Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John Cossey
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.
Chen, D
The $\\textbf{DA}$rk $\\textbf{M}$atter $\\textbf{P}$article $\\textbf{E}$xplorer (DAMPE) experiment is a high-energy astroparticle physics satellite mission to search for Dark Matter signatures in space, study the cosmic ray spectrum and composition up to 100 TeV, and perform high-energy gamma astronomy. The launch is planned for end 2015, initially for 3 years, to compliment existing space missions FERMI, AMS and CALET.
Damping of hard excitations in strongly coupled N=4 plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
III, John F. Fuini; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Yaffe, Laurence G. [Department of Physics, University of Washington,Seattle, WA 98195-1560 (United States)
2016-12-13
The damping of high momentum excitations in strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma is studied. Previous calculations of the asymptotic behavior of the quasinormal mode spectrum are extended and clarified. We confirm that subleading corrections to the lightlike dispersion relation ω(q)=|q| have a universal |q|{sup −1/3} form. Sufficiently narrow, weak planar shocks may be viewed as coherent superpositions of short wavelength quasinormal modes. The attenuation and evolution in profile of narrow planar shocks are examined as an application of our results.
Damping of hard excitations in strongly coupled N = 4 plasma
Fuini, John F.; Uhlemann, Christoph F.; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2016-12-01
The damping of high momentum excitations in strongly coupled maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma is studied. Previous calculations of the asymptotic behavior of the quasinormal mode spectrum are extended and clarified. We confirm that subleading corrections to the lightlike dispersion relation ω( q) = | q| have a universal | q|-1/3 form. Sufficiently narrow, weak planar shocks may be viewed as coherent superpositions of short wavelength quasinormal modes. The attenuation and evolution in profile of narrow planar shocks are examined as an application of our results.
Damping in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hull, John R.
2009-12-15
Methods and apparatuses for improved damping in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems are disclosed. A superconducting element (e.g., a stator) generating a magnetic field and a magnet (e.g. a rotor) supported by the magnetic field are provided such that the superconducting element is supported relative to a ground state with damped motion substantially perpendicular to the support of the magnetic field on the magnet. Applying this, a cryostat housing the superconducting bearing may be coupled to the ground state with high damping but low radial stiffness, such that its resonant frequency is less than that of the superconducting bearing. The damping of the cryostat may be substantially transferred to the levitated magnetic rotor, thus, providing damping without affecting the rotational loss, as can be derived applying coupled harmonic oscillator theory in rotor dynamics. Thus, damping can be provided to a levitated object, without substantially affecting the rotational loss.
Highly Damping Hard Coatings for Protection of Titanium Blades
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Movchan, Boris A; Ustinov, Anatolii I
2005-01-01
Sn-Cr-MgO system is used as an example to show the basic capability to produce by EBPVD protective metal-ceramic coatings with a high adhesion strength, high values of hardness and damping capacity...
Development of Composite Materials with High Passive Damping Properties
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Crocker, Malcolm J
2006-01-01
... structure with high damping. Composite sandwich structures have several advantages, such as their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent thermal insulation, and good performance as water and vapor barriers...
Fast damping in mismatched high intensity beam transportation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Variale
2001-08-01
Full Text Available A very fast damping of beam envelope oscillation amplitudes was recently observed in simulations of high intensity beam transport, through periodic FODO cells, in mismatched conditions [V. Variale, Nuovo Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis. 112A, 1571–1582 (1999 and T. Clauser et al., in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, New York, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999, p. 1779]. A Landau damping mechanism was proposed at the origin of observed effect. In this paper, to further investigate the source of this fast damping, extensive simulations have been carried out. The results presented here support the interpretation of the mechanism at the origin of the fast damping as a Landau damping effect.
Design, Fabrication, and Properties of High Damping Metal Matrix Composites?A Review
Qianfeng Fang; Zhijun Cheng; Tao Zhang; Xianping Wang; Hui Lu
2009-01-01
Nowadays it is commonly considered that high damping materials which have both the good mechanical properties as structural materials and the high damping capacity for vibration damping are the most direct vibration damping solution. In metals and alloys however, exhibiting simultaneously high damping capacity and good mechanical properties has been noted to be normally incompatible because the microscopic mechanisms responsible for internal friction (namely damping capacity) are dependent up...
Dirac Quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild black hole
Jing, Jiliang
2005-01-01
The quasinormal modes (QNMs) associated with the decay of Dirac field perturbation around a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by using continued fraction and Hill-determinant approaches. It is shown that the fundamental quasinormal frequencies become evenly spaced for large angular quantum number and the spacing is given by $\\omega_{\\lambda+1}- \\omega_{\\lambda}=0.38490-0.00000i$. The angular quantum number has the surprising effect of increasing real part of the quasinormal frequencies...
Quasinormal Modes of a Quantum-Corrected Schwarzschild Black Hole for Electromagnetic Perturbation
Wang, Chunyan; Gao, Yajun; Ding, Wenbo; Yu, Qingxu
2017-12-01
In this work, we investigate the electromagnetic perturbation around a quantum-corrected Schwarzschild black hole. The complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes are evaluated by the third-order WKB approximation. The numerical results obtained showed that the complex frequencies depend on the quantum correction parameter a of a black hole, which the real parts and the magnitudes of the imaginary parts of quasinormal modes decrease with the increase in factor a. These conclusions show that the electromagnetic perturbation around the black hole oscillate and damp more slowly owing to the presence of the quantum correction parameter.
High Frequency Longitudinal Damped Vibrations of a Cylindrical Ultrasonic Transducer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mihai Valentin Predoi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Ultrasonic piezoelectric transducers used in classical nondestructive testing are producing in general longitudinal vibrations in the MHz range. A simple mechanical model of these transducers would be very useful for wave propagation numerical simulations, avoiding the existing complicated models in which the real components of the transducer are modeled by finite elements. The classical model for longitudinal vibrations is not adequate because the generated longitudinal wave is not dispersive, the velocity being the same at any frequency. We have adopted the Rayleigh-Bishop model, which avoids these limitations, even if it is not converging to the first but to the second exact longitudinal mode in an elastic rod, as obtained from the complicated Pochhammer-Chree equations. Since real transducers have significant vibrations damping, we have introduced a damping term in the Rayleigh-Bishop model, increasing the imaginary part and keeping almost identical real part of the wavenumber. Common transducers produce amplitude modulated signals, completely attenuated after several periods. This can be modeled by two close frequencies, producing a “beat” phenomenon, superposed on the high damping. For this reason, we introduce a two-rod Rayleigh-Bishop model with damping. Agreement with measured normal velocity on the transducer free surface is encouraging for continuation of the research.
Quasinormal modes for the charged Vaidya metric
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chirenti, Cecilia [Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, UFABC, 09210-170 Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Saa, Alberto [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, SP (Brazil)
2011-09-22
The scalar wave equation is considered in the background of a charged Vaidya metric in double null coordinates (u,v) describing a non-stationary charged black hole with varying mass m(v) and charge q(v). The resulting time-dependent quasinormal modes are presented and analyzed. We show, in particular, that it is possible to identify some signatures in the quasinormal frequencies from the creation of a naked singularity.
Design, Fabrication, and Properties of High Damping Metal Matrix Composites—A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qianfeng Fang
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Nowadays it is commonly considered that high damping materials which have both the good mechanical properties as structural materials and the high damping capacity for vibration damping are the most direct vibration damping solution. In metals and alloys however, exhibiting simultaneously high damping capacity and good mechanical properties has been noted to be normally incompatible because the microscopic mechanisms responsible for internal friction (namely damping capacity are dependent upon the parameters that control mechanical strength. To achieve a compromise, one of the most important methods is to develop two-phase composites, in which each phase plays a specific role: damping or mechanical strength. In this review, we have summarized the development of the design concept of high damping composite materials and the investigation of their fabrication and properties, including mechanical and damping properties, and suggested a new design concept of high damping composite materials where the hard ceramic additives exhibit high damping capacity at room temperature owing to the stress-induced reorientation of high density point defects in the ceramic phases and the high damping capacity of the composite comes mainly from the ceramic phases.
On the branching of the quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)
2015-11-15
It has recently been shown by Yang et al. (Phys Rev D 87:041502(R), 2013a; Phys Rev D 88:044047, 2013b) that rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by two distinct sets of quasinormal resonances. These two families of quasinormal resonances display qualitatively different asymptotic behaviors in the extremal (a/M → 1) black-hole limit: the zero-damping modes are characterized by relaxation times which tend to infinity in the extremal black-hole limit (Iω → 0 as a/M @→ 1), whereas the damped modes (DMs) are characterized by non-zero damping rates (Iω @→ finite-values as a/M @→ 1). In this paper we refute the claim made by Yang et al. that co-rotating DMs of near-extremal black holes are restricted to the limited range 0 ≤ μ
On the branching of the quasinormal resonances of near-extremal Kerr black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar, E-mail: shaharhod@gmail.com [The Ruppin Academic Center, 40250, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, 91010, Jerusalem (Israel)
2015-11-02
It has recently been shown by Yang et al. (Phys Rev D 87:041502(R), 2013a; Phys Rev D 88:044047, 2013b) that rotating Kerr black holes are characterized by two distinct sets of quasinormal resonances. These two families of quasinormal resonances display qualitatively different asymptotic behaviors in the extremal (a/M→1) black-hole limit: the zero-damping modes are characterized by relaxation times which tend to infinity in the extremal black-hole limit (Iω→0 as a/M→1), whereas the damped modes (DMs) are characterized by non-zero damping rates (Iω→ finite-values as a/M→1). In this paper we refute the claim made by Yang et al. that co-rotating DMs of near-extremal black holes are restricted to the limited range 0≤μ≲μ{sub c}≈0.74, where μ≡m/l is the dimensionless ratio between the azimuthal harmonic index m and the spheroidal harmonic index l of the perturbation mode. In particular, we use an analytical formula originally derived by Detweiler in order to prove the existence of DMs (damped quasinormal resonances which are characterized by finiteIω values in the a/M→1 limit) of near-extremal black holes in the μ>μ{sub c} regime, the regime which was claimed by Yang et al. not to contain DMs. We show that these co-rotating DMs (in the regime μ>μ{sub c}) are expected to characterize the resonance spectra of rapidly rotating (near-extremal) black holes with a/M≳1-10{sup -9}.
Damping and support in high-temperature superconducting levitation systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hull, John R [Sammamish, WA; McIver, Carl R [Everett, WA; Mittleider, John A [Kent, WA
2009-12-15
Methods and apparatuses to provide improved auxiliary damping for superconducting bearings in superconducting levitation systems are disclosed. In a superconducting bearing, a cryostat housing the superconductors is connected to a ground state with a combination of a damping strip of material, a set of linkage arms to provide vertical support, and spring washers to provide stiffness. Alternately, the superconducting bearing may be supported by a cryostat connected to a ground state by posts constructed from a mesh of fibers, with the damping and stiffness controlled by the fiber composition, size, and mesh geometry.
Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel
substantially with the level of damping. For example, a strongly damped pendulum, with a hinge vibrated at high frequency along an elliptical path with horizontal or vertical axis, will line up along a line offset from the vertical; the offset vanishes for very light or very strong damping, attaining a maximum...... on a slightly modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical...
Nontrivial effects of high-frequency excitation for strongly damped mechanical systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fidlin, Alexander; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2008-01-01
substantially with the level of damping. For example, a strongly damped pendulum, with a hinge vibrated at high frequency along an elliptical path with horizontal or vertical axis, will line up along a line offset from the vertical; the offset vanishes for very light or very strong damping, attaining a maximum...... modified averaging technique, and includes an elementary example of an elliptically excited pendulum for illustration, alongside with a generalization to a broader class of strongly damped dynamical systems with HF excitation. As an application example, the nontrivial behavior of a classical optimally...
High Temperature Damping Behavior of Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier and Protective Coatings
Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Ghosn, Louis J.
2010-01-01
A high temperature damping test apparatus has been developed using a high heat flux CO 2 laser rig in conjunction with a TIRA S540 25 kHz Shaker and Polytec OFV 5000 Vibrometer system. The test rig has been successfully used to determine the damping performance of metallic and ceramic protective coating systems at high temperature for turbine engine applications. The initial work has been primarily focused on the microstructure and processing effects on the coating temperature-dependence damping behavior. Advanced ceramic coatings, including multicomponent tetragonal and cubic phase thermal barrier coatings, along with composite bond coats, have also been investigated. The coating high temperature damping mechanisms will also be discussed.
Ambient-temperature high damping capacity in TiPd-based martensitic alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xue, Dezhen [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhou, Yumei, E-mail: zhouyumei@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ding, Xiangdong [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Otsuka, Kazuhiro [Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan); Lookman, Turab [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sun, Jun [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ren, Xiaobing [Multi-disciplinary Materials Research Center, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Ferroic Physics Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047, Ibaraki (Japan)
2015-04-24
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have attracted considerable attention for their high damping capacities. Here we investigate the damping behavior of Ti{sub 50}(Pd{sub 50−x}D{sub x}) SMAs (D=Fe, Co, Mn, V) by dynamic mechanical analysis. We find that these alloys show remarkably similar damping behavior. There exists a sharp damping peak associated with the B2–B19 martensitic transformation and a high damping plateau (Q{sup −1}~0.02–0.05) over a wide ambient-temperature range (220–420 K) due to the hysteretic twin boundary motion. After doping hydrogen into the above alloys, a new relaxation-type damping peak appears in the martensite phase over 270–360 K. Such a peak is considered to originate from the interaction of hydrogen atoms with twin boundaries and the corresponding damping capacity (Q{sup −1}~0.05–0.09) is enhanced by roughly twice that of the damping plateau for each alloy. Moreover, the relaxation peaks are at higher temperatures for the TiPd-based alloys (270–370 K) than for the TiNi-based alloys (190–260 K). We discuss the influence of hydrogen diffusion, mobility of twin boundaries and hydrogen–twin boundary interaction on the temperature range of the relaxation peak. Our results suggest that a martensite, with appropriate values for twinning shear and hydrogen doping level, provides a route towards developing high damping SMAs for applications in desired temperature ranges.
Sub-synchronous resonance damping using high penetration PV plant
Khayyatzadeh, M.; Kazemzadeh, R.
2017-02-01
The growing need to the clean and renewable energy has led to the fast development of transmission voltage-level photovoltaic (PV) plants all over the world. These large scale PV plants are going to be connected to power systems and one of the important subjects that should be investigated is the impact of these plants on the power system stability. Can large scale PV plants help to damp sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) and how? In this paper, this capability of a large scale PV plant is investigated. The IEEE Second Benchmark Model aggregated with a PV plant is utilized as the case study. A Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS) based conventional damping controller is designed and added to the main control loop of PV plant in order to damp the SSR and also investigation of the destructive effect of time delay in remote feedback signal. A new optimization algorithm called teaching-learning-based-optimization (TLBO) algorithm has been used for managing the optimization problems. Fast Furrier Transformer (FFT) analysis and also transient simulations of detailed nonlinear system are considered to investigate the performance of the controller. Robustness of the proposed system has been analyzed by facing the system with disturbances leading to significant changes in generator and power system operating point, fault duration time and PV plant generated power. All the simulations are carried out in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.
Energy conservation and high-frequency damping in numerical time integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2008-01-01
additional variables to represent damping. In the present paper it is demonstrated, how damping equivalent to the α-damping of the Newmark algorithm can be introduced directly via displacement and velocity dependent terms. It is furthermore shown, how this damping can be improved by introduction of a new set...... this often leads to a fairly large number of high-frequency modes, that are not represented well – and occasionally directly erroneously – by the model. It is desirable to cure this problem by devising algorithms that include the possibility of introducing algorithmic energy dissipation of the high......-frequency modes. The problem is well known from classic collocation based algorithms – notably various forms of the Newmark algorithm – where the equation of motion is supplemented by approximate relations between displacement, velocity and acceleration. Here adjustment of the algorithmic parameters can be used...
Dirac quasinormal modes for a 4-dimensional Lifshitz black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catalan, Marcela; Cisternas, Eduardo [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2014-03-15
We study the quasinormal modes of fermionic perturbations for an asymptotically Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions with dynamical exponent z and plane topology for the transverse section, and we find analytically and numerically the quasinormal modes for massless fermionic fields by using the improved asymptotic iteration method and the Horowitz-Hubeny method. The quasinormal frequencies are purely imaginary and negative, which guarantees the stability of these black holes under massless fermionic field perturbations. Remarkably, both numerical methods yield consistent results; i.e., both methods converge to the exact quasinormal frequencies; however, the improved asymptotic iteration method converges in a less number of iterations. Also, we find analytically the quasinormal modes for massive fermionic fields for the mode with lowest angular momentum. In this case, the quasinormal frequencies are purely imaginary and negative, which guarantees the stability of these black holes under fermionic field perturbations. Moreover, we show that the lowest quasinormal frequencies have real and imaginary parts for the mode with higher angular momentum by using the improved asymptotic iteration method. (orig.)
Quasinormal frequencies of black hole in the braneworld
Toshmatov, Bobir; Schee, Jan; Ahmedov, Bobomurat
2016-01-01
We have studied scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of the four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-like black holes with a \\textit{tidal charge} in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld. The quasinormal modes of these scalar, electromagnetic, as well as axial and polar gravitational perturbations, have been studied in both normal and eikonal regimes. Calculations have shown that the black holes on the Randall-Sundrum brane are stable against scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. Moreover, we determine the grey body factor, giving transmission and reflection of the scattered waves through the scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational effective potentials. It has been shown that the scalar perturbative fields are the most favorite to the reflected as compared to the latter. With increasing value of the tidal charge ability of the all perturbative potentials to reflect the waves decreases. Our calculations in low- and high-frequency regimes have shown that black holes on the brane...
Design of high gradient, high repetition rate damped C -band rf structures
Alesini, David; Bellaveglia, Marco; Bini, Simone; Gallo, Alessandro; Lollo, Valerio; Pellegrino, Luigi; Piersanti, Luca; Cardelli, Fabio; Migliorati, Mauro; Mostacci, Andrea; Palumbo, Luigi; Tocci, Simone; Ficcadenti, Luca; Pettinacci, Valerio
2017-03-01
The gamma beam system of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics project foresees the use of a multibunch train colliding with a high intensity recirculated laser pulse. The linac energy booster is composed of 12 traveling wave C -band structures, 1.8 m long with a field phase advance per cell of 2 π /3 and a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Because of the multibunch operation, the structures have been designed with a dipole higher order mode (HOM) damping system to avoid beam breakup (BBU). They are quasiconstant gradient structures with symmetric input couplers and a very effective damping of the HOMs in each cell based on silicon carbide (SiC) rf absorbers coupled to each cell through waveguides. An optimization of the electromagnetic and mechanical design has been done to simplify the fabrication and to reduce the cost of the structures. In the paper, after a review of the beam dynamics issues related to the BBU effects, we discuss the electromagnetic and thermomechanic design criteria of the structures. We also illustrate the criteria to compensate the beam loading and the rf measurements that show the effectiveness of the HOM damping.
Design of high gradient, high repetition rate damped C-band rf structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Alesini
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The gamma beam system of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure–Nuclear Physics project foresees the use of a multibunch train colliding with a high intensity recirculated laser pulse. The linac energy booster is composed of 12 traveling wave C-band structures, 1.8 m long with a field phase advance per cell of 2π/3 and a repetition rate of 100 Hz. Because of the multibunch operation, the structures have been designed with a dipole higher order mode (HOM damping system to avoid beam breakup (BBU. They are quasiconstant gradient structures with symmetric input couplers and a very effective damping of the HOMs in each cell based on silicon carbide (SiC rf absorbers coupled to each cell through waveguides. An optimization of the electromagnetic and mechanical design has been done to simplify the fabrication and to reduce the cost of the structures. In the paper, after a review of the beam dynamics issues related to the BBU effects, we discuss the electromagnetic and thermomechanic design criteria of the structures. We also illustrate the criteria to compensate the beam loading and the rf measurements that show the effectiveness of the HOM damping.
Quasinormal Modes of a Quantum-Corrected Schwarzschild Black ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
corrected Schwarzschild black hole. The complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes are evaluated by the third-order WKB approximation. The numerical results obtained showed that the complex frequencies depend on the quantum ...
Comparison of high order modes damping techniques for 800 MHz single cell superconducting cavities
Shashkov, Ya V; Zobov, M M
2014-01-01
Currently, applications of 800 MHz harmonic cavities in both bunch lengthening and shortening regimes are under consideration and discussion in the framework of the High Luminosity LHC project. In this paper we study electromagnetic characteristics of high order modes (HOM) for a single cell 800 MHz superconducting cavity and arrays of such cavities connected by drifts tubes. Different techniques for the HOM damping such as beam pipe grooves, coaxial-notch loads, fluted beam pipes etc. are investigated and compared. The influence of the sizes and geometry of the drift tubes on the HOM damping is analyzed.
Yew, Alvin G.; Chai, Dean J.; Olney, David J.
2010-01-01
The goal of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission is to understand magnetic reconnection with sensor measurements from four spinning satellites flown in a tight tetrahedron formation. Four of the six electric field sensors on each satellite are located at the end of 60- meter wire booms to increase measurement sensitivity in the spin plane and to minimize motion coupling from perturbations on the main body. A propulsion burn however, might induce boom oscillations that could impact science measurements if oscillations do not damp to values on the order of 0.1 degree in a timely fashion. Large damping time constants could also adversely affect flight dynamics and attitude control performance. In this paper, we will discuss the implementation of a high resolution method for calculating the boom's intrinsic damping, which was used in multi-body dynamics simulations. In summary, experimental data was obtained with a scaled-down boom, which was suspended as a pendulum in vacuum. Optical techniques were designed to accurately measure the natural decay of angular position and subsequently, data processing algorithms resulted in excellent spatial and temporal resolutions. This method was repeated in a parametric study for various lengths, root tensions and vacuum levels. For all data sets, regression models for damping were applied, including: nonlinear viscous, frequency-independent hysteretic, coulomb and some combination of them. Our data analysis and dynamics models have shown that the intrinsic damping for the baseline boom is insufficient, thereby forcing project management to explore mitigation strategies.
Application of a high-performance damping metal to gravitational wave detectors
Mio, N; Moriwaki, S
2002-01-01
We have investigated applications of a high-performance damping metal, called M2052, which is a manganese-based alloy containing copper, nickel and iron. Using an all-metal prototype of a vibration isolation system, we have tested the property of M2052. As its actual application to a gravitational wave detector, we have used M2052 in the damping system of a suspended optics in TAMA300, which is a 300 m long interferometric gravitational wave detector built at the Mitaka campus of the National Astronomical Observatory in Japan. The results of the experiments are reported.
Phase transition of charged-AdS black holes and quasinormal modes: A time domain analysis
Chabab, M.; El Moumni, H.; Iraoui, S.; Masmar, K.
2017-10-01
In this work, we investigate the time evolution of a massless scalar perturbation around small and large RN-AdS4 black holes for the purpose of probing the thermodynamic phase transition. We show that below the critical point the scalar perturbation decays faster with increasing of the black hole size, both for small and large black hole phases. Our analysis of the time profile of quasinormal mode reveals a sharp distinction between the behaviors of both phases, providing a reliable tool to probe the black hole phase transition. However at the critical point P=Pc, as the black hole size extends, we note that the damping time increases and the perturbation decays faster, the oscillation frequencies raise either in small and large black hole phase. In this case the time evolution approach fails to track the AdS4 black hole phase.
Konoplya, R. A.; Zhidenko, A.
2017-09-01
Here we shall show that there is no other instability for the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes, than the eikonal one and consider the features of the quasinormal spectrum in the stability sector in detail. The obtained quasinormal spectrum consists from the two essentially different types of modes: perturbative and non-perturbative in the Gauss-Bonnet coupling α. The sound and hydrodynamic modes of the perturbative branch can be expressed through their Schwazrschild-AdS limits by adding a linear in α correction to the damping rates: ω≈Re ω SAdS -Im ω SAdS(1- α·(( D+1)( D-4) /2 R 2)) i, where R is the AdS radius. The non-perturbative branch of modes consists of purely imaginary modes, whose damping rates unboundedly increase when α goes to zero. When the black hole radius is much larger than the anti-de Sitter radius R, the regime of the black hole with planar horizon (black brane) is reproduced. If the Gauss-Bonnet coupling α (or used in holography λGB) is not small enough, then the black holes and branes suffer from the instability, so that the holographic interpretation of perturbation of such black holes becomes questionable, as, for example, the claimed viscosity bound violation in the higher derivative gravity. For example, D = 5 black brane is unstable at |λGB| > 1 /8 and has anomalously large relaxation time when approaching the threshold of instability.
High-damping-performance magnetorheological material for passive or active vibration control
Liu, Taixiang; Yang, Ke; Yan, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiaodong; Xu, Yangguang
2016-10-01
Optical assembly and alignment system plays a crucial role for the construction of high-power or high-energy laser facility, which attempts to ignite fusion reaction and go further to make fusion energy usable. In the optical assembly and alignment system, the vibration control is a key problem needs to be well handled and a material with higher damping performance is much desirable. Recently, a new kind of smart magneto-sensitive polymeric composite material, named magnetorheological plastomer (MRP), was synthesized and reported as a high-performance magnetorheological material and this material has a magneto-enhanced high-damping performance. The MRP behaves usually in an intermediate state between fluid-like magnetorheological fluid and solid-like magnetorheological elastomer. The state of MRP, as well as the damping performance of MRP, can be tuned by adjusting the ratio of hard segments and soft segments, which are ingredients to synthesize the polymeric matrix. In this work, a series of MRP are prepared by dispersing micron-sized, magneto-sensitive carbonyl iron powders with related additives into polyurethane-based, magnetically insensitive matrix. It is found that the damping performance of MRP depends much on magnetic strength, shear rate, carbonyl iron content and shear strain amplitude. Especially, the damping capacity of MRP can be tuned in a large range by adjusting external magnetic field. It is promising that the MRP will have much application in passive and active vibration control, such as vibration reduction in optical assembly and alignment system, vibration isolation or absorption in vehicle suspension system, etc.
Optimal Design of High-Order Passive-Damped Filters for Grid-Connected Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
Harmonic stability problems caused by the resonance of high-order filters in power electronic systems are ever increasing. The use of passive damping does provide a robust solution to address these issues, but at the price of reduced efficiency due to the presence of additional passive components...... filter resonance. The passive filters are designed, built and validated both analytically and experimentally for verification........ Hence, a new method is proposed in this paper to optimally design the passive damping circuit for the LCL filters and LCL with multi-tuned LC traps. In short, the optimization problem reduces to the proper choice of the multi-split capacitors or inductors in the high-order filter. Compared to existing...... design procedures, the proposed method simplifies the iterative design of the overall filter while ensuring the minimum resonance peak with a lower damping capacitor and a lower rated resistor. It is shown that there is only one optimal value of the damping resistor or quality factor to achieve a minimum...
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry
Remillieux, Marcel C.; Ulrich, T. J.; Payan, Cédric; Rivière, Jacques; Lake, Colton R.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves
2015-07-01
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a powerful and established technique for measuring elastic constants of a material with general anisotropy. The first step of this technique consists of extracting resonance frequencies and damping from the vibrational frequency spectrum measured on a sample with free boundary conditions. An inversion technique is then used to retrieve the elastic tensor from the measured resonance frequencies. As originally developed, RUS has been mostly applicable to (i) materials with small damping such that the resonances of the sample are well separated and (ii) samples with simple geometries for which analytical solutions exist. In this paper, these limitations are addressed with a new RUS approach adapted to materials with high damping and samples of arbitrary geometry. Resonances are extracted by fitting a sum of exponentially damped sinusoids to the measured frequency spectrum. The inversion of the elastic tensor is achieved with a genetic algorithm, which allows searching for a global minimum within a discrete and relatively wide solution space. First, the accuracy of the proposed approach is evaluated against numerical data simulated for samples with isotropic symmetry and transversely isotropic symmetry. Subsequently, the applicability of the approach is demonstrated using experimental data collected on a composite structure consisting of a cylindrical sample of Berea sandstone glued to a large piezoelectric disk. In the proposed experiments, RUS is further enhanced by the use of a 3-D laser vibrometer allowing the visualization of most of the modes in the frequency band studied.
Quasi-normal modes from non-commutative matrix dynamics
Aprile, Francesco; Sanfilippo, Francesco
2017-09-01
We explore similarities between the process of relaxation in the BMN matrix model and the physics of black holes in AdS/CFT. Focusing on Dyson-fluid solutions of the matrix model, we perform numerical simulations of the real time dynamics of the system. By quenching the equilibrium distribution we study quasi-normal oscillations of scalar single trace observables, we isolate the lowest quasi-normal mode, and we determine its frequencies as function of the energy. Considering the BMN matrix model as a truncation of N=4 SYM, we also compute the frequencies of the quasi-normal modes of the dual scalar fields in the AdS5-Schwarzschild background. We compare the results, and we finda surprising similarity.
Quasi-Normal Modes of Stars and Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kokkotas Kostas
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Perturbations of stars and black holes have been one of the main topics of relativistic astrophysics for the last few decades. They are of particular importance today, because of their relevance to gravitational wave astronomy. In this review we present the theory of quasi-normal modes of compact objects from both the mathematical and astrophysical points of view. The discussion includes perturbations of black holes (Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, Kerr and Kerr-Newman and relativistic stars (non-rotating and slowly-rotating. The properties of the various families of quasi-normal modes are described, and numerical techniques for calculating quasi-normal modes reviewed. The successes, as well as the limits, of perturbation theory are presented, and its role in the emerging era of numerical relativity and supercomputers is discussed.
Quasinormal-Mode Expansion of the Scattering Matrix
Alpeggiani, Filippo; Parappurath, Nikhil; Verhagen, Ewold; Kuipers, L.
2017-04-01
It is well known that the quasinormal modes (or resonant states) of photonic structures can be associated with the poles of the scattering matrix of the system in the complex-frequency plane. In this work, the inverse problem, i.e., the reconstruction of the scattering matrix from the knowledge of the quasinormal modes, is addressed. We develop a general and scalable quasinormal-mode expansion of the scattering matrix, requiring only the complex eigenfrequencies and the far-field properties of the eigenmodes. The theory is validated by applying it to illustrative nanophotonic systems with multiple overlapping electromagnetic modes. The examples demonstrate that our theory provides an accurate first-principles prediction of the scattering properties, without the need for postulating ad hoc nonresonant channels.
Quasinormal Modes of a Quantum-Corrected Schwarzschild Black ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Chunyan Wang
2017-11-27
Nov 27, 2017 ... Abstract. In this work, we investigate the electromagnetic perturbation around a quantum-corrected. Schwarzschild black hole. The complex frequencies of the quasinormal modes are evaluated by the third- order WKB approximation. The numerical results obtained showed that the complex frequencies ...
Measurements of High Order Modes in High Phase Advance Damped Detuned Accelerating Structure for NLC
Khabiboulline, N; Carter, H
2004-01-01
The RF Technology Development group at Fermilab is working together with the NLC and JLC groups at SLAC and KEK on developing technology for room temperature X-band accelerating structures for a future linear collider. We have built several series of structures for high gradient tests. We have also built 150° phase advance per cell, 60 cm long, damped and detuned structures (HDDS or FXC series). Some of these structures will be used for the 8-pack test at SLAC by the end of 2004, as part of the JLC/NLC effort to demonstrate the readiness of room temperature RF technology for a linear collider. HDSS structures are very close to the final design for the linear collider, and it was very interesting to study the properties of high order modes in the structures produced by semi-industrial methods. In this study advanced RF technique and methods developed at Fermilab for structure low power testing and tuning have been used. The results of these measurements are presented in this paper.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Central de Chile, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil en Obras Civiles, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile); Moncada, Felipe; Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Temuco (Chile)
2012-12-15
We study scalar perturbations in the background of a topological Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions. We compute analytically the quasinormal modes and from these modes we show that topological Lifshitz black hole is stable. On the other hand, we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section and we show that there is a range of modes with high angular momentum which contributes to the absorption cross section in the low frequency limit. Furthermore, in this limit, we show that the absorption cross section decreases if the scalar field mass increases, for a real scalar field mass. (orig.)
Natural rubber/nitrile butadiene rubber/hindered phenol composites with high-damping properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiuying Zhao
2015-10-01
Full Text Available New natural rubber (NR/nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR/hindered phenol (AO-80 composites with high-damping properties were prepared in this study. The morphological, structural, and mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, polarized Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA, and a tensile tester. Each composite consisted of two phases: the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase. There was partial compatibility between the NR phase and the NBR/AO-80 phase, and the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite exhibited a co-continuous morphology. Strain-induced crystallization occurred in the NR phase at strains higher than 200%, and strain-induced orientation appeared in the NBR/AO-80 phase with the increase of strain from 100% to 500%. The composites had a special stress–strain behavior and mechanical properties because of the simultaneous strain-induced orientation and strain-induced crystallization. In the working temperature range of a seismic isolation bearing, the composites (especially the NR/NBR/AO-80 (50/50/20 composite presented a high loss factor, high area of loss peak (TA, and high hysteresis energy. Therefore, the NR/NBR/AO-80 rubber composites are expected to have important application as a high-performance damping material for rubber bearing.
On the Possibility of Using Nonlinear Elements for Landau Damping in High-Intensity Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexahin, Y. [Fermilab; Gianfelice-Wendt, E. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Valishev, A. [Fermilab
2016-09-30
Direct space-charge force shifts incoherent tunes downwards from the coherent ones breaking the Landau mechanism of coherent oscillations damping at high beam intensity. To restore it nonlinear elements can be employed which move back tunes of large amplitude particles. In the present report we consider the possibility of creating a “nonlinear integrable optics” insertion in the Fermilab Recycler to host either octupoles or hollow electron lens for this purpose. For comparison we also consider the classic scheme with distributed octupole families. It is shown that for the Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP II) parameters the required nonlinear tune shift can be created without destroying the dynamic aperture.
Quasinormal modes of generalized Pöschl–Teller potentials
Cardona, A. F.; Molina, C.
2017-12-01
Using algebraic techniques we obtain quasinormal modes and frequencies associated to generalized forms of the scattering Pöschl–Teller potential. This approach is based on the association of the corresponding equations of motion with Casimir invariants of differential representations of the Lie algebra sl(2) . In the presented development, highest weight representations are constructed and fundamental states are calculated. An infinite tower of quasinormal mode solutions is obtained by the action of a lowering operator. The algebraic results are used in the analysis of the Cauchy initial value problem associated to the generalized Pöschl–Teller potentials. For the scattering potentials considered, there are no late-time tails and the dynamics is always stable.
Fermionic quasinormal modes for two-dimensional Horava-Lifshitz black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stetsko, M.M. [Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Department for Theoretical Physics, Lviv (Ukraine)
2017-06-15
To obtain fermionic quasinormal modes, the Dirac equation for two types of black holes is investigated. It is shown that two different geometries lead to distinctive types of quasinormal modes, while the boundary conditions imposed on the solutions in both cases are identical. For the first type of black hole, the quasinormal modes have continuous spectrum with negative imaginary part that provides the stability of perturbations. For the second type of the black hole, the quasinormal modes have a discrete spectrum and are completely imaginary. (orig.)
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Quadratic friction involves a discontinuous damping term in equations of motion in order that the frictional force always opposes the direction of the motion. Perhaps for this reason this topic is usually omitted from beginning texts in differential equations and physics. However, quadratic damping is more realistic than viscous damping in many…
A Four-Cell Periodically HOM-Damped RF Cavity for High Current Accelerators
Wu, G; Wang, H
2004-01-01
A periodically Higher Order Mode (HOM) damped RF cavity is a weakly coupled multi-cell RF cavity with HOM couplers periodically mounted between the cells. It was studied as an alternative RF structure between the single cell cavity and superstructure cavity in high beam current application requiring strong damping of the HOMs. The acceleration mode in this design is the lowest frequency mode (Zero Mode) in the pass band, in contrast to the traditional π acceleration mode. The acceleration mode of a four-cell Zero Mode cavity has been studied along with the monopole and dipole HOMs. Some HOMs have been modeled in HFSS with waveguide HOM couplers, which were subsequently verified by MAFIA time domain analysis. To understand the tuning challenge for the weakly coupled cavity, ANSYS and SUPERFISH codes were used to simulate the cavity frequency sensitivity and field flatness change within proper tuning range, which will influence the design of the tuner structure. This paper presen...
A high phase advance damped and detuned structure for the main linacs of CLIC
Khan, V.F.; Grudiev, A.; Jones, R.M.; Wuensch, W.
2010-01-01
The main accelerating structures for the CLIC are designed to operate at an average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The accelerating frequency has been optimised to 11.994 GHz with a phase advance of 2π/3 [1] of the main accelerating mode. The moderately damped and detuned structure (DDS) design [2-3] is being studied as an alternative to the strongly damped WDS design [1]. Both these designs are based on the nominal accelerating phase advance. Here we explore high phase advance (HPA) structures in which the group velocity of the rf fields is reduced compared to that of standard (2π/3) structures. The electrical breakdown strongly depends on the fundamental mode group velocity. Hence it is expected that electrical breakdown is less likely to occur in the HPA structures. We report on a study of both the fundamental and dipole modes in a CLIC_DDS_ HPA structure, designed to operate at 5π/6 phase advance per cell. Higher order dipole modes in both the standard and HPA structures are also studied.
Energy conservation and high-frequency damping in numerical time-integration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2007-01-01
by introduction of a new set of variables related to the displacement and velocity vectors by a suitable first order filter with scalar coefficients. By this device an algorithmic damping can be obtained that is of third order in the low-frequency regime. It is an important feature of both algorithms...... this often leads to a fairly large number of high-frequency modes, that are not represented well - and occasionally directly erroneously - by the model. It is desirable to cure this problem by devising algorithms that include the possibility of introducing algorithmic energy dissipation of the high......-frequency modes. The problem is well known from classic collocation based algorithms - notably various forms of the Newmark algorithm where the equation of motion is supplemented by approximate relations between displacement, velocity and acceleration. Here adjustment of the algorithmic parameters can be used...
Highly Accurate Derivatives for LCL-Filtered Grid Converter with Capacitor Voltage Active Damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xin, Zhen; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Xiongfei
2016-01-01
The middle capacitor voltage of an LCL-filter, if fed back for synchronization, can be used for active damping. An extra sensor for measuring the capacitor current is then avoided. Relating the capacitor voltage to existing popular damping techniques designed with capacitor current feedback would...
A Novel DFIG Damping Control for Power System with High Wind Power Penetration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aiguo Tan
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Aiming at the fact that large-scale penetration of wind power will to some extent weaken the small signal stability of power systems, in this paper, the dynamic model of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is established firstly, to analyze the impact of wind generation on power oscillation damping. Then, based on the conventional maximum power point tracking control of variable speed wind turbine, a supplementary control scheme is proposed to increase the damping of power system. To achieve best performance, parameters of the damping control are tuned by using a genetic algorithm. Results of eigenvalue analysis and simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of supplementary damping control with fixed wind speed. At last, due to the problem that fluctuation of output power of wind generators would cause the unstable performance of the DFIG damping controller above, a new algorithm that adapts to the wind variation is added to the supplementary damping control scheme. Results of the simulation show that an improved damping control scheme can stably enhance system damping under various wind speeds and has higher practical value.
Duality and quasi-normability for complexity spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvador Romaguera
2002-04-01
Full Text Available The complexity (quasi-metric space was introduced in [23] to study complexity analysis of programs. Recently, it was introduced in [22] the dual complexity (quasi-metric space, as a subspace of the function space [0, ω. Several quasi-metric properties of the complexity space were obtained via the analysis of its dual. We here show that the structure of a quasi-normed semilinear space provides a suitable setting to carry out an analysis of the dual complexity space. We show that if (E, is a biBanach space (i.e., a quasi-normed space whose induced quasi-metric is bicomplete, then the function space (B*E, B* is biBanach, where B*E = {f : E Σ∞n=0 2-n( V } and B* = Σ∞n=0 2-n We deduce that the dual complexity space admits a structure of quasinormed semlinear space such that the induced quasi-metric space is order-convex, upper weightable and Smyth complete, not only in the case that this dual is a subspace of [0,ω but also in the general case that it is a subspace of Fω where F is any biBanach normweightable space. We also prove that for a large class of dual complexity (subspaces, lower boundedness implies total boundedness. Finally, we investigate completeness of the quasi-metric of uniform convergence and of the Hausdorff quasi-pseudo-metric for the dual complexity space, in the context of function spaces and hyperspaces, respectively.
Harnessing the damping properties of materials for high-speed atomic force microscopy.
Adams, Jonathan D; Erickson, Blake W; Grossenbacher, Jonas; Brugger, Juergen; Nievergelt, Adrian; Fantner, Georg E
2016-02-01
The success of high-speed atomic force microscopy in imaging molecular motors, enzymes and microbes in liquid environments suggests that the technique could be of significant value in a variety of areas of nanotechnology. However, the majority of atomic force microscopy experiments are performed in air, and the tapping-mode detection speed of current high-speed cantilevers is an order of magnitude lower in air than in liquids. Traditional approaches to increasing the imaging rate of atomic force microscopy have involved reducing the size of the cantilever, but further reductions in size will require a fundamental change in the detection method of the microscope. Here, we show that high-speed imaging in air can instead be achieved by changing the cantilever material. We use cantilevers fabricated from polymers, which can mimic the high damping environment of liquids. With this approach, SU-8 polymer cantilevers are developed that have an imaging-in-air detection bandwidth that is 19 times faster than those of conventional cantilevers of similar size, resonance frequency and spring constant.
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Viscous damping is commonly discussed in beginning differential equations and physics texts but dry friction or Coulomb friction is not despite dry friction being encountered in many physical applications. One reason for avoiding this topic is that the equations involve a jump discontinuity in the damping term. In this article, we adopt an energy…
Directional damping material for integrally damped composite plates
Biggerstaff, Janet M.; Kosmatka, John B.
1999-06-01
Current viscoelastic-damping materials behave isotopically so that their stiffness and damping properties are the same in all directions. There is a desire to develop viscoelastic- damping materials that behave orthotropically so that the stiffness and damping properties vary with material orientation. These damping materials can be made othrotropic by embedding rows of thin wires within the viscoelastic damping material. These wires add significant directional stiffness and strength to the damping materials, where the stiffness and strength variation with wire orientation follows classical lamination theory. The presence of these wires introduce different damping mechanisms (longitudinal, transverse, and longitudinal shear damping coefficients) that depend upon mode type and orientation angle. Results from experimental studies show that the magnitude of the loss factor and shear modulus depends upon the mode type and orientation angle of these wires within the damping material. The in-plane axial mode loss factor is highly dependent upon the longitudinal coefficient for (0 degrees) wire orientation, the transverse coefficient for (90 degree) wire orientation, and the longitudinal shear-damping coefficient for all other off-angle wire orientations. The loss factor for the out-of- plane bending and torsion modes is highly dependent upon all three damping coefficients.
Quast, R.; Reimers, D.; Smette, A.; Garcet, O.; Ledoux, C.; Lopez, S.; Wisotzki, L.
Spectroscopy of QSO absorption lines provides essential observational input for the study of nucleosynthesis and chemical evolution of galaxies at high redshift. But new observations may indicate that present chemical abundance data are biased due to deficient spectral resolution and unknown selection effects: Recent high-resolution spectra reveal the hitherto unperceived chemical nonuniformity of a molecule-bearing damped Lyman-alpha (DLA) system, and the still ongoing H/ESO DLA survey produces convincing evidence for the effect of dust attenuation. We present a revised analysis of the H2-bearing DLA complex toward the QSO HE 0515.4414 showing nonuniform differential depletion of chemical elements onto dust grains, and introduce the H/ESO DLA survey and its implications. Conclusively, we aim at starting an unbiased chemical abundance database established on high-resolution spectroscopic observations. New data to probe the temperature-redshift relation predicted by standard cosmology and to test the constancy of fundamental constants will be potential spin-offs.
High Frequency Effects of Impedances and Coatings in the CLIC Damping Rings
Koukovini Platia, Eirini; Rumolo, G
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a 3 TeV eÅe¡ machine, currently under design at CERN, that targets to explore the terascale particle physics regime. The experiment requires a high luminosity of 2£1034 cm2 s¡1, which can be achieved with ultra low emittances delivered from the Damping Rings (DRs) complex. The high bunch brightness of the DRs gives rise to several collective effects that can limit the machine performance. Impedance studies during the design stage of the DR are of great importance to ensure safe operation under nominal parameters. As a first step, the transverse impedance model of the DRis built, accounting for the wholemachine. Beam dynamics simulations are performedwith HEADTAIL to investigate the effect on beam dynamics. For the correct impedancemodeling of the machine elements, knowledge of the material properties is essential up to hundreds of GHz, where the bunch spectrum extends. Specifically, Non Evaporable Getter (NEG) is a commonly used coating for good vacuumbut its properti...
Controllable damping of high-Q violin modes in fused silica suspension fibers
Dmitriev, A. V.; Mescheriakov, S. D.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Mitrofanov, V. P.
2010-01-01
Fused silica fiber suspension of the test masses will be used in the interferometric gravitational wave detectors of the next generation. This allows a significant reduction of losses in the suspension and thermal noise associated with the suspension. Unfortunately, unwanted violin modes may be accidentally excited in the suspension fibers. The Q-factor of the violin modes also exceeds 108. They have a ring-down time that is too long and may complicate the stable control of the interferometer. Results of the investigation of a violin mode active damping system are described. An original sensor and actuator were especially developed to realize the effective coupling of a thin, optically transparent, non-conducting fused silica fiber with an electric circuit. The damping system allowed the changing of the violin mode's damping rate over a wide range.
Controllable damping of high-Q violin modes in fused silica suspension fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dmitriev, A V; Mescheriakov, S D; Mitrofanov, V P [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Tokmakov, K V, E-mail: dmitriev@hbar.phys.msu.r, E-mail: mitr@hbar.phys.msu.r [Present address: Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)
2010-01-21
Fused silica fiber suspension of the test masses will be used in the interferometric gravitational wave detectors of the next generation. This allows a significant reduction of losses in the suspension and thermal noise associated with the suspension. Unfortunately, unwanted violin modes may be accidentally excited in the suspension fibers. The Q-factor of the violin modes also exceeds 10{sup 8}. They have a ring-down time that is too long and may complicate the stable control of the interferometer. Results of the investigation of a violin mode active damping system are described. An original sensor and actuator were especially developed to realize the effective coupling of a thin, optically transparent, non-conducting fused silica fiber with an electric circuit. The damping system allowed the changing of the violin mode's damping rate over a wide range.
Gârnet, I. A.; Stanciu, S.; Hopulele, I.; Zaharia, M. G.; Cimpoesu, N.; Chicet, D. L.; Crăciun, R. C.
2017-06-01
An experimental equipment, type torsion pendulum was made in laboratory in order to analyze the damping capacity of metallic materials. The scheme of the equipment is presented, 2D and 3D visions at real scale. The equipment functioning (mechanical and electrical part) and principles are presented. In this article we present some preliminary experimental results obtained on different materials (aluminium, steel etc.) using two different methods for registration the outputs (one based on optoelectronic device with Arduino acquisition board and second on video analyze (cinematic review: video to jpeg) of the damped motion of the lead pendulum). Steel materials were with shoot penning surface modification with and without heat treatment in order to establish the heat treatment influence on the damping capacity property.
