WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly conserved members

  1. Energy conservation: an alternative for investment in the oil sector for OPEC member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani, M.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in the oil sector is the main policy of expanding net crude oil export capacity in OPEC Member Countries. The other alternative should be improving energy conservation policies. Since these countries benefit from cheap energy sources, it is reasonable to expect inefficient use of energy in their economies, resulting in relatively high energy intensity. This paper deals with the causality relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP). First, stationary tests are run. Second, if there is a cointegrating relationship, an error correction model is applied; otherwise a standard Granger causality test is conducted. It was discovered that for all OPEC Member Countries we cannot statistically accept causality running from energy to GDP. Therefore, not only are proper conservation policies not a threat to economic growth, they also lead to an expansion of oil export capacity. (author)

  2. Conservative management of CIN2: National Audit of British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology members' opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Madeleine; Smith, John H F; Tidy, John A; Palmer, Julia E

    2018-04-01

    There is no doubt that organised cervical screening programmes have significantly reduced the rates of cervical cancer by detection and treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2, CIN3). National UK guidelines do not differentiate between CIN2 and CIN3 as separate entities and recommend treatment for both, although a degree of uncertainty exists regarding the natural history of CIN2. This national survey of British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology members aimed to assess attitudes towards conservative management (CM) of CIN2 in the UK and identify potential selection criteria. In total, 511 members responded (response rate 32%); 55.6% offered CM for selective cases; 12.4% for all cases; 16.4% had formal guidelines. Most agreed age group was >40yrs (83%), HPV 16/18 positive (51.4%), smoking (60%), immuno-compromise (74.2%), and large lesion size (80.8%) were relative contraindications for CM. 75.9% favoured six-monthly monitoring, with 80.2% preferring excisional treatment for persistent high-grade disease. Many UK colposcopists manage CIN2 conservatively without formal guidelines. Potential selection criteria should be investigated by a multicentre study. Impact statement Although anecdotally some colposcopists manage many women with CIN2 conservatively, this National Audit of British Society for Colposcopy and Cytopathology members, we believe, is the first time this has been formally recorded. The survey assesses current attitudes towards conservative management (CM) of CIN2 and seeks to identify potential selection criteria that could be used to identify suitable women. It received over 500 responses and significantly, identified many colposcopists recommending CM of CIN2 for patients despite the lack of any formal guidance regarding this approach. The greater majority of respondents were keen to consider participating in a multicentre trial on CM of CIN2 targeting the UK screening population (25-64 years). The paper has

  3. An Evolutionary-Conserved Function of Mammalian Notch Family Members as Cell Adhesion Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akihiko; Yoshino, Miya; Hikosaka, Mari; Okuyama, Kazuki; Zhou, Lan; Sakano, Seiji; Yagita, Hideo; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Notch family members were first identified as cell adhesion molecules by cell aggregation assays in Drosophila studies. However, they are generally recognized as signaling molecules, and it was unclear if their adhesion function was restricted to Drosophila. We previously demonstrated that a mouse Notch ligand, Delta-like 1 (Dll1) functioned as a cell adhesion molecule. We here investigated whether this adhesion function was conserved in the diversified mammalian Notch ligands consisted of two families, Delta-like (Dll1, Dll3 and Dll4) and Jagged (Jag1 and Jag2). The forced expression of mouse Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, and Jag2, but not Dll3, on stromal cells induced the rapid and enhanced adhesion of cultured mast cells (MCs). This was attributed to the binding of Notch1 and Notch2 on MCs to each Notch ligand on the stromal cells themselves, and not the activation of Notch signaling. Notch receptor-ligand binding strongly supported the tethering of MCs to stromal cells, the first step of cell adhesion. However, the Jag2-mediated adhesion of MCs was weaker and unlike other ligands appeared to require additional factor(s) in addition to the receptor-ligand binding. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the function of cell adhesion was conserved in mammalian as well as Drosophila Notch family members. Since Notch receptor-ligand interaction plays important roles in a broad spectrum of biological processes ranging from embryogenesis to disorders, our finding will provide a new perspective on these issues from the aspect of cell adhesion. PMID:25255288

  4. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  5. Readings in Wildlife and Fish Conservation, High School Conservation Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Jack

    This publication is a tentative edition of readings on Wildlife and Fish Conservation in Louisiana, and as such it forms part of one of the four units of study designed for an experimental high school course, the "High School Conservation Curriculum Project." The other three units are concerned with Forest Conervation, Soil and Water…

  6. Differential evolution of members of the rhomboid gene family with conservative and divergent patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Liangsheng; Ma, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Rhomboid proteins are intramembrane serine proteases that are involved in a plethora of biological functions, but the evolutionary history of the rhomboid gene family is not clear. We performed a comprehensive molecular evolutionary analysis of the rhomboid gene family and also investigated the organization and sequence features of plant rhomboids in different subfamilies. Our results showed that eukaryotic rhomboids could be divided into five subfamilies (RhoA-RhoD and PARL). Most orthology groups appeared to be conserved only as single or low-copy genes in all lineages in RhoB-RhoD and PARL, whereas RhoA genes underwent several duplication events, resulting in multiple gene copies. These duplication events were due to whole genome duplications in plants and animals and the duplicates might have experienced functional divergence. We also identified a novel group of plant rhomboid (RhoB1) that might have lost their enzymatic activity; their existence suggests that they might have evolved new mechanisms. Plant and animal rhomboids have similar evolutionary patterns. In addition, there are mutations affecting key active sites in RBL8, RBL9 and one of the Brassicaceae PARL duplicates. This study delineates a possible evolutionary scheme for intramembrane proteins and illustrates distinct fates and a mechanism of evolution of gene duplicates. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. A conserved role for syndecan family members in the regulation of whole-body energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Luca

    2010-06-01

    syndecan family members play a key role in the regulation of body metabolism.

  8. Tilapia and human CLIC2 structures are highly conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiao; Li, Zhengjun; Lui, Eei Yin; Lam, Siew Hong; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2018-01-08

    Chloride intracellular channels (CLICs) exist in soluble and membrane bound forms. We have determined the crystal structure of soluble Clic2 from the euryhaline teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Structural comparison of tilapia and human CLIC2 with other CLICs shows that these proteins are highly conserved. We have also compared the expression levels of clic2 in selected osmoregulatory organs of tilapia, acclimated to freshwater, seawater and hypersaline water. Structural conservation of vertebrate CLICs implies that they might play conserved roles. Also, tissue-specific responsiveness of clic2 suggests that it might be involved in iono-osmoregulation under extreme conditions in tilapia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  10. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  11. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is very crucial for the success of the drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, some proteins that are highly conserved between mice and humans are not very immunogenic in mice, making it difficult to generate antibodies using a conventional approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the impaired immune tolerance of NZB/W mice was exploited to generate monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved or self-antigens. Using two highly conserved human antigens (MIF and HMGB1 and one mouse self-antigen (TNF-alpha as examples, we demonstrate here that multiple clones of high affinity, highly specific antibodies with desired biological activities can be generated, using the NZB/W mouse as the immunization host and a T cell-specific tag fused to a recombinant antigen to stimulate the immune system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed an efficient and universal method for generating surrogate or therapeutic antibodies against "difficult antigens" to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  12. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-resolution finite-difference algorithms for conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towers, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of Total Variation Decreasing (TVD) schemes for 2-dimensional scalar conservation laws is constructed using either flux-limited or slope-limited numerical fluxes. The schemes are proven to have formal second-order accuracy in regions where neither u/sub x/ nor y/sub y/ vanishes. A new class of high-resolution large-time-step TVD schemes is constructed by adding flux-limited correction terms to the first-order accurate large-time-step version of the Engquist-Osher scheme. The use of the transport-collapse operator in place of the exact solution operator for the construction of difference schemes is studied. The production of spurious extrema by difference schemes is studied. A simple condition guaranteeing the nonproduction of spurious extrema is derived. A sufficient class of entropy inequalities for a conservation law with a flux having a single inflection point is presented. Finite-difference schemes satisfying a discrete version of each entropy inequality are only first-order accurate

