WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly conserved relative

  1. Expression and genomic analysis of midasin, a novel and highly conserved AAA protein distantly related to dynein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons I R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The largest open reading frame in the Saccharomyces genome encodes midasin (MDN1p, YLR106p, an AAA ATPase of 560 kDa that is essential for cell viability. Orthologs of midasin have been identified in the genome projects for Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Results Midasin is present as a single-copy gene encoding a well-conserved protein of ~600 kDa in all eukaryotes for which data are available. In humans, the gene maps to 6q15 and encodes a predicted protein of 5596 residues (632 kDa. Sequence alignments of midasin from humans, yeast, Giardia and Encephalitozoon indicate that its domain structure comprises an N-terminal domain (35 kDa, followed by an AAA domain containing six tandem AAA protomers (~30 kDa each, a linker domain (260 kDa, an acidic domain (~70 kDa containing 35–40% aspartate and glutamate, and a carboxy-terminal M-domain (30 kDa that possesses MIDAS sequence motifs and is homologous to the I-domain of integrins. Expression of hemagglutamin-tagged midasin in yeast demonstrates a polypeptide of the anticipated size that is localized principally in the nucleus. Conclusions The highly conserved structure of midasin in eukaryotes, taken in conjunction with its nuclear localization in yeast, suggests that midasin may function as a nuclear chaperone and be involved in the assembly/disassembly of macromolecular complexes in the nucleus. The AAA domain of midasin is evolutionarily related to that of dynein, but it appears to lack a microtubule-binding site.

  2. Conservation and non-conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The difficulties of conservation laws in general relativity are discussed, with special reference to the non-tangible nature of gravitational energy and its transformation into tangible forms of energy. Inductive transfer of energy is marked out as wholly distinct from wave transfer. Slow (adiabatic) changes are utilized to make clear, in the axi-symmetric case, that the mass of an isolated body is conserved irrespective of any local changes (e.g. of shape) and that in inductive transfer the movement of energy between two bodies can readily be traced by the changes in their masses. (author)

  3. Relatively High Complication and Revision Rates of the Mayo® Metaphysical Conservative Femoral Stem in Young Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, Tal Frenkel; Warshevski, Yaniv; Gold, Aviram; Shasha, Nadav; Snir, Nimrod; Chechik, Ofir; Dolkart, Oleg; Eilig, Dynai; Herman, Amir; Rath, Ehud; Kramer, Moti; Drexler, Michael

    2018-05-08

    The Mayo metaphysical conservative femoral stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) is a wedge-shaped implant designed to transfer loads proximally, reduce femoral destruction, and enable the preservation of bone stock in the proximal femur. Thus, it is a potentially preferred prosthesis for active, non-elderly patients who may require additional future surgeries. This retrospective case study analyzed the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent total hip replacements with this stem between May 2001 and February 2013. All patients underwent clinical assessment, radiological evaluation for the presence and development of radiolucent lines, and functional assessment (numerical analog scale, Harris hip score, and Short Form-12 questionnaire). Ninety-five hips (79 patients) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 43 years (range, 18-64 years), and the mean follow-up was 97 months (range, 26.9-166 months). The postoperative clinical assessments and functional assessments revealed significant improvements. Sixteen patients (20.3%) had 18 orthopedic complications, the most common of which were an intraoperative femoral fracture and implant dislocation requiring revision surgeries in 10 hips (10.5%). Radiological analysis revealed evidence of femoral remodeling in 64 (67.4%) implants, spot welds (neocortex) in 35 (36.8%), and osteolysis in 3 (3.2%). These results suggest that the conservative hip femoral implant has an unacceptable complication rate for non-elderly patients. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Trust mediates conservation-related behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; George Cvetkovich

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the influence that a perceived connection between a natural resource management agency and individual citizens has upon conservation-related behaviors on public lands, offering an extension of psychology’s examination of environmental behaviors. Our emphasis is upon perceived value similarity and resulting trust between citizens and the USDA...

  5. Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    1984-04-01

    The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

  6. Kac-Moody-Virasoro Symmetries and Related Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, S. Y.; Jia, M.; Tang, X. Y.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, some important facts on the symmetries and conservation laws of high dimensional integrable systems are discussed. It is summarized that almost all the known (2+1)-dimensional integrable models possess the Kac-Moody-Virasoro (KMV) symmetry algebras. One knows that infinitely many partial differential equations may possess a same KMV symmetry algebra. It is found that the KMV symmetry groups can be explicitly obtained by using some direct methods. For some quite general variable coefficient nonlinear systems, their sufficient and necessary condition for the existence of the KMV symmetry algebra is they can be changed to the related known constant coefficient models. Finally, it is found that every one symmetry may be related to infinitely many conservation laws and then infinitely many models may possess a same set of infinitely many conservation laws.

  7. The tensorial conservation law in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    A general tensorial conservation law is formulated by starting from the invariance of the gravitational Lagrangian density. Utilising this new formula, the author derives some reasonable results for the mass-energy distribution which are in accordance with the Newtonian formulae. (author)

  8. Readings in Wildlife and Fish Conservation, High School Conservation Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Jack

    This publication is a tentative edition of readings on Wildlife and Fish Conservation in Louisiana, and as such it forms part of one of the four units of study designed for an experimental high school course, the "High School Conservation Curriculum Project." The other three units are concerned with Forest Conervation, Soil and Water…

  9. Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karlsen, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This book presents thirteen papers, representing the most significant advances and current trends in nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and related analysis with applications. Topics covered include a survey on multidimensional systems of conservation laws as well as novel results  on liquid crystals, conservation laws with discontinuous flux functions, and applications to sedimentation.  Also included are articles on recent advances in the Euler equations and the Navier-Stokes-Fourier-Poisson system, in addition to new results on collective phenomena described by the Cucker-Smale model.    The Workshop on Hyperbolic Conservation Laws and Related Analysis with Applications at the International Centre for Mathematical Sciences (Edinburgh, UK) held in Edinburgh, September 2011, produced this fine collection of original research and survey articles. Many leading mathematicians attended the event and submitted their contributions for this volume. It is addressed to researchers and graduate students inter...

  10. Hydrodynamics in full general relativity with conservative adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans; Stephens, Branson C.

    2012-06-01

    There is great interest in numerical relativity simulations involving matter due to the likelihood that binary compact objects involving neutron stars will be detected by gravitational wave observatories in the coming years, as well as to the possibility that binary compact object mergers could explain short-duration gamma-ray bursts. We present a code designed for simulations of hydrodynamics coupled to the Einstein field equations targeted toward such applications. This code has recently been used to study eccentric mergers of black hole-neutron star binaries. We evolve the fluid conservatively using high-resolution shock-capturing methods, while the field equations are solved in the generalized-harmonic formulation with finite differences. In order to resolve the various scales that may arise, we use adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with grid hierarchies based on truncation error estimates. A noteworthy feature of this code is the implementation of the flux correction algorithm of Berger and Colella to ensure that the conservative nature of fluid advection is respected across AMR boundaries. We present various tests to compare the performance of different limiters and flux calculation methods, as well as to demonstrate the utility of AMR flux corrections.

  11. Enhancing the conservation of crop wild relatives in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Fielder

    Full Text Available Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England's Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement.

  12. Enhancing the conservation of crop wild relatives in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Hannah; Brotherton, Peter; Hosking, Julian; Hopkins, John J; Ford-Lloyd, Brian; Maxted, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Humans require resilient, rapidly renewable and sustainable supplies of food and many other plant-derived supplies. However, the combined effects of climate change and population growth compromise the provision of these supplies particularly in respect to global food security. Crop wild relatives (CWR) contain higher genetic diversity than crops and harbour traits that can improve crop resilience and yield through plant breeding. However, in common with most countries, CWR are poorly conserved in England. There is currently no provision for long-term CWR conservation in situ, and comprehensive ex situ collection and storage of CWR is also lacking. However, there is a commitment to achieve their conservation in England's Biodiversity Strategy and the UK has international commitments to do so as part of the Global Plant Conservation Strategy. Here, we identify a series of measures that could enhance the conservation of English CWR, thereby supporting the achievement of these national and international objectives. We provide an inventory of 148 priority English CWR, highlight hotspots of CWR diversity in sites including The Lizard Peninsula, the Dorset coast and Cambridgeshire and suggest appropriate sites for the establishment of a complementary network of genetic reserves. We also identify individual in situ and ex situ priorities for each English CWR. Based on these analyses, we make recommendations whose implementation could provide effective, long-term conservation of English CWR whilst facilitating their use in crop improvement.

  13. Estimating relative demand for wildlife: Conservation activity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Gary G.; Larson, Joseph S.

    1982-09-01

    An alternative method of estimating relative demand among nonconsumptive uses of wildlife and among wildlife species is proposed. A demand intensity score (DIS), derived from the relative extent of an individual's involvement in outdoor recreation and conservation activities, is used as a weighting device to adjust the importance of preference rankings for wildlife uses and wildlife species relative to other members of a survey population. These adjusted preference rankings were considered to reflect relative demand levels (RDLs) for wildlife uses and for species by the survey population. This technique may be useful where it is not possible or desirable to estimate demand using traditional economic means. In one of the findings from a survey of municipal conservation commission members in Massachusetts, presented as an illustration of this methodology, poisonous snakes were ranked third in preference among five groups of reptiles. The relative demand level for poisonous snakes, however, was last among the five groups.

  14. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  15. Tilapia and human CLIC2 structures are highly conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiao; Li, Zhengjun; Lui, Eei Yin; Lam, Siew Hong; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2018-01-08

    Chloride intracellular channels (CLICs) exist in soluble and membrane bound forms. We have determined the crystal structure of soluble Clic2 from the euryhaline teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Structural comparison of tilapia and human CLIC2 with other CLICs shows that these proteins are highly conserved. We have also compared the expression levels of clic2 in selected osmoregulatory organs of tilapia, acclimated to freshwater, seawater and hypersaline water. Structural conservation of vertebrate CLICs implies that they might play conserved roles. Also, tissue-specific responsiveness of clic2 suggests that it might be involved in iono-osmoregulation under extreme conditions in tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2014-10-07

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  17. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  18. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  19. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  20. Relative Stabilities of Conserved and Non-Conserved Structures in the OB-Fold Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei T. Alexandrescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The OB-fold is a diverse structure superfamily based on a β-barrel motif that is often supplemented with additional non-conserved secondary structures. Previous deletion mutagenesis and NMR hydrogen exchange studies of three OB-fold proteins showed that the structural stabilities of sites within the conserved β-barrels were larger than sites in non-conserved segments. In this work we examined a database of 80 representative domain structures currently classified as OB-folds, to establish the basis of this effect. Residue-specific values were obtained for the number of Cα-Cα distance contacts, sequence hydrophobicities, crystallographic B-factors, and theoretical B-factors calculated from a Gaussian Network Model. All four parameters point to a larger average flexibility for the non-conserved structures compared to the conserved β-barrels. The theoretical B-factors and contact densities show the highest sensitivity.Our results suggest a model of protein structure evolution in which novel structural features develop at the periphery of conserved motifs. Core residues are more resistant to structural changes during evolution since their substitution would disrupt a larger number of interactions. Similar factors are likely to account for the differences in stability to unfolding between conserved and non-conserved structures.

  1. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is very crucial for the success of the drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, some proteins that are highly conserved between mice and humans are not very immunogenic in mice, making it difficult to generate antibodies using a conventional approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the impaired immune tolerance of NZB/W mice was exploited to generate monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved or self-antigens. Using two highly conserved human antigens (MIF and HMGB1 and one mouse self-antigen (TNF-alpha as examples, we demonstrate here that multiple clones of high affinity, highly specific antibodies with desired biological activities can be generated, using the NZB/W mouse as the immunization host and a T cell-specific tag fused to a recombinant antigen to stimulate the immune system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed an efficient and universal method for generating surrogate or therapeutic antibodies against "difficult antigens" to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  2. ADM pseudotensors, conserved quantities and covariant conservation laws in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatibene, L.; Ferraris, M.; Francaviglia, M.; Lusanna, L.

    2012-01-01

    The ADM formalism is reviewed and techniques for decomposing generic components of metric, connection and curvature are obtained. These techniques will turn out to be enough to decompose not only Einstein equations but also covariant conservation laws. Then a number of independent sets of hypotheses that are sufficient (though not necessary) to obtain standard ADM quantities (and Hamiltonian) from covariant conservation laws are considered. This determines explicitly the range in which standard techniques are equivalent to covariant conserved quantities. The Schwarzschild metric in different coordinates is then considered, showing how the standard ADM quantities fail dramatically in non-Cartesian coordinates or even worse when asymptotically flatness is not manifest; while, in view of their covariance, covariant conservation laws give the correct result in all cases. - Highlights: ► In the paper ADM conserved quantities for GR are obtained from augmented conservation laws. ► Boundary conditions for this to be possible are considered and compared with the literature. ► Some different forms of Schwarzschild solutions are considered as simple examples of different boundary conditions.

  3. Global energy-momentum conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissani, N.; Leibowitz, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a family of coordinate systems in which the energy-momentum tensor is globally conserved. Furthermore, this preferred class of frames includes geodesic systems with respect to any arbitrary point or timelike geodesic line. This implies a physically satisfactory conservation law with no need to introduce an extraneous pseudotensor

  4. Relative efforts of countries to conserve world’s megafauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lindsey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Surprisingly little attention has been paid to variation among countries in contributions to conservation. As a first step, we developed a Megafauna Conservation Index (MCI that assesses the spatial, ecological and financial contributions of 152 nations towards conservation of the world’s terrestrial megafauna. We chose megafauna because they are particularly valuable in economic, ecological and societal terms, and are challenging and expensive to conserve. We categorised these 152 countries as being above- or below-average performers based on whether their contribution to megafauna conservation was higher or lower than the global mean; ‘major’ performers or underperformers were those whose contribution exceeded 1 SD over or under the mean, respectively. Ninety percent of countries in North/Central America and 70% of countries in Africa were classified as major or above-average performers, while approximately one-quarter of countries in Asia (25% and Europe (21% were identified as major underperformers. We present our index to emphasise the need for measuring conservation performance, to help nations identify how best they could improve their efforts, and to present a starting point for the development of more robust and inclusive measures (noting how the IUCN Red List evolved over time. Our analysis points to three approaches that countries could adopt to improve their contribution to global megafauna conservation, depending on their circumstances: (1 upgrading or expanding their domestic protected area networks, with a particular emphasis on conserving large carnivore and herbivore habitat, (2 increase funding for conservation at home or abroad, or (3 ‘rewilding’ their landscapes. Once revised and perfected, we recommend publishing regular conservation rankings in the popular media to recognise major-performers, foster healthy pride and competition among nations, and identify ways for governments to improve their performance.

  5. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Robinson, Gene E; Jakobsson, Eric

    2016-06-01

    The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for social organization.

  7. Conservation in Mammals of Genes Associated with Aggression-Related Behavioral Phenotypes in Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of sociogenomics explores the relations between social behavior and genome structure and function. An important question is the extent to which associations between social behavior and gene expression are conserved among the Metazoa. Prior experimental work in an invertebrate model of social behavior, the honey bee, revealed distinct brain gene expression patterns in African and European honey bees, and within European honey bees with different behavioral phenotypes. The present work is a computational study of these previous findings in which we analyze, by orthology determination, the extent to which genes that are socially regulated in honey bees are conserved across the Metazoa. We found that the differentially expressed gene sets associated with alarm pheromone response, the difference between old and young bees, and the colony influence on soldier bees, are enriched in widely conserved genes, indicating that these differences have genomic bases shared with many other metazoans. By contrast, the sets of differentially expressed genes associated with the differences between African and European forager and guard bees are depleted in widely conserved genes, indicating that the genomic basis for this social behavior is relatively specific to honey bees. For the alarm pheromone response gene set, we found a particularly high degree of conservation with mammals, even though the alarm pheromone itself is bee-specific. Gene Ontology identification of human orthologs to the strongly conserved honey bee genes associated with the alarm pheromone response shows overrepresentation of protein metabolism, regulation of protein complex formation, and protein folding, perhaps associated with remodeling of critical neural circuits in response to alarm pheromone. We hypothesize that such remodeling may be an adaptation of social animals to process and respond appropriately to the complex patterns of conspecific communication essential for

  8. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  9. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA=A t S and SA=-A t S for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose A t , which may be of independent interest

  10. Administrative memo relative to the delivery of energy conservation certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    This memo details the principles of the energy conservation certificates, the law texts of application, the part of the Government and the ADEME services, the certificates demand procedure, and the inscription of the certificates on the national registries. (A.L.B.)

  11. High qualitative and quantitative conservation of alternative splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Irimia, Manuel; Mørk, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important contributor to proteome diversity and is regarded as an explanatory factor for the relatively low number of human genes compared with less complex animals. To assess the evolutionary conservation of AS and its developmental regulation, we have investigated...... the qualitative and quantitative expression of 21 orthologous alternative splice events through the development of 2 nematode species separated by 85-110 Myr of evolutionary time. We demonstrate that most of these alternative splice events present in Caenorhabditis elegans are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae....... Moreover, we find that relative isoform expression levels vary significantly during development for 78% of the AS events and that this quantitative variation is highly conserved between the 2 species. Our results suggest that AS is generally tightly regulated through development and that the regulatory...

  12. Dispersion and energy conservation relations of surface waves in semi-infinite plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, V.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrodynamic theory of surface wave propagation in semi-infinite homogeneous isotropic plasma is considered. Explicit linear surface wave solutions are given for the electric and magnetic fields, charge and current densities. These solutions are used to obtain the well-known dispersion relations and, together with the general energy conservation equation, to find appropriate definitions for the energy and the energy flow densities of surface waves. These densities are associated with the dispersion relation and the group velocity by formulae similar to those for bulk waves in infinite plasmas. Both cases of high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) surface waves are considered. (author)

  13. High-resolution finite-difference algorithms for conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towers, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of Total Variation Decreasing (TVD) schemes for 2-dimensional scalar conservation laws is constructed using either flux-limited or slope-limited numerical fluxes. The schemes are proven to have formal second-order accuracy in regions where neither u/sub x/ nor y/sub y/ vanishes. A new class of high-resolution large-time-step TVD schemes is constructed by adding flux-limited correction terms to the first-order accurate large-time-step version of the Engquist-Osher scheme. The use of the transport-collapse operator in place of the exact solution operator for the construction of difference schemes is studied. The production of spurious extrema by difference schemes is studied. A simple condition guaranteeing the nonproduction of spurious extrema is derived. A sufficient class of entropy inequalities for a conservation law with a flux having a single inflection point is presented. Finite-difference schemes satisfying a discrete version of each entropy inequality are only first-order accurate

  14. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  15. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  16. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  17. The applicability of Relative Floristic Resemblance to evaluate the conservation value of protected areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.J.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2011-01-01

    s – It is important to know the contribution of a protected area to global conservation. A new method called ‘Relative Floristic Resemblance’ that uses databased and georeferenced herbarium specimens, is introduced. Its usefulness and applicability to assess the conservation value of protected areas

  18. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  19. Constrained dansyl derivatives reveal bacterial specificity of highly conserved thymidylate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Sanuele; Tondi, Donatella; Ferrari, Stefania; Venturelli, Alberto; Ghelli, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola

    2008-03-25

    The elucidation of the structural/functional specificities of highly conserved enzymes remains a challenging area of investigation, and enzymes involved in cellular replication are important targets for functional studies and drug discovery. Thymidylate synthase (TS, ThyA) governs the synthesis of thymidylate for use in DNA synthesis. The present study focused on Lactobacillus casei TS (LcTS) and Escherichia coli TS (EcTS), which exhibit 50 % sequence identity and strong folding similarity. We have successfully designed and validated a chemical model in which linear, but not constrained, dansyl derivatives specifically complement the LcTS active site. Conversely, chemically constrained dansyl derivatives showed up to 1000-fold improved affinity for EcTS relative to the inhibitory activity of linear derivatives. This study demonstrates that the accurate design of small ligands can uncover functional features of highly conserved enzymes.

  20. Conservative Management for Stable High Ankle Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Trem, Anthony; Sheehan, Joseph; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    High ankle "syndesmosis" injuries are common in American football players relative to the general population. At the professional level, syndesmotic sprains represent a challenging and unique injury lacking a standardized rehabilitation protocol during conservative management. PubMed, Biosis Preview, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms syndesmotic injuries, American football, conservative management, and rehabilitation. Clinical review. Level 3. When compared with lateral ankle sprains, syndesmosis injuries result in significantly prolonged recovery times and games lost. For stable syndesmotic injuries, conservative management features a brief period of immobilization and protected weightbearing followed by progressive strengthening exercises and running, and athletes can expect to return to competition in 2 to 6 weeks. Further research investigating the efficacy of dry needling and blood flow restriction therapy is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these techniques in the rehabilitation process. Successful conservative management of stable syndesmotic injuries in professional American football athletes requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy, injury mechanisms, diagnosis, and rehabilitation strategies utilized in elite athletes.

  1. Hydrodynamics in full general relativity with conservative AMR

    OpenAIRE

    East, William E.; Pretorius, Frans; Stephens, Branson C.

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in numerical relativity simulations involving matter due to the likelihood that binary compact objects involving neutron stars will be detected by gravitational wave observatories in the coming years, as well as to the possibility that binary compact object mergers could explain short-duration gamma-ray bursts. We present a code designed for simulations of hydrodynamics coupled to the Einstein field equations targeted toward such applications. This code has recently be...

  2. CWRML: representing crop wild relative conservation and use data in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jonathan D; Kell, Shelagh P; Iriondo, Jose M; Ford-Lloyd, Brian V; Maxted, Nigel

    2008-02-25

    Crop wild relatives are wild species that are closely related to crops. They are valuable as potential gene donors for crop improvement and may help to ensure food security for the future. However, they are becoming increasingly threatened in the wild and are inadequately conserved, both in situ and ex situ. Information about the conservation status and utilisation potential of crop wild relatives is diverse and dispersed, and no single agreed standard exists for representing such information; yet, this information is vital to ensure these species are effectively conserved and utilised. The European Community-funded project, European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, determined the minimum information requirements for the conservation and utilisation of crop wild relatives and created the Crop Wild Relative Information System, incorporating an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema to aid data sharing and exchange. Crop Wild Relative Markup Language (CWRML) was developed to represent the data necessary for crop wild relative conservation and ensure that they can be effectively utilised for crop improvement. The schema partitions data into taxon-, site-, and population-specific elements, to allow for integration with other more general conservation biology schemata which may emerge as accepted standards in the future. These elements are composed of sub-elements, which are structured in order to facilitate the use of the schema in a variety of crop wild relative conservation and use contexts. Pre-existing standards for data representation in conservation biology were reviewed and incorporated into the schema as restrictions on element data contents, where appropriate. CWRML provides a flexible data communication format for representing in situ and ex situ conservation status of individual taxa as well as their utilisation potential. The development of the schema highlights a number of instances where additional standards-development may

  3. Eucaryotic operon genes can define highly conserved syntenies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2004), s. 1-6 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0997; GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : eukaryotic operon * conserved synteny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  4. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  5. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, G G; Chaturvedi, S N

    1975-03-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior.

  6. Energy conservation and pomeron loops in high energy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta

    2007-01-01

    We present a formalism which modifies the Mueller Dipole Model such that it incorporates energy-momentum conservation as well as important colour suppressed effects in the cascade evolution. The formalism is implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation program, and the results are compared to inclusive data from HERA and the Tevatron. We here find a generally very good agreement between our model and the experimental data. (author)

  7. Building Maintenance in Old Buildings Conservation Approach: An Overview of Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Kayan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance in conservation of old buildings is one of the approaches applied within the built environment of Malaysia. For instance, it is realised that these old buildings contribute an important significance to our nation's priceless heritage and unique historical development. However, most of these buildings' maintenance is influenced by related problems that affect the overall building conservation approach. Therefore, these old buildings face problems which greatly affect their overall condition and performance: building structure; building appearance and aesthetic; building materials and building character. In most critical situations, there is a greater possibility that we could lose the cultural significance and heritage values of these old buildings through ignoring the related problems. This paper tries to identify the related problems, reveal the findings and discuss suitable approaches to conserving these old buildings.

  8. Usherin expression is highly conserved in mouse and human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Nicole; Bhattacharya, Gautam; Wisecarver, Jim; Adams, Joe; Cosgrove, Dominic; Kimberling, William

    2002-12-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease that results in varying degrees of hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Three types of Usher syndrome (I, II, and III) have been identified clinically with Usher type II being the most common of the three types. Usher type II has been localized to three different chromosomes 1q41, 3p, and 5q, corresponding to Usher type 2A, 2B, and 2C respectively. Usherin is a basement membrane protein encoded by the USH2A gene. Expression of usherin has been localized in the basement membrane of several tissues, however it is not ubiquitous. Immunohistochemistry detected usherin in the following human tissues: retina, cochlea, small and large intestine, pancreas, bladder, prostate, esophagus, trachea, thymus, salivary glands, placenta, ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, and testis. Usherin was absent in many other tissues such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, and brain. This distribution is consistent with the usherin distribution seen in the mouse. Conservation of usherin is also seen at the nucleotide and amino acid level when comparing the mouse and human gene sequences. Evolutionary conservation of usherin expression at the molecular level and in tissues unaffected by Usher 2a supports the important structural and functional role this protein plays in the human. In addition, we believe that these results could lead to a diagnostic procedure for the detection of Usher syndrome and those who carry an USH2A mutation.

  9. The household energy gap: examining the divide between habitual- and purchase-related conservation behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Stewart; Gilg, A.W.; Ford, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the conceptual divide between energy saving behaviours in the home, relating to purchase-oriented behaviours and habitual action to conserve energy. Considerable empirical research indicates that this divide is of utility when characterising energy saving behaviour. However, little attention has been focused around the association between energy saving behaviours and other environmental actions. Accordingly, this paper examines the structural bases of energy conservation behaviours in the wider context of environmental behaviour. These findings are then used to examine the characteristics of energy savers as they relate to other environmental actions. Using cluster analysis, the paper defines a range of behavioural characteristics that transcend energy saving and other environmental actions. The use of such an approach to policy makers seeking to encourage energy conservation practices is discussed at the end of the paper

  10. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Houston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islands near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia, and assess their implications for conservation and management. The Keppels has much higher coral diversity than previously found. The average species richness for the 19 study sites was ~40 with representatives from 68% of the ~244 species previously described for the southern Great Barrier Reef. Using scleractinian coral species richness, taxonomic distinctiveness and coral cover as the main criteria, we found that five out of 19 sites had particularly high conservation value. A further site was also considered to be of relatively high value. Corals at this site were taxonomically distinct from the others (representatives of two families were found here but not at other sites and a wide range of functionally diverse taxa were present. This site was associated with more stressful conditions such as high temperatures and turbidity. Highly diverse coral communities or biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and taxonomically distinct reefs may act as insurance policies for climatic disturbance, much like Noah’s Arks for reefs. While improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic impacts are clearly important management initiatives to improve the long-term outlook for inshore reefs, identifying, mapping and protecting these coastal ‘refugia’ may be the key for ensuring their regeneration against catastrophic climatic disturbance in the meantime.

  11. Conservation laws for a system of two point masses in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibaut; Deruelle, Nathalie

    1981-01-01

    We study the symmetries of the generalized lagrangian of two point masses, in the post-post newtonian approximation of General Relativity. We deduce, via Noether's theorem, conservation laws for energy, linear and angular momentum, as well as a generalisation of the center-of-mass theorem [fr

  12. Moisture and Home Energy Conservation: How to Detect, Solve and Avoid Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT.

    Moisture problems are identified as an important element in home energy conservation programs. A systematic approach to understanding, recognizing, solving, and preventing moisture-related problems is offered in this four-section report. Section I examines the root of moisture problems. Section II discusses symptoms and causes of excess moisture…

  13. Experiencing polar bears in the zoo: feelings and cognitions in relation to a visitor's conservation attitude

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseille, M.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Brink, van den M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores which feelings and cognitions are involved in visitor experiences of zoo polar bears and how this experience relates to a visitor's conservation attitude. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with 30 visitors in two Dutch zoos. Most respondents believed that a

  14. Avoidance of singularity and global non-conservation of energy in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, M.M.

    2009-06-01

    We show that the singularity in the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is the expression of a non-Machian feature. It can be avoided with a scale-invariant dynamical theory, a property lacking in GTR. It is further argued that the global non-conservation of energy in GTR also results from the lack of scale-invariance, and the field formulation presented by several authors can only partly resolve the problem. Assuming the global energy conservation, we propose a negative energy density component with a positive equation of state that can drive the late-time acceleration in the universe, while the positive component confines to smaller scales. (author)

  15. Rastall's and related theories are conservative gravitational theories although physically inequivalent to general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, L.L.; Alabama Univ., Huntsville

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that (1) the proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalisations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients; 2) these theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum; and (3) the Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor. (author)

  16. Rastall's and related theories are conservative gravitational theories although physically inequivalent to general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    The proper framework for testing Rastall's theory and its generalizations is in the case of non-negligible (i.e. discernible) gravitational effects such as gravity gradients. These theories have conserved integral four-momentum and angular momentum. The Nordtvedt effect then provides limits on the parameters which arise as the result of the non-zero divergence of the energy-momentum tensor.

  17. Energy and environmental policies relating to hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions mitigation and energy conservation in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, W.T.

    2006-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions are becoming significant energy and environmental issues relating to energy consumption in Taiwan. The nation, although not a party to the Montreal Protocol and Kyoto Protocol, has diligently strived to mitigate the emissions and phase out use of the responsible materials. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which are now mostly used in refrigeration and air conditioning systems, are the main GHGs associated with strong global warming potential. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the industrial/commercial uses of HFCs in Taiwan. Because of their high impacts on climate change, the description is then centered on estimating the potential emissions of HFCs according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method and the governmental organizations responses to the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The regulatory systems relating to HFCs mitigation and energy conservation and energy policies and promotion measures for providing technological assistances and financial incentives in the energy management, resource recovery and HFCs reduction/recycling technologies are also addressed in the paper

  18. Telomeric expression sites are highly conserved in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    Full Text Available Subtelomeric regions are often under-represented in genome sequences of eukaryotes. One of the best known examples of the use of telomere proximity for adaptive purposes are the bloodstream expression sites (BESs of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. To enhance our understanding of BES structure and function in host adaptation and immune evasion, the BES repertoire from the Lister 427 strain of T. brucei were independently tagged and sequenced. BESs are polymorphic in size and structure but reveal a surprisingly conserved architecture in the context of extensive recombination. Very small BESs do exist and many functioning BESs do not contain the full complement of expression site associated genes (ESAGs. The consequences of duplicated or missing ESAGs, including ESAG9, a newly named ESAG12, and additional variant surface glycoprotein genes (VSGs were evaluated by functional assays after BESs were tagged with a drug-resistance gene. Phylogenetic analysis of constituent ESAG families suggests that BESs are sequence mosaics and that extensive recombination has shaped the evolution of the BES repertoire. This work opens important perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation, a widely used strategy for immune evasion in pathogens, and telomere biology.

  19. The reproductive biology of Calligonum L. in relation to ex situ conservation in a botanical garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we observed the flowering phenology, breeding system, pollination and seed germination of four species of Calligonum (C. calliphysa, C. rubicundum, C. densum and C. ebinuricum in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, China. Our results showed that the species had overlapping flowering phenologies and were pollinated by similar pollination agents. Their breeding systems were self-compatible, and with signs of outbreeding, but not of hybridization with each other; the main isolation mechanism was post-zygotic isolation and they also had high seed germination rates. Therefore, they are suited to ex situ conservation in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, and can supply sufficient seeds for renewal populations and the conservation of germplasm resources. Furthermore, these results provide theoretical support for the construction of a national germplasm resource garden of Calligonum, and for the introduction to the garden of other eremophyteplants and their conservation.

  20. Homologous high-throughput expression and purification of highly conserved E coli proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchmann Rainer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors and a dysregulated immune response towards commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Animal models demonstrated that the normal intestinal flora is crucial for the development of intestinal inflammation. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal flora, it has been difficult to design experiments for detection of proinflammatory bacterial antigen(s involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several studies indicated a potential association of E. coli with IBD. In addition, T cell clones of IBD patients were shown to cross react towards antigens from different enteric bacterial species and thus likely responded to conserved bacterial antigens. We therefore chose highly conserved E. coli proteins as candidate antigens for abnormal T cell responses in IBD and used high-throughput techniques for cloning, expression and purification under native conditions of a set of 271 conserved E. coli proteins for downstream immunologic studies. Results As a standardized procedure, genes were PCR amplified and cloned into the expression vector pQTEV2 in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a seven-histidine-tag. Initial small-scale expression and purification under native conditions by metal chelate affinity chromatography indicated that the vast majority of target proteins were purified in high yields. Targets that revealed low yields after purification probably due to weak solubility were shuttled into Gateway (Invitrogen destination vectors in order to enhance solubility by N-terminal fusion of maltose binding protein (MBP, N-utilizing substance A (NusA, or glutathione S-transferase (GST to the target protein. In addition, recombinant proteins were treated with polymyxin B coated magnetic beads in order to remove lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Thus, 73% of the targeted proteins could be expressed and purified in large-scale to give soluble proteins in the range of 500

  1. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, George G.; Chaturvedi, S. N.

    1975-01-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior. PMID:16659116

  2. A guide to calculating habitat-quality metrics to inform conservation of highly mobile species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Joanna A.; Sample, Christine; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Earl, Julia E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Semmens, Darius J.; Skraber, T.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.

    2018-01-01

    Many metrics exist for quantifying the relative value of habitats and pathways used by highly mobile species. Properly selecting and applying such metrics requires substantial background in mathematics and understanding the relevant management arena. To address this multidimensional challenge, we demonstrate and compare three measurements of habitat quality: graph-, occupancy-, and demographic-based metrics. Each metric provides insights into system dynamics, at the expense of increasing amounts and complexity of data and models. Our descriptions and comparisons of diverse habitat-quality metrics provide means for practitioners to overcome the modeling challenges associated with management or conservation of such highly mobile species. Whereas previous guidance for applying habitat-quality metrics has been scattered in diversified tracks of literature, we have brought this information together into an approachable format including accessible descriptions and a modeling case study for a typical example that conservation professionals can adapt for their own decision contexts and focal populations.Considerations for Resource ManagersManagement objectives, proposed actions, data availability and quality, and model assumptions are all relevant considerations when applying and interpreting habitat-quality metrics.Graph-based metrics answer questions related to habitat centrality and connectivity, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify basic spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require the least data.Occupancy-based metrics answer questions about likelihood of persistence or colonization, are suitable for populations that undergo localized extinctions, quantify spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require a moderate amount of data.Demographic-based metrics answer questions about relative or absolute population size, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify demographic

  3. Visualization of conserved structures by fusing highly variable datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jonathan C; Chhadia, Ankur; Dech, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Reality (VR) environment. The accuracy of the fusions was determined qualitatively by comparing the transformed atlas overlaid on the appropriate CT. It was examined for where the transformed structure atlas was incorrectly overlaid (false positive) and where it was incorrectly not overlaid (false negative). According to this method, fusions 1 and 2 were correct roughly 50-75% of the time, while fusions 3 and 4 were correct roughly 75-100%. The CT dataset augmented with transformed dataset was viewed arbitrarily in user-centered perspective stereo taking advantage of features such as scaling, windowing and volumetric region of interest selection. This process of auto-coloring conserved structures in variable datasets is a step toward the goal of a broader, standardized automatic structure visualization method for radiological data. If successful it would permit identification, visualization or deletion of structures in radiological data by semi-automatically applying canonical structure information to the radiological data (not just processing and visualization of the data's intrinsic dynamic range). More sophisticated selection of control points and patterns of warping may allow for more accurate transforms, and thus advances in visualization, simulation, education, diagnostics, and treatment planning.

  4. Dealing with Drought: Decoupling Climatic and Management-Related Drivers of Water Conservation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, A.; Rippy, M.; Grant, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    As global populations grow, cities in drought prone regions of the world such as California and South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and water security challenges. The management approaches geared towards addressing these challenges are diverse. Given the myriad of possible approaches and the tendency to apply them in combination, successful management actions can be difficult to identify. Background climactic variability further complicates the story, making transfer of management lessons from one drought stressed region to another difficult. Here we use Melbourne, a city of 4.3 million people in South East Australia that recently faced and overcame a > 10 year "Millennium" drought, as a test case for evaluating the relative importance of various management-related and climactic factors in driving reductions in municipal water consumption (~60% in 12 years). Our analysis suggests that Melbourne's declining municipal consumption cannot be explained by potable substitution alone, as reductions in municipal consumption were not matched by increased use of alternative sources (e.g., urban rain or recycled water). Thus, water conservation behavior (not source switching) may be responsible for the majority of demand reduction in Melbourne. Interestingly, while voluntary or mandatory water restrictions appear to have substantially altered the rate of change of consumption near the end of Melbourne's Millennium drought (e.g., forcing a period of intense conservation), overall conservation behavior precedes these restrictions. This suggests that other rapidly implemented (and hither too unquantified) management approaches such as advertising or newspapers may have driven water conservation behavior early in the drought. Climatic factors, particularly precipitation may also have influenced conservation behavior; changes in precipitation were significantly positively correlated with changes in water consumption at a lag of 18 months. Similar

  5. Determining the drivers of population structure in a highly urbanized landscape to inform conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Harrigan, Ryan J; Semple Delaney, Kathleen; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pease, Katherine; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the environmental contributors to population structure is of paramount importance for conservation in urbanized environments. We used spatially explicit models to determine genetic population structure under current and future environmental conditions across a highly fragmented, human-dominated environment in Southern California to assess the effects of natural ecological variation and urbanization. We focused on 7 common species with diverse habitat requirements, home-range sizes, and dispersal abilities. We quantified the relative roles of potential barriers, including natural environmental characteristics and an anthropogenic barrier created by a major highway, in shaping genetic variation. The ability to predict genetic variation in our models differed among species: 11-81% of intraspecific genetic variation was explained by environmental variables. Although an anthropogenically induced barrier (a major highway) severely restricted gene flow and movement at broad scales for some species, genetic variation seemed to be primarily driven by natural environmental heterogeneity at a local level. Our results show how assessing environmentally associated variation for multiple species under current and future climate conditions can help identify priority regions for maximizing population persistence under environmental change in urbanized regions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Analytic, high β, flux conserving equilibria for cylindrical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.; Vahala, G.

    1978-09-01

    Using Grad's theory of generalized differential equations, the temporal evolution from low to high β due to ''adiabatic'' and nonadiabatic (i.e., neutral beam injection) heating of a cylindrical tokamak plasma with circular cross section and peaked current profiles is calculated analytically. The influence of shaping the initial safety factor profile and the beam deposition profile and the effect of minor radius compression on the equilibrium is analyzed

  7. Analytic, high β, flux conserving equilibria for cylindrical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.; Vahala, G.

    1978-01-01

    Using Grad's theory of generalized differential equations, the temporal evolution from low to high β due to ''adiabatic'' and nonadiabatic (i.e., neutral beam injection) heating of a cylindrical tokamak plasma with circular cross section and peaked current profiles is calculated analytically. The influence of shaping the initial safety factor profile and the beam deposition profile and the effect of minor radius compression on the equilibrium is analyzed

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family...... clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity...... enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some...

  9. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making.

  10. Religiosity and conservatism revisited: relating a new religiosity measure to the two main conservative political ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duriez, Bart

    2003-04-01

    The relation between the two religiosity dimensions which Wulff (1997) described (Exclusion vs Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal vs Symbolic) and two conservative political ideologies (Cultural and Economic Conservatism) was investigated in a sample of 714 students, a heterogeneous sample of 262 adults, and a sample of 301 religiously affiliated adults gathered in Flanders (Belgium). Both Exclusion vs Inclusion of Transcendence and Literal vs Symbolic were expected to relate only to Cultural Conservatism. Analysis supported these hypotheses, providing further evidence for the close association between religiosity and Cultural Conservatism and the validity of the Post-Critical Belief scale as a measure of Wulff's dimensions of religiosity.

  11. Introgression from cultivated rice alters genetic structures of wild relative populations: implications for in situ conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ping; Li, Chen; Cai, Xingxing; Rong, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Maintaining genetic integrity is essential for in situ and ex situ conservation of crop wild relative (CWR) species. However, introgression of crop alleles into CWR species/populations may change their genetic structure and diversity, resulting in more invasive weeds or, in contrast, the extinction of endangered populations. To determine crop-wild introgression and its consequences, we examined the genetic structure and diversity of six wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) populations under in situ conservation in China. Thirty-four simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 34 insertion/deletion markers were used to genotype the wild rice populations and two sets of rice cultivars (O. sativa), corresponding to the two types of molecular markers. Shared alleles and STRUCTURE analyses suggested a variable level of crop-wild introgression and admixture. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses indicated differentiation of wild rice populations, which was associated with the spatial distances to cultivated rice fields. The level of overall genetic diversity was comparable between wild rice populations and rice cultivars, but a great number of wild-specific alleles was detected in the wild populations. We conclude based on the results that crop-wild introgression can considerably alter the pattern of genetic structure and relationships of CWR populations. Appropriate measures should be taken for effective in situ conservation of CWR species under the scenario of crop-wild introgression. PMID:29308123

  12. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  13. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  14. Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei-Ling; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Xie Yin-Li; Jia Li-Qun; Sun Xian-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion are studied. The determining equation of Lie symmetry of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is given. The expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced directly from Lie symmetry for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  15. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  16. Balancing forest-regeneration probabilities and maintenance costs in dry grasslands of high conservation priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Janine; Edwards, Thomas C.; Eggenberg, Stefan; Ismail, Sascha; Seidl, Irmi; Kienast, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land has resulted in forest regeneration in species-rich dry grasslands across European mountain regions and threatens conservation efforts in this vegetation type. To support national conservation strategies, we used a site-selection algorithm (MARXAN) to find optimum sets of floristic regions (reporting units) that contain grasslands of high conservation priority. We sought optimum sets that would accommodate 136 important dry-grassland species and that would minimize forest regeneration and costs of management needed to forestall predicted forest regeneration. We did not consider other conservation elements of dry grasslands, such as animal species richness, cultural heritage, and changes due to climate change. Optimal sets that included 95–100% of the dry grassland species encompassed an average of 56–59 floristic regions (standard deviation, SD 5). This is about 15% of approximately 400 floristic regions that contain dry-grassland sites and translates to 4800–5300 ha of dry grassland out of a total of approximately 23,000 ha for the entire study area. Projected costs to manage the grasslands in these optimum sets ranged from CHF (Swiss francs) 5.2 to 6.0 million/year. This is only 15–20% of the current total estimated cost of approximately CHF30–45 million/year required if all dry grasslands were to be protected. The grasslands of the optimal sets may be viewed as core sites in a national conservation strategy.