Prediction of Liquid Slosh Damping Using a High Resolution CFD Tool
Yang, H. Q.; Purandare, Ravi; Peugeot, John; West, Jeff
2012-01-01
Propellant slosh is a potential source of disturbance critical to the stability of space vehicles. The slosh dynamics are typically represented by a mechanical model of a spring mass damper. This mechanical model is then included in the equation of motion of the entire vehicle for Guidance, Navigation and Control analysis. Our previous effort has demonstrated the soundness of a CFD approach in modeling the detailed fluid dynamics of tank slosh and the excellent accuracy in extracting mechanical properties (slosh natural frequency, slosh mass, and slosh mass center coordinates). For a practical partially-filled smooth wall propellant tank with a diameter of 1 meter, the damping ratio is as low as 0.0005 (or 0.05%). To accurately predict this very low damping value is a challenge for any CFD tool, as one must resolve a thin boundary layer near the wall and must minimize numerical damping. This work extends our previous effort to extract this challenging parameter from first principles: slosh damping for smooth wall and for ring baffle. First the experimental data correlated into the industry standard for smooth wall were used as the baseline validation. It is demonstrated that with proper grid resolution, CFD can indeed accurately predict low damping values from smooth walls for different tank sizes. The damping due to ring baffles at different depths from the free surface and for different sizes of tank was then simulated, and fairly good agreement with experimental correlation was observed. The study demonstrates that CFD technology can be applied to the design of future propellant tanks with complex configurations and with smooth walls or multiple baffles, where previous experimental data is not available.
Are eikonal quasinormal modes linked to the unstable circular null geodesics?
Konoplya, R. A.; Stuchlík, Z.
2017-08-01
In Cardoso et al. [6] it was claimed that quasinormal modes which any stationary, spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat black hole emits in the eikonal regime are determined by the parameters of the circular null geodesic: the real and imaginary parts of the quasinormal mode are multiples of the frequency and instability timescale of the circular null geodesics respectively. We shall consider asymptotically flat black hole in the Einstein-Lovelock theory, find analytical expressions for gravitational quasinormal modes in the eikonal regime and analyze the null geodesics. Comparison of the both phenomena shows that the expected link between the null geodesics and quasinormal modes is violated in the Einstein-Lovelock theory. Nevertheless, the correspondence exists for a number of other cases and here we formulate its actual limits.
Mr-factors and Qr-factors for near quasinorm on certain sequence spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piyapong Niamsup
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We study the multiplicativity factor and quadraticity factor for near quasinorm on certain sequence spaces of Maddox, namely, l(p and l∞(p, where p=(pk is a bounded sequence of positive real numbers.
Dirac quasinormal modes of two-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2014-06-15
We study charged fermionic perturbations in the background of two-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes, and we present the exact Dirac quasinormal modes. Also, we study the stability of these black holes under charged fermionic perturbations. (orig.)
Quasi-normal Modes of Rerssner-Nordström Black Hole
Jiang, Ji-Jian; Liu, Jing-Lun; Li, Chuan-An
2017-07-01
The minimum interval of event horizon area of Rerssner-Nordström black hole was calculated via using the loop quantum gravity theory. Based on the first law of black hole thermodynamics, the real part of quasi-normal modes frequency of the black hole was calculated. The expression of asymptotically quasi-normal mode frequency of Rerssner-Nordström black hole was deduced strictly. By analyzing the value of the minimum spin j m i n , the two families of quasi-normal mode spectra of the charged black hole were obtained for j m i n = 1/2 and j m i n = 1 respectively. Our conclusion is in complete agreement with the analytical results of Hod. Our results provide the theoretical basis for the source of the real part of the quasi-normal mode frequency of the black hole.
Quasi-normal acoustic oscillations in the Michel flow
Chaverra, Eliana; Sarbach, Olivier
2015-01-01
We study spherical and nonspherical linear acoustic perturbations of the Michel flow, which describes the steady radial accretion of a perfect fluid into a nonrotating black hole. The dynamics of such perturbations are governed by a scalar wave equation on an effective curved background geometry determined by the acoustic metric, which is constructed from the spacetime metric and the particle density and four-velocity of the fluid. For the problem under consideration in this article the acoustic metric has the same qualitative features as an asymptotically flat, static and spherically symmetric black hole, and thus it represents a natural astrophysical analogue black hole. As for the case of a scalar field propagating on a Schwarzschild background, we show that acoustic perturbations of the Michel flow exhibit quasi-normal oscillations. Based on a new numerical method for determining the solutions of the radial mode equation, we compute the associated frequencies and analyze their dependency on the radii of t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Miao, E-mail: yumiao@cqu.edu.cn; Qi, Song; Fu, Jie; Zhu, Mi [Key Lab for Optoelectronic Technology and Systems, Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)
2015-09-14
A high-damping magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) with bi-directional magnetic-control modulus is developed. This MRE was synthesized by filling NdFeB particles into polyurethane (PU)/ epoxy (EP) interpenetrating network (IPN) structure. The anisotropic samples were prepared in a permanent magnetic field and magnetized in an electromagnetic field of 1 T. Dynamic mechanical responses of the MRE to applied magnetic fields are investigated through magneto-rheometer, and morphology of MREs is observed via scanning electron microscope (SEM). Test result indicates that when the test field orientation is parallel to that of the sample's magnetization, the shear modulus of sample increases. On the other hand, when the orientation is opposite to that of the sample's magnetization, shear modulus decreases. In addition, this PU/EP IPN matrix based MRE has a high-damping property, with high loss factor and can be controlled by applying magnetic field. It is expected that the high damping property and the ability of bi-directional magnetic-control modulus of this MRE offer promising advantages in seismologic application.
Identification of Light Damping in Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J. L.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.
1990-01-01
Different methods to identification of linear and nonlinear damping in lightly damped structures are discussed in this paper. The discussion is based on experiments with a 4 meter high monopile. Two alternative methods have been used for experimental cases of linear and nonlinear damping. Method 1...... case was a naturally damped monopile which was considered to be linear viscous damped. The second case was nonlinear viscous damping of the monopile due to a mounted damper on the monopile. The two cases illustrates identification of lightly damping in the linear and nonlinear case....
Identification of Light Damping in Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jacob Laigaard; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, Anders
Different methods to identification of linear and nonlinear damping in lightly damped structures are discussed in this paper. The discussion is based on experiments with a 4 meter high monopile. Two alternative methods have been used for experimental cases of linear and nonlinear damping. Method 1...... case was a naturally damped monopile which was considered to be linear viscous damped. The second case was nonlinear viscous damping of the monopile due to a mounted damper on the monopile. The two cases illustrate identification of lightly damping in the linear and the nonlinear case....
Pioldi, Fabio; Ferrari, Rosalba; Rizzi, Egidio
2016-02-01
The present paper deals with the seismic modal dynamic identification of frame structures by a refined Frequency Domain Decomposition (rFDD) algorithm, autonomously formulated and implemented within MATLAB. First, the output-only identification technique is outlined analytically and then employed to characterize all modal properties. Synthetic response signals generated prior to the dynamic identification are adopted as input channels, in view of assessing a necessary condition for the procedure's efficiency. Initially, the algorithm is verified on canonical input from random excitation. Then, modal identification has been attempted successfully at given seismic input, taken as base excitation, including both strong motion data and single and multiple input ground motions. Rather than different attempts investigating the role of seismic response signals in the Time Domain, this paper considers the identification analysis in the Frequency Domain. Results turn-out very much consistent with the target values, with quite limited errors in the modal estimates, including for the damping ratios, ranging from values in the order of 1% to 10%. Either seismic excitation and high values of damping, resulting critical also in case of well-spaced modes, shall not fulfill traditional FFD assumptions: this shows the consistency of the developed algorithm. Through original strategies and arrangements, the paper shows that a comprehensive rFDD modal dynamic identification of frames at seismic input is feasible, also at concomitant high damping.
Skvortsov, A. I.
2012-09-01
Results are presented from a comparative analysis of the main mechanisms of internal friction in high-damping alloys based on the Zn - Al system, cast iron with flaked graphite, and iron alloys that exhibit internal friction of a magnetomechanical nature. A study is made of the damping capacity of alloys Zn - 26% Al, SCh25, and Fe - 5% Cr - 3% Al and steel 45, which are typical representatives of the types of materials in question. Their set of physico-mechanical properties is determined with allowance for damping capacity.
Quasinormal modes of asymptotically flat rotating black holes
Dias, Óscar J. C.; Hartnett, Gavin S.; Santos, Jorge E.
2014-12-01
We study the main properties of general linear perturbations of rotating black holes (BHs) in asymptotically flat higher-dimensional spacetimes. In particular, we determine the quasinormal mode (QNM) spectrum of singly spinning and equal angular momenta Myers-Perry BHs (MP BHs). Emphasis is also given to the timescale of the ultraspinning and bar-mode instabilities in these two families of MP BHs. For the bar-mode instabilities in the singly spinning MP BH, we find excellent agreement with our linear analysis and the nonlinear time evolution of Shibata and Yoshino for d = 6,7 spacetime dimensions. We find that d = 5 singly spinning BHs are linearly stable. In the context of studying general relativity in the large dimension limit, we obtain the QNM spectrum of Schwarzschild BHs and rotating MP BHs for large dimensions. We identify two classes of modes. For large dimensions, we find that in the limit of zero rotation, unstable modes of the MP BHs connect to a class of Schwarzschild QNMs that saturate to finite values.
Gravitational Quasinormal Modes of Regular Phantom Black Hole
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the gravitational quasinormal modes (QNMs for a type of regular black hole (BH known as phantom BH, which is a static self-gravitating solution of a minimally coupled phantom scalar field with a potential. The studies are carried out for three different spacetimes: asymptotically flat, de Sitter (dS, and anti-de Sitter (AdS. In order to consider the standard odd parity and even parity of gravitational perturbations, the corresponding master equations are derived. The QNMs are discussed by evaluating the temporal evolution of the perturbation field which, in turn, provides direct information on the stability of BH spacetime. It is found that in asymptotically flat, dS, and AdS spacetimes the gravitational perturbations have similar characteristics for both odd and even parities. The decay rate of perturbation is strongly dependent on the scale parameter b, which measures the coupling strength between phantom scalar field and the gravity. Furthermore, through the analysis of Hawking radiation, it is shown that the thermodynamics of such regular phantom BH is also influenced by b. The obtained results might shed some light on the quantum interpretation of QNM perturbation.
High Damping of Lightweight TiNi-Ti2Ni Shape Memory Composites for Wide Temperature Range Usage
Yang, Bing; Luo, Zheng; Yuan, Bin; Liu, Jiangwen; Gao, Yan
2017-10-01
A bimodal porous TiNi-Ti2Ni shape memory alloy composite (SMAC) with 59% porosity was fabricated by sintering Ti-46at.%Ni elemental powders with pore-forming agent. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC contains two irregular pores of about 400 and 120 μm. We investigated the microstructure and pore morphology correlated with the mechanical properties and damping capacities of the SMAC. Ti2Ni intermetallic phases with size of 1-3 μm were homogeneously distributed in the TiNi matrix. The porous TiNi-Ti2Ni SMAC exhibits exceptionally high inverse mechanical quality factor ( Q -1) of 0.25 at < 40 °C, which is among the highest value reported for porous/dense shape memory alloys or composites to best of our knowledge, and it shows very high compressive fracture strain of about 25%. Moreover, the fabricated porous SMAC at relatively low strain amplitude can exhibit considerable high Q -1 of 0.06 0.11 for a wide range of temperature between - 90 and 200 °C, which is attributed to the stress concentration distribution provided by the bimodal structure of pores and the massive interfaces between pore/matrix and TiNi/Ti2Ni. These porous SMACs can be an ideal candidate for using as a lightweight damping material in the energy-saving applications.
Zhang, Zhongyang; Cardoso, Vitor
2013-01-01
The analytical understanding of quasinormal mode ringing requires an accurate knowledge of the Green's function describing the response of the black hole to external perturbations. We carry out a comprehensive study of quasinormal mode excitation for Kerr black holes. Relying on the formalism developed by Mano, Suzuki and Takasugi, we improve and extend previous calculations of the quasinormal mode residues in the complex frequency plane ("excitation factors" B_q). Using these results we compute the "excitation coefficients" C_q (essentially the mode amplitudes) in the special case where the source of the perturbations is a particle falling into the black hole along the symmetry axis. We compare this calculation with numerical integrations of the perturbation equations, and we show quantitatively how the addition of higher overtones improves the agreement with the numerical waveforms. Our results should find applications in models of the ringdown stage and in the construction of semianalytical template banks ...
Quasinormal modes of black holes in scalar-tensor theories with nonminimal derivative couplings
Dong, Ruifeng; Sakstein, Jeremy; Stojkovic, Dejan
2017-09-01
We study the quasinormal modes of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in a class of shift-symmetric Horndeski theories where a gravitational scalar is derivatively coupled to the Einstein tensor. The spacetime differs from exact Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter, resulting in a different effective potential for the quasinormal modes and a different spectrum. We numerically compute this spectrum for a massless test scalar coupled both minimally to the metric, and nonminimally to the gravitational scalar. We find interesting differences from the Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter black hole found in general relativity.
Hofmann, A
2006-01-01
Abstract Landau damping is the suppression of an instability by a spread of frequencies in the beam. It is treated here from an experimental point of view. To introduce the concept we consider a set of oscillators having a spread in resonant frequencies !r and calculate the response of their there center-of-mass to an external driving force. A pulse excitation gives each oscillator the same initial velocity but, due to their different frequencies, the center-of-mass motion will decay with time. A harmonic excitation with a frequency ! being inside the distribution in !r results in oscillators responding with different phases and only a few of them having !r ! will grow to large amplitudes and absorb energy. The oscillator response to a pulse excitation, called Green function, and the one to a harmonic excitation, called transfer function, serve as a basis to calculate Landau damping which suppresses an instability at infinitesimal level before any large amplitudes are reached. This is illustrated by a negativ...
Quasinormal mode approach to modelling light-emission and propagation in nanoplasmonics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ge, Rong-Chun; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, Stephen
2014-01-01
We describe a powerful and intuitive theoretical technique for modeling light–matter interactions in classical and quantum nanoplasmonics. Our approach uses a quasinormal mode (QNM) expansion of the photon Green function within a metal nanoresonator of arbitrary shape, together with a Dyson...
Dirac quasinormal modes of new type black holes in new massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2014-07-15
We study a new type of black holes in three-dimensional new massive gravity and we calculate analytically the quasinormal modes for fermionic perturbations for some special cases. Then we show that for these cases black holes of the new type are stable under fermionic field perturbations. (orig.)
Shen, Zhongtao; Feng, Changqing
2017-05-01
In this paper, a hardware real-time weak signal detection method using Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Duffing Oscillator (DUOS) and high speed Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. In the design, the Xilinx Kintex-7 FPGA is chosen as the controller and the DUOS weak signal detecting algorithm is implemented in it with single floating precision. The ADS5409, a dual-channel, 12-bit, 900 MSPS ADC of TI, is used for data acquisition. Besides, to guarantee the same detection Signal-Noise Ratio (SNR) for signals of different amplitudes, a signal auto-damping strategy is adopted in the FPGA, which can adjust the amplitudes of the input signals automatically. The method introduced in this paper achieves not only the ability of efficient weak signal detection in noisy environment but also the advantages of hardware processing such as real-time, low power and so on.
González, P. A.; Konoplya, R. A.; Vásquez, Yerko
2017-06-01
It has recently been found that quasinormal modes of asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in theories with higher curvature corrections may help to describe the regime of intermediate 't Hooft coupling in the dual field theory. Here, we consider quasinormal modes of a scalar field in the background of spherical Gauss-Bonnet-anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes. In general, the eigenvalues of wave equations are found here numerically, but at a fixed Gauss-Bonnet constant α =R2/2 (where R is the AdS radius), an exact solution of the scalar field equation has been obtained. Remarkably, the purely imaginary modes, which are usually appropriate only to some gravitational perturbations, were found here even for a test scalar field. These purely imaginary modes of the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory do not have the Einsteinian limits, because their damping rates grow, when α is decreasing. Thus, these modes are nonperturbative in α . The real oscillation frequencies of the perturbative branch are linearly related to their Schwarzschild-AdS limits Re (ωG B)=Re (ωSAdS)(1 +K (D )(α /R2)) , where D is the number of spacetime dimensions. Comparison of the analytical formula with the frequencies found by the shooting method allows us to test the latter. In addition, we found exact solutions to the master equations for gravitational perturbations at α =R2/2 and observed that for the scalar type of gravitational perturbations an eikonal instability develops.
Damping mechanisms in high-Q micro and nanomechanical string resonators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schmid, Silvan; Jensen, K. D.; Nielsen, K. H.
2011-01-01
Resonant micro and nanostrings were found to have extraordinarily high quality factors (Qs). Since the discovery of the high Qs of silicon nitride nanostrings, the understanding of the underlying mechanisms allowing such high quality factors has been a topic of several investigations. So far it has...
Hawking Radiation-Quasinormal Modes Correspondence for Large AdS Black Holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dao-Quan Sun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available It is well-known that the nonstrictly thermal character of the Hawking radiation spectrum generates a natural correspondence between Hawking radiation and black hole quasinormal modes. This main issue has been analyzed in the framework of Schwarzschild black holes, Kerr black holes, and nonextremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes. In this paper, by introducing the effective temperature, we reanalyze the nonstrictly thermal character of large AdS black holes. The results show that the effective mass corresponding to the effective temperature is approximatively the average one in any dimension. And the other effective quantities can also be obtained. Based on the known forms of frequency in quasinormal modes, we reanalyze the asymptotic frequencies of the large AdS black hole in three and five dimensions. Then we get the formulas of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the horizon’s area quantization with functions of the quantum “overtone” number n.
Universality of the quasinormal spectrum of near-extremal Kerr-Newman black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hod, Shahar [The Ruppin Academic Center, Emeq Hefer (Israel); The Hadassah Institute, Jerusalem (Israel)
2015-06-15
Our current knowledge about the quasinormal resonance spectrum of charged and rotating Kerr-Newman black holes is quite poor. This unsatisfactory situation is a direct consequence of the fact that all attempts to decouple the gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of generic Kerr-Newman black holes have failed thus far. Recently, Zilhao et al. (Phys Rev D 90:12, 124088, 2014. arXiv:1410.0694) have studied the nonlinear stability of Kerr-Newman black holes. We show here that their numerical results for the time evolutions of the spacetime deformations of near-extremal Kerr-Newman black holes are described extremely well by a simple and universal analytical formula for the quasinormal resonances of the black holes. This formula is expressed in terms of the black-hole physical parameters: the horizon angular velocity Ω{sub H} and the Bekenstein-Hawking temperature T{sub BH}. (orig.)
Vector meson quasinormal modes in a finite-temperature AdS/QCD model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mamani, Luis A.H. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas,Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz,Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16, 45662-900, Ilhéus, BA (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC,Rua Santa Adélia 166, 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Miranda, Alex S. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas,Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz,Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16, 45662-900, Ilhéus, BA (Brazil); Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R.F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro,Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)
2014-03-12
We study the spectrum of vector mesons in a finite temperature plasma. The plasma is holographically described by a black hole AdS/QCD model. We compute the boundary retarded Green’s functions using AdS/CFT prescriptions. The corresponding thermal spectral functions show quasiparticle peaks at low temperatures. Then we calculate the quasinormal modes of vector mesons in the soft-wall black hole geometry and analyse their temperature and momentum dependences.
Wang, Mengjie; Herdeiro, Carlos; Jing, Jiliang
2017-11-01
We study Dirac quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter (Schwarzschild-AdS) black holes, following the generic principle for allowed boundary conditions proposed in [M. Wang, C. Herdeiro, and M. O. P. Sampaio, Phys. Rev. D 92, 124006 (2015)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.124006]. After deriving the equations of motion for Dirac fields on the aforementioned background, we impose vanishing energy flux boundary conditions to solve these equations. We find a set of two Robin boundary conditions are allowed. These two boundary conditions are used to calculate Dirac normal modes on empty AdS and quasinormal modes on Schwarzschild-AdS black holes. In the former case, we recover the known normal modes of empty AdS; in the latter case, the two sets of Robin boundary conditions lead to two different branches of quasinormal modes. The impact on these modes of the black hole size, the angular momentum quantum number and the overtone number are discussed. Our results show that vanishing energy flux boundary conditions are a robust principle, applicable not only to bosonic fields but also to fermionic fields.
Power oscillation damping controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...... signal in response to the oscillation indicating signal, by processing the oscillation damping control signal in a signal processing chain. The signal processing chain includes a filter configured for passing only signals within a predetermined frequency range....
Allergy and respiratory health effects of dampness and dampness-related agents in schools and homes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holst, G; Høst, Arne; Doekes, G
2016-01-01
Little is known about the health effects of school-related indoor dampness and microbial exposures. In this study we investigated dampness and dampness-related agents in both homes and schools and their association with allergy and respiratory health effects in 330 Danish pupils. Classroom dampness...... was identified based on technical inspection and bedroom dampness on parents' self-report. Classroom and bedroom dust was analysed for seven microbial components. Skin-prick-testing determined atopic sensitisation. Lung function was expressed as z-scores for forced expiratory volume in one second (zFEV1...... ), forced vital capacity (zFVC) and the ratio zFEV1 /zFVC using GLI-2012-prediction-equations. The parents reported children's allergies, airway symptoms and doctor-diagnosed asthma. High classroom dampness, but not bedroom dampness, was negatively associated with zFEV1 (β-coef. -0.71; 95%CI -1.17 - -0...
Preziosi-Ribero, Antonio; Peñaloza-Giraldo, Jorge; Escobar-Vargas, Jorge; Donado-Garzón, Leonardo
2016-04-01
Groundwater - Surface water interaction is a topic that has gained relevance among the scientific community over the past decades. However, several questions remain unsolved inside this topic, and almost all the research that has been done in the past regards the transport phenomena and has little to do with understanding the dynamics of the flow patterns of the above mentioned interactions. The aim of this research is to verify the attenuation of the water velocity that comes from the free surface and enters the porous media under the bed of a high mountain river. The understanding of this process is a key feature in order to characterize and quantify the interactions between groundwater and surface water. However, the lack of information and the difficulties that arise when measuring groundwater flows under streams make the physical quantification non reliable for scientific purposes. These issues suggest that numerical simulations and in-stream velocity measurements can be used in order to characterize these flows. Previous studies have simulated the attenuation of a sinusoidal pulse of vertical velocity that comes from a stream and goes into a porous medium. These studies used the Burgers equation and the 1-D Navier-Stokes equations as governing equations. However, the boundary conditions of the problem, and the results when varying the different parameters of the equations show that the understanding of the process is not complete yet. To begin with, a Spectral Multi Domain Penalty Method (SMPM) was proposed for quantifying the velocity damping solving the Navier - Stokes equations in 1D. The main assumptions are incompressibility and a hydrostatic approximation for the pressure distributions. This method was tested with theoretical signals that are mainly trigonometric pulses or functions. Afterwards, in order to test the results with real signals, velocity profiles were captured near the Gualí River bed (Honda, Colombia), with an Acoustic Doppler
Fredette, Luke; Singh, Rajendra
2017-02-01
A spectral element approach is proposed to determine the multi-axis dynamic stiffness terms of elastomeric isolators with fractional damping over a broad range of frequencies. The dynamic properties of a class of cylindrical isolators are modeled by using the continuous system theory in terms of homogeneous rods or Timoshenko beams. The transfer matrix type dynamic stiffness expressions are developed from exact harmonic solutions given translational or rotational displacement excitations. Broadband dynamic stiffness magnitudes (say up to 5 kHz) are computationally verified for axial, torsional, shear, flexural, and coupled stiffness terms using a finite element model. Some discrepancies are found between finite element and spectral element models for the axial and flexural motions, illustrating certain limitations of each method. Experimental validation is provided for an isolator with two cylindrical elements (that work primarily in the shear mode) using dynamic measurements, as reported in the prior literature, up to 600 Hz. Superiority of the fractional damping formulation over structural or viscous damping models is illustrated via experimental validation. Finally, the strengths and limitations of the spectral element approach are briefly discussed.
Relaxation damping in oscillating contacts.
Popov, M; Popov, V L; Pohrt, R
2015-11-09
If a contact of two purely elastic bodies with no sliding (infinite coefficient of friction) is subjected to superimposed oscillations in the normal and tangential directions, then a specific damping appears, that is not dependent on friction or dissipation in the material. We call this effect "relaxation damping". The rate of energy dissipation due to relaxation damping is calculated in a closed analytic form for arbitrary axially-symmetric contacts. In the case of equal frequency of normal and tangential oscillations, the dissipated energy per cycle is proportional to the square of the amplitude of tangential oscillation and to the absolute value of the amplitude of normal oscillation, and is dependent on the phase shift between both oscillations. In the case of low frequency tangential oscillations with superimposed high frequency normal oscillations, the dissipation is proportional to the ratio of the frequencies. Generalization of the results for macroscopically planar, randomly rough surfaces as well as for the case of finite friction is discussed.
Rincón, Ángel; Panotopoulos, Grigoris
2018-01-01
We study for the first time the stability against scalar perturbations, and we compute the spectrum of quasinormal modes of three-dimensional charged black holes in Einstein-power-Maxwell nonlinear electrodynamics assuming running couplings. Adopting the sixth order Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation we investigate how the running of the couplings change the spectrum of the classical theory. Our results show that all modes corresponding to nonvanishing angular momentum are unstable both in the classical theory and with the running of the couplings, while the fundamental mode can be stable or unstable depending on the running parameter and the electric charge.
Quasinormal modes of four-dimensional topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becar, Ramon [Universidad Cato lica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2016-02-15
We study scalar perturbations of four- dimensional topological nonlinear charged Lifshitz black holes with spherical and plane transverse sections, and we find numerically the quasinormal modes for scalar fields. Then we study the stability of these black holes under massive and massless scalar field perturbations. We focus our study on the dependence of the dynamical exponent, the nonlinear exponent, the angular momentum, and the mass of the scalar field in the modes. It is found that the modes are overdamped, depending strongly on the dynamical exponent and the angular momentum of the scalar field for a spherical transverse section. In contrast, for plane transverse sections the modes are always overdamped. (orig.)
Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernández; Nuñez, Fidel Sosa; Castillo, Jose Bernal; Santana, Yulier Jimenez
The aim of the present report is the study of massless fermion perturbations outside five-dimensional stringy black holes with U(1) charges. The Dirac equation was numerically solved to obtain the time profiles for evolving fermion fields, and the quasinormal frequencies at intermediate times are computed by numerical Prony fitting and semi-analytical Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) expansion at sixth-order. We also computed numerically the latetime power law decay factors, showing that there are in correspondence with previously reported results for the case of boson fields in higher-dimensional odd spacetimes. The dependence of quasinormal frequencies with U(1) compactification charges are studied.
Quasinormal modes of BTZ black hole and Hawking-like radiation in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandemir, B.S.; Ertem, Uemit [Department of Physics, Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, 06100, Tandogan-Ankara (Turkey)
2017-04-15
The Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole model corresponds to a solution of (2+1)-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant, and by a conformal rescaling its metric can be mapped onto the hyperbolic pseudosphere surface (Beltrami trumpet) with negative curvature. Beltrami trumpet shaped graphene sheets have been predicted to emit Hawking radiation that is experimentally detectable by a scanning tunnelling microscope. Here, for the first time we present an analytical algorithm that allows variational solutions to the Dirac Hamiltonian of graphene pseudoparticles in BTZ black hole gravitational field by using an approach based on the formalism of pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians within a discrete-basis-set method. We show that our model not only reproduces the exact results for the real part of quasinormal mode frequencies of (2+1)-dimensional spinless BTZ black hole, but also provides analytical results for the real part of quasinormal modes of spinning BTZ black hole, and also offers some predictions for the observable effects with a view to gravity-like phenomena in a curved graphene sheet. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, John
2009-01-01
On Dr.phil. J.J.Dampe's fight for democracy in the first part of the 19th century in Denmark and his dramatic writings......On Dr.phil. J.J.Dampe's fight for democracy in the first part of the 19th century in Denmark and his dramatic writings...
Srinivasan, A. V.; Cutts, D. G.; Sridhar, S.
1981-01-01
The potentials of various sources of nonaerodynamic damping in engine blading are evaluated through a combination of advanced analysis and testing. The sources studied include material hysteresis, dry friction at shroud and root disk interfaces as well as at platform type external dampers. A limited seris of tests was conducted to evaluate damping capacities of composite materials (B/AL, B/AL/Ti) and thermal barrier coatings. Further, basic experiments were performed on titanium specimens to establish the characteristics of sliding friction and to determine material damping constants J and n. All the tests were conducted on single blades. Mathematical models were develthe several mechanisms of damping. Procedures to apply this data to predict damping levels in an assembly of blades are developed and discussed.
Vibrational Damping of Composite Materials
Biggerstaff, Janet M.
2006-01-01
The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss facto...
Balashev, S. A.; Noterdaeme, P.; Rahmani, H.; Klimenko, V. V.; Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Varshalovich, D. A.
2017-09-01
We present a detailed analysis of an H2-rich, extremely strong intervening damped Ly α absorption system (DLA) at zabs = 2.786 towards the quasar J 0843+0221, observed with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. The total column density of molecular (resp. atomic) hydrogen is log N(H2) = 21.21 ± 0.02 (resp. log N(H I) = 21.82 ± 0.11), making it to be the first case in quasar absorption line studies with H2 column density as high as what is seen in 13CO-selected clouds in the Milky Way. We find that this system has one of the lowest metallicity detected among H2-bearing DLAs, with [Zn/H] = -1.52^{+0.08}_{-0.10}. This can be the reason for the marked differences compared to systems with similar H2 column densities in the local Universe: (I) the kinetic temperature, T ˜ 120 K, derived from the J = 0, 1 H2 rotational levels is at least twice higher than expected; (II) there is little dust extinction with AV 2 × 1023 cm-2/(km s-1 K), in the very low metallicity gas. Low CO and high H2 contents indicate that this system represents 'CO-dark/faint' gas. We investigate the physical conditions in the H2-bearing gas using the fine-structure levels of C I, C II, Si II and the rotational levels of HD and H2. We find the number density to be about n ˜ 260-380 cm-3, implying a high thermal pressure of 3-5 × 104 cm-3 K. We further identify a trend of increasing pressure with increasing total hydrogen column density. This independently supports the suggestion that extremely strong DLAs (with log N(H) ˜22) probe high-z galaxies at low impact parameters.
Marhauser, Frank
2017-06-01
Research and development for superconducting radio-frequency cavities has made enormous progress over the last decades from the understanding of theoretical limitations to the industrial mass fabrication of cavities for large-scale particle accelerators. Key technologies remain hot topics due to continuously growing demands on cavity performance, particularly when in pursuit of high quality beams at higher beam currents or higher luminosities than currently achievable. This relates to higher order mode (HOM) damping requirements. Meeting the desired beam properties implies avoiding coupled multi-bunch or beam break-up instabilities depending on the machine and beam parameters that will set the acceptable cavity impedance thresholds. The use of cavity HOM-dampers is crucial to absorb the wakefields, comprised by all beam-induced cavity Eigenmodes, to beam-dynamically safe levels and to reduce the heat load at cryogenic temperature. Cavity damping concepts may vary, but are principally based on coaxial and waveguide couplers as well as beam line absorbers or any combination. Next generation energy recovery linacs and circular colliders call for cavities with strong HOM-damping that can exceed the state-of-the-art, while the operating mode efficiency shall not be significantly compromised concurrently. This imposes major challenges given the rather limited damping concepts. A detailed survey of established cavities is provided scrutinizing the achieved damping performance, shortcomings, and potential improvements. The scaling of the highest passband mode impedances is numerically evaluated in dependence on the number of cells for a single-cell up to a nine-cell cavity, which reveals the increased probability of trapped modes. This is followed by simulations for single-cell and five-cell cavities, which incorporate multiple damping schemes to assess the most efficient concepts. The usage and viability of on-cell dampers is elucidated for the single-cell cavity since it
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pereira, A. H. A.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The work herein verifies the changes of the elastic moduli, damping and modulus of rupture (MOR of a high alumina refractory castable due to heating, cooling and heating-cooling thermal shock damage. Twelve prismatic specimens were prepared for the tests and divided into four groups. The thermal shocks were performed on three groups, each containing three specimens having abrupt temperature changes of 1100°C during heating in the first group, during cooling in the second and during heating followed by cooling in the third group. The fourth group, which was taken as a reference did not receive any thermal shock. The elastic moduli were measured after each thermal shock cycle. After 10 cycles, the MOR, the damping and the damping dependence on excitation amplitude were measured at room temperature for all specimens.
The elastic moduli showed a similar decrease and the damping a similar increase due to the cooling and heating-cooling thermal shocks. The heating thermal shocks caused no significant changes on the elastic moduli and damping. However, the MOR appeared to be sensitive to the heating thermal shock. This work also shows that the damping for the studied refractory castable is non-linear (i.e., amplitude of excitation sensitive and that this non-linearity increases when the damage level rises.
En este trabajo se investigaron las alteraciones de los módulos elásticos dinámicos, del amortiguamiento y del módulo de rotura (MOR de un material refractario moldeable de alta alúmina después de recibir choques térmicos de calentamiento, enfriamiento y calentamiento seguido de enfriamiento (calentamiento-enfriamiento. Para ello se prepararon doce cuerpos prismáticos dividiéndolos en cuatro grupos. Los choques térmicos se le aplicaron a sólo tres grupos, cada uno con tres muestras. Al primer grupo se le aplicó un cambio brusco de temperatura de 1100 °C en calentamiento, en enfriamiento al segundo grupo y calentamiento seguido
Xiao, Wangqiang; Chen, Zhiwei; Pan, Tianlong; Li, Jiani
2018-01-01
The vibration and noise from gear transmission have great damage on the mechanical equipment and operators. Through inelastic collisions and friction between particles, the energy can be dissipated in gear transmission. A dynamic model of particle dampers in gear transmission was put forward in this paper. The performance of particle dampers in centrifugal fields under different rotational speeds and load was investigated. The surface properties such as the impact of coefficient of restitution and friction coefficient of the particle on the damping effect were analyzed and the total energy loss was obtained by discrete element method (DEM). The vibration from time-varying mesh stiffness was effectively reduced by particle dampers and the optimum coefficient of restitution was discovered under different rotational speeds and load. Then, a test bench for gear transmission was constructed, and the vibration of driven gear and driving gear were measured through a three-directional wireless acceleration sensor. The research results agree well with the simulation results. While at relatively high speed, smaller coefficient of restitution achieves better damping effect. As to friction coefficient, at relatively high speed, the energy dissipation climbs up and then declines with the increase of the friction coefficient. The results can provide guidelines for the application of particle damper in gear transmission.
Tuning high frequency magnetic properties and damping of FeGa, FeGaN and FeGaB thin films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derang Cao
2017-11-01
Full Text Available A series of FeGa, FeGaN and FeGaB films with varied oblique angles were deposited by sputtering method on silicon substrates, respectively. The microstructure, soft magnetism, microwave properties, and damping factor for the films were investigated. The FeGa films showed a poor high frequency magnetic property due to the large stress itself. The grain size of FeGa films was reduced by the additional N element, while the structure of FeGa films was changed from the polycrystalline to amorphous phase by the involved B element. As a result, N content can effectively improve the magnetic softness of FeGa film, but their high frequency magnetic properties were still poor both when the N2/Ar flow rate ratio is 2% and 5% during the deposition. The additional B content significantly led to the excellent magnetic softness and the self-biased ferromagnetic resonance frequency of 1.83 GHz for FeGaB film. The dampings of FeGa films were adjusted by the additional N and B contents from 0.218 to 0.139 and 0.023, respectively. The combination of these properties for FeGa films are helpful for the development of magnetostrictive microwave devices.
Striplines for CLIC Pre-damping and Damping Rings
Belver-Aguilar, C; Barnes, M J; Rumolo, G; Zannini, C; Toral, F
2011-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study explores the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV: CLIC will complement LHC physics in the multi-TeV range. The CLIC design relies on the presence of Pre-Damping Rings (PDR) and Damping Rings (DR) to achieve, through synchrotron radiation, the very low emittance needed to fulfill the luminosity requirements. The specifications for the kicker systems are very challenging and include very low beam coupling impedance and excellent field homogeneity: striplines have been chosen for the kicker elements. Analytical calculations have been carried out to determine the effect of tapering upon the high frequency beam coupling impedance. In addition detailed numerical modeling of the field homogeneity has been performed and the sensitivity of the homogeneity to various parameters, including stripline cross-section, have been studied. This paper presents the main conclusions of the beam impedance calculations an...
Chin-Yi Tsai; Chin-Yao Tsai
2014-01-01
In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system w...
A Resonant Damping Study Using Piezoelectric Materials
Min, J. B.; Duffy, K. P.; Choi, B. B.; Morrison, C. R.; Jansen, R. H.; Provenza, A. J.
2008-01-01
Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue (HCF) problems requiring damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery blade research, a feasibility study of resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches with passive and active control techniques has been conducted on cantilever beam specimens. Test results for the passive damping circuit show that the optimum resistive shunt circuit reduces the third bending resonant vibration by almost 50%, and the optimum inductive circuit reduces the vibration by 90%. In a separate test, active control reduced vibration by approximately 98%.
Introduction to the scientific application system of DAMPE (On behalf of DAMPE collaboration)
Zang, Jingjing
2016-07-01
The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a high energy particle physics experiment satellite, launched on 17 Dec 2015. The science data processing and payload operation maintenance for DAMPE will be provided by the DAMPE Scientific Application System (SAS) at the Purple Mountain Observatory (PMO) of Chinese Academy of Sciences. SAS is consisted of three subsystems - scientific operation subsystem, science data and user management subsystem and science data processing subsystem. In cooperation with the Ground Support System (Beijing), the scientific operation subsystem is responsible for proposing observation plans, monitoring the health of satellite, generating payload control commands and participating in all activities related to payload operation. Several databases developed by the science data and user management subsystem of DAMPE methodically manage all collected and reconstructed science data, down linked housekeeping data, payload configuration and calibration data. Under the leadership of DAMPE Scientific Committee, this subsystem is also responsible for publication of high level science data and supporting all science activities of the DAMPE collaboration. The science data processing subsystem of DAMPE has already developed a series of physics analysis software to reconstruct basic information about detected cosmic ray particle. This subsystem also maintains the high performance computing system of SAS to processing all down linked science data and automatically monitors the qualities of all produced data. In this talk, we will describe all functionalities of whole DAMPE SAS system and show you main performances of data processing ability.
Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Ge, Rong-Chun; Hughes, Stephen
2017-07-01
We refute all claims of the "Comment on `Normalization of quasinormal modes in leaky optical cavities and plasmonic resonators' " by E. A. Muljarov and W. Langbein. Based entirely on information already contained in our original article [P. T. Kristensen, R.-C. Ge, and S. Hughes, Phys. Rev. A 92, 053810 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.92.053810], we dismiss every point of criticism as being unsupported and point out how important parts of our argumentation appear to have been overlooked by the Comment authors. In addition, we provide additional calculations showing directly the connection between the normalizations by Sauvan et al. and Muljarov et al., which were not included in our original article.
Quantum tunneling and quasinormal modes in the spacetime of the Alcubierre warp drive
Jusufi, Kimet; Sakallı, İzzet; Övgün, Ali
2018-01-01
In a seminal paper, Alcubierre showed that Einstein's theory of general relativity appears to allow a super-luminal motion. In the present study, we use a recent eternal-warp-drive solution found by Alcubierre to study the effect of Hawking radiation upon an observer located within the warp drive in the framework of the quantum tunneling method. We find the same expression for the Hawking temperatures associated with the tunneling of both massive vector and scalar particles, and show this expression to be proportional to the velocity of the warp drive. On the other hand, since the discovery of gravitational waves, the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of black holes have also been extensively studied. With this purpose in mind, we perform a QNM analysis of massive scalar field perturbations in the background of the eternal-Alcubierre-warp-drive spacetime. Our analytical analysis shows that massive scalar perturbations lead to stable QNMs.
Thermal transport and quasi-normal modes in Gauss–Bonnet-axions theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Mei Kuang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We obtain the black brane solution in arbitrary dimensional Gauss–Bonnet-axions (GBA gravity theory. And then the thermal conductivity of the boundary theory dual to this neutral black brane is explored. We find that the momentum dissipation suppresses the DC thermal conductivity while it is enhanced by larger GB parameter. The analytical and numerical results of DC thermal conductivity match very well. Also we study the effect of the momentum dissipation and the GB coupling on the AC thermal conductivity and fit the results by Drude-like behavior for low frequency. Finally, we analytical compute the quasi-normal modes (QNM frequency of the perturbative master field in large dimensions limit. Our analytical QNM frequencies agree well with the numerical results in large enough finite dimensions.
Roll Damping By Rudder Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.; Blanke, M.
1994-01-01
Roll damping and simultaneous course steering by rudder control is a challenging problem where a key factor is roll damping performance in waves.......Roll damping and simultaneous course steering by rudder control is a challenging problem where a key factor is roll damping performance in waves....
Robust Rudder Roll Damping Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, C.
-infinity theory is used to deal with the problem. The necessary mathematical tools and the H-Infinity theory as the basis of controller design are presented in Chapter 2 and 3. The mu synthesis and the D-K iteration are introduced in Chapter 3. The ship dynamics and modeling technology are discussed in Chapter 4......The results of a systematic research to solve a specific ship motion control problem, simultaneous roll damping and course keeping using the rudder are presented in this thesis. The fundamental knowledge a priori is that rudder roll damping is highly sensitive to the model uncertainty, therefore H......, two kinds of ship model have been obtained: linear ship model used for designing the controller and nonlinear model used for simulation. The ship model uncertainty is discussed in this chapter and so is a wave model because the ship's roll motion is caused by waves. Using an unstructured model...
Damping performance of cocured composite laminates with embedded viscoelastic layers
Biggerstaff, Janet M.; Kosmatka, John B.
1998-06-01
Cocuring viscoelastic damping materials in composites has been shown to be successful in greatly increasing the damping of composite structures. The damping performance, however, is often not as high in cocured composites as in secondarily bonded composites, where the damping material does not undergo the cure process. The reason for the discrepancy in damping between the cocured and secondarily bonded samples was found to be resin penetration into the damping material. Samples with a barrier layer between the damping material and the epoxy resin had a 15.7% to 92.3% higher loss factor (depending on the frequency) than cocured FasTapeTM 1125 samples without the barrier and at least 168% higher loss factor than cocured ISD 112 samples without the barrier. These higher damping values are very close to the values achieved by secondarily bonding. Viscoelastic damping materials typically have maximum recommended temperatures below that of the composite cure cycles. The effect of cure temperature on viscoelastic damping materials was also studied and it was determined that most damping materials are marginally affected by cure cycle temperature.
Piedra, Owen Pavel Fernández; Sosa, Fidel; Bernal-Castillo, José L.; Jimenez, Yulier
2011-01-01
The aim of the present report is to study massless fermion perturbations outside five-dimensional stringy black holes with U(1) charges. The Dirac equation was numerically solved to obtain the time profiles for the evolving fermion fields, and the quasinormal frequencies at intermediate times are computed by numerical Prony fitting and semianalytical WKB expansion at sixth order. We also computed numerically the late-time power law decay factors, showing that there are in correspondence with ...
The DAMPE silicon tungsten tracker
Gallo, Valentina; Asfandiyarov, R; Azzarello, P; Bernardini, P; Bertucci, B; Bolognini, A; Cadoux, F; Caprai, M; Domenjoz, M; Dong, Y; Duranti, M; Fan, R; Franco, M; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gong, K; Guo, D; Husi, C; Ionica, M; Lacalamita, N; Loparco, F; Marsella, G; Mazziotta, M N; Mongelli, M; Nardinocchi, A; Nicola, L; Pelleriti, G; Peng, W; Pohl, M; Postolache, V; Qiao, R; Surdo, A; Tykhonov, A; Vitillo, S; Wang, H; Weber, M; Wu, D; Wu, X; Zhang, F; De Mitri, I; La Marra, D
2017-01-01
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite has been successfully launched on the 17th December 2015. It is a powerful space detector designed for the identification of possible Dark Matter signatures thanks to its capability to detect electrons and photons with an unprecedented energy resolution in an energy range going from few GeV up to 10 TeV. Moreover, the DAMPE satellite will contribute to a better understanding of the propagation mechanisms of high energy cosmic rays measuring the nuclei flux up to 100 TeV. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon-tungsten tracker-converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is made of twelve layers of single-sided AC-coupled silicon micro-strip detectors for a total silicon area of about 7 $m^2$ . To promote the conversion of incident photons into electron-positron pairs, tungsten foils are inserted into the supporting structure. In this document, a detailed description of the STK constructi...
Linear mode stability of the Kerr-Newman black hole and its quasinormal modes.
Dias, Óscar J C; Godazgar, Mahdi; Santos, Jorge E
2015-04-17
We provide strong evidence that, up to 99.999% of extremality, Kerr-Newman black holes (KNBHs) are linear mode stable within Einstein-Maxwell theory. We derive and solve, numerically, a coupled system of two partial differential equations for two gauge invariant fields that describe the most general linear perturbations of a KNBH. We determine the quasinormal mode (QNM) spectrum of the KNBH as a function of its three parameters and find no unstable modes. In addition, we find that the lowest radial overtone QNMs that are connected continuously to the gravitational ℓ=m=2 Schwarzschild QNM dominate the spectrum for all values of the parameter space (m is the azimuthal number of the wave function and ℓ measures the number of nodes along the polar direction). Furthermore, the (lowest radial overtone) QNMs with ℓ=m approach Reω=mΩH(ext) and Imω=0 at extremality; this is a universal property for any field of arbitrary spin |s|≤2 propagating on a KNBH background (ω is the wave frequency and ΩH(ext) the black hole angular velocity at extremality). We compare our results with available perturbative results in the small charge or small rotation regimes and find good agreement.
Analytical description of quasi-normal mode in resonant plasmonic nano cavities
Yang, Fan; Liu, Haitao; Jia, Hongwei; Zhong, Ying
2016-03-01
We propose an analytical model of quasi-normal mode (QNM) for resonant plasmonic nano cavities formed by sub wavelength grooves in metallic substrate. The QNM has shown great advantages in understanding and calculating the frequency response of resonant nano-structures. With our model we show that the QNM originates from a resonance of the fundamental mode in every individual groove and its interaction via surface waves. Analytical expression for the complex eigenfrequency as well as the field distribution of the QNM can be derived from the model. With the analytical model and a few assumptions on the scattered field, the legitimacy of the expansion of scattered field with QNMs under external illuminations is justified with the Mittag-Leffler's theorem of meromorphic function. The expansion coefficients of QNMs are analytically expressed with a finite set of elementary scattering coefficients, which avoids the calculation of the mode volume of QNMs that have a spatial divergence at infinity. The model clarifies the physical origin of QNMs and drastically reduces the computational load of QNMs, especially for a large ensemble of grooves for which brute-force numerical tools are not available. The validity of the proposed model is tested against fully vectorial numerical results.