  14. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2014-10-07

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  15. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  16. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  17. Highly conserved small subunit residues influence rubisco large subunit catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkov, Todor; Spreitzer, Robert J

    2009-10-30

    The chloroplast enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of photosynthetic CO(2) fixation. With a deeper understanding of its structure-function relationships and competitive inhibition by O(2), it may be possible to engineer an increase in agricultural productivity and renewable energy. The chloroplast-encoded large subunits form the active site, but the nuclear-encoded small subunits can also influence catalytic efficiency and CO(2)/O(2) specificity. To further define the role of the small subunit in Rubisco function, the 10 most conserved residues in all small subunits were substituted with alanine by transformation of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant that lacks the small subunit gene family. All the mutant strains were able to grow photosynthetically, indicating that none of the residues is essential for function. Three of the substitutions have little or no effect (S16A, P19A, and E92A), one primarily affects holoenzyme stability (L18A), and the remainder affect catalysis with or without some level of associated structural instability (Y32A, E43A, W73A, L78A, P79A, and F81A). Y32A and E43A cause decreases in CO(2)/O(2) specificity. Based on the x-ray crystal structure of Chlamydomonas Rubisco, all but one (Glu-92) of the conserved residues are in contact with large subunits and cluster near the amino- or carboxyl-terminal ends of large subunit alpha-helix 8, which is a structural element of the alpha/beta-barrel active site. Small subunit residues Glu-43 and Trp-73 identify a possible structural connection between active site alpha-helix 8 and the highly variable small subunit loop between beta-strands A and B, which can also influence Rubisco CO(2)/O(2) specificity.

  18. Experimental on moisture migration and pore pressure formation of concrete members subjected to high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Kakuhiro; Nakane, Sunao

    1993-01-01

    The experimental studies concerning temperature, moisture migration, and pore pressure of mass concrete mock-up specimens heated up to high temperature at 110degC to 600degC, were performed, so as to correctly estimate the moisture migration behaviour of concrete members subjected to high temperature, which is considered significantly influenced on physical properties of concrete. As a results, it is confirmed that the moisture migration behavior of concrete members can be explained by temperature and pore pressure, and indicate the characteristics both sealed condition (dissipation of moisture is prevented) and unsealed condition (dissipation of moisture occur). (author)

  19. Asymmetric distribution of pl10 and bruno2, new members of a conserved core of early germline determinants in cephalochordates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eDailey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular fingerprinting of conserved germline and somatic ¨stemness¨ markers in different taxa have been key in defining the mechanism of germline specification (preformation or epigenesis, as well as expression domains of somatic progenitors. The distribution of molecular markers for primordial germ cells (PGCs, including vasa, nanos and piwil1, as well as Vasa antibody staining, support a determinative mechanism of germline specification in the cephalochordate Branchiostoma lanceolatum, similarly to other amphioxus species. pl10 and bruno2, but not bruno4/6, are also expressed in a pattern consistent with these other germline genes, adding to our repertoire of PGC markers in lancelets. Expression of nanos, vasa and the remaining markers (musashi, pufA, pufB, pumilio and piwil2 may define populations of putative somatic progenitors in the tailbud, the amphioxus posterior growth zone, or zones of proliferative activity. Finally, we also identify a novel expression domain for musashi, a classic neural stem cell marker, during notochord development in amphioxus. These results are discussed in the context of germline determination in other taxa, stem cell regulation and regenerative capacity in adult amphioxus.

  20. Personal Skills, Job Satisfaction, and Productivity in Members of High Performance Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Flores, Patricia; Campos-Rodriguez, Javier Arturo

    2008-01-01

    The intention of the study is to identify the development of personal skills, as well as the increase of job satisfaction and productivity of the employee, as a result of their participation in high performance teams. Volunteered in the study 139 members of self-managed teams belonging to the Production Area, 39 of Operational Administrative…

  1. Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) Members' Engagement with Sex Education in Canadian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an examination of gay-straight alliance (GSA) members' engagement with sex education, sexual health, and prejudice and discrimination in Canadian public high schools. It explores how five students' (four straight and one gay-identifying) participation in GSAs served as a springboard for learning about and challenging stereotypes;…

  2. A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, Philipp S. van de; Muehlfeit, Michael; Klose, Christoph; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Walz, Gerd; Kuehn, E. Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Tim-3 is a member of the TIM family of proteins (T-cell immunoglobulin mucin) involved in the regulation of CD4+ T-cells. Tim-3 is a T H 1-specific type 1 membrane protein and regulates T H 1 proliferation and the development of tolerance. Binding of galectin-9 to the extracellular domain of Tim-3 results in apoptosis of T H 1 cells, but the intracellular pathways involved in the regulatory function of Tim-3 are unknown. Unlike Tim-1, which is expressed in renal epithelia and cancer, Tim-3 has not been described in cells other than neuronal or T-cells. Using RT-PCR we demonstrate that Tim-3 is expressed in malignant and non-malignant epithelial tissues. We have cloned Tim-3 from an immortalized liver cell carcinoma line and identified a highly conserved tyrosine in the intracellular tail of Tim-3 (Y265). We demonstrate that Y265 is specifically phosphorylated in vivo by the interleukin inducible T cell kinase (ITK), a kinase which is located in close proximity of the TIM genes on the allergy susceptibility locus 5q33.3. Stimulation of Tim-3 by its ligand galectin-9 results in increased phosphorylation of Y265, suggesting that this tyrosine residue plays an important role in downstream signalling events regulating T-cell fate. Given the role of TIM proteins in autoimmunity and cancer, the conserved SH2 binding domain surrounding Y265 could represent a possible target site for pharmacological intervention

  3. Eucaryotic operon genes can define highly conserved syntenies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trachtulec, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2004), s. 1-6 ISSN 0015-5500 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0997; GA MŠk LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : eukaryotic operon * conserved synteny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2004

  4. Energy conservation and pomeron loops in high energy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta

    2007-01-01

    We present a formalism which modifies the Mueller Dipole Model such that it incorporates energy-momentum conservation as well as important colour suppressed effects in the cascade evolution. The formalism is implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation program, and the results are compared to inclusive data from HERA and the Tevatron. We here find a generally very good agreement between our model and the experimental data. (author)

  5. A highly conserved basidiomycete peptide synthetase produces a trimeric hydroxamate siderophore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburger, Eileen; Gressler, Markus; Leonhardt, Robin; Lackner, Gerald; Habel, Andreas; Hertweck, Christian; Brock, Matthias; Hoffmeister, Dirk

    2017-08-25

    The model white-rot basidiomycete Ceriporiopsis ( Gelatoporia ) subvermispora B encodes putative natural product biosynthesis genes. Among them is the gene for the seven-domain nonribosomal peptide synthetase CsNPS2. It is a member of the as-yet uncharacterized fungal type VI siderophore synthetase family which is highly conserved and widely distributed among the basidiomycetes. These enzymes include only one adenylation (A) domain, i.e., one complete peptide synthetase module and two thiolation/condensation (T-C) di-domain partial modules which, together, constitute an AT 1 C 1 T 2 C 2 T 3 C 3 domain setup. The full-length CsNPS2 enzyme (274.5 kDa) was heterologously produced as polyhistidine fusion in Aspergillus niger as soluble and active protein. N 5 -acetyl- N 5 -hydroxy-l-ornithine (l-AHO) and N 5 - cis -anhydromevalonyl- N 5 -hydroxy-l-ornithine (l-AMHO) were accepted as substrates, as assessed in vitro using the substrate-dependent [ 32 P]ATP-pyrophosphate radioisotope exchange assay. Full-length holo -CsNPS2 catalyzed amide bond formation between three l-AHO molecules to release the linear l-AHO trimer, called basidioferrin, as product in vitro , which was verified by LC-HRESIMS. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that type VI family siderophore synthetases are widespread in mushrooms and have evolved in a common ancestor of basidiomycetes. Importance : The basidiomycete nonribosomal peptide synthetase CsNPS2 represents a member of a widely distributed but previously uninvestigated class (type VI) of fungal siderophore synthetases. Genes orthologous to CsNPS2 are highly conserved across various phylogenetic clades of the basidiomycetes. Hence, our work serves as a broadly applicable model for siderophore biosynthesis and iron metabolism in higher fungi. Also, our results on the amino acid substrate preference of CsNPS2 supports further understanding of the substrate selectivity of fungal adenylation domains. Methodologically, this report highlights the

