooplankton, and the impact of the oil spills with and without dispersant use. A series of 7 fluorescein dye releases were completed off the coast of San Diego, California in order to test the operational framework for repeated sampling of dispersed oil plumes as outlined in the DOMP. The ability of high-frequency radar to provide surface current input data to oil spill models was also evaluated. The dye concentrations were measured over three spatial dimensions and time in order to verify the model-predicted movement of subsurface dye. Surface current fields at varying depths were also measured and the subsurface dye plume structure was mapped using a GPS coupled towed-fluorometer equipped with pressure sensors. Measurements were compared with data from traditional special monitoring of applied response technology (SMART). The database acquired through this program represents a technical resource that can help physical and chemical oceanographers, modelers, spill response and contingency planners involved in the debate of whether or not to use dispersants to mitigate near shore and open ocean marine oil spills. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.

  9. Well-dispersed cellulose nanocrystals in hydrophobic polymers by in situ polymerization for synthesizing highly reinforced bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shiyu; Wei, Jiayuan; Aitomäki, Yvonne; Noël, Maxime; Oksman, Kristiina

    2018-04-20

    In nanocomposites, dispersing hydrophilic nanomaterials in a hydrophobic matrix using simple and environmentally friendly methods remains challenging. Herein, we report a method based on in situ polymerization to synthesize nanocomposites of well-dispersed cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc). We have also shown that by blending this PVAc/CNC nanocomposite with poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a good dispersion of the CNCs can be reached in PLA. The outstanding dispersion of CNCs in both PVAc and PLA/PVAc matrices was shown by different microscopy techniques and was further supported by the mechanical and rheological properties of the composites. The in situ PVAc/CNC nanocomposites exhibit enhanced mechanical properties compared to the materials produced by mechanical mixing, and a theoretical model based on the interphase effect and dispersion that reflects this behavior was developed. Comparison of the rheological and thermal behaviors of the mixed and in situ PVAc/CNC also confirmed the great improvement in the dispersion of nanocellulose in the latter. Furthermore, a synergistic effect was observed with only 0.1 wt% CNCs when the in situ PVAc/CNC was blended with PLA, as demonstrated by significant increases in elastic modulus, yield strength, elongation to break and glass transition temperature compared to the PLA/PVAc only material.

  10. AnchorDock: Blind and Flexible Anchor-Driven Peptide Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shimon, Avraham; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-05-05

    The huge conformational space stemming from the inherent flexibility of peptides is among the main obstacles to successful and efficient computational modeling of protein-peptide interactions. Current peptide docking methods typically overcome this challenge using prior knowledge from the structure of the complex. Here we introduce AnchorDock, a peptide docking approach, which automatically targets the docking search to the most relevant parts of the conformational space. This is done by precomputing the free peptide's structure and by computationally identifying anchoring spots on the protein surface. Next, a free peptide conformation undergoes anchor-driven simulated annealing molecular dynamics simulations around the predicted anchoring spots. In the challenging task of a completely blind docking test, AnchorDock produced exceptionally good results (backbone root-mean-square deviation ≤ 2.2Å, rank ≤15) for 10 of 13 unbound cases tested. The impressive performance of AnchorDock supports a molecular recognition pathway that is driven via pre-existing local structural elements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ oxide dispersion strengthened tungsten alloys with high compressive strength and high strain-to-failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Lin; Jiang, Lin; Topping, Troy D.; Dai, Chen; Wang, Xin; Carpenter, Ryan; Haines, Christopher; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk tungsten materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS). The results show that the application of a high pressure of 1 GPa during SPS significantly accelerates the densification process. Concurrently, the second phase oxide nanoparticles with an average grain size of 108 nm, which are distributed within the interiors of the W grains, simultaneously provide strengthening and plasticity by inhibiting grain growth, and generating, blocking, and storing dislocations. - Graphical abstract: In this work a novel process methodology to concurrently improve the compressive strength (2078 MPa at a strain rate of 5 × 10"−"4 s"−"1) and strain-to-failure (over 40%) of bulk W materials has been described. The process involves the in situ formation of intragranular tungsten oxide nanoparticles, facilitated by the application of a pressure of 1 GPa at a low sintering temperature of 1200 °C during spark plasma sintering (SPS).

  12. Career Paths, Images and Anchors: A Study with Brazilian Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimnik, Zelia Miranda; de Oliveira, Luiz Claudio Vieira; Sant'anna, Anderson De Souza; Barros, Delba Teixeira Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses career anchors changes associated to images and professionals trajectories. Its main question: Do anchors careers change through time? We conducted twelve interviews involving professionals from the Administration Area, applying Schein's Career Anchors Inventory (1993). We did the same two years later. In both of them, the…

  13. Properties of B4C–PbO–Al(OH)3-epoxy nanocomposite prepared by ultrasonic dispersion approach for high temperature neutron shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.K.; Lee, J.K.; Kim, J.W.; Lee, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    High functional epoxy nanocomposites with three different filler materials, i.e., B 4 C, PbO, and Al(OH) 3 , were fabricated using an effective fabrication method consisting of an ultrasonic dispersion of nanoparticles in low-viscosity hardener and a subsequent mixing of a hardener-nanoparticle colloid with epoxy resins. It was confirmed that this approach provided not only an uniform dispersion but also an excellent wetting with enhanced interfacial adhesion of nano-particulate fillers within the matrix. By incorporating those three fillers, a synergistic effect was verified in multiple properties such as mechanical strength properties, thermal degradation, flame retardancy, and radiation shielding performance

  14. Synthesis of highly dispersed Pd nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their excellent catalytic performance for oxidation of benzyl alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinde, V.M.; Skupien, E.; Makkee, M.

    2015-01-01

    Narrow sized and highly homogeneous dispersed Pd nanoparticles have been synthesized on nitric acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) without a capping agent. The TEM images show that the extremely small Pd nanoparticles with an average size of about 1.5 nm were homogeneously

  15. Facile synthesis of highly stable and well-dispersed mesoporous ZrO(2)/carbon composites with high performance in oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Xu, Jie; Wu, Zhangxiong; Feng, Dan; Yang, Jianping; Wei, Jing; Wu, Qingling; Tu, Bo; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Dongyuan

    2010-09-28

    Highly ordered mesoporous ZrO(2)/carbon (FDU-15) composites have been synthesized via a facile evaporation induced triconstituent co-assembly (EISA) approach by using Pluronic F127 as a template and zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and resol as Zr and carbon sources. The synthesized mesoporous composites exhibit a highly ordered two-dimensional (2-D) hexagonal mesostructure with relatively high specific surface areas (up to 947 m(2) g(-1)), pore sizes around 3.8 nm and high pore volumes (up to 0.71 cm(3) g(-1)). The results clearly show that the crystalline zirconia nanoparticles (ca. 1.9-3.9 nm) are well-dispersed in amorphous matrices of the ordered mesoporous carbon FDU-15 materials, which construct the nanocomposites. The ordered mesostructures of the obtained ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites can be well-retained even at the high pyrolysis temperature (up to 900 degrees C), suggesting a high thermal stability. The zirconia content of the ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites can be tunable in a wide range (up to 47%). Moreover, the resultant mesoporous ZrO(2)/FDU-15 composites exhibit high catalytic activity in oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethylbenzene (EB) to styrene (ST), with high ethylbenzene conversion (59.6%) and styrene selectivity (90.4%), which is mainly attributed to the synergistic catalytic effect between the oxygen-containing groups located on the carbon pore walls and weakly basic sites of the nanocrystalline ZrO(2). Furthermore, the high specific surface areas and opening pore channels are also responsible for their high catalytic activity. Therefore, it is a very promising catalyst material in styrene production on an industrial scale.

  16. Determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in fruits by combining acetonitrile-based extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chunqiang; Zhao, Xiang; Liu, Chenglan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a simple and low-organic-solvent-consuming method combining an acetonitrile-partitioning extraction procedure followed by "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" cleanup with ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for the determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron in grapes and pears. Ionic-liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was performed using the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as the extractive solvent and acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent. The main factors influencing the efficiency of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were evaluated, including the extractive solvent type and volume and the dispersive solvent volume. The validation parameters indicated the suitability of the method for routine analyses of benzoylurea insecticides in a large number of samples. The relative recoveries at three spiked levels ranged between 98.6 and 109.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.2%. The limit of detection was 0.005 mg/kg for the two insecticides. The proposed method was successfully used for the rapid determination of diflubenzuron and chlorbenzuron residues in real fruit samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction for the determination of sulfonamides in animal tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibing; He, Mengyu; Jiang, Chunzhu; Zhang, Fengqing; Du, Shanshan; Feng, Wennan; Zhang, Hanqi

    2015-12-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction was developed and applied to the extraction of some sulfonamides, including sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadoxine, sulfisoxazole, and sulfaphenazole, in animal tissues. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the separation and determination of the target analytes. The solid sample was directly treated by matrix solid-phase dispersion and the eluate obtained was treated by homogeneous ionic liquid microextraction. The ionic liquid was used as the extraction solvent in this method, which may result in the improvement of the recoveries of the target analytes. To avoid using organic solvent and reduce environmental pollution, water was used as the elution solvent of matrix solid-phase dispersion. The effects of the experimental parameters on recoveries, including the type and volume of ionic liquid, type of dispersant, ratio of sample to dispersant, pH value of elution solvent, volume of elution solvent, amount of salt in eluate, amount of ion-pairing agent (NH4 PF6 ), and centrifuging time, were evaluated. When the present method was applied to the analysis of animal tissues, the recoveries of the analytes ranged from 85.4 to 118.0%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 9.30%. The detection limits for the analytes were 4.3-13.4 μg/kg. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Dispersal and metapopulation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metapopulation dynamics are jointly regulated by local and spatial factors. These factors may affect the dynamics of local populations and of the entire metapopulation differently. Previous studies have shown that dispersal can stabilize local populations; however, as dispersal also tends to increase spatial synchrony, its net effect on metapopulation stability has been controversial. Here we present a simple metapopulation model to study how dispersal, in interaction with other spatial and local processes, affects the temporal variability of metapopulations in a stochastic environment. Our results show that in homogeneous metapopulations, the local stabilizing and spatial synchronizing effects of dispersal cancel each other out, such that dispersal has no effect on metapopulation variability. This result is robust to moderate heterogeneities in local and spatial parameters. When local and spatial dynamics exhibit high heterogeneities, however, dispersal can either stabilize or destabilize metapopulation dynamics through various mechanisms. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications. We show that dispersal functions as a form of spatial intraspecific mutualism in metapopulation dynamics and that its effect on metapopulation stability is opposite to that of interspecific competition on local community stability. Our results also suggest that conservation corridors should be designed with appreciation of spatial heterogeneities in population dynamics in order to maximize metapopulation stability.