  17. Technical evaluation on high aging, and performance conditions on long-term conservation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    In order to secure safety and safe operation of power plants, in every nuclear power plants, conservation actions based on preventive conservation are performed. They contain operative condition monitoring, patrolling inspection, and periodical tests on important systems and apparatus by operators under plant operation and condition monitoring by maintenance workers, and so on, and when finding out their abnormal conditions, their detailed survey is performed to adopt adequate countermeasures such as recovery, exchange, and so on. And, to equipments for nuclear power generation periodical conditions were obliged by legal examinations and by independent inspections. As a result of these conservation actions, even on a plant elapsed about 30 years since beginning of its operation it was thought that the plant was aged with elapsing time even if not recognizing any indication on its aged deterioration at that time. Therefore, for its concrete countermeasure, by supposing long-term operation of a plant with longer operation history, some technical evaluation on aged phenomena were carried out, to investigate on reflection of the obtained results to present conservation actions. Here were described on efforts on the high aging countermeasures, and performing conditions of long-term conservation in the Tsuruga Unit No. 1 Nuclear Power Station. (G.K.)

  18. U.S. Geological Survey programs and investigations related to soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Gray, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a rich tradition of collecting hydrologic data, especially for fluxes of water and suspended sediment, that provide a foundation for studies of soil and water conservation. Applied and basic research has included investigations of the effects of land use on rangelands, croplands, and forests; hazards mapping; derivation of flood and drought frequency, and other statistics related to streamflow and reservoir storage; development and application of models of rainfall-runoff relations, chemical quality, and sediment movement; and studies of the interactive processes of overland and channel flow with vegetation. Networks of streamgaging stations and (or) sampling sites within numerous drainage basins are yielding information that extends databases and enhances the ability to use those data for interpretive studies.

  19. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  20. Comparative analyses reveal high levels of conserved colinearity between the finger millet and rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasachary; Dida, Mathews M; Gale, Mike D; Devos, Katrien M

    2007-08-01

    Finger millet is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) grass that belongs to the Chloridoideae subfamily. A comparative analysis has been carried out to determine the relationship of the finger millet genome with that of rice. Six of the nine finger millet homoeologous groups corresponded to a single rice chromosome each. Each of the remaining three finger millet groups were orthologous to two rice chromosomes, and in all the three cases one rice chromosome was inserted into the centromeric region of a second rice chromosome to give the finger millet chromosomal configuration. All observed rearrangements were, among the grasses, unique to finger millet and, possibly, the Chloridoideae subfamily. Gene orders between rice and finger millet were highly conserved, with rearrangements being limited largely to single marker transpositions and small putative inversions encompassing at most three markers. Only some 10% of markers mapped to non-syntenic positions in rice and finger millet and the majority of these were located in the distal 14% of chromosome arms, supporting a possible correlation between recombination and sequence evolution as has previously been observed in wheat. A comparison of the organization of finger millet, Panicoideae and Pooideae genomes relative to rice allowed us to infer putative ancestral chromosome configurations in the grasses.

  1. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Technical achievements in energy conservation by beverage-related processing industries: Breweries, dairies, distilleries and maltings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawkes, S D; Jacques, J K

    1986-01-01

    Patterns of adoption and adaptation of a wide range of energy-conserving technologies were observed in 1983-1984. The most widely employed techniques were low-energy lighting and power-factor correction, both of which generate significant savings with minimal alteration to process plant and working methods, are capable of great flexibility in their mode of application, and can be installed independently for small parts of the total plant, in a step-by-step manner. The generally disappointing findings are associated with internal management attitudes to full systematic treatments of energy-cost problems, artificially high barriers to investment, especially in smaller organisations, and widespread lack of commitment to, and understanding of, relevant innovation procedures. Site specific constraints are also important in some older production facilities.

  3. Enhancing Conservation with High Resolution Productivity Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathaniel Paul

    Human driven alteration of the earth's terrestrial surface is accelerating through land use changes, intensification of human activity, climate change, and other anthropogenic pressures. These changes occur at broad spatio-temporal scales, challenging our ability to effectively monitor and assess the impacts and subsequent conservation strategies. While satellite remote sensing (SRS) products enable monitoring of the earth's terrestrial surface continuously across space and time, the practical applications for conservation and management of these products are limited. Often the processes driving ecological change occur at fine spatial resolutions and are undetectable given the resolution of available datasets. Additionally, the links between SRS data and ecologically meaningful metrics are weak. Recent advances in cloud computing technology along with the growing record of high resolution SRS data enable the development of SRS products that quantify ecologically meaningful variables at relevant scales applicable for conservation and management. The focus of my dissertation is to improve the applicability of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity (GPP/NPP) datasets for the conterminous United States (CONUS). In chapter one, I develop a framework for creating high resolution datasets of vegetation dynamics. I use the entire archive of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflectance data and a novel gap filling approach to create spatially continuous 30 m, 16-day composites of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1986 to 2016. In chapter two, I integrate this with other high resolution datasets and the MOD17 algorithm to create the first high resolution GPP and NPP datasets for CONUS. I demonstrate the applicability of these products for conservation and management, showing the improvements beyond currently available products. In chapter three, I utilize this dataset to evaluate the relationships between land ownership and terrestrial production

  4. Environment and Spatial Influences on Aquatic Insect Communities in Cerrado Streams: the Relative Importance of Conductivity, Altitude, and Conservation Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2017-04-01

    The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.

  5. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  6. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.

    2010-01-01

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  7. Estimation of the stress related to conservative scoliosis therapy: an analysis based on BSSQ questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulc Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent girls treated with a brace for scoliosis are submitted to prolonged stress related to both the disease and the therapy. Currently proposed quality of life questionnaires are focused on the outcome of therapy. Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaire (BSSQ enables monitoring of patients being under treatment with a brace or exercises. The aim of the study was to assess the stress level in conservatively managed scoliotic girls using BSSQ. Materials and methods 111 girls, aged 14,2 ± 2,2 years, mean Cobb angle of the primary curve 42,8° ± 17,0° and mean Bunnell angle of 11,4° ± 4,5° were examined with two versions of BSSQ (Deformity and Brace. The analysis considered the type of treatment, curve location, correlation of the total score with age, Cobb angle and Bunnell rotation angle. Results The BSSQ Deformity revealed the median of 17 points in patients managed with exercises (from 4 to 24 points, 18 in patients managed with a brace (from 8 to 24 points and 12 in patients before surgery (from 3 to 21 points. Braced patients who completed both questionnaires (n = 50 revealed significantly higher score with BSSQ Deformity (median = 18 comparing to BSSQ Brace (median = 9. There was a correlation between the total score of BSSQ Deformity and the Cobb angle (r = -0,34, Bunnell primary curve rotation (r = -0,34 and Bunnell sum of rotation (r = -0,33 but not with the age of patients. Conclusion Scoliotic adolescents managed with exercises and brace suffered little stress from the deformity. The brace increased the level of stress over the stress induced by the deformity. The stress level correlated with clinical deformity (Bunnell angle, radiological deformity (Cobb angle and the type of treatment (exercises, bracing, surgery. Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires are simple and helpful in the management of girls treated conservatively for idiopathic scoliosis.

  8. Highly conserved non-coding sequences are associated with vertebrate development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Woolfe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are compared in order to identify both similarities and differences. In general, similarities in sequence between highly divergent organisms imply functional constraint. We have used a whole-genome comparison between humans and the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, to identify nearly 1,400 highly conserved non-coding sequences. Given the evolutionary divergence between these species, it is likely that these sequences are found in, and furthermore are essential to, all vertebrates. Most, and possibly all, of these sequences are located in and around genes that act as developmental regulators. Some of these sequences are over 90% identical across more than 500 bases, being more highly conserved than coding sequence between these two species. Despite this, we cannot find any similar sequences in invertebrate genomes. In order to begin to functionally test this set of sequences, we have used a rapid in vivo assay system using zebrafish embryos that allows tissue-specific enhancer activity to be identified. Functional data is presented for highly conserved non-coding sequences associated with four unrelated developmental regulators (SOX21, PAX6, HLXB9, and SHH, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this screen to a wide range of genes and expression patterns. Of 25 sequence elements tested around these four genes, 23 show significant enhancer activity in one or more tissues. We have identified a set of non-coding sequences that are highly conserved throughout vertebrates. They are found in clusters across the human genome, principally around genes that are implicated in the regulation of development

  9. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  10. Comparative analyses of six solanaceous transcriptomes reveal a high degree of sequence conservation and species-specific transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Shu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae is a family of closely related species with diverse phenotypes that have been exploited for agronomic purposes. Previous studies involving a small number of genes suggested sequence conservation across the Solanaceae. The availability of large collections of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for the Solanaceae now provides the opportunity to assess sequence conservation and divergence on a genomic scale. Results All available ESTs and Expressed Transcripts (ETs, 449,224 sequences for six Solanaceae species (potato, tomato, pepper, petunia, tobacco and Nicotiana benthamiana, were clustered and assembled into gene indices. Examination of gene ontologies revealed that the transcripts within the gene indices encode a similar suite of biological processes. Although the ESTs and ETs were derived from a variety of tissues, 55–81% of the sequences had significant similarity at the nucleotide level with sequences among the six species. Putative orthologs could be identified for 28–58% of the sequences. This high degree of sequence conservation was supported by expression profiling using heterologous hybridizations to potato cDNA arrays that showed similar expression patterns in mature leaves for all six solanaceous species. 16–19% of the transcripts within the six Solanaceae gene indices did not have matches among Solanaceae, Arabidopsis, rice or 21 other plant gene indices. Conclusion Results from this genome scale analysis confirmed a high level of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level of the coding sequence among Solanaceae. Additionally, the results indicated that part of the Solanaceae transcriptome is likely to be unique for each species.

  11. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Mallory, Mindy L

    2012-04-24

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit-cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change-induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area.

  12. Optimal portfolio design to reduce climate-related conservation uncertainty in the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Mallory, Mindy L.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to alter the spatial distributions of species and habitat types but the nature of such change is uncertain. Thus, climate change makes it difficult to implement standard conservation planning paradigms. Previous work has suggested some approaches to cope with such uncertainty but has not harnessed all of the benefits of risk diversification. We adapt Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT) to optimal spatial targeting of conservation activity, using wetland habitat conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) as an example. This approach finds the allocations of conservation activity among subregions of the planning area that maximize the expected conservation returns for a given level of uncertainty or minimize uncertainty for a given expected level of returns. We find that using MPT instead of simple diversification in the PPR can achieve a value of the conservation objective per dollar spent that is 15% higher for the same level of risk. MPT-based portfolios can also have 21% less uncertainty over benefits or 6% greater expected benefits than the current portfolio of PPR conservation. Total benefits from conservation investment are higher if returns are defined in terms of benefit–cost ratios rather than benefits alone. MPT-guided diversification can work to reduce the climate-change–induced uncertainty of future ecosystem-service benefits from many land policy and investment initiatives, especially when outcomes are negatively correlated between subregions of a planning area. PMID:22451914

  13. Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Goswami, Anjali; Weisbecker, Vera; Mock, Orin; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive data set of ossification sequences including seven marsupial, 13 placental and seven sauropsid species. Data are provided for the first time for two major mammalian clades, Chiroptera and Soricidae, and for two rodent species; the published sequences of three species were improved with additional sampling. The relative timing of the onset of ossification in 17 cranial elements was recorded, resulting in 136 event pairs, which were treated as characters for each species. Half of these characters are constant across all taxa, 30% are variable but phylogenetically uninformative, and 19% potentially deliver diagnostic features for clades of two or more taxa. Using the conservative estimate of heterochronic changes provided by the program Parsimov, only a few heterochronies were found to diagnose mammals, marsupials, or placentals. A later onset of ossification of the pterygoid with respect to six other cranial bones characterizes therian mammals. This result may relate to the relatively small size of this bone in this clade. One change in relative onset of ossification is hypothesized as a potential human autapomorphy in the context of the sampling made: the earlier onset of the ossification of the periotic with respect to the lacrimal and to three basicranial bones. Using the standard error of scaled ranks across all species as a measure of each element's lability in developmental timing, we found that ossification of early, middle, and late events are similarly labile, with basicranial traits the most labile in timing of onset of ossification. Despite marsupials and placental mammals diverging at least 130 Ma, few heterochronic shifts in cranial ossification diagnose these clades.

  14. Mitigating climate change: Decomposing the relative roles of energy conservation, technological change, and structural shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Gouri Shankar; Zakerinia, Saleh; Yeh, Sonia; Teter, Jacob; Morrison, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO 2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals over 2005–2100 for various climate policy scenarios. This study contributes to the decomposition literature in three ways. First, it disaggregates drivers of energy demand into technological progress and demand for energy services, represented in terms of useful energy, allowing us to estimate their contributions independently — an improvement over other economy-wide decomposition studies. Secondly, this approach reduces the ambiguity present in many previous measures of structural change. We delineate structural shifts into two separate measures: changes in fuel mix within a given resource or service pathway; and changes in mix among distinct energy resources or end-use services. Finally, this study applies decomposition methods to energy and emission trajectories from two mutually informing perspectives: (i) primary energy resources — crude oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and renewables; and (ii) end-uses of energy services — residential and commercial buildings, industry, and transportation. Our results show that technological improvements and energy conservation are important in meeting climate goals in the first half of the coming century; and that nuclear and renewable energy and CCS technology are crucial in meeting more stringent goals in the second half of the century. We examine the relative roles of the drivers in reducing CO 2 emissions separately for developed and developing regions. Although the majority of energy and emission growth – and by extension the greatest opportunities for mitigation – will occur in developing countries, the decomposition shows that the relative roles of the five drivers are broadly consistent between these two regions. - Highlights: • We decompose the contribution of five drivers of energy use and CO2 emissions reductions in achieving climate change goals • We analyze differences

  15. The conservation pattern of short linear motifs is highly correlated with the function of interacting protein domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiguo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many well-represented domains recognize primary sequences usually less than 10 amino acids in length, called Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs. Accurate prediction of SLiMs has been difficult because they are short (often Results Our combined approach revealed that SLiMs are highly conserved in proteins from functional classes that are known to interact with a specific domain, but that they are not conserved in most other protein groups. We found that SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains were highly conserved in receptor kinases/phosphatases, adaptor molecules, and tyrosine kinases/phosphatases, that SLiMs recognized by SH3 domains were highly conserved in cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins, that SLiMs recognized by PDZ domains were highly conserved in membrane proteins such as channels and receptors, and that SLiMs recognized by S/T kinase domains were highly conserved in adaptor molecules, S/T kinases/phosphatases, and proteins involved in transcription or cell cycle control. We studied Tyr-SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains in more detail, and found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs on the cytoplasmic side of membrane proteins are more highly conserved than those on the extra-cellular side. Also, we found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs that are associated with SH3 motifs and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif are more highly conserved. Conclusion The interactome of protein domains is reflected by the evolutionary conservation of SLiMs recognized by these domains. Combining scoring matrixes derived from peptide libraries and conservation analysis, we would be able to find those protein groups that are more likely to interact with specific domains.

  16. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  17. Relating long-term studies to conservation practice: the case of the Serengeti Cheetah Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Sarah M; Bashir, Sultana; Maddox, Thomas; Laurenson, M Karen

    2007-06-01

    Although detailed, long-term scientific studies provide potentially crucial information for conservation, they are rare. Moreover, there is often a disjunction between scientists and managers that can affect whether scientific results are applied to help solve conservation problems. Long-term studies can promote increased communication between scientists and managers and hence offer an opportunity for constructive engagement between the two groups. We examined direct and indirect impacts of a 30-year study, the Serengeti Cheetah Project (SCP). Much of what is currently known about wild cheetahs comes from the SCP. In particular, the SCP has demonstrated that cheetahs have a combination of semisociality and ranging patterns that is unique among mammals. This system arises because cheetahs need to be mobile to avoid predators and competitors, yet maintain access to prey; this results in densities much lower than for other large carnivores and a requirement for large areas of heterogenous and connected habitat. The SCP started as a research project, but expanded into a national program, developing capacity for carnivore conservation within Tanzania. Long-term studies such as the SCP are uniquely placed to establish effective working relationships between scientists and managers, engage local and national institutions, and strengthen national capacity for biodiversity conservation. This process is best realized through the establishment of frameworks for conservation that seek to align scientific research with management needs. Long-term studies also play an important role in identifying international priorities for conservation. Nonetheless, the integration of science and management in conservation is a two-way process that requires concerted efforts by both sides to improve and maintain dialogue. Ultimately, conservation depends on people, and maintaining a commitment to a particular area over many years-such as through implementation of a long-term research project

  18. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Stern, Harry; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Wiig, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is the primary threat to polar bears throughout their range. We evaluated the potential response of polar bears to sea-ice declines by (i) calculating generation length (GL) for the species, which determines the timeframe for conservation assessments; (ii) developing a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat; and (iii) using statistical models and computer simulation to project changes in the global population under three approaches relating polar bear abundance to sea ice. Mean GL was 11.5 years. Ice-covered days declined in all subpopulation areas during 1979–2014 (median −1.26 days year−1). The estimated probabilities that reductions in the mean global population size of polar bears will be greater than 30%, 50% and 80% over three generations (35–41 years) were 0.71 (range 0.20–0.95), 0.07 (range 0–0.35) and less than 0.01 (range 0–0.02), respectively. According to IUCN Red List reduction thresholds, which provide a common measure of extinction risk across taxa, these results are consistent with listing the species as vulnerable. Our findings support the potential for large declines in polar bear numbers owing to sea-ice loss, and highlight near-term uncertainty in statistical projections as well as the sensitivity of projections to different plausible assumptions.

  19. Conservation status of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in relation to projected sea-ice declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, Eric V; Laidre, Kristin L; Akçakaya, H Resit; Amstrup, Steven C; Atwood, Todd C; Lunn, Nicholas J; Obbard, Martyn; Stern, Harry; Thiemann, Gregory W; Wiig, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    Loss of Arctic sea ice owing to climate change is the primary threat to polar bears throughout their range. We evaluated the potential response of polar bears to sea-ice declines by (i) calculating generation length (GL) for the species, which determines the timeframe for conservation assessments; (ii) developing a standardized sea-ice metric representing important habitat; and (iii) using statistical models and computer simulation to project changes in the global population under three approaches relating polar bear abundance to sea ice. Mean GL was 11.5 years. Ice-covered days declined in all subpopulation areas during 1979-2014 (median -1.26 days year -1 ). The estimated probabilities that reductions in the mean global population size of polar bears will be greater than 30%, 50% and 80% over three generations (35-41 years) were 0.71 (range 0.20-0.95), 0.07 (range 0-0.35) and less than 0.01 (range 0-0.02), respectively. According to IUCN Red List reduction thresholds, which provide a common measure of extinction risk across taxa, these results are consistent with listing the species as vulnerable. Our findings support the potential for large declines in polar bear numbers owing to sea-ice loss, and highlight near-term uncertainty in statistical projections as well as the sensitivity of projections to different plausible assumptions. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Equations for the gravitational field and local conserved quantities in the general theory of relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.

    1979-07-01

    By utilization of the method of Lagrangians with covariant derivatives (MLCD) the different energy-momentum tensors (canonical, generalized canonical, symmetrical) and the relations between them are considered. On this basis, Einstein's theory of gravitation is studied as a field theory with a Lagrangian density of the type Lsub(g)=√-g.Lsub(g)(gsub(ij),Rsub(A)), (Rsub(A)=Rsub(ijkl)). It is shown that the energy-momentum tensors of the gravitational field can be defined for this theory. The symmetrical energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field sub(gs)Tsub(k)sup(i), which in the general case is not a local conserved quantity (sub(gs)Tsub(k)sup(i)sub(;i) unequal 0) (in contrast to the material fields satisfying condition sub(Ms)Tsub(k)sup(i)sub(;i) = 0), is equal to zero for the gravitational field in vacuum (cosmological constant Λ = 0). Equations of the gravitational field of a new type are suggested, leading to equations of motion (sub(Ms)Tsub(k)sup(i) + sub(gs)Tsub(k)sup(i))sub(;i) = 0. The equations corresponding to the Lagrangian density Lsub(g)=(√-g/kappasub(o)) (R - lambda approximately), lambda approximately = const., are considered. The equations of Einstein Rsub(ij) = 0 are obtained in the case of gravitational field in vacuum. Some particular cases are examined as an illustration to material fields and the corresponding gravitational equations. (author)

  1. Impact of local empowerment on conservation practices in a highly developed country

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Sigrid; Hausner, Vera Helene

    2017-01-01

    Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/conl.12369 Community-based conservation, where local decision makers are responsible for balancing conservation and development, is often preferred to exclusion- ary conservation that prioritizes use-limitation through strict regulation. Un- raveling the evidence for conservation impact of different governance regimes is challenging. Focusing on conservation practices before and after a reform can provide an early indication of behaviora...

  2. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Bazmi, H Holly; Mirnics, Karoly; Wu, Qiang; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2008-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in a number of cognitive, affective, sensory, and motor functions that depend on the circuitry of different cortical areas. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related genes. Consequently, the authors sought to determine whether this pattern of altered gene expression is restricted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or could also contribute to the dysfunction of other cortical areas in subjects with schizophrenia. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of eight GABA-related transcripts in four cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary motor and primary visual cortices) of subjects (N=12) with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects. Expression levels of seven transcripts were lower in subjects with schizophrenia, with the magnitude of reduction for each transcript comparable across the four areas. The largest reductions were detected for mRNA encoding somatostatin and parvalbumin, followed by moderate decreases in mRNA expression for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the GABA membrane transporter GAT-1, and the alpha 1 and delta subunits of GABA(A) receptors. In contrast, the expression of calretinin mRNA did not differ between the subject groups in any of the four areas. Because the areas examined represent the major functional domains (e.g., association, limbic, motor, and sensory) of the cerebral cortex, our findings suggest that a conserved set of molecular alterations affecting GABA neurotransmission contribute to the pathophysiology of different clinical features of schizophrenia.

  3. Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; McGlynn, Gayle; Epp, Laura S; Taylor, David; Pimentel, Manuel; Gizaw, Abel; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Popp, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Conservation of biodiversity may in the future increasingly depend upon the availability of scientific information to set suitable restoration targets. In traditional paleoecology, sediment-based pollen provides a means to define preanthropogenic impact conditions, but problems in establishing the exact provenance and ecologically meaningful levels of taxonomic resolution of the evidence are limiting. We explored the extent to which the use of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) may complement pollen data in reconstructing past alpine environments in the tropics. We constructed a record of afro-alpine plants retrieved from DNA preserved in sediment cores from 2 volcanic crater sites in the Albertine Rift, eastern Africa. The record extended well beyond the onset of substantial anthropogenic effects on tropical mountains. To ensure high-quality taxonomic inference from the sedaDNA sequences, we built an extensive DNA reference library covering the majority of the afro-alpine flora, by sequencing DNA from taxonomically verified specimens. Comparisons with pollen records from the same sediment cores showed that plant diversity recovered with sedaDNA improved vegetation reconstructions based on pollen records by revealing both additional taxa and providing increased taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, combining the 2 measures assisted in distinguishing vegetation change at different geographic scales; sedaDNA almost exclusively reflects local vegetation, whereas pollen can potentially originate from a wide area that in highlands in particular can span several ecozones. Our results suggest that sedaDNA may provide information on restoration targets and the nature and magnitude of human-induced environmental changes, including in high conservation priority, biodiversity hotspots, where understanding of preanthropogenic impact (or reference) conditions is highly limited. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Proteome-wide mapping of the Drosophila acetylome demonstrates a high degree of conservation of lysine acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Wagner, Sebastian A; Horn, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by acetylation and phosphorylation regulates most cellular processes in living organisms. Surprisingly, the evolutionary conservation of phosphorylated serine and threonine residues is only marginally higher than that of unmodified serines and threonines....... With high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 1981 lysine acetylation sites in the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster. We used data sets of experimentally identified acetylation and phosphorylation sites in Drosophila and humans to analyze the evolutionary conservation of these modification sites...... between flies and humans. Site-level conservation analysis revealed that acetylation sites are highly conserved, significantly more so than phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, comparison of lysine conservation in Drosophila and humans with that in nematodes and zebrafish revealed that acetylated lysines...

  5. Crystal structure of AFV3-109, a highly conserved protein from crenarchaeal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevillon-Cheruel Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraordinary morphologies of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea clearly distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Moreover, their genomes code for proteins that to a large extend have no related sequences in the extent databases. However, a small pool of genes is shared by overlapping subsets of these viruses, and the most conserved gene, exemplified by the ORF109 of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3, AFV3, is present on genomes of members of three viral familes, the Lipothrixviridae, Rudiviridae, and "Bicaudaviridae", as well as of the unclassified Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus, STIV. We present here the crystal structure of the protein (Mr = 13.1 kD, 109 residues encoded by the AFV3 ORF 109 in two different crystal forms at 1.5 and 1.3 Å resolution. The structure of AFV3-109 is a five stranded β-sheet with loops on one side and three helices on the other. It forms a dimer adopting the shape of a cradle that encompasses the best conserved regions of the sequence. No protein with a related fold could be identified except for the ortholog from STIV1, whose structure was deposited at the Protein Data Bank. We could clearly identify a well bound glycerol inside the cradle, contacting exclusively totally conserved residues. This interaction was confirmed in solution by fluorescence titration. Although the function of AFV3-109 cannot be deduced directly from its structure, structural homology with the STIV1 protein, and the size and charge distribution of the cavity suggested it could interact with nucleic acids. Fluorescence quenching titrations also showed that AFV3-109 interacts with dsDNA. Genomic sequence analysis revealed bacterial homologs of AFV3-109 as a part of a putative previously unidentified prophage sequences in some Firmicutes.

  6. Low-Intensity Agricultural Landscapes in Transylvania Support High Butterfly Diversity: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  7. High-order conservative discretizations for some cases of the rigid body motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Modified vector fields can be used to construct high-order structure-preserving numerical integrators for ordinary differential equations. In the present Letter we consider high-order integrators based on the implicit midpoint rule, which conserve quadratic first integrals. It is shown that these integrators are particularly suitable for the rigid body motion with an additional quadratic first integral. In this case high-order integrators preserve all four first integrals of motion. The approach is illustrated on the Lagrange top (a rotationally symmetric rigid body with a fixed point on the symmetry axis). The equations of motion are considered in the space fixed frame because in this frame Lagrange top admits a neat description. The Lagrange top motion includes the spherical pendulum and the planar pendulum, which swings in a vertical plane, as particular cases

  8. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  10. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Classicality condition on a system observable in a quantum measurement and a relative-entropy conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramochi, Yui; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-03-01

    We consider the information flow on a system observable X corresponding to a positive-operator-valued measure under a quantum measurement process Y described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the average decrease in the relative entropy of the system observable X equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of Y , i.e., the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of Y followed by X such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of X for the premeasurement state. We show that in the case when X is a discrete projection-valued measure and Y is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely, quantum nondemolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the nondemolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban [M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32, 1643 (1999), 10.1088/0305-4470/32/9/012], implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

  12. A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, Philipp S. van de; Muehlfeit, Michael; Klose, Christoph; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Walz, Gerd; Kuehn, E. Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Tim-3 is a member of the TIM family of proteins (T-cell immunoglobulin mucin) involved in the regulation of CD4+ T-cells. Tim-3 is a T H 1-specific type 1 membrane protein and regulates T H 1 proliferation and the development of tolerance. Binding of galectin-9 to the extracellular domain of Tim-3 results in apoptosis of T H 1 cells, but the intracellular pathways involved in the regulatory function of Tim-3 are unknown. Unlike Tim-1, which is expressed in renal epithelia and cancer, Tim-3 has not been described in cells other than neuronal or T-cells. Using RT-PCR we demonstrate that Tim-3 is expressed in malignant and non-malignant epithelial tissues. We have cloned Tim-3 from an immortalized liver cell carcinoma line and identified a highly conserved tyrosine in the intracellular tail of Tim-3 (Y265). We demonstrate that Y265 is specifically phosphorylated in vivo by the interleukin inducible T cell kinase (ITK), a kinase which is located in close proximity of the TIM genes on the allergy susceptibility locus 5q33.3. Stimulation of Tim-3 by its ligand galectin-9 results in increased phosphorylation of Y265, suggesting that this tyrosine residue plays an important role in downstream signalling events regulating T-cell fate. Given the role of TIM proteins in autoimmunity and cancer, the conserved SH2 binding domain surrounding Y265 could represent a possible target site for pharmacological intervention

  13. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  14. High Elevation Refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Conservation and Wild Bees of the White Mountain National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Erika M; Rehan, Sandra M

    2017-01-01

    Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire. Four introduced species were also observed in the specimens collected. A checklist of the species found in the WMNF, as well as those found previously in Strafford County, NH, is included with new state records and introduced species noted as well as a map of collecting locations. Of particular interest was the relatively high abundance of Bombus terricola Kirby 1837 found in many of the higher elevation collection sites and the single specimen documented of Bombus fervidus (Fabricius 1798). Both of these bumble bee species are known to have declining populations in the northeast and are categorized as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  16. Cortical cytasters: a highly conserved developmental trait of Bilateria with similarities to Ctenophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas-Saavedra Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytasters (cytoplasmic asters are centriole-based nucleation centers of microtubule polymerization that are observable in large numbers in the cortical cytoplasm of the egg and zygote of bilaterian organisms. In both protostome and deuterostome taxa, cytasters have been described to develop during oogenesis from vesicles of nuclear membrane that move to the cortical cytoplasm. They become associated with several cytoplasmic components, and participate in the reorganization of cortical cytoplasm after fertilization, patterning the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral body axes. Presentation of the hypothesis The specific resemblances in the development of cytasters in both protostome and deuterostome taxa suggest that an independent evolutionary origin is unlikely. An assessment of published data confirms that cytasters are present in several protostome and deuterostome phyla, but are absent in the non-bilaterian phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora. We hypothesize that cytasters evolved in the lineage leading to Bilateria and were already present in the most recent common ancestor shared by protostomes and deuterostomes. Thus, cytasters would be an ancient and highly conserved trait that is homologous across the different bilaterian phyla. The alternative possibility is homoplasy, that is cytasters have evolved independently in different lineages of Bilateria. Testing the hypothesis So far, available published information shows that appropriate observations have been made in eight different bilaterian phyla. All of them present cytasters. This is consistent with the hypothesis of homology and conservation. However, there are several important groups for which there are no currently available data. The hypothesis of homology predicts that cytasters should be present in these groups. Increasing the taxonomic sample using modern techniques uniformly will test for evolutionary patterns supporting homology, homoplasy, or secondary loss of

  17. A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107 in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. The results of mechanistic studies reveal that VP1A107 regulates the efficient cleavage of the VP0 precursor during EV71 assembly, which is required, in the next round of infection, for the transformation of the mature virion (160S into an intermediate or A-particle (135S, a key step of virus uncoating. Furthermore, the results of molecular dynamic simulations and hydrogen-bond networks analysis of VP1A107 suggest that flexibility of the VP1 BC loop or the region surrounding the VP1107 residue directly correlates with viral infectivity. It is possible that sufficient flexibility of the region surrounding the VP1107 residue favors VP0 conformational change that is required for the efficient cleavage of VP0 as well as subsequent viral uncoating and viral replication. Taken together, our data reveal the structural role of the highly conserved VP1A107 in regulating EV71 maturation. Characterization of this novel determinant of EV71 virulence would promote the study on pathogenesis of Enteroviruses.

  18. CpG methylation differences between neurons and glia are highly conserved from mouse to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Noah J; Van Baak, Timothy E; Baker, Maria S; Laritsky, Eleonora; Coarfa, Cristian; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-01-15

    Understanding epigenetic differences that distinguish neurons and glia is of fundamental importance to the nascent field of neuroepigenetics. A recent study used genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to survey differences in DNA methylation between these two cell types, in both humans and mice. That study minimized the importance of cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, claiming these are restricted to localized genomic regions, and instead emphasized that widespread and highly conserved differences in non-CpG methylation distinguish neurons and glia. We reanalyzed the data from that study and came to markedly different conclusions. In particular, we found widespread cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, with a genome-wide tendency for neuronal CpG-hypermethylation punctuated by regions of glia-specific hypermethylation. Alarmingly, our analysis indicated that the majority of genes identified by the primary study as exhibiting cell type-specific CpG methylation differences were misclassified. To verify the accuracy of our analysis, we isolated neuronal and glial DNA from mouse cortex and performed quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing at nine loci. The pyrosequencing results corroborated our analysis, without exception. Most interestingly, we found that gene-associated neuron vs. glia CpG methylation differences are highly conserved across human and mouse, and are very likely to be functional. In addition to underscoring the importance of independent verification to confirm the conclusions of genome-wide epigenetic analyses, our data indicate that CpG methylation plays a major role in neuroepigenetics, and that the mouse is likely an excellent model in which to study the role of DNA methylation in human neurodevelopment and disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Evolutionary conservation of essential and highly expressed genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharfe Maren

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The constant increase in development and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a serious threat to human health. New sequencing technologies are now on the horizon that will yield massive increases in our capacity for DNA sequencing and will revolutionize the drug discovery process. Since essential genes are promising novel antibiotic targets, the prediction of gene essentiality based on genomic information has become a major focus. Results In this study we demonstrate that pooled sequencing is applicable for the analysis of sequence variations of strain collections with more than 10 individual isolates. Pooled sequencing of 36 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates revealed that essential and highly expressed proteins evolve at lower rates, whereas extracellular proteins evolve at higher rates. We furthermore refined the list of experimentally essential P. aeruginosa genes, and identified 980 genes that show no sequence variation at all. Among the conserved nonessential genes we found several that are involved in regulation, motility and virulence, indicating that they represent factors of evolutionary importance for the lifestyle of a successful environmental bacterium and opportunistic pathogen. Conclusion The detailed analysis of a comprehensive set of P. aeruginosa genomes in this study clearly disclosed detailed information of the genomic makeup and revealed a large set of highly conserved genes that play an important role for the lifestyle of this microorganism. Sequencing strain collections enables for a detailed and extensive identification of sequence variations as potential bacterial adaptation processes, e.g., during the development of antibiotic resistance in the clinical setting and thus may be the basis to uncover putative targets for novel treatment strategies.

  20. Bali beach conservation project and issues related to beach maintenance after completion of project

    OpenAIRE

    Onaka, S.; Endo, S.; Uda, T.

    2013-01-01

    Bali Island in Indonesia is a world-famous resort area, and the beaches composed of coral sand are one of the most important resources for tourism. However, serious beach erosion has occurred since the 1970s owing to the tourism development along the coastal areas. To recover previous natural sandy beaches, Bali Beach Conservation Project was undertaken by the Indonesian Government as the ODA project financed by Japan. Three seriously eroded beaches (Sanur, Nusa Dua and Kuta) with a total len...

  1. Habitat Re-Creation (Ecological Restoration) as a Strategy for Conserving Insect Communities in Highly Fragmented Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, John A

    2013-12-05

    Because of their vast diversity, measured by both numbers of species as well as life history traits, insects defy comprehensive conservation planning. Thus, almost all insect conservation efforts target individual species. However, serious insect conservation requires goals that are set at the faunal level and conservation success requires strategies that conserve intact communities. This task is complicated in agricultural landscapes by high levels of habitat fragmentation and isolation. In many regions, once widespread insect communities are now functionally trapped on islands of ecosystem remnants and subject to a variety of stressors associated with isolation, small population sizes and artificial population fragmentation. In fragmented landscapes ecological restoration can be an effective strategy for reducing localized insect extinction rates, but insects are seldom included in restoration design criteria. It is possible to incorporate a few simple conservation criteria into restoration designs that enhance impacts to entire insect communities. Restoration can be used as a strategy to address fragmentation threats to isolated insect communities if insect communities are incorporated at the onset of restoration planning. Fully incorporating insect communities into restoration designs may increase the cost of restoration two- to three-fold, but the benefits to biodiversity conservation and the ecological services provided by intact insect communities justify the cost.

  2. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life-history strategies and relationships with host plants.

  3. Transforming a conservative clinical setting: ICU nurses' strategies to improve care for patients' relatives through a participatory action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaforteza, Concha; Gastaldo, Denise; Moreno, Cristina; Bover, Andreu; Miró, Rosa; Miró, Margalida

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on change strategies generated through a dialogical-reflexive-participatory process designed to improve the care of families of critically ill patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) using a participatory action research in a tertiary hospital in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Eleven professionals (representatives) participated in 11 discussion groups and five in-depth interviews. They represented the opinions of 49 colleagues (participants). Four main change strategies were created: (i) Institutionally supported practices were confronted to make a shift from professional-centered work to a more inclusive, patient-centered approach; (ii) traditional power relations were challenged to decrease the hierarchical power differences between physicians and nurses; (iii) consensus was built about the need to move from an individual to a collective position in relation to change; and (iv) consensus was built about the need to develop a critical attitude toward the conservative nature of the unit. The strategies proposed were both transgressive and conservative; however, when compared with the initial situation, they enhanced the care offered to patients' relatives and patient safety. Transforming conservative settings requires capacity to negotiate positions and potential outcomes. However, when individual critical capacities are articulated with a new approach to micropolitics, transformative proposals can be implemented and sustained. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Grendelmeier

    Full Text Available Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE, daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood with little to no shrub layer.

  5. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendelmeier, Alex; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Gerber, Michael; Pasinelli, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE), daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood) with little to no shrub layer.

  6. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  7. Cosmetic results in early stage breast cancer patients with high-dose brachytherapy after conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Felipe; Pineda, Beatriz E

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to reveal cosmetic results in patients at early stages of low risk breast cancer treated with partial accelerated radiotherapy using high dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and materials: from March 2001 to July 2003,14 stages l and ll breast cancer patients were treated at the Colombian national cancer institute in Bogota with conservative surgery and radiotherapy upon the tumor bed (partial accelerated radiotherapy), using interstitial implants with iridium 192 (high dose rate brachytherapy) with a dose of 32 Gys, over 4 days, at 8 fractions twice a day. Results: with an average follow up of 17.7 months, good cosmetic results were found among 71.4 % of patients and excellent results among 14.3% of patients, furthermore none of the patients neither local nor regional or distant relapses. Conclusion: among patients who suffer from breast cancer at early stages, it showed is possible to apply partial accelerated radiotherapy upon the tumor bed with high doses over 4 days with good to excellent cosmetic results

  8. High spatial resolution mapping of land cover types in a priority area for conservation in the Brazilian savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Hess, L. L.; Davis, F. W.; Caylor, K. K.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Savannas are heterogeneous landscapes consisting of highly mixed land cover types that lack clear distinct boundaries. The Brazilian Cerrado is a Neotropical savanna considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation due to its biodiversity richness and rapid transformation of its landscape by crop and pasture activities. The Cerrado is one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes and only 2.2% of its original extent is strictly protected. Accurate mapping and monitoring of its ecosystems and adjacent land use are important to select areas for conservation and to improve our understanding of the dynamics in this biome. Land cover mapping of savannas is difficult due to spectral similarity between land cover types resulting from similar vegetation structure, floristically similar components, generalization of land cover classes, and heterogeneity usually expressed as small patch sizes within the natural landscape. These factors are the major contributor to misclassification and low map accuracies among remote sensing studies in savannas. Specific challenges to map the Cerrado's land cover types are related to the spectral similarity between classes of land use and natural vegetation, such as natural grassland vs. cultivated pasture, and forest ecosystem vs. crops. This study seeks to classify and evaluate the land cover patterns across an area ranked as having extremely high priority for future conservation in the Cerrado. The main objective of this study is to identify the representativeness of each vegetation type across the landscape using high to moderate spatial resolution imagery using an automated scheme. A combination of pixel-based and object-based approaches were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types. The random forest classifier was used to map the major ecosystems present across the area, and demonstrated to have an effective result with 68% of overall accuracy. Post

  9. A highly conserved Poc1 protein characterized in embryos of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica: localization and functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Fourrage

    Full Text Available Poc1 (Protein of Centriole 1 proteins are highly conserved WD40 domain-containing centriole components, well characterized in the alga Chlamydomonas, the ciliated protazoan Tetrahymena, the insect Drosophila and in vertebrate cells including Xenopus and zebrafish embryos. Functions and localizations related to the centriole and ciliary axoneme have been demonstrated for Poc1 in a range of species. The vertebrate Poc1 protein has also been reported to show an additional association with mitochondria, including enrichment in the specialized "germ plasm" region of Xenopus oocytes. We have identified and characterized a highly conserved Poc1 protein in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica. Clytia Poc1 mRNA was found to be strongly expressed in eggs and early embryos, showing a punctate perinuclear localization in young oocytes. Fluorescence-tagged Poc1 proteins expressed in developing embryos showed strong localization to centrioles, including basal bodies. Anti-human Poc1 antibodies decorated mitochondria in Clytia, as reported in human cells, but failed to recognise endogenous or fluorescent-tagged Clytia Poc1. Injection of specific morpholino oligonucleotides into Clytia eggs prior to fertilization to repress Poc1 mRNA translation interfered with cell division from the blastula stage, likely corresponding to when neosynthesis normally takes over from maternally supplied protein. Cell cycle lengthening and arrest were observed, phenotypes consistent with an impaired centriolar biogenesis or function. The specificity of the defects could be demonstrated by injection of synthetic Poc1 mRNA, which restored normal development. We conclude that in Clytia embryos, Poc1 has an essentially centriolar localization and function.