Quasinormal modes as a distinguisher between general relativity and f (R ) gravity
Bhattacharyya, Soham; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2017-09-01
Quasinormal modes (QNMs) or the ringdown phase of gravitational waves provide critical information about the structure of compact objects like black holes. Thus, QNMs can be a tool to test general relativity (GR) and possible deviations from it. In the case of GR, it has been known for a long time that a relation between two types of black hole perturbations—scalar (Zerilli) and vector (Regge-Wheeler)—leads to an equal share of emitted gravitational energy. With the direct detection of gravitational waves, it is now natural to ask whether the same relation (between scalar and vector perturbations) holds for modified gravity theories, and if not, whether one can use this as a way to probe deviations from general relativity. As a first step, we show explicitly that the above relation between Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli perturbations breaks down for a general f (R ) model and hence the two perturbations do not share equal amounts of emitted gravitational energy. We discuss the implication of this imbalance for observations and the no-hair conjecture.
Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping
Choi, Yun Seok
2015-07-28
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.
Vibrational damping of composite materials
Biggerstaff, Janet M.
The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss factor and modulus could be tailored by changing the angle, were produced and investigated. The addition of particles between composite prepreg layers to increase damping was studied. Electroviscoelastic materials that drastically changed properties such as loss factor and modulus with an applied voltage were manufactured and tested.
Mouhot, Clément
2011-09-01
Going beyond the linearized study has been a longstanding problem in the theory of Landau damping. In this paper we establish exponential Landau damping in analytic regularity. The damping phenomenon is reinterpreted in terms of transfer of regularity between kinetic and spatial variables, rather than exchanges of energy; phase mixing is the driving mechanism. The analysis involves new families of analytic norms, measuring regularity by comparison with solutions of the free transport equation; new functional inequalities; a control of non-linear echoes; sharp "deflection" estimates; and a Newton approximation scheme. Our results hold for any potential no more singular than Coulomb or Newton interaction; the limit cases are included with specific technical effort. As a side result, the stability of homogeneous equilibria of the non-linear Vlasov equation is established under sharp assumptions. We point out the strong analogy with the KAM theory, and discuss physical implications. Finally, we extend these results to some Gevrey (non-analytic) distribution functions. © 2011 Institut Mittag-Leffler.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broennimann, Martin [Rego-Fix AG, Tenniken (Switzerland)
2009-06-08
Difficult materials like titanium are common in the aerospace industry. With a high-efficiency fixation system and an optimized milling strategy, propulsion system producer MTU was able to enhance productivity in titanium blisk production. The working time was reduced by 42 % and the tool cost by 76 %. (orig.)
Abdel Aleem, SHE; Zobaa, AF
2016-01-01
Single-tuned passive filters offer reasonable mitigation for harmonic distortion at a specific harmonic frequency with a high filtering percentage, but resonance hazards exist. Traditional damped filters offer high-pass filtering for the high-frequency range, but suffer from extra ohmic losses. C-type filters may operate in a manner similar to the tuned filters with low damping losses and marginal resonance damping capabilities. Also, they can be designed as damped filters with increased reso...
Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krogager, J.-K.; Heintz, K. E.; Geier, S.; Møller, P.; Noterdaeme, P.; Christensen, L.; Ledoux, C.; Jakobsson, P.
2017-09-01
It is important to understand the selection effects behind the quasar samples to fully exploit the potential of quasars as probes of cosmic chemical evolution and the internal gas dynamics of galaxies; in particular, it is vital to understand whether the selection criteria exclude foreground galaxies with certain properties, most importantly a high dust content. Here we present spectroscopic follow-up from the 10.4 m GTC telescope of a dust-reddened quasar, eHAQ0111+0641, from the extended High AV Quasar (HAQ) survey. We find that the z = 3.21 quasar has a foreground damped Lyman-α absorber (DLA) at z = 2.027 along the line of sight. The DLA has very strong metal lines due to a moderately high metallicity with an inferred lower limit of 25% of the solar metallicity, but a very large gas column density along the line of sight in its host galaxy. This discovery is further evidence that there is a dust bias affecting the census of metals, caused by the combined effect of dust obscuration and reddening, in existing samples of z > 2 DLAs. The case of eHAQ0111+0641 illustrates that dust bias is not only caused by dust obscuration, but also dust reddening. The reduced spectrum (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A13
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tai-Hong Cheng
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Composite materials are increasingly used in wind blade because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio. This paper presents vibration and damping analysis of fiberreinforced composite wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping treatment. The finite element method based on full layerwise displacement theory was employed to analyze the damping, natural frequency, and modal loss factor of composite shell structure. The lamination angle was considered in mathematical modeling. The curved geometry, transverse shear, and normal strains were exactly considered in present layerwise shell model, which can depict the zig-zag in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. The frequency response functions of curved composite shell structure and wind blade were calculated. The results show that the damping ratio of viscoelastic layer is found to be very sensitive to determination of magnitude of composite structures. The frequency response functions with variety of thickness of damping layer were investigated. Moreover, the natural frequency, modal loss factor, and mode shapes of composite fiber reinforced wind blade with viscoelastic damping control were calculated.
Bounce-harmonic Landau Damping of Plasma Waves
Anderegg, Francois
2015-11-01
We present measurement of plasma wave damping, spanning the temperature regimes of direct Landau damping, bounce-harmonic Landau damping, inter-species drag damping, and viscous damping. Direct Landau damping is dominant at high temperatures, but becomes negligible as v harmonics damping, controlled by an applied ``squeeze'' potential, which generates harmonics in the wave potential and in the particle dynamics. A particle moving in z experiences a non-sinusoidal mode potential caused by the squeeze, producing high spatial harmonics with lower phase velocity. These harmonics are Landau damped even when the mode phase velocity vph is large compared to the thermal velocity v , since the nth harmonic is resonant with a particle bouncing at velocity vb =vph / n . Here we increase the bounce harmonics through applied squeeze potential; but some harmonics are always present in finite length systems. For our centered squeeze geometry, theory shows that only odd harmonics are generated, and predicts the Landau damping rate from vph / n . Experimentally, the squeeze potential increases the wave damping and reduces its frequency. The frequency shift occurs because the squeeze potential reduces the number of particle where the mode velocity is the largest, therefore reducing the mode frequency. We observe an increase in the damping proportional to Vs2,and a frequency reduction proportional to Vs , in quantitative agreement with theory. Wave-coherent laser induced fluorescence allows direct observation of bounce resonances on the particle distribution, here predominantly at vph / 3 . A clear increase of the bounce harmonics is visible on the particle distribution when the squeeze potential is applied. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570, and DOE Grants DE-SC0002451 and DE-SC0008693.
The Duffing oscillator with damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannessen, Kim
2015-01-01
An analytical solution to the differential equation describing the Duffing oscillator with damping is presented. The damping term of the differential equation and the initial conditions satisfy an algebraic equation, and thus the solution is specific for this type of damping. The nonlinear term....... It is established that the period of oscillation is shorter compared to that of a linearized model but increasing with time and asymptotically approaching the period of oscillation of the linear damped model. An explicit expression for the period of oscillation has been derived, and it is found to be very accurate....
Damping in Materials for Spintronic Applications
Mewes, Claudia
The next generation of spintronic devices relies strongly on the development of new materials with high spin polarization, optimized intrinsic damping and tunable magnetic anisotropy. Therefore, technological progress in this area depends heavily on the successful search for new materials as well as on a deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the spin polarization, the damping and the magnetic anisotropy. This talk will focus on different aspects of materials with a low intrinsic relaxation rate. Our results are based on first principles calculations in combination with a non-orthogonal tight-binding model to predict those material properties for complex materials which can be used for example in new spin based memory devices or logic devices. However, the intrinsic damping parameter predicted from first principle calculations does not take into account adjacent layers that are present in the final device. Spin pumping is a well-known contribution that has to be taken into account for practical applications using multilayer structures. More recently a strong unidirectional contribution to the relaxation in exchange bias systems has been observed experimentally. To describe this phenomenon theoretically we use the formalism of an anisotropic Gilbert damping tensor that takes the place of the (scalar) Gilbert damping parameter in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion. While for single crystals this anisotropy is expected to be small, making experimental confirmation difficult, the broken symmetry in exchange bias systems provides an excellent testing ground to study the modified magnetization dynamics under the influence of unidirectional damping. C.K.A. Mewes would like to thank her colleague T. Mewes and her students J.B. Mohammadi, A.E. Farrar. We acknowledge support by the NSF-CAREER Award No. 1452670, and NSF-CAREER Award No. 0952929.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grozdanov, Sašo [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Starinets, Andrei O. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2017-03-30
Gauss-Bonnet holographic fluid is a useful theoretical laboratory to study the effects of curvature-squared terms in the dual gravity action on transport coefficients, quasinormal spectra and the analytic structure of thermal correlators at strong coupling. To understand the behavior and possible pathologies of the Gauss-Bonnet fluid in 3+1 dimensions, we compute (analytically and non-perturbatively in the Gauss-Bonnet coupling) its second-order transport coefficients, the retarded two- and three-point correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the hydrodynamic regime as well as the relevant quasinormal spectrum. The Haack-Yarom universal relation among the second-order transport coefficients is violated at second order in the Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In the zero-viscosity limit, the holographic fluid still produces entropy, while the momentum diffusion and the sound attenuation are suppressed at all orders in the hydrodynamic expansion. By adding higher-derivative electromagnetic field terms to the action, we also compute corrections to charge diffusion and identify the non-perturbative parameter regime in which the charge diffusion constant vanishes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chin-Yi Tsai
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this work, tandem amorphous/microcrystalline silicon thin-film solar modules with low output voltage, high energy yield, low light-induced degradation, and high damp-heat reliability were successfully designed and developed. Several key technologies of passivation, transparent-conducting-oxide films, and cell and segment laser scribing were researched, developed, and introduced into the production line to enhance the performance of these low-voltage modules. A 900 kWp photovoltaic system with these low-voltage panels was installed and its performance ratio has been simulated and projected to be 92.1%, which is 20% more than the crystalline silicon and CdTe counterparts.
Identifying the damping contribution of building components based on measured top vibration
Berg, R.L.J. van den; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.
2013-01-01
In this paper, a damping model for a high-rise building is introduced. This model is used to investigate the possibilities to identify the relative damping contribution of the internal material damping in building elements, energy loss at element interfaces and energy outflow at the interface with
Collisional damping rates for electron plasma waves reassessed
Banks, J. W.; Brunner, S.; Berger, R. L.; Arrighi, W. J.; Tran, T. M.
2017-10-01
Collisional damping of electron plasma waves, the primary damping for high phase velocity waves, is proportional to the electron-ion collision rate, νei ,th. Here, it is shown that the damping rate normalized to νei ,th depends on the charge state, Z , on the magnitude of νei ,th and the wave number k in contrast with the commonly used damping rate in plasma wave research. Only for weak collision rates in low-Z plasmas for which the electron self-collision rate is comparable to the electron-ion collision rate is the damping rate given by the commonly accepted value. The result presented here corrects the result presented in textbooks at least as early as 1973. The complete linear theory requires the inclusion of both electron-ion pitch-angle and electron-electron scattering, which itself contains contributions to both pitch-angle scattering and thermalization.
Persistent Motor Deficits in DAMP
J Gordon Millichap
2000-01-01
Motor control in ability to perform everyday and spare-time activities was assessed at 11 to 12 years of age in 10 boys with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) and compared with a group of 20 boys without DAMP.
The DAMPE silicon–tungsten tracker
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azzarello, P., E-mail: philipp.azzarello@unige.ch [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Ambrosi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Asfandiyarov, R. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Bernardini, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Bertucci, B.; Bolognini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Cadoux, F. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Caprai, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); De Mitri, I. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Domenjoz, M. [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire, University of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland); Dong, Y. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Duranti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Fan, R. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); and others
2016-09-21
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a spaceborne astroparticle physics experiment, launched on 17 December 2015. DAMPE will identify possible dark matter signatures by detecting electrons and photons in the 5 GeV–10 TeV energy range. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100 TeV, for the study of the high energy cosmic ray origin and propagation mechanisms. DAMPE is composed of four sub-detectors: a plastic strip scintillator, a silicon–tungsten tracker–converter (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter and a neutron detector. The STK is composed of six tracking planes of 2 orthogonal layers of single-sided micro-strip detectors, for a total detector surface of ca. 7 m{sup 2}. The STK has been extensively tested for space qualification. Also, numerous beam tests at CERN have been done to study particle detection at silicon module level, and at full detector level. After description of the DAMPE payload and its scientific mission, we will describe the STK characteristics and assembly. We will then focus on some results of single ladder performance tests done with particle beams at CERN.
Atomistic Mechanisms for Viscoelastic Damping in Inorganic Solids
Ranganathan, Raghavan
Viscoelasticity, a ubiquitous material property, can be tuned to engineer a wide range of fascinating applications such as mechanical dampers, artificial tissues, functional foams and optoelectronics, among others. Traditionally, soft matter such as polymers and polymer composites have been used extensively for viscoelastic damping applications, owing to the inherent viscous nature of interactions between polymer chains. Although this leads to good damping characteristics, the stiffness in these materials is low, which in turn leads to limitations. In this context, hard inorganic materials and composites are promising candidates for enhanced damping, owing to their large stiffness and, in some cases large loss modulus. Viscoelasticity in these materials has been relatively unexplored and atomistic mechanisms responsible for damping are not apparent. Therefore, the overarching goal of this work is to understand mechanisms for viscoelastic damping in various classes of inorganic composites and alloys at an atomistic level from molecular dynamics simulations. We show that oscillatory shear deformation serves as a powerful probe to explain mechanisms for exceptional damping in hitherto unexplored systems. The first class of inorganic materials consists of crystalline phases of a stiff inclusion in a soft matrix. The two crystals within the composite, namely the soft and a stiff phase, individually show a highly elastic behavior and a very small loss modulus. On the other hand, a composite with the two phases is seen to exhibit damping that is about 20 times larger than predicted theoretical bounds. The primary reason for the damping is due to large anharmonicity in phonon-phonon coupling, resulting from the composite microstructure. A concomitant effect is the distribution of shear strain, which is observed to be highly inhomogeneous and mostly concentrated in the soft phase. Interestingly, the shear frequency at which the damping is greatest is observed to scale with
Suboptimal Rayleigh damping coefficients in seismic analysis of viscously-damped structures
Pan, Danguang; Chen, Genda; Wang, Zuocai
2014-12-01
An optimization method for the consistent evaluation of two Rayleigh damping coefficients is proposed. By minimizing an objective function such as an error term of the peak displacement of a structure, the two coefficients can be determined with response spectral analysis. The optimization method degenerates into the conventional method used in current practices when only two modes of vibration are included in the objective function. Therefore, the proposed method with all significant modes included for simplicity in practical applications results in suboptimal damping coefficients. The effects of both spatial distribution and frequency content of excitations as well as structural dynamic characteristics on the evaluation of Rayleigh damping coefficients were investigated with a five-story building structure. Two application examples with a 62-story high-rise building and a 840 m long cable-stayed bridge under ten earthquake excitations demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method to account for all of the above effects.
Damping and energy dissipation in soft tissue vibrations during running.
Khassetarash, Arash; Hassannejad, Reza; Enders, Hendrik; Ettefagh, Mir Mohammad
2015-01-21
It has been well accepted that the vibrations of soft tissue cannot be simulated by a single sinusoidal function. In fact, these vibrations are a combination of several vibration modes. In this study, these modes are extracted applying a recently developed method namely, partly ensemble empirical mode decomposition (PEEMD). Then, a methodology for estimating the damping properties and energy dissipation caused by damping for each mode is used. Applying this methodology on simulated signals demonstrates high accuracy. This methodology is applied to the acceleration signals of the gastrocnemius muscle during sprinting and the differences between the damping properties of different vibration modes were identified. The results were 1) the damping property of high-frequency mode was higher than that for low-frequency modes. 2) All identified modes were in under damped condition, therefore, the vibrations had an oscillatory nature. 3) The damping ratios of lower modes are about 100% increased compared to higher modes. 4) The energy dissipation occurred in lower modes were much more than that for higher mode; According to the power spectrum of the ground reaction force (GRF), which is the input force into the body, the recent finding supports the muscle tuning paradigm. It is suggested that the damping properties and energy dissipation can be used to distinguish between different running conditions (surface, fatigue, etc.). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst
2013-01-01
We present a numerical formalism for solving the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the electric field in three dimensions. The formalism may be applied to scatterers of different shapes and embedded in different background media, and we develop it in detail for the specific case of spherical scatterers in a homogeneous background medium. In addition, we show how several physically important quantities may readily be calculated with the formalism. These quantities include the extinction cross section, the total Green's tensor, the projected local density of states and the Purcell factor as well as the quasinormal modes of leaky resonators with the associated resonance frequencies and quality factors. We demonstrate the calculations for the well-known plasmonic dimer consisting of two silver nanoparticles and thus illustrate the versatility of the formalism for use in modeling of advanced nanophotonic devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasia, P.; Kuriakose, V.C. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Kochi (India)
2017-01-15
In this work we study the Quasi-Normal Modes (QNMs) under massless scalar perturbations and the thermodynamics of linearly charged BTZ black holes in massive gravity in the (Anti)de Sitter ((A)dS) space-time. It is found that the behavior of QNMs changes with the massive parameter of the graviton and also with the charge of the black hole. The thermodynamics of such black holes in the (A)dS space-time is also analyzed in detail. The behavior of specific heat with temperature for such black holes gives an indication of a phase transition that depends on the massive parameter of the graviton and also on the charge of the black hole. (orig.)
An Improved Model for Air Damping of Perforated Structures
Lu, Cunhao; Li, Pu
2017-07-01
the prediction of air damping of micromachined mechanical resonant structures is significant in the design of high quality factor devices. In rarefied air, based on Bao’s molecule model, Li gives an analytical model for air damping of perforated structures. By studying the action of molecules going through holes and reflected by the fixed plate, this paper gives a probability of molecules through holes going into the gap between the moving plate and the fixed one. Comparison with Li’s model, the new model can play a better performance of air damping for perforated structures, at a wide range of size of holes.
Amplitude damping of vortex modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-09-01
Full Text Available An interferometer, mimicking an amplitude damping channel for vortex modes, is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically. Since we can characterize the action of the channel on orbital...
Nasser, Fatima; Li, Zhongyang; Gueguen, Philippe; Martin, Nadine
2016-06-01
This paper deals with the application of the Automatic Model-Based Approach (AMBA) over actual buildings subjected to real-world ambient vibrations. In a previous paper, AMBA was developed with the aim of automating the estimation process of the modal parameters and minimizing the estimation error, especially that of the damping ratio. It is applicable over a single-channel record, has no parameters to be set, and no manual initialization phase. The results presented in this paper should be regarded as further documentation of the approach over real-world ambient vibration signals.
Bai, Yun-Jing; Jiang, De-xun; An, Na; Shen, Hong-bo; Hu, Yin-qi
2012-06-01
To study the effects of environmental factors on the degree of injury and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in cartilage cells of the joint in a rat model of adjuvant arthritis (AA). SD rats aged 10 months were randomly divided into 4 groups that varied by temperature and humidity housing conditions and induction of AA: a control group, a model group, a cold-damp group, and a hot-damp group. All groups except the control group were induced with AA. After 4 w, VEGF and IL-1 expression in cartilage cells of ankle joints of hind limbs were observed. Mean area, optical density, and numbers of VEGF- and IL-1-positive cells in the model group, the cold-damp group, and the hot-damp group were significantly higher than that of the control group (all P damp group and the hot-damp group were significantly higher than that of the model group (all P damp group were significantly higher than that of the cold-damp group. Bone in the hot-damp and cold-damp groups was severely injured. Environmental factors such as high humidity combined with either high or low temperature increase the severity of damage and expression of VEGF and IL-1 in cartilage cells of joints in rats induced with AA.
Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
shows greater wave damping at low values of radiative time and then attains some maximum value and then decreases. The slow mode wave has higher values of damping per wavelength, showing higher levels of damping due to radiation. For τR → ∞, the wave takes infinite time to damp and therefore travels very long ...
Key Role of DAMP in Inflammation, Cancer, and Tissue Repair.
Pandolfi, Franco; Altamura, Simona; Frosali, Simona; Conti, Pio
2016-05-01
This review aimed to take stock of the current status of research on damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) protein. We discuss the Janus-faced role of DAMP molecules in inflammation, cancer, and tissue repair. The high-mobility group box (HMGB)-1 and adenosine triphosphate proteins are well-known DAMP molecules and have been primarily associated with inflammation. However, as we shall see, recent data have linked these molecules to tissue repair. HMGB1 is associated with cancer-related inflammation. It activates nuclear factor kB, which is involved in cancer regulation via its receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), Toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Proinflammatory activity and tissue repair may lead to pharmacologic intervention, by blocking DAMP RAGE and Toll like receptor 2 and 4 role in inflammation and by increasing their concentration in tissue repair, respectively. We conducted a MEDLINE search for articles pertaining to the various issues related to DAMP, and we discuss the most relevant articles especially (ie, not only those published in journals with a higher impact factor). A cluster of remarkable articles on DAMP have appeared in the literature in recent years. Regarding inflammation, several strategies have been proposed to target HMGB1, from antibodies to recombinant box A, which interacts with RAGE, competing with the full molecule. In tissue repair, it was reported that the overexpression of HMGB1 or the administration of exogenous HMGB1 significantly increased the number of vessels and promoted recovery in skin-wound, ischemic injury. Due to the bivalent nature of DAMP, it is often difficult to explain the relative role of DAMP in inflammation versus its role in tissue repair. However, this point is crucial as DAMP-related treatments move into clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Influence of damping on quantum interference - An exactly soluble model
Caldeira, A. O.; Leggett, A. J.
1985-01-01
This paper reports the result of a calculation which shows the effect of damping on the quantum interference of two Gaussian wave packets in a harmonic potential. The influence-functional method, which seems to be the most appropriate one for this kind of calculation, is used. It is shown that quantum-interference effects are severely diminished by the presence of damping even when its influence on the system is only light. The corrections to the undamped formulas are always expressible in terms of the phenomenological damping constant, the temperature (in the high-temperature limit), the cutoff frequency of the reservoir oscillators, and the mean number of quanta of energy intially present in the system. Both weakly and strongly damped systems are analyzed in the regime of low and high temperatures.
System Reduction and Damping of Flexible Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen
2007-01-01
An increasing number of flexible structures such as cable-stayed bridges, pedestrian bridges and high-rise buildings are fitted with local dampers to mitigate vibration problems. In principle the effect of local dampers can be analyzed by use of complex modes, e.g. in conjunction with an averaging...... technique for local linearization of the damper characteristics. However, the complex mode shapes and frequencies depend on the magnitude of the damper and therefore are less suitable for design of the damper system. An efficient alternative consists in the use of a two-component representation...... of the damped modes of the structure. The idea is to represent the damped mode as a linear combination of the modes that occur in two distinctly different situations representing extreme conditions: the mode shape of the structure without the damper(s), and the mode shape of the structure, when the damper...
DAMPING OF SUBSYNCHRONOUS MODES OF OSCILLATIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JAGADEESH PASUPULETI
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The IEEE bench mark model 2 series compensated system is considered for analysis. It consists of single machine supplying power to infinite bus through two parallel lines one of which is series compensated. The mechanical system considered consists of six mass, viz, high pressure turbine, intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, generator and an exciter. The excitation system considered is IEEE type 1 with saturation. The auxiliary controls considered to damp the unstable subsynchronous modes of oscillations are Power System Stabilizer (PSS and Static var Compensator (SVC. The different cases of power system stabilizer and reactive power controls are adapted to study the effectiveness of damping these unstable subsynchronous modes of oscillations.
Rapidly moving contact lines and damping contributions
Xia, Yi; Daniel, Susan; Steen, Paul
2017-11-01
Contact angle varies dynamically with contact line (CL) speed when a liquid moves across a solid support, as when a liquid spreads rapidly. For sufficiently rapid spreading, inertia competes with capillarity to influence the interface shape near the support. We use resonant-mode plane-normal support oscillations of droplets to drive lateral contact-line motion. Reynolds numbers based on CL speeds are high and capillary numbers are low. These are inertial-capillary motions. By scanning the driving frequency, we locate the frequency at peak amplification (resonance), obtain the scaled peak height (amplification factor) and a measure of band-width (damping ratio). We report how a parameter for CL mobility depends on these scanning metrics, with the goal of distinguishing contributions from the bulk- and CL-dissipation to overall damping.
An Active Damping at Blade Resonances Using Piezoelectric Transducers
Choi, Benjamin; Morrison, Carlos; Duffy, Kirsten
2008-01-01
The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing an active damping at blade resonances using piezoelectric structure to reduce excessive vibratory stresses that lead to high cycle fatigue (HCF) failures in aircraft engine turbomachinery. Conventional passive damping work was shown first on a nonrotating beam made by Ti-6A1-4V with a pair of identical piezoelectric patches, and then active feedback control law was derived in terms of inductor, resister, and capacitor to control resonant frequency only. Passive electronic circuit components and adaptive feature could be easily programmable into control algorithm. Experimental active damping was demonstrated on two test specimens achieving significant damping on tip displacement and patch location. Also a multimode control technique was shown to control several modes.
Dampness in buildings and health
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Blomquist, G.; Gyntelberg, F.
2001-01-01
Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown in the epidem......Several epidemiological investigations concerning indoor environments have indicated that "dampness" in buildings is associated to health effects such as respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy The aim of the present interdisciplinary review is to evaluate this association as shown...... in the epidemiological literature. A literature search identified 590 peer-reviewed articles of which 61 have been the foundation for this review. The review shows that "dampness" in buildings appears to increase the risk for health effects in the airways, such as cough, wheeze and asthma. Relative risks...... are in the range of OR 1.4-2.2. There also seems to be an association between "dampness" and other symptoms Such as tiredness, headache and airways infections. It is concluded that the evidence for a causal association between "dampness" and health effects is strong. However, the mechanisms are unknown. Several...
Damping mechanisms of a pendulum
Dolfo, Gilles; Castex, Daniel; Vigué, Jacques
2016-11-01
In this paper, we study the damping mechanisms of a pendulum. The originality of our setup is the use of a metal strip suspension and the development of extremely sensitive electric measurements of the pendulum velocity and position. Their sensitivity is absolutely necessary for a reliable measurement of the pendulum damping time constant because this measurement is possible only for very low oscillation amplitudes, when air friction forces quadratic in velocity have a negligible contribution to the observed damping. We have thus carefully studied damping by air friction forces, which is the dominant mechanism for large values of the Reynolds number Re but which is negligible in the Stokes regime, {Re} ∼ 1. In this last case, we have found that the dominant damping is due to internal friction in the metal strip, a universal effect called anelasticity, and, for certain frequencies, to resonant coupling to the support of the pendulum. All our measurements are well explained by theory. We believe this paper would be of interest to students in an undergraduate classical mechanics course.
First Results from the DAMPE Mission
CERN. Geneva
2018-01-01
DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a satellite mission of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) dedicated to high energy cosmic ray detections. Since its successful launch on December 17th, 2015 a large amount of cosmic ray data has been collected. With relatively large acceptance, DAMPE is designed to detect electrons (and positrons) up to 10 TeV with unprecedented energy resolution to search for new features in the cosmic ray electron plus positron (CRE) spectrum. It will also study cosmic ray nuclei up to 100 TeV with good precision, which will bring new input to the study of their still unknown origin and their propagation through the Galaxy. In this talk, the DAMPE mission will be introduced, together with some details of the construction and on-ground calibration of the detector subsystems. The in-orbit detector commissioning, calibration and operation will be described. First data analysis results, including the recently published CRE spectrum from 25 GeV to 4.6 TeV based on the data collected i...
Enhancing the Damping Properties of Viscoelastic Composites by Topology Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Andreassen, Erik; Sigmund, Ole
in engineering structures. Thus, materials or composites with high stiffness and high damping are of great interest to the industry. The inherent compromise between high stiffness and high damping in viscoelastic materials has been treated theoretically [2, 3] and experimentally [1]. It has been shown that high...... stiffness and high damping can be realized by Hashin-type composites or Rank-N laminates. However, in order to manufacture such composites it is favorable to obtain single length scale microstructures, i.e. without multiscale structures such that the materials can be manufactured by modern manufacturing...... techniques. As an example, by the use of e.g. SLM/SLS - Selective Laser Melting/Sintering, an open metallic microstructure can be printed and in a subsequent process the porespace can be filled with a high loss compliant material. Yi and co-workers [6] applied topology optimization to design the 2D...
IMPACT GRINDING OF DAMP MATERIALS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ladaev Nikolay Mikhaylovich
2012-10-01
Centrifugal grinders were used to analyze the grinding process. The experimental data have proven that the probability of destruction of damp samples is a lot higher than the one of dry samples, given the same initial dimensions of particles and the loading intensity. The rise in the probability of destruction is stipulated by the fact that that the grinder speed at which crushing is triggered is lower in case of damp samples than in case of dry ones. Expressions for speed that describes destruction initiation and the probability of destruction depending on the type of materials, the moisture content and the loading intensity have been derived.
Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan, E-mail: xfgou@hhu.edu.cn
2015-12-15
Highlights: • In this article, for the eddy current damper attached to the HTSC, we • quantitatively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. • presented four different arrangements of the copper damper, and comparatively studied their damping effects and Joule heating, and finally proposed the most advisable arrangement. - Abstract: Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC–PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density J{sub c} can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC–PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/V{sub Cu}, in which V{sub Cu} is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rubin, David L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
2015-01-23
Accelerators that collide high energy beams of matter and anti-matter are essential tools for the investigation of the fundamental constituents of matter, and the search for new forms of matter and energy. A “Linear Collider” is a machine that would bring high energy and very compact bunches of electrons and positrons (anti-electrons) into head-on collision. Such a machine would produce (among many other things) the newly discovered Higgs particle, enabling a detailed study of its properties. Among the most critical and challenging components of a linear collider are the damping rings that produce the very compact and intense beams of electrons and positrons that are to be accelerated into collision. Hot dilute particle beams are injected into the damping rings, where they are compressed and cooled. The size of the positron beam must be reduced more than a thousand fold in the damping ring, and this compression must be accomplished in a fraction of a second. The cold compact beams are then extracted from the damping ring and accelerated into collision at high energy. The proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), would require damping rings that routinely produce such cold, compact and intense beams. The goal of the Cornell study was a credible design for the damping rings for the ILC. Among the technical challenges of the damping rings; the development of instrumentation that can measure the properties of the very small beams in a very narrow window of time, and mitigation of the forces that can destabilize the beams and prevent adequate cooling, or worse lead to beam loss. One of the most pernicious destabilizing forces is due to the formation of clouds of electrons in the beam pipe. The electron cloud effect is a phenomenon in particle accelerators in which a high density of low energy electrons, build up inside the vacuum chamber. At the outset of the study, it was anticipated that electron cloud effects would limit the intensity of the positron ring
Landau damping in Kaniadakis and Tsallis distributed electron plasmas
López, Rodrigo A.; Navarro, Roberto E.; Pons, Sebastian I.; Araneda, Jaime A.
2017-10-01
The damping arrest and saturation stages in the evolution of the electric field amplitude are characteristic imprint of the nonlinear Landau damping. Scaling laws for the wave amplitudes and times and critical parameters which separate the monotonic damping from nondamping regimes are well known for Maxwellian and Tsallis-like plasmas. Here, the properties of electrostatic waves in unmagnetized, collisionless, and non-Maxwellian electron plasmas are studied by taking into account the α-deformed Kaniadakis distribution and compared with results using the q-Tsallis formalism. It is checked that the damping arrest and saturation characteristics scale as power-laws for the α-Kaniadakis, similarly as for the q-Tsallis parameter, indicating that a universal behaviour exists for the transition between linear and non-linear regimes. It is shown that the damping of electrostatic waves is much weaker when using Kaniadakis distributions, even in situations where this distribution exhibits more enhanced high-velocity tails. Furthermore, it is observed that in cases where the Tsallis distribution damps out completely the initial perturbation, the equivalent Kaniadakis distributed plasmas still support particle trapping, or even if wider Kaniadakis distributions are used. This important signature may provide a new tool to diagnose the nature of the distribution function and its relation to wave measurements in laboratory and space plasmas.
Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.
Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola
2016-09-01
Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.
Dampness in Buildings and Health
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Geo; Rode, Carsten; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
1999-01-01
. The main themes are:· Continued research in human perception of indoor air quality, especially by identification of the factors that may cause annoyance to the occupants. Such annoyances may be emissions from materials or biological activity, and is often linked to the dampness of buildings.· Studies...
Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations
Dolgin, Benjamin P.
1991-01-01
New design of composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts increases damping of longitudinal vibrations without decreasing longitudinal stiffness or increasing weight significantly. Plies with opposing chevron patterns of fibers convert longitudinal vibrational stresses into shear stresses in intermediate viscoelastic layer, which dissipate vibrational energy. Composite strut stronger than aluminum strut of same weight and stiffness.
Vibration Damping Circuit Card Assembly
Hunt, Ronald Allen (Inventor)
2016-01-01
A vibration damping circuit card assembly includes a populated circuit card having a mass M. A closed metal container is coupled to a surface of the populated circuit card at approximately a geometric center of the populated circuit card. Tungsten balls fill approximately 90% of the metal container with a collective mass of the tungsten balls being approximately (0.07) M.
Squeeze-Film Air Damping of a Five-Axis Electrostatic Bearing for Rotary Micromotors.
Wang, Shunyue; Han, Fengtian; Sun, Boqian; Li, Haixia
2017-05-13
Air-film damping, which dominates over other losses, plays a significant role in the dynamic response of many micro-fabricated devices with a movable mass suspended by various bearing mechanisms. Modeling the damping characteristics accurately will be greatly helpful to the bearing design, control, and test in various micromotor devices. This paper presents the simulated and experimental squeeze-film air damping results of an electrostatic bearing for use in a rotary high-speed micromotor. It is shown that the boundary condition to solve the three-dimensional Reynolds equation, which governs the squeeze-film damping in the air gap between the rotor and its surrounding stator sealed in a three-layer evacuated cavity, behaves with strong cross-axis coupling characteristics. To accurately characterize the damping effect, a set of multiphysics finite-element simulations are performed by computing both the rotor velocity and the distribution of the viscous damping force acting on the rotor. The damping characteristics varying with several key structure parameters are simulated and discussed to optimize the device structure for desirable rotor dynamics. An electrical measurement method is also proposed and applied to validate the numerical results of the damping coefficients experimentally. Given that the frequency response of the electric bearing is critically dependent on the damping coefficients at atmospheric pressure, a solution to the air-film damping measurement problem is presented by taking approximate curve fitting of multi-axis experimental frequency responses. The measured squeeze-film damping coefficients for the five-axis electric bearing agrees well with the numerical solutions. This indicates that numerical multiphysics simulation is an effective method to accurately examine the air-film damping effect for complex device geometry and arbitrary boundary condition. The accurate damping coefficients obtained by FEM simulation will greatly simplify the design
Damping of gravitational waves by matter
Baym, Gordon; Patil, Subodh P.; Pethick, C. J.
2017-10-01
We develop a unified description, via the Boltzmann equation, of damping of gravitational waves by matter, incorporating collisions. We identify two physically distinct damping mechanisms—collisional and Landau damping. We first consider damping in flat spacetime, and then generalize the results to allow for cosmological expansion. In the first regime, maximal collisional damping of a gravitational wave, independent of the details of the collisions in the matter is, as we show, significant only when its wavelength is comparable to the size of the horizon. Thus damping by intergalactic or interstellar matter for all but primordial gravitational radiation can be neglected. Although collisions in matter lead to a shear viscosity, they also act to erase anisotropic stresses, thus suppressing the damping of gravitational waves. Damping of primordial gravitational waves remains possible. We generalize Weinberg's calculation of gravitational wave damping, now including collisions and particles of finite mass, and interpret the collisionless limit in terms of Landau damping. While Landau damping of gravitational waves cannot occur in flat spacetime, the expansion of the universe allows such damping by spreading the frequency of a gravitational wave of given wave vector.
Roll Damping Characterisation Program: User Guide
2014-06-01
Cubic roll damping coefficient blin Linear roll damping coefficient bqua Quadratic roll damping coefficient Cxx Roll restoring moment coefficient g...testing conducted on a 32 bit Hewlett Packard desktop personal computer the RDCP was observed to function satisfactorily, however, the processing of
Study of Track Reconstruction for DAMPE
Lu, Tong-suo; Lei, Shi-jun; Zang, Jing-jing; Chang, Jin; Wu, Jian
2017-07-01
The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is aimed to study the existence and distribution of dark matter via the observation of high-energy particles in space with a large energy bandwidth, high energy resolution, and high spatial resolution. The track reconstruction is to restore the positions and angles of the incident particles using the multiple observations of different channels at different positions, and its accuracy determines the angular resolution of the explorer. The track reconstruction is mainly based on the observations of two sub-detectors, namely, the Silicon Tracker (STK) and the BGO (Bi4Ge3O12) calorimeter. In accordance with the design and structure of the two sub-detectors, and using the data collected during the beam tests and ground tests of cosmic rays, we discuss in detail the method of track reconstruction for the DAMPE, which includes mainly three basic procedures: the selection of track hits, the fitting of track hits, and the judgement of the optimal track. Since an energetic particle most probably leaves multiple hits in different layers of the STK and BGO crystals, we first provide a method to obtain a rough track in the BGO calorimeter by the centroid method, and hereby to constrain the track hits in the STK. Then for the selected one group of possible track hits in the STK, we apply two different algorithms, the Kalman filter and the least square linear fitting, to fit these track hits. The consistency of the results obtained independently via the two algorithms confirms the validity of our track reconstruction results. Finally, several criteria for picking out the most possible track among all the tracks found in the reconstruction by combining the results of the BGO calorimeter and STK are discussed. Using the track reconstruction method proposed in this article and the beam test data, we confirm that the angular resolution of the DAMPE satisfies its design requirement.
Stability Analysis and Active Damping for LLCL-filter-Based Grid-Connected Inverters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
to use either passive or active damping methods. This paper analyzes the stability of the LLCL-filter based grid-connected inverter and identifies a critical resonant frequency for the LLCL-filter when sampling and transport delays are considered. In a high resonant frequency region the active damping...... is not required but in a low resonant frequency region the active damping is necessary. The basic LLCL resonance damping properties of different feedback states based on a notch filter concept are also studied. Then an active damping method which is using the capacitor current feedback for LLCL......-filter is introduced. Based on this active damping method, a design procedure for the controller is given. Last, both simulation and experimental results are provided to validate the theoretical analysis of this paper....
A study on the damping capacity of BaTiO3-reinforced Al-matrix ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
strength and high damping capacity. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric ceramics can exhibit con- siderable high vibration damping capacity due to the anelas- tic response of ferroelastic domains to an external applied stress. Some piezoelectric materials such as BaTiO3 PZT. (Pb(ZrTi)O3) and LiNbO3 have been focussed and ...
Analysis of the Passive Damping Losses in LCL-Filter-Based Grid Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
Passive damping is the most adopted method to guarantee the stability of LCL-filter-based grid converters. The method is simple and, if the switching and sampling frequencies are sufficiently high, the damping losses are negligible. This letter proposes the tuning of different passive damping...... methods and an analytical estimation of the damping losses allowing the choice of the minimum resistor value resulting in a stable current control and not compromising the LCL-filter effectiveness. Stability, including variations in the grid inductance, is studied through root locus analysis in the z...
Evaluation of Drogue Parachute Damping Effects Utilizing the Apollo Legacy Parachute Model
Currin, Kelly M.; Gamble, Joe D.; Matz, Daniel A.; Bretz, David R.
2011-01-01
Drogue parachute damping is required to dampen the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) crew module (CM) oscillations prior to deployment of the main parachutes. During the Apollo program, drogue parachute damping was modeled on the premise that the drogue parachute force vector aligns with the resultant velocity of the parachute attach point on the CM. Equivalent Cm(sub q) and Cm(sub alpha) equations for drogue parachute damping resulting from the Apollo legacy parachute damping model premise have recently been developed. The MPCV computer simulations ANTARES and Osiris have implemented high fidelity two-body parachute damping models. However, high-fidelity model-based damping motion predictions do not match the damping observed during wind tunnel and full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion. This paper will present the methodology for comparing and contrasting the Apollo legacy parachute damping model with full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion. The analysis shows an agreement between the Apollo legacy parachute damping model and full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion.
Damping Effects in Aerospace Structures
1979-10-01
dapeadeat «a the applied damping values. Incorrect daoping values m^ lead to an inpropcr desigo. CoUeetioB and evaluation of available wmavanA...23) (24) Ref. [36] n b^ rr a Z , r rk (a Z ^ s rk arV < E rk u b r rr (25) where: y is the oodal daoping factor t> /2üI and e is a
Structural Damping with Friction Beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Gaul
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In the last several years, there has been increasing interest in the use of friction joints for enhancing damping in structures. The joints themselves are responsible for the major part of the energy dissipation in assembled structures. The dissipated work in a joint depends on both the applied normal force and the excitation force. For the case of a constant amplitude excitation force, there is an optimal normal force which maximizes the damping. A ‘passive’ approach would be employed in this instance. In most cases however, the excitation force, as well as the interface parameters such as the friction coefficient, normal pressure distribution, etc., are not constant. In these cases, a ‘semi-active’ approach, which implements an active varying normal force, is necessary. For the ‘passive’ and ‘semi-active’ approaches, the normal force has to be measured. Interestingly, since the normal force in a friction joint influences the local stiffness, the natural frequencies of the assembled structure can be tuned by adjusting the normal force. Experiments and simulations are performed for a simple laboratory structure consisting of two superposed beams with friction in the interface. Numerical simulation of the friction interface requires non-linear models. The response of the double beam system is simulated using a numerical algorithm programmed in MATLAB which models point-to-point friction with the Masing friction model. Numerical predictions and measurements of the double beam free vibration response are compared. A practical application is then described, in which a friction beam is used to damp the vibrations of the work piece table on a milling machine. The increased damping of the table reduces vibration amplitudes, which in turn results in enhanced surface quality of the machined parts, reduction in machine tool wear, and potentially higher feed rates. Optimal positioning of the friction beams is based on knowledge of the mode
Zou, De-Cheng; Liu, Yunqi; Yue, Ruihong
2017-06-01
In this work, we utilize the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a massless scalar perturbation to probe the Van der Waals-like small and large black holes (SBH/LBH) phase transition of charged topological Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four-dimensional massive gravity. We find that the signature of this SBH/LBH phase transition is detected in the isobaric as well as in the isothermal process. This further supports the idea that the QNMs can be an efficient tool to investigate the thermodynamical phase transition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Ruihong [Yangzhou University, Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Liu, Yunqi [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Physics, Wuhan (China)
2017-06-15
In this work, we utilize the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a massless scalar perturbation to probe the Van der Waals-like small and large black holes (SBH/LBH) phase transition of charged topological Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in four-dimensional massive gravity. We find that the signature of this SBH/LBH phase transition is detected in the isobaric as well as in the isothermal process. This further supports the idea that the QNMs can be an efficient tool to investigate the thermodynamical phase transition. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Mørk, Jesper; Kristensen, Philip Trøst
2013-01-01
scatterers in a homogeneous background medium. In addition, we show how several physically important quantities may readily be calculated with the formalism. These quantities include the extinction cross section, the total Green’s tensor, the projected local density of states, and the Purcell factor as well...... as the quasi-normal modes of leaky resonators with the associated resonance frequencies and quality factors. We demonstrate the calculations for the well-known plasmonic dimer consisting of two silver nanoparticles and thus illustrate the versatility of the formalism for use in modeling of advanced...
From black-hole quasinormal modes to scalar glueballs in a finite-temperature AdS/QCD model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miranda, Alex S.; Boschi-Filho, Henrique; Braga, Nelson R.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Ballon Bayona, C.A. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2009-07-01
Full text. In the last years the AdS/CFT correspondence has been recognized as an important tool to investigate non- perturbative aspects of strongly coupled gauge theories. The most celebrated version of this correspondence relates string theory in AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} space to four-dimensional SU(N) Yang-Mills gauge theory with large N and extended N = 4 supersymmetry. Inspired in the AdS/CFT correspondence, recent works have proposed the construction of holographic phenomenological models to describe the strong interactions. These models are presently known as AdS/QCD. In this work we use the holographic soft-wall model to investigate the spectrum of scalar glueballs at finite temperature. The elementary excitations corresponding to glueballs are identified as the poles of the retarded correlation function of the operator Tr(F{sup 2}), where F is the field strength of the Yang-Mills gauge field. According to the gauge/gravity correspondence, in the plasma phase the poles of the retarded correlator are determined by the quasinormal spectrum of a massless scalar field propagating in the bulk geometry that consists on an AdS{sub 5} black hole with a background dilaton field. We calculate masses and decay widths of scalar glueballs in the deconfined phase and metastable phase of the plasma and analyze how these quantities evolve with temperature. We also obtain glueball dispersion relations for different temperature values. These results are found employing both the traditional power series method and a new method based on the computation of Breit-Wigner resonances. (author)
Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems
Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan
2015-12-01
Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.
An Estimate of P-Mode Damping by Wave Leakage
De Moortel, I.; Rosner, R.
2007-11-01
High-cadence TRACE observations show that outward-propagating intensity disturbances are a common feature in large, quiescent coronal loops. Analysis of the frequency distribution of these modes shows peaks at both three- and five-minute periods, indicating that they may be driven by the solar surface oscillations ( p modes). The energy flux contained within the coronal intensity disturbances is of the order of (1.1±0.4)×103 ergs cm-2 s-1. A simple order-of-magnitude estimate of the damping rate of the relevant p modes allows us to put an observational constraint on the damping of p modes and shows that leakage into the overlying coronal atmosphere might be able to account for a significant fraction of p-mode damping.
Landau damping dynamic aperture and octupole in LHC
Gareyte, Jacques; Ruggiero, F
1997-01-01
Maximization of the dynamic aperture and Landau damping of the collective instabilities are partly conflicting requirements. On the one hand, the non-linearities of the lattice must be minimized at large oscillation amplitude to guarantee the stability of the single particle motion. On the other hand, a spread of the betatron frequencies is necessary to guarantee the stability of the collective motion of bunches of particles; this requires the introduction of non-linearities effective at small amplitudes. We show in this note that the `natural' spread of betatron tunes due to the field imperfections is inadequate or Landau damping. An octupole scheme is required to provide collective stability at high energy. At low energy it may be used to find the optimum between the correction of the octupolar field imperfections and Landau damping. The solution of the stability problem taking into account the two degrees of freedom of the transverse motion allows a significant saving in octupole strength: 144 octupoles wi...
Research overview on vibration damping of mistuned bladed disk assemblies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang ZHANG
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Bladed disk assemblies are very important parts in auto engine and gas turbine, and is widely used in practical engineering. The mistuning existing commonly in the bladed disk assemblies can destroy the vibration characteristics of the bladed disk assemblies, which is one of the reasons for the high cycle fatigue failure of bladed disk assemblies, so it is necessary to research how to reduce the vibration of the bladed disk assemblies. On the basis of the review of relevant research at home and abroad, the mistuning vibration mechanism of the bladed disk assemblies is introduced, and the main technical methods of the vibration damping of bladed disk assemblies are reviewed, such as artificially active mistuning, collision damping, friction damping and optimization of the blade position. Some future research directions are presented.