  19. One-pot solvothermal synthesis of highly water-dispersible size-tunable functionalized magnetite nanocrystal clusters for lipase immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hao; Hou, Chen; Li, Yijing; Zhao, Guanghui; Liu, Xiao; Hou, Ke; Li, Yanfeng

    2013-07-01

    A facile one-pot synthesis of highly water-dispersible size-tunable magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystal clusters (MNCs) end-functionalized with amino or carboxyl groups by a modified solvothermal reduction reaction has been developed. Dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyhydroxycinnamic acid were used for the first time as both a surfactant and interparticle linker in a polylol process for economical and environment-friendly purposes. Morphology, chemical composition, and magnetic properties of the prepared particles were investigated by several methods, including FESEM, TEM, XRD, XPS, Raman, FTIR, TGA, zeta potential, and VSM. The sizes of the particles could be easily tuned over a wide range from 175 to 500 nm by varying the surfactant concentration. Moreover, ethylene glycol/diethylene glycol (EG/DEG) solvent mixtures with different ratios could be used as reductants to obtain the particles with smaller sizes. The XRD data demonstrated that the surfactants restrained the crystal growth of the grains. The nanoparticles showed superior magnetic properties and high colloidal stability in water. The cytotoxicity results indicated the feasibility of using the synthesized nanocrystals in biology-related fields. To estimate the applicability of the obtained MNCs in biotechnology, Candida rugosa lipase was selected for the enzyme immobilization process. The immobilized lipase exhibited excellent thermal stability and reusability in comparison with the free enzyme. This novel strategy would simplify the reaction protocol and improve the efficiency of materials functionalization, thus offering new potential applications in biotechnology and organocatalysis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Experimental Research on Destruction Mode and Anchoring Performance of Carbon Fiber Phyllostachys pubescens Anchor Rod with Different Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yulan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anchoring technology is extensively applied in reinforcing protection of the earth relics. Now that no specification is available for different new anchor rods in earth relics protection due to diversified destruction modes of earth relics and complexity of engineering technology conditions, it is urgent to guide reinforcing design and construction with a complete detailed anchor rod research document. With the new carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod as the research object, six lots of in situ tests are designed to, respectively, study the destruction mode and anchoring performance of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod under different anchor length L, anchor rod diameter D, bore diameter H, grouting material S, rib spacing R, and inclination angle A in this paper. By studying load shift curve experiment in drawing of the anchor rod, the destruction mode and ultimate bearing capacity of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod in different experiment lots are obtained, and the concept of permitted application value N in anchor rod design is proposed. By studying strain distribution characteristics of anchor rods in experimental lots along the length direction under action of the permitted application value N and combining the existing destruction mode and ultimate bearing capacity, this paper analyzes influences of L, D, H, S, R, and A on anchoring effect of the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod; gives the reasonable value range of L, D, H, and R when the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod is used for reinforcing design of the earth relics; and provides favorable experiment basis for reinforcing design of the earth relics based on the carbon fiber Phyllostachys pubescens anchor rod.

  1. Potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 by wildfowl: dispersal ranges and rates determined from large-scale satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Cappelle, Julien; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Douglas, David C.; Perry, William M.; Mundkur, Taej; Newman, Scott H.

    2010-01-01

    1. Migratory birds are major candidates for long-distance dispersal of zoonotic pathogens. In recent years, wildfowl have been suspected of contributing to the rapid geographic spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus. Experimental infection studies reveal that some wild ducks, geese and swans shed this virus asymptomatically and hence have the potential to spread it as they move. 2. We evaluate the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 viruses by wildfowl through an analysis of the movement range and movement rate of birds monitored by satellite telemetry in relation to the apparent asymptomatic infection duration (AID) measured in experimental studies. We analysed the first large-scale data set of wildfowl movements, including 228 birds from 19 species monitored by satellite telemetry in 2006–2009, over HPAI H5N1 affected regions of Asia, Europe and Africa. 3. Our results indicate that individual migratory wildfowl have the potential to disperse HPAI H5N1 over extensive distances, being able to perform movements of up to 2900 km within timeframes compatible with the duration of asymptomatic infection. 4. However, the likelihood of such virus dispersal over long distances by individual wildfowl is low: we estimate that for an individual migratory bird there are, on average, only 5–15 days per year when infection could result in the dispersal of HPAI H5N1 virus over 500 km. 5. Staging at stopover sites during migration is typically longer than the period of infection and viral shedding, preventing birds from dispersing a virus over several consecutive but interrupted long-distance movements. Intercontinental virus dispersion would therefore probably require relay transmission between a series of successively infected migratory birds. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results provide a detailed quantitative assessment of the dispersive potential of HPAI H5N1 virus by selected migratory birds. Such dispersive potential rests on the

  2. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  3. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  4. Passive restoration following ungulate removal in a highly disturbed tropical wet forest devoid of native seed dispersers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafus, Melia; Savidge, Julie A.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Christy, Michelle T.; Reed, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Overabundant ungulate populations can alter forests. Concurrently, global declines of seed dispersers may threaten native forest structure and function. On an island largely devoid of native vertebrate seed dispersers, we monitored forest succession for 7 years following ungulate exclusion from a 5-ha area and adjacent plots with ungulates still present. We observed succession from open scrub to forest and understory cover by non-native plants declined. Two trees, native Hibiscus tiliaceus and non-native Leucaena leucocephala, accounted for most forest regeneration, with the latter dominant. Neither species is dependent on animal dispersers nor was there strong evidence that plants dependent on dispersers migrated into the 5-ha study area. Passive restoration following ungulate removal may facilitate restoration, but did not show promise for fully restoring native forest on Guam. Restoration of native forest plants in bird depopulated areas will likely require active outplanting of native seedlings, control of factors resulting in bird loss, and reintroduction of seed dispersers.

  5. Comparative Study on Different Slot Forms of Prestressed Anchor Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Si, Jianhui; Jian, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, two models of prestressed pier, rectangular cavity anchor block and arch hollow anchor block are established. The ABAQUS software was used to calculate the stress of the surface of the neck of the pier and the cavity of the anchor block, through comparative analysis. The results show that compared with the rectangular cavity anchor block, the stress of the pier and the cavity can be effectively reduced when the arch hole is used, and the amount of prestressed anchor can be reduced, so as to obtain obvious economic benefits.

  6. Highly dispersed Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/polypyrrole nanocomposites for cost-effective, high-performance defluoridation using a magnetically controllable microdevice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gang; Shi, Guoying; Mu, Qinghui; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Highly dispersed CZFO/PPy nanocomposites are synthesized in microfluidic reactor. ► The as-synthesized nanocomposites behave as a high performance adsorbent. ► The magnetic microdevice has advantages over traditional methods for defluoridation. - Abstract: Highly dispersed Co 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 /polypyrrole (CZFO/PPy) nanocomposites with enhanced electromagnetic properties and large surface area were rapidly and controllably prepared using microfluidic reactors. A novel magnetically controllable microdevice using the new adsorbent in a highly dispersed form was assembled and used for fluoride adsorption. Compared with traditional adsorption methods, the device displayed high adsorption efficiency and capacity. The adsorbents were regenerated with no significant loss in defluoridation ability, which indicates that the device is a realistic and highly efficient alternative way of removing fluoride pollution at low cost.

  7. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N.; Han, Jin Wook; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs (∼80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm 2 under 80 mW/cm 2 irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  8. Photoactive curcumin-derived dyes with surface anchoring moieties used in ZnO nanoparticle-based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, T.; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Seog Joon; Kil, Byung-Ho; Maldar, N.N. [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jin Wook, E-mail: jwhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sung-Hwan, E-mail: shhan@hanyang.ac.kr [Inorganic Nano-Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Sung-Dong-Ku, Haengdang-dong 17, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    Photoactive, eco-friendly and high molar extinction coefficient, curcumin-derived dyes (BCMoxo and BCtCM) have been explored in ZnO nanoparticles (NPs)-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The boron complex curcumin dyes modified with di-carboxylic anchor groups (BCtCM) provided surface attachment with a strong UV-vis region absorption than the dye molecule without anchor groups (BCMoxo). Photoanodes primed with poly-dispersive ZnO NPs ({approx}80-50 nm) specifically devised for these dyes and optimized for the critical thickness, sensitization time and concentration using a solvent-free ionic electrolyte so as to get current density as high as 1.66 mA/cm{sup 2} under 80 mW/cm{sup 2} irradiation. Therefore, a successful conversion of visible light into electricity by using these curcumin-derived dyes (natural derived photoactive molecules) as photosensitizer in DSSCs would be a great interest in future studies for enhancing further conversion efficiencies.

  9. Fabrication, characterization and gamma rays shielding properties of nano and micro lead oxide-dispersed-high density polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; El-Khatib, Ahmed M.; Badawi, Mohamed S.; Rashad, Amal R.; El-Sharkawy, Rehab M.; Thabet, Abouzeid A.

    2018-04-01

    Polymer composites of high-density polyethylene (HD-PE) filled with powdered lead oxide nanoparticles (PbO NPs) and bulk lead oxide (PbO Blk) were prepared with filler weight fraction [10% and 50%]. These polymer composites were investigated for radiation-shielding of gamma-rays emitted from radioactive point sources [241Am, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 60Co]. The polymer was found to decrease the heaviness of the shielding material and increase the flexibility while the metal oxide fillers acted as principle radiation attenuators in the polymer composite. The prepared composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET) and field emission transmission electron microscope (FE-TEM). The morphological analysis of the assembled composites showed that, PbO NPs and PbO Blk materials exhibited homogenous dispersion in the polymer-matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) demonstrated that the thermal-stability of HD-PE was enhanced in the presence of both PbO Blk and PbO NPs. The results declared that, the density of polymer composites was increase with the percentage of filler contents. The highest density value was identified as 1.652 g cm-3 for 50 wt% of PbO NPs. Linear attenuation coefficients (μ) have been estimated from the use of XCOM code and measured results. Reasonable agreement was attended between theoretical and experimental results. These composites were also found to display excellent percentage of heaviness with respect to other conventional materials.

  10. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  11. A scale distortion theory of anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Shane W; Mochon, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    We propose that anchoring is often best interpreted as a scaling effect--that the anchor changes how the response scale is used, not how the focal stimulus is perceived. Of importance, we maintain that this holds true even for so-called objective scales (e.g., pounds, calories, meters, etc.). In support of this theory of scale distortion, we show that prior exposure to a numeric standard changes respondents' use of that specific response scale but does not generalize to conceptually affiliated judgments rendered on similar scales. Our findings highlight the necessity of distinguishing response language effects from representational effects in places where the need for that distinction has often been assumed away.

  12. Highly Anisotropic Magnon Dispersion in Ca_{2}RuO_{4}: Evidence for Strong Spin Orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkemöller, S; Khomskii, D; Steffens, P; Piovano, A; Nugroho, A A; Braden, M

    2015-12-11

    The magnon dispersion in Ca_{2}RuO_{4} has been determined by inelastic neutron scattering on single crytals containing 1% of Ti. The dispersion is well described by a conventional Heisenberg model suggesting a local moment model with nearest neighbor interaction of J=8  meV. Nearest and next-nearest neighbor interaction as well as interlayer coupling parameters are required to properly describe the entire dispersion. Spin-orbit coupling induces a very large anisotropy gap in the magnetic excitations in apparent contrast with a simple planar magnetic model. Orbital ordering breaking tetragonal symmetry, and strong spin-orbit coupling can thus be identified as important factors in this system.

  13. Agglomerate properties and dispersibility changes of salmeterol xinafoate from powders for inhalation after storage at high relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal; Larson, Ian; Young, Paul; Stewart, Peter

    2009-06-28

    This study investigated changes in agglomeration and the mechanism of dispersibility decrease of salmeterol xinafoate (SX) from SX-lactose mixtures for inhalation after storage at 75% RH for 3 months. The dispersibility, PSD and in situ PSD of aerosol plumes of SX alone and SX-coarse lactose (CL) mixtures containing 0, 5, 10 and 20% micronized lactose (ML) before and after storage were determined by a Next Generation Impactor (NGI), a Mastersizer 2000 and a Spraytec, respectively. The PSD of ML increased after storage at 75% RH, but dispersibility of SX using the stored ML increased. After storage, the %SX of the mixture containing 20% ML (M20F) significantly increased (Pagglomerates, probably occurring through enhanced capillary interaction and/or solid bridging of ML, entrapping and preventing the release of SX particles.