  6. Usherin expression is highly conserved in mouse and human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearsall, Nicole; Bhattacharya, Gautam; Wisecarver, Jim; Adams, Joe; Cosgrove, Dominic; Kimberling, William

    2002-12-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease that results in varying degrees of hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa. Three types of Usher syndrome (I, II, and III) have been identified clinically with Usher type II being the most common of the three types. Usher type II has been localized to three different chromosomes 1q41, 3p, and 5q, corresponding to Usher type 2A, 2B, and 2C respectively. Usherin is a basement membrane protein encoded by the USH2A gene. Expression of usherin has been localized in the basement membrane of several tissues, however it is not ubiquitous. Immunohistochemistry detected usherin in the following human tissues: retina, cochlea, small and large intestine, pancreas, bladder, prostate, esophagus, trachea, thymus, salivary glands, placenta, ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, and testis. Usherin was absent in many other tissues such as heart, lung, liver, kidney, and brain. This distribution is consistent with the usherin distribution seen in the mouse. Conservation of usherin is also seen at the nucleotide and amino acid level when comparing the mouse and human gene sequences. Evolutionary conservation of usherin expression at the molecular level and in tissues unaffected by Usher 2a supports the important structural and functional role this protein plays in the human. In addition, we believe that these results could lead to a diagnostic procedure for the detection of Usher syndrome and those who carry an USH2A mutation.

  7. Telomeric expression sites are highly conserved in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    Full Text Available Subtelomeric regions are often under-represented in genome sequences of eukaryotes. One of the best known examples of the use of telomere proximity for adaptive purposes are the bloodstream expression sites (BESs of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. To enhance our understanding of BES structure and function in host adaptation and immune evasion, the BES repertoire from the Lister 427 strain of T. brucei were independently tagged and sequenced. BESs are polymorphic in size and structure but reveal a surprisingly conserved architecture in the context of extensive recombination. Very small BESs do exist and many functioning BESs do not contain the full complement of expression site associated genes (ESAGs. The consequences of duplicated or missing ESAGs, including ESAG9, a newly named ESAG12, and additional variant surface glycoprotein genes (VSGs were evaluated by functional assays after BESs were tagged with a drug-resistance gene. Phylogenetic analysis of constituent ESAG families suggests that BESs are sequence mosaics and that extensive recombination has shaped the evolution of the BES repertoire. This work opens important perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation, a widely used strategy for immune evasion in pathogens, and telomere biology.

  8. PipY, a Member of the Conserved COG0325 Family of PLP-Binding Proteins, Expands the Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Regulatory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Labella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a paradigmatic model organism for nitrogen regulation in cyanobacteria. Expression of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation is positively regulated by the 2-oxoglutarate receptor and global transcriptional regulator NtcA. Maximal activation requires the subsequent binding of the co-activator PipX. PII, a protein found in all three domains of life as an integrator of signals of the nitrogen and carbon balance, binds to PipX to counteract NtcA activity at low 2-oxoglutarate levels. PII-PipX complexes can also bind to the transcriptional regulator PlmA, whose regulon remains unknown. Here we expand the nitrogen regulatory network to PipY, encoded by the bicistronic operon pipXY in S. elongatus. Work with PipY, the cyanobacterial member of the widespread family of COG0325 proteins, confirms the conserved roles in vitamin B6 and amino/keto acid homeostasis and reveals new PLP-related phenotypes, including sensitivity to antibiotics targeting essential PLP-holoenzymes or synthetic lethality with cysK. In addition, the related phenotypes of pipY and pipX mutants are consistent with genetic interactions in the contexts of survival to PLP-targeting antibiotics and transcriptional regulation. We also showed that PipY overexpression increased the length of S. elongatus cells. Taken together, our results support a universal regulatory role for COG0325 proteins, paving the way to a better understanding of these proteins and of their connections with other biological processes.

  9. The high price of depression: Family members' health conditions and health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G Thomas; Weisner, Constance M; Taillac, Cosette J; Campbell, Cynthia I

    2017-05-01

    To compare the health conditions and health care costs of family members of patients diagnosed with a Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) to family members of patients without an MDD diagnosis. Using electronic health record data, we identified family members (n=201,914) of adult index patients (n=92,399) diagnosed with MDD between 2009 and 2014 and family members (n=187,011) of matched patients without MDD. Diagnoses, health care utilization and costs were extracted for each family member. Logistic regression and multivariate models were used to compare diagnosed health conditions, health services cost, and utilization of MDD and non-MDD family members. Analyses covered the 5years before and after the index patient's MDD diagnosis. MDD family members were more likely than non-MDD family members to be diagnosed with mood disorders, anxiety, substance use disorder, and numerous other conditions. MDD family members had higher health care costs than non-MDD family members in every period analyzed, with the highest difference being in the year before the index patient's MDD diagnosis. Family members of patients with MDD are more likely to have a number of health conditions compared to non-MDD family members, and to have higher health care cost and utilization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Homologous high-throughput expression and purification of highly conserved E coli proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchmann Rainer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors and a dysregulated immune response towards commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Animal models demonstrated that the normal intestinal flora is crucial for the development of intestinal inflammation. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal flora, it has been difficult to design experiments for detection of proinflammatory bacterial antigen(s involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several studies indicated a potential association of E. coli with IBD. In addition, T cell clones of IBD patients were shown to cross react towards antigens from different enteric bacterial species and thus likely responded to conserved bacterial antigens. We therefore chose highly conserved E. coli proteins as candidate antigens for abnormal T cell responses in IBD and used high-throughput techniques for cloning, expression and purification under native conditions of a set of 271 conserved E. coli proteins for downstream immunologic studies. Results As a standardized procedure, genes were PCR amplified and cloned into the expression vector pQTEV2 in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a seven-histidine-tag. Initial small-scale expression and purification under native conditions by metal chelate affinity chromatography indicated that the vast majority of target proteins were purified in high yields. Targets that revealed low yields after purification probably due to weak solubility were shuttled into Gateway (Invitrogen destination vectors in order to enhance solubility by N-terminal fusion of maltose binding protein (MBP, N-utilizing substance A (NusA, or glutathione S-transferase (GST to the target protein. In addition, recombinant proteins were treated with polymyxin B coated magnetic beads in order to remove lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Thus, 73% of the targeted proteins could be expressed and purified in large-scale to give soluble proteins in the range of 500

  11. Visualization of conserved structures by fusing highly variable datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Jonathan C; Chhadia, Ankur; Dech, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Reality (VR) environment. The accuracy of the fusions was determined qualitatively by comparing the transformed atlas overlaid on the appropriate CT. It was examined for where the transformed structure atlas was incorrectly overlaid (false positive) and where it was incorrectly not overlaid (false negative). According to this method, fusions 1 and 2 were correct roughly 50-75% of the time, while fusions 3 and 4 were correct roughly 75-100%. The CT dataset augmented with transformed dataset was viewed arbitrarily in user-centered perspective stereo taking advantage of features such as scaling, windowing and volumetric region of interest selection. This process of auto-coloring conserved structures in variable datasets is a step toward the goal of a broader, standardized automatic structure visualization method for radiological data. If successful it would permit identification, visualization or deletion of structures in radiological data by semi-automatically applying canonical structure information to the radiological data (not just processing and visualization of the data's intrinsic dynamic range). More sophisticated selection of control points and patterns of warping may allow for more accurate transforms, and thus advances in visualization, simulation, education, diagnostics, and treatment planning.

  12. Analytic, high β, flux conserving equilibria for cylindrical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.; Vahala, G.

    1978-09-01

    Using Grad's theory of generalized differential equations, the temporal evolution from low to high β due to ''adiabatic'' and nonadiabatic (i.e., neutral beam injection) heating of a cylindrical tokamak plasma with circular cross section and peaked current profiles is calculated analytically. The influence of shaping the initial safety factor profile and the beam deposition profile and the effect of minor radius compression on the equilibrium is analyzed

  13. Analytic, high β, flux conserving equilibria for cylindrical tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.; Vahala, G.