Turbulence damping as a measure of the flow dimensionality
Shats, M; Xia, H
2010-01-01
The dimensionality of turbulence in fluid layers determines their properties. We study electromagnetically driven flows in finite depth fluid layers and show that eddy viscosity, which appears as a result of three-dimensional motions, leads to increased bottom damping. The anomaly coefficient, which characterizes the deviation of damping from the one derived using a quasi-two-dimensional model, can be used as a measure of the flow dimensionality. Experiments in turbulent layers show that when the anomaly coefficient becomes high, the turbulent inverse energy cascade is suppressed. In the opposite limit turbulence can self-organize into a coherent flow.
ICAN/DAMP-integrated composite analyzer with damping analysis capabilities: User's manual
Saravanos, Dimitrious A.; Sanfeliz, Jose G.
1992-01-01
This manual describes the use of the computer code ICAN/DAMP (Integrated Composite Analyzer with Damping Analysis Capabilities) for the prediction of damping in polymer-matrix composites. The code is written in FORTRAN 77 and is a version of the ICAN (Integrated Composite ANalyzer) computer program. The code incorporates a new module for synthesizing the material damping from micromechanics to laminate level. Explicit micromechanics equations based on hysteretic damping are programmed relating the on-axis damping capacities to the fiber and matrix properties and fiber volume ratio. The damping capacities of unidirectional composites subjected to off-axis loading are synthesized from on-axis damping values. The hygrothermal effect on the damping performance of unidirectional composites caused by temperature and moisture variation is modeled along with the damping contributions from interfacial friction between broken fibers and matrix. The temperature rise is continuously vibrating composite plies and composite laminates is also estimated. The ICAN/DAMP user's manual provides descriptions of the damping analysis module's functions, structure, input requirements, output interpretation, and execution requirements. It only addresses the changes required to conduct the damping analysis and is used in conjunction with the 'Second Generation Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN) Computer Code' user's manual (NASA TP-3290).
Modelling of Dampers and Damping in Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Riess
2006-01-01
The present thesis consists of an extended summary and four papers concerning damping of structures and algorithmic damping in numerical analysis. The first part of the thesis deals with the efficiency and the tuning of external collocated dampers acting on flexible structures. The dynamics......, and thereby the damping, of flexible structures are generally described in terms of the dominant vibration modes. A system reduction technique, where the damped vibration mode is constructed as a linear combination of the undamped mode shape and the mode shape obtained by locking the damper, is applied....... This two-component representation leads to a simple solution for the modal damping representing the natural frequency and the associated damping ratio. It appears from numerical examples that this system reduction technique provides very accurate results. % Analytical expressions for the optimal tuning...
Anisotropic damping of Timoshenko beam elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, M.H.
2001-01-01
This report contains a description of a structural damping model for Timoshenko beam elements used in the aeroelastic code HawC developed at Risø for modeling wind turbines. The model has been developed to enable modeling of turbine blades which oftenhave different damping characteristics...... for ¤flapwise¤, ¤edgewise¤ and ¤torsional¤ vibrations. The structural damping forces acting on the beam element are modeled by viscous damping described by an element damping matrix. The composition of this matrix is basedon the element mass and stiffness matrices. It is shown how the coefficients for the mass...... and stiffness contributions can be calibrated to give the desired modal damping in the complete model of a blade....
CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMPING IN BOLTED LAP JOINTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
C. MALONEY; D. PEAIRS; ET AL
2000-08-01
The dynamic response of a jointed beam was measured in laboratory experiments. The data were analyzed and the system was mathematically modeled to establish plausible representations of joint damping behavior. Damping is examined in an approximate, local linear framework using log decrement and half power bandwidth approaches. in addition, damping is modeled in a nonlinear framework using a hybrid surface irregularities model that employs a bristles-construct. Experimental and analytical results are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper
2015-01-01
We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained, ......-trivial spectrum with a peak and a dip is found, which is reproduced only when including both the two relevant QNMs in the theory. In both cases, we find relative errors below 1% in the bandwidth of interest.......We present and validate a semi-analytical quasi-normal mode (QNM) theory for the local density of states (LDOS) in coupled photonic crystal (PhC) cavity-waveguide structures. By means of an expansion of the Green's function on one or a few QNMs, a closed-form expression for the LDOS is obtained......, and for two types of two-dimensional PhCs, with one and two cavities side-coupled to an extended waveguide, the theory is validated against numerically exact computations. For the single cavity, a slightly asymmetric spectrum is found, which the QNM theory reproduces, and for two cavities a non...
Phenomenology of chiral damping in noncentrosymmetric magnets
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2016-06-21
A phenomenology of magnetic chiral damping is proposed in the context of magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry. We show that the magnetic damping tensor acquires a component linear in magnetization gradient in the form of Lifshitz invariants. We propose different microscopic mechanisms that can produce such a damping in ferromagnetic metals, among which local spin pumping in the presence of an anomalous Hall effect and an effective “s-d” Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange. The implication of this chiral damping in terms of domain-wall motion is investigated in the flow and creep regimes.
Parametric Landau damping of space charge modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Macridin, Alexandru [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Stern, Eric [Fermilab; Amundson, James [Fermilab; Spentzouris, Panagiotis [Fermilab
2016-09-23
Landau damping is the mechanism of plasma and beam stabilization; it arises through energy transfer from collective modes to the incoherent motion of resonant particles. Normally this resonance requires the resonant particle's frequency to match the collective mode frequency. We have identified an important new damping mechanism, parametric Landau damping, which is driven by the modulation of the mode-particle interaction. This opens new possibilities for stability control through manipulation of both particle and mode-particle coupling spectra. We demonstrate the existence of parametric Landau damping in a simulation of transverse coherent modes of bunched accelerator beams with space charge.
An Active Damping Technique for Small DC-Link Capacitor Based Drive System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Lu, Kaiyuan
2013-01-01
A small dc-link capacitor based drive system shows instability when it is operated with large input line inductance at operating points with high power. This paper presents a simple, new active damping technique that can stabilize effectively the drive system at unstable operating points, offering...... greatly reduced input line current total harmonic distortion (THD). The proposed method requires only a first-order, high-pass filter with a gain. Active damping voltage terms, linked directly to the dc-link voltage ripple through gain units, are injected to the drive machine for stabilizing the operating...... points. The stabilizing effect of the active damping terms is demonstrated for an induction machine based drive system. The effects of the added damping terms on the machine current and dc-link voltage are analyzed in detail. A design recommendation for the proposed active damping terms is given...
Dolgin, Benjamin P. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A superconductive load bearing support without a mechanical contact and vibration damping for cryogenic instruments in space is presented. The levitation support and vibration damping is accomplished by the use of superconducting magnets and the 'Meissner' effect. The assembly allows for transfer of vibration energy away from the cryogenic instrument which then can be damped by the use of either an electronic circuit or conventional vibration damping mean.
Susceptibility for cigarette smoke-induced DAMP release and DAMP-induced inflammation in COPD.
Pouwels, Simon D; Hesse, Laura; Faiz, Alen; Lubbers, Jaap; Bodha, Priya K; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Nawijn, Martijn C; Heijink, Irene H
2016-11-01
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated whether CS-induced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release or DAMP-mediated inflammation contributes to susceptibility for COPD. Samples, including bronchial brushings, were collected from young and old individuals, susceptible and nonsusceptible for the development of COPD, before and after smoking, and used for gene profiling and airway epithelial cell (AEC) culture. AECs were exposed to CS extract (CSE) or specific DAMPs. BALB/cByJ and DBA/2J mice were intranasally exposed to LL-37 and mitochondrial (mt)DAMPs. Functional gene-set enrichment analysis showed that CS significantly increases the airway epithelial gene expression of DAMPs and DAMP receptors in COPD patients. In cultured AECs, we observed that CSE induces necrosis and DAMP release, with specifically higher galectin-3 release from COPD-derived compared with control-derived cells. Galectin-3, LL-37, and mtDAMPs increased CXCL8 secretion in AECs. LL-37 and mtDAMPs induced neutrophilic airway inflammation, exclusively in mice susceptible for CS-induced airway inflammation. Collectively, we show that in airway epithelium from COPD patients, the CS-induced expression of DAMPs and DAMP receptors in vivo and the release of galectin-3 in vitro is exaggerated. Furthermore, our studies indicate that a predisposition to release DAMPs and subsequent induction of inflammation may contribute to the development of COPD. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Sensitivity Analysis for the CLIC Damping Ring Inductive Adder
Holma, Janne
2012-01-01
The CLIC study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV. The CLIC pre-damping rings and damping rings will produce, through synchrotron radiation, ultra-low emittance beam with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse generators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses. The specifications for the extraction kickers of the CLIC damping rings are particularly demanding: the flattop of the output pulse must be 160 ns duration, 12.5 kV and 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. An inductive adder allows the use of different modulation techniques and is therefore a very promising approach to meeting the specifications. PSpice has been utilised to carry out a sensitivity analysis of the predicted output pulse to the value of both individual and groups of circuit compon...
Improvement of viscoelastic damping in nickel aluminum bronze by indium-tin
Lee, Taeyong
2011-06-01
Reduction of the vibration noise from submarine propellers is of interest in naval operations. Such an objective can be achieved via the use of materials with the ability to dissipate energy of vibration by means of heat, i.e. high damping materials. An additional problem is that the extreme hydrostatic pressure environment of a submarine requires the chosen material to exhibit considerably high stiffness. Most materials demonstrate a compromise between the two properties, i.e. stiffness and damping. This paper aims to discuss research into high stiffness and high damping materials conducted using a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) under variations of testing temperature, frequency, and strain amplitude. Alloys of nickel aluminum bronze and indium tin are the subjects of this study. Defect damping represents a large portion of the overall damping properties of the nickel aluminum bronze while increasing indium content is shown to boost the damping properties of the indium tin alloy. The study then continues with the development of a new material that combines both indium alloying and defects introduction into the nickel aluminum bronze alloy. The new alloy is observed to have high damping, as measured in its high tan δ, with minimum reduction of the stiffness | E*|.
Taylor, Larry; Leary, Terry; Stewart, Eric
1987-01-01
The damping for structural dynamic models of flexible spacecraft is usually ignored and then added after modal frequencies and mode shapes are calculated. It is common practice to assume the same damping ratio for all modes, although it is known that damping due to bending and that due to torsion are sometimes ignored. Two methods of including damping in the modeling process from its onset are examined. First, the partial derivative equations of motion are analyzed for a pinned-pinned beam with damping. The end conditions are altered to handle bodies with mass and inertia for the Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) configuration. Second, a massless beam approximation is used for the modes with low frequencies, and a clamped-clamped system is used to approximate the modes for arbitrarily high frequency. The model is then modified to include gravity effects and is compared with experimental results.
Two-dimensional unwrapped phase inversion with damping and a Gaussian filter
Choi, Yun Seok
2014-01-01
Phase wrapping is one of main causes of the local minima problem in waveform inversion. However, the unwrapping process for 2D phase maps that includes singular points (residues) is complicated and does not guarantee unique solutions. We employ an exponential damping to eliminate the residues in the 2D phase maps, which makes the 2D phase unwrapping process easy and produce a unique solution. A recursive inversion process using the damped unwrapped phase provides an opportunity to invert for smooth background updates first, and higher resolution updates later as we reduce the damping. We also apply a Gaussian filter to the gradient to mitigate the edge artifacts resulting from the narrow shape of the sensitivity kernels at high damping. Numerical examples demonstrate that our unwrapped phase inversion with damping and a Gaussian filter produces good convergent results even for a 3Hz single frequency of Marmousi dataset and with a starting model far from the true model.
The frequency and damping of ion acoustic waves in collisional and collisionless two-species plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berger, R L; Valeo, E J
2004-07-15
The dispersion properties of ion acoustic waves (IAW) are sensitive to the strength of ion-ion collisions in multi-species plasma in which the different species usually have differing charge-to-mass ratios. The modification of the frequency and damping of the fast and slow acoustic modes in a plasma composed of light (low Z) and heavy (high Z) ions is considered. In the fluid limit where the light ion scattering mean free path, {lambda}{sub th} is smaller than the acoustic wavelength, {lambda} = 2{pi}/k, the interspecies friction and heat flow carried by the light ions scattering from the heavy ions causes the damping. In the collisionless limit, k{lambda}{sub lh} >> 1, Landau damping by the light ions provides the dissipation. In the intermediate regime when k{lambda}{sub lh} {approx} 1, the damping is at least as large as the sum of the collisional and Landau damping.
The Frequency and Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves in Collisional and Collisionless Two-species Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
R.L. Berger; E.J. Valeo
2004-08-18
The dispersion properties of ion acoustic waves (IAW) are sensitive to the strength of ion-ion collisions in multi-species plasma in which the different species usually have differing charge-to-mass ratios. The modification of the frequency and damping of the fast and slow acoustic modes in a plasma composed of light (low Z) and heavy (high Z) ions is considered. In the fluid limit where the light ion scattering mean free path, {lambda}{sub th} is smaller than the acoustic wavelength, {lambda} = 2{pi}/k, the interspecies friction and heat flow carried by the light ions scattering from the heavy ions causes the damping. In the collisionless limit, k{lambda}{sub th} >> 1, Landau damping by the light ions provides the dissipation. In the intermediate regime when k{lambda}{sub th} {approx} 1, the damping is at least as large as the sum of the collisional and Landau damping.
Design of a choke-mode damped accelerating structure for CLIC Main LINAC
Shi, J; Grudiev, A; Wuensch, W; Tang, C; Chen, H; Huang, W
2011-01-01
Choke-mode damped accelerating structures are being studied as an alternative to the baseline structure of the compact linear collider (CLIC) by a CERN-Tsinghua collaboration. Choke-mode structures hold the potential for much lower levels of pulsed surface heating and, since milling is not needed, reduced cost. Structures with radial choke attached are simulated in GdfidL to investigate the damping of the transverse wake. The first pass-band of the dipole modes is well damped, while the higher order dipole modes are possibly reflected by the choke. Therefore, the geometry of the choke is tuned to minimize the reflection of these higher order dipole modes. Based on this damping scheme, an accelerating structure with the same iris dimensions as the nominal CLIC design but with choke-mode damping has been designed. A prototype structure will be manufactured and high power tested in the near future.
Thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators with coupling effect between torsion and bending
Tai, Yongpeng; Li, Pu; Fang, Yuming
2014-02-01
Predicting thermoelastic damping (TED) is crucial in the design of high Q MEMS resonators. In the past, there have been few works on analytical modeling of thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators. This could be related to the assumption of pure torsional mode for the supporting beams in the torsion devices. The pure torsional modes of rectangular supporting beams involve no local volume change, and therefore, they do not suffer any thermoelastic loss. However, the coupled motion of torsion and bending usually exists in the torsion microresonator when it is not excited by pure torque. The bending component of the coupled motion causes flexural vibrations of supporting beams which may result in significant thermoelastic damping for the microresonator. This paper presents an analytical model for thermoelastic damping in torsion microresonators with the coupling effect between torsion and bending. The theory derives a dynamic model for torsion microresonators considering the coupling effect, and approximates the thermoelastic damping by assuming the energy loss to occur only in supporting beams of flexural vibrations. The thermoelastic damping obtained by the present model is compared to the measured internal friction of single paddle oscillators. It is found that thermoelastic damping contributes significantly to internal friction for the case of the higher modes at room temperature. The present model is validated by comparing its results with the finite-element method (FEM) solutions. The effects of structural dimensions and other parameters on thermoelastic damping are investigated for the representative case of torsion microresonators.
Gyroscopic Stabilization of Indefinite Damped Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kliem, Wolfhard; Müller, Peter C.
1997-01-01
Modelling of mechanical systems with sliding bearings, or with dry friction, can lead to linear systems with an indefinite damping matrix. We ask under what conditions such a system is unstable (the indefiniteness of the damping matrix is not enough) and under what conditions we can stabilize the...... the system by adding a gyroscopic term....
Damping device for a stationary labyrinth seal
El-Aini, Yehia M. (Inventor); Mitchell, William S. (Inventor); Roberts, Lawrence P. (Inventor); Montgomery, Stuart K. (Inventor); Davis, Gary A. (Inventor)
2010-01-01
A stationary labyrinth seal system includes a seal housing having an annular cavity, a plurality of damping devices, and a retaining ring. The damping devices are positioned within the annular cavity and are maintained within the annular cavity by the retaining ring.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emilie eVénéreau
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Our body handles tissue damage by activating the immune system in response to intracellularmolecules released by injured tissues (Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns, DAMPs, in a similar way as it detects molecular motifs conserved in pathogens (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs. DAMPs are molecules that have a physiological role inside the cell, but acquire additional functions when they are released outside the cell: they alert the body about danger, stimulate an inflammatory response, and finally promote the regeneration process. Beside their passive release by dead cells, some DAMPs can be secreted or exposed by living cells undergoing a life-threatening stress. DAMPs have been linked to inflammation and related disorders: hence, inhibition of DAMP-mediated inflammatory responses is a promising strategy to improve the clinical management of infection- and injury-elicited inflammatory diseases. However, it is important to consider that DAMPs are not only danger signals but also central players in tissue repair. Indeed, some DAMPs have been studied for their role in tissue healing after sterile or infection-associated inflammation. This review is focused on two exemplary DAMPs, HMGB1 and ATP, and their contribution to both inflammation and tissue repair.
Damping-off in forest nurseries
Carl Hartley
1921-01-01
Damping-off is the commonest English name for a symptomatic group of diseases affecting great numbers of plant species of widely separated phylogenetic groups. It is commonly used for any disease which results in the rapid decay of young succulent seedlings or soft cuttings. Young shoots from underground rootstocks may also be damped-off before they break through the...
Modified Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations
Chen, Gun-Shing; Dolgin, Benjamin P.
1993-01-01
Composite-material (fiber/matrix laminate) struts damping longitudinal vibrations fabricated more easily in proposed new design. Prior design described in "Composite Struts Would Damp Vibrations" (NPO-17914). New design similar except pattern of fibers includes rounded bends (instead of sharp bends) in fibers.
On Collisionless Damping of Ion Acoustic Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Vagn Orla; Petersen, P.I.
1973-01-01
Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero.......Exact theoretical treatments show that the damping of ion acoustic waves in collisionless plasmas does not vanish when the derivative of the undisturbed distribution function at the phase velocity equals zero....
Modeling of interfacial friction damping of carbon nanotube-based nanocomposites
Lin, R. M.; Lu, C.
2010-11-01
Carbon nanotube-based composite is becoming increasingly popular and offers great potential for highly demanding practical high strength and high damping applications. The excellent damping capacity of CNTs is primarily due to the interfacial friction between carbon nanotubes and polymer resins and the extremely large interfacial surface area over a given specific mass (specific area). In this paper, damping characteristics of carbon nanotube-based composites have been investigated, with an objective of developing an effective and accurate analytical model, which can be used as a design tool for the damping design of such materials. Based on the interfacial slips between the resin and nanotubes and between the nanotubes themselves, a micro stick-slip damping model has been developed. Such a physically derived model is believed to be appropriate and representative of the actual complex damping mechanism of the material system. The model, developed for the first time, is analytical and relates explicitly the material properties of the resin and nanotubes and the processing parameters to the overall material damping loss factor and hence it offers the possibility for material engineers to possibly optimize the damping for required applications. Due to the nonlinear force-displacement relationship derived under the micro stick-slip, a harmonic linearization method, the Describing Function method, has been employed to analyse its vibration characteristics and to derive the required damping loss factors. From the analytical formula, it can be seen that the damping loss factor of the material system depends on the individual material properties of the resin and the nanotubes, structural deformation, nanotube volume fraction and the critical shear stresses at which interfacial slips take place. By taking careful considerations of these design parameters, optimized carbon nanotube-based composites for advanced damping applications can be developed. Extensive numerical
Vibration damping using a spiral acoustic black hole.
Lee, Jae Yeon; Jeon, Wonju
2017-03-01
This study starts with a simple question: can the vibration of plates or beams be efficiently reduced using a lightweight structure that occupies a small space? As an efficient technique to damp vibration, the concept of an acoustic black hole (ABH) is adopted with a simple modification of the geometry. The original shape of an ABH is a straight wedge-type profile with power-law thickness, with the reduction of vibration in beams or plates increasing as the length of the ABH increases. However, in real-world applications, there exists an upper bound of the length of an ABH due to space limitations. Therefore, in this study, the authors propose a curvilinear shaped ABH using the simple mathematical geometry of an Archimedean spiral, which allows a uniform gap distance between adjacent baselines of the spiral. In numerical simulations, the damping performance increases as the arc length of the Archimedean spiral increases, regardless of the curvature of the spiral in the mid- and high-frequency ranges. Adding damping material to an ABH can also strongly enhance the damping performance while not significantly increasing the weight. In addition, the radiated sound power of a spiral ABH is similar to that of a standard ABH.
Damping time of transverse kink oscillations in active region coronal loops observed by AIA/SDO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abbas Abedini
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A coronal loop can be oscillated in various directions. A basic type of coronal loop oscillation is called transverse oscillation that can be caused by different factors, such as nearby active regions and flares. The damping of transverse oscillation may be produced by the dissipation mechanism or the wake of the traveling disturbance. The aim of this paper is to estimate the damping time of transverse (kink coronal loop oscillations and the quantitative dependence of these oscillations on their frequencies in the solar corona loops that are situated near an active region with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA onboard Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO. The observed data on 2014-Oct-17, consisting of 130 images with an interval of 24 seconds in the 171 A0 pass band is analyzed for evidence of transvers kink oscillations along the coronal loops and for estimate of physical parameters by fast Fourier transform (FFT of data times series. In this analyzed signatures of transvers oscillations that are damped rapidly were found, with oscillation periods in the range of P=2-9.5 minutes. Also, damping times and damping qualities of filtered intensities centered on the dominant frequencies are measured in the range of minutes and , respectively. The observational results of this study indicate that the damping times increase with increasing the oscillation periods, and are highly sensitive function of oscillation period, but damping qualities are not very sensitive to the oscillations period. The order of magnitude of the damping times and damping qualities that obtained from this analysis are in good agreement with previous findings by authors and the theoretical prediction for damping of fast kink mode oscillations.
Leung, Roger
2010-03-31
Squeeze-film damping on microresonators is a significant damping source even when the surrounding gas is highly rarefied. This article presents a general modeling approach based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for the prediction of squeeze-film damping on resonators in the freemolecule regime. The generality of the approach is demonstrated in its capability of simulating resonators of any shape and with any accommodation coefficient. The approach is validated using both the analytical results of the free-space damping and the experimental data of the squeeze-film damping on a clamped-clamped plate resonator oscillating at its first flexure mode. The effect of oscillation modes on the quality factor of the resonator has also been studied and semi-analytical approximate models for the squeeze-film damping with diffuse collisions have been developed.
Damping Effects of Drogue Parachutes on Orion Crew Module Dynamics
Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Owens, D. Bruce
2016-01-01
Because simulations of the Orion Crew Module (CM) dynamics with drogue parachutes deployed were under-predicting the amount of damping seen in free-flight tests, an attach-point damping model was applied to the Orion system. A key hypothesis in this model is that the drogue parachutes' net load vector aligns with the CM drogue attachment point velocity vector. This assumption seems reasonable and has historically produced good results, but has never been experimentally verified. The wake of the CM influences the drogue parachutes, which makes performance predictions of the parachutes difficult. Many of these effects are not currently modeled in the simulations. A forced oscillation test of the CM with parachutes was conducted in the NASA LaRC 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST) to gather additional data to validate and refine the attach-point damping model. A second loads balance was added to the original Orion VST model to measure the drogue parachute loads independently of the CM. The objective of the test was to identify the contribution of the drogues to CM damping and provide additional information to quantify wake effects and the interactions between the CM and parachutes. The drogue parachute force vector was shown to be highly dependent on the CM wake characteristics. Based on these wind tunnel test data, the attach-point damping model was determined to be a sufficient approximation of the parachute dynamics in relationship to the CM dynamics for preliminary entry vehicle system design. More wake effects should be included to better model the system.
Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects
Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.
2011-01-01
Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.
Radiation damping of a polarizable particle
Novotny, Lukas
2017-09-01
A polarizable body moving in an external electromagnetic field will slow down. This effect is referred to as radiation damping and is analogous to Doppler cooling in atomic physics. Using the principles of special relativity we derive an expression for the radiation damping force and find that it solely depends on the scattered power. The cooling of the particle's center-of-mass motion is balanced by heating due to radiation pressure shot noise, giving rise to an equilibrium that depends on the ratio of the field's frequency and the particle's mass. While damping is of relativistic nature, heating has its roots in quantum mechanics.
Lifetime measurement of ATF damping ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okugi, T. [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan); Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Naito, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba (Japan); Zimmermann, F. [Stanford Univ., CA (US). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center
1998-06-01
The purpose of the ATF damping ring is the development of technologies for producing a low emittance beam required in future linear colliders such as JLC. The lifetime of the damping ring is very short (typically a few minutes). It is limited by elastic beam-gas scattering along with a small dynamic aperture, and by single intra-beam scattering (Touschek effect). The Touschek lifetime strongly depends upon the charge density of the beam, especially, the size of the vertical emittance. In this paper, the authors report the results of beam lifetime measurements in the ATF damping ring and the estimation of the vertical emittance from these measurements.
Simplified Model of Nonlinear Landau Damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
N. A. Yampolsky and N. J. Fisch
2009-07-16
The nonlinear interaction of a plasma wave with resonant electrons results in a plateau in the electron distribution function close to the phase velocity of the plasma wave. As a result, Landau damping of the plasma wave vanishes and the resonant frequency of the plasma wave downshifts. However, this simple picture is invalid when the external driving force changes the plasma wave fast enough so that the plateau cannot be fully developed. A new model to describe amplification of the plasma wave including the saturation of Landau damping and the nonlinear frequency shift is proposed. The proposed model takes into account the change of the plasma wave amplitude and describes saturation of the Landau damping rate in terms of a single fluid equation, which simplifies the description of the inherently kinetic nature of Landau damping. A proposed fluid model, incorporating these simplifications, is verified numerically using a kinetic Vlasov code.
Piezoelectric RL shunt damping of flexible structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen
2015-01-01
Resonant RL shunt circuits represent a robust and effective approach to piezoelectric damping, provided that the individual shunt circuit components are calibrated accurately with respect to the dynamic properties of the corresponding flexible structure. The balanced calibration procedure applied...
Damping of wind turbine tower vibrations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodersen, Mark Laier; Pedersen, Mikkel Melters
Damping of wind turbine vibrations by supplemental dampers is a key ingredient for the continuous use of monopiles as support for offshore wind turbines. The present thesis consists of an extended summary with four parts and appended papers [P1-P4] concerning novel strategies for damping of tower...... in a stroke amplifying brace, which amplifies the displacement across the damper and thus reduces the desired level of damper force. For optimal damping of the two lowest tower modes, a novel toggle-brace concept for amplifying the bending deformation of the tower is presented. Numerical examples illustrate...... that a minimum of three braces in a symmetric circumferential configuration are needed to introduce homogeneous damping in the two lowest vibration modes, independent of the rotor direction. A novel hybrid viscous damper concept is described in the second part. The hybriddamper consists of a viscous dash...
Structural dynamic modification using additive damping
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Some current trends for vibration control are also discussed. Keywords. Structural modifications; viscoelastic damping; perturbation; sensitivity analysis; optimization; vibration control. 1. Introduction. Vibrations in machines and structures, if not properly controlled, may cause component fatigue and human discomfort.
Offline software for the DAMPE experiment
Wang, Chi; Liu, Dong; Wei, Yifeng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yunlong; Wang, Xiaolian; Xu, Zizong; Huang, Guangshun; Tykhonov, Andrii; Wu, Xin; Zang, Jingjing; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei; Wen, Sicheng; Wu, Jian; Chang, Jin
2017-10-01
A software system has been developed for the DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) mission, a satellite-based experiment. The DAMPE software is mainly written in C++ and steered using a Python script. This article presents an overview of the DAMPE offline software, including the major architecture design and specific implementation for simulation, calibration and reconstruction. The whole system has been successfully applied to DAMPE data analysis. Some results obtained using the system, from simulation and beam test experiments, are presented. Supported by Chinese 973 Program (2010CB833002), the Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) (XDA04040202-4), the Joint Research Fund in Astronomy under cooperative agreement between the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and CAS (U1531126) and 100 Talents Program of the Chinese Academy of Science
Center Impedance Method for Damping Measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Malogi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Damping materials are used extensively for reduction of vibration and noise. These damping materials have viscoelastic characteristics and are used by automotive and other industries. Testing of these materials is important in order to predict their performance and traditionally the damping properties are measured by the Oberst method. This paper discusses an alternate method called the Center Impedance method where force and response are measured directly and the damping properties are obtained. The Center Impedance method is easy to use requiring only standard vibration equipment for excitation, namely, shaker, and is easy to control the experiment for repeatability. Results of beams tested by both Oberst and Center Impedance methods are presented in order to validate this test method.
Resonant Electromagnetic Shunt Damping of Flexible Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic transducers convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Effective passive vibration damping of flexible structures can therefore be introduced by shunting with an accurately calibrated resonant electrical network thatcontains a capacitor to create the desired...
Wang, Jingfeng; Wang, Haibo; Li, Shun; Wang, Shaohua
2017-07-01
The microstructure, mechanical properties and damping capacities of Mg-Zn-Y alloys were investigated and compared systematically. The results showed that strength and damping of the alloy were increasing markedly with the increase of the volume fraction of long period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase (8%, 16%, 32%, 64%, respectively) on the whole. The corporate effect of LPSO phase and solid solution atoms was beneficial to the strengths. The Mg-1.36Zn-2.28Y can be classified as high damping metals (Q-1≧0.01) at strain amplitudes surpassing 1×10-3. With increasing of the LPSO phase, the critical strain amplitudes of alloys gradually decreased so that alloys can break away from pinning points more easily, thus, achieving a more superior damping performance. In addition, the strain amplitude-independent damping and strain amplitude-dependent damping of the Mg-Zn-Y alloys both increased. The damping capacities of the alloys cannot be explained by the Granato-Lücke theory exclusively.
Alternative design of the CLIC Damping Ring Lattice
Braun, Hans; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Siniatkin, Sergei; Zolotarev, Konstantin
2010-01-01
An original design of the CLIC damping ring demonstrates the parameters required for the linear collider together with the highly compact lattice (the circumference of the ring is only about 365 m). However, this design can hardly be implemented in a real machine because of such drawbacks as the lack of space between the magnetic elements to accommodate other accelerator components, serious problems with the evacuation of the high radiation power from damping wigglers and strong gradient of quadrupoles and sextupoles, which can hardly be achieved in the frame of the existing magnet technology. From this point of view this design can be considered as an ideal solution and an aim to be approached. In this paper we explore a possibility to design alternative solutions although with a larger size but with the same performance and with the realistic technical parameters.
The Damping Tail of CMB Anisotropies
Hu, Wayne; White, Martin
1996-01-01
By decomposing the damping tail of CMB anisotropies into a series of transfer functions representing individual physical effects, we provide ingredients that will aid in the reconstruction of the cosmological model from small-scale CMB anisotropy data. We accurately calibrate the model-independent effects of diffusion and reionization damping which provide potentially the most robust information on the background cosmology. Removing these effects, we uncover model-dependent processes such as ...
Nonlinear damping and quasi-linear modelling
Elliott, S J; Ghandchi Tehrani, Maryam; Langley, R.
2015-01-01
The mechanism of energy dissipation in mechanical systems is often nonlinear. Even though there may be other forms of nonlinearity in the dynamics, nonlinear damping is the dominant source of nonlinearity in a number of practical systems. The analysis of such systems is simplified by the fact that they show no jump or bifurcation behaviour, and indeed can often be well represented by an equivalent linear system, whose damping parameters depend on the form and amplitude of the excitation, in a...
CLIC Waveguide Damped Accelerating Structure Studies
Dehler, M; Wuensch, Walter
1996-01-01
Studies of waveguide damped 30 GHz accelerating structures for multibunching in CLIC are described. Frequency discriminated damping using waveguides with a lowest cutoff frequency above the fundamental but below the higher order modes was considered. The wakefield behavior was investigated using time domain MAFIA computations over up to 20 cells and for frequencies up to 150 GHz. A configuration consisting of four T-cross-sectioned waveguides per cell reduces the transverse wake below 1% at typical CLIC bunch spacings.
On a Nonlocal Damping Model in Ferromagnetism
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Moumni
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model describing nonlocal damping in magnetization dynamics. The model consists of a modified form of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation for the evolution of the magnetization vector in a rigid ferromagnet. We give a global existence result and characterize the long time behaviour of the obtained solutions. The sensitivity of the model with respect to large and small nonlocal damping parameters is also discussed.
Resonant Electromagnetic Shunt Damping of Flexible Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2016-01-01
Electromagnetic transducers convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. Effective passive vibration damping of flexible structures can therefore be introduced by shunting with an accurately calibrated resonant electrical network thatcontains a capacitor to create the desired...... resonance and a resistor to dissipate the correct amount of vibration energy. The modal interaction with residual vibration forms not targeted by the resonant shunt is represented by supplemental flexibility and inertia terms. This leads to modified calibration formulae that maintain the desired damping...
Linear control strategies for damping of flexible structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Riess; Krenk, Steen
2006-01-01
Starting from the two-component representation technique for damping of structures the possible increase in damping efficiency obtained by introducing collocated active damping is illustrated. The two-component representation of the damped vibration mode is constructed as a linear combination of ...
Comparing Sources of Damping of Cross-Wind Motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Andersen, Lars; Christensen, Erik Damgaard
2009-01-01
importance of the sources of damping clearly depends on the damping forces caused, but equally important is the displacements at the point of attack of the forces which is decisive for the amount of mechanical work performed, i.e. damping acting at the tower base has less potential than damping acting...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yakai Xu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic stiffness and damping of the headstock, which is a critical component of precision horizontal machining center, are two main factors that influence machining accuracy and surface finish quality. Constrained Layer Damping (CLD structure is proved to be effective in raising damping capacity for the thin plate and shell structures. In this paper, one kind of high damping material is utilized on the headstock to improve damping capacity. The dynamic characteristic of the hybrid headstock is investigated analytically and experimentally. The results demonstrate that the resonant response amplitudes of the headstock with damping material can decrease significantly compared to original cast structure. To obtain the optimal configuration of damping material, a topology optimization method based on the Evolutionary Structural Optimization (ESO is implemented. Modal Strain Energy (MSE method is employed to analyze the damping and to derive the sensitivity of the modal loss factor. The optimization results indicate that the added weight of damping material decreases by 50%; meanwhile the first two orders of modal loss factor decrease by less than 23.5% compared to the original structure.
Pouwels, Simon D; Zijlstra, G Jan; van der Toorn, Marco; Hesse, Laura; Gras, Renee; Ten Hacken, Nick H T; Krysko, Dmitri V; Vandenabeele, Peter; de Vries, Maaike; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Heijink, Irene H; Nawijn, Martijn C
2016-02-15
Recent data indicate a role for airway epithelial necroptosis, a regulated form of necrosis, and the associated release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DAMPs can activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), triggering innate immune responses. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS)-induced epithelial necroptosis and DAMP release initiate airway inflammation in COPD. Human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE), and necrotic cell death (membrane integrity by propidium iodide staining) and DAMP release (i.e., double-stranded DNA, high-mobility group box 1, heat shock protein 70, mitochondrial DNA, ATP) were analyzed. Subsequently, BEAS-2B cells were exposed to DAMP-containing supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells, and the release of proinflammatory mediators [C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL-8), IL-6] was evaluated. Furthermore, mice were exposed to CS in the presence and absence of the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1, and levels of DAMPs and inflammatory cell numbers were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. CSE induced a significant increase in the percentage of necrotic cells and DAMP release in BEAS-2B cells. Stimulation of BEAS-2B cells with supernatant of CS-induced necrotic cells induced a significant increase in the release of CXCL8 and IL-6, in a myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent fashion. In mice, exposure of CS increased the levels of DAMPs and numbers of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which was statistically reduced upon treatment with necrostatin-1. Together, we showed that CS exposure induces necrosis of bronchial epithelial cells and subsequent DAMP release in vitro, inducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. In vivo, CS exposure induces neutrophilic airway inflammation that is sensitive to necroptosis inhibition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
The in-plane anisotropic magnetic damping of ultrathin epitaxial Co2FeAl film
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuang Qiao
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The in-plane orientation-dependent effective damping of ultrathin Co2FeAl film epitaxially grown on GaAs(001 substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE has been investigated by employing the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TR-MOKE measurements. It is found that the interface-induced uniaxial anisotropy is favorable for precession response and the anisotropy of precession frequency is mainly determined by this uniaxial anisotropy, while the magnetic relaxation time and damping factor exhibit the fourfold anisotropy at high-field regime. The field-independent anisotropic damping factor obtained at high fields indicates that the effective damping shows an intrinsic fourfold anisotropy for the epitaxial Co2FeAl thin films.
Optics design of Intrabeam Scattering dominated damping rings
Antoniou, Fanouria; Papaphilippou, Ioannis
A e+/e- linear collider, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is under design at CERN, aiming to explore the terascale particle physics regime. The collider has been optimized at 3 TeV center of mass energy and targets a luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. In order to achieve this high luminosity, high intensity bunches with ultra low emittances, in all three planes, are required. The generation of ultra low emittance is achieved in the Damping Rings (DR) complex of the collider. The large input beam emittances, especially the ones coming from the positron source, and the requirement of ultra low emittance production in a fast repetition time of 20 ms, imply that the beam damping is done in two stages. Thus, a main-damping ring (DR) and a predamping ring (PDR) are needed, for each particle species. The high bunch brightness gives rise to several collective effects, with Intra-beam scattering (IBS) being the main limitation to the ultra-low emittance. This thesis elaborates the lattice design and non-linear optimizatio...
Effects of ion-atom collisions on the propagation and damping of ion-acoustic waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, H.K.; D'Angelo, N.; Jensen, Vagn Orla
1968-01-01
Experiments are described on ion-acoustic wave propagation and damping in alkali plasmas of various degrees of ionization. An increase of the ratio Te/Ti from 1 to approximately 3-4, caused by ion-atom collisions, results in a decrease of the (Landau) damping of the waves. At high gas pressure and....../or low wave frequency a "fluid" picture adequately describes the experimental results....
Investigation of Roll Damping on an FPSO with Sponsons and Bilge Keels
Borgenhov, Tobias Rasen
2017-01-01
Within Hydrodynamics, estimating the roll damping are associated with difficulties and uncertainty. This is due to roll motion being highly non-linear compared to other degrees of freedom. The non-linearity arises from flow separation. Therefore, empirical formulas have been developed \\cite{ikeda1977roll} for classical ship shapes. Nonetheless, what happens when the ship hull no longer are conventional? This theses have addressed the roll damping problem of an FPSO with sponsons by condu...
Meeting Tight Frequency Requirement of Rounded Damped Detuned Structure
Higo, T; Higashi, Y; Hitomi, N; Suzuki, T; Takata, K; Takatomi, T; Toge, N; Watanabe, Y; Li, Z; Miller, R H; Wang, J W
2000-01-01
Following successful design and fabrication of damped detuned structures, the R&D for the accelerating structures of the NLC/JLC linear collider project proceeded to studies of Rounded Damped Detuned Structure with curved cross section of the cavity shape for increased shunt impedance. The important features of the structure are the accurately tuned accelerating mode frequency and the distribution of the first dipole modes smooth and close to the design distribution. These requirements were met based on the high-accuracy diamond turning with its capability to realize the periphery tolerance of two microns. The lowest dipole mode frequencies scattered by 0.6 MHz RMS. The error in the accelerating mode frequency averaged over a structure was 0.1 MHz by applying a feed-forward method.
Susceptibility for cigarette smoke-induced DAMP release and DAMP-induced inflammation in COPD
Pouwels, Simon D.; Hesse, Laura; Faiz, Alen; Lubbers, Jaap; Bodha, Priya K.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; Heijink, Irene H.
2016-01-01
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated whether CS-induced damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) release or DAMP-mediated inflammation contributes to susceptibility for COPD. Samples, including bronchial brushings,
Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rune Becher
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.
Seismic Analysis of a Viscoelastic Damping Isolator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo-Wun Huang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Seismic prevention issues are discussed much more seriously around the world after Fukushima earthquake, Japan, April 2011, especially for those countries which are near the earthquake zone. Approximately 1.8×1012 kilograms of explosive energy will be released from a magnitude 9 earthquake. It destroys most of the unprotected infrastructure within several tens of miles in diameter from the epicenter. People can feel the earthquake even if living hundreds of miles away. This study is a seismic simulation analysis for an innovated and improved design of viscoelastic damping isolator, which can be more effectively applied to earthquake prevention and damage reduction of high-rise buildings, roads, bridges, power generation facilities, and so forth, from earthquake disaster. Solidworks graphic software is used to draw the 3D geometric model of the viscoelastic isolator. The dynamic behavior of the viscoelastic isolator through shock impact of specific earthquake loading, recorded by a seismometer, is obtained via ANSYS finite element package. The amplitude of the isolator is quickly reduced by the viscoelastic material in the device and is shown in a time response diagram. The result of this analysis can be a crucial reference when improving the design of a seismic isolator.
Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes
Becher, Rune; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Bakke, Jan Vilhelm; Holøs, Sverre Bjørn; Øvrevik, Johan
2017-01-01
The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC), where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required), while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order) crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects. PMID:29039816
Notes on the nonlinear beam dynamics with strong damping in the CLIC Damping Ring
Levichev, Eugene; Shatilov, Dmitry
2010-01-01
The beam is injected into the CLIC damping ring with the relatively large emittance and energy spread and then is damped to the extremely low phase volume. During the damping process the betatron frequency of each particle changes due to the space charge tune shift and nonlinear dependence of the betatron tune on the amplitude. This nonlinearity is produced by the strong chromatic sextupoles, wiggler nonlinear field components and, again, by the space charge force. During the damping, the particle cross resonances, which can trap some fraction of the beam, cause the loss of intensity, the beam blow up and degrade the beam quality. In this paper we study the evolution of the beam distribution in time during the damping for the original lattice of the CLIC DR (May 2005). Geneva, Switzerland June 2010 CLIC – Note – 850
Numerical studies of shear damped composite beams using a constrained damping layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, R.F.; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard
2008-01-01
Composite beams containing one or more damping layers are studied numerically. The work is based on a semi-analytical model using a Timoshenko beam theory and a full 2D finite element model. The material system analysed, is inspired by a train wagon suspension system used in a EUREKA project Sigma......!1841. For the material system, the study shows that the effect of the damping layer is strongly influenced by the presence of a stiff constraining layer, that enforces large shear strain amplitudes. The thickness of the damping rubber layer itself has only a minor influence on the overall damping....... In addition, a large influence of ill positioned cuts in the damping layer is observed....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagerhed, L.; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan
2002-01-01
Questionnaire data on 8681 dwellings included in the Swedish study "Dampness in Buildings and Health" have been analysed for associations between dampness indicators, perceptions of indoor air quality and building characteristics such as time of construction, type of ventilation and type...... of foundation. Visible mold or damp stains were reported in 1.3 and 1.6% of single-family and multi-family houses respectively, dampness connected to the floor in 6.5 and 13.9% and condensation on windows in 12.5 and 16.9%. "Stuffy air" was reported in 22.3 and 42.8%, "Moldy odor" in 3.9 and 5.8% and perception...... of "Dry air" in 17.3 and 33.7% respectively. Older buildings and the use of natural ventilation were associated with increased frequency of dampness indicators as well as to increased frequencies of complaints on bad indoor air quality....
Wave vector dependent damping of THz collective modes in a liquid metal
Demmel, F.
2017-11-01
Well-defined damped collective modes have been observed in liquid metals over a wide range of wave vectors. Hydrodynamics predicts that viscosity and thermal conductivity are the cause for the damping of the collective modes. Here we present experimental data from neutron spectroscopy on the damping of collective modes of liquid rubidium over a wide range of wave vectors. We propose a phenomenological model derived from generalized hydrodynamics to describe the damping of the modes and the evolution with increasing wave vector based on the viscoelastic picture of liquid response. As necessary ingredients a wave vector dependent high frequency shear modulus and shear relaxation time appear. We obtain a remarkable good agreement on a quantitative basis between experiment and calculation over a wide range of wave vectors. The emergent picture is that the lifetime of the collective modes in the THz regime is mainly limited through the diffusion of momentum. The proposed methodology might be applicable to a wide range of liquids.
Effect of substitutional defects on Kambersky damping in L1{sub 0} magnetic materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qu, T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Victora, R. H., E-mail: victora@umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)
2015-02-16
Kambersky damping, representing the loss of magnetic energy from the electrons to the lattice through the spin orbit interaction, is calculated for L1{sub 0} FePt, FePd, CoPt, and CoPd alloys versus chemical degree of order. When more substitutional defects exist in the alloys, damping is predicted to increase due to the increase of the spin-flip channels allowed by the broken symmetry. It is demonstrated that this corresponds to an enhanced density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level, owing to the rounding of the DOS with loss of long-range order. Both the damping and the DOS of the Co-based alloy are found to be less affected by the disorder. Pd-based alloys are predicted to have lower damping than Pt-based alloys, making them more suitable for high density spintronic applications.
Analysis of long-range wakefields in CLIC main Linac Accelerating Structures with Damping Loads
De Michele, G
2012-01-01
The baseline design of the CLIC accelerating structure foresees a moderate detuning and heavy damping of high order modes (HOMs), which are the source of long-range transverse wakefields. Such unwanted fields produce bunch-to-bunch instabilities so the HOMs must be suppressed. In order to damp these modes, the CLIC RF structure is equipped with lossy material inserted into four rectangular waveguides coupled to each accelerating cell. The lossy material absorbs EM (electromagnetic) wave energy with little reflection back to the accelerating cells. In the past, computations of the long-range wake of CLIC accelerating modes have been done using perfectly absorbing boundaries to terminate the damping waveguides. In this paper, 3D EM simulations of CLIC baseline accelerating structure with HOMs damping loads will be presented. A comparison between different EM codes (GdfidL, CST PARTICLE STUDIO®) will be discussed as well as the analysis of different types of absorbing materials with respect to the wakefields da...
Prasad, C. B.; Mei, Chuh
1987-01-01
Multiple-mode nonlinear analysis is carried out for beams subjected to acoustic excitation. Effects of both nonlinear damping and large-deflection are included in the analysis in an attempt to explain the experimental phenomena of aircraft panels excited at high sound pressure levels; that is the broadening of the strain response peaks and the increase of modal frequency. An amplitude dependent nonlinear damping model is used in the anlaysis to study the effects and interactions of multiple modes, nonlinear stiffness and nonlinear damping on the random response of beams. Mean square maximum deflection, mean square maximum strain, and spectral density function of maximum strain for simple supported and clamped beams are obtained. It is shown analytically that nonlinear damping contributes significantly to the broadening of the response peak and to the mean square deflection and strain.
Power Oscillation Damping from VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zeni, Lorenzo; Eriksson, Robert; Goumalatsos, Spyridon
2016-01-01
regarding real wind power plants are discussed: 1) robustness against control/communication delays; 2) limitations due to mechanical resonances in wind turbine generators; 3) actual capability of wind power plants to provide damping without curtailing production; and 4) power-ramp rate limiters.......The implementation of power oscillation damping service on offshore wind power plants connected to onshore grids by voltage-source-converter-based high voltage direct current transmission is discussed. Novel design guidelines for damping controllers on voltage-source converters and wind power plant...... controllers are derived, using phasor diagrams and a test network model and are then verified on a generic power system model. The effect of voltage regulators is analyzed, which is important for selecting the most robust damping strategy. Furthermore, other often disregarded practical implementation aspects...