  14. In situ generation of highly dispersed metal nanoparticles on two-dimensional layered SiO2 by topotactic structure conversion and their superior catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Jia, Da-Shuang; Zhou, Yue; Hao, Jiang; Liang, Yu; Cui, Zhi-Min; Song, Wei-Guo

    2018-03-01

    Metal nanoparticles such as Ag, Cu and Fe are effective catalysts for many reactions, whereas a facile method to prepare metal nanoparticles with high uniformed dispersion is still desirable. Herein, the topotactic structure conversion of layered silicate, RUB-15, was utilized to support metal nanoparticles. Through simple ion-exchange and following calcination step, metal nanoparticles were generated in situ inside the interlayer space of layered silica, and the topotactic structure conversion process assured nano-sized and highly uniformed dispersion of metal nanoparticles. The obtained Ag/SiO2 composite showed superior catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and methylene blue (MB), with a rate constant as high as 0.0607 s-1 and 0.0778 s-1. The simple and universal synthesis method as well as high activity of the product composite endow the strategy good application prospect.

  15. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern.

  16. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  17. Computer simulation analysis on the machinability of alumina dispersion enforced copper alloy for high performance compact heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, Shintaro; Muto, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    Feasibility study on a HTGR-GT (High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor-Gas Turbine) system is examining the application of the high strength / high thermal conductivity alumina dispersed copper (AL-25) in the ultra-fine rectangle plate fin of the recuperator for the system. However, it is very difficult to manufacture a ultra-fine fin by large-scale plastic deformation from the hard and brittle Al-25 foil. Therefor, in present study, to establish the fine fin manufacturing technology of the AL-25 foil, it did the processing simulation of the fine fin first by the large-scale elasto-plastic finite element analysis (FEM) and it estimated a forming limit. Next, it experimentally made the manufacturing equipment where it is possible to do new processing using these analytical results, and it implemented a manufacturing experiment on the AL-25 foil. With these results, the following conclusion was obtained. (1) It did the processing simulation to manufacture a fine rectangle fin (fin height x pitch x thickness, 3 mm x 4 mm x 0.156 mm) from AL-25 foil (Thickness=0.156 mm) by the large-scale elasto-plastic FEM using the double action processing method. As a result, the manufacturing of a fine rectangle fin found a possible thing in the following condition by the double action processing method. It made that 0.8 mm and 0.25 mm were a best value respectively in the R part and the clearance between dies by making double action processing examination equipment experimentally and implementing a manufacturing examination using this equipment. (2) It succeeded in the manufacturing of the fine fin that the height x pitch x thickness is 3 mm x 4 mm x (0.156 mm±0.001 mm) after implementing a fine rectangle fin manufacturing examination from the AL-25 foil. (3) The change of the process of the deformation and the thickness by the processing of the AL-25 foil which was estimated by the large-scale elasto-plastic FEM showed the result of the processing experiment and good agreement

  18. Source strength and dispersion of CO2 releases from high-pressure pipelines: CFD model using real gas equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiong; Godbole, Ajit; Lu, Cheng; Michal, Guillaume; Venton, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Validated CFD models for decompression and dispersion of CO 2 releases from pipelines. • Incorporation of real gas EOS into CFD code for source strength estimation. • Demonstration of better performance of SST k–ω turbulence model for jet flow. • Demonstration of better performance of real gas EOS compared to ideal gas EOS. • Demonstration of superiority of CFD models over a commercial risk assessment package. - Abstract: Transportation of CO 2 in high-pressure pipelines forms a crucial link in the ever-increasing application of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies. An unplanned release of CO 2 from a pipeline presents a risk to human and animal populations and the environment. Therefore it is very important to develop a deeper understanding of the atmospheric dispersion of CO 2 before the deployment of CO 2 pipelines, to allow the appropriate safety precautions to be taken. This paper presents a two-stage Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study developed (1) to estimate the source strength, and (2) to simulate the subsequent dispersion of CO 2 in the atmosphere, using the source strength estimated in stage (1). The Peng–Robinson (PR) EOS was incorporated into the CFD code. This enabled accurate modelling of the CO 2 jet to achieve more precise source strength estimates. The two-stage simulation approach also resulted in a reduction in the overall computing time. The CFD models were validated against experimental results from the British Petroleum (BP) CO 2 dispersion trials, and also against results produced by the risk management package Phast. Compared with the measurements, the CFD simulation results showed good agreement in both source strength and dispersion profile predictions. Furthermore, the effect of release direction on the dispersion was studied. The presented research provides a viable method for the assessment of risks associated with CCS

  19. Highly-dispersed Ta-oxide catalysts prepared by electrodeposition in a non-aqueous plating bath for polymer electrolyte fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Seo, Jeongsuk; Cha, Dong Kyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2012-01-01

    The Ta-oxide cathode catalysts were prepared by electrodeposition in a non-aqueous solution. These catalysts showed excellent catalytic activity and have an onset potential of 0.92 V RHE for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The highly-dispersed Ta species at the nanometer scale on the carbon black was an important contributor to the high activity. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Career anchors and career resilience: Supplementary constructs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Previously the authors reported on a study in which an attempt was made at defining and measuring the construct career resilience (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998. The present article continues this investigation by reporting on the relationship between career resilience and career anchors, as defined in Scheins (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992 career anchor model. The aim of the study was to determine whether career anchor patterning could potentially inhibit or facilitate individuals' levels of career resilience. The "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 together with Scheins (1990 "Career Orientations Inventory" (COI were administered to 352 skilled employees. The findings regarding the statistical relationship between the two constructs are discussed. Opsomming Loopbaanankers en loopbaangehardheid: supplementere konstrukte? In n vorige publikasie van Fourie en Van Vuuren (1998 is die bevindinge aangaande die afbakening en meting van die konstruk, loopbaangehardheid, gerapporteer. In die huidige artikel word die ondersoek voortgesit met 'n beskrywing van die verwantskap tussen loopbaangehardheid en loopbaanankers, soos gedefinieer in die loopbaanankermodel van Schein (1975; 1978; 1990; 1992. Die doel met die studie was om te bepaal of die mate van loopbaanankerontplooiing individuele vlakke van loopbaangehardheid potensieel fasiliteer ofinhibeer. Die "Career Resilience Questionnaire" (CRQ (Fourie & Van Vuuren, 1998 is tesame met die "Career Orientation Inventory" (COI (Schein, 1990 op 352 geskoolde werknemers geadministreer. Die bevindinge betreffende die statistiese verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte word bespreek.

  1. The Analysis Stability of Anchor Retaining Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamara, F. Z.; Belabed, L

    2011-01-01

    The construction of anchored retaining walls reach every day in the field of Civil Engineering especially in public works. Their dimensioning and stability are the axes of research for geotechnical. The rule is to reduce the active forces of the slide and increase the effective normal stress on the rupture surface. So that, we anchored tied-back (constituted by steel cables) in the stable ground located under the failure surface and we apply at the top a traction force. This effort can be distributed over the ground surface by means of small plates or massive reinforced concrete. The study of the stability of anchored retaining wall was also performed by using software GEO4. Many cases can be solved using analytical solutions available in the group GEO4 program, but for our standard model solution studied analytically proved unsatisfactory so we used a numerical analysis based on the method of finite element in this program. The results obtained by numerical study were interpreted to identify the precision numerical predictions. Moreover these methods were useful and economics in the realization of reinforced slopes by tied-buck. (author)

  2. Wavelength conversion, time demultiplexing and multicasting based on cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Zhan-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of cross-phase modulation (XPM) and four-wave mixing (FWM) in dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibers (HNL-PCFs) to implement the functionalities of wavelength conversion, simultaneous time demultiplexing and wavelength multicasting in optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. The experiments on wavelength conversion at 80 Gbit s −1 and OTDM demultiplexing from 80 to 10 Gbit s −1 with wavelength multicasting of two channels are successfully demonstrated to validate the proposed scheme, which are carried out by using two segments of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with lengths of 100 and 50 m, respectively. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance is also measured. The results show that our designed system can achieve a power penalty of less than 4.6 dB for two multicasting channels with a 24 nm wavelength span at the BER of 10 −9 when compared with the 10 Gbit/s back-to-back measurement. The proposed system is transparent to bit rate since only an ultrafast third-order nonlinear effect is used. The resulting configuration is compact, robust and reliable, benefiting from the use of dispersion-flattened HNL-PCFs with short lengths. This also makes the proposed system more flexible in the operational wavelengths than those based on dispersion-shifted fibers and traditional highly nonlinear fibers. (paper)

  3. Influence of High Shear Dispersion on the Production of Cellulose Nanofibers by Ultrasound-Assisted TEMPO-Oxidation of Kraft Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Daneault

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose nanofibers can be produced using a combination of TEMPO, sodium bromide (NaBr and sodium hypochlorite, and mechanical dispersion. Recently, this process has been the subject of intensive investigation. However, studies on the aspects of mechanical treatment of this process remain marginal. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the high shear dispersion parameters (e.g., consistency, stator-rotor gap, recirculation rate and pH and determine their influences on nanocellulose production using ultrasound-assisted TEMPO-oxidation of Kraft pulp. All nanofiber gels produced in this study exhibited rheological behaviors known as shear thinning. From all the dispersion parameters, the following conditions were identified as optimal: 0.042 mm stator-rotor gap, 200 mL/min recycle rate, dispersion pH of 7 and a feed consistency of 2%. High quality cellulose gel could be produced under these conditions. This finding is surely of great interest for the pulp and paper industry.

  4. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E Oliver

    Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.

  5. Application of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction for the determination of quinolones in swine muscle by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Wen-Hsien; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Chen, Ho-Hsien; Huang, Joh-Jong; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Cheng, Shou-Hsun; Huang, Tzou-Chi

    2009-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (DMSPE) are two simple and low-cost sample preparation methods for liquid samples. In this work, these two methods were applied to solid tissue sample for the determination of seven quinolones by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD). After the homogenization of the swine muscle with acetonitrile and salt-promoted partitioning, small amounts of the extract were used for the DLLME and DMSPE methods. In the DLLME approach, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly extracted into a small volume of dichloromethane for drying and the residue was reconstituted for HPLC-DAD analysis. In the DMSPE approach, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were trapped by dispersive silica-based PSA (primary and secondary amine) sorbents and desorbed into a small amount of desorption solution for HPLC-DAD analysis. Under the optimal conditions, relative recoveries were determined for swine muscle spiked 50-200 μg kg -1 and quantification was achieved by matrix-matched calibration. The calibration curves of seven quinolones showed linearity with a correlation coefficient value above 0.998 for both approaches. Relative recoveries ranged from 93.0 to 104.7% and from 95.5 to 111.0% for DLLME and DMSPE, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 5.6 to 23.8 μg kg -1 and from 7.5 to 26.3 μg kg -1 for DLLME and DMSPE, respectively.

  6. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as risk as risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape.