    1978-01-01

    Using Grad's theory of generalized differential equations, the temporal evolution from low to high β due to ''adiabatic'' and nonadiabatic (i.e., neutral beam injection) heating of a cylindrical tokamak plasma with circular cross section and peaked current profiles is calculated analytically. The influence of shaping the initial safety factor profile and the beam deposition profile and the effect of minor radius compression on the equilibrium is analyzed

  14. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making.

  15. Search for extraterrestrial intelligence/high resolution microwave survey team member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1993-01-01

    This semiannual status report describes activities conducted by the Principal Investigator during the first half of this third year of the NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Investigator Working Group (IWG). As a (HRMS) Team Member with primary interest in the Sky Survey activity, this investigator attended IWG meetings at NASA/Ames and U.C.-Santa Cruz in Apr. and Aug. 1992, and has traveled independently to NRAO/Kitt Peak, Arizona (April 1993) and Woodbury, Georgia (July 1993). During the July 1993 visit to the Georgia Tech Research Corporation/Woodbury Research Facility, an experiment was conducted to study the effects of interference from C-band (3.7 - 4.2 GHz) geostationary spacecraft on the Sky Survey operation in that band. At the first IWG meeting in April of this year, results of a SETI observation conducted at the 203 GHz positronium hyperfine resonance using the NRAO facility at Kitt Peak, AZ, were presented, as well as updates on the development of the spaceborne RFI data bases developed for the project. At the second meeting, results of the study of interference from C-band geostationary spacecraft were presented. Likewise, a presentation was made at the accompanying 1993 Bioastronomy Symposium describing the SETI observation at the positronium hyperfine resonance.

  16. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  17. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  18. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  19. Experiences of adults with high-care needs and their family members with housing and support pathways in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Deborah; Fleming, Jennifer; Foster, Michele; Tweedy, Sean

    2017-09-01

    Many adults aged less than 65 years with high-care needs resulting from acquired disabilities are unable to access age-appropriate housing and support, and reside in residential aged care or live with family members who may struggle to navigate the disability support system. This qualitative study aimed to investigate the experiences of adults with high-care needs and their family members regarding pathways related to housing and support. Two in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted six months apart with 21 people aged 18 to 65 with high-care needs of varying etiology and living in different housing settings. Nineteen family members involved in decision-making about housing and supports were also interviewed. Thematic data analysis yielded five themes: (1) Traveling in different directions; (2) "the fight, the battle and the war"; (3) willing but wanting; (4) uncertainty and vulnerability; and (5) redefining social roles and relationships. Current disability policy is not satisfying the housing and support requirements of adults with high-care needs and their families. The findings provide rigorous, empirical evidence which indicate the urgent need to improve access to affordable, individualized housing and support packages, including financial, practical and informational support for family members involved in caring roles. Implications for Rehabilitation Individual preferences are an important consideration in housing and support arrangements for younger people with high-care needs alongside needs-based solutions. Individualized funding approaches may provide flexibility of care and choice in housing and support for people with disability. Family members willingly provide substantial informal care, support and advocacy for younger people with high needs but perceive their role as a constant "battle". Payment of family members in recognition of caring work was perceived as a solution to relieve family hardship and ensure optimal care.

  20. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  1. Engine including a piston member having a high top ring groove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, R.L.; Kamman, K.R.; Ballheimer, B.; Shoup, S.G.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes an improvement in an engine. It is of the type having a block defining an upper bore, a cylinder liner located in the block bore and defining a piston bore, a cylinder head connected to the block, and a piston assembly including a steel piston member disposed for reciprocation in the piston bore.

  2. Balancing forest-regeneration probabilities and maintenance costs in dry grasslands of high conservation priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Janine; Edwards, Thomas C.; Eggenberg, Stefan; Ismail, Sascha; Seidl, Irmi; Kienast, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Abandonment of agricultural land has resulted in forest regeneration in species-rich dry grasslands across European mountain regions and threatens conservation efforts in this vegetation type. To support national conservation strategies, we used a site-selection algorithm (MARXAN) to find optimum sets of floristic regions (reporting units) that contain grasslands of high conservation priority. We sought optimum sets that would accommodate 136 important dry-grassland species and that would minimize forest regeneration and costs of management needed to forestall predicted forest regeneration. We did not consider other conservation elements of dry grasslands, such as animal species richness, cultural heritage, and changes due to climate change. Optimal sets that included 95–100% of the dry grassland species encompassed an average of 56–59 floristic regions (standard deviation, SD 5). This is about 15% of approximately 400 floristic regions that contain dry-grassland sites and translates to 4800–5300 ha of dry grassland out of a total of approximately 23,000 ha for the entire study area. Projected costs to manage the grasslands in these optimum sets ranged from CHF (Swiss francs) 5.2 to 6.0 million/year. This is only 15–20% of the current total estimated cost of approximately CHF30–45 million/year required if all dry grasslands were to be protected. The grasslands of the optimal sets may be viewed as core sites in a national conservation strategy.

  3. Technical evaluation on high aging, and performance conditions on long-term conservation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    In order to secure safety and safe operation of power plants, in every nuclear power plants, conservation actions based on preventive conservation are performed. They contain operative condition monitoring, patrolling inspection, and periodical tests on important systems and apparatus by operators under plant operation and condition monitoring by maintenance workers, and so on, and when finding out their abnormal conditions, their detailed survey is performed to adopt adequate countermeasures such as recovery, exchange, and so on. And, to equipments for nuclear power generation periodical conditions were obliged by legal examinations and by independent inspections. As a result of these conservation actions, even on a plant elapsed about 30 years since beginning of its operation it was thought that the plant was aged with elapsing time even if not recognizing any indication on its aged deterioration at that time. Therefore, for its concrete countermeasure, by supposing long-term operation of a plant with longer operation history, some technical evaluation on aged phenomena were carried out, to investigate on reflection of the obtained results to present conservation actions. Here were described on efforts on the high aging countermeasures, and performing conditions of long-term conservation in the Tsuruga Unit No. 1 Nuclear Power Station. (G.K.)

  4. High qualitative and quantitative conservation of alternative splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Irimia, Manuel; Mørk, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important contributor to proteome diversity and is regarded as an explanatory factor for the relatively low number of human genes compared with less complex animals. To assess the evolutionary conservation of AS and its developmental regulation, we have investigated...... the qualitative and quantitative expression of 21 orthologous alternative splice events through the development of 2 nematode species separated by 85-110 Myr of evolutionary time. We demonstrate that most of these alternative splice events present in Caenorhabditis elegans are conserved in Caenorhabditis briggsae....... Moreover, we find that relative isoform expression levels vary significantly during development for 78% of the AS events and that this quantitative variation is highly conserved between the 2 species. Our results suggest that AS is generally tightly regulated through development and that the regulatory...

  5. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  6. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  7. Targeted cardiopulmonary resuscitation training focused on the family members of high-risk patients at a regional medical center: A comparison between family members of high-risk and no-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kap Su; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Sung Woo

    2018-05-01

    We developed a hospital-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training model focused on the target population (family members of patients with potential risks for cardiac arrest) and compared the outcome of CPR training between target and non-target populations for validity. Family members of patients in training were divided into three groups on the basis of patients' diseases, as follows: 1) the cardio-specific (CS) risk group, including family members of patients with cardiac disease at risk of cardiac arrest; 2) the cardiovascular (CV) risk group, including family members of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease; and 3) the no-risk group. Pre- and posttraining surveys and skill tests as well as a post-training 3-month telephone survey were conducted. Educational outcomes were analyzed. A total of 203 family members were enrolled into 21 CPR training classes. The CS group (n=88) included elderly persons and housewives with a lower level of education compared with the CV (n=79) and no-risk groups (n=36). The CS group was motivated by healthcare professionals and participated in the training course. The CS, CV, and no-risk groups showed improvements in knowledge, willingness to perform CPR, and skills. Despite the older age and lower level of education in the CS group, the effects of education were similar to those in the other groups. A high rate of response and secondary propagation of CPR training were observed in the CS group. Family members of patients with heart disease could be an appropriate target population for CPR training, particularly in terms of recruitment and secondary propagation. Targeted intervention may be an effective training strategy to improve bystander CPR rates.