Elementary damping properties in braided composite materials
Dion, Bernard L.; Sadler, Robert; Silverberg, Larry
1994-05-01
This paper investigates the damping level trends of three-dimensionally braided composites as a function of matrix material, fiber-matrix interface, fiber braid angle, fiber volume, and axial fiber tow size. With knowledge of such trends, designers may increase the structural damping in a 3-D braided composite component, thereby reducing component vibration, shock response, and fatigue. The logarithmic decrements of the fundamental mode response of cantilevered, 3-D braided composite beam specimens were calculated for comparison. Although the logarithmic decrements of two specimens, differing only in their matrix materials (Tactix 123 and Epon 828), were essentially identical, both were considerably larger than that for steel. The value for the decrement of these two composite specimens' response was taken as a reference. Altering the nature of the fiber-matrix interface by lubricating the fibers before specimen consolidation greatly increased the damping relative to the baseline. Trends of increasing damping were measured with both increasing fiber braid angle and fiber volume. Finally, increasing levels of damping are reported for decreases in axial fiber tow size. Explanations for these trends, based on the possible microscopic and macroscopic nature of the braided composites, are offered.
Damping modification factors for acceleration response spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heng Li
2017-09-01
Full Text Available DMF (Damping modification factors are used to modify elastic response spectral values corresponding to damping ratio 5% to other damping levels. The influence of seismological parameters (magnitude, epicentral distances and site conditions on DMF for acceleration spectra was analysed. The results show that for a given period as the magnitude or distance increase, the effect of damping on the seismic response will also increase, which indicates the response reduction from the structural damping will become more efficient. In the near-field of small earthquakes, the influence of site conditions on DMF is obvious, but it does not show a consistent rule. Furthermore, the DMF corresponding to different site conditions gradually close to unity with increasing magnitude and distance. The influence of the above mentioned parameters is related to the relative attenuation of the frequency components of the ground motion. The attenuation index alone is sufficient to take into account the influence. Based on these features, this paper proposes a formula of DMF for acceleration response spectra.
Grid-Current-Feedback Active Damping for LCL Resonance in Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang
2016-01-01
This paper investigates active damping of LCL-filter resonance in a grid-connected voltage-source converter with only grid-current feedback control. Basic analysis in the s-domain shows that the proposed damping technique with a negative high-pass filter along its damping path is equivalent...... to adding a virtual impedance across the grid-side inductance. This added impedance is more precisely represented by a series RL branch in parallel with a negative inductance. The negative inductance helps to mitigate phase lag caused by time delays found in a digitally controlled system. The mitigation...... of phase-lag, in turn, helps to shrink the region of nonminimum-phase behavior caused by negative virtual resistance inserted unintentionally by most digitally implemented active damping techniques. The presented high-pass-filtered active damping technique with a single grid-current feedback loop is thus...
Passive damping concepts for slender columns in space structures
Razzaq, Z.; Ekhelikar, R. K.
1985-01-01
An experimental and theoretical study of three different passive damping concepts is conducted for a slender member with partial rotational end restraints. Over a hundred full-scale natural vibration experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mass-string, polyethylene tubing, and chain damping concepts. The damping properties obtained from the experiments were used in the approximate analyses based on the partial differential equation of motion for the problem. The comparison of the experimental and the theoretical deflection-time relations shows that the velocity-dependent damping model used in the theory is adequate. From the experimental results, the effect of end connection friction and induced axial forces on damping is identified. The definition of an efficiency index is proposed based on the damping ratio and the mass of a given passive damping device. Using this definition, the efficiencies of the three damping devices are compared. The polyethylene tubing concept resulted into a low damping efficiency.
Dynamics of damped oscillations: physical pendulum
Quiroga, G. D.; Ospina-Henao, P. A.
2017-11-01
The frictional force between a physical damped pendulum and the medium is usually assumed to be proportional to the pendulum velocity. In this work, we investigate how the pendulum motion will be affected when the drag force is modeled using power-laws bigger than the usual 1 or 2, and we will show that such assumption leads to contradictions with experimental observations. For this purpose, a more general model of a damped pendulum is introduced, assuming a power-law with integer exponents in the damping term of the equation of motion, and also in the non-harmonic regime. A Runge–Kutta solver is implemented to compute the numerical solutions for the first five powers, showing that the linear drag has the fastest decay to rest, and that bigger exponents have long-time fluctuation around the equilibrium position, which have no correlation (as is expected) with experimental results.
Damping Estimation by Frequency Domain Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Ventura, C. E.; Andersen, P.
2001-01-01
In this paper it is explained how the damping can be estimated using the Frequency Domain Decomposition technique for output-only modal identification, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters is to be estimated without knowing the forces exciting the system. Also it is explained how the natural...... back to time domain to identify damping and frequency. The technique is illustrated on a simple simulation case with 2 closely spaced modes. On this example it is illustrated how the identification is influenced by very closely spacing, by non-orthogonal modes, and by correlated input. The technique...... is further illustrated on the output-only identification of the Great Belt Bridge. On this example it is shown how the damping is identified on a weakly exited mode and a closely spaced mode....
Passively damped vibration welding system and method
Tan, Chin-An; Kang, Bongsu; Cai, Wayne W.; Wu, Tao
2013-04-02
A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an anvil, and a passive damping mechanism (PDM). The controller generates an input signal having a calibrated frequency. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction at the calibrated frequency in response to the input signal to form a weld in a work piece. The PDM is positioned with respect to the system, and substantially damps or attenuates vibration in an undesirable second direction. A method includes connecting the PDM having calibrated properties and a natural frequency to an anvil of an ultrasonic welding system. Then, an input signal is generated using a weld controller. The method includes vibrating a welding horn in a desirable direction in response to the input signal, and passively damping vibration in an undesirable direction using the PDM.
Assessing Equivalent Viscous Damping Using Piping System test Results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nie, J.; Morante, R.
2010-07-18
The specification of damping for nuclear piping systems subject to seismic-induced motions has been the subject of many studies and much controversy. Damping estimation based on test data can be influenced by numerous factors, consequently leading to considerable scatter in damping estimates in the literature. At present, nuclear industry recommendations and nuclear regulatory guidance are not consistent on the treatment of damping for analysis of nuclear piping systems. Therefore, there is still a need to develop a more complete and consistent technical basis for specification of appropriate damping values for use in design and analysis. This paper summarizes the results of recent damping studies conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Mode damping in a commensurate monolayer solid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruch, Ludwig Walter; Hansen, Flemming Yssing
1997-01-01
The normal modes of a commensurate monolayer solid may be damped by mixing with elastic waves of the substrate. This was shown by Hall, Mills, and Black [Phys. Rev. B 32, 4932 (1985)], for perpendicular adsorbate vibrations in the presence of an isotropic elastic medium. That work is generalized...... anisotropy of the elastic behavior of the graphite leads to quite different wave-vector dependence of the damping for modes polarized perpendicular and parallel to the substrate. A phenomenological extension of the elasticity theory of the graphite to include bond-bending energies improves the description...
Damping of Crank–Nicolson error oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Britz, Dieter; Østerby, Ole; Strutwolf, J.
2003-01-01
The Crank–Nicolson (CN) simulation method has an oscillatory response to sharp initial transients. The technique is convenient but the oscillations make it less popular. Several ways of damping the oscillations in two types of electrochemical computations are investigated. For a simple one...... be computationally more expensive with some systems. The simple device of starting with one backward implicit (BI, or Laasonen) step does damp the oscillations, but not always sufficiently. For electrochemical microdisk simulations which are two-dimensional in space and using CN, the use of a first BI step is much...
Power Oscillations Damping in DC Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hamzeh, Mohsen; Ghafouri, Mohsen; Karimi, Houshang
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new control strategy for damping of power oscillations in a multi-source dc microgrid. A parallel combination of a fuel cell (FC), a photovoltaic (PV) system and a supercapacitor (SC) are used as a hybrid power conversion system (HPCS). The SC compensates for the slow...... transient response of the FC stack. The HPCS controller comprises a multi-loop voltage controller and a virtual impedance loop for power management. The virtual impedance loop uses a dynamic droop gain to actively damp the low-frequency oscillations of the power sharing control unit. The gain of virtual...
Wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping
Sievers, Ryan A.; Mullings, Justin L.
2017-01-10
A wind turbine blade (60) damped by viscoelastic material (54, 54A-F) sandwiched between stiffer load-bearing sublayers (52A, 52B, 56A, 56B) in portions of the blade effective to damp oscillations (38) of the blade. The viscoelastic material may be located in one or more of: a forward portion (54A) of the shell, an aft portion (54D) of the shell, pressure and suction side end caps (54B) of an internal spar, internal webbing walls (54C, 54E), and a trailing edge core (54F).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanabe, M. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Technology; Yoshidak, K.; Yokota, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology. Tokyo (Japan). Precision Engineering Lab.; Masuda, K.
1999-09-15
To investigate the effect of working fluid in solenoids on dynamic characteristics of proportional control valves for improving the valve responses, as an example under one of most severe conditions, dynamic characteristics of a proportional control valve with damping chokes are experimentally investigated. Damping chokes are usually used to improve the stability of spool position control, however, the effect on the dynamic characteristics has not yet been sufficiently clarified. For example, it is known that the dynamic characteristics are changed by the tank line back pressure when high water content fluid is used. The phenomena thought to be caused by cavitation bubbles, however, has not yet been clarified. In this paper, firstly, the dynamic characteristics of a proportional control valve equipped with additional damping chokes are experimentally investigated. Secondly, a mathematical model describing the nonlinear dynamic characteristics is derived and verified by computer simulation. Finally, a robust control method using a disturbance observer is applied to improve the characteristics and the performance is subsequently examined with computer simulations and experiments. (author)
Damping of Inter-Area Low Frequency Oscillation Using an Adaptive Wide-Area Damping Controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Wei; Jiang, L.; Fang, Jiakun
2013-01-01
This paper presents an adaptive wide-area damping controller (WADC) based on generalized predictive control (GPC) and model identification for damping the inter-area low frequency oscillations in large-scale inter-connected power system. A recursive least-squares algorithm (RLSA) with a varying...... in each sampling interval. Case studies are undertaken on a two-area fourmachine power system and the New England 10-machine 39-bus power system, respectively. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive WADC not only can damp the inter-area oscillations effectively under a wide range of operation...
Selective spatial damping of propagating kink waves due to resonant absorption
Terradas, J.; Goossens, M.; Verth, G.
2010-12-01
Context. There is observational evidence of propagating kink waves driven by photospheric motions. These disturbances, interpreted as kink magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are attenuated as they propagate upwards in the solar corona. Aims: We show that resonant absorption provides a simple explanation to the spatial damping of these waves. Methods: Kink MHD waves are studied using a cylindrical model of solar magnetic flux tubes, which includes a non-uniform layer at the tube boundary. Assuming that the frequency is real and the longitudinal wavenumber complex, the damping length and damping per wavelength produced by resonant absorption are analytically calculated in the thin tube (TT) approximation, valid for coronal waves. This assumption is relaxed in the case of chromospheric tube waves and filament thread waves. Results: The damping length of propagating kink waves due to resonant absorption is a monotonically decreasing function of frequency. For kink waves with low frequencies, the damping length is exactly inversely proportional to frequency, and we denote this as the TGV relation. When moving to high frequencies, the TGV relation continues to be an exceptionally good approximation of the actual dependency of the damping length on frequency. This dependency means that resonant absorption is selective as it favours low-frequency waves and can efficiently remove high-frequency waves from a broad band spectrum of kink waves. The efficiency of the damping due to resonant absorption depends on the properties of the equilibrium model, in particular on the width of the non-uniform layer and the steepness of the variation in the local Alfvén speed. Conclusions: Resonant absorption is an effective mechanism for the spatial damping of propagating kink waves. It is selective because the damping length is inversely proportional to frequency so that the damping becomes more severe with increasing frequency. This means that radial inhomogeneity can cause solar
Gyroscopic Stabilization of Indefinite Damped Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kliem, Wolfhard; Müller, Peter C.
1996-01-01
The paper deals with linear systems of differential equationswith symmetric system matrices M,D, and K.The mass matrix M and the stiffness matrix K are both assumed to bepositive definite. The damping matrix D is indefinite. Three questionsare of interest: 1) When is the system unstable? Apparent...
Chiral damping of magnetic domain walls
Jué, Emilie
2015-12-21
Structural symmetry breaking in magnetic materials is responsible for the existence of multiferroics1, current-induced spin–orbit torques2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and some topological magnetic structures8, 9, 10, 11, 12. In this Letter we report that the structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) gives rise to a chiral damping mechanism, which is evidenced by measuring the field-driven domain-wall (DW) motion in perpendicularly magnetized asymmetric Pt/Co/Pt trilayers. The DW dynamics associated with the chiral damping and those with Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) exhibit identical spatial symmetry13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19. However, both scenarios are differentiated by their time reversal properties: whereas DMI is a conservative effect that can be modelled by an effective field, the chiral damping is purely dissipative and has no influence on the equilibrium magnetic texture. When the DW motion is modulated by an in-plane magnetic field, it reveals the structure of the internal fields experienced by the DWs, allowing one to distinguish the physical mechanism. The chiral damping enriches the spectrum of physical phenomena engendered by the SIA, and is essential for conceiving DW and skyrmion devices owing to its coexistence with DMI (ref. 20).
Rage mediated DAMP signaling in intestinal tumorigenesis
Heijmans, Jarom; Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R.
2012-01-01
In the intestine, a large variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) can instigate innate immune responses, which have been shown to promote colorectal carcinogenesis. We have recently demonstrated an important role for the receptor for
Amplitude damping channel for orbital angular momentum
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-03-01
Full Text Available of a previously reported OAM sorting device. A Mech-Zehnder interferometer with a Dove prism in each arm is used to sort OAM states according to their parity. The authors extend this concept to implement an amplitude damping channel, and prove its...
An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pécseli, Hans
1976-01-01
An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....
Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.
2001-01-01
A simple fourth-order hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators is described. ANP3 and PSpice simulations including an eigenvalue study of the linearized Jacobian are presented together with a hardware implementation. The circuit contains two inductors with series resistance, two ideal...
Spatial Damping of Linear Compressional Magnetoacoustic Waves ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... We study the spatial damping of magnetoacoustic waves in an unbounded quiescent prominence invoking the technique of MHD seismology. We consider Newtonian radiation in the energy equation and derive a fourth order general dispersion relation in terms of wavenumber . Numerical solution of ...
Structural dynamic modification using additive damping
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for ...
Damping mechanisms and models in structural dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2002-01-01
Several aspects of damping models for dynamic analysis of structures are investigated. First the causality condition for structural response is used to identify rules for the use of complex-valued frequency dependent material models, illustrated by the shortcomings of the elastic hysteretic model...
Nonlinear Landau damping and Alfven wave dissipation
Vinas, Adolfo F.; Miller, James A.
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Landau damping has been often suggested to be the cause of the dissipation of Alfven waves in the solar wind as well as the mechanism for ion heating and selective preacceleration in solar flares. We discuss the viability of these processes in light of our theoretical and numerical results. We present one-dimensional hybrid plasma simulations of the nonlinear Landau damping of parallel Alfven waves. In this scenario, two Alfven waves nonresonantly combine to create second-order magnetic field pressure gradients, which then drive density fluctuations, which in turn drive a second-order longitudinal electric field. Under certain conditions, this electric field strongly interacts with the ambient ions via the Landau resonance which leads to a rapid dissipation of the Alfven wave energy. While there is a net flux of energy from the waves to the ions, one of the Alfven waves will grow if both have the same polarization. We compare damping and growth rates from plasma simulations with those predicted by Lee and Volk (1973), and also discuss the evolution of the ambient ion distribution. We then consider this nonlinear interaction in the presence of a spectrum of Alfven waves, and discuss the spectrum's influence on the growth or damping of a single wave. We also discuss the implications for wave dissipation and ion heating in the solar wind.
Stiffness and damping in mechanical design
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rivin, Eugene I
1999-01-01
... important conceptual issues are stiffness of mechanical structures and their components and damping in mechanical systems sensitive to and/or generating vibrations. Stiffness and strength are the most important criteria for many mechanical designs. However, although there are hundreds of books on various aspects of strength, and strength issues ar...
Uncertainty Models for Rudder-Roll Damping Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blanke, M.
1996-01-01
Experience has shown that rudder-roll damping and simultaneous heading control of ships has inherent robustness problems.......Experience has shown that rudder-roll damping and simultaneous heading control of ships has inherent robustness problems....
Nonlinear damping and quasi-linear modelling.
Elliott, S J; Ghandchi Tehrani, M; Langley, R S
2015-09-28
The mechanism of energy dissipation in mechanical systems is often nonlinear. Even though there may be other forms of nonlinearity in the dynamics, nonlinear damping is the dominant source of nonlinearity in a number of practical systems. The analysis of such systems is simplified by the fact that they show no jump or bifurcation behaviour, and indeed can often be well represented by an equivalent linear system, whose damping parameters depend on the form and amplitude of the excitation, in a 'quasi-linear' model. The diverse sources of nonlinear damping are first reviewed in this paper, before some example systems are analysed, initially for sinusoidal and then for random excitation. For simplicity, it is assumed that the system is stable and that the nonlinear damping force depends on the nth power of the velocity. For sinusoidal excitation, it is shown that the response is often also almost sinusoidal, and methods for calculating the amplitude are described based on the harmonic balance method, which is closely related to the describing function method used in control engineering. For random excitation, several methods of analysis are shown to be equivalent. In general, iterative methods need to be used to calculate the equivalent linear damper, since its value depends on the system's response, which itself depends on the value of the equivalent linear damper. The power dissipation of the equivalent linear damper, for both sinusoidal and random cases, matches that dissipated by the nonlinear damper, providing both a firm theoretical basis for this modelling approach and clear physical insight. Finally, practical examples of nonlinear damping are discussed: in microspeakers, vibration isolation, energy harvesting and the mechanical response of the cochlea. © 2015 The Author(s).
Anti-damping effect of radiation reaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, G; Yuan, X Z [School of Physics and Electric Information, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035 (China); Li, H [Department of Physics, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China); Shen, Y F [Department of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221008 (China); Zi, J [National Laboratory of Surface Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: gz_wang131@yahoo.cn
2010-01-15
The anti-damping effect of radiation reaction, which means the radiation reaction does non-negative work on a radiating charge, is investigated at length by using the Lorentz-Dirac equation (LDE) for the motion of a point charge respectively acted on by (a) a pure electric field, (b) a pure magnetic field and (c) the fields of an electromagnetic wave. We found that the curvature of the charge's trajectory plays an important role in the radiation reaction force, and the anti-damping effect cannot take place for the real macroscopic motions of a point charge. The condition for this anti-damping effect to take place is that the gradient of the external force field must exceed a certain value over the region of magnitude of the classical radius of massive charges ({approx}10{sup -15} m). Our results are potentially helpful to lessen the controversy on LDE and justify it as the correct classical equation describing the radiating charge's motion. If this anti-damping effect of LDE were a real existing physical process, it could serve as a mechanism within the context of classical electrodynamics for the stability of hydrogen atoms. Using the picture of an electron in quantum electrodynamics, namely the negative bare charge surrounded by the polarized positive charges of vacuum, we can obtain a reasonable explanation for the energy transferred to the electron during the occurrence of the anti-damping effect, on which the venerable work of Wheeler and Feynman has thrown some light.
Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material
Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,
2013-09-03
A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.
Exploring damping characteristics of composite tower of cable ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SHEHATA E ABDEL RAHEEM
The process of modeling damping matrices and their experimental verification is challenging because damping cannot be determined via static tests as mass and stiffness can be. Furthermore, damping is more difficult to determine from dynamic measurements than natural frequency. There have been detailed studies on ...
Active and passive damping based on piezoelectric elements -controllability issues-
Holterman, J.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, Jan B.; Jonker, J.B.
2001-01-01
Piezoelectric elements are widely used for damping micro-vibrations in mechanical structures. Active damping can be realised robustly by means of collocated actuator-sensor-pairs, controlled so as to extract vibration energy. Excellent damping performance is possible as long as sufficient
Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Lu
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.
Recovering the damping rates of cyclotron damped plasma waves from simulation data
Schreiner, Cedric; Spanier, Felix
2016-01-01
Plasma waves with frequencies close to the particular gyrofrequencies of the charged particles in the plasma lose energy due to cyclotron damping. We briefly discuss the gyro-resonance of low frequency plasma waves and ions particularly with regard to particle-in-cell (PiC) simulations. A setup is outlined which uses artificially excited waves in the damped regime of the wave mode's dispersion relation to track the damping of the wave's electromagnetic fields. Extracting the damping rate directly from the field data in real or Fourier space is an intricate and non-trivial task. We therefore present a simple method of obtaining the damping rate {\\Gamma} from the simulation data. This method is described in detail, focusing on a step-by-step explanation of the course of actions. In a first application to a test simulation we find that the damping rates obtained from this simulation generally are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. We then compare the results of one-, two- and three-dimensional simul...
DAMPE: A gamma and cosmic ray observatory in space
D'Urso, D.; Dampe Collaboration
2017-05-01
DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is one of the five satellite missions in the framework of the Strategic Pioneer Research Program in Space Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). Launched on December 17th 2015 at 08:12 Beijing time, it is taking data into a sun-synchronous orbit, at the altitude of 500km. The main scientific objective of DAMPE is to detect electrons and photons in the range 5GeV-10TeV with unprecedented energy resolution, in order to identify possible Dark Matter signatures. It will also measure the flux of nuclei up to 100TeV with excellent energy resolution. The satellite is equipped with a powerful space telescope for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic rays detection. It consists of a plastic scintillator strips detector (PSD) that serves as anti-coincidence detector, a silicon-tungsten tracker (STK), a BGO imaging calorimeter of about 32 radiation lengths, and a neutron detector. With its excellent photon detection capability and its detector performances (at 100GeV energy resolution ˜1% , angular resolution ˜0.1° , the DAMPE mission is well placed to make strong contributions to high-energy gamma-ray observations: it covers the gap between space and ground observation; it will allow to detect a line signature in the gamma-ray spectrum, if present, in the sub-TeV to TeV region; it will allow a high precision gamma-ray astronomy. A report on the mission goals and status will be discussed, together with in-orbit first data coming from space.
Status of the ATF Damping Ring BPM Upgrade Project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briegel, C.; /Fermilab; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab; Haynes, B.; /Fermilab; May, J.; /SLAC; McCormick, D.; /SLAC; Nelson, J.; /SLAC; Nicklaus, D.; /Fermilab; Prieto, P.; /Fermilab; Rechenmacher, R.; /Fermilab; Smith, T.; /SLAC; Teranuma, N.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Voy, D.; /Fermilab; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab; Woodley, M.; /SLAC
2011-12-01
A substantial upgrade of the beam position monitors (BPM) at the ATF (Accelerator Test Facility) damping ring is currently in progress. Implementing digital read-out signal processing techniques in line with an optimized, low-noise analog downconverter, a resolution well below 1 mum could be demonstrated at 20 (of 96) upgraded BPM stations. The narrowband, high resolution BPM mode permits investigation of all types of non-linearities, imperfections and other obstacles in the machine which may limit the very low target aimed vertical beam emittance of < 2 pm. The technical status of the project, first beam measurements and an outlook to it's finalization are presented.
Lin, D C; Rymer, W Z
2001-03-01
supported this postulate of a reduced reflex gain following prior motion. The functional significance of these nonlinear damping properties is that during the initial muscle stretch, the stiffness is high, which helps to preserve the initial position (although at the expense of promoting oscillation). Subsequently, the ensuing increase in damping helps suppress continuing oscillation. This sequence of varying mechanical properties is broadly analogous to the features of a predictive, or feed-forward controller, designed to produce a response that initially maintains position, and subsequently dampens oscillations. These results show that the intrinsic properties of muscle and spinal reflexes automatically provide a complex time-varying response, appropriate for maintenance of stable limb posture.
Nautiyal, Pranjal; Boesl, Benjamin; Agarwal, Arvind
2017-03-01
Graphene foam-based hierarchical polyimide composites with nanoengineered interface are fabricated in this study. Damping behavior of graphene foam is probed for the first time. Multiscale mechanisms contribute to highly impressive damping in graphene foam. Rippling, spring-like interlayer van der Waals interactions and flexing of graphene foam branches are believed to be responsible for damping at the intrinsic, interlayer and anatomical scales, respectively. Merely 1.5 wt% graphene foam addition to the polyimide matrix leads to as high as ≈300% improvement in loss tangent. Graphene nanoplatelets are employed to improve polymer-foam interfacial adhesion by arresting polymer shrinkage during imidization and π-π interactions between nanoplatelets and foam walls. As a result, damping behavior is further improved due to effective stress transfer from the polymer matrix to the foam. Thermo-oxidative stability of these nanocomposites is investigated by exposing the specimens to glass transition temperature of the polyimide (≈400 °C). The composites are found to retain their damping characteristics even after being subjected to such extreme temperature, attesting their suitability in high temperature structural applications. Their unique hierarchical nanostructure provides colossal opportunity to engineer and program material properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Effects of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert damping on domain growth
Kudo, Kazue
2016-12-01
Domain patterns are simulated by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation with an easy-axis anisotropy. If the Gilbert damping is removed from the LLG equation, it merely describes the precession of magnetization with a ferromagnetic interaction. However, even without the damping, domains that look similar to those of scalar fields are formed, and they grow with time. It is demonstrated that the damping has no significant effects on domain growth laws and large-scale domain structure. In contrast, small-scale domain structure is affected by the damping. The difference in small-scale structure arises from energy dissipation due to the damping.
Stimulation of dendritic cells by DAMPs in ALA-PDT treated SCC tumor cells.
Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Fan, Zhixia; Zhang, Linglin; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Xiuli
2015-12-29
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) not only kills tumor cells directly but also rapidly recruits and activates immune cells favoring the development of antitumor adaptive immunity. It is believed that Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) can induce anti-tumor immune responses through dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA-PDT induced DAMPs on immune cells. We focused on the stimulation of dendritic cells by major DAMPs, enhanced the expression of calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), either individually or in combination. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of DAMPs induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important part in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (increase of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can increase DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.
A tapered damped accelerating structure for CLIC
Dehler, M; Wuensch, Walter
1998-01-01
A new 30 GHz multibunch accelerating structure incorporating both damping and detuning has been designed for the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC). Each cell of the 150-cell structure is damped by its ow n set of four radial waveguides resulting in a Q of 16 for the lowest dipole mode. A simple linear taper of the beam-pipe dimension provides a detuning frequency spread of 2 GHz (5.4%). Predictions of the transverse wakefield levels in this structure have been made using both uncoupled, and two-band coupled equivalent circuit models with non-perfect loads. The short-range wakefield has been calcula ted to be about 1000 V/(pC.mm.m) decreasing to less than 1% at the second bunch (0.67 ns) and with a long time level below 0.1%.
Classical acoustic waves in damped media.
Albuquerque, E L; Mauriz, P W
2003-05-01
A Green function technique is employed to investigate the propagation of classical damped acoustic waves in complex media. The calculations are based on the linear response function approach, which is very convenient to deal with this kind of problem. Both the displacement and the gradient displacement Green functions are determined. All deformations in the media are supposed to be negligible, so the motions considered here are purely acoustic waves. The damping term gamma is included in a phenomenological way into the wave vector expression. By using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, the power spectrum of the acoustic waves is also derived and has interesting properties, the most important of them being a possible relation with the analysis of seismic reflection data.
Barotropic FRW cosmologies with Chiellini damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosu, Haret C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la presa San José 2055, Col. Lomas 4a Sección, 78216 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico); Mancas, Stefan C., E-mail: stefan.mancas@erau.edu [Department of Mathematics, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114-3900 (United States); Chen, Pisin, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA) and Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2015-05-08
It is known that barotropic FRW equations written in the conformal time variable can be reduced to simple linear equations for an exponential function involving the conformal Hubble rate. Here, we show that an interesting class of barotropic universes can be obtained in the linear limit of a special type of nonlinear dissipative Ermakov–Pinney equations with the nonlinear dissipation built from Chiellini's integrability condition. These cosmologies, which evolutionary are similar to the standard ones, correspond to barotropic fluids with adiabatic indices rescaled by a particular factor and have amplitudes of the scale factors inverse proportional to the adiabatic index. - Highlights: • Chiellini-damped Ermakov–Pinney equations are used in barotropic FRW cosmological context. • Chiellini-damped scale factors of the barotropic FRW universes are introduced. • These scale factors are similar to the undamped ones.
Fabrication Process of Rounded Damped Detuned Structure
Hitomi, N; Higashi, Y; Higo, T; Koike, S; Suzuki, T; Takata, K; Takatomi, T; Toge, T; Watanabe, Y
2000-01-01
Following the successful design and fabrication of Damped Detuned Structures (DDS), the JLC/NLC linear collider project advanced to Rounded Damped Detuned Structures (RDDS) with curved cross section of the cavity shape for increased shunt impedance. Various advanced techniques for fabricating RDDS1 disks comparing to those for DDS were established to satisfy the dimension accuracy of +-1 micron over the entire surface made by ultra-precision turning. These disks were assembled with almost the same stacking and bonding jigs and processes as those of DDS3 assembly. In consequence, the assembly showed little disk-to-disk misalignment within 1 micron before and after the process. Though, it had 200 micron smooth bowing, which was subsequently corrected as DDS3, and flares at both ends.
A Novel Strain Gauge with Damping Capability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaohua LI
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The goal of this work is to investigate the properties of a new type of multifunctional composite which is based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT. The composite was prepared from a paper like MWCNT film which was sandwiched between two adhesive layers. Two point probe and four point probe methods were used to test its mechanical strain sensing properties. Nanoindentation and direct shear tests were used to acquire the Young’s modulus and shear modulus of MWCNT film composite. Its structural damping properties were investigated via a free vibration test. This new type of carbon nanotube based composite may potentially serve simultaneously as both a strain gauge and a damping treatment for use in structural vibration control.
Proceedings of Damping Volume 1 of 3
1993-06-01
passive damping studies familiar to him in the last decade. As mentioned above, many current space missions require stringent performance...friction within the alpha joint is thought to be sufficient to keep the joint locked, producing essentially linear behavior and the familiar modal peak...effects. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work is sponsored in part by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche under grant CTB 91.2073.CTll :"Analisi dinamica combinata
Gyroscopic stabilization and indefimite damped systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pommer, Christian
matrix. d and g are scaling factors used to control the stability of the system. It is quite astonnishing that when the damping matrix D is indefinite the system can under certain conditions be stable even if there are no gyroscopic forces G present The Lyapunov matrix equation is used to predict...... the stabilty limit for pure dissipative systems as well as for dissipative systems with gyroscopic stabilization....
Analytical and Experimental Studies of Beam Waveguide Absorbers for Structural Damping.
1988-03-01
8217% ibration control mecans such as isolaIon1, detuineIL. cearc damping anid dxnatnic absorption. All of- these approaches have Kecn stuameu rm!icr tlioOU~hI...the energy loss Factor of’ the constrained layer beam. The impedance of r1he high damping constrained laver beam shows the smooth and shilcd...frequency range (�z) the impedances of the test , plate were higher than those of’ waveguide absorbers and at high frequency range >lJ .)lz) impedances
Present status of development of damping ring extraction kicker system for CLIC
Holma, Janne; Belver-Aguilar, Caroline; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Toral, Fernando
2012-01-01
The CLIC damping rings will produce ultra-low emittance beam, with high bunch charge, necessary for the luminosity performance of the collider. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the damping ring kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses: specifications call for a 160 ns duration and a flattop of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. The stripline design is also extremely challenging: the field for the damping ring kicker system must be homogenous to within ±0.01 % over a 1 mm radius, and low beam coupling impedance is required. The solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is a very promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications for the field pulse ripple and droop. This paper describes the initial design of the inductive adder and the striplines of the kicker system.
Minimizing Emittance for the CLIC Damping Ring
Braun, H; Levitchev, E; Piminov, P; Schulte, Daniel; Siniatkin, S; Vobly, P P; Zimmermann, Frank; Zolotarev, Konstantin V; CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
The CLIC damping rings aim at unprecedented small normalized equilibrium emittances of 3.3 nm vertical and 550 nm horizontal, for a bunch charge of 2.6Â·109 particles and an energy of 2.4 GeV. In this parameter regime the dominant emittance growth mechanism is intra-beam scattering. Intense synchrotron radiation damping from wigglers is required to counteract its effect. Here the overall optimization of the wiggler parameters is described, taking into account state-of-the-art wiggler technologies, wiggler effects on dynamic aperture, and problems of wiggler radiation absorption. Two technical solutions, one based on superconducting magnet technology the other on permanent magnets are presented. Although dynamic aperture and tolerances of this ring design remain challenging, benefits are obtained from the strong damping. For optimized wigglers, only bunches for a single machine pulse may need to be stored, making injection/extraction particularly simple and limiting the synchrotron-radiation power. With a 36...
Rosenberg, John H; Rai, Vikrant; Dilisio, Matthew F; Sekundiak, Todd D; Agrawal, Devendra K
2017-12-01
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by the destruction of cartilage. The greatest risk factors for the development of OA include age and obesity. Recent studies suggest the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of OA. The two most common locations for OA to occur are in the knee and hip joints. The knee joint experiences more mechanical stress, cartilage degeneration, and inflammation than the hip joint. This could contribute to the increased incidence of OA in the knee joint. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including high-mobility group box-1, receptor for advanced glycation end products, and alarmins (S100A8 and S100A9), are released in the joint in response to stress-mediated chondrocyte and cartilage damage. This facilitates increased cartilage degradation and inflammation in the joint. Studies have documented the role of DAMPs in the pathogenesis of OA; however, the comparison of DAMPs and its influence on OA has not been discussed. In this study, we compared the DAMPs between OA knee and hip joints and found a significant difference in the levels of DAMPs expressed in the knee joint compared to the hip joint. The increased levels of DAMPs suggest a difference in the underlying pathogenesis of OA in the knee and the hip and highlights DAMPs as potential therapeutic targets for OA in the future.
Silicon depletion in damped Ly α systems. The S/Zn method
Vladilo, G.; Abate, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328199362; Yin, J.; Cescutti, G.; Matteucci, F.
2011-01-01
Silicates are an important component of interstellar dust that has been poorly investigated in high redshift galaxies. As a preliminary step to studying silicates at high redshift, we survey silicon depletions in damped Ly α (DLA) systems. Silicon depletion is mild in the Galactic interstellar
Pulse Power Modulator development for the CLIC Damping Ring Kickers
Holma, Janne
2012-01-01
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study is exploring the scheme for an electron-positron collider with high luminosity (10-34 – 10-35 cm-2s-1) and a nominal centre-of-mass energy of 3 TeV: CLIC would complement LHC physics in the multi-TeV range. The CLIC design relies on Pre-Damping Rings (PDR) and Damping Rings (DR) to achieve the very low emittance, through synchrotron radiation, needed for the luminosity requirements of CLIC. To limit the beam emittance blow-up due to oscillations, the pulse power modulators for the DR kickers must provide extremely flat, high-voltage pulses: the 2 GHz specification called for a 160 ns duration flat-top of 12.5 kV, 250 A, with a combined ripple and droop of not more than ±0.02 %. In order to meet these demanding specifications, a combination of broadband impedance matching, optimized electrical circuit layout and advanced control techniques is required. A solid-state modulator, the inductive adder, is the most promising approach to meeting the demanding specifications...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhijing Lin
Full Text Available There is an increasing prevalence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases in mainland of China. Few studies investigated the indoor dampness, ventilation and cleaning habits and their interrelationship with childhood asthma and allergic diseases. A large-scale cross-sectional study was performed in preschool children in Urumqi, China. Questionnaire was used to collect information on children's health, home dampness and ventilation/cleaning (V/C habits. Multiple logistic regressions were applied to analyze the associations between childhood asthma/allergic diseases and each sign of home dampness, dampness levels, each V/C habit and total V/C scores. The associations between dampness and health were further performed by strata analyses in two groups with low and high V/C scores. Totally 4618(81.7% of 5650 children returned the questionnaire. Reports on home dampness were most common for water condensation on windows (20.8% followed by damp beddings (18.0%. The most common ventilation measure was the use of exhaust fan in bathroom (59.3%, followed by daily home cleaning (48.3%, frequently putting beddings to sunshine (29.9% and frequently opening windows in winter (8.4%. There were positive associations between the 6 signs of home dampness and children's health particularly the symptoms last 12 months. By comparing with the reference dampness level (dampness scored 0, both the low dampness (scored 1~2 level and the high dampness level (scored 3~6 showed significantly increasing associations with childhood symptoms. There were crude negative associations between V/C habits and childhood health but not significant adjusting for home dampness levels. The risks of home dampness on children's health were lower in the group with higher V/C score but the differences were not statistically significant. Home dampness is a potential risk factor for childhood asthma and allergic symptoms in preschool children in Urumqi, China. No significant effects were
Sepahvand, K.
2017-07-01
Damping parameters of fiber-reinforced composite possess significant uncertainty due to the structural complexity of such materials. Considering the parameters as random variables, this paper uses the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) expansion to capture the uncertainty in the damping and frequency response function of composite plate structures. A spectral stochastic finite element formulation for damped vibration analysis of laminate plates is employed. Experimental modal data for samples of plates is used to identify and realize the range and probability distributions of uncertain damping parameters. The constructed gPC expansions for the uncertain parameters are used as inputs to a deterministic finite element model to realize random frequency responses on a few numbers of collocation points generated in random space. The realizations then are employed to estimate the unknown deterministic functions of the gPC expansion approximating the responses. Employing modal superposition method to solve harmonic analysis problem yields an efficient sparse gPC expansion representing the responses. The results show while the responses are influenced by the damping uncertainties at the mid and high frequency ranges, the impact in low frequency modes can be safely ignored. Utilizing a few random collocation points, the method indicates also a very good agreement compared to the sampling-based Monte Carlo simulations with large number of realizations. As the deterministic finite element model serves as black-box solver, the procedure can be efficiently adopted to complex structural systems with uncertain parameters in terms of computational time.
Turner, Neil A
2016-05-01
Cardiac fibroblasts (CF) are well-established as key regulators of extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover in the context of myocardial remodelling and fibrosis. Recently, this cell type has also been shown to act as a sensor of myocardial damage by detecting and responding to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) upregulated with cardiac injury. CF express a range of innate immunity pattern recognition receptors (TLRs, NLRs, IL-1R1, RAGE) that are stimulated by a host of different DAMPs that are evident in the injured or remodelling myocardium. These include intracellular molecules released by necrotic cells (heat shock proteins, high mobility group box 1 protein, S100 proteins), proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1α), specific ECM molecules up-regulated in response to tissue injury (fibronectin-EDA, tenascin-C) or molecules modified by a pathological environment (advanced glycation end product-modified proteins observed with diabetes). DAMP receptor activation on fibroblasts is coupled to altered cellular function including changes in proliferation, migration, myofibroblast transdifferentiation, ECM turnover and production of fibrotic and inflammatory paracrine factors, which directly impact on the heart's ability to respond to injury. This review gives an overview of the important role played by CF in responding to myocardial DAMPs and how the DAMP/CF axis could be exploited experimentally and therapeutically. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Non-Linear Slosh Damping Model Development and Validation
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Propellant tank slosh dynamics are typically represented by a mechanical model of spring mass damper. This mechanical model is then included in the equation of motion of the entire vehicle for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) analysis. For a partially-filled smooth wall propellant tank, the critical damping based on classical empirical correlation is as low as 0.05%. Due to this low value of damping, propellant slosh is potential sources of disturbance critical to the stability of launch and space vehicles. It is postulated that the commonly quoted slosh damping is valid only under the linear regime where the slosh amplitude is small. With the increase of slosh amplitude, the critical damping value should also increase. If this nonlinearity can be verified and validated, the slosh stability margin can be significantly improved, and the level of conservatism maintained in the GN&C analysis can be lessened. The purpose of this study is to explore and to quantify the dependence of slosh damping with slosh amplitude. Accurately predicting the extremely low damping value of a smooth wall tank is very challenging for any Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. One must resolve thin boundary layers near the wall and limit numerical damping to minimum. This computational study demonstrates that with proper grid resolution, CFD can indeed accurately predict the low damping physics from smooth walls under the linear regime. Comparisons of extracted damping values with experimental data for different tank sizes show very good agreements. Numerical simulations confirm that slosh damping is indeed a function of slosh amplitude. When slosh amplitude is low, the damping ratio is essentially constant, which is consistent with the empirical correlation. Once the amplitude reaches a critical value, the damping ratio becomes a linearly increasing function of the slosh amplitude. A follow-on experiment validated the developed nonlinear damping relationship. This discovery can
Clustering of galaxies near damped Lyman-alpha systems with (z) = 2.6
Wolfe, A. M
1993-01-01
The galaxy two-point correlation function, xi, at (z) = 2.6 is determined by comparing the number of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies in narrowband CCD fields selected for the presence of damped L-alpha absorption to their number in randomly selected control fields. Comparisons between the presented determination of (xi), a density-weighted volume average of xi, and model predictions for (xi) at large redshifts show that models in which the clustering pattern is fixed in proper coordinates are highly unlikely, while better agreement is obtained if the clustering pattern is fixed in comoving coordinates. Therefore, clustering of Ly-alpha-emitting galaxies around damped Ly-alpha systems at large redshifts is strong. It is concluded that the faint blue galaxies are drawn from a parent population different from normal galaxies, the presumed offspring of damped Ly-alpha systems.
Heating of heavy plasma species by damping electron beam in beam-generated plasma
Levko, Dmitry
2017-11-01
The heating of heavy species (both ions and neutrals) in the beam-generated plasma by damping electron beam is analyzed using a self-consistent one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo collisions model. It is observed that the damping of the electron beam leads to the excitation of a wide spectrum of electrostatic waves. These waves lead to the heating not only of the thermal plasma electrons but also of the plasma ions. The first less efficient mechanism of the ion heating is the ponderomotive force due to the generation of non-homogeneous high-frequency electric field which is excited by the damping electron beam. The second more efficient mechanism of the ion heating obtained in the simulations is the acceleration by slow plasma waves. This mechanism is responsible for the acceleration of ions to the velocities few times higher than the ion thermal velocity.
Schoerling, D; Bernhard, A; Bragin, A; Karppinen, M; Maccaferri, R; Mezentsev, N; Papaphilippou, Y; Peiffer, P; Rossmanith, R; Rumolo, G; Russenschuck, S; Vobly, P; Zolotarev, K
2012-01-01
To achieve high luminosity at the collision point of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the normalized horizontal and vertical emittances of the electron and positron beams must be reduced to 500 nm and 4 nm before the beams enter the 1.5TeV linear accelerators. An effective way to accomplish ultra-low emittances with only small effects on the electron polarization is using damping rings operating at 2.86 GeV equipped with superconducting wiggler magnets. This paper describes a technical design concept for the CLIC damping wigglers.
A New Control Structure for Multi-Terminal dc Grids to Damp Inter-Area Oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksson, Robert
2014-01-01
This article analyzes the control structure of the multi-terminal dc (MTDC) system to damp ac system interarea oscillations through active power modulation. A new control structure is presented that maximizes the relative controllability without the need for communication among the dc terminals....... In point-to-point high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission, the active power modulation of the two terminals occurs in opposite directions. In this case the control direction is given and only needs to be phase compensated to align for maximal damping. In the case of MTDC systems the control direction...
Engvall, K; Norrby, C; Norbäck, D
2001-05-01
The aim was to study relationships between symptoms compatible with sick building syndrome (SBS) on one hand, and different indicators of building dampness in Swedish multi-family buildings on the other. In Stockholm, 609 multi-family buildings with 14,235 dwellings were identified, and selected by stratified random sampling. The response rate was 77%. Information on weekly symptoms, age, gender, population density in the apartment, water leakage during the past 5 years, mouldy odour, condensation on windows, and high air humidity in the bathroom was assessed by a postal questionnaire. In addition, independent information on building characteristics was gathered from the building owners, and the central building register in Stockholm. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated, adjusted for age and gender, population density, and selected building characteristics. Condensation on windows, high air humidity in the bathroom, mouldy odour, and water leakage was reported from 9.0%, 12.4%, 7.7% and 12.7% of the dwellings, respectively. In total 28.5% reported at least one sign of dampness. All indicators of dampness were related to an increase of all types of symptoms, significant even when adjusted for age, gender, population density, type of ventilation system, and ownership of the building. A combination of mouldy odour and signs of high air humidity was related to an increased occurrence of all types of symptoms (OR = 3.7-6.0). Similar findings were observed for a combination of mouldy odour and structural building dampness (water leakage) (OR = 2.9 5.2). In addition, a dose-response relationship between symptoms and number of signs of dampness was observed. In dwellings with all four dampness indicators, OR was 6.5, 7.1, 19.9, 5.8, 6.1, 9.4, 15.0 for ocular, nasal, throat, dermal symptoms, cough, headache and tiredness, respectively. Signs of high air humidity, as well as of structural building dampness, are
Damped button electrode for B-Factory BPM system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shintake, T.; Akasaka, N.; Obina, T.; Chin, Y.H. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)
1996-08-01
A new concept of damping of resonances in a button electrode has been proposed and tested in the BPM system for the B-Factory project at KEK (KEKB). Since a very high current beam has to be stored in the machine, even a small resonance in the ring will result in losing a beam due to multi-bunch instabilities. In a conventional button electrode used in BPMs, a TE110 mode resonance can be trapped in the gap between the electrode and the vacuum chamber. In order to damp this mode, the diameter of the electrode has been chosen to be small to increase the resonance frequency and to radiate the power into the beam pipe. In addition, an asymmetric structure is applied to extract the EM energy of the TE110 mode into the coaxial cable as the propagating TEM mode which has no cut-off frequency. Results of the computer simulations and tests with cold models are reported. The quality factor of the TE110 mode was small enough due to the radiation into the beam pipe even in the conventional electrode and the mode coupling effect due to the asymmetric shape was significant on a cavity-like TE111 mode. (author)
Metabolites of Trichoderma species isolated from damp building materials.
McMullin, David R; Renaud, Justin B; Barasubiye, Tharcisse; Sumarah, Mark W; Miller, J David
2017-07-01
Buildings that have been flooded often have high concentrations of Trichoderma spores in the air while drying. Inhaled spores and spore and mycelial fragments contain large amounts of fungal glucan and natural products that contribute to the symptoms associated with indoor mould exposures. In this study, we considered both small molecules and peptaibol profiles of T. atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. citrinoviride, and T. harzianum strains obtained from damp buildings in eastern Canada. Twenty-residue peptaibols and sorbicillin-derived metabolites (1-6) including a new structure, (R)-vertinolide (1), were characterized from T. citrinoviride. Trichoderma koningiopsis produced several koninginins (7-10), trikoningin KA V, and the 11-residue lipopeptaibols trikoningin KB I and trikoningin KB II. Trichoderma atroviride biosynthesized a mixture of 19-residue trichorzianine-like peptaibols, whereas T. harzianum produced 18-residue trichokindin-like peptaibols and the 11-residue harzianin HB I that was subsequently identified from the studied T. citrinoviride strain. Two α-pyrones, 6-pentyl-pyran-2-one (11) and an oxidized analog (12), were produced by both T. atroviride and T. harzianum. Aside from exposure to low molecular weight natural products, inhalation of Trichoderma spores and mycelial fragments may result in exposure to membrane-disrupting peptaibols. This investigation contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the biologically active natural products produced by fungi commonly found in damp buildings.