  7. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  8. In-reactor behaviour of centrifugally atomized U3Si dispersion fuel irradiated at high temperature in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Park, Jong Man; Yoo, Byeong Ok; Park, Dae Kyu; Lee, Choong Sung; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation test on full-size U 3 Si dispersion fuel elements, prepared by centrifugal atomization and conventional comminution method, has been performed up to about 77 at.% U-235 in maximum burn-up at CT hole position having the highest power condition in the HANARO reactor, in order to examine the irradiation performance of the atomized U 3 Si for the driver fuels of HANARO. The in-reactor interaction of the atomized U 3 Si dispersion fuel meats is generally assumed to be acceptable with the range of 5-15 μm in average thickness. The atomized spherical particles have more uniform and thinner reaction layer than the comminuted irregular particles. The U 3 Si particles have relatively fine and uniform size distribution of fission gas bubbles, irrespective of the powdering method. The bubble population in the atomized particles appears to be finer and more homogeneous with the characteristics of narrower bubble size distribution than that of the comminuted fuel. The atomized U 3 Si dispersion fuel elements exhibit sound swelling behaviours of 5 % in ΔV/V m even at ∼77 at.% U-235 burn-up, which meets with the safety criterion of the fuel rod, 20vol.% for HANARO. The atomized U3Si dispersion fuel elements show smaller swelling than the comminuted fuel elements

  9. Bone-anchored hearing devices in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss: a patient-carer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banga, Rupan; Doshi, Jayesh; Child, Anne; Pendleton, Elizabeth; Reid, Andrew; McDermott, Ann-Louise

    2013-09-01

    We sought to determine the outcome of implantation of a bone-anchored hearing device in children with unilateral conductive hearing loss. A retrospective case note analysis was used in a tertiary referral pediatric hospital to study 17 consecutive cases of pediatric patients with unilateral conductive hearing loss who were fitted with a bone-anchored hearing device between 2005 and 2010. The average age of the patients at the time of bone-anchored hearing device fitting was 10 years 6 months (range, 6 years 3 months to 16 years). Qualitative subjective outcome measures demonstrated benefit. The vast majority of patients reported improved social and physical functioning and improved quality of life. All 17 patients are currently using their bone-anchored hearing device on a daily basis after a follow-up of 6 months. This study has shown improved quality of life in children with unilateral hearing loss after implantation of their bone-anchored hearing device. There was a high degree of patient satisfaction and improvement in health status reported by children and/or carers. Bone-anchored hearing devices have an important role in the management of children with symptomatic unilateral hearing loss. Perhaps earlier consideration of a bone-anchored hearing device would be appropriate in selected cases.

  10. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements; Procedimentos de fabricacao de elementos combustiveis a base de dispersoes com alta concentracao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Jose Antonio Batista de

    2011-07-01

    IPEN-CNEN/SP developed the technology to produce the dispersion type fuel elements for research reactors and made it available for routine production. Today, the fuel produced in IPEN-CNEN/SP is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3} for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion-based and 2.3 gU/cm{sup 3} for U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion. The increase of uranium concentration in fuel plates enables the reactivity of the reactor core reactivity to be higher and extends the fuel life. Concerning technology, it is possible to increase the uranium concentration in the fuel meat up to the limit of 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3} in U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion and 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion. These dispersions are well qualified worldwide. This work aims to develop the manufacturing process of both fuel meats with high uranium concentrations, by redefining the manufacturing procedures currently adopted in the Nuclear Fuel Center of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Based on the results, it was concluded that to achieve the desired concentration, it is necessary to make some changes in the established procedures, such as in the particle size of the fuel powder and in the feeding process inside the matrix, before briquette pressing. These studies have also shown that the fuel plates, with a high concentration of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al, met the used specifications. On the other hand, the appearance of the microstructure obtained from U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al dispersion fuel plates with 3.2 gU/cm{sup 3} showed to be unsatisfactory, due to the considerably significant porosity observed. The developed fabrication procedure was applied to U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} production at 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3}, with enriched uranium. The produced plates were used to assemble the fuel element IEA-228, which was irradiated in order to check its performance in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP. These new fuels have potential to be used in the new Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor - RMB. (author)

  11. Modeling and experimental validation of sawing based lander anchoring and sampling methods for asteroid exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Chengcheng; Zhang, Hui; Li, Song; Song, Aiguo

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel lander anchoring system based on sawing method for asteroid exploration. The system is composed of three robotic arms, three cutting discs, and a control system. The discs mounted at the end of the arms are able to penetrate into the rock surface of asteroids. After the discs cut into the rock surface, the self-locking function of the arms provides forces to fix the lander on the surface. Modeling, trajectory planning, simulations, mechanism design, and prototype fabrication of the anchoring system are discussed, respectively. The performances of the system are tested on different kinds of rocks, at different sawing angles, locations, and speeds. Results show that the system can cut 15 mm deep into granite rock in 180 s at sawing angle of 60°, with the average power of 58.41 W, and the "weight on bit" (WOB) of 8.637 N. The 7.8 kg anchoring system is capable of providing omni-directional anchoring forces, at least 225 N normal and 157 N tangent to the surface of the rock. The system has the advantages of low-weight, low energy consumption and balance forces, high anchoring efficiency and reliability, and could enable the lander to move and sample or assist astronauts and robots in walking and sampling on asteroids.

  12. Enhanced Charge Separation Efficiency in Pyridine-Anchored Phthalocyanine-Sensitized Solar Cells by Linker Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Takuro; Agrawal, Saurabh; Ezoe, Masayuki; Mori, Shogo; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2015-11-01

    A series of zinc phthalocyanine sensitizers (PcS22-24) having a pyridine anchoring group are designed and synthesized to investigate the structural dependence on performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. The pyridine-anchor zinc phthalocyanine sensitizer PcS23 shows 79 % incident-photon to current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) and 6.1 % energy conversion efficiency, which are comparable with similar phthalocyanine dyes having a carboxylic acid anchoring group. Based on DFT calculations, the high IPCE is attributed with the mixture of an excited-state molecular orbital of the sensitizer and the orbitals of TiO2 . Between pyridine and carboxylic acid anchor dyes, opposite trends are observed in the linker-length dependence of the IPCE. The red-absorbing PcS23 is applied for co-sensitization with a carboxyl-anchor organic dye D131 that has a complementary spectral response. The site-selective adsorption of PcS23 and D131 on the TiO2 surface results in a panchromatic photocurrent response for the whole visible-light region of sun light. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Ultraweak azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a planar orienting photopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nespoulous, Mathieu; Blanc, Christophe; Nobili, Maurizio

    2007-01-01

    The search of weak anchoring is an important issue for a whole class of liquid crystal displays. In this paper we present an orienting layer showing unreached weak planar azimuthal anchoring for 4-n-pentyl-4 ' -cyanobiphenyl nematic liquid crystal (5CB). Azimuthal extrapolation lengths as large as 80 μm are easily obtained. Our layers are made with the commercial photocurable polymer Norland optical adhesive 60. The anisotropy of the film is induced by the adsorption of oriented liquid crystal molecules under a 2 T magnetic field applied parallel to the surfaces. We use the width of surface π-walls and a high-field electro-optical method to measure, respectively, the azimuthal and the zenithal anchorings. The azimuthal anchoring is extremely sensitive to the ultraviolet (UV) dose and it also depends on the magnetic field application duration. On the opposite, the zenithal anchoring is only slightly sensitive to the preparation parameters. All these results are discussed in terms of the adsorption/desorption mechanisms of the liquid crystal molecules on the polymer layer and of the flexibility of the polymer network

  14. Synthesis of an excellent electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction with supercritical fluid: Graphene cellular monolith with ultrafine and highly dispersive multimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yazhou; Cheng, Xiaonong; Yen, Clive H.; Wai, Chien M.; Wang, Chongmin; Yang, Juan; Lin, Yuehe

    2017-04-01

    Graphene cellular monolith (GCM) can be used as an excellent support for nanoparticles in widespread applications. However, it's still a great challenge to deposit the desirable nanoparticles in GCM that have small size, controllable structure, composition, and high dispersion using the current methods. Here we demonstrate a green, efficient and large-scale method to address this challenge using supercritical fluid (SCF). By this superior method, graphene hydrogel can be transferred into GCM while being deposited with ultrafine and highly dispersive nanoparticles. Specifically, the bimetallic PtFe/GCM and the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM catalysts are successfully synthesized, and their electrocatalytic performances toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are also studied. The resultant PtFe/GCM shows the significant enhancement in ORR activity, including a factor of 8.47 enhancement in mass activity (0.72 A mgPt-1), and a factor of 7.67 enhancement in specific activity (0.92 mA cm-2), comparing with those of the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.085 A mgPt-1, 0.12 mA cm-2). Importantly, by introducing the Co, the trimetallic PtFeCo/GCM exhibits the further improved ORR activities (1.28 A mgPt-1, 1.80 mA cm-2). The high ORR activity is probably attributed to the alloying structure, ultrafine size, highly dispersive, well-defined, and a better interface with 3D porous graphene support.

  15. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CL Bester

    2006-09-01

    categories of dominant career anchors. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction between psychologists with and without service as dominant career orientation could be determined. Both groups experienced a fairly high degree of job satisfaction and a higher level of intrinsic job satisfaction occurred compared to extrinsic job satisfaction. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of job involvement occurred. Psychologists with service as dominant career orientation showed a higher level of job involvement, although the degree of job involvement for both groups was fairly low. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement among psychologists with different career orientations could be found.

  16. Differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement of psychologists with different dominant career anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, C L; Mouton, T

    2006-08-01

    career anchors. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction between psychologists with and without service as dominant career orientation could be determined. Both groups experienced a fairly high degree of job satisfaction and a higher level of intrinsic job satisfaction occurred compared to extrinsic job satisfaction. A significant difference between the two groups in terms of job involvement occurred. Psychologists with service as dominant career orientation showed a higher level of job involvement, although the degree of job involvement for both groups was fairly low. No significant differences regarding job satisfaction and job involvement among psychologists with different career orientations could be found.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY U/AL DISPERSION PLATES FOR MO-99 PRODUCTION USING ATOMIZED URANIUM POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HO JIN RYU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uranium metal particle dispersion plates have been proposed as targets for Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99 production to improve the radioisotope production efficiency of conventional low enriched uranium targets. In this study, uranium powder was produced by centrifugal atomization, and miniature target plates containing uranium particles in an aluminum matrix with uranium densities up to 9 g-U/cm3 were fabricated. Additional heat treatment was applied to convert the uranium particles into UAlx compounds by a chemical reaction of the uranium particles and aluminum matrix. Thus, these target plates can be treated with the same alkaline dissolution process that is used for conventional UAlx dispersion targets, while increasing the uranium density in the target plates

  18. Highly anisotropic magnon dispersion in Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. Evidence for strong spin orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkemoeller, Stefan; Khomskii, Daniel; Braden, Markus [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Steffens, Paul; Piovano, Andrea [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Nugroho, Augustinus Agung [Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-07-01

    Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is a key material for the understanding of the impact of spin-orbit coupling in 4d and 5d compounds, which is intensively studied at present. We have studied the magnon dispersion in Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} by inelastic neutron scattering on large single crystals containing 1% of Ti. With this unmagnetic substitution large single crystals could be obtained with the floating zone method. The magnon dispersion can be well described with the simple conventional Heisenberg model. Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} reveals a large anisotropy gap of 13 meV, which shows that spin-orbit coupling and some in-plane orbital ordering are both important parameters for the description of the electronic and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.