  10. Swertia chirayta, a Threatened High-Value Medicinal Herb: Microhabitats and Conservation Challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Kumar Pradhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of threats, identifying favorable growing conditions, and predicting future population scenarios are vital for the conservation and management of threatened species. This study investigated the availability, microhabitat characteristics, threat status, and community associations of Swertia chirayta, a highly threatened Himalayan medicinal herb, in 22 populations in Sikkim, India, using the vertical belt transect method. Of the 14 microhabitats identified, open grassy slope emerged as the most favorable and wet grassy slope as the least favorable for S. chirayta. The species was dominant in 8 of the 10 major plant communities identified. Among 9 major types of disturbance identified, human movement and collection of non-timber forest products appeared as the biggest threats to S. chirayta. Disturbances significantly affected the availability of the species. S. chirayta, though under high anthropogenic threat, maintains high microhabitat pliability, which is vital for its conservation and management, provided immediate conservation measures are taken.

  11. Evaluation of highly conserved hsp65-specific nested PCR primers for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, P; Tiwari, K; Das, A; Kumar, D; Mishra, M N; Desikan, P; Nath, G

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new nested set of primers designed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex targeting a highly conserved heat shock protein gene (hsp65). The nested primers were designed using multiple sequence alignment assuming the nucleotide sequence of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv hsp65 genome as base. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium species along with other non-mycobacterial and fungal species were included to evaluate the specificity of M. tuberculosis hsp65 gene-specific primers. The sensitivity of the primers was determined using serial 10-fold dilutions, and was 100% as shown by the bands in the case of M. tuberculosis complex. None of the other non M. tuberculosis complex bacterial and fungal species yielded any band on nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The first round of amplification could amplify 0.3 ng of the template DNA, while nested PCR could detect 0.3 pg. The present hsp65-specific primers have been observed to be sensitive, specific and cost-effective, without requiring interpretation of biochemical tests, real-time PCR, sequencing or high-performance liquid chromatography. These primer sets do not have the drawbacks associated with those protocols that target insertion sequence 6110, 16S rDNA, rpoB, recA and MPT 64.

  12. A highly conserved basidiomycete peptide synthetase produces a trimeric hydroxamate siderophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburger, Eileen; Gressler, Markus; Leonhardt, Robin; Lackner, Gerald; Habel, Andreas; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2017-08-25

    The model white-rot basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis ( Gelatoporia ) subvermispora B encodes putative natural product biosynthesis genes. Among them is the gene for the seven-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase CsNPS2. It is a member of the as-yet uncharacterized fungal type VI siderophore synthetase family which is highly conserved and widely distributed among the basidiomycetes. These enzymes include only one adenylation (A) domain, i.e., one complete peptide synthetase module and two thiolation/condensation (T-C) di-domain partial modules which, together, constitute an AT 1 C 1 T 2 C 2 T 3 C 3 domain setup. The full-length CsNPS2 enzyme (274.5 kDa) was heterologously produced as polyhistidine fusion in Aspergillus niger as soluble and active protein. N 5 -acetyl- N 5 -hydroxy-l-ornithine (l-AHO) and N 5 - cis -anhydromevalonyl- N 5 -hydroxy-l-ornithine (l-AMHO) were accepted as substrates, as assessed in vitro using the substrate-dependent [ 32 P]ATP-pyrophosphate radioisotope exchange assay. Full-length holo -CsNPS2 catalyzed amide bond formation between three l-AHO molecules to release the linear l-AHO trimer, called basidioferrin, as product in vitro , which was verified by LC-HRESIMS. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that type VI family siderophore synthetases are widespread in mushrooms and have evolved in a common ancestor of basidiomycetes. Importance : The basidiomycete nonribosomal peptide synthetase CsNPS2 represents a member of a widely distributed but previously uninvestigated class (type VI) of fungal siderophore synthetases. Genes orthologous to CsNPS2 are highly conserved across various phylogenetic clades of the basidiomycetes. Hence, our work serves as a broadly applicable model for siderophore biosynthesis and iron metabolism in higher fungi. Also, our results on the amino acid substrate preference of CsNPS2 supports further understanding of the substrate selectivity of fungal adenylation domains. Methodologically, this report highlights the

  13. Differential Regulation of Receptor Activation and Agonist Selectivity by Highly Conserved Tryptophans in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Dustin K.; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Papke, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown previously that a highly conserved Tyr in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) (α7 Tyr188 or α4 Tyr195) differentially regulates the activity of acetylcholine (ACh) and the α7-selective agonist 3-(4-hydroxy,2-methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (4OH-GTS-21) in α4β2 and α7 nAChR. In this study, we mutated two highly conserved LBD Trp residues in human α7 and α4β2 and expressed the receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes. α7 Re...

  14. STEM field courses that increase interest, opinions and confidence in conservation- related fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Freeman, A. S.; Donovan, C.; Cooperstein, D.; Foellmer, M.; Ward, A.

    2016-12-01

    Students in the Environmental Studies and Biology programs at Adelphi University, situated in the NYC metropolitan area, have had little exposure to the outdoors or nature and are often reluctant to engage in field activities. We developed three courses to provide outdoor experiences at different levels of intensity, financial and travel/ time commitments. Adelphi in Australia is a three-week field course taught mostly at a marine station that includes day and night hikes, snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and independent research. Adelphi in the U.S. Virgin Islands is a one-week field `starter course' focusing on snorkeling and hiking. Observing Nature is an on-campus, once a week course with nature-based readings, weekend hikes and camping. It was developed after Hurricane Sandy revealed a lack of experience and confidence living without some modern infrastructure. We evaluated student opinions, interests and career goals in a survey administered at the start and at the end of the course that focused on knowledge, skills, opinion, and interest in STEM. Opinion questions addressed confidence, awareness of conservation issues, and interest in outdoor activities. The survey confirmed most of our students have a limited relationship with the outdoors when they start our field classes. More than half had never camped. Most had learned about nature through school trips and family. When asked to rank hiking against other activities, the majority regularly placed hiking below `going to the beach' and 'watching a movie'. The post-survey asked how students would apply what they had learned (interest in the environment; staying in the sciences). The generally positive results indicate the courses play an important role in connecting our students with the outdoors, and may have a lasting impact if they in turn connect others or get involved with local conservation programs.

  15. A highly conserved metalloprotease effector enhances virulence in the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Martín, José M; Pacheco-Arjona, José Ramón; Bello-Rico, Víctor; Vargas, Walter A; Monod, Michel; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-09-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola causes maize anthracnose, an agronomically important disease with a worldwide distribution. We have identified a fungalysin metalloprotease (Cgfl) with a role in virulence. Transcriptional profiling experiments and live cell imaging show that Cgfl is specifically expressed during the biotrophic stage of infection. To determine whether Cgfl has a role in virulence, we obtained null mutants lacking Cgfl and performed pathogenicity and live microscopy assays. The appressorium morphology of the null mutants is normal, but they exhibit delayed development during the infection process on maize leaves and roots, showing that Cgfl has a role in virulence. In vitro chitinase activity assays of leaves infected with wild-type and null mutant strains show that, in the absence of Cgfl, maize leaves exhibit increased chitinase activity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Cgfl is highly conserved in fungi. Similarity searches, phylogenetic analysis and transcriptional profiling show that C. graminicola encodes two LysM domain-containing homologues of Ecp6, suggesting that this fungus employs both Cgfl-mediated and LysM protein-mediated strategies to control chitin signalling. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pig epidermal growth factor precursor contains segments that are highly conserved among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Jensen, L.G.; Sørensen, B S

    1998-01-01

    segment with that of the human, the rat and the mouse EGF precursors, in order to identify highly conserved domains. The examined part of the precursor contains EGF itself and six so-called EGF-like modules. The overall amino acid identity among the four species is 64%. However, the amino acid identity...... differed from around 30% in some segments to around 70% in others. The highest amino acid identity, 71%, was observed for a 345-aa segment that contains three EGF-like modules and which is homologous to a part of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor). The amino acid identities are 64% for EGF...... itself, and 50-67% for the remaining three EGF-like modules. The segment of the LDL receptor that is homologous to a part of the EGF precursor is important for the function of the LDL receptor, and EGF-like modules seem to be involved in protein-protein interactions in a number of proteins. In conclusion...

  17. Current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.Y.-L.; Yang, K.-H.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chien, M.-H.; Hong, G.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Growing concern in Taiwan has arisen about energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. The current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan, including the iron and steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, textiles and electric/electrical industries has been presented. Since the energy consumption of the top 100 energy users (T100) comprised over 50% of total industry energy consumption, focusing energy consumption reduction efforts on T100 energy users can achieve significant results. This study conducted on-site energy audits of 314 firms in Taiwan during 2000-2004, and identified potential electricity savings of 1,022,656 MWH, fuel oil savings of 174,643 kiloliters (KL), steam coal savings of 98,620 ton, and natural gas (NG) savings of 10,430 kilo cubic meters. The total potential energy saving thus was 489,505 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), representing a reduction of 1,447,841 ton in the carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 39,131-ha plantation forest

  18. Multidisciplinary approach for the esophageal carcinoma with intent to conserve the esophagus centering on high-dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masao; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with operable squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus were treated by initial concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CDDP-5 FU-44 Gy) followed by definitive high-dose of radiotherapy (CRT group: 35 patients) or surgery (CRT-S group: 12 patients). Clinical CR rate showed 86% in CRT group; and pathological CR rate 18% in CRT-S group. The overall median survival was 45 months, survival at 1, 3, 5 years being 96%, 52%, 48%, respectively. No treatment-related mortality was observed. The rate of the 'esophagus conservation' was 66%. Our results demonstrated that the multidisciplinary approach with intent to conserve the esophagus centering on high-dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy provides a significant improvement of both survival and quality of life in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma. (author)

  19. High precision conformal radiotherapy employing conservative margins in childhood benign and low-grade brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Sharma, Dayananda S.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report local control and follow up outcome data of high precision conformal radiotherapy in childhood brain tumours. Materials and methods: Between December 1999 and December 2002, 26 children (17 boys and 9 girls, median age 11.5 years) with incompletely excised or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours [13 craniopharyngiomas, 11 low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 2 others] were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) (12 patients) and stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) (14 patients). Gross tumour volume (GTV) included neuro-imaging based visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed. Clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of GTV + 5 mm margin and planning target volume (PTV) consisted of additional 5 mm margin for CRT and 2 mm for SCRT. Treatment was delivered with 3-9 conformal fixed fields to a median dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions. Results: The actuarial 2 and 3 year disease free and overall survival was 96 and 100%, respectively (median follow up: 25 months, range 12-47 months). Radiological follow up available in 25 patients revealed complete response in 1, partial regression in 10, stable disease in 13 and progression in 1 patient (within the CTV). One patient with craniopharyngioma on a routine imaging revealed a mild asymptomatic cyst enlargement, which resolved with conservative management. A patient with chiasmatic glioma developed cystic degeneration and hydrocephalus 9 months after SCRT requiring cyst drainage and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: High-precision conformal techniques delivering irradiation to a computer generated target volume employing 7-10 mm 3D margins beyond the visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed appear to be safe in children with incompletely resected or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours, based on these data

  20. Social and Structural Patterns of Drought-Related Water Conservation and Rebound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Patricia; Ajami, Newsha

    2017-12-01

    Water use practices and conservation are the result of complex sociotechnical interactions of political, economic, hydroclimatic, and social factors. While the drivers of water demand have been extensively studied, they have traditionally been applied to models that assume stationary relationships between these various factors, and usually do not account for potential societal changes in response to increased scarcity awareness. For example, following a period of sustained low demand such as during a drought, communities often increase water use during a hydrologically wet period, a phenomenon known as "rebounding" water use. Previous experiences show the extent of this rebound is not a straightforward function of policy and efficiency improvements, but may also reflect short-term or long-lasting change in community behavior, which are not easily captured by models that assume stationarity. In this work, we develop a system dynamics model to represent water demand as a function of both structural and social factors. We apply this model to the analysis of three diverse water utilities in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1980 and 2017, identifying drought response trends and drivers over time. Our model is consistent with empirical patterns and historical context of water use in California, and provides important insights on the rebound phenomenon that can be extended to other locations. This comparative assessment indicates that policies, public outreach, and better data availability have played a key role in raising public awareness of water scarcity, especially with the raise of the internet era in recent years.

  1. Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 Regulates Xylem Development and Growth by a Conserved Mechanism That Modulates Hormone Signaling1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienenberger, Etienne; Douglas, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strict conservation of the vascular tissues in vascular plants (tracheophytes), our understanding of the genetic basis underlying the differentiation of secondary cell wall-containing cells in the xylem of tracheophytes is still far from complete. Using coexpression analysis and phylogenetic conservation across sequenced tracheophyte genomes, we identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes of unknown function whose expression is correlated with secondary cell wall deposition. Among these, the Arabidopsis VASCULAR-RELATED UNKNOWN PROTEIN1 (VUP1) gene encodes a predicted protein of 24 kD with no annotated functional domains but containing domains that are highly conserved in tracheophytes. Here, we show that the VUP1 expression pattern, determined by promoter-β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression, is associated with vascular tissues, while vup1 loss-of-function mutants exhibit collapsed morphology of xylem vessel cells. Constitutive overexpression of VUP1 caused dramatic and pleiotropic developmental defects, including severe dwarfism, dark green leaves, reduced apical dominance, and altered photomorphogenesis, resembling brassinosteroid-deficient mutants. Constitutive overexpression of VUP homologs from multiple tracheophyte species induced similar defects. Whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed that overexpression of VUP1 represses the expression of many brassinosteroid- and auxin-responsive genes. Additionally, deletion constructs and site-directed mutagenesis were used to identify critical domains and amino acids required for VUP1 function. Altogether, our data suggest a conserved role for VUP1 in regulating secondary wall formation during vascular development by tissue- or cell-specific modulation of hormone signaling pathways. PMID:24567189

  2. The Highly Conserved Proline at Position 438 in Pseudorabies Virus gH Is Important for Regulation of Membrane Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Christina; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Gerhard, Marika; Backovic, Marija; Rey, Felix A.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion in herpesviruses requires viral glycoproteins (g) gB and gH/gL. While gB is considered the actual fusion protein but is nonfusogenic per se, the function of gH/gL remains enigmatic. Crystal structures for different gH homologs are strikingly similar despite only moderate amino acid sequence conservation. A highly conserved sequence motif comprises the residues serine-proline-cysteine corresponding to positions 437 to 439 in pseudorabies virus (PrV) gH. The PrV-gH structure sho...

  3. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3′ noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J.; Barnes, David W.

    2007-01-01

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3′ UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3′ mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology. PMID:17227856

  4. Gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved proteins in the human lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modification of lysine residues of specific proteins by ubiquitin modulates the degradation, localization, and activity of these target proteins. Here, we identified gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved regions of human proteins that occurred during human evolution. Results We analyzed human ubiquitylation site data and multiple alignments of orthologous mammalian proteins including those from humans, primates, other placental mammals, opossum, and platypus. In our analysis, we identified 281 ubiquitylation sites in 252 proteins that first appeared along the human lineage during primate evolution: one protein had four novel sites; four proteins had three sites each; 18 proteins had two sites each; and the remaining 229 proteins had one site each. PML, which is involved in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration, acquired three sites, two of which have been reported to be involved in the degradation of PML. Thirteen human proteins, including ERCC2 (also known as XPD and NBR1, gained human-specific ubiquitylated lysines after the human-chimpanzee divergence. ERCC2 has a Lys/Gln polymorphism, the derived (major allele of which confers enhanced DNA repair capacity and reduced cancer risk compared with the ancestral (minor allele. NBR1 and eight other proteins that are involved in the human autophagy protein interaction network gained a novel ubiquitylation site. Conclusions The gain of novel ubiquitylation sites could be involved in the evolution of protein degradation and other regulatory networks. Although gains of ubiquitylation sites do not necessarily equate to adaptive evolution, they are useful candidates for molecular functional analyses to identify novel advantageous genetic modifications and innovative phenotypes acquired during human evolution.

  5. High risks of losing genetic diversity in an endemic Mauritian gecko: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeves Buckland

    Full Text Available Genetic structure can be a consequence of recent population fragmentation and isolation, or a remnant of historical localised adaptation. This poses a challenge for conservationists since misinterpreting patterns of genetic structure may lead to inappropriate management. Of 17 species of reptile originally found in Mauritius, only five survive on the main island. One of these, Phelsuma guimbeaui (lowland forest day gecko, is now restricted to 30 small isolated subpopulations following severe forest fragmentation and isolation due to human colonisation. We used 20 microsatellites in ten subpopulations and two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers in 13 subpopulations to: (i assess genetic diversity, population structure and genetic differentiation of subpopulations; (ii estimate effective population sizes and migration rates of subpopulations; and (iii examine the phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes found in different subpopulations. Microsatellite data revealed significant population structure with high levels of genetic diversity and isolation by distance, substantial genetic differentiation and no migration between most subpopulations. MtDNA, however, showed no evidence of population structure, indicating that there was once a genetically panmictic population. Effective population sizes of ten subpopulations, based on microsatellite markers, were small, ranging from 44 to 167. Simulations suggested that the chance of survival and allelic diversity of some subpopulations will decrease dramatically over the next 50 years if no migration occurs. Our DNA-based evidence reveals an urgent need for a management plan for the conservation of P. guimbeaui. We identified 18 threatened and 12 viable subpopulations and discuss a range of management options that include translocation of threatened subpopulations to retain maximum allelic diversity, and habitat restoration and assisted migration to decrease genetic erosion and inbreeding for the viable

  6. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas and Pangolin (Manis javanica.for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  7. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS) Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and Pangolin (Manis javanica).for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus) as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis) and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis) as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  8. Number conservation is related to children's prefrontal inhibitory control: an fMRI study of a piagetian task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Poirel

    Full Text Available Although young children can accurately determine that two rows contain the same number of coins when they are placed in a one-to-one correspondence, children younger than 7 years of age erroneously think that the longer row contains more coins when the coins in one of the rows are spread apart. To demonstrate that prefrontal inhibitory control is necessary to succeed at this task (Piaget's conservation-of-number task, we studied the relationship between the percentage of BOLD signal changes in the brain areas activated in this developmental task and behavioral performance on a Stroop task and a Backward Digit Span task. The level of activation in the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus was selectively related to inhibitory control efficiency (i.e., the Stroop task, whereas the activation in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS was selectively related to the ability to manipulate numerical information in working memory (i.e., the Backward Digit Span task. Taken together, the results indicate that to acquire number conservation, children's brains must not only activate the reversibility of cognitive operations (supported by the IPS but also inhibit a misleading length-equal-number strategy (supported by the right insula/inferior frontal gyrus.

  9. Pembentukan Sikap Konsumen Pada Cause Related Marketing Produk Utilitarian Dan High Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Singgih Santoso

    2016-01-01

    With popularity growing of social marketing concepts and consciousness of the environmental issues in recent days, cause related marketing activities oriented in environmental conservation issues is also growing. Research aims is to examine the formation of consumer attitudes on cause related marketing activities, a marketing activities which undertaken a commercial brand with a nonprofit organization; in this research product is utilitarian product and also high involvement product, namely A...

  10. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Timothy E; Neumayer, Leigh A; Factor, Rachel E; Ellefson, Christina L; Sorensen, Kristina M; Ambrose, Brady J; Goodrich, Jeffrey B; Hart, Vern P; Jensen, Scott C; Patel, Hemang

    2011-01-01

    In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz) can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each pathology type from the other four using a multivariate

  11. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Vern P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Methods Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. Results The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each

  12. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  13. Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Pascal, Thierry; Tabb, Amy; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2018-05-15

    Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325 , having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP , was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  14. Assessment of some high-order finite difference schemes on the scalar conservation law with periodical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina BOGOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic/hypersonic flows with strong shocks need special treatment in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in order to accurately capture the discontinuity location and his magnitude. To avoid numerical instabilities in the presence of discontinuities, the numerical schemes must generate low dissipation and low dispersion error. Consequently, the algorithms used to calculate the time and space-derivatives, should exhibit a low amplitude and phase error. This paper focuses on the comparison of the numerical results obtained by simulations with some high resolution numerical schemes applied on linear and non-linear one-dimensional conservation low. The analytical solutions are provided for all benchmark tests considering smooth periodical conditions. All the schemes converge to the proper weak solution for linear flux and smooth initial conditions. However, when the flux is non-linear, the discontinuities may develop from smooth initial conditions and the shock must be correctly captured. All the schemes accurately identify the shock position, with the price of the numerical oscillation in the vicinity of the sudden variation. We believe that the identification of this pure numerical behavior, without physical relevance, in 1D case is extremely useful to avoid problems related to the stability and convergence of the solution in the general 3D case.

  15. Geometrid moth assemblages reflect high conservation value of naturally regenerated secondary forests in temperate China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The widespread destruction of mature forests in China has led to massive ecological degradation, counteracted in recent decades by substantial efforts to promote forest plantations and protect secondary forest ecosystems. The value of the resulting forests for biodiversity conservation is widely

  16. Liberals, Conservatives and Romantic Nationalists in Interwar Education Policy in Greece: "The High Mountains" Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiades, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Greek historiography of interwar education policy unproblematically accepts the assumption that the bone of contention between the "Liberal demoticists" and the "Conservative purists" was the language issue; particularly whether "demotic" or "katharevousa" should be the language of instruction in schooling.…

  17. Gene co-regulation is highly conserved in the evolution of eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, B.; Noort, V. van; Huynen, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Differences between species have been suggested to largely reside in the network of connections among the genes. Nevertheless, the rate at which these connections evolve has not been properly quantified. Here, we measure the extent to which co-regulation between pairs of genes is conserved over

  18. Conservation priorities for tree crop wild relatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin K. Khoury; Stephanie L. Greene; Karen A. Williams; Chrystian C. Sosa; Chris. Richards

    2017-01-01

    Crop wild relatives native to the United States have proved useful as genetic resources in breeding more productive, nutritious, and resilient crops. Their utilization is expected to increase with better information about the species and improving breeding tools. But this utilization may be constrained by their limited representation in genebanks and the ongoing loss...

  19. Crop wild relatives range shifts and conservation in Europe under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre Gutierrez, Jesus; Treuren, van R.; Hoekstra, R.; Hintum, van T.J.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Climate change is expected to have a great impact on the distribution of wild flora around the world. Wild plant species are an important component of the genetic resources for crop improvement, which is especially important in face of climate change impacts. Still, many crop wild relatives

  20. A Network Integration Approach to Predict Conserved Regulators Related to Pathogenicity of Influenza and SARS-CoV Respiratory Viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Hugh D.; Eisfeld, Amie J.; Sims, Amy; McDermott, Jason E.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Tchitchek, Nicholas; Josset, Laurence; Li, Chengjun; Ellis, Amy L.; Chang, Jean H.; Heegel, Robert A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Metz, Thomas O.; Neumann, Gabriele; Benecke, Arndt; Smith, Richard D.; Baric, Ralph; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Katze, Michael G.; Waters, Katrina M.

    2013-07-25

    Respiratory infections stemming from influenza viruses and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome corona virus (SARS-CoV) represent a serious public health threat as emerging pandemics. Despite efforts to identify the critical interactions of these viruses with host machinery, the key regulatory events that lead to disease pathology remain poorly targeted with therapeutics. Here we implement an integrated network interrogation approach, in which proteome and transcriptome datasets from infection of both viruses in human lung epithelial cells are utilized to predict regulatory genes involved in the host response. We take advantage of a novel “crowd-based” approach to identify and combine ranking metrics that isolate genes/proteins likely related to the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV and influenza virus. Subsequently, a multivariate regression model is used to compare predicted lung epithelial regulatory influences with data derived from other respiratory virus infection models. We predicted a small set of regulatory factors with conserved behavior for consideration as important components of viral pathogenesis that might also serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. Our results demonstrate the utility of integrating diverse ‘omic datasets to predict and prioritize regulatory features conserved across multiple pathogen infection models.

  1. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Kahlil Khoury

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  2. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Colin K; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Sosa, Chrystian C; Miller, Richard E; Scotland, Robert W; Wood, John R I; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A; Jarret, Robert L; Yencho, G C; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding.

  3. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-11-09

    highly conserved during tumor progression and a change only occurs in a small fraction (4.1 %). Our study supports the notion that targeting AR could be effective for many BC patients and that re-testing of AR status in formerly negative or mixed type BC's is recommended.

  4. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A.; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of new and more efficient anti-androgen drugs targeting androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is becoming an increasingly important area of investigation. This would potentially be most useful in triple negative BC (TNBC), where better therapies are still needed. The assessment of AR status is generally performed on the primary tumor even if the tumor has already metastasized. Very little is known regarding discrepancies of AR status during tumor progression. To determine the prevalence of AR positivity, with emphasis on TNBCs, and to investigate AR status during tumor progression, we evaluated a large series of primary BCs and matching metastases and recurrences. AR status was performed on 356 primary BCs, 135 matching metastases, and 12 recurrences using a next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA). A commercially available AR antibody was used to determine AR-status by immunohistochemistry. AR positivity was defined as any nuclear staining in tumor cells ≥1 %. AR expression was correlated with pathological tumor features of the primary tumor. Additionally, the concordance rate of AR expression between the different tumor sites was determined. AR status was positive in: 87 % (307/353) of primary tumors, 86.1 % (105/122) of metastases, and in 66.7 % (8/12) of recurrences. TNBC tested positive in 11.4 %, (4/35) of BCs. A discrepant result was seen in 4.3 % (5/117) of primary BC and matching lymph node (LN) metastases. Three AR negative primary BCs were positive in the matching LN metastasis, representing 17.6 % of all negative BCs with lymph node metastases (3/17). Two AR positive primary BCs were negative in the matching LN metastasis, representing 2.0 % of all AR positive BCs with LN metastases (2/100). No discrepancies were seen between primary BC and distant metastases or recurrence (n = 17). Most primary (87 %) and metastasized (86.1 %) BCs are AR positive including a significant fraction of TNBCs (11.4 %). Further, AR status is highly

  5. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%, olive ridley (27.1% and loggerhead turtles (8.7%. Most olive ridley (81.7% and loggerhead (82.1% turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0% and entangled (31.8%. Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E, but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W. The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  6. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%), olive ridley (27.1%) and loggerhead turtles (8.7%). Most olive ridley (81.7%) and loggerhead (82.1%) turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0%) and entangled (31.8%). Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E), but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W). The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  7. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  8. Trouble with the Lorentz law of force: incompatibility with special relativity and momentum conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-05-11

    The Lorentz law of force is the fifth pillar of classical electrodynamics, the other four being Maxwell's macroscopic equations. The Lorentz law is the universal expression of the force exerted by electromagnetic fields on a volume containing a distribution of electrical charges and currents. If electric and magnetic dipoles also happen to be present in a material medium, they are traditionally treated by expressing the corresponding polarization and magnetization distributions in terms of bound-charge and bound-current densities, which are subsequently added to free-charge and free-current densities, respectively. In this way, Maxwell's macroscopic equations are reduced to his microscopic equations, and the Lorentz law is expected to provide a precise expression of the electromagnetic force density on material bodies at all points in space and time. This Letter presents incontrovertible theoretical evidence of the incompatibility of the Lorentz law with the fundamental tenets of special relativity. We argue that the Lorentz law must be abandoned in favor of a more general expression of the electromagnetic force density, such as the one discovered by Einstein and Laub in 1908. Not only is the Einstein-Laub formula consistent with special relativity, it also solves the long-standing problem of "hidden momentum" in classical electrodynamics.

  9. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  10. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  11. A High-Accuracy Linear Conservative Difference Scheme for Rosenau-RLW Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the initial-boundary value problem for Rosenau-RLW equation. We propose a three-level linear finite difference scheme, which has the theoretical accuracy of Oτ2+h4. The scheme simulates two conservative properties of original problem well. The existence, uniqueness of difference solution, and a priori estimates in infinite norm are obtained. Furthermore, we analyze the convergence and stability of the scheme by energy method. At last, numerical experiments demonstrate the theoretical results.

  12. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Megan A.; Keating, Jennifer L.; Denes, Samuel K.; Hawk, Kathy; Fiore, Angela; Thatcher, Julie; Becerra, Jennifer; Hall, Suzanne; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive ...

  13. Innovative Surgical Management of the Synovial Chondromatosis of Temporo-Mandibular Joints: Highly Conservative Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionna, Franco; Amantea, Massimiliano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Ballini, Andrea; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Aversa, Corrado; De Cecio, Rossella; Russo, Daniela; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon disease characterized by a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Although the temporomandibular joint is rarely affected by neoplastic lesions, SC is the most common neoplastic lesion of this joint. The treatment of this disease consists in the extraoral surgery with a wide removal of the lesion; in this study, the authors described a more conservative intraoral surgical approach. Patient with SC of temporomandibular joint typically refer a limitation in the mouth opening, together with a persistent not physiological mandibular protrusion and an appearance of a neoformation located at the right preauricular region: the authors reported 1 scholar patient. After biopsy of the neoformation, confirming the synovial chondromatosis, the patient underwent thus to the surgical excision of the tumor, via authors' conservative transoral approach, to facilitate the enucleation of the neoformation. The mass fully involved the pterygo-maxillary fossa with involvement of the parotid lodge and of the right TMJ: this multifocal extension suggested for a trans-oral surgical procedure, in the light of the suspicion of a possible malignant nature of the neoplasm. Our intraoral conservative approach to surgery is aimed to reduce the presence of unaesthetic scars in preauricular and facial regions, with surgical results undoubtedly comparable to the traditional surgical techniques much more aggressive. Our technique could be a valid, alternative, and safe approach to treat this rare and complex kind of oncological disease.

  14. The effects of correlation, relativity, quantum electrodynamics, nuclear size and parity non-conservation in alkali atoms and alkali-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, S.N.

    1995-01-01

    The present review briefly presents the growing experimental as well as theoretical interests in recent years in the effects of (1) correlation, (2) relativity, (3) quantum electrodynamic (QED), (4) finite nuclear size (FNS) and (5) parity non-conservation (PNC) on the high precision electronic structure of alkali atoms and alkali-like ions. Many high precision experiments have been performed which need very high accurate theoretical prediction for correct interpretation and identification of different physical effects involved. Some experiments separate these effects and some do not. Several sophisticated theoretical techniques have been developed for corrections of these effects which play an extremely important role in order to obtain results of high accuracy to well below 1% level and to understand experimental observations of high precision. Correlation, relativity and finite nuclear size effects have been treated on an equal footing in some theoretical methods but QED and PNC have been calculated separately. At present, there is no theory which accounts all five effects in a coherent and unified manner. Future challenges and directions, in reliable structure calculations in atoms and ions, have been discussed and suggested. (author). 83 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  15. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  16. Conservative management and health-related quality of life in end-stage renal disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Bin; Chao, Chia-Ter; Chang, Ray-E; Hung, Kuan-Yu; COGENT Study Group

    2017-06-26

    Few studies have addressed health-related quality of life (QoL) in patients who chose conservative management over dialysis. This systematic review aims to better define the role of conservative management in improving health-related QoL in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Medline, Cochrane and EMBASE were searched for prospective or retrospective studies published until June 30, 2016, that examined QoL of ESRD patients. The primary outcome was health-related QoL. Four studies were included (405 patients received dialysis and 332 received conservative management). Two studies that used the Short Form-36 Survey (SF-36) showed that the dialysis group had higher physical component scores, but the conservative management group had similar, or better, mental component scores at the end of intervention. Another study using the SF-36 showed that the physical and mental component scores of the dialysis group did not significantly change after intervention. In the conservative management group, the physical component scores did not change, but the mental component scores increased significantly over time (0.12 ± 0.32, p management group. Although there are only a limited number of published articles, ESRD patients who receive conservative management may have improved mental health-related QoL when compared with those who receive dialysis.

  17. Notes on the relation between rails and cultural and architectural heritage conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mauro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The railways, like all other types of linear transport infrastructures (highways, motorways, waterways, pipelines, power lines, etc., and even sheep tracks in our not to distant past cross the country and interact with the environment. More often than not, this interaction due to transport modalities has a “negative” connotation because of the impact on the environment of the infrastructure as such and associated effects due to: noise and vibrations, atmospheric pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, accidents, and traffic congestion. If we analyse the effects of the various transport modalities in terms of their comparative external costs (the social and economic costs of the environmental impact, we can see that, from a quantitative point of view, the railways are the most ecologically compatible modality. This kind of analysis should be improved by taking into consideration other effects such as those due to land use, fragmentation of landscape, and effects on the cultural and architectural heritage. To illustrate this approach, the birth and early period of railways in the city of Roma and in the Roman Campagna, and the evolution of the great station of Roma Termini, are briefly reviewed and discussed. In this way, important elements are evidenced; inter alia: the continuing interaction in such a historically ancient urban and suburban settlement due to transport infrastructures (from ancient Roman roads and aqueducts to modern motorways and railways; the large variety of architectural and archaeological structures (including the artistic and landscaping aspects affected by the interaction; the frequent occurrence of architectonic objects marking the urban landscape in a such a way that the site appears peculiarly recognizable (for instance, the Servian Walls Aggere for the central station of Roma Termini. Finally, the archaeological sites discovered during the construction works of new High Speed Train (TAV lines are briefly

  18. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  19. Sustaining plants and people: traditional Q'eqchi' Maya botanical knowledge and interactive spatial modeling in prioritizing conservation of medicinal plants for culturally relative holistic health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesek, Todd; Abramiuk, Marc; Garagic, Denis; Fini, Nick; Meerman, Jan; Cal, Victor

    2009-03-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted to locate culturally important, regionally scarce, and disappearing medicinal plants via a novel participatory methodology which involves healer-expert knowledge in interactive spatial modeling to prioritize conservation efforts and thus facilitate health promotion via medicinal plant resource sustained availability. These surveys, conducted in the Maya Mountains, Belize, generate ethnobotanical, ecological, and geospatial data on species which are used by Q'eqchi' Maya healers in practice. Several of these mountainous species are regionally scarce and the healers are expressing difficulties in finding them for use in promotion of community health and wellness. Based on healers' input, zones of highest probability for locating regionally scarce, disappearing, and culturally important plants in their ecosystem niches can be facilitated by interactive modeling. In the present study, this is begun by choosing three representative species to train an interactive predictive model. Model accuracy was then assessed statistically by testing for independence between predicted occurrence and actual occurrence of medicinal plants. A high level of accuracy was achieved using a small set of exemplar data. This work demonstrates the potential of combining ethnobotany and botanical spatial information with indigenous ecosystems concepts and Q'eqchi' Maya healing knowledge via predictive modeling. Through this approach, we may identify regions where species are located and accordingly promote for prioritization and application of in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to protect them. This represents a significant step toward facilitating sustained culturally relative health promotion as well as overall enhanced ecological integrity to the region and the earth.

  20. People at High Risk of Developing Flu-Related Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other People at High Risk of Developing Flu–Related Complications ... related complications if they get sick with influenza. People at High Risk for Developing Flu-Related Complications ...

  1. Flotillin-1 is an evolutionary-conserved memory-related protein up-regulated in implicit and explicit learning paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Francisco J; Divisch, Isabella; Demit, Marvie; Lubec, Gert; Pollak, Daniela D

    2013-06-01

    Studies of synaptic plasticity using the marine mollusk Aplysia californica as model system have been successfully used to identify proteins involved in learning and memory. The importance of molecular elements regulated by the learning- related neurotransmitter serotonin in Aplysia can then be explored in rodent models and finally tested for their relevance for human physiology and pathology. Herein, 2-DE gel-based electrophoresis has been used to investigate protein level changes after treatment with serotonin in Aplysia abdominal ganglia. Twenty-one proteins have been found to be regulated by serotonin, and protein level changes of actin depolymerizing factor (ADF), deleted in azoospermia associated protein (DAZAP-1), and Flotillin-1 have been verified by Western blotting. Flotillin-1, a member of the flotillin/reggie family of scaffolding proteins, has been previously found to be involved in neuritic branching and synapse formation in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, its importance for hippocampal- dependent learning and memory in the mouse has not been examined. Here, elevated levels of Flotillin-1 in hippocampal tissue of mice trained in the Morris water maze confirmed the relevance of Flotillin-1 for memory-related processes in a mammalian system. Thus, a translational approach-from invertebrates to rodents-led to the identification of Flotillin-1 as evolutionary-conserved memory-related protein.

  2. Structure-Related Roles for the Conservation of the HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Sequence Revealed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Soraya; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Andreu, David; Nieva, José L; Jiménez, María Angeles

    2017-10-17

    Despite extensive characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hydrophobic fusion peptide (FP), the structure-function relationships underlying its extraordinary degree of conservation remain poorly understood. Specifically, the fact that the tandem repeat of the FLGFLG tripeptide is absolutely conserved suggests that high hydrophobicity may not suffice to unleash FP function. Here, we have compared the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures adopted in nonpolar media by two FP surrogates, wtFP-tag and scrFP-tag, which had equal hydrophobicity but contained wild-type and scrambled core sequences LFLGFLG and FGLLGFL, respectively. In addition, these peptides were tagged at their C-termini with an epitope sequence that folded independently, thereby allowing Western blot detection without interfering with FP structure. We observed similar α-helical FP conformations for both specimens dissolved in the low-polarity medium 25% (v/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), but important differences in contact with micelles of the membrane mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). Thus, whereas wtFP-tag preserved a helix displaying a Gly-rich ridge, the scrambled sequence lost in great part the helical structure upon being solubilized in DPC. Western blot analyses further revealed the capacity of wtFP-tag to assemble trimers in membranes, whereas membrane oligomers were not observed in the case of the scrFP-tag sequence. We conclude that, beyond hydrophobicity, preserving sequence order is an important feature for defining the secondary structures and oligomeric states adopted by the HIV FP in membranes.

  3. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive trees: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Molly A; Ostertag, Rebecca; Cordell, Susan; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    While the supply of freshwater is expected to decline in many regions in the coming decades, invasive plant species, often 'high water spenders', are greatly expanding their ranges worldwide. In this study, we quantified the ecohydrological differences between native and invasive trees and also the effects of woody invasive removal on plot-level water use in a heavily invaded mono-dominant lowland wet tropical forest on the Island of Hawaii. We measured transpiration rates of co-occurring native and invasive tree species with and without woody invasive removal treatments. Twenty native Metrosideros polymorpha and 10 trees each of three invasive species, Cecropia obtusifolia, Macaranga mappa and Melastoma septemnervium, were instrumented with heat-dissipation sap-flux probes in four 100 m(2) plots (two invaded, two removal) for 10 months. In the invaded plots, where both natives and invasives were present, Metrosideros had the lowest sap-flow rates per unit sapwood, but the highest sap-flow rates per whole tree, owing to its larger mean diameter than the invasive trees. Stand-level water use within the removal plots was half that of the invaded plots, even though the removal of invasives caused a small but significant increase in compensatory water use by the remaining native trees. By investigating the effects of invasive species on ecohydrology and comparing native vs. invasive physiological traits, we not only gain understanding about the functioning of invasive species, but we also highlight potential water-conservation strategies for heavily invaded mono-dominant tropical forests worldwide. Native-dominated forests free of invasive species can be conservative in overall water use, providing a strong rationale for the control of invasive species and preservation of native-dominated stands.

  4. NFAT5 regulates HIV-1 in primary monocytes via a highly conserved long terminal repeat site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ranjbar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor-viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5-LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Pathogenic Fungi Reveals Highly Expressed Conserved Cell Wall Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Champer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such fungal proteins are of interest to the development of vaccines or drug targets. Protein samples were derived from 13 fungal species, cultured in rich or in minimal media; these included clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Candida, Mucor, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides species. Proteomes were analyzed by quantitative MSE (Mass Spectrometry—Elevated Collision Energy. Several thousand proteins were identified and quantified in total across all fractions and culture conditions. The 42 most abundant proteins identified in fungal cell walls or supernatants shared no to very little homology with human proteins. In contrast, all but five of the 50 most abundant cytosolic proteins had human homologs with sequence identity averaging 59%. Proteomic comparisons of the secreted or surface localized fungal proteins highlighted conserved homologs of the Aspergillus fumigatus proteins 1,3-β-glucanosyltransferases (Bgt1, Gel1-4, Crf1, Ecm33, EglC, and others. The fact that Crf1 and Gel1 were previously shown to be promising vaccine candidates, underlines the value of the proteomics data presented here.

  6. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  7. Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Brown, Nick D; Fisher, Joshua B; Brodribb, Timothy; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2018-06-15

    Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology. Results of this study showed that seasonal patterns of leaf phenology varied significantly with seasonal changes in stem water relations among the nine species. Leaf shedding coincided with the attainment of seasonal minimum stem water potential. Leaf flush occurred following xylem rehydration at the peak of the dry season suggesting that endogenous plant factors play a pivotal role in seasonal leaf display in this forest type. Drought-tolerant deciduous species suffered significantly higher seasonal losses in xylem hydraulic conductivity than the drought-intolerant semi-evergreen tree species (P water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests selects for water conservative traits that protect the vulnerable xylem transport system. Therefore, seasonal rhythms in xylem transport dictate patterns of leaf display in seasonally dry tropical forests.