  8. Functional genomic analysis supports conservation of function among cellulose synthase-like a gene family members and suggests diverse roles of mannans in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liepman, Aaron H; Nairn, C Joseph; Willats, William G T

    2007-01-01

    from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), and Populus trichocarpa catalyze beta-1,4-mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Mannan polysaccharides and homologs of CslA genes appear to be present in all lineages of land plants analyzed to date. In many plants......, the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced...... they are prevalent at cell junctions and in buds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that members of the CslA gene family from diverse plant species encode glucomannan synthases and support the hypothesis that mannans function in metabolic networks devoted to other cellular processes in addition to cell wall...

  9. Ancient Exaptation of a CORE-SINE Retroposon into a Highly Conserved Mammalian Neuronal Enhancer of the Proopiomelanocortin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC) is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5′ distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE) retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution. PMID:17922573

  10. Ancient exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon into a highly conserved mammalian neuronal enhancer of the proopiomelanocortin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Santangelo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5' distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution.

  11. Crystal structure of AFV3-109, a highly conserved protein from crenarchaeal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevillon-Cheruel Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraordinary morphologies of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea clearly distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Moreover, their genomes code for proteins that to a large extend have no related sequences in the extent databases. However, a small pool of genes is shared by overlapping subsets of these viruses, and the most conserved gene, exemplified by the ORF109 of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3, AFV3, is present on genomes of members of three viral familes, the Lipothrixviridae, Rudiviridae, and "Bicaudaviridae", as well as of the unclassified Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus, STIV. We present here the crystal structure of the protein (Mr = 13.1 kD, 109 residues encoded by the AFV3 ORF 109 in two different crystal forms at 1.5 and 1.3 Å resolution. The structure of AFV3-109 is a five stranded β-sheet with loops on one side and three helices on the other. It forms a dimer adopting the shape of a cradle that encompasses the best conserved regions of the sequence. No protein with a related fold could be identified except for the ortholog from STIV1, whose structure was deposited at the Protein Data Bank. We could clearly identify a well bound glycerol inside the cradle, contacting exclusively totally conserved residues. This interaction was confirmed in solution by fluorescence titration. Although the function of AFV3-109 cannot be deduced directly from its structure, structural homology with the STIV1 protein, and the size and charge distribution of the cavity suggested it could interact with nucleic acids. Fluorescence quenching titrations also showed that AFV3-109 interacts with dsDNA. Genomic sequence analysis revealed bacterial homologs of AFV3-109 as a part of a putative previously unidentified prophage sequences in some Firmicutes.

  12. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  13. Members of miR-169 family are induced by high salinity and transiently inhibit the NF-YA transcription factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hongxuan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously expressed small RNAs with a length of about 21 nt. MiRNAs silence their target genes at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, miRNAs play various developmental and physiological roles by cleavaging mRNAs predominantly. Drought and high salinity are the most severe environmental abiotic stresses and cause crop losses all over the world. Results In this study, we identified miR-169g and miR-169n (o as high salinity-responsive miRNAs in rice. MiR-169n and miR169o were in a miRNA cluster with a distance of 3707 base pairs (bp. The high degree of conservation and close phylogenic distance of pre-miR-169n and pre-miR-169o indicated that they were derived from a very recent tandem duplication evolutionary event. The existence of a cis-acting abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE in the upstream region of miR-169n (o suggested that miR-169n (o may be regulated by ABA. In our previous study, we found that miR-169g was induced by the osmotic stress caused by drought via a dehydration-responsive element (DRE. Thus, our data showed that there were both overlapping and distinct responses of the miR-169 family to drought and salt stresses. We also showed that these miR-169 members selectively cleaved one of the NF-YA genes, Os03g29760, which is a CCAAT-box binding transcription factor and participates in transcriptional regulation of large number genes. Finally, we found one or more ath-miR-169 member that was also induced by high salinity. Conclusion We identified members of the miR-169 family as salt-induced miRNAs and analyzed their evolution, gene organization, expression, transcriptional regulation motif and target gene. Our data also indicated that the salt-induction of some miR-169 members was a general property in plants.

  14. Members of miR-169 family are induced by high salinity and transiently inhibit the NF-YA transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Botao; Ge, Liangfa; Liang, Ruqiang; Li, Wei; Ruan, Kangcheng; Lin, Hongxuan; Jin, Youxin

    2009-04-08

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously expressed small RNAs with a length of about 21 nt. MiRNAs silence their target genes at the post-transcriptional level. In plants, miRNAs play various developmental and physiological roles by cleavaging mRNAs predominantly. Drought and high salinity are the most severe environmental abiotic stresses and cause crop losses all over the world. In this study, we identified miR-169g and miR-169n (o) as high salinity-responsive miRNAs in rice. MiR-169n and miR169o were in a miRNA cluster with a distance of 3707 base pairs (bp). The high degree of conservation and close phylogenic distance of pre-miR-169n and pre-miR-169o indicated that they were derived from a very recent tandem duplication evolutionary event. The existence of a cis-acting abscisic acid responsive element (ABRE) in the upstream region of miR-169n (o) suggested that miR-169n (o) may be regulated by ABA. In our previous study, we found that miR-169g was induced by the osmotic stress caused by drought via a dehydration-responsive element (DRE). Thus, our data showed that there were both overlapping and distinct responses of the miR-169 family to drought and salt stresses. We also showed that these miR-169 members selectively cleaved one of the NF-YA genes, Os03g29760, which is a CCAAT-box binding transcription factor and participates in transcriptional regulation of large number genes. Finally, we found one or more ath-miR-169 member that was also induced by high salinity. We identified members of the miR-169 family as salt-induced miRNAs and analyzed their evolution, gene organization, expression, transcriptional regulation motif and target gene. Our data also indicated that the salt-induction of some miR-169 members was a general property in plants.

  15. Conservative Management for Stable High Ankle Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Trem, Anthony; Sheehan, Joseph; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    High ankle "syndesmosis" injuries are common in American football players relative to the general population. At the professional level, syndesmotic sprains represent a challenging and unique injury lacking a standardized rehabilitation protocol during conservative management. PubMed, Biosis Preview, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms syndesmotic injuries, American football, conservative management, and rehabilitation. Clinical review. Level 3. When compared with lateral ankle sprains, syndesmosis injuries result in significantly prolonged recovery times and games lost. For stable syndesmotic injuries, conservative management features a brief period of immobilization and protected weightbearing followed by progressive strengthening exercises and running, and athletes can expect to return to competition in 2 to 6 weeks. Further research investigating the efficacy of dry needling and blood flow restriction therapy is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these techniques in the rehabilitation process. Successful conservative management of stable syndesmotic injuries in professional American football athletes requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy, injury mechanisms, diagnosis, and rehabilitation strategies utilized in elite athletes.

  16. Constrained dansyl derivatives reveal bacterial specificity of highly conserved thymidylate synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calò, Sanuele; Tondi, Donatella; Ferrari, Stefania; Venturelli, Alberto; Ghelli, Stefano; Costi, Maria Paola

    2008-03-25

    The elucidation of the structural/functional specificities of highly conserved enzymes remains a challenging area of investigation, and enzymes involved in cellular replication are important targets for functional studies and drug discovery. Thymidylate synthase (TS, ThyA) governs the synthesis of thymidylate for use in DNA synthesis. The present study focused on Lactobacillus casei TS (LcTS) and Escherichia coli TS (EcTS), which exhibit 50 % sequence identity and strong folding similarity. We have successfully designed and validated a chemical model in which linear, but not constrained, dansyl derivatives specifically complement the LcTS active site. Conversely, chemically constrained dansyl derivatives showed up to 1000-fold improved affinity for EcTS relative to the inhibitory activity of linear derivatives. This study demonstrates that the accurate design of small ligands can uncover functional features of highly conserved enzymes.