Damping identification in frequency domain using integral method
Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Ma, Jiangang; Zhang, Wulin
2015-03-01
A new method for damping identification of linear system in frequency domain is presented, by using frequency response function (FRF) with integral method. The FRF curve is firstly transformed to other type of frequency-related curve by changing the representations of horizontal and vertical axes. For the newly constructed frequency-related curve, integral is conducted and the area forming from the new curve is used to determine the damping. Three different methods based on integral are proposed in this paper, which are called FDI-1, FDI-2 and FDI-3 method, respectively. For a single degree of freedom (Sdof) system, the formulated relation of each method between integrated area and loss factor is derived theoretically. The numeral simulation and experiment results show that, the proposed integral methods have high precision, strong noise resistance and are very stable in repeated measurements. Among the three integral methods, FDI-3 method is the most recommended because of its higher accuracy and simpler algorithm. The new methods are limited to linear system in which modes are well separated, and for closely spaced mode system, mode decomposition process should be conducted firstly.
Truncated exponential versus damped sinusoidal waveform shocks for transthoracic defibrillation.
Behr, J C; Hartley, L L; York, D K; Brown, D D; Kerber, R E
1996-12-01
Currently available transthoracic defibrillators use either a damped sinusoidal or truncated exponential (TE) waveform. Truncated exponential waveforms deliver a long pulse if the transthoracic impedance is high; it has been suggested that such a long pulse may be less effective for defibrillation. Our objective was to compare the ability of damped sinusoidal (DS) waveform shocks versus TE waveform shocks to terminate ventricular fibrillation (VF) and achieve survival from witnessed cardiac arrest. We retrospectively reviewed field-recorded electrocardiograms from 86 patients with witnessed VF, treated by prehospital personnel equipped with DS or TE waveform defibrillators. Forty-four patients received 130 shocks from TE defibrillators; 42 patients received 108 shocks from DS defibrillators. There were no significant differences in time from arrest to first shock (8.0 vs 8.1 minutes), nor were there any differences in the size of the communities involved. The shocks resulted in the following rhythms: organized rhythm: TE: 15 of 130 (12%), DS: 24 of 108 (22%), p = 0.10 (NS); persistent VF: TE: 85 of 130 (65%), DS: 45 of 108 (42%), p <0.01; asystole: TE: 30 of 130 (23%), DS: 39 of 108 (36%), p = NS; and survival to hospital discharge: TE: 5 of 44 (11%), DS: 8 of 42 (19%), p = NS. We conclude that DS waveforms terminated VF more frequently than TE, but there was no significant difference in resumption of an organized rhythm or survival. A prospective comparison of these 2 waveforms is needed.
Dynamic Stall in Pitching Airfoils: Aerodynamic Damping and Compressibility Effects
Corke, Thomas C.; Thomas, Flint O.
2015-01-01
Dynamic stall is an incredibly rich fluid dynamics problem that manifests itself on an airfoil during rapid, transient motion in which the angle of incidence surpasses the static stall limit. It is an important element of many manmade and natural flyers, including helicopters and supermaneuverable aircraft, and low-Reynolds number flapping-wing birds and insects. The fluid dynamic attributes that accompany dynamic stall include an eruption of vorticity that organizes into a well-defined dynamic stall vortex and massive excursions in aerodynamic loads that can couple with the airfoil structural dynamics. The dynamic stall process is highly sensitive to surface roughness that can influence turbulent transition and to local compressibility effects that occur at free-stream Mach numbers that are otherwise incompressible. Under some conditions, dynamic stall can result in negative aerodynamic damping that leads to limit-cycle growth of structural vibrations and rapid mechanical failure. The mechanisms leading to negative damping have been a principal interest of recent experiments and analysis. Computational fluid dynamic simulations and low-order models have not been good predictors so far. Large-eddy simulation could be a viable approach although it remains computationally intensive. The topic is technologically important owing to the desire to develop next-generation rotorcraft that employ adaptive rotor dynamic stall control.
Shao, Ying; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Cheng, Jiali; Cueto, Ramon; Yang, William Y; Park, Joon-Young; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng
2017-04-26
We proposed lysophospholipids (LPLs) and LPL-G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as conditional danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and conditional DAMP receptors as a paradigm shift to the widely accepted classical DAMP and DAMP receptor model. Recent Advances: The aberrant levels of LPLs and GPCRs activate pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways, trigger innate immune response, and lead to tissue oxidative and inflammatory injury. Classical DAMP model specifies only the endogenous metabolites that are released from damaged/dying cells as DAMPs, but fails to identify elevated endogenous metabolites secreted from viable/live cells during pathologies as DAMPs. The current classification of DAMPs also fails to clarify the following concerns: (i) Are molecules, which bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), the only DAMPs contributing to inflammation and tissue injury? (ii) Are all DAMPs acting only via classical PRRs during cellular stress? To answer these questions, we reviewed the molecular characteristics and signaling mechanisms of LPLs, a group of endogenous metabolites and their specific receptors and analyzed the significant progress achieved in characterizing oxidative stress mechanisms of LPL mediated tissue injury. Further LPLs and LPL-GPCRs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of pathologies induced by sterile inflammation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Shear measurements of viscoelastic damping materials embedded in composite plates
Biggerstaff, Janet M.; Kosmatka, John B.
1999-06-01
Embedding viscoelastic damping materials into graphite/epoxy composites can greatly increase the damping of composite structures. Cocuring the damping material with the composite, however, has been shown to increase the modulus and lower the damping in many viscoelastic materials because epoxy penetrates many damping materials (especially acrylics). In this paper, the changes in shear modulus were measured using double lap shear tests. Also presented are shear moduli comparisons of samples cured with three different barrier film layers, KaptonR, TedlarR,and polyester, which are used to prevent the epoxy penetration. Lastly, samples with an embedded loosely woven scrim cloth placed between two damping material layers are tested to measure how the scrim affects the shear modulus.
Air damping effect on the air-based CMUT operation
Cha, Bu-Sang; Kanashima, Takeshi; Lee, Seung-Mok; Okuyama, Masanori
2015-08-01
The vibration amplitude, damping ratio and viscous damping force in capacitive micromachinedultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) with a perforated membrane have been calculated theoretically and compared with the experimental data on its vibration behavior. The electrical bias of the DC and the AC voltages and the operation frequency conditions influence the damping effect because leads to variations in the gap height and the vibration velocity of the membrane. We propose a new estimation method to determine the damping ratio by the decay rate of the vibration amplitudes of the perforated membrane plate are measured using a laser vibrometer at each frequency, and the damping ratios were calculated from those results. The influences of the vibration frequency and the electrostatic force on the damping effect under the various operation conditions have been studied.
Damping characteristics of a footbridge: Mysteries and truths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cantieni, Reto; Bajric, Anela; Brincker, Rune
2016-01-01
As a consequence of a paper presented by Michael Mistler at the VDI-Baudynamik-Tagung in Kassel, Germany, in April 2015, the authors checked the damping coefficients having been estimated for a footbridge in autumn 2014. Mistler stated that the critical damping ratio estimated from a halfpower...... world but not in the world of engineers applying OMA in practice. In this paper it is presented how the leakage on the spectral density estimate is affecting the damping estimation through OMA based frequency domain identification. Finally the paper compares the damping estimated in the time...... and frequency domain from ambient tests, with the damping estimated from the free decays. Unfortunately, bias error on damping values determined from analyses in the frequency domain is worst on low frequency modes usually being the most important ones when dealing with a resonance problem in practice....
Dynamic analysis of systems having large damping variations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Philippacopoulos, A.J.
1985-01-01
In the earthquake response analysis of structures in which the damping characteristics between the elements varies significantly the standard mode superposition method cannot be used. Several approximations have been proposed that allow the application of the modal superposition method for cases in which the damping matrix is not orthogonal with respect to the modal shapes. The most commonly used approximation is based on a composite damping value which is employed in the modal equations. This value is a weighted average of the damping values of the individual components of the structural model. In this paper an investigation of the errors introduced by the composite damping in the response of simple structures is presented. The results given in the paper can be used for benchmarking the approximations in more complex systems for which composite damping solutions are employed.
Loss of Landau Damping in the LHC
Shaposhnikova, E N; Bohl, T; Bhat, C M; Baudrenghien, P; Butterworth, A C; Mastoridis, T; Esteban Muller, J; Papotti, G; Tuckmantel, J; Venturini Delsolaro, W; Wehrle, U
2011-01-01
Loss of Landau damping leading to a single bunch longitudinal instability has been observed in the LHC during the ramp and on the 3.5 TeV flat top for small injected longitudinal emittances. The first measurements are in reasonable agreement with the threshold calculated for the expected longitudinal reactive impedance budget of the LHC as well as with the threshold dependence on beam energy. The cure is a controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up during the ramp which for a constant threshold through the cycle should provide an emittance proportional to the square root of energy.
Quantum information reclaiming after amplitude damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Memarzadeh, Laleh; Cafaro, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano, E-mail: laleh.memarzadeh@unicam.it, E-mail: carlo.cafaro@unicam.it, E-mail: stefano.mancini@unicam.it [School of Science and Technology, University of Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)
2011-01-28
We design an effective method to investigate the quantum information reclaim from the environment after amplitude damping has occurred. In particular, we address the question of optimal measurement on the environment to perform the best possible correction on two- and three-dimensional quantum systems. While for qubits we show that the entanglement fidelity is the same for all possible measurements, for qutirits we find that different measurements give rise to different values of the entanglement fidelity. By searching over all possible measurements on the environment we uncover the optimal one leading to the maximum entanglement fidelity.
Viscous damping of gravity waves over a permeable bed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. K. Puri
1978-01-01
Full Text Available The damping of gravity waves over the surface of a layer of viscous fluid which overlies a porous bed saturated with the same fluid is studied. It is shown that viscosity may not be the dominant influence in the damping mechanism; the damping effects due to percolation in the fixed bed may be of the same or even higher order than those due to viscosity.
Damp Flat Artist's Books:Retrospective of Damp Flat Artist's Books
Batey, Jacqueline
2013-01-01
As part of the Phoenix Gallery's Press & Release artists' books exhibition, I will be showing everything in the Damp Flat Books catalogue. All 22 artists' book titles, along with 14 issues of my art-zine Future Fantasteek! and a selection of sketchbooks. http://www.phoenixbrighton.org/archive/2013-2/press-release/
Seed rot and damping-off of alfalfa in Minnesota caused by Pythium and Fusarium species
Globally, 15 Pythium species have been found to cause damping-off and seed rot of alfalfa, although surveys of species causing disease on alfalfa in the Midwestern U.S. are lacking. Pathogens were isolated by a seedling baiting technique from soil of five alfalfa fields in Minnesota with high levels...
Active Damping Control Methods for Three-Phase Slim DC-link Drive System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Blaabjerg, Frede
2017-01-01
for stabilizing such slim dc-link drives together with the benefit of low cost and high flexibility. This paper gives an overview of the state-of-the-art active damping methods for the three-phase slim dc-link drive. The main pros and cons of each method are identified. The theoretical comparison is validated...
Estimation of Damping for one of the new European Court Towers in Luxembourg
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Brandt, Anders; Georgakis, Christos
2011-01-01
The two new high rise buildings for the European court in Luxembourg have been tested by a harmonic shaker and by Operational Modal Analysis. The background for the tests is to estimate the influence on the damping of one of the towers from a series of Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLDs) placed on top...
Estimation of damping for one of the new European court towers in Luxembourg
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Brandt, Anders; Georgakis, Christos T.
2011-01-01
The two new high rise buildings for the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg have been tested by harmonic shakers and by Operational Modal Analysis. The background for the tests is to estimate the influence on the damping of one of the towers from an array of Tuned Liquid Dampers (TLDs) placed...
HI column density distribution function at z=0 : Connection to damped Ly alpha statistics
Zwaan, Martin; Verheijen, MAW; Briggs, FH
We present a measurement of the HI column density distribution function f(N-HI) at the present epoch for column densities > 10(20) cm(-2). These high column densities compare to those measured in damped Ly alpha lines seen in absorption against background quasars. Although observationally rare, it
Damping element for reducing the vibration of an airfoil
Campbell, Christian X; Marra, John J
2013-11-12
An airfoil (10) is provided with a tip (12) having an opening (14) to a center channel (24). A damping element (16) is inserted within the opening of the center channel, to reduce an induced vibration of the airfoil. The mass of the damping element, a spring constant of the damping element within the center channel, and/or a mounting location (58) of the damping element within the center channel may be adjustably varied, to shift a resonance frequency of the airfoil outside a natural operating frequency of the airfoil.
Serum proteomes of hypertension patients with abundant phlegm-dampness.
Chu, Yu-guang; Shi, Jie; Hu, Yuan-hui; Wu, Hua-qin; Liu, Gui-jian; Hu, Chao-jun; Li, Yong-zhe; Li, Yi; Chen, Zi-jing; He, Qing
2009-07-01
To study the serum proteomes of essential hypertension (EH) patients with abundant phlegm-dampness, and try to find special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome. Fifty-nine hypertension patients were included, and the patients were divided into abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome group (39 cases) and non-phlegm-dampness syndrome group (20 cases). To find the special proteins associated with abundant phlegm-dampness, the EH patients with non-phlegm-dampness and another 30 healthy persons were regarded as control. Weak cation nano-magnetic beads were used to capture proteins in serum, and proteomic fingerprint was made by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). All the proteomic fingerprints were analyzed by Biomarker Wizard 3.1 Software. Then Biomarker Patterns Software (BPS) 5.0 was used to identify the differentiated proteins, which could induce phlegm-dampness. There were 102 differentiated protein peaks between abundant phlegm-dampness and the control group. The best markers of abundant phlegm-dampness were protein peaks with the mass to charge ratio (m/z) of 9,334.958 m/z (the expression increased), 9,280.191 m/z (the expression decreased), 8,030.794 m/z (the expression increased), and 2,941.551 m/z (the expression increased). These four protein peaks found by BPS could induce abundant phlegm-dampness. They could be used to separate the abundant phlegm-dampness syndrome from the healthy persons and the hypertension patients with non-phlegm-dampness. The sensitivity of the model was 93.103% (27/29), specificity was 92% (23/25), false positive rate was 8% (2/25), false negative rate was 6.897% (2/29) and Youden's index was 85.103%. Blind test data indicated a sensitivity of 90% (9/10) and a specificity of 88% (22/25), and the false positive rate was 12% (3/25), false negative rate was 10% (1/10), and Youden's index was 78%. The differentiated proteins between the abundant phlegm-dampness
Simulating Nonlinear Oscillations of Viscoelastically Damped Mechanical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. D. Monsia
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to propose a mathematical model in terms of an exact analytical solution that may be used in numerical simulation and prediction of oscillatory dynamics of a one-dimensional viscoelastic system experiencing large deformations response. The model is represented with the use of a mechanical oscillator consisting of an inertial body attached to a nonlinear viscoelastic spring. As a result, a second-order first-degree Painlevé equation has been obtained as a law, governing the nonlinear oscillatory dynamics of the viscoelastic system. Analytical resolution of the evolution equation predicts the existence of three solutions and hence three damping modes of free vibration well known in dynamics of viscoelastically damped oscillating systems. Following the specific values of damping strength, over-damped, critically-damped and under-damped solutions have been obtained. It is observed that the rate of decay is not only governed by the damping degree but, also by the magnitude of the stiffness nonlinearity controlling parameter. Computational simulations demonstrated that numerical solutions match analytical results very well. It is found that the developed mathematical model includes a nonlinear extension of the classical damped linear harmonic oscillator and incorporates the Lambert nonlinear oscillatory equation with well-known solutions as special case. Finally, the three damped responses of the current mathematical model devoted for representing mechanical systems undergoing large deformations and viscoelastic behavior are found to be asymptotically stable.
NLSE for quantum plasmas with the radiation damping
Andreev, Pavel A
2014-01-01
We consider contribution of the radiation damping in the quantum hydrodynamic equations for spinless particles. We discuss possibility of obtaining of corresponding non-linear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) for the macroscopic wave function. We compare contribution of the radiation damping with weakly (or semi-) relativistic effects appearing in the second order by v/c. The radiation damping appears in the third order by v/c. So it might be smaller than weakly relativistic effects, but it gives damping of the Langmuir waves which can be considerable.
Lanthier-Veilleux, Mathieu; Baron, Geneviève; Généreux, Mélissa
2016-11-18
University students are frequently exposed to residential dampness or mold (i.e., visible mold, mold odor, dampness, or water leaks), a well-known contributor to asthma, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections. This study aims to: (a) describe the prevalence of these respiratory diseases among university students; and (b) examine the independent contribution of residential dampness or mold to these diseases. An online survey was conducted in March 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada). Validated questions and scores were used to assess self-reported respiratory diseases (i.e., asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections), residential dampness or mold, and covariates (e.g., student characteristics). Using logistic regressions, the crude and adjusted odd ratios between residential dampness or mold and self-reported respiratory diseases were examined. Results from the participating students (n = 2097; response rate: 8.1%) showed high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (32.6%; 95% CI: 30.6-34.7), asthma-like symptoms (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1-25.8) and respiratory infections (19.4%; 95% CI: 17.7-21.2). After adjustment, exposure to residential dampness or mold was associated with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.55) and asthma-like symptoms (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37-2.11), but not with respiratory infections (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85-1.36). Among symptomatic students, this exposure was also associated with uncontrolled and burdensome respiratory symptoms (p mold, may play a role in increasing atopic respiratory diseases and their suboptimal control in young adults. These results emphasize the importance for public health organizations to tackle poor housing conditions, especially amongst university students who should be considered "at-risk".
Elimination of periodic damped artifacts in scanning probe microscopy images
Chen, Yuhang; Huang, Wenhao
2010-04-01
When scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is operated at high scan rates, stripe-like artifacts will appear frequently in the SPM images. The removal of the image artifacts is highly demanded because they will distort the results in precise measurements. In this work, a method based on Prony analysis has been introduced to erase such periodic damped artifacts. Results demonstrate that this method prevails against the conventional fast Fourier transformation (FFT) method. Clean eliminations of the image artifacts are obtained, with almost no sacrifice of the detailed surface information. Even for arbitrary rough surfaces, the image artifacts can also be reduced by more than one order of magnitude. However, small amounts of stripes may still remain in the images. In these cases, the Prony analysis combined with locally weighted smoothing will provide better image quality. The artifacts reduction can have a meaning in the SPM-based visualization of dynamic phenomena with a nanoscale resolution.
NOISE AND VIBRATION DAMPING FOR YACHT INTERIOR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Murat Aydın
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Vibration damping and sound insulation are essential for all vehicles. Because moving parts and external factors such as wind, tracks, etc. can cause vibration and noise. Wave which is a dynamic force, drive system and HVAC systems are the main vibration and noise generators in a vessel. These all can affect comfort level on board yachts. Different types of isolators and absorbers such as sylomer®, cork panels, etc. are used to reduce these effects. Comfort level on board yachts can be increased using these types of materials. Otherwise, discomfort of passenger and crew may increase. These materials not only reduce structure-borne and air-borne noise and vibrations from waves, air, engines, pumps, generators and HVAC systems but also protect vibration sensitive interior or fittings. Noise and vibration evaluation is an important issue for this reason. And, measurement tools must be used not only to minimize this problem but also fulfill the regulations such as “comfort class”. Besides, providing quiet and low vibration increases the costs too. From this point of view, this study aims to explain clearly how noise and vibration damping can be done in a yacht.
Principles of TRIP Steel Optimization for Passive Damping Applications
Fraley, George Jay
Globally many historic structures of cultural significance which do not have systems to mitigate seismic damage are located in areas with heavy seismic activity. Efforts have been undertaken to develop strategies to retrofit such structures, however any intervention must be limited in size for aesthetic reasons. To contribute to this effort, ArcelorMittal aims to create steel-based solutions for passive energy dissipation through plastic deformation during cyclic loading. High-strength TRansformation-Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels are proposed as an excellent candidate material for this application, due to the extreme combination of high strength and large ductility they are well-known to exhibit. To evaluate high-strength TRIP steels for passive damping applications, isothermal, fully-reversed, displacement-controlled Ultra-Low Cycle Fatigue (ULCF) experiments (Nf sigma = -8 °C) was found to have approximately twice the fatigue life and a lower rate of cyclic hardening at fixed displacement amplitudes for low to intermediate levels of plastic strain range (2-10%) compared to the lower stability austenite condition (Mssigma = 27 °C). However, at higher levels of plastic straining (10-16% strain range) the fatigue lives and strain hardening behavior converged for the two stabilities, indicating a likely exhaustion of transformation during the first few cycles. ULCF life behavior for the high-stability austenite condition compared favorably with literature values for structural stainless steel 316, despite having a yield strength approximately four times larger. For a similar number of cycles to failure the high stability condition dissipated 2.4 times more energy than stainless steel 316 upon initial cycling. The stress-strain hysteresis curves and fatigue life data generated can be input into computational models of passive damping devices for initial concurrent material/device design iterations. Evidence of shear lips, large primary inclusions serving as
Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamics of charged particles including the effects of radiation damping
Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua; Davidson, Ronald; Fisch, Nathaniel; Chung, Moses
2015-11-01
The effects of radiation damping (radiation reaction) on accelerating charged particles in modern high-intensity accelerators and high-intensity laser beams have becoming increasingly important. Especially for electron accelerators and storage rings, radiation damping is an effective mechanism and technique to achieve high beam luminosity. We develop Hamiltonian and Lagrangian descriptions of the classical dynamics of a charged particle including the effects of radiation damping in the general electromagnetic focusing channels encountered in accelerators. The direct connection between the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories and the more fundamental QED description of the synchrotron radiation process is also addressed. In addition to their theoretical importance, the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories of the radiation damping also enable us to numerically integrate the dynamics using advanced structure-preserving geometric algorithms. These theoretical developments can also be applied to runaway electrons and positrons generated during the disruption or startup of tokamak discharges. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-09CH11466).
Ishima, Rieko
2015-09-01
Abundant solvent nuclear spins, such as water protons in aqueous solution, cause radiation damping in NMR experiments. It is important to know how the effect of radiation damping appears in high-resolution protein NMR because macromolecular studies always require very high magnetic field strengths with a highly sensitive NMR probe that can easily cause radiation damping. Here, we show the behavior of water magnetization after a pulsed-field gradient (PFG) using nutation experiments at 900 MHz with a cryogenic probe: when water magnetization is located in the upper hemisphere (having +Z component, parallel to the external magnetic field), dephasing of the magnetization by a PFG effectively suppresses residual water magnetization in the transverse plane. In contrast, when magnetization is located in the lower hemisphere (having -Z component), the small residual transverse component remaining after a PFG is still sufficient to induce radiation damping. Based on this observation, we designed 1 H- 15 N HSQC experiments in which water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere, but not necessarily along Z, and compared them with the conventional experiments, in which water magnetization is inverted during the t 1 period. The result demonstrates moderate gain of signal-to-noise ratio, 0-28%. Designing the experiments such that water magnetization is maintained in the upper hemisphere allows shorter pulses to be used compared to the complete water flip-back and, thereby, is useful as a building block of protein NMR pulse programs in solution.
Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold.
Mudarri, D; Fisk, W J
2007-06-01
The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from W.J. Fisk, Q. Lei-Gomez & M.J. Mendell [(2007) Indoor Air, [corrected] 17, 284-296], and [corrected] asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of US current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the Appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the USA, approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the USA. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings. There is a need to control moisture in both new and existing construction because of the significant health consequences that can result from dampness and mold. This paper demonstrates that dampness and mold in buildings is a significant public health problem with substantial economic impact.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. N. Hussain
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC device is applied to control power flow in transmission lines. Supplementary damping controller can be installed on any control channel of the UPFC inputs to implement the task of Power Oscillation Damping (POD controller. In this paper, we have presented the simultaneous coordinated design of the multiple damping controllers between Power System Stabilizer (PSS and UPFC-based POD or between different multiple UPFC-based POD controllers without PSS in a single-machine infinite-bus power system in order to identify the design that provided the most effective damping performance. The parameters of the damping controllers are optimized utilizing a Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO algorithm based on eigenvalue objective function. The simulation results show that the coordinated design of the multiple damping controllers has high ability in damping oscillations compared to the individual damping controllers. Furthermore, the coordinated design of UPFC-based POD controllers demonstrates the superiority over the coordinated design of PSS and UPFC-based POD controllers for enhancing greatly the stability of the power system.
Nonlinear collisionless damping of Weibel turbulence in relativistic blast waves
Lemoine, Martin
2015-01-01
The Weibel/filamentation instability is known to play a key role in the physics of weakly magnetized collisionless shock waves. From the point of view of high energy astrophysics, this instability also plays a crucial role because its development in the shock precursor populates the downstream with a small-scale magneto-static turbulence which shapes the acceleration and radiative processes of suprathermal particles. The present work discusses the physics of the dissipation of this Weibel-generated turbulence downstream of relativistic collisionless shock waves. It calculates explicitly the first-order nonlinear terms associated to the diffusive nature of the particle trajectories. These corrections are found to systematically increase the damping rate, assuming that the scattering length remains larger than the coherence length of the magnetic fluctuations. The relevance of such corrections is discussed in a broader astrophysical perspective, in particular regarding the physics of the external relativistic shock wave of a gamma-ray burst.
An identification method for damping ratio in rotor systems
Wang, Weimin; Li, Qihang; Gao, Jinji; Yao, Jianfei; Allaire, Paul
2016-02-01
Centrifugal compressor testing with magnetic bearing excitations is the last step to assure the compressor rotordynamic stability in the designed operating conditions. To meet the challenges of stability evaluation, a new method combining the rational polynomials method (RPM) with the weighted instrumental variables (WIV) estimator to fit the directional frequency response function (dFRF) is presented. Numerical simulation results show that the method suggested in this paper can identify the damping ratio of the first forward and backward modes with high accuracy, even in a severe noise environment. Experimental tests were conducted to study the effect of different bearing configurations on the stability of rotor. Furthermore, two example centrifugal compressors (a nine-stage straight-through and a six-stage back-to-back) were employed to verify the feasibility of identification method in industrial configurations as well.
PID motion control tuning rules in a damping injection framework
Tadele, T.S.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.; Stramigioli, Stefano
2013-01-01
This paper presents a general design approach for a performance based tuning of a damping injection framework impedance controller by using insights from PID motion control tuning rules. The damping injection framework impedance controller is suitable for human friendly robots as it enhances safety
Analysis of damping characteristics of arterial catheter blood ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background. For many reasons, the invasive measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure should be accurate. Accuracy is determined, in part, by the damping characteristics of the arterial catheter blood pressure monitoring system. Objectives. To ascertain the damping characteristics of arterial catheter blood ...
Simple model with damping of the mode-coupling instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pestrikov, D.V. [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki
1996-08-01
In this paper we use a simple model to study the suppression of the transverse mode-coupling instability. Two possibilities are considered. One is due to the damping of particular synchrobetatron modes, and another - due to Landau damping, caused by the nonlinearity of betatron oscillations. (author)
The effect of damping on the perception of hardness
van Beek, F.E.; Heck, D.J.F.; Nijmeijer, H.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.
2015-01-01
In controlling teleoperation systems subject to communication delays, unstable behavior is often prevented by injecting damping. A proper perception of hardness is required to efficiently interact with an object, but it is unknown if and how this injected damping influences the perceived hardness of
The Study of Damped Harmonic Oscillations Using an Electronic Counter
Wadhwa, Ajay
2009-01-01
We study damped harmonic oscillations in mechanical systems like the loaded spring and simple pendulum with the help of an oscillation measuring electronic counter. The experimental data are used in a software program that solves the differential equation for damped vibrations of any system and determines its position, velocity and acceleration as…
Exponential decay for solutions to semilinear damped wave equation
Gerbi, Stéphane
2011-10-01
This paper is concerned with decay estimate of solutions to the semilinear wave equation with strong damping in a bounded domain. Intro- ducing an appropriate Lyapunov function, we prove that when the damping is linear, we can find initial data, for which the solution decays exponentially. This result improves an early one in [4].
Study of Ion Acoustic Wave Damping through Green's Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hsuan, H.C.S.; Jensen, Vagn Orla
1973-01-01
Green's function analyses of ion acoustic waves in streaming plasmas show that, in general, the waves damp algebraically rather than exponentially with distance from exciter.......Green's function analyses of ion acoustic waves in streaming plasmas show that, in general, the waves damp algebraically rather than exponentially with distance from exciter....
Complex modes and frequencies in damped structural vibrations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krenk, Steen
2004-01-01
It is demonstrated that the state space formulation of the equation of motion of damped structural elements like cables and beams leads to a symmetric eigenvalue problem if the stiffness and damping operators are self-adjoint, and that this is typically the case in the absence of gyroscopic force...
Dynamic stability of a lightly damped column trapped by a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we initiate an analytical approach for determining the dynamic buckling load of a finite viscously damped column acted upon by a harmonically slowly varying explicitly time dependent load. The viscous damping is considered light and the column rests on an elastic foundation that produces a nonlinear ...
Estimation of hysteretic damping of structures by stochastic subspace identification
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bajric, Anela; Høgsberg, Jan Becker
2018-01-01
identification method suitable for random response of dynamic systems with hysteretic damping. The method applies the concept of Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) to estimate the model parameters of a dynamic system with hysteretic damping. The restoring force is represented by the Bouc-Wen model...
Quantum theory of damped harmonic oscillator | Antia | Global ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation for damped harmonic oscillator with pulsating mass and modified Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian are evaluated. We also investigated the case of under-damped for the two models constructed and the results obtained in both cases do not violate Heisenberg uncertainty principle ...
Dynamic response analysis of a 24-story damped steel structure
Feng, Demin; Miyama, Takafumi
2017-10-01
In Japanese and Chinese building codes, a two-stage design philosophy, damage limitation (small earthquake, Level 1) and life safety (extreme large earthquake, Level 2), is adopted. It is very interesting to compare the design method of a damped structure based on the two building codes. In the Chinese code, in order to be consistent with the conventional seismic design method, the damped structure is also designed at the small earthquake level. The effect of damper systems is considered by the additional damping ratio concept. The design force will be obtained from the damped design spectrum considering the reduction due to the additional damping ratio. The additional damping ratio by the damper system is usually calculated by a time history analysis method at the small earthquake level. The velocity dependent type dampers such as viscous dampers can function well even in the small earthquake level. But, if steel damper is used, which usually remains elastic in the small earthquake, there will be no additional damping ratio achieved. On the other hand, a time history analysis is used in Japan both for small earthquake and extreme large earthquake level. The characteristics of damper system and ductility of the structure can be modelled well. An existing 24-story steel frame is modified to demonstrate the design process of the damped structure based on the two building codes. Viscous wall type damper and low yield steel panel dampers are studied as the damper system.
Self-damping cementitious composites with multi-layer graphene
Ruan, Yanfeng; Zhou, Daocheng; Sun, Shengwei; Wu, Xinyi; Yu, Xun; Hou, Jilin; Dong, Xufeng; Han, Baoguo
2017-07-01
Cementitious composites are quasi-brittle and susceptible to damage under dynamic loads. The addition of nanoscale fillers into cementitious composites is an effective approach to address this issue. In this paper, multi-layer graphenes (MLGs) are incorporated into cementitious composites to enhance its damping property. The underlying modification mechanism of MLGs to cementitous composites is also investigated. Experimental results showed that the addition of MLGs can effectively modify the damping property of cementitious composites. Compared with cementitious composites without MLGs, the damping ratio of cementitious composites filled with 1% and 5% of MLGs increases by 16.22% and 45.73%, respectively. The improvement of MLGs to damping property of cementitious composites can be attributed to the interlayer slip of MLGs, viscous friction between MLGs and matrix, and excellent thermal conductivity of MLGs. Moreover, the damping ratio measured by time-domain exponential decay method and frequency-domain half-power bandwidth method is consistent.
Prevalence of dampness and mold in European housing stock.
Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla
2012-09-01
An assessment of the prevalence of dampness and mold in European housing stock was carried out. It is based on general indicators of dampness and mold in dwellings reported in the literature. The assessment relies on recent studies, taking into account regional and climatic differences, as well as differences in study design, methodology, and definitions. Data were available from 31 European countries. Weighted prevalence estimates are 12.1% for damp, 10.3% for mold, 10.0% for water damage, and 16.5% for a combination of any one or more indicators. Significant (up to 18%) differences were observed for dampness and mold prevalence estimates depending on survey factors, region, and climate. In conclusion, dampness and/or mold problems could be expected to occur in one of every six of the dwellings in Europe. Prevalence and occurrence of different types of problems may vary across geographical areas, which can be partly explained by differences in climate.
Passively Damped Laminated Piezoelectric Shell Structures with Integrated Electric Networks
Saravanos, Dimitris A.
1999-01-01
Multi-field mechanics are presented for curvilinear piezoelectric laminates interfaced with distributed passive electric components. The equations of motion for laminated piezoelectric shell structures with embedded passive electric networks are directly formulated and solved using a finite element methodology. The modal damping and frequencies of the piezoelectric shell are calculated from the poles of the system. Experimental and numerical results are presented for the modal damping and frequency of composite beams with a resistively shunted piezoceramic patch. The modal damping and frequency of plates, cylindrical shells and cylindrical composite blades with piezoelectric-resistor layers are predicted. Both analytical and experimental studies illustrate a unique dependence of modal damping and frequencies on the shunting resistance and show the effect of structural shape and curvature on piezoelectric damping.
Digital notch filter based active damping for LCL filters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yao, Wenli; Yang, Yongheng; Zhang, Xiaobin
2015-01-01
LCL filters are widely used in Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverters. However, it also introduces a pair of unstable resonant poles that may challenge the controller stability. The passive damping is a convenient possibility to tackle the resonance problem at the cost of system overall efficiency....... In contrast, the active damping does not require any dissipation elements, and thus has become of increasing interest. As a result, a vast of active damping solutions have been reported, among which multi-loop control systems and additional sensors are necessary, leading to increased cost and complexity....... In this paper, a notch filter based active damping without the requirement of additional sensors is proposed, where the inverter current is employed as the feedback variable. Firstly, a design method of the notch filter for active damping is presented. The entire system stability has then been investigated...
Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates
Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Min, James B.
2009-01-01
Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating shunted piezoelectric circuits as potential damping treatments for turbomachinery rotor blades. This effort seeks to determine the effects of centrifugal loading on passively-shunted piezoelectric - damped plates. Passive shunt circuit parameters are optimized for the plate's third bending mode. Tests are performed both non-spinning and in the Dynamic Spin Facility to verify the analysis, and to determine the effectiveness of the damping under centrifugal loading. Results show that a resistive shunt circuit will reduce resonant vibration for this configuration. However, a tuned shunt circuit will be required to achieve the desired damping level. The analysis and testing address several issues with passive shunt circuit implementation in a rotating system, including piezoelectric material integrity under centrifugal loading, shunt circuit implementation, and tip mode damping.
Calibrating damping rates with LEGACY linewidths
Houdek, Günter
2017-10-01
Linear damping rates of radial oscillation modes in selected Kepler stars are estimated with the help of a nonadiabatic stability analysis. The convective fluxes are obtained from a nonlocal, time-dependent convection model. The mixing-length parameter is calibrated to the surface-convection-zone depth of a stellar model obtained from fitting adiabatic frequencies to the LEGACY* observations, and two of the three nonlocal convection parameters are calibrated to the corresponding LEGACY* linewidth measurements. The atmospheric structure in the 1D stability analysis adopts a temperature-optical-depth relation derived from 3D hydrodynamical simulations. Results from 3D simulations are also used to calibrate the turbulent pressure and to guide the functional form of the depth-dependence of the anisotropy of the turbulent velocity field in the 1D stability computations.
Active vibration damping using smart material
Baras, John S.; Yan, Zhuang
1994-01-01
We consider the modeling and active damping of an elastic beam using distributed actuators and sensors. The piezoelectric ceramic material (PZT) is used to build the actuator. The sensor is made of the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). These materials are glued on both sides of the beam. For the simple clamped beam, the closed loop controller has been shown to be able to extract energy from the beam. The shape of the actuator and its influence on the closed loop system performance are discussed. It is shown that it is possible to suppress the selected mode by choosing the appropriate actuator layout. It is also shown that by properly installing the sensor and determining the sensor shape we can further extract and manipulate the sensor signal for our control need.
problem for the damped Boussinesq equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladimir V. Varlamov
1997-01-01
Full Text Available For the damped Boussinesq equation utt−2butxx=−αuxxxx+uxx+β(u2xx,x∈(0,π,t>0;α,b=const>0,β=const∈R1, the second initial-boundary value problem is considered with small initial data. Its classical solution is constructed in the form of a series in small parameter present in the initial conditions and the uniqueness of solutions is proved. The long-time asymptotics is obtained in the explicit form and the question of the blow up of the solution in a certain case is examined. The possibility of passing to the limit b→+0 in the constructed solution is investigated.
State protection under collective damping and diffusion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponte, M. A. de [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Regional do Cariri, 63010-970 Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil); Mizrahi, S. S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moussa, M. H. Y. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2011-07-15
In this paper we provide a recipe for state protection in a network of oscillators under collective damping and diffusion. Our strategy is to manipulate the network topology, i.e., the way the oscillators are coupled together, the strength of their couplings, and their natural frequencies, in order to create a relaxation-diffusion-free channel. This protected channel defines a decoherence-free subspace (DFS) for nonzero-temperature reservoirs. Our development also furnishes an alternative approach to build up DFSs that offers two advantages over the conventional method: it enables the derivation of all the network-protected states at once, and also reveals, through the network normal modes, the mechanism behind the emergence of these protected domains.
Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Tijeras, NM)
2007-10-30
A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).
Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM; Polosky, Marc A [Tijeras, NM
2009-12-15
A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).
Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua
2006-07-01
SummaryPerformance assessment of the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ) as the site for an underground repository of high-level radioactive waste relies on the crucial assumption that water percolation processes in the unsaturated zone can be approximated as a steady-state condition. Justification of such an assumption is based on temporal damping effects of several geological units within the unsaturated tuff formation. In particular, the nonwelded tuff of the Painbrush Group (PTn unit) at Yucca Mountain, because of its highly porous physical properties, has been conceptualized to have a significant capacity for temporally damping transient percolation fluxes. The objective of this study is to investigate these damping effects, using a three-dimensional (3-D) mountain-scale model as well as several one-dimensional (1-D) models. The 3-D model incorporates a wide variety of the updated field data for the highly heterogeneous unsaturated formation at Yucca Mountain. The model is first run to steady state and calibrated using field-measured data and then transient pulse infiltrations are applied to the model top boundary. Subsequent changes in percolation fluxes at the bottom of and within the PTn unit are examined under episodic infiltration boundary conditions. The 1-D model is used to examine the long-term response of the flow system to higher infiltration pulses, while the damping effect is also investigated through modeling tracer transport in the UZ under episodic infiltration condition. Simulation results show the existence of damping effects within the PTn unit and also indicate that the assumption of steady-state flow conditions below the PTn unit is reasonable. However, the study also finds that some fast flow paths along faults exist, causing vertical-flux quick responses at the PTn bottom to the episodic infiltration at the top boundary.
Experimental Observations on Material Damping at Cryogenic Temperatures
Peng, Chia-Yen; Levine, Marie; Shido, Lillian; Leland, Robert
2004-01-01
This paper describes a unique experimental facility designed to measure damping of materials at cryogenic temperatures for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The test facility removes other sources of damping in the measurement by avoiding frictional interfaces, decoupling the test specimen from the support system, and by using a non-contacting measurement device. Damping data reported herein are obtained for materials (Aluminum, Aluminum/Terbium/Dysprosium, Titanium, Composites) vibrating in free-free bending modes with low strain levels (< 10(exp -6) ppm). The fundamental frequencies of material samples are ranged from 14 to 202 Hz. To provide the most beneficial data relevant to TPF-like precision optical space missions, the damping data are collected from room temperatures (around 293 K) to cryogenic temperatures (below 40 K) at unevenly-spaced intervals. More data points are collected over any region of interest. The test data shows a significant decrease in viscous damping at cryogenic temperatures. The cryogenic damping can be as low as 10(exp -4) %, but the amount of the damping decrease is a function of frequency and material. However, Titanium 15-3-3-3 shows a remarkable increase in damping at cryogenic temperatures. It demonstrates over one order of magnitude increase in damping in comparison to Aluminum 6061-T6. Given its other properties (e.g., good stiffness and low conductivity) this may prove itself to be a good candidate for the application on TPF. At room temperatures, the test data are correlated well with the damping predicted by the Zener theory. However, large discrepancies at cryogenic temperatures between the Zener theory and the test data are observed.
Prognostic and predictive value of DAMPs and DAMP-associated processes in cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jitka eFucikova
2015-08-01
Full Text Available It is now clear that human neoplasms form, progress and respond to therapy in the context of an intimate crosstalk with the host immune system. In particular, accumulating evidence demonstrates that the efficacy of most, if not all, chemo- and radiotherapeutic agents commonly employed in the clinic critically depends on the (reactivation of tumor-targeting immune response. One of the mechanisms whereby conventional chemotherapeutics, targeted anticancer agents and radiotherapy can provoke a therapeutically relevant, adaptive immune response against malignant cells is commonly known as „immunogenic cell death (ICD. Importantly, dying cancer cells are perceived as immunogenic only when they emit a set of immunostimulatory signals upon the activation of intracellular stress response pathways. The emission of these signals, which are generally referred to as „damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, may therefore predict whether patients will respond to chemotherapy or not, at least in some settings. Here, we review clinical data indicating that DAMPs and DAMP-associated stress responses might have prognostic or predictive value for cancer patients.
Fundamental Design Principles of Linear Collider Damping Rings, with an Application to CLIC
Potier, J P
2000-01-01
Damping Rings for Linear Colliders have to produce very small normalised emittances at a high repetition rate. A previous paper presented analytical expressions for the equilibrium emittance of an arc cell as a function of the deflection angle per dipole. In addition, an expression for the lattice parameters providing the minimum emittance, and a strategy to stay close to this, were proposed. This analytical approach is extended to the detailed design of Damping Rings, taking into account the straight sections and the damping wigglers. Complete rings, including wiggler and injection insections, were modelled with the MAD [1] program, and their performance was found to be in good agreement with the analytical calculation. With such an approach it is shown that a Damping Ring corresponding to the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) parameters at 0.5 and 1 TeV centre-of-mass energy, and tunable for two different sets of emittance and injection repetition rate, can be designed using the same ring layout.
Damping Dependence of Reversal Magnetic Field on Co-based Nano-Ferromagnetic with Thermal Activation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadia Ananda Herianto
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Currently, hard disk development has used HAMR technology that applies heat to perpendicular media until near Curie temperature, then cools it down to room temperature. The use of HAMR technology is significantly influence by Gilbert damping constants. Damping affects the magnetization reversal and coercivity field. Simulation is used to evaluate magnetization reversal by completing Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert explicit equation. A strong ferromagnetic cobalt based material with size 50×50×20 nm3 is used which parameters are anisotropy materials 3.51×106 erg/cm3, magnetic saturation 5697.5 G, exchange constant 1×10-7 erg/cm, and various Gilbert damping from 0.09 to 0.5. To observe the thermal effect, two schemes are used which are Reduced Barrier Writing and Curie Point Writing. As a result, materials with high damping is able to reverse the magnetizations faster and reduce the energy barrier. Moreover, it can lower the minimum field to start the magnetizations reversal, threshold field, and probability rate. The heating near Curie temperature has succeeded in reducing the reversal field to 1/10 compared to writing process in absence of thermal field.
Tower Based Load Measurements for Individual Pitch Control and Tower Damping of Wind Turbines
Kumar, A. A.; Hugues-Salas, O.; Savini, B.; Keogh, W.
2016-09-01
The cost of IPC has hindered adoption outside of Europe despite significant loading advantages for large wind turbines. In this work we presented a method for applying individual pitch control (including for higher-harmonics) using tower-top strain gauge feedback instead of blade-root strain gauge feedback. Tower-top strain gauges offer hardware savings of approximately 50% in addition to the possibility of easier access for maintenance and installation and requiring a less specialised skill-set than that required for applying strain gauges to composite blade roots. A further advantage is the possibility of using the same tower-top sensor array for tower damping control. This method is made possible by including a second order IPC loop in addition to the tower damping loop to reduce the typically dominating 3P content in tower-top load measurements. High-fidelity Bladed simulations show that the resulting turbine spectral characteristics from tower-top feedback IPC and from the combination of tower-top IPC and damping loops largely match those of blade-root feedback IPC and nacelle- velocity feedback damping. Lifetime weighted fatigue analysis shows that the methods allows load reductions within 2.5% of traditional methods.
Effects of gas temperature on nozzle damping experiments on cold-flow rocket motors
Sun, Bing-bing; Li, Shi-peng; Su, Wan-xing; Li, Jun-wei; Wang, Ning-fei
2016-09-01
In order to explore the impact of gas temperature on the nozzle damping characteristics of solid rocket motor, numerical simulations were carried out by an experimental motor in Naval Ordnance Test Station of China Lake in California. Using the pulse decay method, different cases were numerically studied via Fluent along with UDF (User Defined Functions). Firstly, mesh sensitivity analysis and monitor position-independent analysis were carried out for the computer code validation. Then, the numerical method was further validated by comparing the calculated results and experimental data. Finally, the effects of gas temperature on the nozzle damping characteristics were studied in this paper. The results indicated that the gas temperature had cooperative effects on the nozzle damping and there had great differences between cold flow and hot fire test. By discussion and analysis, it was found that the changing of mainstream velocity and the natural acoustic frequency resulted from gas temperature were the key factors that affected the nozzle damping, while the alteration of the mean pressure had little effect. Thus, the high pressure condition could be replaced by low pressure to reduce the difficulty of the test. Finally, the relation of the coefficients "alpha" between the cold flow and hot fire was got.
Effects of Active Sting Damping on Common Research Model Data Quality
Acheson, Michael J.; Balakrishna, S.
2011-01-01
Recent tests using the Common Research Model (CRM) at the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the Ames 11-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel (11' TWT) produced large sets of data that have been used to examine the effects of active damping on transonic tunnel aerodynamic data quality. In particular, large statistically significant sets of repeat data demonstrate that the active damping system had no apparent effect on drag, lift and pitching moment repeatability during warm testing conditions, while simultaneously enabling aerodynamic data to be obtained post stall. A small set of cryogenic (high Reynolds number) repeat data was obtained at the NTF and again showed a negligible effect on data repeatability. However, due to a degradation of control power in the active damping system cryogenically, the ability to obtain test data post-stall was not achieved during cryogenic testing. Additionally, comparisons of data repeatability between NTF and 11-ft TWT CRM data led to further (warm) testing at the NTF which demonstrated that for a modest increase in data sampling time, a 2-3 factor improvement in drag, and pitching moment repeatability was readily achieved not related with the active damping system.
Finn, Carol A.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Panter, Kurt S.