  19. The development of argon arc brazing with Cu-based filler for ITER thermal anchor attachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhenchao; Li Pengyuan; Pan Chuanjie; Hou Binglin; Han Shilei; Pei Yinyin; Long Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Thermal anchor is the key component of ITER magnet supports to maintain the low temperature for the nor mal operation of superconducting coils. During the advanced research of ITER thermal anchor attachment, dozens of brazing filler and several kinds of brazing technique have been developed and investigated. The test result shows that Cu-based alloy have the preferable mechanical properties at both room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperatures (77 K) for high brazing temperature. And it has a good weldability to 316LN. The brazing temperature of Cu-based filler is over 1000℃, but heat input is relatively low for shallower heating depth of argon arc brazing. Lower heat input is good for the control of brazing deformation. It is no need to clean after brazing because for argon arc brazing there is no bra- zing flux used. Arc brazing with Cu-based filler was chosen as the principal method for the attachment of thermal anchor. (authors)

  20. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; Nathan Jerred; Dr. Indrajit Charit; James Cole

    2012-03-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  1. Regional differentiation and post-glacial expansion of the Atlantic silverside, Menidia menidia, an annual fish with high dispersal potential

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Megan E.; Sbrocco, Elizabeth J.; Hice, Lyndie A.; Duffy, Tara A.; Conover, David O.; Barber, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    The coastal marine environment of the Northwest Atlantic contains strong environmental gradients that create distinct marine biogeographic provinces by limiting dispersal, recruitment, and survival. This region has also been subjected to numerous Pleistocene glacial cycles, resulting in repeated extirpations and recolonizations in northern populations of marine organisms. In this study, we examined patterns of genetic structure and historical demography in the Atlantic silverside, Menidia men...

  2. History of Resistance Welding Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Cladding and other High Temperature Materials at Center for Advanced Energy Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirker, Larry; Jerred, Nathan; Charit, Indrajit; Cole, James

    2012-01-01

    Research proposal 08-1079, 'A Comparative Study of Welded ODS Cladding Materials for AFCI/GNEP,' was funded in 2008 under an Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Research and Development Funding Opportunity, number DE-PS07-08ID14906. Th proposal sought to conduct research on joining oxide dispersion strengthen (ODS) tubing material to a solid end plug. This document summarizes the scientific and technical progress achieved during the project, which ran from 2008 to 2011.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-DENSITY U/AL DISPERSION PLATES FOR MO-99 PRODUCTION USING ATOMIZED URANIUM POWDER

    OpenAIRE

    RYU, HO JIN; KIM, CHANG KYU; SIM, MOONSOO; PARK, JONG MAN; LEE, JONG HYUN

    2013-01-01

    Uranium metal particle dispersion plates have been proposed as targets for Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) production to improve the radioisotope production efficiency of conventional low enriched uranium targets. In this study, uranium powder was produced by centrifugal atomization, and miniature target plates containing uranium particles in an aluminum matrix with uranium densities up to 9 g-U/cm3 were fabricated. Additional heat treatment was applied to convert the uranium particles into UAlx compou...

  4. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... subjectivity in the present study is gender dependent, pointing towards, that female respondents are prone to be affected by the price levels employed. Male respondents, on the other hand, are not sensitive towards these prices levels. Overall, this implicates that female respondents, when employing a low......-priced Instruction Choice Set, tend to express lower willingness-to-pay than when higher prices are employed....

  5. Stone anchors from Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    and Ali Rajas of Kerala. It appears that the mainland had contact with these islands during the early centuries of the Christian era, if not earlier (Sila Tripati, 1999). Though Islam came to Lakshadweep after the 11th and 12th centuries AD..., stitches, ropes and even sails (Hourani, 1995). With the passage of time the maritime contacts between the people of Lakshadweep and Arabs became closer, as demonstrated by the discovery of an Indo- 3 Arabian stone anchor in the Jama Mosque on Minicoy...

  6. ANCHORING IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of marketing, both ineconomy and in politics is to attract themaximum number of customers or voters, maximizing customer satisfaction and ,ideally, improve the quality of life.The author, in various aspects, thetechnology of anchoring used in NLP, to attract customers and voters, both in the economy and in politics.In different examples demonstrate theoverall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Separating policy and the economy, marketers are missing something. The author proposes to look at how psychologicalanchors affect these two, at fi rst glance, different vector.

  7. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  8. Investigation of suction anchor pullout capacity under undrained conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarand, Pollestad

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Floating units are dependent on reliable mooring systems to ensure safety during marine operations. Suction anchors have proved to be a technologically viable and cost-effective concept. They are capable of precision installation, re-use, and provide large resistive capacity. This thesis investigates load capacity and failure modes of suction anchors subjected to vertical, horizontal (lateral), and incline loading. Suction anchor design co...

  9. Others' opinions count, but not all of them: anchoring to ingroup versus outgroup members' behavior in charitable giving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Hysenbelli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the large amount of information and the difficulty in selecting an appropriate recipient in the context of charitable giving, people tend to make extensive use of heuristics, which sometimes leads them to wrong decisions. In the present work, we focused on exploring how individuals are influenced by anchoring heuristics and how group membership interacts with this heuristic. In Experiment 1, two different groups of participants were informed about low versus high average donations of other people, and a third control group did not receive any information about the others' donations. The results showed that participants were willing to donate significantly more in the high-anchor condition compared to the low-anchor condition, as well as about the same amount of money in the low-anchor condition and no-anchor condition. Experiment 2 and 3 showed that high anchors are more effective when the information about others' donations reflects members of the ingroup rather than the outgroup. Other variables related to these results are further discussed.

  10. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO3-LDH particles as fluorescent probe for sensing of folic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Dan; Liu, Yanhuan; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescent nanosensor for detecting folic acid (FA) in aqueous media has been developed based on 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (ANTS) anchored to the surface of Zn-Al-CO 3 -layered double hydroxides (LDH) particles. The nanosensor showed high fluorescence intensity and good photostability due to a strong coordination interaction between surface Zn 2+ ions of Zn-Al-CO 3 -LDH and N atoms of ANTS, which were verified by result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO 3 -LDH restricted the intra-molecular rotation leading to ANTS-anchored J-type aggregation emission enhancement. ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO 3 -LDH particles exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to FA over other common metal ions and saccharides present in biological fluids. The proposed mechanism was that oxygen atoms of -SO 3 groups in ANTS-anchored on the surface of Zn-Al-CO 3 -LDH were easily collided by FA molecules to form potential hydrogen bonds between ANTS-anchored and FA molecules, which could effectively quench the ANTS-anchored fluorescence. Under the simulated physiological conditions (pH of 7.4), the fluorescence quenching was fitted to Stern-Volmer equation with a linear response in the concentration range of 1 μM to 200 μM with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM. The results indicate that ANTS-anchored Zn-Al-CO 3 -LDH particles can afford a very sensitive system for the sensing FA in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A novel fluorescent nanosensor has been developed. • The sensor exhibited highly sensitive and selective response to FA. • The fluorescence quenching was fitted to Stern–Volmer equation. • The linear response range was 1–200 μM with a limit of detection of 0.1 μM.

  11. Testing methods of steel wi re ropes at the anchor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kropuch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces an application of the acoustic andthermographic method in the defectoscopic testing of immobilesteel wire ropes at the most critical point, the anchor. Firstmeasurements and their results by these new defectoscopic methodsare shown. In defectoscopic tests at the anchor, the widelyused magnetic method gives unreliable results, and therefore presentsa problem for steel wire defectoscopy. Application of the two new methods in the steel wire defectoscopy at the anchor point will enableincreased safety measures at the anchor of steel wire ropes in bridge, roof, tower and aerial cable lift constructions.

  12. Low Density Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Synthetic Antioxidants in Beverages by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Hasan; Köktürk, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient method was established for the determination of synthetic antioxidants in beverages by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Butylated hydroxy toluene, butylated hydroxy anisole, and tert-butylhydroquinone were the antioxidants evaluated. Experimental parameters including extraction solvent, dispersive solvent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration, and extraction time were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 53 to 96%. Good linearity was observed by the square of correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9975 to 0.9997. The relative standard deviations ranged from 1.0 to 5.2% for all of the analytes. Limits of detection ranged from 0.85 to 2.73 ng mL−1. The method was successfully applied for determination of synthetic antioxidants in undiluted beverage samples with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:23853535

  13. Low Density Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Synthetic Antioxidants in Beverages by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çabuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method was established for the determination of synthetic antioxidants in beverages by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Butylated hydroxy toluene, butylated hydroxy anisole, and tert-butylhydroquinone were the antioxidants evaluated. Experimental parameters including extraction solvent, dispersive solvent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration, and extraction time were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 53 to 96%. Good linearity was observed by the square of correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9975 to 0.9997. The relative standard deviations ranged from 1.0 to 5.2% for all of the analytes. Limits of detection ranged from 0.85 to 2.73 ng mL−1. The method was successfully applied for determination of synthetic antioxidants in undiluted beverage samples with satisfactory recoveries.

  14. The high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle white-pupil spectrometer of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Robert G.; Macqueen, Phillip J.; Sneden, Christopher; Lambert, David L.

    1995-01-01

    A new high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrometer has been installed at the coude focus of the McDonald Observatory 2.7-m telescope. Its primary goal was simultaneously to gather spectra over as much of the spectral range 3400 A to 1 micrometer as practical, at a resolution R identical with lambda/Delta lambda which approximately = 60,000 with signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 100 for stars down to magnitude 11, using 1-h exposures. In the instrument as built, two exposures are all that are needed to cover the full range. Featuring a white-pupil design, fused silica prism cross disperser, and folded Schmidt camera with a Tektronix 2048x2048 CCD used at either of two foci, it has been in regularly scheduled operation since 1992 April. Design details and performance are described.

  15. Room and high temperature deformation behaviour of a forged Fe–15Al–5Nb alloy with a reinforcing dispersion of equiaxed Laves phase particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.G.; Muñoz-Morris, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Forged Fe–15%Al–5%Nb has a composite structure of soft matrix with equiaxed Laves phase particles. ► The material shows good strength with excellent ductility at room temperature. ► Good creep strength is maintained to 700 °C. ► The coarse composite microstructure ensures good long term stability at high temperatures. ► High temperature strength depends on load sharing between phases and microstructural refinement. - Abstract: The cast-in network of continuous Laves phase in a Fe–15%Al–5%Nb alloy has been converted to a dispersion of coarse Laves phase particles by high temperature forging, and the room temperature and high temperature deformation behaviour examined. The material shows good room temperature tensile ductility and good creep strength at temperatures up to 700 °C. The good high temperature strength is explained by the refinement of substructure by the dispersion of Laves phase particles and load and strain partitioning between the stiff and hard phase and the softer matrix. The relatively coarse microstructure is expected to be highly stable against coarsening at high temperatures, which should allow retention of creep properties even for long exposure times.

  16. A cell-surface-anchored ratiometric i-motif sensor for extracellular pH detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Le; Xie, Nuli; Yang, Yanjing; Yang, Xiaohai; Zhou, Qifeng; Yin, Bincheng; Huang, Jin; Wang, Kemin

    2016-06-14

    A FRET-based sensor is anchored on the cell surface through streptavidin-biotin interactions. Due to the excellent properties of the pH-sensitive i-motif structure, the sensor can detect extracellular pH with high sensitivity and excellent reversibility.