  17. Enhancing Conservation with High Resolution Productivity Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathaniel Paul

    Human driven alteration of the earth's terrestrial surface is accelerating through land use changes, intensification of human activity, climate change, and other anthropogenic pressures. These changes occur at broad spatio-temporal scales, challenging our ability to effectively monitor and assess the impacts and subsequent conservation strategies. While satellite remote sensing (SRS) products enable monitoring of the earth's terrestrial surface continuously across space and time, the practical applications for conservation and management of these products are limited. Often the processes driving ecological change occur at fine spatial resolutions and are undetectable given the resolution of available datasets. Additionally, the links between SRS data and ecologically meaningful metrics are weak. Recent advances in cloud computing technology along with the growing record of high resolution SRS data enable the development of SRS products that quantify ecologically meaningful variables at relevant scales applicable for conservation and management. The focus of my dissertation is to improve the applicability of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity (GPP/NPP) datasets for the conterminous United States (CONUS). In chapter one, I develop a framework for creating high resolution datasets of vegetation dynamics. I use the entire archive of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflectance data and a novel gap filling approach to create spatially continuous 30 m, 16-day composites of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1986 to 2016. In chapter two, I integrate this with other high resolution datasets and the MOD17 algorithm to create the first high resolution GPP and NPP datasets for CONUS. I demonstrate the applicability of these products for conservation and management, showing the improvements beyond currently available products. In chapter three, I utilize this dataset to evaluate the relationships between land ownership and terrestrial production

  18. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  19. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.; Pasquetti, R.

    2010-01-01

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  20. Highly conserved non-coding sequences are associated with vertebrate development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Woolfe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are compared in order to identify both similarities and differences. In general, similarities in sequence between highly divergent organisms imply functional constraint. We have used a whole-genome comparison between humans and the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, to identify nearly 1,400 highly conserved non-coding sequences. Given the evolutionary divergence between these species, it is likely that these sequences are found in, and furthermore are essential to, all vertebrates. Most, and possibly all, of these sequences are located in and around genes that act as developmental regulators. Some of these sequences are over 90% identical across more than 500 bases, being more highly conserved than coding sequence between these two species. Despite this, we cannot find any similar sequences in invertebrate genomes. In order to begin to functionally test this set of sequences, we have used a rapid in vivo assay system using zebrafish embryos that allows tissue-specific enhancer activity to be identified. Functional data is presented for highly conserved non-coding sequences associated with four unrelated developmental regulators (SOX21, PAX6, HLXB9, and SHH, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this screen to a wide range of genes and expression patterns. Of 25 sequence elements tested around these four genes, 23 show significant enhancer activity in one or more tissues. We have identified a set of non-coding sequences that are highly conserved throughout vertebrates. They are found in clusters across the human genome, principally around genes that are implicated in the regulation of development

  1. MadR1, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell cycle stress response protein that is a member of a widely conserved protein class of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and archeal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Rebecca; Ramirez, Melissa V; England, Kathleen; Slayden, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Stress-induced molecular programs designed to stall division progression are nearly ubiquitous in bacteria, with one well-known example being the participation of the SulA septum inhibiting protein in the SOS DNA damage repair response. Mycobacteria similarly demonstrate stress-altered growth kinetics, however no such regulators have been found in these organisms. We therefore set out to identify SulA-like regulatory proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A bioinformatics modeling-based approach led to the identification of rv2216 as encoding for a protein with weak similarity to SulA, further analysis distinguished this protein as belonging to a group of uncharacterized growth promoting proteins. We have named the mycobacterial protein encoded by rv2216 morphology altering division regulator protein 1, MadR1. Overexpression of madR1 modulated cell length while maintaining growth kinetics similar to wild-type, and increased the proportion of bent or V-form cells in the population. The presence of MadR1-GFP at regions of cellular elongation (poles) and morphological differentiation (V-form) suggests MadR1 involvement in phenotypic heterogeneity and longitudinal cellular growth. Global transcriptional analysis indicated that MadR1 functionality is linked to lipid editing programs required for growth and persistence. This is the first report to differentiate the larger class of these conserved proteins from SulA proteins and characterizes MadR1 effects on the mycobacterial cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Insights into the smooth-to-rough transitioning in Mycobacterium bolletii unravels a functional Tyr residue conserved in all mycobacterial MmpL family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernut, Audrey; Viljoen, Albertus; Dupont, Christian; Sapriel, Guillaume; Blaise, Mickaël; Bouchier, Christiane; Brosch, Roland; de Chastellier, Chantal; Herrmann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    In mycobacteria, MmpL proteins represent key components that participate in the biosynthesis of the complex cell envelope. Whole genome analysis of a spontaneous rough morphotype variant of Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. bolletii identified a conserved tyrosine that is crucial for the function of MmpL family proteins. Isogenic smooth (S) and rough (R) variants differed by a single mutation linked to a Y842H substitution in MmpL4a. This mutation caused a deficiency in glycopeptidolipid production/transport in the R variant and a gain in the capacity to produce cords in vitro. In zebrafish, increased virulence of the M. bolletii R variant over the parental S strain was found, involving massive production of serpentine cords, abscess formation and rapid larval death. Importantly, this finding allowed us to demonstrate an essential role of Tyr842 in several different MmpL proteins, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis MmpL3. Structural homology models of MmpL4a and MmpL3 identified two additional critical residues located in the transmembrane regions TM10 and TM4 that are facing each other. We propose that these central residues are part of the proton-motive force that supplies the energy for substrate transport. Hence, we provide important insights into mechanistic/structural aspects of MmpL proteins as lipid transporters and virulence determinants in mycobacteria. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The conservation pattern of short linear motifs is highly correlated with the function of interacting protein domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yiguo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many well-represented domains recognize primary sequences usually less than 10 amino acids in length, called Short Linear Motifs (SLiMs. Accurate prediction of SLiMs has been difficult because they are short (often Results Our combined approach revealed that SLiMs are highly conserved in proteins from functional classes that are known to interact with a specific domain, but that they are not conserved in most other protein groups. We found that SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains were highly conserved in receptor kinases/phosphatases, adaptor molecules, and tyrosine kinases/phosphatases, that SLiMs recognized by SH3 domains were highly conserved in cytoskeletal and cytoskeletal-associated proteins, that SLiMs recognized by PDZ domains were highly conserved in membrane proteins such as channels and receptors, and that SLiMs recognized by S/T kinase domains were highly conserved in adaptor molecules, S/T kinases/phosphatases, and proteins involved in transcription or cell cycle control. We studied Tyr-SLiMs recognized by SH2 domains in more detail, and found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs on the cytoplasmic side of membrane proteins are more highly conserved than those on the extra-cellular side. Also, we found that SH2-recognized Tyr-SLiMs that are associated with SH3 motifs and a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif are more highly conserved. Conclusion The interactome of protein domains is reflected by the evolutionary conservation of SLiMs recognized by these domains. Combining scoring matrixes derived from peptide libraries and conservation analysis, we would be able to find those protein groups that are more likely to interact with specific domains.

  4. When do high and low status group members support confrontation? The role of perceived pervasiveness of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kimberly Barsamian; Barreto, Manuela; Kaiser, Cheryl R; Rego, Marco Silva

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines how perceived pervasiveness of prejudice differentially affects high and low status group members' support for a low status group member who confronts. In Experiment 1 (N = 228), men and women read a text describing sexism as rare or as pervasive and subsequently indicated their support for a woman who confronted or did not confront a sexist remark. Experiment 2 (N = 324) specified the underlying process using a self-affirmation manipulation. Results show that men were more supportive of confrontation when sexism was perceived to be rare than when it was pervasive. By contrast, women tended to prefer confrontation when sexism was pervasive relative to when it was rare. Personal self-affirmation decreased men's and increased women's support for confrontation when prejudice was rare, suggesting that men's and women's support for confrontation when prejudice is rare is driven by personal impression management considerations. Implications for understanding how members of low and high status groups respond to prejudice are discussed. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Houston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islands near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia, and assess their implications for conservation and management. The Keppels has much higher coral diversity than previously found. The average species richness for the 19 study sites was ~40 with representatives from 68% of the ~244 species previously described for the southern Great Barrier Reef. Using scleractinian coral species richness, taxonomic distinctiveness and coral cover as the main criteria, we found that five out of 19 sites had particularly high conservation value. A further site was also considered to be of relatively high value. Corals at this site were taxonomically distinct from the others (representatives of two families were found here but not at other sites and a wide range of functionally diverse taxa were present. This site was associated with more stressful conditions such as high temperatures and turbidity. Highly diverse coral communities or biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and taxonomically distinct reefs may act as insurance policies for climatic disturbance, much like Noah’s Arks for reefs. While improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic impacts are clearly important management initiatives to improve the long-term outlook for inshore reefs, identifying, mapping and protecting these coastal ‘refugia’ may be the key for ensuring their regeneration against catastrophic climatic disturbance in the meantime.