2005-02-01
Common geological, geochemical, and geophysical characteristics of continental fragments of East Gondwana and adjacent oceanic lithosphere define a long-lived, low-volume, diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) encompassing the easternmost part of the Indo-Australian Plate, West Antarctica, and the southwest portion of the Pacific Plate. A key to generating the Cenozoic magmatism is the combination of metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, in contrast to large igneous provinces where mantle temperatures are presumed to be high. The SW Pacific DAMP magmatism has been conjecturally linked to rifting, strike-slip faulting, mantle plumes, or hundreds of hot spots, but all of these associations have flaws. We suggest instead that sudden detachment and sinking of subducted slabs in the late Cretaceous induced Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities along the former Gondwana margin that in turn triggered lateral and vertical flow of warm Pacific mantle. The interaction of the warm mantle with metasomatized subcontinental lithosphere that characterizes much of the SW Pacific DAMP concentrates magmatism along zones of weakness. The model may also provide a mechanism for warming south Pacific mantle and resulting Cenozoic alkaline magmatism, where the oceanic areas are characterized primarily, but not exclusively, by short-lived hot spot tracks not readily explained by conventional mantle plume theory. This proposed south Pacific DAMP is much larger and longer-lived than previously considered.
Simulated and Experimental Damping Properties of a SMA/Fiber Glass Laminated Composite
Arnaboldi, S.; Bassani, P.; Biffi, C. A.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; Loconte, A.; Previtali, B.
2011-07-01
In this article, an advanced laminated composite is developed, combining the high damping properties of shape memory alloy (SMA) with mechanical properties and light weight of a glass-fiber reinforced polymer. The composite is formed by stacking a glass-fiber reinforced epoxy core between two thin patterned strips of SMA alloy, and two further layers of fiber-glass reinforced epoxy. The bars of the laminated composite were assembled and cured in autoclave. The patterning was designed to enhance the interface adhesion between matrix and SMA inserts and optimally exploit the damping capacity of the SMA thin ribbons. The patterned ribbons of the SMA alloy were cut by means of a pulsed fiber laser source. Damping properties at different amplitudes on full scale samples were investigated at room temperature with a universal testing machine through dynamic tension tests, while temperature dependence was investigated by dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA) on smaller samples. Experimental results were used in conjunction with FEM analysis to optimize the geometry of the inserts. Experimental decay tests on the laminated composite have been carried out to identify the adimensional damping value related to their first flexural mode.
Respiratory Diseases in University Students Associated with Exposure to Residential Dampness or Mold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathieu Lanthier-Veilleux
2016-11-01
Full Text Available University students are frequently exposed to residential dampness or mold (i.e., visible mold, mold odor, dampness, or water leaks, a well-known contributor to asthma, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections. This study aims to: (a describe the prevalence of these respiratory diseases among university students; and (b examine the independent contribution of residential dampness or mold to these diseases. An online survey was conducted in March 2014 among the 26,676 students registered at the Université de Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada. Validated questions and scores were used to assess self-reported respiratory diseases (i.e., asthma-like symptoms, allergic rhinitis, and respiratory infections, residential dampness or mold, and covariates (e.g., student characteristics. Using logistic regressions, the crude and adjusted odd ratios between residential dampness or mold and self-reported respiratory diseases were examined. Results from the participating students (n = 2097; response rate: 8.1% showed high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (32.6%; 95% CI: 30.6–34.7, asthma-like symptoms (24.0%; 95% CI: 22.1–25.8 and respiratory infections (19.4%; 95% CI: 17.7–21.2. After adjustment, exposure to residential dampness or mold was associated with allergic rhinitis (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01–1.55 and asthma-like symptoms (OR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.37–2.11, but not with respiratory infections (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.85–1.36. Among symptomatic students, this exposure was also associated with uncontrolled and burdensome respiratory symptoms (p < 0.01. University students report a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis, asthma-like symptoms and respiratory infections. A common indoor hazard, residential dampness or mold, may play a role in increasing atopic respiratory diseases and their suboptimal control in young adults. These results emphasize the importance for public health organizations to tackle poor housing conditions, especially amongst university
Strain Dependent Damping Characteristics of a High Damping Manganese-Copper Alloy
1986-09-01
gear trains , brake discs . et,. (Figure 1.2). 4. 1 虮 % Potential applications of quiet metals General: Plug inserts to noisy machine parts Cladding...and gear weos Pump castings Diesel engine parts Brake discs Wheel rims Suomarine/toroedo/shio prooellers Helicopter gears Machinery frames and bases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hammons, L.; Hahn, H.
2011-03-28
Among the accelerator projects under construction at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is an R and D energy recovery LINAC (ERL) test facility. The ERL includes both a five-cell superconducting cavity as well as a superconducting, photoinjector electron gun. Because of the high-charge and high-current demands, effective higher-order mode (HOM) damping is essential, and several strategies are being pursued. Among these is the use of the fundamental power couplers as a means for damping some HOMs. Simulation studies have shown that the power couplers can play a substantial role in damping certain HOMs, and this presentation discusses these studies along with measurements.
Tang, Martin
2017-01-01
Passenger demand for enhanced cabin comfort have made cabin noise to an important factor. The damping behaviour of the cabin must be understood in order to predict noise emission. Due to the high modal density and overlap, state-of-the-art methods are not able to accurately identify damping in the mid- and high-frequency range. However, these frequency ranges are relevant in the field of acoustics. 2016 a method was proposed for local damping identification, which was applied to an aircra...
Vadose zone controls on damping of climate-induced transient recharge fluxes in U.S. agroecosystems
Gurdak, Jason
2017-04-01
Understanding the physical processes in the vadose zone that link climate variability with transient recharge fluxes has particular relevance for the sustainability of groundwater-supported irrigated agriculture and other groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Natural climate variability on interannual to multidecadal timescales has well-documented influence on precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, infiltration flux, and can augment or diminish human stresses on water resources. Here the behavior and damping depth of climate-induced transient water flux in the vadose zone is explored. The damping depth is the depth in the vadose zone that the flux variation damps to 5% of the land surface variation. Steady-state recharge occurs when the damping depth is above the water table, and transient recharge occurs when the damping depth is below the water table. Findings are presented from major agroecosystems of the United States (U.S.), including the High Plains, Central Valley, California Coastal Basin, and Mississippi Embayment aquifer systems. Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is used to identify quasi-periodic signals in precipitation and groundwater time series that are coincident with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) (6-12 mo cycle), Pacific/North American oscillation (PNA) (climate variability and the local soil textures, layering, and depth to the water table. Simulation results for homogeneous profiles generally show that shorter-period climate oscillations, smaller mean fluxes, and finer-grained soil textures generally produce damping depths closer to land surface. Simulation results for layered soil textures indicate more complex responses in the damping depth, including the finding that finer-textured layers in a coarser soil profile generally result in damping depths closer to land surface, while coarser-textured layers in coarser soil profile result in damping depths deeper in the vadose zone. Findings from this study improve understanding of how vadose
Experimental validation of solid rocket motor damping models
Riso, Cristina; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Mastroddi, Franco; Coppotelli, Giuliano; Trequattrini, Francesco; De Vivo, Alessio
2017-12-01
In design and certification of spacecraft, payload/launcher coupled load analyses are performed to simulate the satellite dynamic environment. To obtain accurate predictions, the system damping properties must be properly taken into account in the finite element model used for coupled load analysis. This is typically done using a structural damping characterization in the frequency domain, which is not applicable in the time domain. Therefore, the structural damping matrix of the system must be converted into an equivalent viscous damping matrix when a transient coupled load analysis is performed. This paper focuses on the validation of equivalent viscous damping methods for dynamically condensed finite element models via correlation with experimental data for a realistic structure representative of a slender launch vehicle with solid rocket motors. A second scope of the paper is to investigate how to conveniently choose a single combination of Young's modulus and structural damping coefficient—complex Young's modulus—to approximate the viscoelastic behavior of a solid propellant material in the frequency band of interest for coupled load analysis. A scaled-down test article inspired to the Z9-ignition Vega launcher configuration is designed, manufactured, and experimentally tested to obtain data for validation of the equivalent viscous damping methods. The Z9-like component of the test article is filled with a viscoelastic material representative of the Z9 solid propellant that is also preliminarily tested to investigate the dependency of the complex Young's modulus on the excitation frequency and provide data for the test article finite element model. Experimental results from seismic and shock tests performed on the test configuration are correlated with numerical results from frequency and time domain analyses carried out on its dynamically condensed finite element model to assess the applicability of different equivalent viscous damping methods to describe
Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.
2007-06-01
The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.
Masouris, Ilias; Klein, Matthias; Dyckhoff, Susanne; Angele, Barbara; Pfister, H W; Koedel, Uwe
2017-11-02
Pneumococcal meningitis remains a potentially lethal and debilitating disease, mainly due to brain damage from sustained inflammation. The release of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), like myeloid-related protein 14 (MRP14) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), plays a major role in persistence of inflammation. In this study, we evaluated if paquinimod, an MRP14-inhibitor, and an anti-HMGB1 antibody can improve clinical outcome as adjunctive therapeutics in pneumococcal meningitis. We tested the adjuvant administration of paquinimod and the anti-HMGB1 antibody in our pneumococcal meningitis mouse model assessing clinical (clinical score, open-field-test, temperature) and pathophysiological parameters (intracranial pressure, white blood cell count in CSF, bleeding area) as well as bacterial titers in blood and brain 24 h after administration and 48 h after infection. Furthermore, we explored the interactions of these two agents with dexamethasone, the standard adjuvant treatment in pneumococcal meningitis (PM), and daptomycin, a non-bacteriolytic antibiotic preventing pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) release. Adjunctive inhibition of MRP14 or HMGB1 reduced mortality in mice with PM. This effect was lost when the two anti-DAMP agents were given simultaneously, possibly due to excessive immunosuppression. Combining anti-PAMP (daptomycin) and anti-DAMP treatments did not produce synergistic results; instead, the anti-DAMP treatment alone was sufficient and superior. The combination of anti-HMGB1 with dexamethasone did not diminish the effect of the former. DAMP inhibition possesses good potential as an adjuvant treatment approach in PM, as it improves clinical outcome and can be given together with the standard adjuvant dexamethasone without drug effect loss in experimental PM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chen, Yousu; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Diao, Ruisheng; Fuller, Jason C.; Mittelstadt, William A.; Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.
2010-10-18
Small signal stability problems are one of the major threats to grid stability and reliability in the U.S. power grid. An undamped mode can cause large-amplitude oscillations and may result in system breakups and large-scale blackouts. There have been several incidents of system-wide oscillations. Of those incidents, the most notable is the August 10, 1996 western system breakup, a result of undamped system-wide oscillations. Significant efforts have been devoted to monitoring system oscillatory behaviors from measurements in the past 20 years. The deployment of phasor measurement units (PMU) provides high-precision, time-synchronized data needed for detecting oscillation modes. Measurement-based modal analysis, also known as ModeMeter, uses real-time phasor measurements to identify system oscillation modes and their damping. Low damping indicates potential system stability issues. Modal analysis has been demonstrated with phasor measurements to have the capability of estimating system modes from both oscillation signals and ambient data. With more and more phasor measurements available and ModeMeter techniques maturing, there is yet a need for methods to bring modal analysis from monitoring to actions. The methods should be able to associate low damping with grid operating conditions, so operators or automated operation schemes can respond when low damping is observed. The work presented in this report aims to develop such a method and establish a Modal Analysis for Grid Operation (MANGO) procedure to aid grid operation decision making to increase inter-area modal damping. The procedure can provide operation suggestions (such as increasing generation or decreasing load) for mitigating inter-area oscillations.
Effect of particulate tougheners on the damping of composite laminates
Biggerstaff, Janet M.; Kosmatka, John B.
2000-04-01
Rubber is commonly added to composites to increase the toughness. This research investigates adding toughening particles to graphite/epoxy composites for the purpose of increasing the vibrational damping. Adding toughening particles to the interlaminar regions of graphite/epoxy is shown to significantly increase the loss factor, although the increase is much less than can be achieved by embedding a viscoelastic damping layer. The bending stiffness and shear modulus, however, are much higher for the samples with embedded particles than samples with a viscoelastic layer. The addition of damping particles could therefore be used for stiffness-critical parts.
A frequency domain analysis for damped space structures
Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Crawley, Edward F.
1989-01-01
A method is presented for the analysis of damped structural systems in which the structural components are represented by impedance models and analyzed in the frequency domain. Methods are presented to assemble and condense system impedance matrices, and then to identify approximate mass, stiffness, and damping matrices for systems whose impedances are complicated functions of frequency. Formulas are derived for determination of approximate values for system natural frequencies and damping using frequency domain quantities. The sensitivities of these approximate values to system parameter changes are analyzed. The implementation of these analysis tools is discussed and applied to a simple mechanical system.
Active Damping of Oscillations in Off-Road Vehicles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn
2003-01-01
This paper relates to analyse and control of the oscillations occuring in many off-road vehicles, which are designed without any suspension. Without suspension, the tire is the only elastic element acting between the vichle and the ground, but the suspension and damping properties of the tires...... simulation model that describes dynamics of the tractor with mechanica栬inkkages, and the hitch actuator and an typical implemenet. The developed model was used and is in use for both stability and damping analysis, and for evaluation of control strategies, incliding active damping of oscillations....
Indirect linear locally distributed damping of coupled systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annick BEYRATH
2004-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove indirect internal stabilization results for diﬀerent coupled systems with linear locally distributed damping (coupled wave equations, wave equations with diﬀerent speeds of propagation. In our case, a linear local damping term appears only in the ﬁrst equation whereas no damping term is applied to the second one (this is indirect stabilization, see [11]. Using thepiecewise multiplier method we prove that the full system is stabilized and that the total energy of the solution of this system decays polynomially.
Comparing Sources of Damping of Cross-Wind Motion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob; Mørch, Christian; Andersen, Lars
2009-01-01
Cross-wind vibrations due to wave loading misaligned with the wind causes fatigue known to be design driving for support structures of large turbines offshore increasing fatigue loads notably compared to the along-wind fatigue. The small amount of damping assumed for cross-wind motion in current...... practise plays a key role in this. The questions are: does more damping exist and is one of the sources of damping the main contributor allowing for site-independent guidelines. The aim of this paper is to address these issues. It is demonstrated that tower dampers are important in order to tackle...
Damping and Frequency Shift of Large Amplitude Electron Plasma Waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Kenneth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1983-01-01
The initial evolution of large-amplitude one-dimensional electron waves is investigated by applying a numerical simulation. The initial wave damping is found to be strongly enhanced relative to the linear damping and it increases with increasing amplitude. The temporal evolution of the nonlinear...... damping rate γ(t) shows that it increases with time within the initial phase of propagation, t≲π/ωB (ωB is the bounce frequency), whereafter it decreases and changes sign implying a regrowth of the wave. The shift in the wave frequency δω is observed to be positive for t≲π/ωB; then δω changes sign...
Safaeepour, Zahra; Eshraghi, Arezoo; Geil, Mark
2017-08-01
Given the growing number of variable-damping prosthetic knee and ankle components and broad number of potential biomechanical outcomes, a systematic review is needed to assess advantages of damped knee and ankle units over non-damped prostheses. This study provides an overview of the biomechanical outcomes associated with the use of prosthetic knees and ankles with damping mechanisms in individuals with lower limb amputation. Literature review. A systematic search was performed through PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Scopus databases from June 1994 to March 2016. The level of evidence of each article was assessed using a 13-element checklist for evaluating non-randomized controlled trials for quality assessment. Afterward, the studies were classified as A-level, B-level, or C-level based on total score and positive scores from certain key categories. In total, 22 papers remained for the quality assessment based on the inclusion criteria. In total, 15 studies scored sufficiently high quality scores to be classified. One article scored as A-level, eight as B-level, and six as C-level. In total, 10 studied knees and 5 examined ankles. Sample sizes ranged from 5 to 28 subjects. Available studies were evaluated in detail and biomechanical outcomes were extracted from the studies that met criteria. Results of this review indicate that study methodology and outcome measures were heterogeneous across reviewed papers. This could be an explanation for inconsistent findings of the reviewed studies. Only self-selected gait speed showed a consistent difference when dampers were applied to the leg. Thus, further research is required in this area. Clinical relevance This study provides an overview of evidence related to prosthetic knee and foot/ankle components with damping attachments. Research related to biomechanical outcomes is of great importance for researchers and practitioners in this area. The studies drew mixed conclusions, but walking speed was
Root parsley protection against damping off
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bogdan Nowicki
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Seed treatment ofroot parsley was done to protect Petroselinum santivum seedlings against damping off. Fungicides used as seed dressers were applied in 3 doses: 3, 5 and 10 g/kg. Seeds were treated with 7 dressers (Table l used separately and in mixture with 3 g/kg of Rovral 50 WP (50% iprodione and 1 g/kg of Apron 35 SD (35% metalaxyl. Two seed samples of Berlińska cultivar were used: first sample was strongly infected by Alternaria petroselini and A.radicina both 27,6% and also by Fusarium spp. 5,4% (Test I, and second sample revealed lower percentage of infection 4,6% and 1,2%, respectively (Test II. The experiments were conducted under laboratory, glasshouse and field conditions. Complete seedlings protection in all experiments was achieved for treatments when fungicide mixture was used in the highest dose (10 g/kg. Decrease of fungicides concentrations were connected with lower effectiveness of disease control. No phytotoxic effects of the tested fungicide mixtures were observed under the glasshouse or field conditions.
Investigation of damping liquids for aircraft instruments
Keulegan, G H
1929-01-01
This report covers the results of an investigation carried on at the Bureau of Standards under a research authorization from, and with the financial assistance of, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The choice of a damping liquid for aircraft instruments is difficult owing to the range of temperature at which aircraft operate. Temperature changes affect the viscosity tremendously. The investigation was undertaken with the object of finding liquids of various viscosities otherwise suitable which had a minimum change in viscosity with temperature. The new data relate largely to solutions. The effect of temperature on the kinematic viscosity of the following liquids and solutions was determined in the temperature interval -18 degrees to +30 degrees C. (1) solutions of animal and vegetable oils in xylene. These were poppy-seed oil, two samples of neat's-foot oils, castor oil, and linseed oil. (2) solutions of mineral oil in xylene. These were Squibb's petrolatum of naphthene base and transformer oil. (3) glycerine solutions in ethyl alcohol and in mixture of 50-50 ethyl alcohol and water. (4) mixtures of normal butyl alcohol with methyl alcohol. (5) individual liquids, kerosene, mineral spirits, xylene, recoil oil. The apparatus consisted of four capillary-tube viscometers, which were immersed in a liquid bath in order to secure temperature control. The method of calibration and the related experimental data are presented.
Spring pendulum with dry and viscous damping
Butikov, Eugene I.
2015-01-01
Free and forced oscillations of a torsion spring pendulum damped by viscous and dry friction are investigated analytically and with the help of numerical simulations. A simplified mathematical model is assumed (Coulomb law) which nevertheless can explain many peculiarities in behavior of various oscillatory systems with dry friction. The amplitude of free oscillations diminishes under dry friction linearly, and the motion stops after a final number of cycles. The amplitude of sinusoidally driven pendulum with dry friction grows at resonance without limit if the threshold is exceeded. At strong enough non-resonant sinusoidal forcing dry friction causes transients that typically lead to definite limit cycles - periodic steady-state regimes of symmetric non-sticking forced oscillations which are independent of initial conditions. However, at the subharmonic sinusoidal forcing interesting peculiarities of the steady-state response are revealed such as multiple coexisting regimes of asymmetric oscillations that depend on initial conditions. Under certain conditions simple dry friction pendulum shows complicated stick-slip motions and chaos.
Loss of Landau Damping for Bunch Oscillations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burov, A.; /Fermilab
2011-04-11
Conditions for the existence, uniqueness and stability of self-consistent bunch steady states are considered. For the existence and uniqueness problems, simple algebraic criteria are derived for both the action and Hamiltonian domain distributions. For the stability problem, van Kampen theory is used. The onset of a discrete van Kampen mode means the emergence of a coherent mode without any Landau damping; thus, even a tiny couple-bunch or multi-turn wake is sufficient to drive the instability. The method presented here assumes an arbitrary impedance, RF shape, and beam distribution function. Available areas on the intensity-emittance plane are shown for resistive wall wake and single harmonic, bunch shortening and bunch lengthening RF configurations. Thresholds calculated for the Tevatron parameters and impedance model are in agreement with the observations. These thresholds are found to be extremely sensitive to the small-argument behaviour of the bunch distribution function. Accordingly, a method to increase the LLD threshold is suggested. This article summarizes and extends recent author's publications.
Ion Landau Damping on Drift Tearing Modes
Connor, J W; Zocco, A
2012-01-01
The equations governing the ion Landau damping (ILD) layers for a drift tearing mode are derived and solved to provide a matching to ideal MHD solutions at large $x$ and to the drift tearing solution emerging from the ion kinetic region, $k\\rho_{i}\\sim1$, at small $x,$ the distance from the rational surface. The ILD layers lie on either side of the mode rational surface at locations defined by $k_{y}xV_{Ti}/L_{s}=\\omega_{*e}(1+0.73\\eta_{e})$ and have been ignored in many previous analyses of linear drift tearing stability. The effect of the ILD layer on the drift tearing mode is to introduce an additional stabilizing contribution, requiring even larger values of the stability index, $\\Delta^{\\prime}$ for instability, than predicted by Connor Hastie and Zocco [PPCF,54, 035003, (2012)] and Cowley, Kulsrud and Hahm [Phys. Fluids,29, 3230, (1986)]. The magnitude and scaling of the new stabilizing effect in slab geometry is discussed.
Determining the effective system damping of highway bridges.
2009-06-01
This project investigates four methods for modeling modal damping ratios of short-span and isolated : concrete bridges subjected to strong ground motion, which can be used for bridge seismic analysis : and design based on the response spectrum method...
Elasticity modulus and damping ratio of macaw palm rachillas
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Villar, Flora Maria de Melo; Pinto, Francisco de Assis de Carvalho; Santos, Fábio Lúcio; Grossi, José Antônio Saraiva; Velloso, Nara Silveira
2017-01-01
.... Thus, this study seeks to determine the modulus of elasticity and the damping ratio of four different plant accessions obtained from the Active Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV...
Breathing pulses in the damped-soliton model for nerves
Fongang Achu, G.; Moukam Kakmeni, F. M.; Dikande, A. M.
2018-01-01
Unlike the Hodgkin-Huxley picture in which the nerve impulse results from ion exchanges across the cell membrane through ion-gate channels, in the so-called soliton model the impulse is seen as an electromechanical process related to thermodynamical phenomena accompanying the generation of the action potential. In this work, account is taken of the effects of damping on the nerve impulse propagation, within the framework of the soliton model. Applying the reductive perturbation expansion on the resulting KdV-Burgers equation, a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived and shown to admit breathing-type solitary wave solutions. Under specific constraints, these breathing pulse solitons become self-trapped structures in which the damping is balanced by nonlinearity such that the pulse amplitude remains unchanged even in the presence of damping.
Mimicking an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre Gaussian Modes
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-10-01
Full Text Available An amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes is presented. Experimentally the action of the channel on LG modes is in good agreement with that predicted theoretically....
Nonlinear damped Schrodinger equation in two space dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarek Saanouni
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study the initial value problem for a semi-linear damped Schrodinger equation with exponential growth nonlinearity in two space dimensions. We show global well-posedness and exponential decay.
Projectile Motion with Quadratic Damping in a Constant ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 5. Projectile Motion with Quadratic Damping in a Constant Gravitational Field. Chandra Das Dhiranjan Roy. General Article Volume 19 Issue 5 May 2014 pp 446-465 ...
Extracting Damping Ratio from Dynamic Data and Numerical Solutions
Casiano, M. J.
2016-01-01
There are many ways to extract damping parameters from data or models. This Technical Memorandum provides a quick reference for some of the more common approaches used in dynamics analysis. Described are six methods of extracting damping from data: the half-power method, logarithmic decrement (decay rate) method, an autocorrelation/power spectral density fitting method, a frequency response fitting method, a random decrement fitting method, and a newly developed half-quadratic gain method. Additionally, state-space models and finite element method modeling tools, such as COMSOL Multiphysics (COMSOL), provide a theoretical damping via complex frequency. Each method has its advantages which are briefly noted. There are also likely many other advanced techniques in extracting damping within the operational modal analysis discipline, where an input excitation is unknown; however, these approaches discussed here are objective, direct, and can be implemented in a consistent manner.
Damping of Torsional Beam Vibrations by Control of Warping Displacement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Hoffmeyer, David; Ejlersen, Christian
2016-01-01
Supplemental damping of torsional beam vibrations is considered by viscous bimoments acting on the axial warping displacement at the beam supports. The concept is illustrated by solving the governing eigenvalue problem for various support configurations with the applied bimoments represented...
Mooring line damping estimation for a floating wind turbine.
Qiao, Dongsheng; Ou, Jinping
2014-01-01
The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT). Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design.
Mooring Line Damping Estimation for a Floating Wind Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongsheng Qiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic responses of mooring line serve important functions in the station keeping of a floating wind turbine (FWT. Mooring line damping significantly influences the global motions of a FWT. This study investigates the estimation of mooring line damping on the basis of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 MW offshore wind turbine model that is mounted on the ITI Energy barge. A numerical estimation method is derived from the energy absorption of a mooring line resulting from FWT motion. The method is validated by performing a 1/80 scale model test. Different parameter changes are analyzed for mooring line damping induced by horizontal and vertical motions. These parameters include excitation amplitude, excitation period, and drag coefficient. Results suggest that mooring line damping must be carefully considered in the FWT design.
Ultra-low damping in lift-off structured yttrium iron garnet thin films
Krysztofik, A.; Coy, L. E.; Kuświk, P.; Załeski, K.; Głowiński, H.; Dubowik, J.
2017-11-01
We show that using maskless photolithography and the lift-off technique, patterned yttrium iron garnet thin films possessing ultra-low Gilbert damping can be accomplished. The films of 70 nm thickness were grown on (001)-oriented gadolinium gallium garnet by means of pulsed laser deposition, and they exhibit high crystalline quality, low surface roughness, and the effective magnetization of 127 emu/cm3. The Gilbert damping parameter is as low as 5 ×10-4. The obtained structures have well-defined sharp edges which along with good structural and magnetic film properties pave a path in the fabrication of high-quality magnonic circuits and oxide-based spintronic devices.
Dynamics of vibration isolation system with rubber-cord-pneumatic spring with damping throttle
Burian, Yu A.; Silkov, M. V.
2017-06-01
The study refers to the important area of applied mechanics; it is the theory of vibration isolation of vibroactive facilities. The design and the issues of mathematical modeling of pneumatic spring perspective design made on the basis of rubber-cord shell with additional volume connected with its primary volume by means of throttle passageway are considered in the text. Damping at the overflow of air through the hole limits the amplitude of oscillation at resonance. But in contrast to conventional systems with viscous damping it does not increase transmission ratio at high frequencies. The mathematical model of suspension allowing selecting options to reduce the power transmission ratio on the foundation, especially in the high frequency range is obtained
Ma, Q.; Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Wygant, J.
2017-12-01
Satellite observations of a significant population of very oblique chorus waves in the outer radiation belt have fueled considerable interest in the effects of these waves on energetic electron scattering and acceleration. However, corresponding diffusion rates are extremely sensitive to the refractive index N, controlled by hot plasma effects including Landau damping and wave dispersion modifications by suprathermal (15-100 eV) electrons. A combined investigation of wave and electron distribution characteristics obtained from the Van Allen Probes shows that peculiarities of the measured electron distribution significantly reduce Landau damping, allowing wave propagation with high N ˜ 100-200. Further comparing measured refractive indexes with theoretical estimates incorporating hot plasma corrections to the wave dispersion, we provide the first experimental demonstration that suprathermal electrons indeed control the upper limit of the refractive index of highly oblique whistler mode waves. Such results further support the importance of incorporating very oblique waves into radiation belt models.
Soil Damping at Walney 2 Offshore Wind Farm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Lars
The present report presents the results of a finite-element analysis carried out in order to quantify the soil damping for a specific offshore wind turbine to be placed at the Walney 2 site.......The present report presents the results of a finite-element analysis carried out in order to quantify the soil damping for a specific offshore wind turbine to be placed at the Walney 2 site....
Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-09-15
The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.
Effects of extreme wind shear on aeroelastic modal damping of wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skjoldan, P.F.; Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2013-01-01
to stall. The first longitudinal tower mode decreases slightly in damping, whereas the first flapwise backward whirling and symmetric modes increase in damping. This change in damping is attributed to an interaction between the periodic blade mode shapes and the azimuth-dependent local aerodynamic damping...
Improving capacitance/damping ratio in a capacitive MEMS transducer
Dias, Rosana A.; Rocha, Luis A.
2014-01-01
Damping forces play an important role in capacitive MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) behavior, and typical damper design (parallel-plates) cannot address the design conflict between increase in electrical capacitance and damping reduction. Squeeze-film damping in in-plane parallel-plate MEMS is discussed here and a novel damper geometry for gap-varying parallel-plates is introduced and used to increase the capacitance/damping ratio. The new geometry is compared with a typical parallel-plate design for an silicon-on-insulator process (25 µm thick) and experimental data shows an approximate 25% to 50% reduction for the damping coefficient in structures with 500 µm long dampers (for a gap variation between 0.75 and 3.75 µm), in agreement with computational fluid dynamics simulations, without significantly affecting the capacitance value (∼4% reduction). Preliminary simulations to study the role of the different geometric parameters involved in the improved geometry are also performed and reveal that the channel width is the most critical value for effective damping reduction.
Computational fluid mechanics utilizing the variational principle of modeling damping seals
Abernathy, J. M.
1986-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics code for application to traditional incompressible flow problems has been developed. The method is actually a slight compressibility approach which takes advantage of the bulk modulus and finite sound speed of all real fluids. The finite element numerical analog uses a dynamic differencing scheme based, in part, on a variational principle for computational fluid dynamics. The code was developed in order to study the feasibility of damping seals for high speed turbomachinery. Preliminary seal analyses have been performed.
Active Damping Techniques for LCL-Filtered Inverters-Based Microgrids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lorzadeh, Iman; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein
2015-01-01
LCL-type filters are widely used in gridconnected voltage source inverters, since it provides switching ripples reduction with lower cost and weight than the L-type counterpart. However, the inclusion of LCL-filters in voltage source inverters complicates the current control design regarding syst...... the different active damping approaches for grid-connected inverters with LCL filters, which are based on high-order filters and additional feedbacks methods. These techniques are analyzed and discussed in detail....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sperling, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fletcher, L. B. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chung, H. -K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gamboa, E. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Omarbakiyeva, Y. [International IT Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan); Univ. Rostock (Germany); Reinholz, H. [Univ. Rostock (Germany);
2016-03-29
We measure the highly-resolved inelastic x-ray scattering spectrum of isochorically ultrafast heated aluminum. In the x-ray forward scattering spectra the electron temperature could be measured from the down- and upshifted plasmon, where the electron density of ne = 1:8 1023 cm^{3} is known a priori. We have studied the plasmon damping by applying electron-particle collision models beyond the Born approximation determining the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum.
Effects of damping on the low-frequency acoustics of listening rooms based on an analytical model
Dance, Stephen M.; Van Buuren, Gil
2013-12-01
A study of the effects of damping on the low-frequency acoustics of listening rooms has been undertaken. The study was carried out using a new numerical implementation of an analytical solution based on a model developed by Bistafa and Morrissey. The model was designed to simulate the sound field in rectangular enclosures below the Schroeder cut-off frequency. Four hypothetical rooms were studied, a lightly damped room, a well damped room, a statistically compliant European Broadcast Union control room and a compliant European Broadcast Union control room. The most important result from the study using the proposed model was the influence of modes above the Schroeder cut-off frequency on reverberation time. This was caused by the variations in damping between mode types and variations in the modal coupling between the source and receiver. The research suggests that Schroeder's 1954 cut-off frequency for the influence of modes was more correct for highly damped rooms, in comparison with the Schroeder's 1964 relation.
Damping of toroidal ion temperature gradient modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
1999-04-01
The temporal evolution of linear toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes is studied based on a kinetic integral equation including an initial condition. It is shown how to evaluate the analytic continuation of the integral kernel as a function of a complex-valued frequency, which is useful for analytical and numerical calculations of the asymptotic damping behavior of the ITG mode. In the presence of the toroidal {nabla}B-curvature drift, the temporal dependence of the density and potential perturbations consists of normal modes and a continuum mode, which correspond to contributions from poles and from an integral along a branch cut, respectively, of the Laplace-transformed potential function of the complex-valued frequency. The normal modes have exponential time dependence with frequencies and growth rates determined by the dispersion relation while the continuum mode, which has a ballooning structure, shows a power law decay {proportional_to} t{sup -2} in the asymptotic limit, where t is the time variable. Therefore, the continuum mode dominantly describes the long-time asymptotic behavior of the density and potential perturbations for the stable system where all normal modes have negative growth rates. By performing proper analytic continuation for the homogeneous version of the kinetic integral equation, dependences of the normal modes` growth rate, real frequency, and eigenfunction on {eta}{sub i} (the ratio of the ion temperature gradient to the density gradient), k{sub {theta}} (the poloidal wavenumber), s (the magnetic shear parameter), and {theta}{sub k} (the ballooning angle corresponding to the minimum radial wavenumber) are numerically obtained for both stable and unstable cases. (author)
Active damping of LLCL-filter resonance based on LC-trap voltage and capacitor current feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang
2015-01-01
of the equivalent impedance with and without the delay effect of an LLCL-filter based grid-connected inverter. Their corresponding equivalent circuits for the purpose of resonance damping are given to identify whether the feedback coefficient should be negative or positive for the different state-feedback methods....... In this paper, different feedback coefficients like the proportional, derivative, integral, high pass and low pass feedback coefficients of the filter capacitor current and the LC-trap circuit voltage are investigated for damping the filter resonance. Active damping methods are analyzed by using the concept....... Then the stability of the different methods and the design of the feedback coefficient are analyzed and compared using root loci. Finally, experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis....
Lioutas, Georgios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos
2018-01-01
Existing estimates of the gravitational-wave damping timescale of the dominant quadrupole oscillation mode in the case of rapidly rotating stars are based on using a Newtonian estimate for the energy of the mode, in combination with the lowest-order post-Newtonian quadrupole formula for estimating the gravitational-wave luminosity. We investigate a number of other choices for estimating the gravitational-wave damping timescale in the nonrotating limit and construct a highly accurate, empirically corrected formula that has a maximum relative error of only 3% with respect to the perturbative result in full general relativity. The expressions involved are sufficiently general to be extended to the case of rapidly rotating stars. We also present a new higher-order empirical relation for the gravitational-wave damping timescale of quadrupole oscillations that is accurate in the whole range of expected values for the compactness of neutron stars, without the need for involving the moment of inertia.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang
2014-01-01
in a digital control system. The instability induced by the negative virtual resistance, which is commonly experienced in the feedback-type active damping, can thus be avoided. A systematic design method of the highpass filter is also proposed by the help of root locus analysis in the discrete z-domain. Lastly......This paper investigates the active damping of LCL-filter resonance within single-loop grid current control of grid-connected voltage source converters. First, the basic analysis in the continuous s-domain reveals that the grid-current-feedback active damping forms a virtual impedance across...... the grid-side inductor, and the use of a high-pass filter with a negative sign shapes the virtual impedance by an RL damper paralleled by a negative inductance. It is further found that such a negative virtual inductance plays a critical role in mitigating the phase lag caused by the time delay...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ting-Chia Ou
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This paper endeavors to apply a novel intelligent damping controller (NIDC for the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM to reduce the power fluctuations, voltage support and damping in a hybrid power multi-system. In this paper, we discuss the integration of an offshore wind farm (OWF and a seashore wave power farm (SWPF via a high-voltage, alternating current (HVAC electric power transmission line that connects the STATCOM and the 12-bus hybrid power multi-system. The hybrid multi-system consists of a battery energy storage system (BESS and a micro-turbine generation (MTG. The proposed NIDC consists of a designed proportional–integral–derivative (PID linear controller, an adaptive critic network and a proposed functional link-based novel recurrent fuzzy neural network (FLNRFNN. Test results show that the proposed controller can achieve better damping characteristics and effectively stabilize the network under unstable conditions.
A study of energy correction for the electron beam data in the BGO ECAL of the DAMPE
Li, Zhiying; Wei, Yifeng; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Yunlong; Wen, Sicheng; Wang, Xiaolian; Xu, Zizong; Huang, Guangshun
2015-01-01
The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an orbital experiment aiming at searching for dark matter indirectly by measuring the spectra of photons, electrons and positrons originating from deep space. The BGO electromagnetic calorimeter is one of the key sub-detectors of the DAMPE, which is designed for high energy measurement with a large dynamic range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. In this paper, some methods for energy correction are discussed and tried, in order to reconstruct the primary energy of the incident electrons. Different methods are chosen for the appropriate energy ranges. The results of Geant4 simulation and beam test data (at CERN) are presented.
Beam-based alignment at the KEK-ATF damping ring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Woodley, Mark D.; Nelson, Janice; Ross, Marc; Turner, James; Wolski, A.; Kubo, Kiyoshi
2004-06-30
The damping rings of a future linear collider will have demanding alignment and stability requirements in order to achieve the low vertical emittance necessary for high luminosity. The Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK has successfully demonstrated the vertical emittance below 5 pm that is specified for the GLC/NLC Main Damping Rings. One contribution to this accomplishment has been the use of Beam Based Alignment (BBA) techniques. The mode of operation of the ATF presents particular challenges for BBA, and we describe here how we have deduced the offsets of the BPMs with respect to the quadrupoles. We also discuss a technique that allows for direct measurements of the beam-to-quad offsets.
A macromodel for squeeze-film air damping in the free-molecule regime
Hong, Gang
2010-01-07
A three-dimensional Monte Carlo(MC) simulation approach is developed for the accurate prediction of the squeeze-film air damping on microresonators in the free-molecule gas regime. Based on the MC simulations and the analytical traveling-time distribution, a macromodel, which relates air damping directly with device dimensions and operation parameters, is constructed. This model provides an efficient tool for the design of high-performance microresonators. The accuracy of the macromodel is validated through the modeling of the quality factors of several microresonators. It has been found that the relative errors of the quality factors of two resonators, as compared with experimental data, are 3.9% and 5.7%, respectively. The agreements between the macromodel results and MC simulation results, on the other hand, are excellent in all cases considered.
Beam dynamics and wakefield suppression in interleaved damped and detuned structures for CLIC
D'Elia, A; Khan, V F; Jones, R M; Latina, A; Nesmiyan, I; Riddone, G
2013-01-01
Acceleration of multiple bunches of charged particles in the main linacs of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) with high accelerating fields provides two major challenges: firstly, to ensure the surface electromagnetic fields do not cause electrical breakdown and subsequent surface damage, and secondly, to ensure the beam-excited wakefields are sufficiently suppressed to avoid appreciable emittance dilution. In the baseline design for CLIC, heavy wakefield suppression is used (Q ~ 10) [1] and this ensures the beam quality is well-preserved [2]. Here we discuss an alternative means to suppress the wakefield which relies on strong detuning of the cell dipole frequencies, together with moderate damping, effected by manifolds which are slot-coupled to each accelerating cell. This damped and detuned wakefield suppression scheme is based on the methodology developed for the Japanese Linear Collider/Next Linear Collider (JLC/NLC) [3]. Here we track the multi-bunch beam down the complete collider, u...
Damping of Low Frequency Power System Oscillations with Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz
to continue. Especially wind power is seen as one of the main players on the energy markets of the future. However, to ensure seamless integration of high amount of non-synchronous generation, transmission system operators have specified a number of connection requirements. These requirements have pushed......-synchronous power source. The main body of the work is devoted to the damping control design for wind power plants with focus on the impact of such control on the plant operation. It can be expected that the referred impact is directly proportional to the control effort, which for power processing devices should...... or effectiveness of the WPP based concept. Consequently, these three factors are chosen as the focal points for this thesis. Comprehensive consideration is given to the selection of input signals for power oscillation damping controller. Studies show that remote signals from power system, like tie-line power flow...
SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS OF A HEAVILY HOM-DAMPED MULTI-CELL SRF CAVITY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haipeng Wang; Robert Rimmer; Frank Marhauser
2007-07-02
After an initial cavity shape optimization [1] and cryomodule development [2] for an Ampere-class FEL ERL, we have simulated a complete 5-cell high-current (HC) cavity structure with six waveguide (WG) couplers for Higher Order Mode (HOM) damping and fundamental power coupling. The time-domain wakefield simulations of the MAFIA codes have been used to calculate the cavities broadband HOM impedance spectrum. Microwave Studio (MWS) has also been used to evaluate the external Q of the fundamental power coupler (FPC) and the R/Qs of the HOMs. A half scale 1497MHz single-cell model cavity and a 5-cell copper cavity including dummy HOM WG loads were fabricated to bench measure and confirm the design performance. Details of the multi-beam wakefield simulations, the HOM damping measurements and multi-peak data fitting analysis techniques are presented.
Dynamic soil-pile-interaction effects on eigenfrequency and damping of slender structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zania, Varvara
2014-01-01
of the dynamic soil-pile-interaction on the natural vibration characteristics of the flexibly supported structure. For this purpose a two-step iterative procedure has been developed based on two analytical solutions. The frequency dependent dynamic stiffness and damping coefficients are taken into consideration......-conservative overestimation of the eigenfrequency and underestimation of damping especially for small slenderness ratios and high flexibility factor of the soil – pile system (short, rigid piles). The observed trends become even more prominent as the height of the slender structure increases. The effect of the monopile...... foundation properties on the natural vibration characteristics was also examined. The influence of the frequency dependent impedances was proven significant, since the modified SSI eigenfrequency decreased substantially, when the structural eigenfrequency was set between the first and the second...
First Demonstration of Electrostatic Damping of Parametric Instability at Advanced LIGO
Blair, Carl; Gras, Slawek; Abbott, Richard; Aston, Stuart; Betzwieser, Joseph; Blair, David; DeRosa, Ryan; Evans, Matthew; Frolov, Valera; Fritschel, Peter; Grote, Hartmut; Hardwick, Terra; Liu, Jian; Lormand, Marc; Miller, John; Mullavey, Adam; O'Reilly, Brian; Zhao, Chunnong; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, T. D.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Ananyeva, A.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Batch, J. C.; Bell, A. S.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biscans, S.; Biwer, C.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Countryman, S. T.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Danzmann, K.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Daw, E. J.; DeBra, D.; DeSalvo, R.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Driggers, J. C.; Dwyer, S. E.; Effler, A.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fair, H.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Fisher, R. P.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gray, C.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanson, J.; Harry, G. M.; Heintze, M. C.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hough, J.; Izumi, K.; Jones, R.; Kandhasamy, S.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kijbunchoo, N.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kuehn, G.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lundgren, A. P.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Mendell, G.; Merilh, E. L.; Meyers, P. M.; Mittleman, R.; Moreno, G.; Mueller, G.; Munch, J.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Palamos, J. R.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Phelps, M.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I.; Principe, M.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Raab, F. J.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Robertson, N. A.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romie, J. H.; Rowan, S.; Ryan, K.; Sadecki, T.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Savage, R. L.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Sellers, D.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sigg, D.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Sorazu, B.; Staley, A.; Strain, K. A.; Tanner, D. B.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Torrie, C. I.; Traylor, G.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Vo, T.; Vorvick, C.; Walker, M.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Weaver, B.; Weiss, R.; Weßels, P.; Willke, B.; Wipf, C. C.; Worden, J.; Wu, G.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Zhang, L.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LSC Instrument Authors
2017-04-01
Interferometric gravitational wave detectors operate with high optical power in their arms in order to achieve high shot-noise limited strain sensitivity. A significant limitation to increasing the optical power is the phenomenon of three-mode parametric instabilities, in which the laser field in the arm cavities is scattered into higher-order optical modes by acoustic modes of the cavity mirrors. The optical modes can further drive the acoustic modes via radiation pressure, potentially producing an exponential buildup. One proposed technique to stabilize parametric instability is active damping of acoustic modes. We report here the first demonstration of damping a parametrically unstable mode using active feedback forces on the cavity mirror. A 15 538 Hz mode that grew exponentially with a time constant of 182 sec was damped using electrostatic actuation, with a resulting decay time constant of 23 sec. An average control force of 0.03 nN was required to maintain the acoustic mode at its minimum amplitude.
A composite passive damping method of the LLCL-filter based grid-tied inverter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Weimin; Huang, Min; Sun, Yunjie
2012-01-01
This paper investigates the maximum and the minimum gain of the proportional resonant based grid current controller for a grid-tied inverter with a passive damped high-order power filter. It is found that the choice of the controller gain is limited to the local maximum amplitude determined by Q......-factor around the characteristic frequency of the filter and grid impedance. To obtain the Q-factor of a high-order system, an equivalent circuit analysis method is proposed and illustrated through several classical passive damped LCL- and LLCL-filters. It is shown that both the RC parallel damper...... that is in parallel with the capacitor of the LCL-filter or with the Lf-Cf resonant circuit of the LLCL-filter, and the RL series damper in series with the grid-side inductor have their own application limits. Thus, a composite passive damped LLCL-filter for the grid-tied inverter is proposed, which can effectively...
Damping Force Tracking Control of MR Damper System Using a New Direct Adaptive Fuzzy Controller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuan Phu Do
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new direct adaptive fuzzy controller and its effectiveness is verified by investigating the damping force tracking control of magnetorheological (MR fluid based damper (MR damper in short system. In the formulation of the proposed controller, a model of interval type 2 fuzzy controller is combined with the direct adaptive control to achieve high performance in vibration control. In addition, H∞ (H infinity tracking technique is used in building a model of the direct adaptive fuzzy controller in which an enhanced iterative algorithm is combined with the fuzzy model. After establishing a closed-loop control structure to achieve high control performance, a cylindrical MR damper is adopted and damping force tracking results are obtained and discussed. In addition, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy, two existing controllers are modified and tested for comparative work. It has been demonstrated from simulation and experiment that the proposed control scheme provides much better control performance in terms of damping force tracking error. This leads to excellent vibration control performance of the semiactive MR damper system associated with the proposed controller.
Consequences of eccentricity and inclination damping for the in-situ formation of STIPs
Granados Contreras, Agueda Paula
2017-10-01
In Boley, Granados, and Gladman (2016), we proposed that hot and warm Jupiters could form in-situ from the consolidation of planets in meta-stable, high-multiplicity System with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs) in the presence of gas. Under this hypothesis, the timing of instability within the STIP relative to the gas depletion timescale can lead to a wide range of planetary diversity, from short-orbital period gas giants to high-density, massive planets. The simulations used Kepler-11 as a base and assumed that a gas giant could form if instability in the gaseous disc led to the consolidation of a 10 Mearth core. The results showed that such consolidation could work, in principle. However, in the simulations we excluded the effects of eccentricity and inclination damping. We present new simulations that explore this effect on the consolidation paradigm. For the parameters so far explored, gas damping significantly increases the stability of the system, although consolidation does occur in some cases. We further find that the eccentricity damping can lead to the formation of stable co-orbiting planets, although this is a rare outcome. Briefly, we explore the implications of the detection of transiting co-orbital planets.