  8. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  9. Tourism, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation : an assessment of tourism related policy interventions at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahebwa, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the developing world has focused on attempting to reconcile conservation and development with nature-based tourism as one of the main mechanisms. To address the twin challenge of achieving conservation and development at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, in

  10. Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…

  11. Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, William E; Swan, Susan S; McDaniel, Mary M; Stebbins, John G; Seixas, Noah S; Morgan, Michael S

    2002-10-01

    Washington State has experienced a striking increase in workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in one industry with a high rate of hearing loss claims. We evaluated 10 representative foundries with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews, and existing audiometry. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85 dBA. All companies were out of compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees with important findings on audiograms were not aware of their findings. There was a significant positive correlation between management-interview scores and worksite-average employee-interview scores (r = 0.70, P = 0.02). Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation program activities can achieve a greater positive impact on employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programs in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing substantial risk of occupational hearing loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  13. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. → Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. → The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. → The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  14. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  15. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  16. Analysis of army-wide hearing conservation database for hearing profiles related to crew-served and individual weapon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Ahroon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage-risk criteria (DRC for noise exposures are designed to protect 95% of the exposed populations from hearing injuries caused by those noise exposures. The current DRC used by the US military follows OSHA guidelines for continuous noise. The current military DRC for impulse exposures follows the recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA and are contained in the current military standard, MIL-STD-1474D "Noise Limits." Suggesting that the MIL-STD for impulse exposure is too stringent, various individuals have proposed that the DRC for exposure to high-level impulses be relaxed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current hearing status of US Army Soldiers, some of whom can be, by their military occupational specialties (MOS, reasonably expected to be routinely exposed to high-level impulses from weapon systems. The Defense Occupational and Environmental Health Readiness System - Hearing Conservation (DOEHRS-HC was queried for the hearing status of enlisted Soldiers of 32 different MOSs. The results indicated that less than 95% of the Soldiers in the DOEHRS-HC database were classified as having normal hearing. In other words, the goal of the DRC used for limiting noise injuries (from continuous and impulse exposures was not stringent enough to prevent hearing injuries in all but the most susceptible Soldiers. These results suggest that the current military noise DRC should not be relaxed.

  17. A new world monkey microsatellite (ap74) highly conserved in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oklander, Luciana Ines; Steinberg, Eliana Ruth; Dolores Mudry, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRS became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of noninvasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: lemur catta, alouatta caraya, ateles belzebuth, ateles chamek, pan troglodytes, papio sp., and Homo sapiens. in all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp), except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. the analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.

  18. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  19. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  20. Experimental programmes related to high burnup fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Vidhya, R.; Ananthasivan, K.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Nagarajan, K.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental programmes undertaken at IGCAR with regard to high burn-up fuels fall under the following categories: a) studies on fuel behaviour, b) development of extractants for aqueous reprocessing and c) development of non-aqueous reprocessing techniques. An experimental programme to measure the carbon potential in U/Pu-FP-C systems by methane-hydrogen gas equilibration technique has been initiated at IGCAR in order to understand the evolution of fuel and fission product phases in carbide fuel at high burn-up. The carbon potentials in U-Mo-C system have been measured by this technique. The free energies and enthalpies of formation of LaC 2 , NdC 2 and SmC 2 have been measured by measuring the vapor pressures of CO over the region Ln 2 O 3 -LnC 2 -C during the carbothermic reduction of Ln 2 O 3 by C. The decontamination from fission products achieved in fuel reprocessing depends strongly on the actinide loading of the extractant phase. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), presently used as the extractant, does not allow high loadings due to its propensity for third phase formation in the extraction of Pu(IV). A detailed study of the allowable Pu loadings in TBP and other extractants has been undertaken in IGCAR, the results of which are presented in this paper. The paper also describes the status of our programme to develop a non-aqueous route for the reprocessing of fast reactor fuels. (author)

  1. An Analysis of the Invariance and Conservation Laws of Some Classes of Nonlinear Ostrovsky Equations and Related Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhar, K.; Kara, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    A large class of partial differential equations in the modelling of ocean waves are due to Ostrovsky. We determine the invariance properties (through the Lie point symmetry generators) and construct classes of conservation laws for some of the models. In the latter case, the method involves finding the ‘multipliers’ associated with the conservation laws with a stronger emphasis on the ‘higher-order’ ones. The relationship between the symmetries and conservation laws is investigated by considering the invariance properties of the multipliers. (general)

  2. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Owen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive psychoacoustic technique to measure hearing thresholds in the endangered giant panda; a species that uses acoustic communication to coordinate reproduction. Our results suggest that giant pandas have functional hearing into the ultrasonic range, with good sensitivity between 10.0 and 16.0 kHz, and best sensitivity measured at 12.5–14.0 kHz. We estimated the lower and upper limits of functional hearing as 0.10 and 70.0 kHz respectively. While these results suggest that panda hearing is similar to that of some other terrestrial carnivores, panda hearing thresholds above 14.0 kHz were significantly lower (i.e., more sensitive than those of the polar bear, the only other bear species for which data are available. We discuss the implications of this divergence, as well as the relationship between hearing sensitivity and the spectral parameters of panda vocalizations. We suggest that these data, placed in context, can be used towards the development of a sensory-based model of noise disturbance for the species.

  3. Identification of Novel and Conserved miRNAs from Extreme Halophyte, Oryza coarctata, a Wild Relative of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Debnath, Ananda Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Oryza coarctata, a halophyte and wild relative of rice, is grown normally in saline water. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in every domain of life including stress response. There are very few reports on the discovery of salt-responsive miRNAs from halophytes. In this study, two small RNA libraries, one each from the control and salt-treated (450 mM NaCl for 24 h) leaves of O. coarctata were sequenced, which yielded 338 known and 95 novel miRNAs. Additionally, we used publicly available transcriptomics data of O. coarctata which led to the discovery of additional 48 conserved miRNAs along with their pre-miRNA sequences through in silico analysis. In total, 36 known and 7 novel miRNAs were up-regulated whereas, 12 known and 7 novel miRNAs were down-regulated under salinity stress. Further, 233 and 154 target genes were predicted for 48 known and 14 novel differentially regulated miRNAs respectively. These targets with the help of gene ontology analysis were found to be involved in several important biological processes that could be involved in salinity tolerance. Relative expression trends of majority of the miRNAs as detected by real time-PCR as well as predicted by Illumina sequencing were found to be coherent. Additionally, expression of most of the target genes was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Thus, the present study provides an account of miRNA-target networking that is involved in salinity adaption of O. coarctata.

  4. 77 FR 11785 - Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... standards for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Accordingly, DOE will hold a public meeting to discuss..._standards/commercial/high_intensity_discharge_lamps.html . DATES: The Department will hold a public meeting... Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, EERE-2010-BT-STD...

  5. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Dai, Hongzheng; Chen, Sidi; Zhang, Luoying; Long, Manyuan

    2011-04-26

    Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta). Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  6. Highly tissue specific expression of Sphinx supports its male courtship related role in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphinx is a lineage-specific non-coding RNA gene involved in regulating courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster. The 5' flanking region of the gene is conserved across Drosophila species, with the proximal 300 bp being conserved out to D. virilis and a further 600 bp region being conserved amongst the melanogaster subgroup (D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. sechellia, D. yakuba, and D. erecta. Using a green fluorescence protein transformation system, we demonstrated that a 253 bp region of the highly conserved segment was sufficient to drive sphinx expression in male accessory gland. GFP signals were also observed in brain, wing hairs and leg bristles. An additional ∼800 bp upstream region was able to enhance expression specifically in proboscis, suggesting the existence of enhancer elements. Using anti-GFP staining, we identified putative sphinx expression signal in the brain antennal lobe and inner antennocerebral tract, suggesting that sphinx might be involved in olfactory neuron mediated regulation of male courtship behavior. Whole genome expression profiling of the sphinx knockout mutation identified significant up-regulated gene categories related to accessory gland protein function and odor perception, suggesting sphinx might be a negative regulator of its target genes.

  7. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Weel, Hanneke; van Dijk, C. Niek; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and retrospective

  8. Curli Fibers Are Highly Conserved between Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with Respect to Operon Structure and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Bian, Zhao; Hammar, Mårten; Sierralta, Walter D.; Normark, Staffan

    1998-01-01

    Mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strains SR-11 and ATCC 14028-1s express curli fibers, thin aggregative fibers, at ambient temperature on plates as judged by Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and bind the dye Congo red (called the rdar morphotype). Cloning and characterization of the two divergently transcribed operons required for curli biogenesis, csgBA(C) and csgDEFG, from S. typhimurium SR-11 revealed the same gene order and flanking genes as in Escherichia coli. The divergence of the curli region between S. typhimurium and E. coli at the nucleotide level is above average (22.4%). However, a high level of conservation at the protein level, which ranged from 86% amino acid homology for the fiber subunit CsgA to 99% homology for the lipoprotein CsgG, implies functional constraints on the gene products. Consequently, S. typhimurium genes on low-copy-number plasmids were able to complement respective E. coli mutants, although not always to wild-type levels. rpoS and ompR are required for transcriptional activation of (at least) the csgD promoter. The high degree of conservation at the protein level and the identical regulation patterns in E. coli and S. typhimurium suggest similar roles of curli fibers in the same ecological niche in the two species. PMID:9457880

  9. Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Jason E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a global level beyond known immune signaling cascades. Results In the present study, we employed a multivariate modeling approach to characterize and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks between these three model systems after infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype. Using this approach we identified functions and pathways that display similar behavior and/or regulation including the well-studied impact on the interferon response and the inflammasome. Our results also suggest a primary response role for airway epithelial cells in initiating hypercytokinemia, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses. We further demonstrate that we can use a transcriptional regulatory model from the human cell culture data to make highly accurate predictions about the behavior of important components of the innate immune system in tissues from whole organisms. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a global regulatory network modeling conserved host response between in vitro and in vivo models.

  10. Conservative treatment of vascular prosthetic graft infection is associated with high mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Meetwaldt, Robbert; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.; van den Dungen, Jan J. A. M.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify patient-related and/or disease-related factors that influence outcomes in patients with vascular prosthetic graft infections. METHODS: Through the hospital patient administration system, between January 1997 and December 2007, a total of 44 patients

  11. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    identification of approximately 25% of the essential genes required for craniofacial development. The identification of zebrafish models for two human disease syndromes indicates that homologs to the other genes are likely to also be relevant for human craniofacial development. The initial characterization of wdr68 suggests an important role in craniofacial development for the highly conserved Wdr68-Dyrk1 protein complexes.

  12. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  13. Quantity and configuration of available elephant habitat and related conservation concerns in the Lower Kinabatangan floodplain of Sabah, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason G Estes

    Full Text Available The approximately 300 (298, 95% CI: 152-581 elephants in the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo are a priority sub-population for Borneo's total elephant population (2,040, 95% CI: 1,184-3,652. Habitat loss and human-elephant conflict are recognized as the major threats to Bornean elephant survival. In the Kinabatangan region, human settlements and agricultural development for oil palm drive an intense fragmentation process. Electric fences guard against elephant crop raiding but also remove access to suitable habitat patches. We conducted expert opinion-based least-cost analyses, to model the quantity and configuration of available suitable elephant habitat in the Lower Kinabatangan, and called this the Elephant Habitat Linkage. At 184 km(2, our estimate of available habitat is 54% smaller than the estimate used in the State's Elephant Action Plan for the Lower Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (400 km(2. During high flood levels, available habitat is reduced to only 61 km(2. As a consequence, short-term elephant densities are likely to surge during floods to 4.83 km(-2 (95% CI: 2.46-9.41, among the highest estimated for forest-dwelling elephants in Asia or Africa. During severe floods, the configuration of remaining elephant habitat and the surge in elephant density may put two villages at elevated risk of human-elephant conflict. Lower Kinabatangan elephants are vulnerable to the natural disturbance regime of the river due to their limited dispersal options. Twenty bottlenecks less than one km wide throughout the Elephant Habitat Linkage, have the potential to further reduce access to suitable habitat. Rebuilding landscape connectivity to isolated habitat patches and to the North Kinabatangan Managed Elephant Range (less than 35 km inland are conservation priorities that would increase the quantity of available habitat, and may work as a mechanism to allow population release, lower elephant density, reduce

  14. Catchment-scale conservation units identified for the threatened Yarra pygmy perch (Nannoperca obscura) in highly modified river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Chris J; Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation caused by human activities alters metapopulation dynamics and decreases biological connectivity through reduced migration and gene flow, leading to lowered levels of population genetic diversity and to local extinctions. The threatened Yarra pygmy perch, Nannoperca obscura, is a poor disperser found in small, isolated populations in wetlands and streams of southeastern Australia. Modifications to natural flow regimes in anthropogenically-impacted river systems have recently reduced the amount of habitat for this species and likely further limited its opportunity to disperse. We employed highly resolving microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and the spatial scale that dispersal takes place across the distribution of this freshwater fish and used this information to identify conservation units for management. The levels of genetic variation found for N. obscura are amongst the lowest reported for a fish species (mean heterozygosity of 0.318 and mean allelic richness of 1.92). We identified very strong population genetic structure, nil to little evidence of recent migration among demes and a minimum of 11 units for conservation management, hierarchically nested within four major genetic lineages. A combination of spatial analytical methods revealed hierarchical genetic structure corresponding with catchment boundaries and also demonstrated significant isolation by riverine distance. Our findings have implications for the national recovery plan of this species by demonstrating that N. obscura populations should be managed at a catchment level and highlighting the need to restore habitat and avoid further alteration of the natural hydrology.

  15. Characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein, highly conserved in metazoans, and essential for embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qiongmei; Huang, C.-H.; Peng Jianbin; Hashmi, Sarwar; Ye Tianzhang; Chen Ying

    2007-01-01

    We report here the identification and characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein that contains a G-patch, a coiled-coil, and several short tryptophan-tryptophan repeats highly conserved in metazoan species. To analyze their functional role in vivo, we cloned nematode stip-1 genes and determined the spatiotemporal pattern of Caenorhabditis elegans STIP-1 protein. RNA analyses and Western blots revealed that stip-1 mRNA was produced via trans-splicing and translated as a 95-kDa protein. Using reporter constructs, we found STIP-1 to be expressed at all developmental stages and in many tissue/cell types including worm oocyte nuclei. We found that STIP-1 is targeted to the nucleus and forms large polymers with a rod-like shape when expressed in mammalian cells. Using deletion mutants, we mapped the regions of STIP-1 involved in nuclear import and polymer assembly. We further showed that knockdown of C. elegans stip-1 by RNA interference arrested development and resulted in morphologic abnormalities around the 16-cell stage followed by 100% lethality, suggesting its essential role in worm embryogenesis. Importantly, the embryonic lethal phenotype could be faithfully rescued with Drosophila and human genes via transgenic expression. Our data provide the first direct evidence that STIP have a conserved essential nuclear function across metazoans from worms to humans

  16. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center st......INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  17. Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Pieter J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. Results The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2 and non-canonical (B2 and C1422 HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF→AAA and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef’s association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2, the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Conclusion Based on these findings, we

  18. Ancient Exaptation of a CORE-SINE Retroposon into a Highly Conserved Mammalian Neuronal Enhancer of the Proopiomelanocortin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC) is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5′ distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE) retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution. PMID:17922573

  19. Ancient exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon into a highly conserved mammalian neuronal enhancer of the proopiomelanocortin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Santangelo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5' distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution.

  20. Identification of immunogenic HLA-B7 "Achilles' heel" epitopes within highly conserved regions of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Groot, Anne S; Rivera, Daniel S; McMurry, Julie A

    2008-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in class I human leukocyte antigen molecules (HLA) have been shown to determine susceptibility to HIV infection as well as the rate of progression to AIDS. In particular, the HLA-B7 supertype has been shown to be associated with high viral loads and rapid progression to dise...

  1. How Do Visitors Relate to Biodiversity Conservation? An Analysis of London Zoo's "BUGS" Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmin-Pui, Lauriane Suyin; Perkins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using a case study of London Zoo's BUGS (Biodiversity Underpinning Global Survival) exhibit, this article assesses the role of experiential learning in raising biodiversity knowledge, concern and potential pro-conservation actions. Using Personal Meaning Mindmapping, a novel method in visitor research, the study examines how adult visitors relate…

  2. High precision relative position sensing system for formation flying spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test an optical sensing system that provides high precision relative position sensing for formation flying spacecraft.  A high precision...

  3. Trait-abundance relation in response to nutrient addition in a Tibetan alpine meadow: The importance of species trade-off in resource conservation and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Li, Ying; Ren, Fei; Lin, Li; Zhu, Wenyan; He, Jin-Sheng; Niu, Kechang

    2017-12-01

    In competition-dominated communities, traits promoting resource conservation and competitive ability are expected to have an important influence on species relative abundance (SRA). Yet, few studies have tested the trait-abundance relations in the line of species trade-off in resource conservation versus acquisition, indicating by multiple traits coordination. We measured SRA and key functional traits involving leaf economic spectrum (SLA, specific leaf area; LDMC, leaf dry matter content; LCC, leaf carbon concentration; LNC, leaf nitrogen concentration; LPC, leaf phosphorus concentration; Hs, mature height) for ten common species in all plots subjected to addition of nitrogen fertilizer (N), phosphorus fertilizer (P), or both of them (NP) in a Tibetan alpine meadow. We test whether SRA is positively related with traits promoting plant resource conservation, while negatively correlated with traits promoting plant growth and resource acquisition. We found that species were primarily differentiated along a trade-off axis involving traits promoting nutrient acquisition and fast growth (e.g., LPC and SLA) versus traits promoting resource conservation and competition ability (e.g., large LDMC). We further found that SRA was positively correlated with plant height, LDMC, and LCC, but negatively associated with SLA and leaf nutrient concentration irrespective of fertilization. A stronger positive height-SRA was found in NP-fertilized plots than in other plots, while negative correlations between SRA and SLA and LPC were found in N or P fertilized plots. The results indicate that species trade-off in nutrient acquisition and resource conservation was a key driver of SRA in competition-dominated communities following fertilization, with the linkage between SRA and traits depending on plant competition for specific soil nutrient and/or light availability. The results highlight the importance of competitive exclusion in plant community assembly following fertilization and

  4. Computation and Analysis of High Rocky Slope Safety in a Water Conservancy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated method, covering the actual monitoring analysis, practical geological model, and theoretical mathematical simulation model, is systematically proposed and successfully applied. Deformation characteristic of a unique high rocky slope was firstly analyzed from multiple angles and multiple layers by changeable elevations and distances. Arrangements of monitoring points were listed and monitoring equipment was designed to comprise a complete monitoring system. Present larger displacement was concluded for bottom larger displacement caused by water erosion and middle larger displacement formed by seepage. Temporal and spatial displacements rule study of multiple-points linkage effects with water factor proved this conclusion. To better excavate useful message and analyze the deep rule from the practical monitoring data, the slope geological model was conducted and rock mechanic parameters were researched. Finally, a unique three-dimensional finite element model was applied to approach the structure character using numerical simulations. The corresponding strength criterion was used to determine the safety coefficient by selecting a typical section. Subsequently, an integrated three-dimensional finite element model of the slope and dam was developed and more detailed deformation evolution mechanism was revealed. This study is expected to provide a powerful and systematic method to analyze very high, important, and dangerous slopes.

  5. Constrained instanton and baryon number non-conservation at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sil'vestrov, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    The main subject of this paper is the calculation of corrections to instanton action ΔS∼(mρ) 4 log(mρ)/g 2 (ρ is the intanton radius) in the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The total cross section for baryon number violating processes at high energies is usually parametrized as σ tat ∝exp(4π/αF(ε)), where α=g 2 /4π, ε=√s/E 0 , E 0 =√6πm w /α. In the present paper the third nontrivial term of the F(ε) expansion is obtained. The unknown correction to F(ε) are expected to be of the order of ε 8/3 . The total cross section is extremely sensitive to the value of single instanton action. For sufficiently heavy Higgs boson the ρ-dependent part of the instanton action is changed drastically. 21 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Empathy as a driver of prosocial behaviour: highly conserved neurobehavioural mechanisms across species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decety, Jean; Bartal, Inbal Ben-Ami; Uzefovsky, Florina; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Empathy reflects the natural ability to perceive and be sensitive to the emotional states of others, coupled with a motivation to care for their well-being. It has evolved in the context of parental care for offspring, as well as within kinship bonds, to help facilitate group living. In this paper, we integrate the perspectives of evolution, animal behaviour, developmental psychology, and social and clinical neuroscience to elucidate our understanding of the proximate mechanisms underlying empathy. We focus, in particular, on processing of signals of distress and need, and their relation to prosocial behaviour. The ability to empathize, both in animals and humans, mediates prosocial behaviour when sensitivity to others' distress is paired with a drive towards their welfare. Disruption or atypical development of the neural circuits that process distress cues and integrate them with decision value leads to callous disregard for others, as is the case in psychopathy. The realization that basic forms of empathy exist in non-human animals is crucial for gaining new insights into the underlying neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of empathy, enabling translation towards therapeutic and pharmacological interventions. PMID:26644596

  7. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnside Kellie L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication. KSHV ORF59 is antigenic in the infected host and is used as a marker for virus activation and replication. Results We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1 and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf, and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively. We found that ORF59 homologs of the RV1 and RV2 Old World primate rhadinoviruses are highly conserved with distinct phylogenetic clustering of the two rhadinovirus lineages. RV1 and RV2 ORF59 C-terminal domains exhibit a strong lineage-specific conservation. Rabbit antiserum was developed against a C-terminal polypeptide that is highly conserved between the macaque RV2 ORF59 sequences. This anti-serum showed strong reactivity towards ORF59 encoded by the macaque RV2 rhadinoviruses, RRV (rhesus and MneRV2 (pig-tail, with no cross reaction to human or macaque RV1 ORF59 proteins. Using this antiserum and RT-qPCR, we determined that RRV ORF59 is expressed early after permissive infection of both rhesus primary fetal fibroblasts and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero in vitro. RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses

  8. Aqueous phase transfer of InP/ZnS nanocrystals conserving fluorescence and high colloidal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Sudarsan; Beaune, Grégory; Texier, Isabelle; Reiss, Peter

    2011-12-27

    Small thiol-containing amino acids such as cysteine are appealing surface ligands for transferring semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) from organic solvents to the aqueous phase. They provide a compact hydrodynamic diameter and low nonspecific binding in biological environment. However, cysteine-capped QDs generally exhibit modest colloidal stability in water and their fluorescence quantum yield (QY) is significantly reduced as compared to organics. We demonstrate that during phase transfer the deprotonation of the thiol group by carefully adjusting the pH is of crucial importance for increasing the binding strength of cysteine to the QD surface. As a result, the colloidal stability of cysteine-capped InP/ZnS core/shell QDs is extended from less than one day to several months. The developed method is of very general character and can be used also with other hydrophilic thiols and various other types of QDs, e.g., CdSe/CdS/ZnS and CuInS(2)/ZnS QDs as well as CdSe and CdSe/CdS nanorods. We show that the observed decrease of QY upon phase transfer with cysteine is related to the generation of cysteine dimer, cystine. This side-reaction implies the formation of disulfide bonds, which efficiently trap photogenerated holes and inhibit radiative recombination. On the other hand, this process is not irreversible. By addition of an appropriate reducing agent, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), the QY can be partially recovered. When TCEP is already added during the phase transfer, the QY of cysteine-capped InP/ZnS QDs can be maintained almost quantitatively. Finally, we show that penicillamine is a promising alternative to cysteine for the phase transfer of QDs, as it is much less prone to disulfide formation.

  9. JDet: interactive calculation and visualization of function-related conservation patterns in multiple sequence alignments and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Thilo; García-Martín, Juan A; Rausell, Antonio; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2012-02-15

    We have implemented in a single package all the features required for extracting, visualizing and manipulating fully conserved positions as well as those with a family-dependent conservation pattern in multiple sequence alignments. The program allows, among other things, to run different methods for extracting these positions, combine the results and visualize them in protein 3D structures and sequence spaces. JDet is a multiplatform application written in Java. It is freely available, including the source code, at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/JDet. The package includes two of our recently developed programs for detecting functional positions in protein alignments (Xdet and S3Det), and support for other methods can be added as plug-ins. A help file and a guided tutorial for JDet are also available.

  10. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity and cosmetic result of partial breast high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for conservatively operated early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Xia; Tripuraneni Prabhakar; Giap Huan; Lin Ray; Chu Colin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Objective To study the method, side effects and cosmetic outcome of high- dose-rate (HDR) accelerated partial breast interstitial irradiation (APBI) alone in early stage breast cancer' after conservative surgery. Methods: From February 2002 to June 2003,47 breast cancer lesions from 46 patients suffering from stage I/II breast cancer were treated with HDR 192 Ir APBI after conservative surgery. All patients were over 40 year-old, with T1-2N0-1 (≤3 lymph nodes positive), surgical margin > 1-2 mm, but those having lobular or inflammatory breast cancer were excluded. HDR brachytherapy with 34 Gy, 10 fractions/5 days was used after surgery, toxic reaction and cosmetic outcome were observed in one month, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results: Follow up of 1846 months, 34 months was carried out for the whole group. During the treatment, acute reactions including: erythema, edema, tenderness and infection, all under I-II grade, none of III-IV grade were observed in 21 patients(46%); late toxicity reactions: skin fibrosis, breast tenderness, fat necrosis, and telangiectasia, totally 20 patients (43%) were observed: 2 patients in III grade but one patient received 6 cycle chemotherapy. The result of cosmetic outcome evaluation was excellent or good, at 6 months 95% and 12 months 98%, respectively, but there was no recurfence. Conclusions: Excellent and favorable cosmetic results are noted after APBI by interstitial alone. Acute and late reactions are few. Long term observation is necessary for the rate of' local control. (authors)

  12. Attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. From this perspective, this study investigates fishermen’s ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in Ilhéus, Southern Bahia, Brazil. Methods Fishermen experts semi-structured interviews were performed using snowball sampling method. The interviews consisted of a series of questions relating to the fishermen’s profile, structure and work equipment, the local ecological knowledge of fishermen about sea turtles and bycatch, a projective test, attitudes towards turtle conservation and beliefs and taboos regarding turtles. Indicators for quantitative comparisons of respondents in terms of their broad knowledge and attitudes towards turtle conservation were created. Correlation analyses were made between indicators of knowledge and attitude as well as the relationship between education level and knowledge and attitudes. Results Thirty experts were interviewed for the study. The local ecological knowledge and attitudes of fishermen towards the conservation of sea turtles were respectively medium (0.43) and moderate (0.69) according to experts (based on Likert scale and Cronbach’s Alpha). Potential areas of spawning were reported from Barra Grande to Una covering the entire coast of Ilhéus. Methods for identifying the animal, behavior, and popular names were described by fishermen. The most recent captures of turtles were attributed to fishing line, but according to the respondents, lobster nets and shrimp traps are more likely to capture turtles. Knowledge and attitudes were weakly inversely correlated (r = −0.38, p = 0.04), and the education level of the respondent showed a positive correlation with positive attitudes

  13. Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.

    2010-01-01

    We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.

  14. Administrative memo relative to the delivery of energy conservation certificates; Circulaire relative a la delivrance des certificats d'economies d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    This memo details the principles of the energy conservation certificates, the law texts of application, the part of the Government and the ADEME services, the certificates demand procedure, and the inscription of the certificates on the national registries. (A.L.B.)

  15. Distinct activation phenotype of a highly conserved novel HLA-B57-restricted epitope during dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Elizabeth; Woda, Marcia; Thomas, Stephen J; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Stephens, Henry A F; Rothman, Alan L; Mathew, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the sequence of T-cell epitopes between dengue virus (DENV) serotypes is believed to alter memory T-cell responses during second heterologous infections. We identified a highly conserved, novel, HLA-B57-restricted epitope on the DENV NS1 protein. We predicted higher frequencies of B57-NS1(26-34) -specific CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals undergoing secondary rather than primary DENV infection. However, high tetramer-positive T-cell frequencies during acute infection were seen in only one of nine subjects with secondary infection. B57-NS1(26-34) -specific and other DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as total CD8(+) T cells, expressed an activated phenotype (CD69(+) and/or CD38(+)) during acute infection. In contrast, expression of CD71 was largely limited to DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells. In vitro stimulation of cell lines indicated that CD71 expression was differentially sensitive to stimulation by homologous and heterologous variant peptides. CD71 may represent a useful marker of antigen-specific T-cell activation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Angular momentum in general relativity. 1. Definition and asymptotic behaviour. [axisymmetric space-times, infinity, conservation law, spin coefficient formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, C R [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1977-06-27

    Angular momentum in axisymmetric space-times is investigated. The conclusions lead to a general definition suitable for all asymptotically-flat spaces which is valid both at infinity and on the event horizon of a black hole. This first paper restricts attention to considerations at infinity. Working in terms of the spin coefficient formalism, the field equations are solved asymptotically at large distances and the definition is evaluated. A conservation law is derived and finally the effect on the angular momentum of a supertranslation of the coordinates is discussed.

  17. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  18. Isolation of BAC Clones Containing Conserved Genes from Libraries of Three Distantly Related Moths: A Useful Resource for Comparative Genomics of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Yasukochi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera, butterflies and moths, is the second largest animal order and includes numerous agricultural pests. To facilitate comparative genomics in Lepidoptera, we isolated BAC clones containing conserved and putative single-copy genes from libraries of three pests, Heliothis virescens, Ostrinia nubilalis, and Plutella xylostella, harboring the haploid chromosome number, =31, which are not closely related with each other or with the silkworm, Bombyx mori, (=28, the sequenced model lepidopteran. A total of 108–184 clones representing 101–182 conserved genes were isolated for each species. For 79 genes, clones were isolated from more than two species, which will be useful as common markers for analysis using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, as well as for comparison of genome sequence among multiple species. The PCR-based clone isolation method presented here is applicable to species which lack a sequenced genome but have a significant collection of cDNA or EST sequences.

  19. Exploring children's cognitive and affective skills related to conservation of mass using Fischer's dynamic skills model: What goes on in their minds and hearts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Anila

    I conducted a mixed method study to examine: How, if at all, does middle school students' understanding of the conservation of mass develop as they engage in two different chemistry curricula (an interactive chemistry curriculum, DESIGNS, aimed at helping them to understand the conservation of mass and another presenting the same concepts from a traditional approach)? How do they feel about participating in the science activities, and how, if at all, do their feelings relate to their learning? I used the framework of the Dynamic Skills theory (Fischer, 1980) as a lens through which to understand their thinking and feelings and any changes in them. The study was conducted in two Massachusetts public schools. In each school, one class followed the DESIGNS curriculum (DESIGNS II, in press), while the other followed a traditional chemistry curriculum. Each teacher in the study taught two science classes and used the DESIGNS curriculum in one class and the traditional curriculum in the other. Seventy three middle school students from the two schools participated in this study. The data was gathered through (a) a concept assessment questionnaire and (b) affective response survey (both were administered before, during, and at the end of the curriculum). Additionally, qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 selected students (four from each class) twice (before and after the curriculum). The quantitative analysis revealed that students in the DESIGNS group demonstrated greater conceptual change, on average, as compared to the traditional group. In addition, pretest score and mother's education were also found to be associated with students' learning. The pretest score was negatively associated with the conceptual gain (the lower the pretest score the higher the gain), whereas mother's education had a positive relationship with conceptual understanding. A comparison of students' affective response to their respective curriculum showed that students felt more positive

  20. Neuronal patterning of the tubular collar cord is highly conserved among enteropneusts but dissimilar to the chordate neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Urata, Makoto; Praher, Daniela; Wanninger, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    A tubular nervous system is present in the deuterostome groups Chordata (cephalochordates, tunicates, vertebrates) and in the non-chordate Enteropneusta. However, the worm-shaped enteropneusts possess a less complex nervous system featuring only a short hollow neural tube, whereby homology to its chordate counterpart remains elusive. Since the majority of data on enteropneusts stem from the harrimaniid Saccoglossus kowalevskii, putative interspecific variations remain undetected resulting in an unreliable ground pattern that impedes homology assessments. In order to complement the missing data from another enteropneust family, we investigated expression of key neuronal patterning genes in the ptychoderid Balanoglossus misakiensis. The collar cord of B. misakiensis shows anterior Six3/6 and posterior Otx + Engrailed expression, in a region corresponding to the chordate brain. Neuronal Nk2.1/Nk2.2 expression is absent. Interestingly, we found median Dlx and lateral Pax6 expression domains, i.e., a condition that is reversed compared to chordates. Comparative analyses reveal that adult nervous system patterning is highly conserved among the enteropneust families Harrimaniidae, Spengelidae and Ptychoderidae. BmiDlx and BmiPax6 have no corresponding expression domains in the chordate brain, which may be indicative of independent acquisition of a tubular nervous system in Enteropneusta and Chordata.

  1. A highly Conserved Aspartic Acid Residue of the Chitosanase from Bacillus Sp. TS Is Involved in the Substrate Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhanping; Zhao, Shuangzhi; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhengying; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2016-11-01

    The chitosanase from Bacillus sp. TS (CsnTS) is an enzyme belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 8. The sequence of CsnTS shares 98 % identity with the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17. Crystallography analysis and site-direct mutagenesis of the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 identified the important residues involved in the catalytic interaction and substrate binding. However, despite progress in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the chitosanase from the family GH8, the functional roles of some residues that are highly conserved throughout this family have not been fully elucidated. This study focused on one of these residues, i.e., the aspartic acid residue at position 318. We found that apart from asparagine, mutation of Asp318 resulted in significant loss of enzyme activity. In-depth investigations showed that mutation of this residue not only impaired enzymatic activity but also affected substrate binding. Taken together, our results showed that Asp318 plays an important role in CsnTS activity.

  2. The highly conserved codon following the slippery sequence supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeth F Mathew

    Full Text Available HIV-1 utilises -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating -1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the 'intercodon' contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules-eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA-were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to -1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1.

  3. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  4. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  5. Alcohol-Related Problems And High Risk Sexual Behaviour In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.

  6. The lytic origin of herpesvirus papio is highly homologous to Epstein-Barr virus ori-Lyt: evolutionary conservation of transcriptional activation and replication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryon, J J; Fixman, E D; Houchens, C; Zong, J; Lieberman, P M; Chang, Y N; Hayward, G S; Hayward, S D

    1993-01-01

    Herpesvirus papio (HVP) is a B-lymphotropic baboon virus with an estimated 40% homology to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We have cloned and sequenced ori-Lyt of herpesvirus papio and found a striking degree of nucleotide homology (89%) with ori-Lyt of EBV. Transcriptional elements form an integral part of EBV ori-Lyt. The promoter and enhancer domains of EBV ori-Lyt are conserved in herpesvirus papio. The EBV ori-Lyt promoter contains four binding sites for the EBV lytic cycle transactivator Zta, and the enhancer includes one Zta and two Rta response elements. All five of the Zta response elements and one of the Rta motifs are conserved in HVP ori-Lyt, and the HVP DS-L leftward promoter and the enhancer were activated in transient transfection assays by the EBV Zta and Rta transactivators. The EBV ori-Lyt enhancer contains a palindromic sequence, GGTCAGCTGACC, centered on a PvuII restriction site. This sequence, with a single base change, is also present in the HVP ori-Lyt enhancer. DNase I footprinting demonstrated that the PvuII sequence was bound by a protein present in a Raji nuclear extract. Mobility shift and competition assays using oligonucleotide probes identified this sequence as a binding site for the cellular transcription factor MLTF. Mutagenesis of the binding site indicated that MLTF contributes significantly to the constitutive activity of the ori-Lyt enhancer. The high degree of conservation of cis-acting signal sequences in HVP ori-Lyt was further emphasized by the finding that an HVP ori-Lyt-containing plasmid was replicated in Vero cells by a set of cotransfected EBV replication genes. The central domain of EBV ori-Lyt contains two related AT-rich palindromes, one of which is partially duplicated in the HVP sequence. The AT-rich palindromes are functionally important cis-acting motifs. Deletion of these palindromes severely diminished replication of an ori-Lyt target plasmid. Images PMID:8389916

  7. Oman's coral reefs: A unique ecosystem challenged by natural and man-related stresses and in need of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, J A; Coles, S; van Lavieren, H; Taylor, O; Looker, E; Samimi-Namin, K

    2016-04-30

    Oman contains diverse and abundant reef coral communities that extend along a coast that borders three environmentally distinct water bodies, with corals existing under unique and often stressful environmental conditions. In recent years Oman's reefs have undergone considerable change due to recurrent predatory starfish outbreaks, cyclone damage, harmful algal blooms, and other stressors. In this review we summarize current knowledge of the biology and status of corals in Oman, particularly in light of recent stressors and projected future threats, and examine current reef management practices. Oman's coral communities occur in marginal environmental conditions for reefs, and hence are quite vulnerable to anthropogenic effects. We recommend a focus on developing conservation-oriented coral research to guide proactive management and expansion of the number and size of designated protected areas in Oman, particularly those associated with critical coral habitat. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valledor, Luis; Pascual, Jesús; Meijón, Mónica; Escandón, Mónica; Cañal, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA) and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4) during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  9. Conserved Epigenetic Mechanisms Could Play a Key Role in Regulation of Photosynthesis and Development-Related Genes during Needle Development of Pinus radiata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valledor

    Full Text Available Needle maturation is a complex process that involves cell growth, differentiation and tissue remodelling towards the acquisition of full physiological competence. Leaf induction mechanisms are well known; however, those underlying the acquisition of physiological competence are still poorly understood, especially in conifers. We studied the specific epigenetic regulation of genes defining organ function (PrRBCS and PrRBCA and competence and stress response (PrCSDP2 and PrSHMT4 during three stages of needle development and one de-differentiated control. Gene-specific changes in DNA methylation and histone were analysed by bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP. The expression of PrRBCA and PrRBCS increased during needle maturation and was associated with the progressive loss of H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and the increase in AcH4. The maturation-related silencing of PrSHMT4 was correlated with increased H3K9me3 levels, and the repression of PrCSDP2, to the interplay between AcH4, H3K27me3, H3K9me3 and specific DNA methylation. The employ of HAT and HDAC inhibitors led to a further determination of the role of histone acetylation in the regulation of our target genes. The integration of these results with high-throughput analyses in Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus trichocarpa suggests that the specific epigenetic mechanisms that regulate photosynthetic genes are conserved between the analysed species.

  10. High conservation level of CD8(+) T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Kedzierska, Katherine; McCaw, James M; Kelso, Anne; Leder, Karin; McVernon, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines require regular updates due to antigenic drift causing loss of effectiveness and therefore providing little or no protection against novel influenza A subtypes. Next generation vaccines capable of eliciting CD8(+) T cell (CTL) mediated cross-protective immunity may offer a long-term alternative strategy. However, measuring pre- and existing levels of CTL cross-protection in humans is confounded by differences in infection histories across individuals. During 2000-2003, H1N2 viruses circulated persistently in the human population for the first time and we hypothesized that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) contained novel CTL epitopes that may have contributed to the survival of the viruses. This study describes the immunogenic NP peptides of H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans over the past century, 1918-2003, by comparing this historical dataset to reference NP peptides from H1N2 that circulated in humans during 2000-2003. Observed peptides sequences ranged from highly conserved (15%) to highly variable (12%), with variation unrelated to reported immunodominance. No unique NP peptides which were exclusive to the H1N2 viruses were noted. However, the virus had inherited the NP from a recently emerged H3N2 variant containing novel peptides, which may have assisted its persistence. Any advantage due to this novelty was subsequently lost with emergence of a newer H3N2 variant in 2003. Our approach has potential to provide insight into the population context in which influenza viruses emerge, and may help to inform immunogenic peptide selection for CTL-inducing influenza vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1725-1732, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Conditional High-Order Boltzmann Machines for Supervised Relation Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Liang; Tan, Tieniu

    2017-09-01

    Relation learning is a fundamental problem in many vision tasks. Recently, high-order Boltzmann machine and its variants have shown their great potentials in learning various types of data relation in a range of tasks. But most of these models are learned in an unsupervised way, i.e., without using relation class labels, which are not very discriminative for some challenging tasks, e.g., face verification. In this paper, with the goal to perform supervised relation learning, we introduce relation class labels into conventional high-order multiplicative interactions with pairwise input samples, and propose a conditional high-order Boltzmann Machine (CHBM), which can learn to classify the data relation in a binary classification way. To be able to deal with more complex data relation, we develop two improved variants of CHBM: 1) latent CHBM, which jointly performs relation feature learning and classification, by using a set of latent variables to block the pathway from pairwise input samples to output relation labels and 2) gated CHBM, which untangles factors of variation in data relation, by exploiting a set of latent variables to multiplicatively gate the classification of CHBM. To reduce the large number of model parameters generated by the multiplicative interactions, we approximately factorize high-order parameter tensors into multiple matrices. Then, we develop efficient supervised learning algorithms, by first pretraining the models using joint likelihood to provide good parameter initialization, and then finetuning them using conditional likelihood to enhance the discriminant ability. We apply the proposed models to a series of tasks including invariant recognition, face verification, and action similarity labeling. Experimental results demonstrate that by exploiting supervised relation labels, our models can greatly improve the performance.

  12. Idas, a Novel Phylogenetically Conserved Geminin-related Protein, Binds to Geminin and Is Required for Cell Cycle Progression*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pefani, Dafni-Eleutheria; Dimaki, Maria; Spella, Magda; Karantzelis, Nickolas; Mitsiki, Eirini; Kyrousi, Christina; Symeonidou, Ioanna-Eleni; Perrakis, Anastassis; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi

    2011-01-01

    Development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms relies on an intricate balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. Geminin regulates the cell cycle by directly binding and inhibiting the DNA replication licensing factor Cdt1. Geminin also interacts with transcriptional regulators of differentiation and chromatin remodelling factors, and its balanced interactions are implicated in proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. Here, we describe Idas (Idas being a cousin of the Gemini in Ancient Greek Mythology), a previously uncharacterised coiled-coil protein related to Geminin. We show that human Idas localizes to the nucleus, forms a complex with Geminin both in cells and in vitro through coiled-coil mediated interactions, and can change Geminin subcellular localization. Idas does not associate with Cdt1 and prevents Geminin from binding to Cdt1 in vitro. Idas depletion from cells affects cell cycle progression; cells accumulate in S phase and are unable to efficiently progress to mitosis. Idas protein levels decrease in anaphase, whereas its overexpression causes mitotic defects. During development, we show that Idas exhibits high level expression in the choroid plexus and the cortical hem of the mouse telencephalon. Our data highlight Idas as a novel Geminin binding partner, implicated in cell cycle progression, and a putative regulator of proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. PMID:21543332

  13. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, W.H.; Weel, H.; van Dijk, C.N.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Lin, C.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Methods Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and

  14. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  15. Spatially conserved regulatory elements identified within human and mouse Cd247 gene using high-throughput sequencing data from the ENCODE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Hannibal, Tine Dahlbæk; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we have utilized the wealth of high-throughput sequencing data produced during the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project to identify spatially conserved regulatory elements within the Cd247 gene from human and mouse. We show the presence of two transcription factor binding sites...