  17. Work Activity and Career Goals in Holland's and Schein's Theories of Vocational Personalities and Career Anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvik, Hilmar

    1991-01-01

    Data from 725 Norwegian adults were analyzed using Holland's and Schein's theories. Although some correlation between the type of work preferred and career goal were found, the two types of decisions were not highly related. Persons' career anchors cannot be derived from assessment of their vocational personality and vice versa. (SK)

  18. BisGMA/TEGDMA dental nanocomposites containing glyoxylic acid modified high-aspect ratio hydroxyapatite nanofibers with enhanced dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Xu, Changqi; Wang, Yong; Shi, Jian; Yu, Qingsong

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of the glyoxylic acid (GA) modification of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofibers on their dispersion in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites and also investigate the mechanical properties, water absorption, and water solubility of the resulting dental resins and composites. Scanning/Transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images showed that microsized HAP nanofiber bundles could be effectively broken down to individual HAP nanofibers with an average length of ~15 μm after the surface modification process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) characterization confirmed glyoxylic acid was chemically grafted on the HAP nanofiber surface, hypothetically by reacting with the amine group on HAP nanofiber surface. The enhanced dispersion of HAP nanofibers in dental matrix led to increased biaxial flexural strength (BFS) compared with the corresponding dental resins and composites filled with untreated HAP nanofibers. In addition, impregnation of small mass fractions of the glyoxylic acid modified HAP nanofibers into the BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resins (5wt%, 10wt%) or composites (2wt%, 3wt%) could also substantially improve the BFS in comparison with the controls(pure resins or dental composites filled with silica particles alone). Larger mass fractions could not further increase the mechanical property or even degrade the BFS values. Water behavior testing results indicated that the addition of glyoxylic acid modified HAP nanofibers resulted in higher water absorption and water solubility values which is not preferred for clinical application. In summary, well dispersed HAP nanofibers and their dental composites with enhanced mechanical property have been successfully fabricated but the water absorption and water solubility of such dental composites need to be

  19. BisGMA/TEGDMA dental nanocomposites containing glyoxylic acid-modified high-aspect ratio hydroxyapatite nanofibers with enhanced dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Yu Qingsong; Li Hao; Xu Changqi; Wang Yong; Shi Jian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of the glyoxylic acid (GA) modification of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanofibers on their dispersion in bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (BisGMA)/triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) dental composites and also to investigate the mechanical properties, water absorption and water solubility of the resulting dental resins and composites. Scanning/transmission electron microscopy images showed that microsized HAP nanofiber bundles could be effectively broken down into individual HAP nanofibers with an average length of ∼15 µm after the surface modification process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis characterization confirmed that GA was chemically grafted on the HAP nanofiber surface, hypothetically by reacting with the amine group on the HAP nanofiber surface. The enhanced dispersion of HAP nanofibers in the dental matrix led to increased biaxial flexural strength (BFS) compared with the corresponding dental resins and composites filled with untreated HAP nanofibers. In addition, impregnation of small mass fractions of the GA-modified HAP nanofibers into the BisGMA/TEGDMA dental resins (5 wt%, 10 wt%) or composites (2 wt%, 3 wt%) could also substantially improve the BFS in comparison with the controls (pure resins or dental composites filled with silica particles alone). Larger mass fractions could not increase the mechanical property further or even degraded the BFS values. Water behavior testing results indicated that the addition of the GA-modified HAP nanofibers resulted in higher water absorption and water solubility values, which are not preferred for clinical application. In summary, well-dispersed HAP nanofibers and their dental composites with enhanced mechanical properties have been successfully fabricated, but the water absorption and water solubility of such dental composites need to be further improved. (paper)

  20. High-resolution modelling of atmospheric dispersion of dense gas using TWODEE-2.1: application to the 1986 Lake Nyos limnic eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, Arnau; Barcons, Jordi; Kozono, Tomofumi; Costa, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric dispersal of a gas denser than air can threat the environment and surrounding communities if the terrain and meteorological conditions favour its accumulation in topographic depressions, thereby reaching toxic concentration levels. Numerical modelling of atmospheric gas dispersion constitutes a useful tool for gas hazard assessment studies, essential for planning risk mitigation actions. In complex terrains, microscale winds and local orographic features can have a strong influence on the gas cloud behaviour, potentially leading to inaccurate results if not captured by coarser-scale modelling. We introduce a methodology for microscale wind field characterisation based on transfer functions that couple a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model with a microscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting time-dependent high-resolution microscale wind field is used as input for a shallow-layer gas dispersal model (TWODEE-2.1) to simulate the time evolution of CO2 gas concentration at different heights above the terrain. The strategy is applied to review simulations of the 1986 Lake Nyos event in Cameroon, where a huge CO2 cloud released by a limnic eruption spread downslopes from the lake, suffocating thousands of people and animals across the Nyos and adjacent secondary valleys. Besides several new features introduced in the new version of the gas dispersal code (TWODEE-2.1), we have also implemented a novel impact criterion based on the percentage of human fatalities depending on CO2 concentration and exposure time. New model results are quantitatively validated using the reported percentage of fatalities at several locations. The comparison with previous simulations that assumed coarser-scale steady winds and topography illustrates the importance of high-resolution modelling in complex terrains.

  1. High internal phase agar hydrogel dispersions in cocoa butter and chocolate as a route towards reducing fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhon, Thomas S; Olsson, Patrik K A; Morgan, Adam R; Bon, Stefan A F

    2013-09-01

    Reducing the fat content of chocolate formulations is a major challenge for the confectionery industry. We report the suspension of aqueous microgel agar particles of up to 80% v/v within sunflower oil, cocoa butter, and ultimately chocolate. The optimised emulsification process involves a shear-cooling step. We demonstrate the versatility of our method when applied to white, milk, and dark chocolate formulations, whilst preserving the desired polymorph V of the cocoa butter matrix. In addition, we show that this technology can be used as a strategy to disperse alcoholic beverages into chocolate confectionery.

  2. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  3. STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION MEASUREMENTS IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASAR HOSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE AGN BLACK HOLE MASS SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Zu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, L. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dasyra, K. M. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France); Dietrich, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45601 (United States); Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BV V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2013-08-20

    We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole (BH) masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of BHs and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass BHs are not offset with respect to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation exhibited by lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with lower-mass BHs, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor (f) that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain (f) = 4.31 {+-} 1.05, which is slightly lower than, but consistent with, most previous determinations.

  4. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  5. Reinforcement mechanism of multi-anchor wall with double wall facing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kouta; Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo

    2017-10-01

    The reinforced soil wall has high seismic performance as generally known. However, the seismic behavior has not been clarified accurately yet, especially on multi-anchor wall with double wall facing. Indefinite behavior of reinforced soil wall during earthquake make us complicated in case with adopting to the abutment, because of arrangement of anchor plate as reinforcement often different according to the width of roads. In this study, a series of centrifuge model tests were carried out to investigate the reinforcement mechanism of multi anchor wall with double wall facing from the perspective of the vertical earth pressure. Several types of reinforce arrangement and rigid wall were applied in order to verify the arch function in the reinforced regions. The test results show unique behavior of vertical earth pressure, which was affected by arch action. All the vertical earth pressure placed behind facing panel, are larger than that of middle part between facing panel despite of friction between backfill and facing panel. Similar results were obtained in case using rigid wall. On the other hands, the vertical earth pressure, which were measured at the 3cm high from bottom of model container, shows larger than that of bottom. This results show the existence of arch action between double walls. In addition, it implies that the wall facing of such soil structure confined the backfill as pseudo wall, which is very reason that the multi anchor wall with double wall facing has high seismic performance.

  6. Determination of three estrogens and bisphenol A by functional ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuehuang; Tang, Tingting; Cao, Zhen; Shi, Guoyue; Zhou, Tianshu

    2015-06-01

    A hydroxyl-functionalized ionic liquid, 1-hydroxyethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was employed in an improved dispersive liquid-phase microextraction method coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography for the enrichment and determination of three estrogens and bisphenol A in environmental water samples. The introduced hydroxyl group acted as the H-bond acceptor that dispersed the ionic liquid effectively in the aqueous phase without dispersive solvent or external force. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the hydroxyl group of the cation of the ionic liquid enhanced the combination of extractant and analytes through the formation of hydrogen bonds. The improvement of the extraction efficiency compared with that with the use of alkyl ionic liquid was proved by a comparison study. The main parameters including volume of extractant, temperature, pH, and extraction time were investigated. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 5.0-1000 μg/L for estrone, estradiol, and bisphenol A, and 10.0-1000 μg/L for estriol. The detection limits were in the range of 1.7-3.4 μg/L. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by enrichment factor that were between 85 and 129. The proposed method was proved to be simple, low cost, and environmentally friendly for the determination of the four endocrine disruptors in environmental water samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Operating range, hold-up, droplet size and axial mixing of pulsed plate columns in highly disperse and low-continuity volume flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, H.; Miller, H.

    Operating behavior, hold-up, droplet size and axial mixing are investigated in highly disperse and slightly continuous volume flows in a pulsed plate column. The geometry of the column of 4-m length and 10-cm inside diameter was held constant. The hole shape of the column bases was changed, wherby the cylindrical, sharp-edge drilled hole is compared with the punched, nozzle-shaped hole in their effects on the fluid-dynamic behavior. In this case we varied the volume flows, the ratio of volume flows, the pulse frequency and the operating temperature. The operation was held constant for the aqueous, the organic, the continuous and the disperse phases. The objective was to demonstrate the applicability of pulsed plate columns with very large differences between the organic disperse and the aqueous continuous volume flow, to obtain design data for such columns and to perform a scale-up to industrial reprocessing plant-size. 18 references, 11 figures, 3 tables

  8. Preconcentration and determination of ceftazidime in real samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with the aid of experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmi, Rasoul; Shahpari, Behrouz; Pourbasheer, Eslam; Boustanifar, Mohammad Hasan; Azari, Zhila; Ebadi, Amin

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and simple method for the extraction and preconcentration of ceftazidime in aqueous samples has been developed using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The extraction parameters, such as the volume of extraction solvent and disperser solvent, salt effect, sample volume, centrifuge rate, centrifuge time, extraction time, and temperature in the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction process, were studied and optimized with the experimental design methods. Firstly, for the preliminary screening of the parameters the taguchi design was used and then, the fractional factorial design was used for significant factors optimization. At the optimum conditions, the calibration curves for ceftazidime indicated good linearity over the range of 0.001-10 μg/mL with correlation coefficients higher than the 0.98, and the limits of detection were 0.13 and 0.17 ng/mL, for water and urine samples, respectively. The proposed method successfully employed to determine ceftazidime in water and urine samples and good agreement between the experimental data and predictive values has been achieved. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Highly selective determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and serotonin at glassy carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Marcela C; Rubianes, María D; Rivas, Gustavo A

    2008-11-01

    We report the highly selective and sensitive voltammetric dopamine quantification in the presence of ascorbic acid and serotonin by using glassy carbon electrodes modified with a dispersion of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in polyethylenimine, PEI (GCE/MWCNT-PEI). The electrocatalytic activity of the MWCNT deposited on the glassy carbon electrode has allowed an important decrease in the overvoltages for the oxidation of ascorbic acid and dopamine, making possible a clear definition of dopamine, serotonin and ascorbic acid oxidation processes. The sensitivities for dopamine in the presence and absence of 1.0 mM ascorbic acid and serotonin were (2.18 +/- 0.03) x 10(5) microAM(-1) (r = 0.9998); and (2.10 +/- 0.07) x 10(5) miroAM(-1) (r=0.9985), respectively, demonstrating the excellent performance of the GCE/MWCNT-PEI. The detection limit for dopamine in the mixture was 9.2 x 10(-7) M. The R. S. D. for the determination of 50 microM dopamine using four different electrodes was 3.9% when modified with the same MWCNT/PEI dispersion, and 4.6% when using four different dispersions. The modified electrode has been successfully applied for recovery assays of dopamine in human blood serum. Therefore, the new sensor represents an interesting and promising alternative for the electrochemical quantification of neurotransmitters and other analytes of clinical interest.