Consequences of eccentricity and inclination damping for the in-situ formation of STIPs
Granados Contreras, Agueda Paula
2018-01-01
In Boley, Granados, and Gladman (2016), we proposed that hot and warm Jupiters could form in-situ from the consolidation of planets in meta-stable, high-multiplicity System with Tightly-packed Inner Planets (STIPs) in the presence of gas. Under this hypothesis, the timing of instability within the STIP relative to the gas depletion timescale can lead to a wide range of planetary diversity, from short-orbital period gas giants to high-density, massive planets. The simulations used Kepler-11 as a base and assumed that a gas giant could form if instability in the gaseous disc led to the consolidation of a 10 Mearth core. The results showed that such consolidation could work, in principle. However, in the simulations we excluded the effects of eccentricity and inclination damping. We present new simulations that explore this effect on the consolidation paradigm. For the parameters so far explored, gas damping significantly increases the stability of the system, although consolidation does occur in some cases. We further find that the eccentricity damping can lead to the formation of stable co-orbiting planets, although this is a rare outcome. Briefly, we explore the implications of the detection of transiting co-orbital planets.
SBS symptoms in relation to dampness and ventilation in inspected single-family houses in Sweden.
Smedje, Greta; Wang, Juan; Norbäck, Dan; Nilsson, Håkan; Engvall, Karin
2017-06-17
To investigate the relationships between symptoms compatible with the sick building syndrome (SBS) in adults and building dampness and ventilation in single-family houses. Within the Swedish BETSI study, a national sample of single-family houses were inspected by professional building experts, and adults living in the houses answered a questionnaire on SBS. Relationships between building factors and SBS were analysed using logistic regression. Of the respondents, 23% reported having had weekly SBS symptoms during the last three months. A large proportion of houses exhibited building or construction problems. In total, 40% of houses had dampness problems in the foundation, and this was related to a higher prevalence of both mucous and dermal symptoms, and any SBS symptoms. Furthermore, high air humidity was related to more symptoms, with the relationship with absolute humidity being stronger than that with relative humidity or moisture load. Symptoms were also more prevalent in houses with a high U value, reflecting a poor thermal insulation. Compared to natural ventilation, living in a house with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation was related to a lower prevalence of general symptoms and any SBS symptoms, but there were only weak associations between measured air exchange rate and symptoms. A large proportion of single-family houses have dampness problems in the foundation, and pollutants may enter the living space of the house and affect the health of the occupants. Furthermore, absolute air humidity should be measured more often in indoor air studies.
Saw-tooth instability studies at the Stanford Linear Collider damping rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podobedov, B.
1999-12-14
Saw-tooth instability occurs during high current operation in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) damping rings. This instability is single bunch, and it can be cast as a longitudinal microwave instability. It is caused by the beam interaction with short range wakefields in the ring vacuum chamber. The saw-tooth instability manifests itself in the periodic blow-up in quadruple or higher moments in the longitudinal beam distribution. Most of the instability studies have been experimental. Since the measurements of coherent particle motion within a short ultrarelativistic beam are largely unconventional the authors had to develop some original diagnostics. These includes, for example, the down-conversion of the high frequency ({approximately}10 GHz) broad-band beam position monitor (BPM) signals. The authors have also employed a state-of-the-art Hamamatsu streak camera that is capable of resolving the longitudinal beam distribution with sub-picosecond accuracy. As a result of the streak camera experiments the authors have quantitatively described the phase space of unstable bunches. The authors have found the radial structure of the instability mode and established that it only displaces a few percent of the beam particles. In another series of experiments the authors have correlated the instability signals from the beams before the extraction from the damping rings with their trajectories in the linac downstream. This showed that the instability results in a significant transverse beam jitter in the linac which compromises the damping ring performance as an injector. In addition, the authors have studied the instability behavior under the broad range of stored beam parameters using both passive observation and driven excitation. These measurements revealed unexpected beam behavior significantly above the instability threshold. Finally, the authors performed several low current experiments to estimate the damping ring vacuum chamber impedance.
The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE
Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen
2016-07-01
The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.
Theoretical Investigation of the Viscous Damping Coefficient of Hydraulic Actuators
Huang, Ming-Hui; Pan, Qing; Li, Yi-Bo; Ma, Peng-Da; Ma, Jun
2017-07-01
The viscous damping coefficient (VDC) of hydraulic actuators is crucial for system modeling, control and dynamic characteristic analysis. Currently, the researches on hydraulic actuators focus on behavior assessment, promotion of control performance and efficiency. However, the estimation of the VDC is difficult due to a lack of study. Firstly, using two types of hydraulic cylinders, behaviors of the VDC are experimentally examined with velocities and pressure variations. For the tested plunger type hydraulic cylinder, the exponential model B = α υ^{ - β } ,(α > 0,β > 0) or B = α1 e^{{ - β1 υ }} + α2 e^{{ - β2 υ }} (α1 ,α2 > 0,β1 ,β2 > 0), fits the relation between the VDC and velocities for a given pressure of chamber with high precision. The magnitude of the VDC decreases almost linearly under certain velocities when increasing the chamber pressure from 0.6 MPa to 6.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effects of the chamber pressures on the VDC of piston and plunge type hydraulic cylinders are different due to different sealing types. In order to investigate the VDC of a plunger type hydraulic actuator drastically, a steady-state numerical model has been developed to describe the mechanism incorporating tandem seal lubrication, back-up ring related friction behaviors and shear stress of fluid. It is shown that the simulated results of VDC agree with the measured results with a good accuracy. The proposed method provides an instruction to predict the VDC in system modeling and analysis.
Damping Effects Induced by a Mass Moving along a Pendulum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Gandino
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The experimental study of damping in a time-varying inertia pendulum is presented. The system consists of a disk travelling along an oscillating pendulum: large swinging angles are reached, so that its equation of motion is not only time-varying but also nonlinear. Signals are acquired from a rotary sensor, but some remarks are also proposed as regards signals measured by piezoelectric or capacitive accelerometers. Time-varying inertia due to the relative motion of the mass is associated with the Coriolis-type effects appearing in the system, which can reduce and also amplify the oscillations. The analytical model of the pendulum is introduced and an equivalent damping ratio is estimated by applying energy considerations. An accurate model is obtained by updating the viscous damping coefficient in accordance with the experimental data. The system is analysed through the application of a subspace-based technique devoted to the identification of linear time-varying systems: the so-called short-time stochastic subspace identification (ST-SSI. This is a very simple method recently adopted for estimating the instantaneous frequencies of a system. In this paper, the ST-SSI method is demonstrated to be capable of accurately estimating damping ratios, even in the challenging cases when damping may turn to negative due to the Coriolis-type effects, thus causing amplifications of the system response.
DAMP-TLR-cytokine axis dictates the fate of tumor.
Patidar, Ashok; Selvaraj, Sathishkumar; Sarode, Aditya; Chauhan, Prashant; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Saha, Bhaskar
2017-10-09
Random mutations leading to loss of cell cycle control is not a rare occurrence in an organism but the mutated cells are recognized and eliminated preventing the development of a tumor. These potentially tumorigenic cells release damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages and dendritic cells. The initial TLR-DAMP interactions lead to different responses such as altered antigen presentation and cytokine release that directly affect T cell activation and removal of the tumorigenic cells. The indirect effects of TLR-DAMP interaction include chemokine-directed altered T cell trafficking, angiogenesis for both T cell infiltration and tumor cell metastasis, and alteration of intra-tumoral milieu contributing to the development of tumor cells heterogeneity. Thus, the initial TLR-DAMP interaction has a set of local effects that modulate tumor cell growth and heterogeneity and a disseminating set of central effects that dynamically affect T cell trafficking and functions. Herein, we argue that the DAMP-TLR-cytokine axis in the tumor microenvironment serves as the mainstay that orchestrates and regulates the pro- and anti-tumor elements which dynamically interact between themselves eventuating in tumor regression or growth. The knowledge of this TLR-based immuno-surveillance framework is a key to developing a novel immunotherapy against cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nonlinear wave damping due to multi-plasmon resonances
Brodin, G.; Ekman, R.; Zamanian, J.
2018-02-01
For short wavelengths, it is well known that the linearized Wigner–Moyal equation predicts wave damping due to wave-particle interaction, where the resonant velocity shifted from the phase velocity by a velocity {v}q={{\\hslash }}k/2m. Here {{\\hslash }} is the reduced Planck constant, k is the wavenumber and m is the electron mass. Going beyond linear theory, we find additional resonances with velocity shifts {{nv}}q,n=2,3, \\ldots , giving rise to a new wave-damping mechanism that we term multi-plasmon damping, as it can be seen as the simultaneous absorption (or emission) of multiple plasmon quanta. Naturally this wave damping is not present in classical plasmas. For a temperature well below the Fermi temperature, if the linear (n = 1) resonant velocity is outside the Fermi sphere, the number of linearly resonant particles is exponentially small, while the multi-plasmon resonances can be located in the bulk of the distribution. We derive sets of evolution equations for the case of two-plasmon and three-plasmon resonances for Langmuir waves in the simplest case of a fully degenerate plasma. By solving these equations numerically for a range of wave-numbers we find the corresponding damping rates, and we compare them to results from linear theory to estimate the applicability. Finally, we discuss the effects due to a finite temperature.
Study of modal coupling procedures for the shuttle: A matrix method for damping synthesis
Hasselman, T. K.
1972-01-01
The damping method was applied successfully to real structures as well as analytical models. It depends on the ability to determine an appropriate modal damping matrix for each substructure. In the past, modal damping matrices were assumed diagonal for lack of being able to determine the coupling terms which are significant in the general case of nonproportional damping. This problem was overcome by formulating the damped equations of motion as a linear perturbation of the undamped equations for light structural damping. Damped modes are defined as complex vectors derived from the complex frequency response vectors of each substructure and are obtained directly from sinusoidal vibration tests. The damped modes are used to compute first order approximations to the modal damping matrices. The perturbation approach avoids ever having to solve a complex eigenvalue problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heba I. Mohamed
2014-03-01
Full Text Available A greenhouse test was conducted in 2011 and 2012 growing seasons at Giza Agricultural Research Station to evaluate the reaction of six cotton genotypes to damping-off incited by Fusarium oxysporum. Damping-off incidence on the genotypes ranged from 70-88%. In general, the genotypes could be divided into highly susceptible, susceptible, and moderately susceptible. Data for damping-off incidence and level or activity of some biochemical components (phenols, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase were entered into a computerized linear regression analysis. The analysis contrasted seven predictive models by using the biochemical components, singly or in combination, as biochemical predictors. It was evident that models nos. 2 and 6 were the best models for predicting incidence of damping-off. The superiority of these models was attributed to their high RІ values (0.748 and 0.902, respectively and the significance of their F. values (P = 0.026 and P = 0.031, respectively. The results of the present study suggest that peroxidase alone or both peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase, which may or may not parts of damping-off resistance mechanisms, can be used as biochemical markers to predict resistance to damping-off incited by F. oxysporum.
A generalized plasma dispersion function for electron damping in tokamak plasmas
Berry, L. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Phillips, C. K.; Lau, C. H.; Bertelli, N.; Green, D. L.
2016-10-01
Radio frequency wave propagation in finite temperature, magnetized plasmas exhibits a wide range of physics phenomena. The plasma response is nonlocal in space and time, and numerous modes are possible with the potential for mode conversions and transformations. In addition, diffraction effects are important due to finite wavelength and finite-size wave launchers. Multidimensional simulations are required to describe these phenomena, but even with this complexity, the fundamental plasma response is assumed to be the uniform plasma response with the assumption that the local plasma current for a Fourier mode can be described by the "Stix" conductivity. However, for plasmas with non-uniform magnetic fields, the wave vector itself is nonlocal. When resolved into components perpendicular (k⊥) and parallel (k||) to the magnetic field, locality of the parallel component can easily be violated when the wavelength is large. The impact of this inconsistency is that estimates of the wave damping can be incorrect (typically low) due to unresolved resonances. For the case of ion cyclotron damping, this issue has already been addressed by including the effect of parallel magnetic field gradients. In this case, a modified plasma response (Z function) allows resonance broadening even when k|| = 0, and this improves the convergence and accuracy of wave simulations. In this paper, we extend this formalism to include electron damping and find improved convergence and accuracy for parameters where electron damping is dominant, such as high harmonic fast wave heating in the NSTX-U tokamak, and helicon wave launch for off-axis current drive in the DIII-D tokamak.
An application of eddy current damping effect on single point diamond turning of titanium alloys
Yip, W. S.; To, S.
2017-11-01
Titanium alloys Ti6Al4V (TC4) have been popularly applied in many industries. They have superior material properties including an excellent strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. However, they are regarded as difficult to cut materials; serious tool wear, a high level of cutting vibration and low surface integrity are always involved in machining processes especially in ultra-precision machining (UPM). In this paper, a novel hybrid machining technology using an eddy current damping effect is firstly introduced in UPM to suppress machining vibration and improve the machining performance of titanium alloys. A magnetic field was superimposed on samples during single point diamond turning (SPDT) by exposing the samples in between two permanent magnets. When the titanium alloys were rotated within a magnetic field in the SPDT, an eddy current was generated through a stationary magnetic field inside the titanium alloys. An eddy current generated its own magnetic field with the opposite direction of the external magnetic field leading a repulsive force, compensating for the machining vibration induced by the turning process. The experimental results showed a remarkable improvement in cutting force variation, a significant reduction in adhesive tool wear and an extreme long chip formation in comparison to normal SPDT of titanium alloys, suggesting the enhancement of the machinability of titanium alloys using an eddy current damping effect. An eddy current damping effect was firstly introduced in the area of UPM to deliver the results of outstanding machining performance.
Rozina, Ch.; Tsintsadze, N. L.; Madiha, M.; Zeba, I.
2017-05-01
A kinetic theory of the Jeans instability of a self gravitating dusty plasma has been developed in the presence of nonlinear Landau damping (NLD) term. We demonstrate that NLD alters the growth rate of the gravitational collapse of the gravitating dusty plasma. The dispersion relation of modified Jeans instability is obtained and analyzed for specific conditions. Jeans frequency is compared with the dust acoustic frequency; new definition of Jeans wave length is introduced. The maximum growth rate is obtained for a particular condition as well as the Jeans critical mass is defined. Next to address the heating of plasma through radiation processes, we investigate the nonlinear theory of high frequency electromagnetic waves (EMWs) in a collisionless dusty plasma by using a set of Vlasov-Poisson equations. The effects of the nonlocal nonlinear Landau term (appearing due to the nonlinear interaction of EMWs with gravitating dusty plasma) in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation are examined. It is found that nonlinear Landau damping of EMWs leads to transfer of effective energy to the plasma particles, the corresponding decay rate of EMWs appears to be a function of amplitude of electromagnetic pump waves, and damping can be faster in the presence of large ion number density.
Viscous damping of r-mode oscillations in compact stars with quark matter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaikumar, P.; Rupak, G.; Steiner, A. W.; Physics; Inst. of Mathematical Sciences; North Carolina State Univ.; Michigan State Univ.
2008-12-01
We determine characteristic time scales for the viscous damping of r-mode oscillations in rapidly rotating compact stars that contain quark matter. We present results for the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase of dense quark matter, in which the up, down, and strange quarks are gapped, as well as the normal (ungapped) quark phase. While the ungapped quark phase supports a temperature window 10{sup 8} K < = T < = 5 x 10{sup 9} K where the r mode is damped even for rapid rotation, the r mode in a rapidly rotating pure CFL star is not damped in the temperature range 10{sup 10} K < = T < = 10{sup 11} K. Rotating hybrid stars with quark matter cores display an instability window whose width is determined by the amount of quark matter present, and they can have large spin frequencies outside this window. Except at high temperatures T > = 10{sup 10} K, the presence of a quark phase allows for larger critical frequencies and smaller spin periods compared to rotating neutron stars. If low-mass x-ray binaries contain a large amount of ungapped or CFL quark matter, then our estimates of the r-mode instability suggest that there should be a population of rapidly rotating binaries at nu > {approx} 1000 Hz which have not yet been observed.
A Squeeze-film Damping Model for the Circular Torsion Micro-resonators
Yang, Fan; Li, Pu
2017-07-01
In recent years, MEMS devices are widely used in many industries. The prediction of squeeze-film damping is very important for the research of high quality factor resonators. In the past, there have been many analytical models predicting the squeeze-film damping of the torsion micro-resonators. However, for the circular torsion micro-plate, the works over it is very rare. The only model presented by Xia et al[7] using the method of eigenfunction expansions. In this paper, The Bessel series solution is used to solve the Reynolds equation under the assumption of the incompressible gas of the gap, the pressure distribution of the gas between two micro-plates is obtained. Then the analytical expression for the damping constant of the device is derived. The result of the present model matches very well with the finite element method (FEM) solutions and the result of Xia’s model, so the present models’ accuracy is able to be validated.
Breatherlike excitations in discrete lattices with noise and nonlinear damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus
1997-01-01
are included as multiplicative white noise and nonlinear damping. Numerical analysis shows that the lifetime of the breather is always finite and, in a large parameter regime, inversely proportional to the noise variance for fixed damping and nonlinearity. We also find that the decay rate of the breather...... decreases with increasing nonlinearity and with increasing damping. Using a collective-coordinate approximation, we show how the qualitative features of the numerical results can be analytically understood. Finally, in the dimer case we show that the multiplicative noise can be transformed into additive...... noise, and an exact stationary solution to the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained. From this solution, the dimer system is found to exhibit a noise (temperature) induced phase transition....
Damping of prominence longitudinal oscillations due to mass accretion
Ruderman, Michael S.; Luna, Manuel
2016-06-01
We study the damping of longitudinal oscillations of a prominence thread caused by the mass accretion. We suggested a simple model describing this phenomenon. In this model we considered a thin curved magnetic tube filled with the plasma. The prominence thread is in the central part of the tube and it consists of dense cold plasma. The parts of the tube at the two sides of the thread are filled with hot rarefied plasma. We assume that there are flows of rarefied plasma toward the thread caused by the plasma evaporation at the magnetic tube footpoints. Our main assumption is that the hot plasma is instantaneously accommodated by the thread when it arrives at the thread, and its temperature and density become equal to those of the thread. Then we derive the system of ordinary differential equations describing the thread dynamics. We solve this system of ordinary differential equations in two particular cases. In the first case we assume that the magnetic tube is composed of an arc of a circle with two straight lines attached to its ends such that the whole curve is smooth. A very important property of this model is that the equations describing the thread oscillations are linear for any oscillation amplitude. We obtain the analytical solution of the governing equations. Then we obtain the analytical expressions for the oscillation damping time and periods. We find that the damping time is inversely proportional to the accretion rate. The oscillation periods increase with time. We conclude that the oscillations can damp in a few periods if the inclination angle is sufficiently small, not larger that 10°, and the flow speed is sufficiently large, not less that 30 km s-1. In the second model we consider the tube with the shape of an arc of a circle. The thread oscillates with the pendulum frequency dependent exclusively on the radius of curvature of the arc. The damping depends on the mass accretion rate and the initial mass of the threads, that is the mass of the
Damping augmentation of helicopter rotors using magnetorheological dampers
Zhao, Yongsheng
This dissertation describes an investigation exploring the use of magnetorheological (MR) dampers to augment the stability of helicopter rotors. Helicopters with advanced soft in-plane rotors are susceptible to ground resonance instabilities due to the coupling of the lightly damped rotor lag modes and fuselage modes. Traditional passive lag dampers, such as hydraulic or elastomeric dampers, can be used to alleviate these instabilities. However, these passive dampers suffer from the disadvantages that they produce large damper loads in forward flight conditions. These damper forces increase fatigue loads and reduce component life. Thus, it is desirable to have lag dampers controllable or adaptable, so that the damper can apply loads only when needed. MR fluid based dampers have recently been considered for helicopter lag damping augmentation because the forces generated by these dampers can be controlled by an applied magnetic field. In this dissertation, control schemes to integrate MR dampers with helicopters are developed and the influences of the MR dampers on rotorcraft ground resonance are studied. Specifically, the MR dampers are incorporated into the ground resonance model in two ways: using a linear equivalent viscous damping and using a nonlinear damper model. The feasibility of using MR dampers to stabilize ground resonance is studied. The open loop on-off control is utilized where MR dampers are turned on over RPM where ground resonance occurs, and turned off otherwise. To further explore the damping control ability of MR dampers, the nonlinear semi-active closed loop feedback control strategies are developed: feedback linearization control and sliding mode control. The performance of the two control strategies is evaluated using two examples: to stabilize an unstable rotor and to augment the stability of a marginally stable rotor. In addition, the robustness of the closed loop control strategies is studied using two cases: damper degradation and
Heterogeneous phase fibrinolysis rates by damped oscillation rheometry.
Lee, Jae-Suk; Kaibara, Makoto; O'Rear, Edgar A
2016-07-29
Devices gauging viscoelastic properties of blood during coagulation like the thromboelastograph support fundamental research as well as point of care needs. Associated fibrinolysis data are based on endogenous species or plasminogen activator added to a homogeneous sample prior to clot formation. Digestion in a monolithic structure differs from the physical situation of thrombolytic therapy where surface reactions dominate. This study aims to develop rheological testing for heterogeneous phase fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis rates were determined by phase change of a solid clot induced by autologous plasma/streptokinase (SK) in a rheometer sensitive to viscous damping. Initial slope or overall change in the logarithmic damping factor indicated fibrinolytic rates. Rates depended on clot geometry, phase volumes, clot composition and SK concentration. The damped oscillation rheometer can be adapted to determine relative rates of heterogeneous fibrinolysis in vitro.
Experimental identification of viscous damping in linear vibration
Srikantha Phani, A.; Woodhouse, J.
2009-01-01
This paper is concerned with the experimental evaluation of the performance of viscous damping identification methods in linear vibration theory. Both existing and some new methods proposed by the present authors [A.S. Phani, J. Woodhouse, Viscous damping identification in linear vibration, Journal of Sound and Vibration 303 (3-5) (2007) 475-500] are applied to experimental data measured on two test structures: a coupled three cantilever beam with moderate modal overlap and a free-free beam with low modal overlap. The performance of each method is quantified and compared based on three norms and the best methods are identified. The role of complex modes in damping identification from vibration measurements is critically assessed.
Simulations of moving effect of coastal vegetation on tsunami damping
Tsai, Ching-Piao; Chen, Ying-Chi; Octaviani Sihombing, Tri; Lin, Chang
2017-05-01
A coupled wave-vegetation simulation is presented for the moving effect of the coastal vegetation on tsunami wave height damping. The problem is idealized by solitary wave propagation on a group of emergent cylinders. The numerical model is based on general Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with renormalization group turbulent closure model by using volume of fluid technique. The general moving object (GMO) model developed in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Flow-3D is applied to simulate the coupled motion of vegetation with wave dynamically. The damping of wave height and the turbulent kinetic energy along moving and stationary cylinders are discussed. The simulated results show that the damping of wave height and the turbulent kinetic energy by the moving cylinders are clearly less than by the stationary cylinders. The result implies that the wave decay by the coastal vegetation may be overestimated if the vegetation was represented as stationary state.
Improving the Magnetic Damping of an AS-1 Seismometer
Marton, F.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Tokman, T. L.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Balzarette, M.; Sivo, J.
2016-12-01
Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College in New Jersey successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. For 2016, our objective has been to improve the magnetic damping mechanism invented by Chris Chapman2. As the mass on the boom is displaced by seismic waves, the spring will cause the mass to oscillate, therefore, damping is required. To achieve this, a paddle-shaped piece of copper, along with steel plates holding strong neodymium magnets are used. A localized eddy current is then induced, which then creates an opposing magnetic field. The challenges we faced for the summer internship was the fact that there was either too much or too little damping to distinguish the waves of an earthquake. However, we resolved the issue by designing our own prototype for moving the steel plates away and toward the copper paddle, to achieve critical damping. This was successfully completed by attaching two L-shaped pieces of aluminum, along with a cylindrical piece, to form a yoke. We then drilled a hole through the cylindrical piece and a plastic block for a bolt to slide through. Finally, the head of the bolt would then be used as a knob to shift the two plates away from and toward the paddle simultaneously. Although this was our solution for moving the plates horizontally, we also needed to find a way to lock the plates in place once we found the correct amount of damping. We accomplished this task by drilling two slotted holes on two symmetrical sheets of aluminum, which will allow us to slide the plates, and finally, lock them into place to avoid wobbling. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2http://www.jclahr.com/science/psn/chapman/as1%20damping/
Enhancing the damping of wind turbine rotor blades, the DAMPBLADE project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chaviaropoulos, P.K.; Politis, E.S.; Lekou, D.J.
2006-01-01
: tailoring of laminate damping anisotropy, damping layers and damped polymer matrices. Additional objectives of the project were the development of the missing critical analytical technologies enabling the explicit modelling of composite structural damping and a novel ‘composite blade design capacity...... glass/polyester damped blade was designed, manufactured and tested using the know-how acquired. Modal analysis of this blade at the testing facility of CRES showed a nearly 80% increase in the damping ratio of both the first flap and lag modes compared with the earlier, standard, design practice...
The Nonlinear Landau Damping Rate of a Driven Plasma Wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benisti, D; Strozzi, D J; Gremillet, L; Morice, O
2009-08-04
In this Letter, we discuss the concept of the nonlinear Landau damping rate, {nu}, of a driven electron plasma wave, and provide a very simple, practical, analytic formula for {nu} which agrees very well with results inferred from Vlasov simulations of stimulated Raman scattering. {nu} actually is more complicated an operator than a plain damping rate, and it may only be seen as such because it assumes almost constant values before abruptly dropping to 0. The decrease of {nu} to 0 is moreover shown to occur later when the wave amplitude varies in the direction transverse to its propagation.
A practical multiscale approach for optimization of structural damping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Erik; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2016-01-01
A simple and practical multiscale approach suitable for topology optimization of structural damping in a component ready for additive manufacturing is presented.The approach consists of two steps: First, the homogenized loss factor of a two-phase material is maximized. This is done in order...... to obtain a range of isotropic microstructures that have a connected stiff material phase. Second,the structural damping of the component is maximized using material interpolations based on the homogenized properties of the microstructures. In order to achieve convergence towards a discrete set of material...
On strain-rate independent damping in continuum mechanics
Mulder, Gerben
2017-10-01
Strain-rate independent damping is a theory of energy dissipation in solids. It is based on the assumption that an increase or decrease in the strain-energy density correlates with a multiplication of 1+η or 1-η respectively, of the material stiffness matrix, with 0≤ η derived for strain-rate independent damping can be solved for 1, 2 or 3 dimensions via direct integration, provided that the software supports PDE coefficients that are functions of the solution and its space and time derivatives. A 3D problem with 22,000 DOF's and 10,000 time steps was solved successfully and convincingly.
Parametric resonance induced chaos in magnetic damped driven pendulum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khomeriki, Giorgi, E-mail: giokhomeriki123@gmail.com
2016-07-15
A damped driven pendulum with a magnetic driving force, appearing from a solenoid, where ac current flows is considered. The solenoid acts on the magnet, which is located at a free end of the pendulum. In this system the existence and interrelation of chaos and parametric resonance is theoretically examined. Derived analytical results are supported by numerical simulations and conducted experiments. - Highlights: • A damped magnetic pendulum is considered driven by off resonant magnetic field. • Our system is chaotic only when the conditions for parametric resonance are fulfilled. • Conducted experiments give a good agreement with theory and numerical simulations. • Calculated Lyapunov exponents are compared with parametric instability growth rates.
Constraint damping in the Z4 formulation and harmonic gauge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gundlach, Carsten [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Calabrese, Gioel [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hinder, Ian [School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Martin-GarcIa, Jose M [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Centro de Fisica Miguel A Catalan, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2005-09-07
We show that by adding suitable lower-order terms to the Z4 formulation of the Einstein equations, all constraint violations except constant modes are damped. This makes the Z4 formulation a particularly simple example of a {lambda}-system as suggested by Brodbeck et al (1999 J. Math. Phys. 40 909). We also show that the Einstein equations in harmonic coordinates can be obtained from the Z4 formulation by a change of variables that leaves the implied constraint evolution system unchanged. Therefore, the same method can be used to damp all constraints in the Einstein equations in harmonic gauge.
Dynamic stiffness and damping of foundations for jacket structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara; Johannesson, Björn
2015-01-01
resistance as defined by Nogami & Novak (1977) is determined, considering 3D wave propagation within linear soil layer with hysteretic damping. Thereafter, the dynamic response of the pile is estimated assuming soil pressure equal to the soil resistance and imposing displacement compatibility. A parametric...... study clarifies the role of the parameters involved i.e. the depth of the soil layer, the pile diameter and the soil layer shear wave velocity. Results are presented in terms of dimensionless graphs which highlight the frequency dependency of the dynamic stiffness and damping....
Investigation of Landau-damping effects on shock formation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, H.K.; D'Angelo, N.; Michelsen, Poul
1967-01-01
Landau damping in plasmas of equal ion and electron temperatures (alkali plasmas) may prevent the formation of a shock. Shocks are produced when the ratio Te/Ti is increased to about 8 or so by cooling the ions through i-n collisions.......Landau damping in plasmas of equal ion and electron temperatures (alkali plasmas) may prevent the formation of a shock. Shocks are produced when the ratio Te/Ti is increased to about 8 or so by cooling the ions through i-n collisions....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zapoměl J.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Unbalance is the principal source of increase of time varying forces transmitted between the rotor and its stationary part. Their magnitudes can be considerably reduced if the rotor is flexibly suspended and if the damping devices are added to the support elements. Their damping effect must be high for low rotor velocities and small for velocities approximately higher than the critical one to minimize the transmitted forces and the vibrations amplitude. This implies to achieve maximum efficiency of the damping elements, their damping effect has to be adaptable to the current operating conditions. Such technological solution is offered by application of a squeeze film magnetorheological damper. Its hybrid variant consisting of two damping units (one controllable in a serial arrangement is investigated in this paper. The damping takes place in two concentric lubricating films formed by normal and magnetorheological oils. The damper is equipped with an electric coil generating magnetic flux passing through the layer of the magnetorheological fluid. As resistance against its flow depends on magnetic induction, changing magnitude of the applied current enables to control the damping force. In the computational model, the rotor is considered to be absolutely rigid, unbalanced and the damping elements are represented by force couplings. The goal of the analysis is to study influence of the investigated magnetorheological damper on behaviour of a rigid rotor during different transient regimes. A special attention is focused on passing the rotor through the critical speed and on planning the dependence of the applied current on speed of the rotor rotation to achieve the optimum compromise between minimizing the transmitted forces and maximum attenuation of the rotor vibrations.
Development of Composite Materials with High Passive Damping Properties
2006-05-15
Prediction and Measured Results", Acta Acustics . 87(5), 582-591 (2001) [147] S. Kurra, D. Arditi, " Determination of Sound Transmission Loss of Multilayered...Elements, Part2: An experimental Study", Acta Acustics . 87(5), 592-603 (2001) [148] A. Uris, H. Estelles, "Experimental Sound Transmission Improvement
Active Damping of Vibrations in High-Precision Motion Systems
Babakhani, B.
2012-01-01
Technology advancements feed the need for ever faster and more accurate industrial machines. Vibration is a significant source of inaccuracy of such machines. A light-weight design in favor of the speed, and avoiding the use of energy-dissipating materials from the structure to omit any source of
Mendell, Mark J; Mirer, Anna G; Cheung, Kerry; Tong, My; Douwes, Jeroen
2011-06-01
Many studies have shown consistent associations between evident indoor dampness or mold and respiratory or allergic health effects, but causal links remain unclear. Findings on measured microbiologic factors have received little review. We conducted an updated, comprehensive review on these topics. We reviewed eligible peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies or quantitative meta-analyses, up to late 2009, on dampness, mold, or other microbiologic agents and respiratory or allergic effects. We evaluated evidence for causation or association between qualitative/subjective assessments of dampness or mold (considered together) and specific health outcomes. We separately considered evidence for associations between specific quantitative measurements of microbiologic factors and each health outcome. Evidence from epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses showed indoor dampness or mold to be associated consistently with increased asthma development and exacerbation, current and ever diagnosis of asthma, dyspnea, wheeze, cough, respiratory infections, bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and upper respiratory tract symptoms. Associations were found in allergic and nonallergic individuals. Evidence strongly suggested causation of asthma exacerbation in children. Suggestive evidence was available for only a few specific measured microbiologic factors and was in part equivocal, suggesting both adverse and protective associations with health. Evident dampness or mold had consistent positive associations with multiple allergic and respiratory effects. Measured microbiologic agents in dust had limited suggestive associations, including both positive and negative associations for some agents. Thus, prevention and remediation of indoor dampness and mold are likely to reduce health risks, but current evidence does not support measuring specific indoor microbiologic factors to guide health-protective actions.
Mahfouzi, Farzad; Kioussis, Nicholas
2016-09-01
In this paper, we investigate theoretically the spin-orbit torque (SOT) as well as the Gilbert damping for a two band model of a 2D helical surface state with a ferromagnetic (FM) exchange coupling. We decompose the density matrix into the Fermi sea and Fermi surface components and obtain their contributions to the electronic transport as well as the SOT. Furthermore, we obtain the expression for the Gilbert damping due to the surface state of a 3D topological insulator (TI) and predict its dependence on the direction of the magnetization precession axis.
GOES-R Active Vibration Damping Controller Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance
Clapp, Brian R.; Weigl, Harald J.; Goodzeit, Neil E.; Carter, Delano R.; Rood, Timothy J.
2017-01-01
GOES-R series spacecraft feature a number of flexible appendages with modal frequencies below 3.0 Hz which, if excited by spacecraft disturbances, can be sources of undesirable jitter perturbing spacecraft pointing. In order to meet GOES-R pointing stability requirements, the spacecraft flight software implements an Active Vibration Damping (AVD) rate control law which acts in parallel with the nadir point attitude control law. The AVD controller commands spacecraft reaction wheel actuators based upon Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) inputs to provide additional damping for spacecraft structural modes below 3.0 Hz which vary with solar wing angle. A GOES-R spacecraft dynamics and attitude control system identified model is constructed from pseudo-random reaction wheel torque commands and IMU angular rate response measurements occurring over a single orbit during spacecraft post-deployment activities. The identified Fourier model is computed on the ground, uplinked to the spacecraft flight computer, and the AVD controller filter coefficients are periodically computed on-board from the Fourier model. Consequently, the AVD controller formulation is based not upon pre-launch simulation model estimates but upon on-orbit nadir point attitude control and time-varying spacecraft dynamics. GOES-R high-fidelity time domain simulation results herein demonstrate the accuracy of the AVD identified Fourier model relative to the pre-launch spacecraft dynamics and control truth model. The AVD controller on-board the GOES-16 spacecraft achieves more than a ten-fold increase in structural mode damping of the fundamental solar wing mode while maintaining controller stability margins and ensuring that the nadir point attitude control bandwidth does not fall below 0.02 Hz. On-orbit GOES-16 spacecraft appendage modal frequencies and damping ratios are quantified based upon the AVD system identification, and the increase in modal damping provided by the AVD controller for each structural
Purushothaman, Sujit
The IEEE First and Second Benchmark Models for subsynchronous resonance (SSR) are used to analyze the damping properties of an induction machine damping unit (IMDU) coupled to the shaft of a turbo-generator set. This study investigates the rating and location of the induction machine that, without the aid of any controllers, effectively damps sub-synchronous resonance for all line series compensation levels. Eigenvalue analyses are performed on linearized models of the shaft system including the induction machine to find the optimum location. The best location of the IMDU, providing maximum damping, is next to the HP turbine at the end of the shaft. Time domain simulations are conducted to find the adequate rating of the induction machine. It is observed that a small size, high power (about 10% of the generator rating), low energy machine effectively damps SSR. The IMDU reduces peak torques in shaft sections during transients. In the study, it is demonstrated that the addition of an IMDU at the end of the shaft would have prevented the SSR events of 1970 and 1971 that caused major damage to the Mohave Desert generator shafts. A basic design of the IMDU is presented derived from a closed form solution of Maxwell's equations in squirrel cage induction motors. The solution is obtained for a cylindrical multi-layer geometry. The squirrel cage is represented by an equivalent anisotropic homogeneous medium. The effect of stator slots and teeth is included by a second anisotropic homogeneous medium. The induction motor is modeled as six concentric cylindrical layers representing the different construction components of the motor. The governing partial differential equations are solved for the excitation source, conducting and non-conducting regions. The formulas obtained allow for efficient calculations of machine performance which may help the motor designer to select the proper parameters of the machine that fit the design requirements. Accuracy of the modeling method
Squeeze-film damping characteristics of cantilever microresonators ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The quality factors of the system are also obtained numerically using the coupled field FE analysis software ANSYS. A comparison of the results up to the pull-in instability shows excellent agreement for damping characteristics obtained by both the semi-analytical and FE methods. The effects of large DC bias voltages on ...
Damping of double wall panels including a viscothermal air layer
Basten, T.G.H.; Stainhaouer, G.; Bakamidis, S.; Charalabopoulou, F.
2001-01-01
This paper deals with the dynamic behaviour of double wall panels, with emphasis on damping and sound radiation. It will be shown that a narrow air layer separating the two plates of a panel significantly alters the mentioned quantities by its viscothermal properties. Numerical and experimental
Indefinite damping in mechanical systems and gyroscopic stabilization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kliem, Wolfhard; Pommer, Christian
2009-01-01
This paper deals with gyroscopic stabilization of the unstable system Mx + D(x) over dot + K-x = 0, with positive definite mass and stiffness matrices M and K, respectively, and an indefinite damping matrix D. The main question if for which skew-symmetric matrices G the system Mx (D+ G)(x) over dot...
Spatial damping of propagating sausage waves in coronal cylinders
Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui
2015-09-01
Context. Sausage modes are important in coronal seismology. Spatially damped propagating sausage waves were recently observed in the solar atmosphere. Aims: We examine how wave leakage influences the spatial damping of sausage waves propagating along coronal structures modeled by a cylindrical density enhancement embedded in a uniform magnetic field. Methods: Working in the framework of cold magnetohydrodynamics, we solve the dispersion relation (DR) governing sausage waves for complex-valued, longitudinal wavenumber k at given real angular frequencies ω. For validation purposes, we also provide analytical approximations to the DR in the low-frequency limit and in the vicinity of ωc, the critical angular frequency separating trapped from leaky waves. Results: In contrast to the standing case, propagating sausage waves are allowed for ω much lower than ωc. However, while able to direct their energy upward, these low-frequency waves are subject to substantial spatial attenuation. The spatial damping length shows little dependence on the density contrast between the cylinder and its surroundings, and depends only weakly on frequency. This spatial damping length is of the order of the cylinder radius for ω ≲ 1.5vAi/a, where a and vAi are the cylinder radius and the Alfvén speed in the cylinder, respectively. Conclusions: If a coronal cylinder is perturbed by symmetric boundary drivers (e.g., granular motions) with a broadband spectrum, wave leakage efficiently filters out the low-frequency components.
Quantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.
1998-01-01
A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative feedback theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how...
Qantitative Analysis and Design of a Rudder Roll Damping Controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hearns, G.; Blanke, M.
A rudder roll damping controller is designed using Quantitative Feedback Theory to be robust for changes in the ships metacentric height. The analytical constraint due to the non-minimum phase behaviour of the rudder to roll is analysed using the Poisson Integral Formula and it is shown how...
Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon
2009-01-01
helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...
The energy density of a Landau damped plasma wave
Best, R. W. B.
1999-01-01
In this paper some theories about the energy of a Landau damped plasma wave are discussed and new initial conditions are proposed. Analysis of a wave packet, rather than an infinite wave, gives a clear picture of the energy transport from field to particles. Initial conditions are found which excite
Active magnetic levitation guide based on magnetic damping control
Zheng, Zhongqiao; Xu, Minzheng
2017-07-01
With the application of active magnetic levitation technology, flutter is a problem in the planar multi-point support system, which reduces the bearing capacity and the control precision, and it is difficult to apply advanced control strategies. Therefore, a new method called magnetic damping control is proposed to solve the flutter problem, which can make active magnetic levitation guide to run smoothly.
Fluid Surface Damping: A Technique for Vibration Suppression of Beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hany Ghoneim
1997-01-01
Full Text Available A fluid surface damping (FSD technique for vibration suppression of beamlikestructures is proposed. The technique is a modification of the surface layer damping method. Two viscoelastic surface layers containing fluid-filled cavities are attached symmetrically to the opposite surfaces of the beam. The cavities on one side are attached to the corresponding cavities on the other side via connection passages. As the beam vibrates, the fluid is pumped back and forth through the connecting passages. Therefore, in addition to the viscoelastic damping provided by the surface layers, the technique offers viscous damping due to the fluid flow through the passage. A mathematical model for the proposed technique is developed, normalized, and solved in the frequency domain to investigate the effect of various parameters on the vibration suppression of a cantilever beam. The steady-state frequency response for a base white-noise excitation is calculated at the beam's free tip and over a frequency range containing the first five resonant frequencies. The parameters investigated are the flow-through passage viscous resistance, the length and location of the layers, the hydraulic capacitance of the fluid-filled cavities, and inertia of the moving fluid (hydraulic inertance. Results indicate that the proposed technique has promising potential in the field of vibration suppression of beamlike structures. With two FSD elements, all peak vibration amplitudes can be well suppressed over the entire frequency spectrum studied.
Gravitational Radiation Damping and Evolution of the Orbit of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The influence of the gravitational radiation damping on the evolution of the orbital elements of compact binary stars is examined by using the method of perturbation. The perturbation equations with the true anomaly as an independent variable are given. This effect results in both the secular and periodic variation ...
Aerodynamic damping of nonlinearily wind-excited wind turbine blades
Van der Male, P.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.
2013-01-01
This paper presents the first step of the derivation of an aerodynamic damping matrix that can be adopted for the foundation design of a wind turbine. A single turbine blade is modelled as a discrete mass-spring system, representing the flap and edge wise motions. Nonlinear wind forcing is applied,
Danish Teachers' Conception of Challenging Behaviour and DAMP/ADHD
Holst, Jesper
2008-01-01
This study examines how teachers of young children in Denmark perceived challenging behaviours in children who have characteristics consistent with Deficit in Attention, Motor Control and Perception (DAMP) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This study was conducted in schools and kindergartens in three demographically different…
Amplitude damping of Laguerre-Gaussian modes - Journal Article
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2010-10-01
Full Text Available In this article, the authors present an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The channel is tested experimentally for a Laguerre-Gaussian mode, having an azimuthal index l = 1, illustrating that it decays to a Gaussian mode in good...
Damp heat related degradation mechanisms within CIGS solar cells
Theelen, M.; Graaf, F. de; Daume, F.; Barreau, N.; Vroon, Z.; Zeman, M.
2016-01-01
Degradation rates and mechanisms for molybdenum back contacts and ZnO:Al front contacts exposed to damp heat were obtained from literature and experiments. It was found that molybdenum back contacts with a higher density and covered by a MoSe2 film are more stable than their low density, bare
Uniform stability of damped nonlinear vibrations of an elastic string
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Here we are concerned about uniform stability of damped nonlinear transverse vibrations of an elastic string fixed at its two ends. The vibrations governed by nonlinear integro-differential equation of Kirchoff type, is shown to possess energy uniformly bounded by exponentially decaying function of time. The result is ...
Uniform stability of damped nonlinear vibrations of an elastic string
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. Here we are concerned about uniform stability of damped nonlinear trans- verse vibrations of an elastic string fixed at its two ends. The vibrations governed by nonlinear integro-differential equation of Kirchoff type, is shown to possess energy uni- formly bounded by exponentially decaying function of time.
Vibrations of stretched damped beams under non-ideal boundary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A simply supported damped Euler–Bernoulli beam with immovable end conditions are considered. The concept of non-ideal boundary conditions is applied to the beam problem. In accordance, the boundaries are assumed to allow small deﬂections and moments. Approximate analytical solution of the problem is found ...
Synchronization of Forced damped Pendulum via Active Control ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper active controllers are designed to synchronize two identical forced damped pendula. The performance of the controllers in the synchronization of the chaotic dynamics of the two pendula, resulting from different initial conditions, is investigated numerically and found to be effective. Transition from ...
Seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan
A number of pathogens can cause early season stand loss in sugar beet. In an ongoing survey, the most commonly identified damping-off pathogens were Rhizoctonia solani, Aphanomyces cochlioides, and Fusarium species. Pythium and Phoma also were isolated every year, but never as the sole or most commo...
Damping insert materials for settling chambers of supersonic wind tunnels
Wu, Jie; Radespiel, Rolf
2017-03-01
This study describes the application of a novel damping insert material for reducing the flow fluctuations in a tandem nozzle supersonic wind tunnel. This new damping material is composed of multi-layer stainless steel wired meshes. The influences of the multi-layer mesh, such as the quantity of the mesh layer and the installed location in the settling chamber, to the freestream quality have been investigated. A Pitot probe instrumented with a Kulite pressure sensor and a hot-wire probe are employed to monitor the flow fluctuation in the test section of the wind tunnel. Thereafter, a combined modal analysis is applied for the disturbance qualification. Additionally, the transient Mach number in the test section is measured. The disturbance qualification indicates that the multi-layer mesh performs well in providing reduction of vorticity reduction and acoustic fluctuations. Comparable flow quality of the freestream was also obtained using a combination of flexible damping materials. However, the life-span of the new damping materials is much longer. The time transient of the Mach number measured in the test section indicates that the mean flow is rather constant over run time. Furthermore, the time-averaged pressure along the settling chamber is recorded and it shows the distribution of pressure drop by settling chamber inserts.
Rudder-Roll Damping Controller Design using Mu Synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, C.; Blanke, M.
1998-01-01
The effectiveness of rudder roll damping control is very sensitive to uncertainty in ship dynamic parameters. In this paper, an H-infinity controller is designed using mu synthesis and an uncertainty model for roll and yaw that was identified earlier from experiments at sea. The properties...
On the dynamic buckling of lightly damped cylindrical shells ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The dynamic buckling load of finite imperfect, lightly but viscously damped cylindrical shells subjected to a periodic load, is determined using the technique of multiple scaling (two-timing) regular perturbation analysis. The geometric imperfection, assumed deterministic, are also assumed small and are expanded in a double ...
Gravitational Radiation Damping and Evolution of the Orbit of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The influence of the gravitational radiation damping on the evolution of the orbital elements of compact binary stars is examined by using the method of perturbation. The perturbation equations with the true anomaly as an independent variable are given. This effect results in both the secular and periodic variation of the ...
Active damping of the 1D rocking mode
Babakhani, B.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.
Active damping of a rotational vibration mode in the linear guidance of a precision machine in a one dimensional (1D) setting is considered in this paper. This so-called rocking mode presents itself in machines having linear actuation. The limitation this vibration mode imposes on the machine
The Effect of Intertia, Visocus Damping, Temperature and Normal ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
29
The Effect of Intertia, Visocus Damping, Temperature and Normal. Stress on Chaotic Behavior of the Rate and State Friction Model. Mr.Nitish Sinha. Research Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur-10, India. E-mail: nitishme08@gmail.com. Dr. Arun K. Singh.
On the dynamic buckling of a weakly damped nonlinear elastic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we determine the dynamic buckling load of a strictly nonlinear but weakly damped elastic oscillatory model structure subjected to small perturbations The loading history is explicitly time dependent and varies slowly with time over a natural period of oscillation of the structure. A multiple timing regular ...
Linear time heteronymous damping in nonlinear parametric systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena; Houfek, Martin
2016-01-01
Roč. 40, 23-24 (2016), s. 10038-10051 ISSN 0307-904X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics of systems * parametric systems * time heteronymous damping * gears Subject RIV: JT - Propulsion, Motors ; Fuels Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016