  16. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Eng-Yen; Liang, Ji-An; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations

  17. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  18. Model My Watershed: A high-performance cloud application for public engagement, watershed modeling and conservation decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mayorga, E.; McFarland, M.; Robbins, A.; Haag, S.; Shokoufandeh, A.; Evans, B. M.; Arscott, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Model My Watershed Web app (https://app.wikiwatershed.org/) and the BiG-CZ Data Portal (http://portal.bigcz.org/) and are web applications that share a common codebase and a common goal to deliver high-performance discovery, visualization and analysis of geospatial data in an intuitive user interface in web browser. Model My Watershed (MMW) was designed as a decision support system for watershed conservation implementation. BiG CZ Data Portal was designed to provide context and background data for research sites. Users begin by creating an Area of Interest, via an automated watershed delineation tool, a free draw tool, selection of a predefined area such as a county or USGS Hydrological Unit (HUC), or uploading a custom polygon. Both Web apps visualize and provide summary statistics of land use, soil groups, streams, climate and other geospatial information. MMW then allows users to run a watershed model to simulate different scenarios of human impacts on stormwater runoff and water-quality. BiG CZ Data Portal allows users to search for scientific and monitoring data within the Area of Interest, which also serves as a prototype for the upcoming Monitor My Watershed web app. Both systems integrate with CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure, including visualizing observational data from CUAHSI Water Data Center and storing user data via CUAHSI HydroShare. Both systems also integrate with the new EnviroDIY Water Quality Data Portal (http://data.envirodiy.org/), a system for crowd-sourcing environmental monitoring data using open-source sensor stations (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly/) and based on the Observations Data Model v2.

  19. Ising model with conserved magnetization on the human connectome: Implications on the relation structure-function in wakefulness and anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramaglia, S.; Pellicoro, M.; Angelini, L.; Amico, E.; Aerts, H.; Cortés, J. M.; Laureys, S.; Marinazzo, D.

    2017-04-01

    Dynamical models implemented on the large scale architecture of the human brain may shed light on how a function arises from the underlying structure. This is the case notably for simple abstract models, such as the Ising model. We compare the spin correlations of the Ising model and the empirical functional brain correlations, both at the single link level and at the modular level, and show that their match increases at the modular level in anesthesia, in line with recent results and theories. Moreover, we show that at the peak of the specific heat (the critical state), the spin correlations are minimally shaped by the underlying structural network, explaining how the best match between the structure and function is obtained at the onset of criticality, as previously observed. These findings confirm that brain dynamics under anesthesia shows a departure from criticality and could open the way to novel perspectives when the conserved magnetization is interpreted in terms of a homeostatic principle imposed to neural activity.

  20. Butterfly community assemblages in relation to human disturbance in a tropical upland forest in Ghana, and implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Addo-Fordjour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined butterfly diversity, species composition and abundance in different forests of varying human disturbance intensities in the Atewa Range Forest Reserve, Ghana (i.e. non-disturbed, moderately disturbed and heavily disturbed forests. Vegetation characteristics and butterflies were sampled within ten 50 m × 50 m plots in each forest type. The study revealed that butterfly Shannon diversity index was similar in the non-disturbed and moderately disturbed forests although it was significantly lower in the heavily disturbed forest. Butterfly abundance differed significantly among all the forest types. Significant relationships were detected between some vegetation characteristics, and butterfly diversity and abundance (P<0.001. Using Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and cluster analysis, three main butterfly assemblages were identified on the basis of species composition, with each one in a particular forest type. Furthermore, butterfly species composition differed significantly among the forest types (ANOSIM; P<0.0001. The intermediate form of human disturbance in the moderately disturbed forest maintained butterfly diversity, suggesting that management efforts aimed at butterfly conservation should be geared towards protecting forests from excessive human disturbance; selective logging is recommended.

  1. The Chthonomonas calidirosea Genome Is Highly Conserved across Geographic Locations and Distinct Chemical and Microbial Environments in New Zealand's Taupō Volcanic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin C; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F; Huttenhower, Curtis; McDonald, Ian R; Morgan, Xochitl C

    2016-06-15

    Chthonomonas calidirosea T49(T) is a low-abundance, carbohydrate-scavenging, and thermophilic soil bacterium with a seemingly disorganized genome. We hypothesized that the C. calidirosea genome would be highly responsive to local selection pressure, resulting in the divergence of its genomic content, genome organization, and carbohydrate utilization phenotype across environments. We tested this hypothesis by sequencing the genomes of four C. calidirosea isolates obtained from four separate geothermal fields in the Taupō Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. For each isolation site, we measured physicochemical attributes and defined the associated microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Despite their ecological and geographical isolation, the genome sequences showed low divergence (maximum, 1.17%). Isolate-specific variations included single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction-modification systems, and mobile elements but few major deletions and no major rearrangements. The 50-fold variation in C. calidirosea relative abundance among the four sites correlated with site environmental characteristics but not with differences in genomic content. Conversely, the carbohydrate utilization profiles of the C. calidirosea isolates corresponded to the inferred isolate phylogenies, which only partially paralleled the geographical relationships among the sample sites. Genomic sequence conservation does not entirely parallel geographic distance, suggesting that stochastic dispersal and localized extinction, which allow for rapid population homogenization with little restriction by geographical barriers, are possible mechanisms of C. calidirosea distribution. This dispersal and extinction mechanism is likely not limited to C. calidirosea but may shape the populations and genomes of many other low-abundance free-living taxa. This study compares the genomic sequence variations and metabolisms of four strains of Chthonomonas calidirosea, a rare thermophilic bacterium from

  2. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India for conservation and management purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravishankar T

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mangrove forests, though essentially common and wide-spread, are highly threatened. Local societies along with their knowledge about the mangrove also are endangered, while they are still underrepresented as scientific research topics. With the present study we document local utilization patterns, and perception of ecosystem change. We illustrate how information generated by ethnobiological research can be used to strengthen the management of the ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Godavari mangrove forest located in the East-Godavari District of the state Andhra Pradesh in India, where mangroves have been degrading due to over-exploitation, extensive development of aquaculture, and pollution from rural and urbanized areas (Kakinada. One hundred interviews were carried out among the fisherfolk population present in two mangrove zones in the study area, a wildlife sanctuary with strong conservation status and an adjacent zone. Results from the interviews indicated that Avicennia marina (Forsk. Vierh., a dominant species in the Godavari mangroves, is used most frequently as firewood and for construction. Multiple products of the mangrove included the bark of Ceriops decandra (Griff. Ding Hou to dye the fishing nets and improve their durability, the bark of Aegiceras corniculatum (L. Blanco to poison and catch fish, and the leaves of Avicennia spp. and Excoecaria agallocha L. as fodder for cattle. No medicinal uses of true mangrove species were reported, but there were a few traditional uses for mangrove associates. Utilization patterns varied in the two zones that we investigated, most likely due to differences in their ecology and legal status. The findings are discussed in relation with the demographic and socio-economic traits of the fisherfolk communities of the Godavari mangroves and indicate a clear dependency of their livelihood on the mangrove forest. Reported changes in the Godavari mangrove cover also differed in the two

  3. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Relative safety profiles of high dose statin regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Escobar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Escobar, Rocio Echarri, Vivencio BarriosDepartment of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Recent clinical trials recommend achieving a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <100 mg/dl in high-risk and <70 mg/dl in very high risk patients. To attain these goals, however, many patients will need statins at high doses. The most frequent side effects related to the use of statins, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, and increased levels of transaminases, are unusual. Although low and moderate doses show a favourable profile, there is concern about the tolerability of higher doses. During recent years, numerous trials to analyze the efficacy and tolerability of high doses of statins have been published. This paper updates the published data on the safety of statins at high doses.Keywords: statins, high doses, tolerability, liver, muscle

  5. Variation in local abundance and species richness of stream fishes in relation to dispersal barriers: Implications for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nislow, K.H.; Hudy, M.; Letcher, B.H.; Smith, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    1.Barriers to immigration, all else being equal, should in principle depress local abundance and reduce local species richness. These issues are particularly relevant to stream-dwelling species when improperly designed road crossings act as barriers to migration with potential impacts on the viability of upstream populations. However, because abundance and richness are highly spatially and temporally heterogeneous and the relative importance of immigration on demography is uncertain, population- and community-level effects can be difficult to detect. 2.In this study, we tested the effects of potential barriers to upstream movements on the local abundance and species richness of a diverse assemblage of resident stream fishes in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia, U.S.A. Fishes were sampled using simple standard techniques above- and below road crossings that were either likely or unlikely to be barriers to upstream fish movements (based on physical dimensions of the crossing). We predicted that abundance of resident fishes would be lower in the upstream sections of streams with predicted impassable barriers, that the strength of the effect would vary among species and that variable effects on abundance would translate into lower species richness. 3.Supporting these predictions, the statistical model that best accounted for variation in abundance and species richness included a significant interaction between location (upstream or downstream of crossing) and type (passable or impassable crossing). Stream sections located above predicated impassable culverts had fewer than half the number of species and less than half the total fish abundance, while stream sections above and below passable culverts had essentially equivalent richness and abundance. 4.Our results are consistent with the importance of immigration and population connectivity to local abundance and species richness of stream fishes. In turn, these results suggest that when measured at

  6. Conservative Protestantism and attitudes toward corporal punishment, 1986-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P; Ellison, Christopher G; Bartkowski, John P

    2017-03-01

    Research indicates that conservative Protestants are highly supportive of corporal punishment. Yet, Americans' support for this practice has waned during the past several decades. This study aggregates repeated cross-sectional data from the General Social Surveys (GSS) to consider three models that address whether attitudes toward spanking among conservative Protestants shifted relative to those of other Americans from 1986 to 2014. Although initial results reveal a growing gap between conservative Protestants and the broader American public, we find that average levels of support have remained most robust among less educated conservative Protestants, with some erosion among more highly educated conservative Protestants. Moreover, trends in variability suggest that conservative Protestants exhibit more cohesive support for this practice than do others. These results provide a window into the cultural contours of religious change and the social factors that facilitate such change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  8. It's not too late for the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja: high levels of genetic diversity and differentiation can fuel conservation programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R L Lerner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja is the largest Neotropical bird of prey and is threatened by human persecution and habitat loss and fragmentation. Current conservation strategies include local education, captive rearing and reintroduction, and protection or creation of trans-national habitat blocks and corridors. Baseline genetic data prior to reintroduction of captive-bred stock is essential for guiding such efforts but has not been gathered previously.We assessed levels of genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for harpy eagles using samples collected throughout a large portion of their geographic distribution in Central America (n = 32 and South America (n = 31. Based on 417 bp of mitochondrial control region sequence data, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and South America, although haplotype diversity was significantly higher for South America. Historical restriction of gene flow across the Andes (i.e. between our Central and South American subgroups is supported by coalescent analyses, the haplotype network and significant F(ST values, however reciprocally monophyletic lineages do not correspond to geographical locations in maximum likelihood analyses. A sudden population expansion for South America is indicated by a mismatch distribution analysis, and further supported by significant (p<0.05 negative values of Fu and Li's D(F and F, and Fu's F(S. This expansion, estimated at approximately 60 000 years BP (99 000-36 000 years BP 95% CI, encompasses a transition from a warm and dry time period prior to 50 000 years BP to an interval of maximum precipitation (50 000-36 000 years BP. Notably, this time period precedes the climatic and habitat changes associated with the last glacial maximum. In contrast, a multimodal distribution of haplotypes was observed for Central America suggesting either population equilibrium or a recent decline.High levels of

  9. Ex Situ gene conservation in high elevation white pine species in the United States-a beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Anna Schoettle; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler; David Conklin; Andrew Bower; Chris Jensen; Rob Mangold; Doug Daoust; Gary Man

    2011-01-01

    The eight white pine species native to the western United States face an array of biotic and abiotic challenges that impact the viability of populations or the species themselves. Well-established programs are already in place to conserve and restore Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lambertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges....

  10. A Highly Conserved GEQYQQLR Epitope Has Been Identified in the Nucleoprotein of Ebola Virus by Using an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tuhin Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is a deadly virus that has caused several fatal outbreaks. Recently it caused another outbreak and resulted in thousands afflicted cases. Effective and approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment against this virus is still absent. In this study, we aimed to predict B-cell epitopes from several EBOV encoded proteins which may aid in developing new antibody-based therapeutics or viral antigen detection method against this virus. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA was performed for the identification of conserved region among glycoprotein (GP, nucleoprotein (NP, and viral structural proteins (VP40, VP35, and VP24 of EBOV. Next, different consensus immunogenic and conserved sites were predicted from the conserved region(s using various computational tools which are available in Immune Epitope Database (IEDB. Among GP, NP, VP40, VP35, and VP30 protein, only NP gave a 100% conserved GEQYQQLR B-cell epitope that fulfills the ideal features of an effective B-cell epitope and could lead a way in the milieu of Ebola treatment. However, successful in vivo and in vitro studies are prerequisite to determine the actual potency of our predicted epitope and establishing it as a preventing medication against all the fatal strains of EBOV.

  11. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  12. Issues related to the USEPA probabilistic standard for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper asks whether some of the fundamental bases for the 1985 USEPA standard on disposal of high level radioactive wastes (40 CFR Part 191) warrant re-examination. Similar questions also apply to the bases for the radioactive waste disposal requirements proposed by most other countries. It is suggested that the issue of intergenerational equity has been dealt with from too narrow a perspective. Not only should radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous waste disposal be regulated from a consistent philosophic basis, but the regulation of waste disposal itself should be embedded in the broader issues of intergenerational conservation of options, conservation of quality, and conservation of access. (author). 25 refs

  13. Inhibitory control and visuo-spatial reversibility in Piaget’s seminal number conservation task: A high-density ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoire eBorst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present high-density ERP study on 13 adults aimed to determine whether number conservation relies on the ability to inhibit the overlearned length-equals-number strategy and then imagine the shortening of the row that was lengthened. Participants performed the number-conservation task and, after the EEG session, the mental imagery task. In the number-conservation task, first two rows with the same number of tokens and the same length were presented on a computer screen (COV condition and then, the tokens in one of the two rows were spread apart (INT condition. Participants were instructed to determine whether the two rows had an identical number of tokens. In the mental imagery task, two rows with different lengths but the same number of tokens were presented and participants were instructed to imagine the tokens in the longer row aligning with the tokens in the shorter row. In the number-conservation task, we found that the amplitudes of the centro-parietal N2 and fronto-central P3 were higher in the INT than in the COV conditions. In addition, the differences in response times between the two conditions were correlated with the differences in the amplitudes of the fronto-central P3. In light of previous results reported on the number-conservation task in adults, the present results suggest that inhibition might be necessary to succeed the number-conservation task in adults even when the transformation of the length of one of the row is displayed. Finally, we also reported correlations between the speed at which participants could imagine the shortening of one of the row in the mental imagery task, the speed at which participants could determine that the two rows had the same number of tokens after the tokens in one of the row were spread apart and the latency of the late positive parietal component in the number-conservation task. Therefore, performing the number-conservation task might involve mental transformation processes in adults.

  14. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khalid J H; Ali, Juma A M; Eze, Anthonius A; Looi, Wan Limm; Tagoe, Daniel N A; Creek, Darren J; Barrett, Michael P; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and 5F,2'deoxyuridine (5F,2'dUrd), and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1); the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2'dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1). To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [ 3 H]-uridine but not of [ 3 H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [ 3 H]-inosine but not [ 3 H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2'dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2'dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  15. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid J.H. Alzahrani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU and 5F,2′deoxyuridine (5F,2′dUrd, and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1; the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2′dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1. To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [3H]-uridine but not of [3H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [3H]-inosine but not [3H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2′dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2′dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Keywords: Leishmania, Pyrimidine metabolism, Uracil

  16. Waterbirds and human-related threats to their conservation in Laguna Cuyutlán, Colima, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Mellink

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Laguna Cuyutlán, the only large wetland in a span of 1 150 km along the Pacific coast of México, has been neglected as to its importance for waterbird conservation. At least 25 waterbird species nest there, with some of their colonies being very relevant, and at least 61 waterbird species use the lagoon during their nonbreeding season. This lagoon has been subject to several structural modifications, including levees and artificial channels which connect it to the sea, while water supply from continental sources has diminished, although its role has not been assessed yet. Salt extraction and artisanal fishery, the main economic activities, do not seem to pose a threat to waterbirds. Among potential threats to this acquatic ecosystem, are the raw sewage discharges that exist near urban areas, and pesticides from the surrounding agricultural lands might reach the lagoon. Seemingly, the most serious threat comes from waterway development in connection with a re-gasification plant to be built, and planned future port expansion, which could potentially increase water levels and alter important habitats for nesting and foraging. We recommend that: the area be declared an Important Bird Area; the development of the re-gasification plant and future port includes a levee to prevent alterations in water level in the remaining sections of the lagoon; supply of exogenous chemicals and waste products be prevented and monitored; alleged benefits from water interchange between the lagoon and the sea through artificial channels should be re-evaluated; and the role of fresh water supplies to the lagoon should be paid attention to. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 1-12. Epub 2009 June 30.Laguna Cuyutlán, el único humedal grande a lo largo de 1 150 km del Pacífico mexicano, no ha sido considerado un ecosistema natural importante para la conservación de aves acuáticas. Cuando menos 25 especies de aves acuáticas anidan ahí, y al menos 61 especies de aves acu

  17. Changing Relations between High Castes and Tamang in Melamchi Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binod Pokharel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the processes of transformation of social relations between high caste groups and Tamang in Melamchi Valley for the period of 1980-2010. Development interventions made by government of Nepal and (I NGOs, a decade long undergoing Melamchi Water Supply Project and labor migration are major factors for ongoing changes in the study area. Spread of literacy classes and primary education, availability of credit institutions, introduction of modern farming, road networks, seasonal out migration from the area, etc. primarily define new relations among the groups. Borrowing and lending money were one of the basis of high caste and Tamang relation in past. The latter was regarded as borrower loan from first one. Before 1980s, money and agriculture commodities were controlled by few rich and high castes people. Cash income from various sources made enable the Tamang to stand on an equal footing with high caste people. Open political economy and liberal policy for issuing pass port in 1990s and after that encourage the people to diversify the destination of seasonal migration from India to Gulf countries and East Asia. Various processes of socio-economic and political changes led to local peoples to seek their position and identity in the changing context. Discourse of Tamang, high castes and Dalit entered into the Valley along with the development resources of (INGO and political movements of the country. This made possible to Tamang and other disadvantage groups to define and redefine their ethnic identity. Keywords: High castes; Tamang; credit facilities; subsistence farming; identity construction; money lending; wage labor DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4513 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.65-84

  18. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Cavaleri; R. Ostertag; S. Cordell; L. and Sack

    2014-01-01

    While the supply of freshwater is expected to decline in many regions in the coming decades, invasive plant species, often 'high water spenders', are greatly expanding their ranges worldwide. In this study, we quantified the ecohydrological differences between native and invasive trees and also the effects of woody invasive removal on plot-level water use in...

  19. Highly transparent poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings for the conservation of matte painted artworks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, A.; Gherardi, Francesca; Goidanich, S.; Delaney, J. K.; de la Rie, E. R.; Ubaldi, M. C.; Toniolo, L.; Simonutti, R.

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite coating based on TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) is used as consolidant of matte painted surfaces (temperas, watercolors, modern paintings). The aim of this work is to provide advances in the conservation of these works of art, while preserving their optical appearance, in terms of colour and gloss. Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) measurements of a painting-model (an acrylic black monochrome) treated with the nanocomposite coatings revealed that it...

  20. Localization of functional receptor epitopes on the structure of ciliary neurotrophic factor indicates a conserved, function-related epitope topography among helical cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotatos, N; Radziejewska, E; Acheson, A; Somogyi, R; Thadani, A; Hendrickson, W A; McDonald, N Q

    1995-06-09

    By rational mutagenesis, receptor-specific functional analysis, and visualization of complex formation in solution, we identified individual amino acid side chains involved specifically in the interaction of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) with CNTFR alpha and not with the beta-components, gp130 and LIFR. In the crystal structure, the side chains of these residues, which are located in helix A, the AB loop, helix B, and helix D, are surface accessible and are clustered in space, thus constituting an epitope for CNTFR alpha. By the same analysis, a partial epitope for gp130 was also identified on the surface of helix A that faces away from the alpha-epitope. Superposition of the CNTF and growth hormone structures showed that the location of these epitopes on CNTF is analogous to the location of the first and second receptor epitopes on the surface of growth hormone. Further comparison with proposed binding sites for alpha- and beta-receptors on interleukin-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor indicated that this epitope topology is conserved among helical cytokines. In each case, epitope I is utilized by the specificity-conferring component, whereas epitopes II and III are used by accessory components. Thus, in addition to a common fold, helical cytokines share a conserved order of receptor epitopes that is function related.

  1. Who puts the most energy into energy conservation? A segmentation of energy consumers based on energy-related behavioral characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Brunner, Thomas A.; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify and describe different types of energy consumers in a more comprehensive way than previous segmentation studies using cluster analysis. Energy consumers were segmented based on their energy-related behavioral characteristics. In addition to purchase- and curtailment-related energy-saving behavior, consumer classification was also based on acceptance of policy measures and energy-related psychosocial factors, so the used behavioral segmentation base was more comprehensive compared to other studies. Furthermore, differentiation between the energy-saving purchase of daily products, such as food, and of energy efficient appliances allowed a more differentiated characterization of the energy consumer segments. The cluster analysis revealed six energy consumer segments: the idealistic, the selfless inconsequent, the thrifty, the materialistic, the convenience-oriented indifferent, and the problem-aware well-being-oriented energy consumer. Findings emphasize that using a broader and more distinct behavioral base is crucial for an adequate and differentiated description of energy consumer types. The paper concludes by highlighting the most promising energy consumer segments and discussing possible segment-specific marketing and policy strategies. - Highlights: ► By applying a cluster-analytic approach, new energy consumer segments are identified. ► A comprehensive, differentiated description of the different energy consumer types is provided. ► A distinction between purchase of daily products and energy efficient appliances is essential. ► Behavioral variables are a more suitable base for segmentation than general characteristics.

  2. DNA analysis indicates that Asian elephants are native to Borneo and are therefore a high priority for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Borneo's elephants is controversial. Two competing hypotheses argue that they are either indigenous, tracing back to the Pleistocene, or were introduced, descending from elephants imported in the 16th-18th centuries. Taxonomically, they have either been classified as a unique subspecies or placed under the Indian or Sumatran subspecies. If shown to be a unique indigenous population, this would extend the natural species range of the Asian elephant by 1300 km, and therefore Borneo elephants would have much greater conservation importance than if they were a feral population. We compared DNA of Borneo elephants to that of elephants from across the range of the Asian elephant, using a fragment of mitochondrial DNA, including part of the hypervariable d-loop, and five autosomal microsatellite loci. We find that Borneo's elephants are genetically distinct, with molecular divergence indicative of a Pleistocene colonisation of Borneo and subsequent isolation. We reject the hypothesis that Borneo's elephants were introduced. The genetic divergence of Borneo elephants warrants their recognition as a separate evolutionary significant unit. Thus, interbreeding Borneo elephants with those from other populations would be contraindicated in ex situ conservation, and their genetic distinctiveness makes them one of the highest priority populations for Asian elephant conservation.

  3. Arctic Sovereignty Disputes: International Relations Theory in the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Russians continue to retain their long-range strategic bombing fleets, consisting of the TU-160 Supersonic ( Blackjack ), an all-weather aircraft with...icebreakers, and the only operational heavy icebreaker, it is already beyond service life expectations and recently suffered a major engine failure...DISPUTES: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY IN THE HIGH NORTH by Darrin D. Davis December 2011 Thesis Co-Advisors: Anne L. Clunan

  4. Electron spectroscopy on high-temperature superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knupfer, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the last two classes of materials have been discovered which distinguish themselves due to a transition into the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures. These are the cuprate superconductors and the alkali metal doped fullerenes. In this work the electronic structure of representatives of these materials, undoped and Ca-doped YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 and A 3 C 60 (A=K, Rb), has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and photoemission spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  5. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO, all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO

  6. Synteny conservation between two distantly-related Rosaceae genomes: Prunus (the stone fruits and Fragaria (the strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sargent Daniel J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Rosaceae encompass a large number of economically-important diploid and polyploid fruit and ornamental species in many different genera. The basic chromosome numbers of these genera are x = 7, 8 and 9 and all have compact and relatively similar genome sizes. Comparative mapping between distantly-related genera has been performed to a limited extent in the Rosaceae including a comparison between Malus (subfamily Maloideae and Prunus (subfamily Prunoideae; however no data has been published to date comparing Malus or Prunus to a member of the subfamily Rosoideae. In this paper we compare the genome of Fragaria, a member of the Rosoideae, to Prunus, a member of the Prunoideae. Results The diploid genomes of Prunus (2n = 2x = 16 and Fragaria (2n = 2x = 14 were compared through the mapping of 71 anchor markers – 40 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs, 29 indels or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs and two simple-sequence repeats (SSRs – on the reference maps of both genera. These markers provided good coverage of the Prunus (78% and Fragaria (78% genomes, with maximum gaps and average densities of 22 cM and 7.3 cM/marker in Prunus and 32 cM and 8.0 cM/marker in Fragaria. Conclusion Our results indicate a clear pattern of synteny, with most markers of each chromosome of one of these species mapping to one or two chromosomes of the other. A large number of rearrangements (36, most of which produced by inversions (27 and the rest (9 by translocations or fission/fusion events could also be inferred. We have provided the first framework for the comparison of the position of genes or DNA sequences of these two economically valuable and yet distantly-related genera of the Rosaceae.

  7. Environment, Agriculture and Sustainability Relations: From the Environmental Degradation to the Necessity of Conservation of Natural Resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flórida Rosa Mali Assêncio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief approach on environmental aspects related to the development of agriculture in the world and especially in Brazil, detaching some historical aspects. Some characteristics of the social and environmental degradation generated by the processes of production of modern agriculture, based on studies of Environmental Sciences, in general, and, more specifically, of Agroecology, are presented, as well as the necessity of searching for new models of development according to the recent paradigm of sustainability (social, economic and environmental, debated in international conferences on 'environment and development'.

  8. The selective conservative management of small traumatic pneumothoraces following stab injuries is safe: experience from a high-volume trauma service in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2015-02-01

    The selective conservative management of small pneumothoraces (PTXs) following stab injuries is controversial. We reviewed a cohort of patients managed conservatively in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. A retrospective review over a 2-year period identified 125 asymptomatic patients with small PTXs measuring chest radiograph who were managed conservatively. Of the 125 patients included in the study, 92% were male (115/125), and the median age for all patients was 21 years (19-24). Ninety-seven per cent (121/125) of the weapons involved were knives, and 3% (4/125) were screwdrivers. Sixty-one per cent of all injuries were on the left side. Eighty-two per cent (102/125) sustained a single stab, and 18% (23/125) had multiple stabs. Thirty-nine per cent (49/125) had a PTX <0.5 cm (Group A), 26% (32/125) were ≥ 0.5 to <1 cm (Group B), 19% (24/125) were ≥ 1 to <1.5 cm (Group C) and 15% (20/125) were ≥ 1.5 to <2 cm (Group D). Three per cent of all patients (4/125) eventually required ICDs (one in Group C, three in Group D). All four patients had ICDs in situ for 24 h. The remaining 97% (121/125) were all managed successfully by active clinical observation alone. There were no subsequent readmissions, morbidity or mortality as a direct result of our conservative approach. The selective conservative management of asymptomatic small PTXs from stab injuries is safe if undertaken in the appropriate setting.

  9. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  10. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  11. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  12. Increasing participation in incentive programs for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Gartner, Todd; Snieckus, Mary; Johnson, Rhett; Donlan, C Josh

    2013-07-01

    Engaging private landowners in conservation activities for imperiled species is critical to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity. Market-based approaches can incentivize conservation behaviors on private lands by shifting the benefit-cost ratio of engaging in activities that result in net conservation benefits for target species. In the United States and elsewhere, voluntary conservation agreements with financial incentives are becoming an increasingly common strategy. While the influence of program design and delivery of voluntary conservation programs is often overlooked, these aspects are critical to achieving the necessary participation to attain landscape-scale outcomes. Using a sample of family-forest landowners in the southeast United States, we show how preferences for participation in a conservation program to protect an at-risk species, the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), are related to program structure, delivery, and perceived efficacy. Landowners were most sensitive to programs that are highly controlling, require permanent conservation easements, and put landowners at risk for future regulation. Programs designed with greater levels of compensation and that support landowners' autonomy to make land management decisions can increase participation and increase landowner acceptance of program components that are generally unfavorable, like long-term contracts and permanent easements. There is an inherent trade-off between maximizing participation and maximizing the conservation benefits when designing a conservation incentive program. For conservation programs targeting private lands to achieve landscape-level benefits, they must attract a critical level of participation that creates a connected mosaic of conservation benefits. Yet, programs with attributes that strive to maximize conservation benefits within a single agreement (and reduce risks of failure) are likely to have lower participation, and thus lower landscape benefits. Achieving

  13. Exploiting graph kernels for high performance biomedical relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam, Nagesh C; Verspoor, Karin; Cohn, Trevor; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri

    2018-01-30

    Relation extraction from biomedical publications is an important task in the area of semantic mining of text. Kernel methods for supervised relation extraction are often preferred over manual feature engineering methods, when classifying highly ordered structures such as trees and graphs obtained from syntactic parsing of a sentence. Tree kernels such as the Subset Tree Kernel and Partial Tree Kernel have been shown to be effective for classifying constituency parse trees and basic dependency parse graphs of a sentence. Graph kernels such as the All Path Graph kernel (APG) and Approximate Subgraph Matching (ASM) kernel have been shown to be suitable for classifying general graphs with cycles, such as the enhanced dependency parse graph of a sentence. In this work, we present a high performance Chemical-Induced Disease (CID) relation extraction system. We present a comparative study of kernel methods for the CID task and also extend our study to the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) extraction task, an important biomedical relation extraction task. We discuss novel modifications to the ASM kernel to boost its performance and a method to apply graph kernels for extracting relations expressed in multiple sentences. Our system for CID relation extraction attains an F-score of 60%, without using external knowledge sources or task specific heuristic or rules. In comparison, the state of the art Chemical-Disease Relation Extraction system achieves an F-score of 56% using an ensemble of multiple machine learning methods, which is then boosted to 61% with a rule based system employing task specific post processing rules. For the CID task, graph kernels outperform tree kernels substantially, and the best performance is obtained with APG kernel that attains an F-score of 60%, followed by the ASM kernel at 57%. The performance difference between the ASM and APG kernels for CID sentence level relation extraction is not significant. In our evaluation of ASM for the PPI task, ASM

  14. Identification of novel and conserved microRNAs related to drought stress in potato by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Jiangwei; Wang, Zemin; Wen, Yikai; Wang, Jie; He, Wenhui; Liu, Bailin; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small, non-coding RNAs that play important roles in plant growth, development and stress response. There have been an increasing number of investigations aimed at discovering miRNAs and analyzing their functions in model plants (such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice). In this research, we constructed small RNA libraries from both polyethylene glycol (PEG 6,000) treated and control potato samples, and a large number of known and novel miRNAs were identified. Differential expression analysis showed that 100 of the known miRNAs were down-regulated and 99 were up-regulated as a result of PEG stress, while 119 of the novel miRNAs were up-regulated and 151 were down-regulated. Based on target prediction, annotation and expression analysis of the miRNAs and their putative target genes, 4 miRNAs were identified as regulating drought-related genes (miR811, miR814, miR835, miR4398). Their target genes were MYB transcription factor (CV431094), hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (TC225721), quaporin (TC223412) and WRKY transcription factor (TC199112), respectively. Relative expression trends of those miRNAs were the same as that predicted by Solexa sequencing and they showed a negative correlation with the expression of the target genes. The results provide molecular evidence for the possible involvement of miRNAs in the process of drought response and/or tolerance in the potato plant.

  15. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffatt Barbara A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. Results The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192 in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Conclusions Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  16. Structural motif screening reveals a novel, conserved carbohydrate-binding surface in the pathogenesis-related protein PR-5d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Andrew C; Cheng, Zhenyu; Moffatt, Barbara A; McConkey, Brendan J

    2010-08-03

    Aromatic amino acids play a critical role in protein-glycan interactions. Clusters of surface aromatic residues and their features may therefore be useful in distinguishing glycan-binding sites as well as predicting novel glycan-binding proteins. In this work, a structural bioinformatics approach was used to screen the Protein Data Bank (PDB) for coplanar aromatic motifs similar to those found in known glycan-binding proteins. The proteins identified in the screen were significantly associated with carbohydrate-related functions according to gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis, and predicted motifs were found frequently within novel folds and glycan-binding sites not included in the training set. In addition to numerous binding sites predicted in structural genomics proteins of unknown function, one novel prediction was a surface motif (W34/W36/W192) in the tobacco pathogenesis-related protein, PR-5d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the surface motif is exclusive to a subfamily of PR-5 proteins from the Solanaceae family of plants, and is absent completely in more distant homologs. To confirm PR-5d's insoluble-polysaccharide binding activity, a cellulose-pulldown assay of tobacco proteins was performed and PR-5d was identified in the cellulose-binding fraction by mass spectrometry. Based on the combined results, we propose that the putative binding site in PR-5d may be an evolutionary adaptation of Solanaceae plants including potato, tomato, and tobacco, towards defense against cellulose-containing pathogens such as species of the deadly oomycete genus, Phytophthora. More generally, the results demonstrate that coplanar aromatic clusters on protein surfaces are a structural signature of glycan-binding proteins, and can be used to computationally predict novel glycan-binding proteins from 3 D structure.

  17. Unique and conserved genome regions in Vibrio harveyi and related species in comparison with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valles, Iliana Espinoza; Vora, Gary J; Lin, Baochuan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792 is a marine bacterial strain that causes mortality in farmed shrimp in north-west Mexico, and the identification of virulence genes in this strain is important for understanding its pathogenicity. The aim of this work was to compare the V. harveyi CAIM 1792 genome....... The proteome of CAIM 1792 had higher similarity to those of other V. harveyi strains (78 %) than to those of the other closely related species Vibrio owensii (67 %), Vibrio rotiferianus (63 %) and Vibrio campbellii (59 %). Pan-genome ORFans trees showed the best fit with the accepted phylogeny based on DNA......-DNA hybridization and multi-locus sequence analysis of 11 concatenated housekeeping genes. SNP analysis clustered 34/38 genomes within their accepted species. The pangenomic and SNP trees showed that V. harveyi is the most conserved of the four species studied and V. campbellii may be divided into at least three...

  18. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  19. Potential Implications of Climate Change on Aegilops Species Distribution: Sympatry of These Crop Wild Relatives with the Major European Crop Triticum aestivum and Conservation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Marie-France; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; David, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Gene flow from crop to wild relatives is a common phenomenon which can lead to reduced adaptation of the wild relatives to natural ecosystems and/or increased adaptation to agrosystems (weediness). With global warming, wild relative distributions will likely change, thus modifying the width and/or location of co-occurrence zones where crop-wild hybridization events could occur (sympatry). This study investigates current and 2050 projected changes in sympatry levels between cultivated wheat and six of the most common Aegilops species in Europe. Projections were generated using MaxEnt on presence-only data, bioclimatic variables, and considering two migration hypotheses and two 2050 climate scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Overall, a general decline in suitable climatic conditions for Aegilops species outside the European zone and a parallel increase in Europe were predicted. If no migration could occur, the decline was predicted to be more acute outside than within the European zone. The potential sympatry level in Europe by 2050 was predicted to increase at a higher rate than species richness, and most expansions were predicted to occur in three countries, which are currently among the top four wheat producers in Europe: Russia, France and Ukraine. The results are also discussed with regard to conservation issues of these crop wild relatives.

  20. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA

  1. The Highly Conserved COPII Coat Complex Sorts Cargo from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Targets It to the Golgi

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Christopher; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is driven by a conserved cytoplasmic coat complex called the COPII coat. The COPII coat complex contains an inner shell (Sec23/Sec24) that sorts cargo into ER-derived vesicles and an outer cage (Sec13/Sec31) that leads to coat polymerization. Once released from the ER, vesicles must tether to and fuse with the target membrane to deliver their protein and lipid contents. This delivery step also depends on the COPII coat, with coat proteins bin...

  2. Expression analysis of an evolutionarily conserved alternative splicing factor, Sfrs10, in age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Krishna Priya Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the most common cause of blindness in the elderly population. Hypoxic stress created in the micro-environment of the photoreceptors is thought to be the underlying cause that results in the pathophysiology of AMD. However, association of AMD with alternative splicing mediated gene regulation is not well explored. Alternative Splicing is one of the primary mechanisms in humans by which fewer protein coding genes are able to generate a vast proteome. Here, we investigated the expression of a known stress response gene and an alternative splicing factor called Serine-Arginine rich splicing factor 10 (Sfrs10. Sfrs10 is a member of the serine-arginine (SR rich protein family and is 100% identical at the amino acid level in most mammals. Immunoblot analysis on retinal extracts from mouse, rat, and chicken showed a single immunoreactive band. Further, immunohistochemistry on adult mouse, rat and chicken retinae showed pan-retinal expression. However, SFRS10 was not detected in normal human retina but was observed as distinct nuclear speckles in AMD retinae. This is in agreement with previous reports that show Sfrs10 to be a stress response gene, which is upregulated under hypoxia. The difference in the expression of Sfrs10 between humans and lower mammals and the upregulation of SFRS10 in AMD is further reflected in the divergence of the promoter sequence between these species. Finally, SFRS10+ speckles were independent of the SC35+ SR protein speckles or the HSF1+ stress granules. In all, our data suggests that SFRS10 is upregulated and forms distinct stress-induced speckles and might be involved in AS of stress response genes in AMD.

  3. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown, that the introduction of a fundamental length constant into the operator representation of the quantum mechanical commutation relations, as suggested by Bagge, leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Lorentz transformations. The theory requires the introduction of a substratum (ether) and which can be identified as the zero point vacuum energy. At very high energies a non-Lorentz invariant behaviour for the cross sections between elementary particles is predicted. Using the Einstein clock synchronisation definition, the velocity of light is also constant and equal to c in the new theory, but the zero point vacuum energy becomes finite, as are all other quantities which are divergent in Lorentz invariant quantum field theories. In the limiting case where the length constant is set equal to zero, the zero point vacuum energy diverges and special relativity is recovered. (orig.) [de

  4. Highly task-related diversity vs. less task-related diversity among university staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    from 489 university staff members showed that age diversity and cultural diversity, representing highly task-related diversity, were positively associated with most of the variables depicting group cohesiveness. On the other hand, gender diversity, illustrating less task-related diversity, seemed......As only very few large-scale studies have investigated multi-cultural university staff and as none of these studies have dealt with diversity and group processes, this survey was directed toward staffs in 16 science departments from three large universities in Denmark. Results based on the response...

  5. Sports-Related Emergency Preparedness in Oregon High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel T; Norcross, Marc F; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Hoffman, Mark A; Chang, Eunwook; Koester, Michael C

    Best practice recommendations for sports-related emergency preparation include implementation of venue-specific emergency action plans (EAPs), access to early defibrillation, and first responders-specifically coaches-trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (AED) use. The objective was to determine whether high schools had implemented these 3 recommendations and whether schools with a certified athletic trainer (AT) were more likely to have done so. Schools with an AT were more likely to have implemented the recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. All Oregon School Activities Association member school athletic directors were invited to complete a survey on sports-related emergency preparedness and AT availability at their school. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the associations between emergency preparedness and AT availability. In total, 108 respondents (37% response rate) completed the survey. Exactly half reported having an AT available. Only 11% (95% CI, 6%-19%) of the schools had implemented all 3 recommendations, 29% (95% CI, 21%-39%) had implemented 2, 32% (95% CI, 24%-42%) had implemented 1, and 27% (95% CI, 19%-36%) had not implemented any of the recommendations. AT availability was associated with implementation of the recommendations (χ 2 = 10.3, P = 0.02), and the proportion of schools with ATs increased with the number of recommendations implemented (χ 2 = 9.3, P Schools with an AT were more likely to implement venue-specific EAPs (52% vs 24%, P schools were inadequately prepared for sports-related emergencies. Schools with an AT were more likely to implement some, but not all, of the recommendations. Policy changes may be needed to improve implementation. Most Oregon high schools need to do more to prepare for sports-related emergencies. The results provide evidence for sports medicine professionals and administrators to inform policy changes that ensure the safety of athletes.

  6. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  7. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  8. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  9. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenalf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Jackson, Timothy N W; Casewell, Nicholas R; Undheim, Eivind A B; Vidal, Nicolas; Ali, Syed A; King, Glenn F; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae) have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74%) and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%), while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation.