  10. Well-Dispersed Co/CoO/C Nanospheres with Tunable Morphology as High-Performance Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingqing Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Well-dispersed Co/CoO/C nanospheres have been designed and constructed through a facile electrospinning method with a strategy controlling the morphology of nanocomposites via adjusting the pre-oxidized and heat treatments. Scanning electron microscopy results reveal that the as-synthesized sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C shows better spherical morphology with a diameter of around 300 nm without conspicuous agglomeration. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the coexistence of cobalt and cobalt monoxide in the sample. Furthermore, the electrochemical tests reveal that the sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C displays excellent cycling stability with only 0.016% loss per cycle even after 400 cycles at 1000 mA·g−1 and enhanced high-rate capability with a specific discharge capacity of 354 mA·g−1 at 2000 mA·g−1. Besides, the sample pre-oxidized at 275 °C shows a specific capacity of 755 mA·g−1 at 100 mA·g−1 after 95 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance has been ascribed to the well dispersion of nanospheres, the improved electronic conductivity, and the structural integrity contribution from the carbon and cobalt coexisting nanocomposite. The strategy for preparing well-dispersed nanospheres by adjusting pre-oxidized and annealing processes could have insight for other oxide nanosphere synthesis.

  11. Fabrication procedures for manufacturing high uranium concentration dispersion fuel elements; Procedimentos de fabricacao de elementos combustiveis a base de dispersoes com alta concentracao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.A.B.; Durazzo, M., E-mail: jasouza@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    IPEN developed and made available for routine production the technology for manufacturing dispersion type fuel elements for use in research reactors. However, the fuel produced at IPEN is limited to the uranium concentration of 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3} by using the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion. Increasing the uranium concentration of the fuel is interesting by the possibility of increasing the reactor core reactivity and lifetime of the fuel. It is possible to increase the concentration of uranium in the fuel up to the technological limit of 4.8 gU/cm{sup 3} for the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion, which is well placed around the world. This new fuel will be applicable in the new Brazilian-Multipurpose Reactor RMB. This study aimed to develop the manufacturing process of high uranium concentration fuel, redefining the procedures currently used in the manufacture of IPEN. This paper describes the main procedures adjustments that will be necessary. (author)

  12. Synthesis of TiC Nanoparticles Anchored on Hollow Carbon Nanospheres for Enhanced Polysulfide Adsorption in Li-S Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Bokai; Chen, Yong; Li, De; Yin, Lihong; Mo, Yan

    2016-12-08

    A novel spatial confinement strategy based on a carbon/TiO 2 /carbon sandwich structure is proposed to synthesize TiC nanoparticles anchored on hollow carbon nanospheres (TiC@C) through a carbothermal reduction reaction. During the synthesis process, two carbon layers not only serve as reductant to convert TiO 2 into TiC nanoparticles, but also create a spatial confinement to suppress the aggregation of TiO 2 , resulting in the formation of well-dispersed TiC nanoparticles. This unique TiC@C structure shows an outstanding long-term cycling stability at high rates owing to the strong physical and chemical adsorption of lithium polysulfides (i.e., a high capacity of 732.6 mA h g -1 at 1600 mA g -1 ) and it retains a capacity of 443.2 mA h g -1 after 1000 cycles, corresponding to a decay rate of only 0.0395 % per cycle. Therefore, this unique TiC@C composite could be considered as an important candidate for the cathode material in Li-S batteries. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. N, S co-doped carbon spheres with highly dispersed CoO as non-precious metal catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linlin; Guo, Xingpeng; Zhang, Guoan

    2017-08-01

    It is still a great challenge in preparing non-precious metal catalysts with high activity and long-term stability to substitute for precious metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. Herein, we report a novel and facile catalyst-N, S co-doped carbon spheres with highly dispersed CoO (CoO@NS-CSs), where biomass glucose spheres act as carbon precursor and H2S, NH3 derived from the decomposition of thiourea not only provide N, S sources but also can etch carbon spheres to produce nanoporous structure. CoO@NS-CSs catalyst exhibits excellent ORR activity with a high onset potential of 0.946 V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) and a half-wave potential of 0.821 V vs. RHE through a four-electron pathway in alkaline solution, which is comparable to commercial Pt/C catalyst (onset potential: 0.926 V vs. RHE, half-wave potential: 0.827 V vs. RHE). Furthermore, both the long-term stability and methanol-tolerance of CoO@NS-CSs catalyst are superior to those of commercial Pt/C catalyst. The excellent ORR performance of CoO@NS-CSs catalyst can be attributed to its micro-mesopore structure, high specific surface area (667 m2 g-1), and highly dispersed CoO. This work manifests that the obtained CoO@NS-CSs catalyst is promising to be applied to fuel cells.

  14. A new X-ray pinhole camera for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F.P., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Altana, C. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A new X-ray pinhole camera for the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution, was designed and developed. It consists of a back-illuminated and deep depleted CCD detector (composed of 1024 × 1024 pixels with a lateral size of 13 μm) coupled to a 70 μm laser-drilled pinhole-collimator, positioned between the sample under analysis and the CCD. The X-ray pinhole camera works in a coaxial geometry allowing a wide range of magnification values. The characteristic X-ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube working at a maximum power of 100 W (50 kV and 2 mA operating conditions). The spectroscopic capabilities of the X-ray pinhole camera were accurately investigated. Energy response and energy calibration of the CCD detector were determined by irradiating pure target-materials emitting characteristic X-rays in the energy working-domain of the system (between 3 keV and 30 keV). Measurements were performed by using a multi-frame acquisition in single-photon counting. The characteristic X-ray spectra were obtained by an automated processing of the acquired images. The energy resolution measured at the Fe–Kα line is 157 eV. The use of the X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D resolved elemental analysis was investigated by using reference-patterns of different materials and geometries. The possibility of the elemental mapping of samples up to an area of 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} was demonstrated. Finally, the spatial resolution of the pinhole camera was measured by analyzing the profile function of a sharp-edge. The spatial resolution determined at the magnification values of 3.2 × and 0.8 × (used as testing values) is about 90 μm and 190 μm respectively. - Highlights: • We developed an X-ray pinhole camera for the 2D X-ray fluorescence imaging. • X-ray spectra are obtained by a multi-frame acquisition in single photon mode. • The energy resolution in the X

  15. Associative self-anchoring interacts with obtainability of chosen objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean eMobbs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring, it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has yet to be tested. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability.

  16. Career anchors and values from different career management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cunha da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the relationships between career anchors and young Generation Y professionals’ values, from the career concept perspective. Design/methodology/approach – Research concerning the proposed objective was carried out through quantitative research involving 189 Business Administration majors from a Catholic university in São Paulo, Brazil. We used two instruments to identify the career anchors and values of respondents: Schein (1990 and Schwartz (1994, respectively. We used statistical techniques to explore the relationships between career anchors and values. Findings – Among the results, mention should be made to the statistical relationships found between analyzed career anchors and values. It is also important to stress that, although the Lifestyle career anchor was predominantly present in the conglomerate division, this anchor was the predominant characteristic in the differentiation of the smaller group of respondents, the new career group. The General Management Career Anchor, which presents a lower incidence, is the predominant characteristic of the larger group, referring to organizational careers. As well as the Lifestyle career anchor, the Hedonism value was predominant among respondents. Originality/value – The need to consider the following was found: Generation Y presents generational characteristics that drive people management to propose work structures that offer activities to generate learning, pleasure, self-fulfillment and conciliation between work and personal life.

  17. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  18. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Various types of stone anchors have been observed during inshore and offshore explorations along the east and west coasts of India. The earliest stone anchors of India have been recorded from the Harappan sites (3rd millennium BC), but their shape...

  19. Anchor stabilization of trapped particle modes in mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Roslyakov, G.V.

    1986-07-01

    It is shown that for trapped particle modes in tandem mirrors, the pressure of the passing particles in the anchor region introduces a stabilizing term proportional to the sum of the anchor's field line curvature and total diamagnetic pressure. The theory is applied to the proposed gas dynamic trap experiment

  20. Career Anchors: Results of an Organisational Study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnall, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Career anchors of 374 British employees were identified using Schein's questionnaire. Age, gender, and length of service had no significant effect on distribution of anchors. Job level had some relationship. The information could be used to determine appropriate career-development strategies. (SK)

  1. Anchor stabilization of trapped particle modes in mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Roslyakov, G.V.

    1986-04-01

    It is shown that for trapped particle modes in tandem mirrors, the pressure of the passing particles in the anchor region introduces a stabilizing term proportional to the sum of the anchor's field line curvature and total diamagnetic pressure. The theory is applied to the proposed gas dynamic trap experiment

  2. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  3. The obtainment of highly concentrated uranium pellets for plate type (MTR) fuel by dispersion of uranium aluminides in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morando, R.A.; Raffaeli, H.A.; Balzaretti, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of the intermetallic UAl 3 for manufacturing plate type MTR fuel with 20% U 235 enriched uranium and a density of about 20 kg/m 3 is analyzed. The technique used is the dispersion of UAl 3 particles in aluminium powder. The obtainment of the UAl 3 intermetallic was performed by fusion in an induction furnace in an atmosphere of argon at a pressure of 0.7 BAR (400 mm) using an alumina melting pot. To make the aluminide powder and attain the wished granulometry a cutting and a rotating crusher were used. Aluminide powders of different granulometries and different pressures of compactation were analyzed. In each case the densities were measured. The compacts were colaminated with the 'Picture Frame' technique at temperatures of 490 and 0 deg C with excellent results from the manufacturing view point. (M.E.L.) [es

  4. Highly coherent red-shifted dispersive wave generation around 1.3 μm for efficient wavelength conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xia; Bi, Wanjun [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen, Wei; Xue, Tianfeng; Hu, Lili; Liao, Meisong, E-mail: liaomeisong@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Gao, Weiqing [School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2015-03-14

    This research investigates the mechanism of the optical dispersive wave (DW) and proposes a scheme that can realize an efficient wavelength conversion. In an elaborately designed photonic crystal fiber, a readily available ytterbium laser operating at ∼1 μm can be transferred to the valuable 1.3 μm wavelength range. A low-order soliton is produced to concentrate the energy of the DW into the target wavelength range and improve the degree of coherence. The input chirp is demonstrated to be a factor that enhances the wavelength conversion efficiency. With a positive initial chirp, 76.6% of the pump energy in the fiber can be transferred into a spectral range between 1.24 and 1.4 μm. With the use of a grating compressor, it is possible to compress the generated coherent DW of several picoseconds into less than 90 fs.