  6. Impact of local empowerment on conservation practices in a highly developed country

    OpenAIRE

    Engen, Sigrid; Hausner, Vera Helene

    2017-01-01

    Source at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/conl.12369 Community-based conservation, where local decision makers are responsible for balancing conservation and development, is often preferred to exclusion- ary conservation that prioritizes use-limitation through strict regulation. Un- raveling the evidence for conservation impact of different governance regimes is challenging. Focusing on conservation practices before and after a reform can provide an early indication of behaviora...

  7. In situ high-frequency UV-Vis spectrometer probes for investigating runoff processes and end member stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Weiler, Markus; Pfister, Laurent; Klaus, Julian

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, several limitations as to the application of end member mixing analysis with isotope and geochemical tracers have been revealed: unstable end member solutions, inputs varying in space and time, and unrealistic mixing assumptions. In addition, the necessary high-frequency sampling using conventional methods is time and resources consuming, and hence most sampling rates are not suitable for capturing the response times of the majority of observed headwater catchments. However, high-frequency observations are considered fundamental for gaining new insights into hydrological systems. In our study, we have used two portable, in situ, high-frequency UV-Vis spectrometers (spectro::lyser; scan Messtechnik GmbH) to investigate the variability of several signatures in streamflow and end member stability. The spectro::lyser measures TOC, DOC, nitrate and the light absorption spectrum from 220 to 720 nm with 2.5 nm increment. The Weierbach catchment (0.45 km2) in the Attert basin (297 km2) in Luxemburg is a small headwater research catchment (operated by the CRP Gabriel Lippmann), which is completely forested and underlain by schist bedrock. The catchment is equipped with a dense network of hydrological instruments and for this study, the outlet of the Weierbach catchment was equipped with one spectro::lyser, permanently sensing stream water at a 15 minutes time step over several months. Hydrometric and meteorologic data was compared with the high-frequency spectro::lyser time series of TOC, DOC, nitrate and the light absorption spectrum, to get a first insight into the behaviour of the catchment under different environmental conditions. As a preliminary step for a successful end member mixing analysis, the stability of rainfall, soil water, and groundwater was tested with one spectro::lyser, both temporally and spatially. Thereby, we focused on the investigation of changes and patterns of the light absorption spectrum of the different end members and the

  8. Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; McGlynn, Gayle; Epp, Laura S; Taylor, David; Pimentel, Manuel; Gizaw, Abel; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Popp, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Conservation of biodiversity may in the future increasingly depend upon the availability of scientific information to set suitable restoration targets. In traditional paleoecology, sediment-based pollen provides a means to define preanthropogenic impact conditions, but problems in establishing the exact provenance and ecologically meaningful levels of taxonomic resolution of the evidence are limiting. We explored the extent to which the use of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) may complement pollen data in reconstructing past alpine environments in the tropics. We constructed a record of afro-alpine plants retrieved from DNA preserved in sediment cores from 2 volcanic crater sites in the Albertine Rift, eastern Africa. The record extended well beyond the onset of substantial anthropogenic effects on tropical mountains. To ensure high-quality taxonomic inference from the sedaDNA sequences, we built an extensive DNA reference library covering the majority of the afro-alpine flora, by sequencing DNA from taxonomically verified specimens. Comparisons with pollen records from the same sediment cores showed that plant diversity recovered with sedaDNA improved vegetation reconstructions based on pollen records by revealing both additional taxa and providing increased taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, combining the 2 measures assisted in distinguishing vegetation change at different geographic scales; sedaDNA almost exclusively reflects local vegetation, whereas pollen can potentially originate from a wide area that in highlands in particular can span several ecozones. Our results suggest that sedaDNA may provide information on restoration targets and the nature and magnitude of human-induced environmental changes, including in high conservation priority, biodiversity hotspots, where understanding of preanthropogenic impact (or reference) conditions is highly limited. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Proteome-wide mapping of the Drosophila acetylome demonstrates a high degree of conservation of lysine acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Wagner, Sebastian A; Horn, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by acetylation and phosphorylation regulates most cellular processes in living organisms. Surprisingly, the evolutionary conservation of phosphorylated serine and threonine residues is only marginally higher than that of unmodified serines and threonines....... With high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 1981 lysine acetylation sites in the proteome of Drosophila melanogaster. We used data sets of experimentally identified acetylation and phosphorylation sites in Drosophila and humans to analyze the evolutionary conservation of these modification sites...... between flies and humans. Site-level conservation analysis revealed that acetylation sites are highly conserved, significantly more so than phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, comparison of lysine conservation in Drosophila and humans with that in nematodes and zebrafish revealed that acetylated lysines...

  10. Low-Intensity Agricultural Landscapes in Transylvania Support High Butterfly Diversity: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  11. A systematic review of basic life support training targeted to family members of high-risk cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Susie; Bray, Janet E; Leary, Marion; Stub, Dion; Finn, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Targeting basic life support (BLS) training to bystanders who are most likely to witness an out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is an important public health intervention. We performed a systematic review examining the evidence of the effectiveness of providing BLS training to family members of high-risk cardiac patients. A search of Ovid MEDLINE, CINAL, EMBASE, Informit, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global was conducted. We included all studies training adult family members of high-risk cardiac patients regardless of methods used for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or BLS training. Two reviewers independently extracted data and evaluated the quality of evidence using GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). We included 26 of the 1172 studies identified. The majority of studies were non-randomised controlled trials (n=18), of very low to moderate quality. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to indicate a benefit of this intervention for patients; largely because of low numbers of OHCA events and high loss to follow-up. However, the majority of trained individuals were able to competently perform BLS skills, reported a willingness to use these skills and experienced lower anxiety. Whilst there is no current evidence for improvement in patient outcomes from targeted BLS training for family members, this group are willing and capable to learn these skills. Future research may need to examine longer periods of follow-up using alternate methods (e.g. cardiac arrest registries), and examine the effectiveness of training in the modern era. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-order conservative discretizations for some cases of the rigid body motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Modified vector fields can be used to construct high-order structure-preserving numerical integrators for ordinary differential equations. In the present Letter we consider high-order integrators based on the implicit midpoint rule, which conserve quadratic first integrals. It is shown that these integrators are particularly suitable for the rigid body motion with an additional quadratic first integral. In this case high-order integrators preserve all four first integrals of motion. The approach is illustrated on the Lagrange top (a rotationally symmetric rigid body with a fixed point on the symmetry axis). The equations of motion are considered in the space fixed frame because in this frame Lagrange top admits a neat description. The Lagrange top motion includes the spherical pendulum and the planar pendulum, which swings in a vertical plane, as particular cases

  13. Traveling waves and conservation laws for highly nonlinear wave equations modeling Hertz chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedborski, Michelle; Anco, Stephen C.

    2017-09-01

    A highly nonlinear, fourth-order wave equation that models the continuum theory of long wavelength pulses in weakly compressed, homogeneous, discrete chains with a general power-law contact interaction is studied. For this wave equation, all solitary wave solutions and all nonlinear periodic wave solutions, along with all conservation laws, are derived. The solutions are explicitly parameterized in terms of the asymptotic value of the wave amplitude in the case of solitary waves and the peak of the wave amplitude in the case of nonlinear periodic waves. All cases in which the solution expressions can be stated in an explicit analytic form using elementary functions are worked out. In these cases, explicit expressions for the total energy and total momentum for all solutions are obtained as well. The derivation of the solutions uses the conservation laws combined with an energy analysis argument to reduce the wave equation directly to a separable first-order differential equation that determines the wave amplitude in terms of the traveling wave variable. This method can be applied more generally to other highly nonlinear wave equations.