  10. Defining population structure and genetic signatures of decline in the giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas): implications for conserving threatened species within highly altered landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Hansen, Eric C.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation can disrupt the ability of species to disperse across landscapes, which can alter the levels and distribution of genetic diversity within populations and negatively impact long-term viability. The giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is a state and federally threatened species that historically occurred in the wetland habitats of California’s Great Central Valley. Despite the loss of 93 % of historic wetlands throughout the Central Valley, giant gartersnakes continue to persist in relatively small, isolated patches of highly modified agricultural wetlands. Gathering information regarding genetic diversity and effective population size represents an essential component for conservation management programs aimed at this species. Previous mitochondrial sequence studies have revealed historical patterns of differentiation, yet little is known about contemporary population structure and diversity. On the basis of 15 microsatellite loci, we estimate population structure and compare indices of genetic diversity among populations spanning seven drainage basins within the Central Valley. We sought to understand how habitat loss may have affected genetic differentiation, genetic diversity and effective population size, and what these patterns suggest in terms of management and restoration actions. We recovered five genetic clusters that were consistent with regional drainage basins, although three northern basins within the Sacramento Valley formed a single genetic cluster. Our results show that northern drainage basin populations have higher connectivity than among central and southern basins populations, and that greater differentiation exists among the more geographically isolated populations in the central and southern portion of the species’ range. Genetic diversity measures among basins were significantly different, and were generally lower in southern basin populations. Levels of inbreeding and evidence of population

  11. Molecular Evolution of Vertebrate Neurotrophins: Co-Option of the Highly Conserved Nerve Growth Factor Gene into the Advanced Snake Venom Arsenalf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Vidal, Nicolas; Ali, Syed A.; King, Glenn F.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae) have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74%) and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%), while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation. PMID:24312363

  12. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenalf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    Full Text Available Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74% and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%, while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation.

  13. Highly Conserved Arg Residue of ERFNIN Motif of Pro-Domain is Important for pH-Induced Zymogen Activation Process in Cysteine Cathepsins K and L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Pulakesh; Biswas, Sampa

    2018-06-01

    Pro-domain of a cysteine cathepsin contains a highly conserved Ex 2 Rx 2 Fx 2 Nx 3 Ix 3 N (ERFNIN) motif. The zymogen structure of cathepsins revealed that the Arg(R) residue of the motif is a central residue of a salt-bridge/H-bond network, stabilizing the scaffold of the pro-domain. Importance of the arginine is also demonstrated in studies where a single mutation (Arg → Trp) in human lysosomal cathepsin K (hCTSK) is linked to a bone-related genetic disorder "Pycnodysostosis". In the present study, we have characterized in vitro Arg → Trp mutant of hCTSK and the same mutant of hCTSL. The R → W mutant of hCTSK revealed that this mutation leads to an unstable zymogen that is spontaneously activated and auto-proteolytically degraded rapidly. In contrast, the same mutant of hCTSL is sufficiently stable and has proteolytic activity almost like its wild-type counterpart; however it shows an altered zymogen activation condition in terms of pH, temperature and time. Far and near UV circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence experiments have revealed that the mutation has minimal effect on structure of the protease hCTSL. Molecular modeling studies shows that the mutated Trp31 in hCTSL forms an aromatic cluster with Tyr23 and Trp30 leading to a local stabilization of pro-domain and supplements the loss of salt-bridge interaction mediated by Arg31 in wild-type. In hCTSK-R31W mutant, due to presence of a non-aromatic Ser30 residue such interaction is not possible and may be responsible for local instability. These differences may cause detrimental effects of R31W mutation on the regulation of hCTSK auto-activation process compared to altered activation process in hCTSL.

  14. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Diverse Sets of Conserved, Nonconserved, and Species-Specific miRNAs in Jute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tariqul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating a broad range of biological processes, acting by cleaving mRNAs or by translational repression. A group of plant microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved; however, others are expressed in a species-specific manner. Jute is an agroeconomically important fibre crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available for microRNAs in jute to date. In this study, Illumina sequencing revealed a total of 227 known microRNAs and 17 potential novel microRNA candidates in jute, of which 164 belong to 23 conserved families and the remaining 63 belong to 58 nonconserved families. Among a total of 81 identified microRNA families, 116 potential target genes were predicted for 39 families and 11 targets were predicted for 4 among the 17 identified novel microRNAs. For understanding better the functions of microRNAs, target genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology and their pathways illustrated by KEGG pathway analyses. The presence of microRNAs identified in jute was validated by stem-loop RT-PCR followed by end point PCR and qPCR for randomly selected 20 known and novel microRNAs. This study exhaustively identifies microRNAs and their target genes in jute which will ultimately pave the way for understanding their role in this crop and other crops.

  15. High relative frequency of thyroid papillary carcinoma in northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambade, M C; Gonçalves, V S; Dias, M; Sobrinho-Simões, M A

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve papillary and 40 follicular carcinomas were found in 3002 thyroid glands examined from 1931 to 1975 in four Laboratories of Pathology that fairly cover northern Portugal. There was a striking preponderance of women both in papillary (female:male = 6.9:1) and follicular carcinoma (5.7:1). Sex-specific frequency of malignancy was significantly greater in men (13.3%) than in women (8.8%). The overall papillary/follicular ratio was 5.3:1 and did not significantly change throughout the study period. Papillary/follicular ratio was not significantly greater in litoral (5.5:1) than in regions with a low iodine intake and a relatively high prevalence of goiter (3.5:1). It is advanced that this high relative frequency of papillary carcinoma in northern Portugal, even in goiter areas, may reflect the existence of a racial factor since there is not enough evidence to support the influence of dietary iodine, previous irradiation and concurrent thyroiditis.

  16. Some aspects related to the high performance in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, Gheorghe; Mihaiu, Ramona; Nistor, Viorica

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma spectroscopy is the science (or art) of identification and/or quantification of radionuclides through gamma-ray energy spectrum analysis. It is a recognized technique, well illustrated by the following examples: environmental radioactivity monitoring, health physics personnel monitoring, reactor corrosion monitoring, nuclear materials safeguards and homeland security, as well as nuclear forensics, materials testing, nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceuticals, and industrial process monitoring. Within the Reliability and Testing Laboratory of INR Pitesti there is now available such a detector of high performance that includes all aspects related to cooling, signal processing (with a high resolution) and the dedicated software applications. At the present time, taking into account the 'nuclear renaissance' the new experimental testing laboratories require complete set-up rather than laboratories having a mixture of the old equipment. The paper presents the mechanically cooled HPGe spectrometers with an undergoing rapid evolution, which eliminate traditional intensive liquid nitrogen management. Also, there are described the digital signal processing virtually by eliminating system drift, and, at the same time, requiring recalibrations much less frequently. Another important aspect presented is related to the software applications, which cover a broad spectrum of nuclear measurement techniques. (authors)

  17. The genome sequence of the commercially cultivated mushroom Agrocybe aegerita reveals a conserved repertoire of fruiting-related genes and a versatile suite of biopolymer-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K; Rühl, Martin; Mishra, Bagdevi; Kleofas, Vanessa; Hofrichter, Martin; Herzog, Robert; Pecyna, Marek J; Sharma, Rahul; Kellner, Harald; Hennicke, Florian; Thines, Marco

    2018-01-15

    Agrocybe aegerita is an agaricomycete fungus with typical mushroom features, which is commercially cultivated for its culinary use. In nature, it is a saprotrophic or facultative pathogenic fungus causing a white-rot of hardwood in forests of warm and mild climate. The ease of cultivation and fructification on solidified media as well as its archetypal mushroom fruit body morphology render A. aegerita a well-suited model for investigating mushroom developmental biology. Here, the genome of the species is reported and analysed with respect to carbohydrate active genes and genes known to play a role during fruit body formation. In terms of fruit body development, our analyses revealed a conserved repertoire of fruiting-related genes, which corresponds well to the archetypal fruit body morphology of this mushroom. For some genes involved in fruit body formation, paralogisation was observed, but not all fruit body maturation-associated genes known from other agaricomycetes seem to be conserved in the genome sequence of A. aegerita. In terms of lytic enzymes, our analyses suggest a versatile arsenal of biopolymer-degrading enzymes that likely account for the flexible life style of this species. Regarding the amount of genes encoding CAZymes relevant for lignin degradation, A. aegerita shows more similarity to white-rot fungi than to litter decomposers, including 18 genes coding for unspecific peroxygenases and three dye-decolourising peroxidase genes expanding its lignocellulolytic machinery. The genome resource will be useful for developing strategies towards genetic manipulation of A. aegerita, which will subsequently allow functional genetics approaches to elucidate fundamentals of fruiting and vegetative growth including lignocellulolysis.

  18. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  19. Comparative interactomics: analysis of arabidopsis 14-3-3 complexes reveals highly conserved 14-3-3 interactions between humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Liu, Li; McClung, Scott; Laughner, Beth; Chen, Sixue; Ferl, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    As a first step in the broad characterization of plant 14-3-3 multiprotein complexes in vivo, stringent and specific antibody affinity purification was used to capture 14-3-3s together with their interacting proteins from extracts of Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures. Approximately 120 proteins were identified as potential in vivo 14-3-3 interacting proteins by mass spectrometry of the recovered complexes. Comparison of the proteins in this data set with the 14-3-3 interacting proteins from a similar study in human embryonic kidney cell cultures revealed eight interacting proteins that likely represent reasonably abundant, fundamental 14-3-3 interaction complexes that are highly conserved across all eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 interaction data set was also compared to a yeast in vivo 14-3-3 interaction data set. Four 14-3-3 interacting proteins are conserved in yeast, humans, and Arabidopsis. Comparisons of the data sets based on biochemical function revealed many additional similarities in the human and Arabidopsis data sets that represent conserved functional interactions, while also leaving many proteins uniquely identified in either Arabidopsis or human cells. In particular, the Arabidopsis interaction data set is enriched for proteins involved in metabolism.

  20. Thermodynamic relations in high temperature and high pressure physics of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    1998-01-01

    Various possible simple relations based on the exact and approximate thermodynamic relations are derived. These relations can be used to investigate the variation of unit cell volume under the effect of pressure and temperature. Thermal expansivity and compressibility can be investigated directly at any pressure or temperature, or through the knowledge of equation of state (EOS). A relation to determine Anderson-Grueneisen parameter δ T under the effect of pressure is predicted. It is discussed that δ T is independent of pressure and thus Murnaghan equation of state works well in low pressure ranges, while the variation of δ T under high pressure should be taken into account. The product of coefficient of volume thermal expansion and bulk modulus remains constant, is correct at high pressure, provided that the pressure dependence of δ T is considered. (author)

  1. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium massiliense JCM 15300 in the Mycobacterium abscessus group reveal a conserved genomic island MmGI-1 related to putative lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sekizuka

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus group subsp., such as M. massiliense, M. abscessus sensu stricto and M. bolletii, are an environmental organism found in soil, water and other ecological niches, and have been isolated from respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, postoperative infection of cosmetic surgery. To determine the unique genetic feature of M. massiliense, we sequenced the complete genome of M. massiliense type strain JCM 15300 (corresponding to CCUG 48898. Comparative genomic analysis was performed among Mycobacterium spp. and among M. abscessus group subspp., showing that additional ß-oxidation-related genes and, notably, the mammalian cell entry (mce operon were located on a genomic island, M. massiliense Genomic Island 1 (MmGI-1, in M. massiliense. In addition, putative anaerobic respiration system-related genes and additional mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase-related genes were found uniquely in M. massiliense. Japanese isolates of M. massiliense also frequently possess the MmGI-1 (14/44, approximately 32% and three unique conserved regions (26/44; approximately 60%, 34/44; approximately 77% and 40/44; approximately 91%, as well as isolates of other countries (Malaysia, France, United Kingdom and United States. The well-conserved genomic island MmGI-1 may play an important role in high growth potential with additional lipid metabolism, extra factors for survival in the environment or synthesis of complex membrane-associated lipids. ORFs on MmGI-1 showed similarities to ORFs of phylogenetically distant M. avium complex (MAC, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer or genetic recombination events might have occurred within MmGI-1 among M. massiliense and MAC.

  2. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  3. Conserved microstructure of the Brassica B Genome of Brassica nigra in relation to homologous regions of Arabidopsis thaliana, B. rapa and B. oleracea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Brassica B genome is known to carry several important traits, yet there has been limited analyses of its underlying genome structure, especially in comparison to the closely related A and C genomes. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Brassica nigra was developed and screened with 17 genes from a 222 kb region of A. thaliana that had been well characterised in both the Brassica A and C genomes. Results Fingerprinting of 483 apparently non-redundant clones defined physical contigs for the corresponding regions in B. nigra. The target region is duplicated in A. thaliana and six homologous contigs were found in B. nigra resulting from the whole genome triplication event shared by the Brassiceae tribe. BACs representative of each region were sequenced to elucidate the level of microscale rearrangements across the Brassica species divide. Conclusions Although the B genome species separated from the A/C lineage some 6 Mya, comparisons between the three paleopolyploid Brassica genomes revealed extensive conservation of gene content and sequence identity. The level of fractionation or gene loss varied across genomes and genomic regions; however, the greatest loss of genes was observed to be common to all three genomes. One large-scale chromosomal rearrangement differentiated the B genome suggesting such events could contribute to the lack of recombination observed between B genome species and those of the closely related A/C lineage. PMID:23586706

  4. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  5. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  6. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenkov, Vasily D.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism

  7. The relationship of protein conservation and sequence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Anna R

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins. However, additional evolutionary forces that affect the length of a protein may be revealed by studying the length distributions of proteins evolving under weaker functional constraints. Results We performed sequence comparisons to distinguish highly conserved and poorly conserved proteins from the bacterium Escherichia coli, the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and the eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. For all organisms studied, the conserved and nonconserved proteins have strikingly different length distributions. The conserved proteins are, on average, longer than the poorly conserved ones, and the length distributions for the poorly conserved proteins have a relatively narrow peak, in contrast to the conserved proteins whose lengths spread over a wider range of values. For the two prokaryotes studied, the poorly conserved proteins approximate the minimal length distribution expected for a diverse range of structural folds. Conclusions There is a relationship between protein conservation and sequence length. For all the organisms studied, there seems to be a significant evolutionary trend favoring shorter proteins in the absence of other, more specific functional constraints.

  8. A high-order finite-volume method for hyperbolic conservation laws on locally-refined grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip

    2011-01-28

    We present a fourth-order accurate finite-volume method for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on Cartesian grids with multiple levels of refinement. The underlying method is a generalization of that in [5] to nonlinear systems, and is based on using fourth-order accurate quadratures for computing fluxes on faces, combined with fourth-order accurate Runge?Kutta discretization in time. To interpolate boundary conditions at refinement boundaries, we interpolate in time in a manner consistent with the individual stages of the Runge-Kutta method, and interpolate in space by solving a least-squares problem over a neighborhood of each target cell for the coefficients of a cubic polynomial. The method also uses a variation on the extremum-preserving limiter in [8], as well as slope flattening and a fourth-order accurate artificial viscosity for strong shocks. We show that the resulting method is fourth-order accurate for smooth solutions, and is robust in the presence of complex combinations of shocks and smooth flows.

  9. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit’s promise in improving students’ understanding of the targeted ideas. PMID:27909024

  10. Highly conserved non-coding elements on either side of SOX9 associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Sabina; Fantes, Judy A; Amiel, Jeanne; Kleinjan, Dirk-Jan; Thomas, Sophie; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Jamshidi, Negar; Essafi, Abdelkader; Heaney, Simon; Gordon, Christopher T; McBride, David; Golzio, Christelle; Fisher, Malcolm; Perry, Paul; Abadie, Véronique; Ayuso, Carmen; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Lees, Melissa M; Picard, Arnaud; Temple, I Karen; Thomas, Paul; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Vekemans, Michel; Roest Crollius, Hugues; Hastie, Nicholas D; Munnich, Arnold; Etchevers, Heather C; Pelet, Anna; Farlie, Peter G; Fitzpatrick, David R; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2009-03-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an important subgroup of cleft palate. We report several lines of evidence for the existence of a 17q24 locus underlying PRS, including linkage analysis results, a clustering of translocation breakpoints 1.06-1.23 Mb upstream of SOX9, and microdeletions both approximately 1.5 Mb centromeric and approximately 1.5 Mb telomeric of SOX9. We have also identified a heterozygous point mutation in an evolutionarily conserved region of DNA with in vitro and in vivo features of a developmental enhancer. This enhancer is centromeric to the breakpoint cluster and maps within one of the microdeletion regions. The mutation abrogates the in vitro enhancer function and alters binding of the transcription factor MSX1 as compared to the wild-type sequence. In the developing mouse mandible, the 3-Mb region bounded by the microdeletions shows a regionally specific chromatin decompaction in cells expressing Sox9. Some cases of PRS may thus result from developmental misexpression of SOX9 due to disruption of very-long-range cis-regulatory elements.

  11. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  12. High spatial resolution mapping of the Cerrado's land cover and land use types in the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Antunes Daldegan, G.; Nackoney, J.; Hess, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, Cerrado, is the second largest biome over South America and the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. This biome is considered a conservation hotspot in respect to its biodiversity importance and rapid transformation of its landscape. The Cerrado's natural vegetation has been severely transformed by agriculture and pasture activities. Currently it is the main agricultural frontier in Brazil and one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes. This scenario results in environmental impacts such as ecosystems fragmentation as well as losses in connectivity, biodiversity and gene flow, changes in the microclimate and energy, carbon and nutrients cycles, among others. The Priority Areas for Conservation is a governmental program from Brazil that identifies areas with high conservation priority. One of this program's recommendation is a natural vegetation map including their major ecosystem classes. This study aims to generate more precise information for the Cerrado's vegetation. The main objective of this study is to identify which ecosystems are being prioritized and/or threatened by land use, refining information for further protection. In order to test methods, the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem was selected as the study site. This area is ranked as "extremely high priority" by the government and is located in the Federal District and Goias State, Brazil. Satellites with finer spatial resolution may improve the classification of the Cerrado's vegetation. Remote sensing methods and two criteria were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) collected in 2014 in order to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types of this area, as well as its land use. One criterion considers the Cerrado's major terrestrial ecosystems, which are divided into forest, savanna and grassland. The other involves scaling it down to the major physiognomic groups of each ecosystem. Other sources of environmental dataset such

  13. High temperature electrochemistry related to light water reactor corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gabor; Kerner, Zsolt; Balog, Janos; Schiller, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The present work deals with corrosion problems related to conditions which prevail in a WWER primary circuit. We had a two-fold aim: (A) electrochemical methods were applied to characterise the hydrothermally produced oxides of the cladding material (Zr-1%Nb) of nuclear fuel elements used in Russian made power reactors of WWER type, and (B) a number of possible reference electrodes were investigated with a view to high temperature applications. (A) Test specimens made of the cladding material, Zr-1%Nb, were immersed into an autoclave, filled with an aqueous solution typical to a WWER primary circuit, and were treated for different periods of time up to 28 weeks. The electrode potentials were measured and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were taken regularly both as a function of oxidation time and temperature. This rendered information on the overall kinetics of oxide growth. By combining in situ and ex situ impedance measurements, with a particular view of the temperature dependence of EIS, we concluded that the high frequency region of impedance spectra is relevant to the presence of oxide layer on the alloy. This part of the spectra was treated in terms of a parallel CPE||R ox equivalent circuit (CPE denoting constant phase element, R ox ohmic resistor). The CPE element was understood as a dispersive resistance in terms of the continuous time random walk theory by Scher and Lax. This enabled us to tell apart electrical conductance and oxide growth with a model of charge transfer and recombination within the oxide layer as rate determining steps. (B) Three types of reference electrodes were tested within the framework of the LIRES EU5 project: (i) external Ag/AgCl, (ii) Pt/Ir alloy and (iii) Pd(Pt) double polarised active electrode. The most stable of the electrodes was found to be the Pt/Ir one. The Ag/AgCl electrode showed good stability after an initial period of some days, while substantial drifts were found for the Pd(Pt) electrode. EIS spectra of the

  14. Testing Special Relativity at High Energies with Astrophysical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    2007-01-01

    Since the group of Lorentz boosts is unbounded, there is a question as to whether Lorentz invariance (LI) holds to infinitely short distances. However, special and general relativity may break down at the Planck scale. Various quantum gravity scenarios such as loop quantum gravity, as well as some forms of string theory and extra dimension models may imply Lorentz violation (LV) at ultrahigh energies. The Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), to be launched in mid-December, will measure the spectra of distant extragalactic sources of high energy gamma-rays, particularly active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. GLAST can look for energy-dependent gamma-ray propagation effects from such sources as a signal of Lorentz invariance violation. These sources may also exhibit the high energy cutoffs predicted to be the result of intergalactic annihilation interactions with low energy photons having a flux level as determined by various astronomical observations. With LV the threshold for such interactions can be significantly raised, changing the predicted absorption turnover in the observed spectrum of the sources. Stecker and Glashow have shown that the existence such absorption features in the spectra of extragalactic sources puts constraints on LV. Such constraints have important implications for some quantum gravity and large extra dimension models. Future spaceborne detectors dedicated to measuring gamma-ray polarization can look for birefringence effects as a possible signal of loop quantum gravity. A very small LV may also result in the modification or elimination of the GZK effect, thus modifying the spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. This possibility can be explored with ground-based arrays such as Auger or with a space based detector system such as the proposed OWL satellite mission.

  15. Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

  16. High-Level Systemic Expression of Conserved Influenza Epitope in Plants on the Surface of Rod-Shaped Chimeric Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Petukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines in the human consensus M2e sequence were changed to serine residues. This work intends to show some biological properties of these viruses following plant infections. Agroinfiltration experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed the efficient systemic expression of M2e peptides, and two point amino acid substitutions in recombinant CPs significantly influenced the symptoms and development of viral infections. Joint expression of RNA interference suppressor protein p19 from tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV did not affect the accumulation of CP-M2e-ser recombinant protein in non-inoculated leaves. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from either infected leaves or purified TMV-M2e particles proved the genetic stability of TMV‑based viral vectors. Immunoelectron microscopy of crude plant extracts demonstrated that foreign epitopes are located on the surface of chimeric virions. The rod‑shaped geometry of plant-produced M2e epitopes is different from the icosahedral or helical filamentous arrangement of M2e antigens on the carrier virus-like particles (VLP described earlier. Thereby, we created a simple and efficient system that employs agrobacteria and plant viral vectors in order to produce a candidate broad-spectrum flu vaccine.

  17. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit's promise in improving students' understanding of the targeted ideas. © 2016 C. F. Herrmann-Abell et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. An attempt to conserve whatnot somniferum (L.) dual - a highly essential medicinal plant, through in vitro callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, J.R.; Sahoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple effective protocol was developed for conservation and plant propagation through callus cultures of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Seed germination percentage reached a maximum value of 64.3% on half MS + GA3 0.25 mg/l at third week of culture. Three different basal media compared for seed germination, MS was most effective. Out of 25 combinations of growth regulators evaluated, MS + 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D found to be best for callus induction and proliferation regardless to explants. Among the four different explants tested, In vivo leaf explant was found most suitable for callus induction, proliferation and fresh weight gain. The highest callus induction frequency percentage 86.4% was recorded with In vivo leaf explant whereas, 43.4% in In vitro leaf explant at day 30 on MS augmented with 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Among different growth regulator combinations tested in augmentation with MS for shoot initiation and elongation, 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA was the best eliciting a maximum of 82.3% shoot induction with highest shoot number 4.8 shoots/callus. The original callus was sub-cultured 2 times on fresh shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the shoots. Of three different auxins tested for In vitro rooting, IBA was most effective compared to IPA and NAA. Half-strength MS medium containing IBA at an optimum concentration of 2.0 mg/l induced rooting in 83.1% of the In vitro derived shoots. The rooted plantlets were acclimated and eventually established in soil. (author)

  19. Conservation challenges for the Austral and Neotropical America section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Vale, Mariana M; Bonacic, Cristian; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio; List, Rurik; Bynum, Nora; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Simonetti, Javier A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Austral and Neotropical America (ANA) section of the Society for Conservation Biology includes a vast territory with some of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in the world. With more than 573 million people, the economic growth of the region still depends strongly on natural resource exploitation and still has high rates of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. A survey among the ANA section membership, with more than 700 members, including most of the section's prominent ecologists and conservationists, indicates that lack of capacity building for conservation, corruption, and threats such as deforestation and illegal trade of species, are among the most urgent problems that need to be addressed to improve conservation in the region. There are, however, strong universities and ecology groups taking the lead in environmental research and conservation, a most important issue to enhance the ability of the region to solve conservation and development conflicts.

  20. Mammographic, pathologic, and treatment-related factors associated with local recurrence in patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kini, Vijay R.; Vicini, Frank A.; Frazier, Robert; Victor, Sandra J.; Wimbish, Kathryn; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1999-01-01

    Background: We retrospectively reviewed our institution's experience treating early-stage breast cancer patients with breast conserving therapy (BCT) to determine clinical, pathologic, mammographic, and treatment-related factors associated with outcome. Methods: Between January 1980 and December 1987, 400 cases of Stage I and II breast cancer were managed with BCT at William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan. All patients underwent at least an excisional biopsy. Radiation treatment consisted of delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast, followed by a boost to the tumor bed to at least 60 Gy in all patients. The median follow-up in the 292 surviving patients is 118 months. Multiple clinical, pathologic, mammographic, and treatment-related factors were analyzed for an association with local recurrence and survival. Results: A total of 37 local recurrences developed in the treated breast, for a 5- and 10-year actuarial rate of 4% and 10%, respectively. On univariate analysis, patient age ≤ 35 years (25% vs. 7%, p = 0.004), and positive surgical margins (17% vs. 6%, p = 0.018) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence at 10 years. On multivariate analysis, only age ≤ 35 years remained significant. A subset analysis of 214 patients with evaluable mammographic findings was performed. On univariate analysis, age ≤ 35 years (38% vs. 8%, p = 0.0029) and the presence of calcifications on preoperative mammography (22% vs. 6%, p = 0.0016) were associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. On multivariate analysis, both of these factors remained significant. The presence of calcifications on preoperative mammography did not affect the rates of overall survival, disease-free survival, and cause-specific survival. Conclusion: In patients with early-stage breast cancer treated with BCT, age ≤ 35 years and calcifications on preoperative mammography appear to be associated with an increased risk of local recurrence

  1. Structure of genes for dermaseptins B, antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Exon 1-encoded prepropeptide is conserved in genes for peptides of highly different structures and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouille, V; Amiche, M; Nicolas, P

    1997-09-01

    We cloned the genes of two members of the dermaseptin family, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides isolated from the skin of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. The dermaseptin gene Drg2 has a 2-exon coding structure interrupted by a small 137-bp intron, wherein exon 1 encoded a 22-residue hydrophobic signal peptide and the first three amino acids of the acidic propiece; exon 2 contained the 18 additional acidic residues of the propiece plus a typical prohormone processing signal Lys-Arg and a 32-residue dermaseptin progenitor sequence. The dermaseptin genes Drg2 and Drg1g2 have conserved sequences at both untranslated ends and in the first and second coding exons. In contrast, Drg1g2 comprises a third coding exon for a short version of the acidic propiece and a second dermaseptin progenitor sequence. Structural conservation between the two genes suggests that Drg1g2 arose recently from an ancestral Drg2-like gene through amplification of part of the second coding exon and 3'-untranslated region. Analysis of the cDNAs coding precursors for several frog skin peptides of highly different structures and activities demonstrates that the signal peptides and part of the acidic propieces are encoded by conserved nucleotides encompassed by the first coding exon of the dermaseptin genes. The organization of the genes that belong to this family, with the signal peptide and the progenitor sequence on separate exons, permits strikingly different peptides to be directed into the secretory pathway. The recruitment of such a homologous 'secretory' exon by otherwise non-homologous genes may have been an early event in the evolution of amphibian.

  2. Comprehensive Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples Using High-Resolution Image-Based 3D Reconstructions and X-Ray CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Established contemporary conservation methods within the fields of Natural and Cultural Heritage encourage an interdisciplinary approach to preservation of heritage material (both tangible and intangible) that holds "Outstanding Universal Value" for our global community. NASA's lunar samples were acquired from the moon for the primary purpose of intensive scientific investigation. These samples, however, also invoke cultural significance, as evidenced by the millions of people per year that visit lunar displays in museums and heritage centers around the world. Being both scientifically and culturally significant, the lunar samples require a unique conservation approach. Government mandate dictates that NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office develop and maintain protocols for "documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach" for both current and future collections of astromaterials. Documentation, considered the first stage within the conservation methodology, has evolved many new techniques since curation protocols for the lunar samples were first implemented, and the development of new documentation strategies for current and future astromaterials is beneficial to keeping curation protocols up to date. We have developed and tested a comprehensive non-destructive documentation technique using high-resolution image-based 3D reconstruction and X-ray CT (XCT) data in order to create interactive 3D models of lunar samples that would ultimately be served to both researchers and the public. These data enhance preliminary scientific investigations including targeted sample requests, and also provide a new visual platform for the public to experience and interact with the lunar samples. We intend to serve these data as they are acquired on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisistion and Curation website at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/. Providing 3D interior and exterior documentation of astromaterial

  3. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12

  4. The relationship between the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.; Cloke, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential applicability of the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to the disposal of spent commercial nuclear fuel and of high-level (vitrified) radioactive waste. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and the associated regulations issued by the US NRC provides many requirements that apply to these waste forms and largely, if not entirely, pre-empts the applicability of RCRA. The RCRA would apply only to the non-radioactive components of these wastes, and then only in respect to hazardous components. In view of these restrictions it becomes important to evaluate whether any components of spent fuel or high-level waste are toxic, as defined by the RCRA regulations. Present indications are that they are not and, hence, the US DOE is proceeding on the basis that these wastes and others that may be generated in the future are non-hazardous in respect to RCRA definitions

  5. Multivariate analysis and clustering reveal high morphological diversity in Tunisian autochthonous grapes (Vitis vinifera: insights into characterization, conservation and commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Lamine

    2014-06-01

    Significance and impact of the study: In this investigation, we highlight the importance of importance of breeding programs, commercialization and evaluation of economically valuable characteristics of the highly diverse autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Tunisia.

  6. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C; Simpson, Ben M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J

    2015-03-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h(-1) (D>14.4 km·h(-1)) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohen's d +1.0, 90%CL ± 0.8) and D>14.4 km·h(-1) (+0.5 ± 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h(-1) was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 ± 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 km·h(-1) increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL ± 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match ± 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in 'fitness' do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key pointsWhen playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a 'tolerable' relative exercise intensity.While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008).In the context of

  7. Cultivar Differences in Plant Transpiration Rate at High Relative Air Humidity Are Not Related to Genotypic Variation in Stomatal Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH) often show disturbed water relations due to less responsive stomata. The attenuation of stomatal responsiveness as a result of high RH during leaf expansion depends on the cultivar. We hypothesized that tolerant cultivars to high RH experience a low...

  8. A novel, highly conserved metallothionein family in basidiomycete fungi and characterization of two representative SlMTa and SlMTb genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai; Rineau, François; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann; Colpaert, Jan V; Ruytinx, Joske

    2017-07-01

    The basidiomycete Suillus luteus is an important member of the ectomycorrhizal community that thrives in heavy metal polluted soils covered with pioneer pine forests. This study aimed to identify potential heavy metal chelators in S. luteus. Two metallothionein (MT) coding genes, SlMTa and SlMTb, were identified. When heterologously expressed in yeast, both SlMTa and SlMTb can rescue the Cu sensitive mutant from Cu toxicity. In S. luteus, transcription of both SlMTa and SlMTb is induced by Cu but not Cd or Zn. Several putative Cu-sensing and metal-response elements are present in the promoter sequences. These results indicate that SlMTa and SlMTb function as Cu-thioneins. Homologs of the S. luteus MTs are present in 49 species belonging to 10 different orders of the subphylum Agaricomycotina and are remarkably conserved. The length of the proteins, number and distribution of cysteine residues indicate a novel family of fungal MTs. The ubiquitous and highly conserved features of these MTs suggest that they are important for basic cellular functions in species in the subphylum Agaricomycotina. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Crystal structure and size-dependent neutralization properties of HK20, a human monoclonal antibody binding to the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 of gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Charles; Corti, Davide; Buzon, Victor; Seaman, Mike S; Lutje Hulsik, David; Hinz, Andreas; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Agatic, Gloria; Silacci, Chiara; Mainetti, Lara; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Sallusto, Federica; Weiss, Robin; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2010-11-18

    The human monoclonal antibody (mAb) HK20 neutralizes a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates by targeting the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 (HR1) of gp41, which is transiently exposed during HIV-1 entry. Here we present the crystal structure of the HK20 Fab in complex with a gp41 mimetic 5-Helix at 2.3 Å resolution. HK20 employs its heavy chain CDR H2 and H3 loops to bind into a conserved hydrophobic HR1 pocket that is occupied by HR2 residues in the gp41 post fusion conformation. Compared to the previously described HR1-specific mAb D5, HK20 approaches its epitope with a different angle which might favor epitope access and thus contribute to its higher neutralization breadth and potency. Comparison of the neutralization activities of HK20 IgG, Fab and scFv employing both single cycle and multiple cycle neutralization assays revealed much higher potencies for the smaller Fab and scFv over IgG, implying that the target site is difficult to access for complete antibodies. Nevertheless, two thirds of sera from HIV-1 infected individuals contain significant titers of HK20-inhibiting antibodies. The breadth of neutralization of primary isolates across all clades, the higher potencies for C-clade viruses and the targeting of a distinct site as compared to the fusion inhibitor T-20 demonstrate the potential of HK20 scFv as a therapeutic tool.

  10. Snake venomics of Lachesis muta rhombeata and genus-wide antivenomics assessment of the paraspecific immunoreactivity of two antivenoms evidence the high compositional and immunological conservation across Lachesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Molina-Sánchez, Pedro; Zorita, Virginia; Madrigal, Marvin; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Núñez, Vitelbina; Andrés, Vicente; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2013-08-26

    We report the proteomic analysis of the Atlantic bushmaster, Lachesis muta rhombeata, from Brazil. Along with previous characterization of the venom proteomes of L. stenophrys (Costa Rica), L. melanocephala (Costa Rica), L. acrochorda (Colombia), and L. muta muta (Bolivia), the present study provides the first overview of the composition and distribution of venom proteins across this wide-ranging genus, and highlights the remarkable similar compositional and pharmacological profiles across Lachesis venoms. The paraspecificity of two antivenoms, produced at Instituto Vital Brazil (Brazil) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica) using different conspecific taxa in the immunization mixtures, was assessed using genus-wide comparative antivenomics. This study confirms that the proteomic similarity among Lachesis sp. venoms is mirrored in their high immunological conservation across the genus. The clinical and therapeutic consequences of genus-wide venomics and antivenomics investigations of Lachesis venoms are discussed. The proteomics characterization of L. m. rhombeata venom completes the overview of Lachesis venom proteomes and confirms the remarkable toxin profile conservation across the five clades of this wide-ranging genus. Genus-wide antivenomics showed that two antivenoms, produced against L. stenophrys or L. m. rhombeata, exhibit paraspecificity towards all other congeneric venoms. Our venomics study shows that, despite the broad geographic distribution of the genus, monospecific antivenoms may achieve clinical coverage for any Lachesis sp. envenoming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subsets of Women With Close or Positive Margins After Breast-Conserving Surgery With High Local Recurrence Risk Despite Breast Plus Boost Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Lesperance, Mary; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To examine the effect of surgical margin status on local recurrence (LR) and survival following breast-conserving therapy; (2) To identify subsets with close or positive margins with high LR risk despite whole breast radiotherapy (RT) plus boost. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 2,264 women with pT1–3, any N, M0 invasive breast cancer, treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast ± boost RT. Five-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) LR, breast cancer–specific and overall survival (BCSS and OS) were compared between cohorts with negative (n = 1,980), close (n = 222), and positive (n = 62) margins. LR rates were analyzed according to clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariable Cox regression modeling and matched analysis of close/positive margin cases and negative margin controls were performed. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Boost RT was used in 92% of patients with close or positive margins. Five-year KM LR rates in the negative, close and positive margin cohorts were 1.3%, 4.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.001). BCSS and OS were similar in the three margin subgroups. In the close/positive margin cohort, LR rates were 10.2% with age 10% despite whole breast plus boost RT. These patients should be considered for more definitive surgery.

  12. High throughput sequencing of small RNA component of leaves and inflorescence revealed conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNA loci in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Zheng, Yun; Kudapa, Himabindu; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Hivrale, Vandana; Varshney, Rajeev K; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2015-06-01

    Among legumes, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important crop after soybean. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles by regulating target gene expression important for plant development and tolerance to stress conditions. Additionally, recently discovered phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), a new class of small RNAs, are abundantly produced in legumes. Nevertheless, little is known about these regulatory molecules in chickpea. The small RNA population was sequenced from leaves and flowers of chickpea to identify conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNAs/phasiRNA loci. Bioinformatics analysis revealed 157 miRNA loci for the 96 highly conserved and known miRNA homologs belonging to 38 miRNA families in chickpea. Furthermore, 20 novel miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families were identified. Sequence analysis revealed approximately 60 phasiRNA loci. Potential target genes likely to be regulated by these miRNAs were predicted and some were confirmed by modified 5' RACE assay. Predicted targets are mostly transcription factors that might be important for developmental processes, and others include superoxide dismutases, plantacyanin, laccases and F-box proteins that could participate in stress responses and protein degradation. Overall, this study provides an inventory of miRNA-target gene interactions for chickpea, useful for the comparative analysis of small RNAs among legumes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellular responses to Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1: use of relatively conserved synthetic peptide pools to determine CD4 T cell responses in malaria-exposed individuals in Benin, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Ambaliou

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1, a variant antigen of the malaria parasite, is potentially a target for the immune response. It would be important to determine whether there are CD4 T cells that recognise conserved regions. However, within the relatively conserved region, there is variation. It is not possible to test T cell responses from small field samples with all possible peptides. Methods We have aligned sequences that are relatively conserved between several PfEMP1 molecules, and chosen a representative sequence similar to most of the PfEMP1 variants. Using these peptides as pools representing CIDRα, CIDRβ and DBLβ-δ domains, DBLα domain, and EXON 2 domain of PfEMP1, we measured the CD4 T cell responses of malaria-exposed donors from Benin, West Africa by a FACS based assay. Results All the three peptide pools elicited a CD4 T cell response in a proportion of malaria-exposed and non-exposed donors. CD4 T cell proliferation occurs at a relatively higher magnitude to peptide pools from the DBLα and EXON 2 in the malaria-exposed donors living in Benin than in the UK malaria-unexposed donors. Conclusions These findings suggest that an immunological recall response to conserved peptides of a variant antigen can be measured. Further testing of individual peptides in a positive pool will allow us to determine those conserved sequences recognised by many individuals. These types of assays may provide information on conserved peptides of PfEMP1 which could be useful for stimulating T cells to provide help to P. falciparum specific B cells.

  14. Prognostic value of biologic subtype and the 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation for early stage breast carcinoma: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solin, Lawrence J; Gray, Robert; Goldstein, Lori J; Recht, Abram; Baehner, Frederick L; Shak, Steven; Badve, Sunil; Perez, Edith A; Shulman, Lawrence N; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E; Sledge, George W; Sparano, Joseph A

    2012-07-01

    The present study was performed to evaluate the significance of biologic subtype and 21-gene recurrence score relative to local recurrence and local-regional recurrence after breast conservation treatment with radiation. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2197 was a prospective randomized clinical trial that compared two adjuvant systemic chemotherapy regimens for patients with operable breast carcinoma with 1-3 positive lymph nodes or negative lymph nodes with tumor size >1.0 cm. The study population was a subset of 388 patients with known 21-gene recurrence score and treated with breast conservation surgery, systemic chemotherapy, and definitive radiation treatment. Median follow-up was 9.7 years (range = 3.7-11.6 years). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were 5.4 % and 6.6 %, respectively. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene Recurrence Score was associated with local recurrence or local-regional recurrence on univariate or multivariate analyses (all P ≥ 0.12). The 10-year rates of local recurrence were 4.9 % for hormone receptor positive, HER2-negative tumors, 6.0 % for triple negative tumors, and 6.4 % for HER2-positive tumors (P = 0.76), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 6.3, 6.9, and 7.2 %, respectively (P = 0.79). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 10-year rates of local recurrence were 3.2, 2.9, and 10.1 % for low, intermediate, and high 21-gene recurrence score, respectively (P = 0.17), and the 10-year rates of local-regional recurrence were 3.8, 5.1, and 12.0 %, respectively (P = 0.12). For hormone receptor-positive tumors, the 21-gene recurrence score evaluated as a continuous variable was significant for local-regional recurrence (hazard ratio 2.66; P = 0.03). The 10-year rates of local recurrence and local-regional recurrence were reasonably low in all subsets of patients. Neither biologic subtype nor 21-gene recurrence score should preclude breast conservation treatment with radiation.

  15. Identifying ambassador species for conservation marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Macdonald

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conservation relies heavily on external funding, much of it from a supportive public. Therefore it is important to know which species are most likely to catalyse such funding. Whilst previous work has looked at the physical attributes that contribute to a species' appeal, no previous studies have tried to examine the extent to which a species' sympatriots might contribute to it's potential as flagship for wider conservation. Therefore, here we estimate ‘flexibility’ and ‘appeal’ scores for all terrestrial mammals (n = 4320 and identify which of these might serve as ambassadors (defined as both highly appealing and flexible. Relatively few mammals (between 240 and 331 emerged as ambassadors, with carnivores featuring heavily in this group (representing 5% of terrestrial mammals but 39% of ambassadors. ‘Top ambassadors’ were defined as those with both flexibility and appeal scores greater than 1 standard deviation above the mean. Less than a quarter of the 20 most endangered and evolutionary distinct species in this study were classed as ambassadors, highlighting the need for surrogate species to catalyse conservation effort in areas with such priority species. This is the first global analysis bringing together flexibility and appeal for all terrestrial mammals, and demonstrates an approach for determining how best to market species in order to achieve maximal conservation gain in a world with urgent conservation need but limited resources.