  5. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  6. Test Score Equating Using Discrete Anchor Items versus Passage-Based Anchor Items: A Case Study Using "SAT"® Data. Research Report. ETS RR-14-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Zu, Jiyun; Curley, Edward; Carey, Jill

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of discrete anchor items versus passage-based anchor items on observed score equating using empirical data.This study compares an "SAT"® critical reading anchor that contains more discrete items proportionally, compared to the total tests to be equated, to another anchor that…

  7. Pipe supports and anchors - LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pipe design and support design can not be treated as separate disciplines. A coordinated design approach is required if LMFBR pipe system adequacy is to be achieved at a reasonable cost. It is particularly important that system designers understand and consider those factors which influence support train flexibility and thus the pipe system dynamic stress levels. The system approach must not stop with the design phase but should continue thru the erection and acceptance test procedures. The factors that should be considered in the design of LMFBR pipe supports and anchors are described. The various pipe support train elements are described together with guidance on analysis, design and application aspects. Post erection acceptance and verification test procedures are then discussed

  8. RAFT Aqueous Dispersion Polymerization of N-(2-(Methacryloyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone: A Convenient Low Viscosity Route to High Molecular Weight Water-Soluble Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Victoria J; Derry, Matthew J; Fielding, Lee A; Musa, Osama M; Armes, Steven P

    2016-06-28

    RAFT solution polymerization of N -(2-(methacryoyloxy)ethyl)pyrrolidone (NMEP) in ethanol at 70 °C was conducted to produce a series of PNMEP homopolymers with mean degrees of polymerization (DP) varying from 31 to 467. Turbidimetry was used to assess their inverse temperature solubility behavior in dilute aqueous solution, with an LCST of approximately 55 °C being observed in the high molecular weight limit. Then a poly(glycerol monomethacylate) (PGMA) macro-CTA with a mean DP of 63 was chain-extended with NMEP using a RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation at 70 °C. The target PNMEP DP was systematically varied from 100 up to 6000 to generate a series of PGMA 63 -PNMEP x diblock copolymers. High conversions (≥92%) could be achieved when targeting up to x = 5000. GPC analysis confirmed high blocking efficiencies and a linear evolution in M n with increasing PNMEP DP. A gradual increase in M w / M n was also observed when targeting higher DPs. However, this problem could be minimized ( M w / M n RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization of NMEP was approximately four times faster than the RAFT solution polymerization of NMEP in ethanol when targeting the same DP in each case. This is perhaps surprising because both 1 H NMR and SAXS studies indicate that the core-forming PNMEP chains remain relatively solvated at 70 °C in the latter formulation. Moreover, dissolution of the initial PGMA 63 -PNMEP x particles occurs on cooling from 70 to 20 °C as the PNMEP block passes through its LCST. Hence this RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization formulation offers an efficient route to a high molecular weight water-soluble polymer in a rather convenient low-viscosity form. Finally, the relatively expensive PGMA macro-CTA was replaced with a poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) macro-CTA. High conversions were also achieved for PMAA 85 -PNMEP x diblock copolymers prepared via RAFT aqueous dispersion polymerization for x ≤ 4000. Again, better control was achieved when

  9. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  10. Biased calculations: Numeric anchors influence answers to math equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available People must often perform calculations in order to produce a numeric estimate (e.g., a grocery-store shopper estimating the total price of his or her shopping cart contents. The current studies were designed to test whether estimates based on calculations are influenced by comparisons with irrelevant anchors. Previous research has demonstrated that estimates across a wide range of contexts assimilate toward anchors, but none has examined estimates based on calculations. In two studies, we had participants compare the answers to math problems with anchors. In both studies, participants' estimates assimilated toward the anchor values. This effect was moderated by time limit such that the anchoring effects were larger when the participants' ability to engage in calculations was limited by a restrictive time limit.

  11. Grapnel stone anchors from Saurashtra: Remnants of Indo-Arab trade on the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Stone anchors have been used as a primary source of information on ancient navigation by marine archaeologists since long. These anchors used by ancient mariners are often noticed underwater at various places across the world. Stone anchors are also...

  12. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  13. Containment liner plate anchors and steel embedments test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang-Lo, P.L.; Johnson, T.E.; Pfeifer, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes test data on shear load and deformation capabilities for liner plate line anchors and structural steel embedments in reinforced and prestressed concrete nuclear containments. Reinforced and prestressed nuclear containments designed and constructed in the United States are lined with a minimum of 0.64 cm steel plate. The liner plates are anchored by the use of either studs or structural members (line anchors) which usually run in the vertical direction. This paper will only address line anchors. Static load versus displacement test data is necessary to assure that the design is adequate for the maximum loads. The test program for the liner anchors had the following major objectives: determine load versus displacement data for a variety of anchors considering structural tees and small beams with different weld configurations, from the preceding tests, determine which anchors would lead to an economical and extremely safe design and test these anchors for cyclic loads resulting from thermal fluctuations. Various concrete embeds in the containment and other structures are subjected to loads such as pipe rupture which results in shear. Since many of the loads are transient by nature, it is necessary to know the load-displacement relationship so that the energy absorption can be determined. The test program for the embeds had the following objectives: determine load-displacement relationship for various size anchors from 6.5 cm 2 to 26 cm 2 with maximum capacities of approximately 650 kN; determine the effect of various anchor width-to-thickness ratios for the same shear area

  14. Equatorward dispersion of a high-latitude volcanic plume and its relation to the Asian summer monsoon: a case study of the Sarychev eruption in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Griessbach, Sabine; Hoffmann, Lars

    2017-11-01

    Tropical volcanic eruptions have been widely studied for their significant contribution to stratospheric aerosol loading and global climate impacts, but the impact of high-latitude volcanic eruptions on the stratospheric aerosol layer is not clear and the pathway of transporting aerosol from high latitudes to the tropical stratosphere is not well understood. In this work, we focus on the high-latitude volcano Sarychev (48.1° N, 153.2° E), which erupted in June 2009, and the influence of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) on the equatorward dispersion of the volcanic plume. First, the sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission time series and plume height of the Sarychev eruption are estimated with SO2 observations of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and a backward trajectory approach using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Massive-Parallel Trajectory Calculations (MPTRAC). Then, the transport and dispersion of the plume are simulated using the derived SO2 emission time series. The transport simulations are compared with SO2 observations from AIRS and validated with aerosol observations from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS). The MPTRAC simulations show that about 4 % of the sulfur emissions were transported to the tropical stratosphere within 50 days after the beginning of the eruption, and the plume dispersed towards the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) through isentropic transport above the subtropical jet. The MPTRAC simulations and MIPAS aerosol data both show that between the potential temperature levels of 360 and 400 K, the equatorward transport was primarily driven by anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking enhanced by the ASM in boreal summer. The volcanic plume was entrained along the anticyclone flows and reached the TTL as it was transported southwestwards into the deep tropics downstream of the anticyclone. Further, the ASM anticyclone influenced the pathway of aerosols by isolating an aerosol hole inside of the ASM, which

  15. Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive waste into the seabed. Volume 5: Dispersal of radionuclides in the oceans: Models, data sets and regional descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marietta, M.G.; Simmons, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    One of the options suggested for disposal of high-level radioactive waste resulting from the generation of nuclear power is burial beneath the deep ocean floor in geologically stable sediment formations which have no economic value. The 8-volume series provides an assessment of the technical feasibility and radiological safety of this disposal concept based on the results obtained by ten years of co-operation and information exchange among the Member countries participating in the NEA Seabed Working Group. This report summarizes the development of a realistic and credible methodology to describe the oceanic dispersion of radionuclides for risk assessment calculations

  16. Study of dispersion of mass distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using a surface array of muon and electromagnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosek, Dalibor; Ebr, Jan

    2015-09-01

    We consider a hypothetical observatory of ultra-high energy cosmic rays consisting of two surface detector arrays that measure independently electromagnetic and muon signals induced by air showers. Using the constant intensity cut method, sets of events ordered according to each of both signal sizes are compared giving the number of matched events. Based on its dependence on the zenith angle, a parameter sensitive to the dispersion of the distribution of the logarithmic mass of cosmic rays is introduced. The results obtained using two post-LHC models of hadronic interactions are very similar and indicate a weak dependence on details of these interactions.

  17. High-transmission excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter edge filter based on a Halbach cylinder magnetic-field configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Walther, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We report on the realization of an excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (ESFADOF) edge filter based on the 5P(3/2)→8D(5/2) transition in rubidium. A maximum transmission of 81% has been achieved. This high transmission is only possible by utilizing a special configuration of magnetic fields taken from accelerator physics to provide a strong homogeneous magnetic field of approximately 6000 G across the vapor cell. The two resulting steep transmission edges are separated by more than 13 GHz, enabling its application in remote sensing.

  18. Analytical electron microscope based on scanning transmission electron microscope with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to realize highly sensitive elemental imaging especially for light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguchi, Masanari; Tsuneta, Ruriko; Anan, Yoshihiro; Nakamae, Koji

    2017-01-01

    An analytical electron microscope based on the scanning transmission electron microscope with wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (STEM-WDX) to realize highly sensitive elemental imaging especially for light elements has been developed. In this study, a large-solid-angle multi-capillary x-rays lens with a focal length of 5 mm, long-time data acquisition (e.g. longer than 26 h), and a drift-free system made it possible to visualize boron-dopant images in a Si substrate at a detection limit of 0.2 atomic percent. (paper)

  19. High throughput screening of phenoxy carboxylic acids with dispersive solid phase extraction followed by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaqin; Zhu, Jun; Si, Ling; Du, Qi; Li, Hongli; Bi, Wentao; Chen, David Da Yong

    2017-12-15

    A high throughput, low environmental impact methodology for rapid determination of phenoxy carboxylic acids (PCAs) in water samples was developed by combing dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE) using velvet-like graphitic carbon nitride (V-g-C 3 N 4 ) and direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Due to the large surface area and good dispersity of V-g-C 3 N 4 , the DSPE of PCAs in water was completed within 20 s, and the elution of PCAs was accomplished in 20 s as well using methanol. The eluents were then analyzed and quantified using DART ionization source coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer, where an internal standard was added in the samples. The limit of detection ranged from 0.5 ng L -1 to 2 ng L -1 on the basis of 50 mL water sample; the recovery 79.9-119.1%; and the relative standard deviation 0.23%-9.82% (≥5 replicates). With the ease of use and speed of DART-MS, the whole protocol can complete within mere minutes, including sample preparation, extraction, elution, detection and quantitation. The methodology developed here is simple, fast, sensitive, quantitative, requiring little sample preparation and consuming significantly less toxic organic solvent, which can be used for high throughput screening of PCAs and potentially other contaminants in water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou, Peng, E-mail: doup@tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kimura, Akihiko, E-mail: kimura@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kasada, Ryuta, E-mail: r-kasada@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Okuda, Takanari, E-mail: okuda.takanari@kki.kobelco.com [Kobelco Research Institute, 1-5-5 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271 (Japan); Inoue, Masaki, E-mail: inoue.masaki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Nuclear System R& D Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, O-arai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Ukai, Shigeharu, E-mail: s-ukai@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ohnuki, Somei, E-mail: ohnuki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13, W8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Fujisawa, Toshiharu, E-mail: fujisawa@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Abe, Fujio, E-mail: ABE.Fujio@nims.go.jp [Structural Metals Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Jiang, Shan, E-mail: js93518@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Zhigang, E-mail: zgyang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-03-15

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y{sub 2}Hf{sub 2}O{sub 7} oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.