  16. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  17. Biodiversity conservation in a telecoupled world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roman Carrasco

    2017-09-01

    Conservation practitioners need to adopt a global perspective on telecoupling and focus on the new conservation opportunities represented by shaping the social norms of affluent consumers in emerging and high-income economies.

  18. The highly conserved 5' untranslated region as an effective target towards the inhibition of Enterovirus 71 replication by unmodified and appropriate 2'-modified siRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Jun-Xia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a highly infectious agent that plays an etiological role in hand, foot, and mouth disease. It is associated with severe neurological complications and has caused significant mortalities in recent large-scale outbreaks. Currently, no effective vaccine or specific clinical therapy is available against EV71. Methods Unmodified 21 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and classic 2′-modified (2′-O-methylation or 2′-fluoro modification siRNAs were designed to target highly conserved 5′ untranslated region (UTR of the EV71 genome and employed as anti-EV71 agents. Real-time TaqMan RT-PCR, western blot analysis and plaque assays were carried out to evaluate specific viral inhibition by the siRNAs. Results Transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells with siRNAs targeting the EV71 genomic 5′ UTR significantly delayed and alleviated the cytopathic effects of EV71 infection, increased cell viability in EV71-infected RD cells. The inhibitory effect on EV71 replication was sequence-specific and dosage-dependent, with significant corresponding decreases in viral RNA, VP1 protein and viral titer. Appropriate 2′-modified siRNAs exhibited similar RNA interference (RNAi activity with dramatically increased serum stability in comparison with unmodified counterparts. Conclusion Sequences were identified within the highly conserved 5′ UTR that can be targeted to effectively inhibit EV71 replication through RNAi strategies. Appropriate 2′-modified siRNAs provide a promising approach to optimizing siRNAs to overcome barriers on RNAi-based antiviral therapies for broader administration.

  19. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  20. SeqAPASS to evaluate conservation of high-throughput screening targets across non-mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) and computational technologies are being applied as tools for toxicity testing in the 21st century. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) embraced these technologies and created the ToxCast Program in 2007, which has served as a...

  1. Use of genotyping by sequencing data to develop a high-throughput and multifunctional SNP panel for conservation applications in Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Docker, Margaret F; Baker, Cyndi; Jackson, Aaron; Lampman, Ralph; McIlraith, Brian; Moser, Mary L; Statler, David P; Young, William P; Wildbill, Andrew J; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing data can be mined for highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop high-throughput genomic assays for nonmodel organisms. However, choosing a set of SNPs to address a variety of objectives can be difficult because SNPs are often not equally informative. We developed an optimal combination of 96 high-throughput SNP assays from a total of 4439 SNPs identified in a previous study of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and used them to address four disparate objectives: parentage analysis, species identification and characterization of neutral and adaptive variation. Nine of these SNPs are FST outliers, and five of these outliers are localized within genes and significantly associated with geography, run-timing and dwarf life history. Two of the 96 SNPs were diagnostic for two other lamprey species that were morphologically indistinguishable at early larval stages and were sympatric in the Pacific Northwest. The majority (85) of SNPs in the panel were highly informative for parentage analysis, that is, putatively neutral with high minor allele frequency across the species' range. Results from three case studies are presented to demonstrate the broad utility of this panel of SNP markers in this species. As Pacific lamprey populations are undergoing rapid decline, these SNPs provide an important resource to address critical uncertainties associated with the conservation and recovery of this imperiled species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. US/FRG joint report on the pebble bed high temperature reactor resource conservation potential and associated fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuchert, E.; Ruetten, H.J.; Worley, B.A.; Vondy, D.R.

    1979-11-01

    Independent analyses at ORNL and KFA have led to the general conclusion that the flexibility in design and operation of a high-temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed reactor (PBR) can result in favorable ore utilization and fuel costs in comparison with other reactor types, in particular, with light-water reactors (LWRs). Fuel reprocessign and recycle show considerable promise for reducing ore consumption, and even the PBR throwaway cycle is competitive with fuel recycle in an LWR. The best performance results from the use of highly enriched fuel. Proliferation-resistant measures can be taken using medium-enriched fuel at a modest ore penalty, while use of low-enriched fuel would incur further ore penalty. Breeding is possible but net generation of fuel at a significant rate would be expensive, becoming more feasible as ore costs increase substantially. The 233 U inventory for a breeder could be produced by prebreeders using 235 U fuel

  3. Fears and Related Anxieties in Chinese High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2008-01-01

    Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…

  4. Epidemiology of soccer-related injuries among male high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soccer in Rwandan high schools can expose players to the risk of injury warranting prevention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the type, causes, severity and management of injuries among high school soccer players in Rwanda, in order to obtain baseline data for injury prevention programmes.

  5. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: High levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean Condor widen the problem to a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Pérez, Miguel A; Torres Bianchini, Laura; Sampietro, Luciano; Bravo, Guillermo F; Jácome, N Luis; Astore, Vanesa; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America. Wild condors from Argentina (n = 76) presented high lead levels consistent with both recent and previous exposure (up to 104 μg/dL blood level, mean 15.47 ± 21.21 μg/dL and up to 148.20 ppm bone level, mean 23.08 ± 31.39 ppm). In contrast, captive bred individuals -not exposed to lead contamination- had much lower lead levels (mean blood level 5.63 ± 3.08 μg/dL, and mean bone level 2.76 ± 3.06 ppm). Condors were exposed to lead throughout their entire range in continental Argentina, which represents almost sixty percent (>4000 km) of their geographical distribution. We also present evidence of lead exposure events in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Lead poisoning is a widespread major conservation threat for the Andean Condor, and probably other sympatric carnivores from South America. The high number and wide range of Andean Condors with lead values complement the results for the California Condor and other scavengers in North America suggesting lead poisoning is a continental threat. Urgent actions are needed to reduce this poison in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating Landsat Data and High-Resolution Imagery for Applied Conservation Assessment of Forest Cover in Latin American Heterogenous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Large intact forested regions of the world are known to be critical to maintaining Earth's climate, ecosystem health, and human livelihoods. Remote sensing has been successfully implemented as a tool to monitor forest cover and landscape dynamics over broad regions. Much of this work has been done using coarse resolution sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS in combination with moderate resolution sensors, particularly Landsat. Finer scale analysis of heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes is commonly performed with medium resolution data and has had varying success depending on many factors including the level of fragmentation, variability of land cover types, patch size, and image availability. Fine scale tree cover in mixed agricultural areas can have a major impact on biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability but may often be inadequately captured with the global to regional (coarse resolution and moderate resolution) satellite sensors and processing techniques widely used to detect land use and land cover changes. This study investigates whether advanced remote sensing methods are able to assess and monitor percent tree canopy cover in spatially complex human-dominated agricultural landscapes that prove challenging for traditional mapping techniques. Our study areas are in high altitude, mixed agricultural coffee-growing regions in Costa Rica and the Colombian Andes. We applied Random Forests regression tree analysis to Landsat data along with additional spectral, environmental, and spatial variables to predict percent tree canopy cover at 30m resolution. Image object-based texture, shape, and neighborhood metrics were generated at the Landsat scale using eCognition and included in the variable suite. Training and validation data was generated using high resolution imagery from digital aerial photography at 1m to 2.5 m resolution. Our results are promising with Pearson's correlation coefficients between observed and predicted percent tree canopy cover of .86 (Costa

  7. Deep-ocean disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes: a conservative assessment of the seafood critical pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, M.S.; Economides, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper applies conventional 'worst-case' assumptions to modelling the effects of possible future disposal of high-activity wastes in the oceans. It otherwise uses previously published and generally accepted data to assess the possible intakes of the waste nuclides via consumption of seaweeds, molluscs, crustaceans, plankton and fish. Model-predicted intakes for critical groups generally exceed ICRP-recommended limits, with 244 Cm, 241 Am and 137 Cs being the most potentially hazardous nuclides. The various seafood consumption pathways are found to rank, in decreasing order of potential hazard, as seaweeds > molluscs > plankton > fish > crustaceans. (Auth.)

  8. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Ch.

    2010-07-01

    It's cold, inhospitable and deadly. The image of the Arctic in years past is one of bewilderment, ignorance and awe. How the image of the Arctic has changed in recent years can be directly linked to our recognition that the Arctic has a great deal to offer in meeting the basic needs of future generations. Although we are still in awe of the Arctic's cruel beauty, new technologies are making it easier to explore the once unmanageable environment. The Arctic has moved into the mainstream with a host of suitors jockeying for position in the race to possess the Arctic and all that it contains. To highlight this increased interest, Russia's 'National Security Until 2020' initiative, has upgraded the High North to one of Russia's main priorities and identifies the Arctic as liable to produce military conflict in the future linked to competition for the Arctic's abundant raw materials.1 Even Canada, a peaceful and respectful country, has stepped outside the box of traditional Canadian rhetoric by giving Canada's Northern Strategy a tag line: 'Our North, our heritage, our future'. The Arctic is increasingly viewed as central to meeting the challenges of an ever changing world where climate change and economic benefit drive international agreements and policies. However Canada and Russia are not the only actors here. The other Arctic Five states: Denmark, Norway, and the United States of America all lay claims to some area or activity within the Arctic region. The Arctic is a unique part of this world, one that has been left largely untouched by human hands, and one that is on the brink of being changed forever. To fully understand Arctic issues, resource figures must be taken into account. Every nation involved in the Arctic debate has considered and based its policies on its set of numbers and resource estimates. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 put Arctic resource figures in the range of thirty percent of the

  9. Arctic Solutions The Frozen (Thawing) Relations of the High North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    It's cold, inhospitable and deadly. The image of the Arctic in years past is one of bewilderment, ignorance and awe. How the image of the Arctic has changed in recent years can be directly linked to our recognition that the Arctic has a great deal to offer in meeting the basic needs of future generations. Although we are still in awe of the Arctic's cruel beauty, new technologies are making it easier to explore the once unmanageable environment. The Arctic has moved into the mainstream with a host of suitors jockeying for position in the race to possess the Arctic and all that it contains. To highlight this increased interest, Russia's 'National Security Until 2020' initiative, has upgraded the High North to one of Russia's main priorities and identifies the Arctic as liable to produce military conflict in the future linked to competition for the Arctic's abundant raw materials.1 Even Canada, a peaceful and respectful country, has stepped outside the box of traditional Canadian rhetoric by giving Canada's Northern Strategy a tag line: 'Our North, our heritage, our future'. The Arctic is increasingly viewed as central to meeting the challenges of an ever changing world where climate change and economic benefit drive international agreements and policies. However Canada and Russia are not the only actors here. The other Arctic Five states: Denmark, Norway, and the United States of America all lay claims to some area or activity within the Arctic region. The Arctic is a unique part of this world, one that has been left largely untouched by human hands, and one that is on the brink of being changed forever. To fully understand Arctic issues, resource figures must be taken into account. Every nation involved in the Arctic debate has considered and based its policies on its set of numbers and resource estimates. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 put Arctic resource figures in the range of thirty percent of the remaining world reserves of natural gas and ten percent

  10. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  11. Breast-Conservative Surgery With Close or Positive Margins: Can the Breast Be Preserved With High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinot, Jose Luis; Roldan, Susana; Maronas, Maria; Tortajada, Isabel; Carrascosa, Maria; Chust, Maria Luisa; Estornell, Marian; Mengual, Jose Luis; Arribas, Leoncio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the likelihood of preserving the breast in women who show close or positive margins after conservative surgery for early breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Since 1996, 125 women with less than 5 mm or positive margins and positive separate cavity margin sampling were entered in a prospective trial with high-dose radiotherapy. A standard dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast was followed by a high-dose-rate brachytherapy application delivering 3 fractions of 4.4 Gy in 24 hours. The median follow-up was 84 months. Results: There were only seven local recurrences, with an actuarial local control rate of 95.8% at 5 years and 91.1% at 9 years. Actuarial overall and cause-specific survival rates were 92.6% and 95% at 5 years and 86.7% and 90.4% at 9 years, respectively. Late fibrosis was the most common complication, in 30% of patients, with good or excellent cosmetic results in 77%. The final result was that 95.2% of breasts were preserved. Conclusions: Close or positive-margin breast cancer can be well managed with a high-dose boost in a wide tumor bed by means of high-dose-rate brachytherapy. This technique can avoid mastectomy or poor cosmetic resection, with minimal risk of local or general failure

  12. High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication and pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is tightly linked to the structure of its RNA genome, but genome structure in infectious virions is poorly understood. We invent high-throughput SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension technology, which uses many of the same tools as DNA sequencing, to quantify RNA backbone flexibility at single-nucleotide resolution and from which robust structural information can be immediately derived. We analyze the structure of HIV-1 genomic RNA in four biologically instructive states, including the authentic viral genome inside native particles. Remarkably, given the large number of plausible local structures, the first 10% of the HIV-1 genome exists in a single, predominant conformation in all four states. We also discover that noncoding regions functioning in a regulatory role have significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001 SHAPE reactivities, and hence more structure, than do viral coding regions that function as the template for protein synthesis. By directly monitoring protein binding inside virions, we identify the RNA recognition motif for the viral nucleocapsid protein. Seven structurally homologous binding sites occur in a well-defined domain in the genome, consistent with a role in directing specific packaging of genomic RNA into nascent virions. In addition, we identify two distinct motifs that are targets for the duplex destabilizing activity of this same protein. The nucleocapsid protein destabilizes local HIV-1 RNA structure in ways likely to facilitate initial movement both of the retroviral reverse transcriptase from its tRNA primer and of the ribosome in coding regions. Each of the three nucleocapsid interaction motifs falls in a specific genome domain, indicating that local protein interactions can be organized by the long-range architecture of an RNA. High-throughput SHAPE reveals a comprehensive view of HIV-1 RNA genome structure, and further

  13. A method for high accuracy determination of equilibrium relative humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper treats a new method for measuring equilibrium relative humidity and equilibrium dew-point temperature of a material sample. The developed measuring device is described – a Dew-point Meter – which by means of so-called Dynamic Dew-point Analysis permits quick and very accurate...

  14. High Tide, Low Tide. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Gloria

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Sports-related dentofacial trauma among high school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of sports - related dentofacial injuries among athletes participating in Rugby and Football in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Seventeen Secondary schools participating in either or both Rugby tournaments and the ...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES High AIDS-related mortality among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to a technical report prepared by the South African. Medical Research Council,4 death registration improved from. 54% in 1990 to 89% in 2000, although underreporting persists in rural areas and with regard to patients without government- issued personal ID numbers. An additional problem relates to major ...

  17. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  18. Genetic structure analysis of a highly inbred captive population of the African antelope Addax nasomaculatus. Conservation and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E; Leizagoyen, C; Martínez, A M; González, S; Delgado, J V; Postiglioni, A

    2011-01-01

    The African antelope Addax nasomaculatus is a rare mammal at high risk of extinction, with no more than 300 individuals in the wild and 1,700 captive animals distributed in zoos around the world. In this work, we combine genetic data and genealogical information to assess the structure and genetic diversity of a captive population located at Parque Lecocq Zoo (N=27), originated from only two founders. We amplified 39 microsatellites previously described in other Artiodactyls but new to this species. Seventeen markers were polymorphic, with 2-4 alleles per locus (mean=2.71). Mean expected heterozygosity (He) per locus was between 0.050 (marker ETH3) and 0.650 (marker D5S2), with a global He of 0.43. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the population computed from pedigree records of all registered individuals (N=53) was 0.222. The mean coancestry of the population was 0.298 and F(IS) index was -0.108. These results reflect the importance of an adequate breeding management on a severely bottlenecked captive population, which would benefit by the incorporation of unrelated individuals. Thanks to the successful amplification of a large number of microsatellites commonly used in domestic bovids, this study will provide useful information for the management of this population and serve as future reference for similar studies in other captive populations of this species. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Gaming conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fletcher, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of digital (video and computer) games in the rise of what Büscher (2014) calls "nature 2.0": new web-related media that allow users to move beyond passive voyeurism to actively "co-create" or "prosume" the images and processes promoted by organizations committed to

  20. New perovskite-related oxides having high dielectric constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    static and dynamic random access memories, the static dielectric constant of the material. ¶Dedicated to .... 1100°C. It is also observed from the SEM pictures that the materials are highly dense .... Both these oxides merit attention for their.

  1. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Natasha A; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D) polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  2. Crystal structure and size-dependent neutralization properties of HK20, a human monoclonal antibody binding to the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 of gp41.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sabin

    Full Text Available The human monoclonal antibody (mAb HK20 neutralizes a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates by targeting the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 (HR1 of gp41, which is transiently exposed during HIV-1 entry. Here we present the crystal structure of the HK20 Fab in complex with a gp41 mimetic 5-Helix at 2.3 Å resolution. HK20 employs its heavy chain CDR H2 and H3 loops to bind into a conserved hydrophobic HR1 pocket that is occupied by HR2 residues in the gp41 post fusion conformation. Compared to the previously described HR1-specific mAb D5, HK20 approaches its epitope with a different angle which might favor epitope access and thus contribute to its higher neutralization breadth and potency. Comparison of the neutralization activities of HK20 IgG, Fab and scFv employing both single cycle and multiple cycle neutralization assays revealed much higher potencies for the smaller Fab and scFv over IgG, implying that the target site is difficult to access for complete antibodies. Nevertheless, two thirds of sera from HIV-1 infected individuals contain significant titers of HK20-inhibiting antibodies. The breadth of neutralization of primary isolates across all clades, the higher potencies for C-clade viruses and the targeting of a distinct site as compared to the fusion inhibitor T-20 demonstrate the potential of HK20 scFv as a therapeutic tool.

  3. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  4. High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2013-07-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5'-AYAGY-3' and hairpin 5'-RY(U/A)CCA-3' loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties.

  5. CT-image based conformal high-dose rate brachytherapy boost in the conservative treatment of stage I - II breast cancer - introducing the procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaszewska, M.; Skowronek, J.; Chichel, A.; Kanikowski, M.; Dymnicka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy (RT) has become the standard treatment for the majority of patients with early breast cancer. With regard to boost technique some disagreements are found between groups that are emphasizing the value of electron boost treatment and groups pointing out the value of interstitial brachytherapy (BT) boost treatment. We present the preliminary results in treating selected patients with early-stage breast cancer using high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HD R-BT) as a boost after breast conservation therapy (BCT). Materials/Methods: Between January 2006 and August 2007, a total of 58 female patients with first and second stage breast cancer underwent BCT. This therapeutic procedure involves BCS, whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) and additional irradiation to the tumour bed (boost) using interstitial HDR-BT via flexible implant tubes. A 10 Gy boost dose was received by all patients. The treatment planning was based on CT-guided 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction of the surgical clips, implant tubes and critical structures localization (skin and ribs). The accuracy of tumour bed localization, the conformity of planning target volume and treated volume were analyzed. Results: The evaluations of implant parameters involved the use of: dose volume histogram (DVH), the volume encompassed by the 100% reference isodose surface (V100%), the high dose volumecalculation (V150%, V200%, V300%), the dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR), and the conformity index (COIN). Our results were as follows: the mean PTV volume, the mean high dose volume (V150%; V200%; V300%), the DNR and COIN mean value were estimated at 57.38, 42.98, 21.38, 7.90, 0.52 and 0.83 respectively. Conclusions: CT-guided 3D HDR-BT is most appropriate for planning the boost procedure after BT especially in large breast volume, in cases with a deep seated tumour bed, as well as in patients with high risk for local recurrences. This technique reduces the

  6. Losses of radionuclides related to high temperature ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    When measuring radionuclides in samples from the environment of nuclear power plants, a sample preparation step, such as high temperature ashing is often necessary. Althoug much used, this method is subject to controversy because of the risk of losses of several elements. A study, including the ashing of synthetically prepared samples has been undertaken. Controlled and moderate temperature rise rate and a final temperature not exceeding 550 deg. C has been shown vital for recovery

  7. Color changes in pork in relation to high pressure treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard

    treatment and during a six-day storage period was investigated via surface reflectance. Spectroscopic studies (in the form of surface reflectance, UV-vis, and circular dichroism) on the effect of HP treatment on the soluble protein fraction of porcine LD were conducted attempting to explain the color......-denatured ferric myoglobin species was not similar to the heat-denatured pigment, ferrihemochrome, but instead a closely related species sharing features of denatured gobin, ferric iron, and brown color. The reversibility of the pressure-induced changes often observed for various myoglobin forms in solution were...

  8. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  9. High-Current Cold Cathode Employing Diamond and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-10-22

    The essence of this project was for diamond films to be deposited on cold cathodes to improve their emission properties. Films with varying morphology, composition, and size of the crystals were deposited and the emission properties of the cathodes that utilize such films were studied. The prototype cathodes fabricated by the methods developed during Phase I were tested and evaluated in an actual high-power RF device during Phase II. These high-power tests used the novel active RF pulse compression system and the X-band magnicon test facility at US Naval Research Laboratory. In earlier tests, plasma switches were employed, while tests under this project utilized electron-beam switching. The intense electron beams required in the switches were supplied from cold cathodes embodying diamond films with varying morphology, including uncoated molybdenum cathodes in the preliminary tests. Tests with uncoated molybdenum cathodes produced compressed X-band RF pulses with a peak power of 91 MW, and a maximum power gain of 16.5:1. Tests were also carried out with switches employing diamond coated cathodes. The pulse compressor was based on use of switches employing electron beam triggering to effect mode conversion. In experimental tests, the compressor produced 165 MW in a ~ 20 ns pulse at ~18× power gain and ~ 140 MW at ~ 16× power gain in a 16 ns pulse with a ~ 7 ns flat-top. In these tests, molybdenum blade cathodes with thin diamond coatings demonstrated good reproducible emission uniformity with a 100 kV, 100 ns high voltage pulse. The new compressor does not have the limitations of earlier types of active pulse compressors and can operate at significantly higher electric fields without breakdown.

  10. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  11. Magnetically-related properties of bismuth containing high Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Gary C.; Chen, M. F.; Craver, F.; Safari, A.; Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Burke, Terence; Shoga, M.

    1990-08-01

    The effect of magnetic fields to 15 T on electrical resistance has been measured for the BiSrCaCuO superconductor at precise temperatures during the transition to the superconducting state from pre-onset conditions to essentially zero resistance conditions. The results show that the temperature at which the magnetic field causes a divergence in the resistance versus 1000/ T curve is approximately the same temperature as the value at which, during cooling, the positive Hall coefficient begins its abrupt descent to zero. This temperature gives the best measure of Tc. It is also shown that small oscillations of low frequency start near onset conditions, the amplitude of which at a given temperature is B-field dependent. Additionally, Hall effect studies as a function of temperature at 4 T in three separate experiments (including high Tc BiSrCaCu PbO of > 90% theoretical density) show that sharp delta-function-like peaks in + RH are observed near Tc and are superimposed on a broader maximum. The Hall data are explicable in terms of exciton formation and ionization. The bound holes associated with these excitons are believed to be the mediators producing Cooper-pairing, and scale very well with Tc for all the known high Tc oxides.

  12. Geographies of Conservation I: De-extinction and Precision Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    Extinction has long been a central concern in biodiversity conservation. Today, de-extinction offers interesting possibilities of restoring charismatic species and ecosystem function, but also risks and costs. Most de-extinction depends on genetic engineering and synthetic biology. These technologies are also proposed for use in ‘gene tweaking’ in wild species to enhance their chance of survival. Within conservation, the resulting debates pit an optimistic world of high-tech ‘precision con...

  13. Outcomes in breast cancer patients relative to margin status after treatment with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy: the University of Pennsylvania experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Michael E.; Schultz, Delray J.; Reynolds, Carol; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the significance of final microscopic resection margin status on treatment outcomes in women with early breast cancer who are treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation. Methods and Materials: An analysis was performed of 1021 consecutive women with clinical Stage I or II invasive carcinoma of the breast treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation. Complete gross excision of tumor was performed in all cases, and an axillary staging procedure was performed to determine pathologic axillary lymph node status. The 1021 patients were divided into four groups based on the final microscopic margin from the tumor excision or from the re-excision if performed. These four groups were: (a) 518 patients with negative margins; (b) 124 patients with focally positive margins; (c) 96 patients with focally close margins (≤ 2 mm); and (d) 283 patients with unknown margins. Results: Local failure was not significantly different in patients with negative, focally positive, focally close or unknown final pathologic margins of resection at 8 years (8% vs. 10% vs. 17% vs. 16%, respectively, p = 0.21). The 8-year outcome also was not different among the four groups for overall survival (86% vs. 83% vs. 88% vs. 81%, respectively, p = 0.13), cause-specific survival (89% vs. 86% vs. 88% vs. 83%, respectively, p 0.14), no evidence of disease survival (81% vs. 73% vs. 86% vs. 77%, respectively, p = 0.09), and freedom from distant metastases (85% vs. 75% vs. 86% vs. 79%, respectively, p = 0.08). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that selected patients with focally positive or focally close microscopic resection margins can be treated with breast-conserving surgery and definitive breast irradiation with 8-year local control rates and survival rates that are similar to those seen in breast-conservation patients with negative or unknown final resection margins

  14. Probing the distance-duality relation with high- z data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, R.F.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58429-500, Campina Grande—PB (Brazil); Busti, V.C. [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo—SP (Brazil); Lima, F.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58429-900, Campina Grande—PB (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br, E-mail: viniciusbusti@gmail.com, E-mail: limasdl@bol.com.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro—RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of strong gravitational lensing jointly with type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observations have been used to test the validity of the cosmic distance duality relation (CDDR), D{sub L}( z )/[(1+ z ){sup 2D{sub A}}( z )]=η=1, where D{sub L}(z) and D{sub A}(z) are the luminosity and the angular diameter distances to a given redshift z , respectively. However, several lensing systems lie in the interval 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 3.6 i.e., beyond the redshift range of current SNe Ia compilations ( z ≈ 1.50), which prevents this kind of test to be fully explored. In this paper, we circumvent this problem by testing the CDDR considering observations of strong gravitational lensing along with SNe Ia and (a subsample from) the latest gamma-ray burst distance modulus data, whose redshift range is 0.033 ≤ z ≤ 9.3. We parameterize their luminosity distances with a second degree polynomial function and search for possible deviations from the CDDR validity by using four different η( z ) functions: η( z )=1+η{sub 0z}, η( z )=1+η{sub 0z}/(1+ z ), η( z )=(1+ z ){sup η{sub 0}} and η( z )=1+η{sub 0ln}(1+ z ). Unlike previous tests done at redshifts lower than 1.50, the likelihood for η{sub 0} depends strongly on the η( z ) function considered, but we find no significant deviation from the CDDR validity (η{sub 0}=0). However, our analyses also point to the fact that caution is needed when one fits data in higher redshifts to test the CDDR as well as a better understanding of the mass distribution of lenses also is required for more accurate results.

  15. Testing high brightness LEDs relative to application environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jeffrey; Mangum, Scott; Lundberg, John

    2006-08-01

    Application of light emitting diodes is expanding as the luminous output and efficiencies of these devices improve. At the same time, the number of LED package types is increasing, making it challenging to determine the appropriate device for use in lighting product designs. A range of factors should be considered when selecting a LED for an application including color coordinates, luminous efficacy, cost, lumen maintenance, application life, packaging and manufacturability. Additional complexities can be introduced as LED packages become obsolete and replacement parts must be selected. The replacement LED characteristics must be understood and assessed against the parameters of the original device, in order to determine if the change will be relatively simple or will force other end-product changes. While some characteristics are readily measured and compared, other factors, such as lumen maintenance, are difficult to verify. This paper will discuss the characteristics of a LED that should be considered during the design process as well as methods to validate these characteristics, particularly those which are not typically on data sheets or, are critical to the design and warrant additional validation. Particular attention will be given to LED lumen maintenance. While published manufacturer data typically provides temperature versus performance curves, the data may not be useful depending upon the application's operating environment. Models must be created to estimate the LED's junction temperature and degradation curve at the applied temperature in order to develop a more precise life estimate. This paper presents one approach to a LED device life and performance study designed with application environments in mind.

  16. Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change: new challenges for ecology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Albihn, Ann; Alexander, Jake; Burgess, Treena; Daehler, Curt; Essl, Franz; Evengard, Birgitta; Greenwood, Greg; Haider, Sylvia; Lenoir, Jonathan; McDougall, K.; Milbau, Ann; Muths, Erin L.; Nunez, Martin; Pellissier, Lois; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rew, Lisa; Robertson, Mark; Sanders, Nathan; Kueffer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key discussions of the workshop ‘Biosecurity in Mountains and Northern Ecosystems: Current Status and Future Challenges’ (Flen, Sweden, 1–3 June 2015). The aims of the workshop were to (1) increase awareness about the growing importance of species expansion—both non-native and native—at high elevation and high latitude with climate change, (2) review existing knowledge about invasion risks in these areas, and (3) encourage more research on how species will move and interact in cold environments, the consequences for biodiversity, and animal and human health and wellbeing. The diversity of potential and actual invaders reported at the workshop and the likely interactions between them create major challenges for managers of cold environments. However, since these cold environments have experienced fewer invasions when compared with many warmer, more populated environments, prevention has a real chance of success, especially if it is coupled with prioritisation schemes for targeting invaders likely to have greatest impact. Communication and co-operation between cold environment regions will facilitate rapid response, and maximise the use of limited research and management resources.

  17. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  18. Nonlinear Conservation Laws and Finite Volume Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Randall J.

    Introduction Software Notation Classification of Differential Equations Derivation of Conservation Laws The Euler Equations of Gas Dynamics Dissipative Fluxes Source Terms Radiative Transfer and Isothermal Equations Multi-dimensional Conservation Laws The Shock Tube Problem Mathematical Theory of Hyperbolic Systems Scalar Equations Linear Hyperbolic Systems Nonlinear Systems The Riemann Problem for the Euler Equations Numerical Methods in One Dimension Finite Difference Theory Finite Volume Methods Importance of Conservation Form - Incorrect Shock Speeds Numerical Flux Functions Godunov's Method Approximate Riemann Solvers High-Resolution Methods Other Approaches Boundary Conditions Source Terms and Fractional Steps Unsplit Methods Fractional Step Methods General Formulation of Fractional Step Methods Stiff Source Terms Quasi-stationary Flow and Gravity Multi-dimensional Problems Dimensional Splitting Multi-dimensional Finite Volume Methods Grids and Adaptive Refinement Computational Difficulties Low-Density Flows Discrete Shocks and Viscous Profiles Start-Up Errors Wall Heating Slow-Moving Shocks Grid Orientation Effects Grid-Aligned Shocks Magnetohydrodynamics The MHD Equations One-Dimensional MHD Solving the Riemann Problem Nonstrict Hyperbolicity Stiffness The Divergence of B Riemann Problems in Multi-dimensional MHD Staggered Grids The 8-Wave Riemann Solver Relativistic Hydrodynamics Conservation Laws in Spacetime The Continuity Equation The 4-Momentum of a Particle The Stress-Energy Tensor Finite Volume Methods Multi-dimensional Relativistic Flow Gravitation and General Relativity References

  19. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  20. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kinoshita, Natsuko

    2012-09-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kinoshita, Natsuko; Wang, Huan; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Liu, Jun; MacPherson, Cameron R.; Machida, Yasunori; Kamiya, Yuji; Hannah, Matthew A.; Chuaa, Nam Hai

    2012-01-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequence of cDNAs for mammalian H2A. Z, an evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal histone H2A isoprotein species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C L; Bonner, W M

    1988-02-11

    The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal H2A isoprotein, H2A.Z, have been determined for the rat, cow, and human. As a basal histone, H2A.Z is synthesized throughout the cell cycle at a constant rate, unlinked to DNA replication, and at a much lower rate in quiescent cells. Each of the cDNA isolates encodes the entire H2A.Z polypeptide. The human isolate is about 1.0 kilobases long. It contains a coding region of 387 nucleotides flanked by 106 nucleotides of 5'UTR and 376 nucleotides of 3'UTR, which contains a polyadenylation signal followed by a poly A tail. The bovine and rat cDNAs have 97 and 94% nucleotide positional identity to the human cDNA in the coding region and 98% in the proximal 376 nucleotides of the 3'UTR which includes the polyadenylation signal. A potential stem-forming sequence imbedded in a direct repeat is found centered at 261 nucleotides into the 3'UTR. Each of the cDNA clones could be transcribed and translated in vitro to yield H2A.Z protein. The mammalian H2A.Z cDNA coding sequences are approximately 80% similar to those in chicken and 75% to those in sea urchin.

  3. Particle-number conserving analysis for the 2-quasiparticle and high-K multi-quasiparticle states in doubly-odd 174,176Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bingheng; Lei Yi'an; Zhang Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Two-quasiparticle bands and low-lying excited high-K four-, six-, and eight-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd 174,176 Lu are analyzed by using the cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving (PNC) method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The proton and neutron Nilsson level schemes for 174,176 Lu are taken from the adjacent odd-A Lu and Hf isotopes, which are adopted to reproduce the experimental bandhead energies of the one-quasiproton and one-quasineutron bands of these odd-A Lu and Hf nuclei, respectively. Once the quasiparticle configurations are determined, the experimental bandhead energies and the moments of inertia of these two- and multi-quasiparticle bands are well reproduced by PNC-CSM calculations. The Coriolis mixing of the low-K (K=|Ω 1 -Ω 2 |) two-quasiparticle band of the Gallagher-Moszkowski doublet with one nucleon in the Ω=1/2 orbital is analyzed. (authors)

  4. NOA36 Protein Contains a Highly Conserved Nucleolar Localization Signal Capable of Directing Functional Proteins to the Nucleolus, in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Ivan S.; Jimenez-Nuñez, Maria D.; Iglesias, Concepción; Campos-Caro, Antonio; Moreno-Sanchez, David; Ruiz, Felix A.; Bolívar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    NOA36/ZNF330 is an evolutionarily well-preserved protein present in the nucleolus and mitochondria of mammalian cells. We have previously reported that the pro-apoptotic activity of this protein is mediated by a characteristic cysteine-rich domain. We now demonstrate that the nucleolar localization of NOA36 is due to a highly-conserved nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) present in residues 1–33. This NoLS is a sequence containing three clusters of two or three basic amino acids. We fused the amino terminal of NOA36 to eGFP in order to characterize this putative NoLS. We show that a cluster of three lysine residues at positions 3 to 5 within this sequence is critical for the nucleolar localization. We also demonstrate that the sequence as found in human is capable of directing eGFP to the nucleolus in several mammal, fish and insect cells. Moreover, this NoLS is capable of specifically directing the cytosolic yeast enzyme polyphosphatase to the target of the nucleolus of HeLa cells, wherein its enzymatic activity was detected. This NoLS could therefore serve as a very useful tool as a nucleolar marker and for directing particular proteins to the nucleolus in distant animal species. PMID:23516598

  5. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  6. Carbon payments and low-cost conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Neville D; Bryan, Brett A; Summers, David M

    2011-08-01

    A price on carbon is expected to generate demand for carbon offset schemes. This demand could drive investment in tree-based monocultures that provide higher carbon yields than diverse plantings of native tree and shrub species, which sequester less carbon but provide greater variation in vegetation structure and composition. Economic instruments such as species conservation banking, the creation and trading of credits that represent biological-diversity values on private land, could close the financial gap between monocultures and more diverse plantings by providing payments to individuals who plant diverse species in locations that contribute to conservation and restoration goals. We studied a highly modified agricultural system in southern Australia that is typical of many temperate agriculture zones globally (i.e., has a high proportion of endangered species, high levels of habitat fragmentation, and presence of non-native species). We quantified the economic returns from agriculture and from carbon plantings (monoculture and mixed tree and shrubs) under six carbon-price scenarios. We also identified high-priority locations for restoration of cleared landscapes with mixed tree and shrub carbon plantings. Depending on the price of carbon, direct annual payments to landowners of AU$7/ha/year to $125/ha/year (US$6-120/ha/year) may be sufficient to augment economic returns from a carbon market and encourage tree plantings that contribute more to the restoration of natural systems and endangered species habitats than monocultures. Thus, areas of high priority for conservation and restoration may be restored relatively cheaply in the presence of a carbon market. Overall, however, less carbon is sequestered by mixed native tree and shrub plantings. © 2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  8. Method of localization and implantation of the lumpectomy site for high dose rate brachytherapy after conservative surgery for T1 and T2 breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, F.; Chisela, F.; Engel, J.; Venkatesan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes our technique of localization and implantation of the lumpectomy site of patients with T1 and T2 breast cancer. Our method was developed as part of our Phase I/II pilot study of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone after conservative surgery for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: In March 1992, we started a pilot study of HDR brachytherapy to the lumpectomy site as the sole radiotherapy after conservative surgery for clinical T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer. Initially, the protocol required intraoperative placement of the interstitial needles at the time of definitive surgery to the breast. The protocol was then generalized to allow the implantation of the lumpectomy site after definitive surgery to the breast, either at the time of subsequent axillary nodal dissection or postoperatively. To date, five patients have been implanted intraoperatively at the time of definitive breast surgery. Twelve patients were implanted after definitive breast surgery, with 7 patients being done at the time of axillary nodal dissection and 5 patients postoperatively. We devised a method of accurately localizing and implanting the lumpectomy site after definitive breast surgery. The method relies on the previous placement of surgical clips by the referring surgeon to mark the lumpectomy site. For each patient, a breast mold is made with radio-opaque angiocatheters taped onto the mold in the supero-inferior direction. A planning CT scan is then obtained through the lumpectomy site. The volume of the lumpectomy site, the number of implant planes necessary, and the orientation of the implants are then determined from the CT scan. The angiocatheters provide a reference grid on the CT films to locate the entry and exit points of the interstitial needles on the plastic mold. The entry and exit points for reference needles are then transferred onto the patient's skin enabling implantation of the lumpectomy site. Needle positions with respect to

  9. Implications of market access on soil and water conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market access is one of the motivating mechanisms for farmers to invest in soil and water conservation (SWC). Areas of relatively high agricultural potential but remote from major markets face numerous challenges in marketing their outputs. The objective of this study was to explore the market access determinants of farmer ...

  10. Conservation and genetic characterisation of common bean landraces from Cilento region (southern Italy): high differentiation in spite of low genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Cennamo, Paola; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Di Novella, Riccardo; Caputo, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction. The analysis conducted using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci in 140 individuals revealed a high degree of homozygosity within each landrace and a strong genetic differentiation that was reflected in the success in assigning individuals to the source landrace. On the contrary, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, analysed in one individual per landrace, were highly similar among common bean landraces but allowed the identification of a cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata Walp.), a crop largely cultivated in the Old World before the arrival of common bean from Americas. In conclusion, our study highlighted that conservation of landraces is important not only for the cultural and socio-economic value that they have for local communities, but also because the time and conditions in which they have been selected have led to that genetic distinctiveness that is at the basis of many potential agronomical applications and dietary benefits.

  11. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. A conserved motif in the linker domain of STAT1 transcription factor is required for both recognition and release from high-affinity DNA-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntelmann, Bettina; Staab, Julia; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Binding to specific palindromic sequences termed gamma-activated sites (GAS) is a hallmark of gene activation by members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of cytokine-inducible transcription factors. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the signal-dependent finding of target genes by STAT dimers have not yet been very well studied. In this study, we have characterized a sequence motif in the STAT1 linker domain which is highly conserved among the seven human STAT proteins and includes surface-exposed residues in close proximity to the bound DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that a lysine residue in position 567 of the full-length molecule is required for GAS recognition. The substitution of alanine for this residue completely abolished both binding to high-affinity GAS elements and transcriptional activation of endogenous target genes in cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ), while the time course of transient nuclear accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation were virtually unchanged. In contrast, two glutamic acid residues (E559 and E563) on each monomer are important for the dissociation of dimeric STAT1 from DNA and, when mutated to alanine, result in elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as well as prolonged IFNγ-stimulated nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that the kinetics of signal-dependent GAS binding is determined by an array of glutamic acid residues located at the interior surface of the STAT1 dimer. These negatively charged residues appear to align the long axis of the STAT1 dimer in a position perpendicular to the DNA, thereby facilitating the interaction between lysine 567 and the phosphodiester backbone of a bound GAS element, which is a prerequisite for transient gene induction.

  13. Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements in vertebrate HOX gene clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Simona; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-12-31

    Due to their high degree of conservation, comparisons of DNA sequences among evolutionarily distantly-related genomes permit to identify functional regions in noncoding DNA. Hox genes are optimal candidate sequences for comparative genome analyses, because they are extremely conserved in vertebrates and occur in clusters. We aligned (Pipmaker) the nucleotide sequences of HoxA clusters of tilapia, pufferfish, striped bass, zebrafish, horn shark, human and mouse (over 500 million years of evolutionary distance). We identified several highly conserved intergenic sequences, likely to be important in gene regulation. Only a few of these putative regulatory elements have been previously described as being involved in the regulation of Hox genes, while several others are new elements that might have regulatory functions. The majority of these newly identified putative regulatory elements contain short fragments that are almost completely conserved and are identical to known binding sites for regulatory proteins (Transfac). The conserved intergenic regions located between the most rostrally expressed genes in the developing embryo are longer and better retained through evolution. We document that presumed regulatory sequences are retained differentially in either A or A clusters resulting from a genome duplication in the fish lineage. This observation supports both the hypothesis that the conserved elements are involved in gene regulation and the Duplication-Deletion-Complementation model.

  14. Bromeliad ornamental species: conservation issues and challenges related to commercialization - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Mitchell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bromeliads grow almost exclusively in the New World tropics and subtropics, mainly in South America in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (ca. 1200 species. Within the last few decades, their beautiful shapes and colors, low maintenance and easy adaptability to small gardens have brought bromeliads into worldwide use as ornamental plants. While the ornamental bromeliad trade could make significant contributions to household economies in rural areas, the trade may represent a significant threat in some of the bromeliad biodiversity hotspot countries such as Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. This paper presents an overview of production volumes, analysis of the Brazilian bromeliads trade chain – at the state, national and international levels – and recommendations to address development and conservation challenges.

  15. Leaf photosynthesis and respiration of three bioenergy crops in relation to temperature and leaf nitrogen: how conserved are biochemical model parameters among crop species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archontoulis, S. V.; Yin, X.; Vos, J.; Danalatos, N. G.; Struik, P. C.

    2012-01-01

    Given the need for parallel increases in food and energy production from crops in the context of global change, crop simulation models and data sets to feed these models with photosynthesis and respiration parameters are increasingly important. This study provides information on photosynthesis and respiration for three energy crops (sunflower, kenaf, and cynara), reviews relevant information for five other crops (wheat, barley, cotton, tobacco, and grape), and assesses how conserved photosynthesis parameters are among crops. Using large data sets and optimization techniques, the C3 leaf photosynthesis model of Farquhar, von Caemmerer, and Berry (FvCB) and an empirical night respiration model for tested energy crops accounting for effects of temperature and leaf nitrogen were parameterized. Instead of the common approach of using information on net photosynthesis response to CO2 at the stomatal cavity (An–Ci), the model was parameterized by analysing the photosynthesis response to incident light intensity (An–Iinc). Convincing evidence is provided that the maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate or the maximum electron transport rate was very similar whether derived from An–Ci or from An–Iinc data sets. Parameters characterizing Rubisco limitation, electron transport limitation, the degree to which light inhibits leaf respiration, night respiration, and the minimum leaf nitrogen required for photosynthesis were then determined. Model predictions were validated against independent sets. Only a few FvCB parameters were conserved among crop species, thus species-specific FvCB model parameters are needed for crop modelling. Therefore, information from readily available but underexplored An–Iinc data should be re-analysed, thereby expanding the potential of combining classical photosynthetic data and the biochemical model. PMID:22021569

  16. Structural basis for new pattern of conserved amino acid residues related to chitin-binding in the antifungal peptide from the coconut rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Hikaru; Ishibashi, Jun; Tomie, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Minoru

    2003-06-20

    Scarabaecin isolated from hemolymph of the coconut rhinoceros beetle Oryctes rhinoceros is a 36-residue polypeptide that has antifungal activity. The solution structure of scarabaecin has been determined from twodimensional 1H NMR spectroscopic data and hybrid distance geometry-simulated annealing protocol calculation. Based on 492 interproton and 10 hydrogen-bonding distance restraints and 36 dihedral angle restraints, we obtained 20 structures. The average backbone root-mean-square deviation for residues 4-35 is 0.728 +/- 0.217 A from the mean structure. The solution structure consists of a two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet connected by a type-I beta-turn after a short helical turn. All secondary structures and a conserved disulfide bond are located in the C-terminal half of the peptide, residues 18-36. Overall folding is stabilized by a combination of a disulfide bond, seven hydrogen bonds, and numerous hydrophobic interactions. The structural motif of the C-terminal half shares a significant tertiary structural similarity with chitin-binding domains of plant and invertebrate chitin-binding proteins, even though scarabaecin has no overall sequence similarity to other peptide/polypeptides including chitin-binding proteins. The length of its primary structure, the number of disulfide bonds, and the pattern of conserved functional residues binding to chitin in scarabaecin differ from those of chitin-binding proteins in other invertebrates and plants, suggesting that scarabaecin does not share a common ancestor with them. These results are thought to provide further strong experimental evidence to the hypothesis that chitin-binding proteins of invertebrates and plants are correlated by a convergent evolution process.

  17. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... merging the metal halide lamp fixture and the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp rulemakings. This NOPR... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  18. Planning for land use and conservation: Assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Baldwin; Ryan Scherzinger; Don Lipscomb; Miranda Mockrin; Susan Stein

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in planning and ecological software make it possible to conduct highly technical analyses to prioritize conservation investments and inform local land use planning. We review these tools, termed conservation planning tools, and assess the knowledge of a key set of potential users: the land use planning community. We grouped several conservation software...

  19. A conserved two-component regulatory system, PidS/PidR, globally regulates pigmentation and virulence-related phenotypes of Burkholderia glumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari Sharan; Barphagha, Inderjit Kaur; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-09-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a rice pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial panicle blight. Some strains of this pathogen produce dark brown pigments when grown on casamino-acid peptone glucose (CPG) agar medium. A pigment-positive and highly virulent strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, was randomly mutagenized with mini-Tn5gus, and the resulting mini-Tn5gus derivatives showing altered pigmentation phenotypes were screened on CPG agar plates to identify the genetic elements governing the pigmentation of B. glumae. In this study, a novel two-component regulatory system (TCRS) composed of the PidS sensor histidine kinase and the PidR response regulator was identified as an essential regulatory factor for pigmentation. Notably, the PidS/PidR TCRS was also required for the elicitation of the hypersensitive response on tobacco leaves, indicating the dependence of the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system of B. glumae on this regulatory factor. In addition, B. glumae mutants defective in the PidS/PidR TCRS showed less production of the phytotoxin, toxoflavin, and less virulence on rice panicles and onion bulbs relative to the parental strain, 411gr-6. The presence of highly homologous PidS and PidR orthologues in other Burkholderia species suggests that PidS/PidR-family TCRSs may exert the same or similar functions in different Burkholderia species, including both plant and animal pathogens. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  20. High diversity in neuropeptide immunoreactivity patterns among three closely related species of Dinophilidae (Annelida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Conzelmann, Markus; Jékely, Gáspár

    2017-01-01

    Neuropeptides are conserved metazoan signaling molecules, and represent useful markers for comparative investigations on the morphology and function of the nervous system. However, little is known about the variation of neuropeptide expression patterns across closely related species in invertebrate...... groups other than insects. In this study, we compare the immunoreactivity patterns of 14 neuropeptides in three closely related microscopic dinophilid annelids (Dinophilus gyrociliatus, D. taeniatus and Trilobodrilus axi). The brains of all three species were found to consist of around 700 somata...... species. FMRFamide, MLD/pedal peptide, allatotropin, RNamide, excitatory peptide, and FVRIamide showed a broad localization within the brain, while calcitonin, SIFamide, vasotocin, RGWamide, DLamide, FLamide, FVamide, MIP, and serotonin were present in fewer cells in demarcated regions. The different...

  1. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  2. Identifying temporal bottlenecks for the conservation of large-bodied fishes: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens show highly restricted movement and habitat use over-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnette Thayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species’ size and home range size has been well studied. In practice, home range may provide a good surrogate of broad spatial coverage needed for species conservation, however, many species can show restricted movement during critical life stages, such as breeding and over-wintering. This suggests the existence of either a behavioral or habitat mediated ‘temporal bottleneck,’ where restricted or sedentary movement can make populations more susceptible to harm during specific life stages. Here, we study over-winter movement and habitat use of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the largest freshwater fish in North America. We monitored over-winter movement of 86 fish using a hydro-acoustic receiver array in the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. Overall, 20 fish remained within our study system throughout the winter. Lake Sturgeon showed strong aggregation and sedentary movement over-winter, demonstrating a temporal bottleneck. Movement was highly restricted during ice-on periods (ranging from 0.9 km/day in November and April to 0.2 km/day in mid-November to mid-March, with Lake Sturgeon seeking deeper, slower pools. We also show that Lake Sturgeon have strong aggregation behavior, where distance to conspecifics decreased (from 575 to 313 m in preparation for and during ice-on periods. Although the Lake Sturgeon we studied had access to 1100 kilometers of unfragmented riverine habitat, we show that during the over-winter period Lake Sturgeon utilized a single, deep pool (<0.1% of available habitat. The temporal discrepancy between mobile and sedentary behaviors in Lake Sturgeon suggest adaptive management is needed with more localized focus during periods of temporal bottlenecks, even for large-bodied species.

  3. The human homolog of S. cerevisiae CDC27, CDC27 Hs, is encoded by a highly conserved intronless gene present in multiple copies in the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devor, E.J.; Dill-Devor, R.M. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have obtained a number of unique sequences via PCR amplification of human genomic DNA using degenerate primers under low stringency (42{degrees}C). One of these, an 853 bp product, has been identified as a partial genomic sequence of the human homolog of the S. cerevisiae CDC27 gene, CDC27Hs (GenBank No. U00001). This gene, reported by Turgendreich et al. is also designated EST00556 from Adams et al. We have undertaken a more detailed examination of our sequence, MCP34N, and have found that: 1. the genomic sequence is nearly identical to CDC27Hs over its entire 853 bp length; 2. an MCP34N-specific PCR assay of several non-human primate species reveals amplification products in chimpanzee and gorilla genomes having greater than 90% sequence identity with CDC27Hs; and 3. an MCP34N-specific PCR assay of the BIOS hybrid cell line panel gives a discordancy pattern suggesting multiple loci. Based upon these data, we present the following initial characterization: 1. the complete MCP34N sequence identity with CDC27Hs indicates that the latter is encoded by an intronless gene; 2. CDC27Hs is highly conserved among higher primates; and 3. CDC27Hs is present in multiple copies in the human genome. These characteristics, taken together with those initially reported for CDC27Hs, suggest that this is an old gene that carries out an important but, as yet, unknown function in the human brain.

  4. Novel cross-strand three-purine stack of the highly conserved 5'-GA/AAG-5' internal loop at the 3'-end termini of Parvovirus Genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Chin, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR), distance geometry (DG) and molecular dynamics / energy minimization (MD/EM) methods to study a 2x3 asymmetric internal loop structure of the highly conserved '5'-(GA)/(AAG)-5' bubble' present at the 3'-end hairpin of the single-stranded DNA genome of parvoviruses. This motif contains an unpaired adenosine stacked between two bracketed sheared G·A pairs. However, the phenomenal cross-strand G-G and A-A stacking in the tandem sheared G·A pairs has undergone considerable change. A novel three-purine stacking pattern is observed instead; the inserted A18 base is completely un-stacked from its neighboring G17 and A19 bases, but well stacked with the cross-strand A4 and G3 bases to form a novel A4/A18/G3 stack that is different from the double G/G, A/A or quadruple G/G/G/G stack present in the 5'-(GA)/(AG)-5' or 5'-(GGA)/(AGG)-5' motifs. Unlike the bulged purine residue that usually causes about 20 degree kink in the helical axis of the parent helix when bracketed by canonical G·C or A·T base pairs, no significant kink is observed in the present helix containing a bulged-adenine that is bracketed by sheared G ·A pairs. The phosphodiesters connecting G3-A4 and G17-A18 residues adopt unusual ζ torsional angles close to the trans domain, yet that connecting A18-A19 residues resumes the normal ζ(g - ) value. The well structured '5'-(GAA)/(AG)-5'' internal loop in the parvovirus genomes explains its resistance to single-strand specific endonuclease susceptibility

  5. Six Highly Conserved Targets of RNAi Revealed in HIV-1-Infected Patients from Russia Are Also Present in Many HIV-1 Strains Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kretova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RNAi has been suggested for use in gene therapy of HIV/AIDS, but the main problem is that HIV-1 is highly variable and could escape attack from the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs due to even single nucleotide substitutions in the potential targets. To exhaustively check the variability in selected RNA targets of HIV-1, we used ultra-deep sequencing of six regions of HIV-1 from the plasma of two independent cohorts of patients from Russia. Six RNAi targets were found that are invariable in 82%–97% of viruses in both cohorts and are located inside the domains specifying reverse transcriptase (RT, integrase, vpu, gp120, and p17. The analysis of mutation frequencies and their characteristics inside the targets suggests a likely role for APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, A3G in G-to-A mutations and a predominant effect of RT biases in the detected variability of the virus. The lowest frequency of mutations was detected in the central part of all six targets. We also discovered that the identical RNAi targets are present in many HIV-1 strains from many countries and from all continents. The data are important for both the understanding of the patterns of HIV-1 mutability and properties of RT and for the development of gene therapy approaches using RNAi for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Keywords: HIV-1, RNAi targets, gene therapy, ultra-deep sequencing, conserved HIV-1 sequences

  6. Conservation in gene encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv2660 and a high predicted population coverage of H56 multistage vaccine in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Angy P; Ong, Edison; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F; He, Yongqun; Yang, Zhenhua

    2017-11-01

    H56/AERAS-456+IC31 (H56), composed of two early secretion proteins, Ag85B and ESAT-6, and a latency associated protein, Rv2660, and the IC31 Intercell adjuvant, is a new fusion subunit vaccine candidate designed to induce immunity against both new infection and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Efficacy of subunit vaccines may be affected by the diversity of vaccine antigens among clinical strains and the extent of recognition by the diverse HLA molecules in the recipient population. Although a previous study showed the conservative nature of Ag85B- and ESAT-6-encoding genes, genetic diversity of Rv2660c that encodes RV2660 is largely unknown. The population coverage of H56 as a whole yet remains to be assessed. The present study was conducted to address these important knowledge gaps. DNA sequence analysis of Rv2660c found no variation among 83 of the 84 investigated clinical strains belonging to four genetic lineages. H56 was predicted to have as high as 99.6% population coverage in the South Africa population using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) Population Coverage Tool. Further comparison of H56 population coverage between South African Blacks and Caucasians based on the phenotypic frequencies of binding MHC Class I and Class II supertype alleles found that all of the nine MHC-I and six of eight MHC-II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertype alleles analyzed were significantly differentially expressed between the two subpopulations. This finding suggests the presence of race-specific functional binding motifs of MHC-I and MHC-II HLA alleles, which, in turn, highlights the importance of including diverse populations in vaccine clinical evaluation. In conclusion, H56 vaccine is predicted to have a promising population coverage in South Africa; this study demonstrates the utility of integrating comparative genomics and bioinformatics in bridging animal and clinical studies of novel TB vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  8. High-speed scattering of charged and uncharged particles in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, K.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief consideration of the high-speed scattering of two point charges high-speed scattering is thoroughly discussed for a charged particle by a fixed mass and of two uncharged particles of comparable masses. Perturbation technique is used over Minkowski spacetime in the de Donder gauge and the field equations and the resulting equations of motion (which take the reaction of the particles' quasistatic self-field into account) are solved by iteration. The obtained energy-momentum conservation laws allow the computation of second-order corrections for the scattering angle and the cross section. The asymptotic structure of the far-field indicates synchrotron radiation (electromagnetic and gravitational, respectively) which causes an energy loss whose reaction on the motion is briefly considered in the low-velocity limit including bound motion. (For neutral particles this is a third-order effect.) (author)

  9. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Cristi C.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036

  10. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  11. The distribution, diversity, and conservation status of Cycas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Liu, Jian; Feng, Xiuyan; Gong, Xun

    2017-05-01

    As ancient gymnosperm and woody plants, cycads have survived through dramatic tectonic activities, climate fluctuation, and environmental variations making them of great significance in studying the origin and evolution of flora biodiversity. However, they are among the most threatened plant groups in the world. The principal aim of this review is to outline the distribution, diversity, and conservation status of Cycas in China and provide suggestions for conservation practices. In this review, we describe the taxonomy, distribution, and conservation status of Cycas in China. By comparing Chinese Cycas species with its relatives worldwide, we then discuss the current genetic diversity, genetic differentiation of Cycas, and try to disentangle the potential effects of Quaternary climate changes and topographical events on Cycas . We review conservation practices from both researchers and practitioners for these rare and endangered species. High genetic diversity at the species level and strong genetic differentiation within Cycas have been observed. Most Cycas species in southwest China have experienced population retreats in contrast to the coastal Cycas 's expansion during the Quaternary glaciation. Additionally, human activities and habitat fragmentation have pushed these endangered taxa to the brink of extinction. Although numerous efforts have been made to mitigate threats to Cycas survival, implementation and compliance monitoring in protection zones are currently inadequate. We outline six proposals to strengthen conservation measures for Cycas in China and anticipate that these measures will provide guidelines for further research on population genetics as well as conservation biology of not only cycads but also other endangered species worldwide.

  12. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  13. Adapting the bioblitz to meet conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sophie S; Pauly, Gregory B; Moore, James; Fraga, Naomi S; Knapp, John J; Principe, Zachary; Brown, Brian V; Randall, John M; Cohen, Brian S; Wake, Thomas A

    2018-03-01

    When conservation strategies require new, field-based information, practitioners must find the best ways to rapidly deliver high-quality survey data. To address this challenge, several rapid-assessment approaches have been developed since the early 1990s. These typically involve large areas, take many months to complete, and are not appropriate when conservation-relevant survey data are urgently needed for a specific locale. In contrast, bioblitzes are designed for quick collection of site-specific survey data. Although bioblitzes are commonly used to achieve educational or public-engagement goals, conservation practitioners are increasingly using a modified bioblitz approach to generate conservation-relevant data while simultaneously enhancing research capacity and building working partnerships focused on conservation concerns. We term these modified events expert bioblitzes. Several expert bioblitzes have taken place on lands of conservation concern in Southern California and have involved collaborative efforts of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, botanic gardens, museums, and universities. The results of expert bioblitzes directly informed on-the-ground conservation and decision-making; increased capacity for rapid deployment of expert bioblitzes in the future; and fostered collaboration and communication among taxonomically and institutionally diverse experts. As research and conservation funding becomes increasingly scarce, expert bioblitzes can play an increasingly important role in biodiversity conservation. © 2018 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. MHC-I-restricted epitopes conserved among variola and other related orthopoxviruses are recognized by T cells 30 years after vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Sheila Tuyet; Wang, M.; Lamberth, K.

    2008-01-01

    It is many years since the general population has been vaccinated against smallpox virus. Here, we report that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted T cell epitopes can be recognized more than 30 years after vaccination. Using bioinformatic methods, we predicted 177 potential cytotoxic T...... lymphocyte epitopes. Eight epitopes were confirmed to stimulate IFN-gamma release by T cells in smallpox-vaccinated subjects. The epitopes were restricted by five supertypes (HLA-A1, -A2, -A24 -A26 and -B44). Significant T cell responses were detected against 8 of 45 peptides with an HLA class I affinity...... of K(D) less than or equal to 5 nM, whereas no T cell responses were detected against 60 peptides with an HLA affinity of K(D) more than 5 nM. All epitopes were fully conserved in seven variola, vaccinia and cowpox strains. Knowledge of the long-term response to smallpox vaccination may lead...

  15. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  16. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  17. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  18. Research priorities for conservation and natural resource management in Oceania's small-island developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, R; Adams, V M

    2018-02-01

    For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We identified research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy in Oceania's small-island developing states. We asked conservation professionals from academia, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations across the region to propose such questions and then identify which were of high priority in an online survey. We compared the high-priority questions with research questions identified globally and for other regions. Of 270 questions proposed by respondents, 38 were considered high priority, including: What are the highest priority areas for conservation in the face of increasing resource demand and climate change? How should marine protected areas be networked to account for connectivity and climate change? What are the most effective fisheries management policies that contribute to sustainable coral reef fisheries? High-priority questions related to the particular challenges of undertaking conservation on small-island developing states and the need for a research agenda that is responsive to the sociocultural context of Oceania. Research priorities for Oceania relative to elsewhere were broadly similar but differed in specific issues relevant to particular conservation contexts. These differences emphasize the importance of involving local practitioners in the identification of research priorities. Priorities were reasonably well aligned among sectoral groups. Only a few questions were widely considered answered, which may indicate a smaller-than-expected knowledge-action gap. We believe these questions can be used to strengthen research collaborations between scientists and practitioners working to further conservation and natural resource management in this region. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  19. Equivalent conserved currents and generalized Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized Noether theorem is presented, relating symmetries and equivalence classes of local) conservation laws in classical field theories; this is contrasted with the standard theorem. The concept of a ''Noether'' field theory is introduced, being a theory for which the generalized theorem applies; not only does this include the cases of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories, these structures are ''derived'' from the Noether property in a natural way. The generalized theorem applies to currents and symmetries that contain derivatives of the fields up to an arbitrarily high order

  20. Preventive conservation applied to "Casa dos Patudos" oil painting collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was the identification of specific risks affecting the collection of oil paintings in the historic house "Casa dos Patudos" (Alpiarça, Portugal and the development of mitigation strategies for the risks encountered. The methodology used was proposed by the Canadian Conservation Institute. The results showed that the main risks affecting this collection result from incorrect handling, increase in paint detachment due to the maintenance of paintings with paint lifting on display, occurrence of insect pests, high fluctuations in relative humidity and, excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several preventive conservation strategies to mitigate these risks are proposed.

  1. Energy & Conservation Glossary. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; And Others

    Defined in this glossary are nearly 800 terms related to energy and conservation. Space provided at the end of each alphabetic section allows users to add new words and definitions. This publication is part of a set of resources prepared for teachers by "Energy and Man's Environment." (Author/WB)

  2. Conservative approach to rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne G; Marinovskij, Edvard; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the risk of surgery after initial conservative treatment of rectosigmoid endometriosis in relation to demographic data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on the tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. Medical...

  3. The Conservative Challenge to Liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the political–theoretical triangle between liberalism, communitarianism and conservatism. It shows how these three positions are related to each other and to what extent they are actually incompatible. The substantive outcome is the following thesis: the conservative position

  4. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity

  5. Peer Relations and Peer Deviance as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression among High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Öz Soysal, Fatma Selda

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between reactive and proactive aggression and peer relations and peer deviance among high school girls. A total of 442 high school students participated in this study. Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Peer Relations Scale, and the Peer Deviance Scale were used to collect data. Results…

  6. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  7. Identification of four families of yCCR4- and Mg2+-dependent endonuclease-related proteins in higher eukaryotes, and characterization of orthologs of yCCR4 with a conserved leucine-rich repeat essential for hCAF1/hPOP2 binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbo Laura

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast yCCR4 factor belongs to the CCR4-NOT transcriptional regulatory complex, in which it interacts, through its leucine-rich repeat (LRR motif with yPOP2. Recently, yCCR4 was shown to be a component of the major cytoplasmic mRNA deadenylase complex, and to contain a fold related to the Mg2+-dependent endonuclease core. Results Here, we report the identification of nineteen yCCR4-related proteins in eukaryotes (including yeast, plants and animals, which all contain the yCCR4 endonuclease-like fold, with highly conserved CCR4-specific residues. Phylogenetic and genomic analyses show that they form four distinct families, one of which contains the yCCR4 orthologs. The orthologs in animals possess a leucine-rich repeat domain. We show, using two-hybrid and far-Western assays, that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, i.e. hCAF1 and hPOP2, in a LRR-dependent manner. Conclusions We have identified the mammalian orthologs of yCCR4 and have shown that the human member binds to the human yPOP2 homologs, thus strongly suggesting conservation of the CCR4-NOT complex from yeast to human. All members of the four identified yCCR4-related protein families show stricking conservation of the endonuclease-like catalytic motifs of the yCCR4 C-terminal domain and therefore constitute a new family of potential deadenylases in mammals.

  8. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D.~A.

    2018-01-01

    -metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high...

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life in Children with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…

  10. On the relationship between residue structural environment and sequence conservation in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Wei; Lin, Jau-Ji; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Yu-Feng; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Huang, Tsun-Tsao

    2017-09-01

    Residues that are crucial to protein function or structure are usually evolutionarily conserved. To identify the important residues in protein, sequence conservation is estimated, and current methods rely upon the unbiased collection of homologous sequences. Surprisingly, our previous studies have shown that the sequence conservation is closely correlated with the weighted contact number (WCN), a measure of packing density for residue's structural environment, calculated only based on the C α positions of a protein structure. Moreover, studies have shown that sequence conservation is correlated with environment-related structural properties calculated based on different protein substructures, such as a protein's all atoms, backbone atoms, side-chain atoms, or side-chain centroid. To know whether the C α atomic positions are adequate to show the relationship between residue environment and sequence conservation or not, here we compared C α atoms with other substructures in their contributions to the sequence conservation. Our results show that C α positions are substantially equivalent to the other substructures in calculations of various measures of residue environment. As a result, the overlapping contributions between C α atoms and the other substructures are high, yielding similar structure-conservation relationship. Take the WCN as an example, the average overlapping contribution to sequence conservation is 87% between C α and all-atom substructures. These results indicate that only C α atoms of a protein structure could reflect sequence conservation at the residue level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 河南省水利投融资结构及其与GDP关系分析%Structure of Water Conservancy Investment and Financing in Relation to GDP in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳伟丽

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation on the current mode and economic benefits of water conservancy investment and financing is the premise of its system reform. Based on the water conservancy investment and financing data during the period of 1991—2010 in Henan Province,this study firstly analyzed the sources of funds and the structure of water conservancy investment and financing,and then discussed its trends in recent 20 years. Finally,water conservancy investment and financing in relation to GDP was quantitatively evaluated. The results show that water con-servancy investment funds in Henan Province mainly come from three channels of the investment in the central,provincial and local self fi-nancing investment;the national debt has become an important source of investment in a certain period of time. Although in recent years the investment and financing has a diversification trend,but other financing sources of funds are still relatively small proportion. In recent 10 years,investment in the central and provincial investment and other investments are increased with increment of GDP. In addition to other in-vestments,water conservancy investments and financings in relation to GDP are binomial or exponential relationship.%评价当前水利投融资方式及其经济效益是开展水利投融资体制改革的前提。以河南省为例,基于1991—2010年水利投融资数据,分析了水利投融资的资金来源与结构,探讨了近20 a来水利主要投融资资金变化趋势,定量分析了各项投融资资金与GDP的关系。结果表明:河南省水利投融资资金主要来源于中央投资、省级投资和地方自筹3个渠道,国债在一定时期成为投资的重要来源。尽管近年来河南省水利投融资呈现多元化趋势,但其他投融资资金所占比例还相对较小。中央投资、省级投资及其他投资均随GDP的增长而增加;总投资、中央投资、省级投资与GDP之间具有较好的拟

  12. How would we deal with radiation related issues in high school educational programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Kuniko

    1999-01-01

    Current educational curriculum will be more improved and the materials in schools will be somewhat different by the year of 2002 when students have two days off in a week. It is a well known fact that recent Japanese people's level of understanding about Science and Technology is the second from the bottom among OECD nations and, as a matter of fact, few schools are dealing with scientific issues such as atomic energy or radiation. High school teachers need to survey what students know about atomic power and radiation, how deep they studied in previous schools and what kind of interest they have in conservation of world energy sources or environmental issues discussed today. Through questionnaires to 328 students, it became clear that they were most interesting to the effect of radiation or radioactivity on any kind of things in the environment, and that they want to know solutions for those problems such as greenhouse effect, ozone layers and Garbage disposal. (M. Suetake)

  13. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  14. Mapping of Junior High School Students’ Social Relation Problem and the Needed Assisting Model

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin Janu Setiyowati; Marthen Pali; Bambang Budi Wiyono; Triyono

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe Junior High School students’ social relation problem and the needed assisting model. This research used descriptive design with survey method. The subjects of this research were Junior High School students in the three cities in East Java. This research used purposive sampling as well. The data was collected by using questionnaire. The data analysis was conducted descriptively. This research found that Junior High School students’ social relation problems includ...

  15. Essentiality, conservation, evolutionary pressure and codon bias in bacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilucca, Maddalena; Cimini, Giulio; Giansanti, Andrea

    2018-07-15

    Essential genes constitute the core of genes which cannot be mutated too much nor lost along the evolutionary history of a species. Natural selection is expected to be stricter on essential genes and on conserved (highly shared) genes, than on genes that are either nonessential or peculiar to a single or a few species. In order to further assess this expectation, we study here how essentiality of a gene is connected with its degree of conservation among several unrelated bacterial species, each one characterised by its own codon usage bias. Confirming previous results on E. coli, we show the existence of a universal exponential relation between gene essentiality and conservation in bacteria. Moreover, we show that, within each bacterial genome, there are at least two groups of functionally distinct genes, characterised by different levels of conservation and codon bias: i) a core of essential genes, mainly related to cellular information processing; ii) a set of less conserved nonessential genes with prevalent functions related to metabolism. In particular, the genes in the first group are more retained among species, are subject to a stronger purifying conservative selection and display a more limited repertoire of synonymous codons. The core of essential genes is close to the minimal bacterial genome, which is in the focus of recent studies in synthetic biology, though we confirm that orthologs of genes that are essential in one species are not necessarily essential in other species. We also list a set of highly shared genes which, reasonably, could constitute a reservoir of targets for new anti-microbial drugs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  17. Conserving and managing the subnivium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2018-02-08

    In regions where snowfall historically has been a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape, warming winters have reduced the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack. However, most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so under the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium. Shortened winters, forest management practices, and winter recreation can alter subnivium conditions by increasing snow compaction and compromising thermal stability at the soil-snow interface. To help slow the loss of the subnivium in the face of rapidly changing winter conditions, we suggest managers adopt regional conservation plans for identifying threatened snow-covered environments; measure and predict the effects land cover and habitat management has on local subnivium conditions; and control the timing and distribution of activities that disturb and compact snow cover (e.g., silvicultural practices, snow recreation, and road and trail maintenance). As a case study, we developed a spatially explicit model of subnivium presence in a working landscape of the Chequamegon National Forest, Wisconsin. We identified landscapes where winter recreation and management practices could threaten potentially important areas for subnivium persistence. Similar modeling approaches could inform management decisions related to subnivium conservation. Current climate projections predict that snow seasons will change rapidly in many regions, and as result, we advocate for the immediate recognition, conservation, and management of the subnivium and its dependent species. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  19. The first “lost year” of Mediterranean sea turtles: dispersal patterns indicate subregional management units for conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casale, Paolo; Mariani, Patrizio

    2014-01-01

    Identifying highly frequented areas is a priority for sea turtle conservation, and the distribution of young individuals in open waters represents a major knowledge gap due to methodological biases. The drift of hatchlings from 38 loggerhead and 10 green turtle nesting sites in the Mediterranean......-scale international approach. In-water studies in specific zones are identified as a research priority for improving the current knowledge and inform conservation plans....... The Levantine zone may be particularly key for the conservation of the Mediterranean populations of both species, since it may host the highest concentration of individuals. Subregional management units identified by dispersal patterns may facilitate turtle conservation through a relatively small...

  20. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  1. Asymptotic Conservation Laws in Classical Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.M.; Torre, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    A new, general, field theoretic approach to the derivation of asymptotic conservation laws is presented. In this approach asymptotic conservation laws are constructed directly from the field equations according to a universal prescription which does not rely upon the existence of Noether identities or any Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formalisms. The resulting general expressions of the conservation laws enjoy important invariance properties and synthesize all known asymptotic conservation laws, such as the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner energy in general relativity. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. The value of flexibility in conservation financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Gareth D; Fargione, Joseph; Spector, Sacha; Williams, Gwyn; Armsworth, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Land-acquisition strategies employed by conservation organizations vary in their flexibility. Conservation-planning theory largely fails to reflect this by presenting models that are either extremely inflexible-parcel acquisitions are irreversible and budgets are fixed-or extremely flexible-previously acquired parcels can readily be sold. This latter approach, the selling of protected areas, is infeasible or problematic in many situations. We considered the value to conservation organizations of increasing the flexibility of their land-acquisition strategies through their approach to financing deals. Specifically, we modeled 2 acquisition-financing methods commonly used by conservation organizations: borrowing and budget carry-over. Using simulated data, we compared results from these models with those from an inflexible fixed-budget model and an extremely flexible selling model in which previous acquisitions could be sold to fund new acquisitions. We then examined 3 case studies of how conservation organizations use borrowing and budget carry-over in practice. Model comparisons showed that borrowing and budget carry-over always returned considerably higher rewards than the fixed-budget model. How they performed relative to the selling model depended on the relative conservation value of past acquisitions. Both the models and case studies showed that incorporating flexibility through borrowing or budget carry-over gives conservation organizations the ability to purchase parcels of higher conservation value than when budgets are fixed without the problems associated with the selling of protected areas. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in communal property areas in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Bunge-Vivier

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the natural vegetation in Mexico is managed collectively within common property systems. The appropriation and continuity of government programs related to the conservation of land that is communally used is proposed to depend on the level of organization of the communities and the interaction between the local and governmental institutions, as well as the benefits derived from conservation projects. Patterns of what drives the conservation of common natural resources were analyzed in order to propose improvements to conservation policy. Changes in primary and secondary vegetation cover in common and private properties were identified by performing a historical spatial analysis. Questionnaires were used to survey 32 populations of seven states of the Mexican Republic to determine the conservation status of common property resources, as well as the ability of the community to continue conservation activities initially undertaken by government programs. Some 53% of the primary and secondary vegetation in Mexico is found in common property areas, but the change from primary and secondary vegetation to other uses is the same for common and private property. Communities with a high level of conservation of communal areas and with the ability to continue conservation projects were those that had dedicated the areas to recreation and conservation, had stronger community organization and were less marginalized. A recognition of the heterogeneity of the socioeconomic and cultural context of communities with common property is necessary to design governmental conservation programs that achieve long-term conservation. To meet the needs of a region that is both degraded and marginalized, the creation of synergies between programs that combat poverty and programs that promote conservation is needed. In addition, the continuation of payments with public funds for work that preserves or rehabilitates natural areas is needed, thereby

  4. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biodiversity conservation in a changing climate: a review of threats and implications for conservation planning in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhu; Saw Htun; Platt, Steven G; Tizard, Robert; Poole, Colin; Than Myint; Watson, James E M

    2013-11-01

    High levels of species richness and endemism make Myanmar a regional priority for conservation. However, decades of economic and political sanctions have resulted in low conservation investment to effectively tackle threats to biodiversity. Recent sweeping political reforms have placed Myanmar on the fast track to economic development-the expectation is increased economic investments focused on the exploitation of the country's rich, and relatively intact, natural resources. Within a context of weak regulatory capacity and inadequate environmental safeguards, rapid economic development is likely to have far-reaching negative implications for already threatened biodiversity and natural-resource-dependent human communities. Climate change will further exacerbate prevailing threats given Myanmar's high exposure and vulnerability. The aim of this review is to examine the implications of increased economic growth and a changing climate within the larger context of biodiversity conservation in Myanmar. We summarize conservation challenges, assess direct climatological impacts on biodiversity and conclude with recommendations for long-term adaptation approaches for biodiversity conservation.

  6. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  7. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  8. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  9. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  10. Promoting Effective Monitoring and Conservation through Online ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... communicates major findings of submitted records to relevant authorities concerned with conservation and advocacy thus contributing to a much wider sharing and dissemination of important aspects while contributing to avifaunal conservation. Through networking the system provides a highly attractive and authoritative, ...

  11. Conservation laws and nuclear transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Das Gupta, S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the consequences of energy and angular momentum conservation for nucleon-nucleon scattering in a nuclear environment during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We describe algorithms that ensure stricter enforcement of such conservation laws within popular microscopic models of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that the net effects on global observables are small

  12. Diversity and conservation of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) and its relation to household food and livelihood security in south-western Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture in Ethiopia is characterized by diverse farming practices. Farmers with various ethnic background and cultural diversity living in the country's diverse agro-ecological zones have developed farming systems, characterized by a high degree of species diversity. The

  13. Examining Relational Engagement across the Transition to High Schools in Three US High Schools Reformed to Improve Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in students' relational engagement across the transition to high school in three schools reformed to improve the quality of student-teacher relationships. In order to analyze this data we employed latent growth curve (LGC) modeling techniques (n = 637). We ran three LGC models on three…

  14. Emotional reactions to alcohol-related words: Differences between low- and high-risk drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantiva, Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; Romo-González, Tania

    2015-11-01

    Research that has examined responses to alcohol-related words in drinkers has mostly linked such responses to memory, attentional, and perceptual bias. However, studies of emotional processing in alcoholics have not received much attention. The main goal of the present study was to identify the features and differences of emotional responses to alcohol-related words in low- and high-risk drinkers. A total of 149 low-risk drinkers and 125 high-risk drinkers evaluated five alcohol-related words and 15 words from the Affective Norms for English Words in the dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin. The results indicated that high-risk drinkers evaluated alcohol-related words as more appetitive and arousing. These results, together with findings in the attention and memory research literature, suggest that alcohol-related words can serve as conditioned cues in alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  16. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  17. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...

  18. FY 2000 report on the survey on energy conservation technology of large plant using ultra high corrosion resistant materials; 2000 nendo chokotaishokusei zairyo wo mochiita ogata plant no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving remarkable energy conservation/resource conservation in large plants, the paper carried out an investigational survey of effects obtained in case of applying amorphous super metal which is the newest corrosion resistant material. Amorphous alloys as an ultra high corrosion resistant material are a peculiar material which shows the extremely excellent corrosion resistance even in much strong acid by containing passivated elements with the needed concentration. The corrosion resistant amorphous alloy applied to large plants need the thickness and diameter of more than several millimeters as a bulk material. The subjects are scaling-up of bulk materials and stabilization of characteristics. Even under the tough dew point corrosion environment of the waste power plant, etc., heat recovery from exhaust gas is made possible by heat exchanger applied with ultra high corrosion resistant materials. Effects of the annual heat recovery from the nationwide refuse incinerators and coal thermal power plants are estimated to be approximately 5.2 million kL toe, that is, to be equal to energy conservation of 6 x a million kW class power plant. (NEDO)

  19. Conservation inequality and the charismatic cat: Felis felicis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Macdonald

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation resources are limited, making it impossible to invest equally in all threatened species. One way to maximise conservation gains is to focus upon those species with particular public appeal, using them to generate funding and support that could also benefit less charismatic species. Although this approach is already used by many conservation organisations, no reliable metrics currently exist to determine the likely charisma of a given species, and therefore identify the most appropriate targets for such campaigns. Here we use market research techniques on over 1500 people from five continents to assess the relative charisma of different mammals, which factors appear to drive it, and how these patterns vary between countries. Felids and primates emerged as highly favoured species for conservation, with the tiger (Panthera tigris the top species by a wide margin. Using an information theoretic approach we develop models that successfully predict respondents’ preferences across the entire sample, suggesting global commonalities in the attributes that people prefer for conservation. However, by analysing each country separately we are able to improve our models, thus highlighting the importance of identifying locally specific flagships for conservation. The most important attributes were body size and IUCN status, although the extent of baldness, whether the species was a potential threat to humans and whether the eyes were forward or side facing were also widely important. Several of the key attributes revealed in this study could be extrapolated to nearly all terrestrial mammals, paving the way for a standardised global identification of species likely to prove effective for future conservation campaigns. The public preferred species with which they had affinity and familiarity, and we discuss how these aspects could be increased to promote the under-achievers, whilst maximising the funding potential of the highly charismatic mammals

  20. Health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p children and parental scores suggested variance in points of view. This study specifically investigated health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Exploiting deterministic maintenance opportunity windows created by conservative engineering design rules that result in free time locked into large high-speed coupled production lines with finite buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durandt, Casper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative engineering design rules for large serial coupled production processes result in machines having locked-in free time (also called ‘critical downtime’ or ‘maintenance opportunity windows’, which cause idle time if not used. Operators are not able to assess a large production process holistically, and so may not be aware that they form the current bottleneck – or that they have free time available due to interruptions elsewhere. A real-time method is developed to accurately calculate and display free time in location and magnitude, and efficiency improvements are demonstrated in large-scale production runs.

  2. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  3. Misconceptions of High School Students Related to the Conceptions of Absolutism and Constitutionalism in History Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Mehmet Suat

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the 10th grade high school students' misconceptions related to the sense of ruling in the Ottoman State during the absolutist and constitutional periods and to investigate the causes of these misconceptions. The data were collected through eight open-ended questions related to the concepts of absolutism and…

  4. High School Students' Time Management Skills in Relation to Research Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcoltekin, Alpturk

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and present a correlation of their time management skills with demographic variables, as well as examining the relation between their level of research anxiety and time management skills. The study group composed 270 12th-grade students (127 males and…

  5. Verbal Memory Deficits in Relation to Organization Strategy in High- and Low-Functioning Autistic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Leung, Winnie W.; To, Cho Yee

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the verbal memory profile and its relation to organizational strategies in high-functioning (Hi-AUT) and low-functioning (Lo-AUT) children with autism. Twenty-two Hi-AUT and 16 Lo-AUT, and 22 age-, gender- and handedness-matched normal children (NC) were required to remember a list of semantically related words for…

  6. High-Performance Classrooms for Women? Applying a Relational Frame to Management/Organizational Behavior Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, E. Holly

    2002-01-01

    Attributes of relational theory, based on women's development, include preventive connecting, mutual empowering, achieving, and team building. These attributes are compatible with the practices of high performance work organizations. Relational practices should be integrated into management and organizational behavior courses. (Contains 53…

  7. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, Edward T; Fitzsimons, James A; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner. (letter)

  8. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Conservation investment for rare plants in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W; Smith, Lacy M; Steel, Zachary L

    2013-01-01

    Budgets for species conservation limit actions. Expending resources in areas of high human density is costly and generally considered less likely to succeed. Yet, coastal California contains both a large fraction of narrowly endemic at-risk plant species as well as the state's three largest metropolitan regions. Hence understanding the capacity to protect species along the highly urbanized coast is a conservation priority. We examine at-risk plant populations along California's coastline from San Diego to north of San Francisco to better understand whether there is a relationship between human population density and: i) performance of at-risk plant populations; and ii) conservation spending. Answering these questions can help focus appropriate strategic conservation investment. Rare plant performance was measured using the annualized growth rate estimate between census periods using the California Natural Diversity Database. Human density was estimated using Census Bureau statistics from the year 2000. We found strong evidence for a lack of a relationship between human population density and plant population performance in California's coastal counties. Analyzing US Endangered Species expenditure reports, we found large differences in expenditures among counties, with plants in San Diego County receiving much higher expenditures than other locations. We found a slight positive relationship between expenditures on behalf of endangered species and human density. Together these data support the argument that conservation efforts by protecting habitats within urban environments are not less likely to be successful than in rural areas. Expenditures on behalf of federally listed endangered and threatened plants do not appear to be related to proximity to human populations. Given the evidence of sufficient performance in urban environments, along with a high potential to leverage public support for nature in urban environments, expenditures in these areas appear to be an

  10. Banks-Casher-type relation for the BCS gap at high density