  14. High-frequency deregulated expression of Wnt signaling pathway members in breast carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zahid; Arafah, Maha; Shaik, Jilani Purusottapatnam; Mahale, Alka; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud

    2018-01-01

    Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy and leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide including Saudi Arabia. Breast cancer in Saudi women develops at a much early age with median age of onset of 49 years compared to 62 years observed in patients from USA. Aberrations in wingless and integration site growth factor (Wnt) signaling pathway have been pathologically implicated in development of breast cancers and hence its role was examined in Saudi patients. We immunohistochemically examined various components of Wnt signaling pathway including β-catenin, tumor suppressor proteins, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and Axin, expression of naturally occurring pathway antagonists such as Dickkopf Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor 3 (DKK3), FRP2, and WIF1, as well as Wnt target cyclin D1 and c-Myc to establish if the pathway is constitutively activated in breast cancers arising in Saudi women. Cytoplasmic β-catenin, indicative of activation of the pathway, was observed in 24% of cases. Expression of APC and Axin, which are components of β-catenin destruction complex, was lost in 5% and 10% of tumors, respectively. Additionally, Wnt signaling inhibitors DKK3, FRP2, and Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) were not expressed in 8%, 14%, and 5% breast tumors, respectively. Overall, accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin and downregulation of other Wnt pathway proteins (APC/Axin/DKK3/FRP2/WIF1) were found in approximately half of the breast cancers (47%) in our cohort. Consistent with this, analysis of Wnt target genes demonstrated moderate-to-strong expression of c-Myc in 58% and cyclin D1 in 50% of breast cancers. Deregulation of Wnt pathway was not associated with age of onset of the disease, tumor grade, and triple-negative status of breast cancers. High level of deregulated expression of Wnt pathway proteins suggests its important role in pathogenesis of breast cancers arising in Saudi women who may benefit from development of therapeutic drugs

  15. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  16. Determining the drivers of population structure in a highly urbanized landscape to inform conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Harrigan, Ryan J; Semple Delaney, Kathleen; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Pease, Katherine; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Thomas B

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the environmental contributors to population structure is of paramount importance for conservation in urbanized environments. We used spatially explicit models to determine genetic population structure under current and future environmental conditions across a highly fragmented, human-dominated environment in Southern California to assess the effects of natural ecological variation and urbanization. We focused on 7 common species with diverse habitat requirements, home-range sizes, and dispersal abilities. We quantified the relative roles of potential barriers, including natural environmental characteristics and an anthropogenic barrier created by a major highway, in shaping genetic variation. The ability to predict genetic variation in our models differed among species: 11-81% of intraspecific genetic variation was explained by environmental variables. Although an anthropogenically induced barrier (a major highway) severely restricted gene flow and movement at broad scales for some species, genetic variation seemed to be primarily driven by natural environmental heterogeneity at a local level. Our results show how assessing environmentally associated variation for multiple species under current and future climate conditions can help identify priority regions for maximizing population persistence under environmental change in urbanized regions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7-3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2-1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  18. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  19. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family...... clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity...... enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some...

  20. Cortical cytasters: a highly conserved developmental trait of Bilateria with similarities to Ctenophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinas-Saavedra Miguel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytasters (cytoplasmic asters are centriole-based nucleation centers of microtubule polymerization that are observable in large numbers in the cortical cytoplasm of the egg and zygote of bilaterian organisms. In both protostome and deuterostome taxa, cytasters have been described to develop during oogenesis from vesicles of nuclear membrane that move to the cortical cytoplasm. They become associated with several cytoplasmic components, and participate in the reorganization of cortical cytoplasm after fertilization, patterning the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral body axes. Presentation of the hypothesis The specific resemblances in the development of cytasters in both protostome and deuterostome taxa suggest that an independent evolutionary origin is unlikely. An assessment of published data confirms that cytasters are present in several protostome and deuterostome phyla, but are absent in the non-bilaterian phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophora. We hypothesize that cytasters evolved in the lineage leading to Bilateria and were already present in the most recent common ancestor shared by protostomes and deuterostomes. Thus, cytasters would be an ancient and highly conserved trait that is homologous across the different bilaterian phyla. The alternative possibility is homoplasy, that is cytasters have evolved independently in different lineages of Bilateria. Testing the hypothesis So far, available published information shows that appropriate observations have been made in eight different bilaterian phyla. All of them present cytasters. This is consistent with the hypothesis of homology and conservation. However, there are several important groups for which there are no currently available data. The hypothesis of homology predicts that cytasters should be present in these groups. Increasing the taxonomic sample using modern techniques uniformly will test for evolutionary patterns supporting homology, homoplasy, or secondary loss of

  1. The effect of smoking by family members and friends on the incidence of smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeetalab, Fariba; Rezaeitalab, Fariborz; Soltaneefa, Atefeh; Ghaznavi, Mahsoomeh; Bakhshandeh, Tahereh; Saberi, Soheila

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of death. According to the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) presented by WHO, 25% of smokers smoked their first cigarette before the age of 10; hence, it is of great importance to investigate the effect of smoking of family members and friends on smoking incidence of adolescents. This analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of GYTS questionnaire. The studied population consisted of 3000 high school students who were selected randomly. Data was collected by applying the questionnaires which were fulfilled by students anonymously without supervision of school authorities. The results were analyzed with SPSS 11.5 software employing chi-square test. The studied population included 1842 boys (61.4%) and 1158 girls (38.6%) with the mean age of 16.1 years. In terms of smoking habit, 827 students (27.6%) were occasional smokers, 122 students (4.2%) were regular smokers, 518 students (17.3%) used another type of tobacco, and 1533 students (51.1%) were non-smokers. In terms of gender, 77.6% of occasional smokers were males and 22.4% of them were females. At the same time, males and females made up 80.3% and 19.7% of regular smokers, respectively. Also, males and females made up 71.1% and 28.9% of students using another type of tobacco, respectively. In terms of smoker family members and friends, 1860 students (85.6%) of non-smoker students had no smoker in their families and only 313 (14.4%) had at least one smoker in family, while 61.5% of smoker students had at least one smoker family member (p pocket money. This study showed that the incidence of smoking among high school students significantly correlated with the incidence of smoking among their friendsandfamilymembers (p pocket money) has little orno effect on the incidence of smoking among high school students (p value: 0.863).

  2. A highly conserved amino acid in VP1 regulates maturation of enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xin Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD in children, causing severe clinical outcomes and even death. Here, we report an important role of the highly conserved alanine residue at position 107 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1A107 in the efficient replication of EV71. Substitutional mutations of VP1A107 significantly diminish viral growth kinetics without significant effect on viral entry, expression of viral genes and viral production. The results of mechanistic studies reveal that VP1A107 regulates the efficient cleavage of the VP0 precursor during EV71 assembly, which is required, in the next round of infection, for the transformation of the mature virion (160S into an intermediate or A-particle (135S, a key step of virus uncoating. Furthermore, the results of molecular dynamic simulations and hydrogen-bond networks analysis of VP1A107 suggest that flexibility of the VP1 BC loop or the region surrounding the VP1107 residue directly correlates with viral infectivity. It is possible that sufficient flexibility of the region surrounding the VP1107 residue favors VP0 conformational change that is required for the efficient cleavage of VP0 as well as subsequent viral uncoating and viral replication. Taken together, our data reveal the structural role of the highly conserved VP1A107 in regulating EV71 maturation. Characterization of this novel determinant of EV71 virulence would promote the study on pathogenesis of Enteroviruses.

  3. CpG methylation differences between neurons and glia are highly conserved from mouse to human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Noah J; Van Baak, Timothy E; Baker, Maria S; Laritsky, Eleonora; Coarfa, Cristian; Waterland, Robert A

    2016-01-15

    Understanding epigenetic differences that distinguish neurons and glia is of fundamental importance to the nascent field of neuroepigenetics. A recent study used genome-wide bisulfite sequencing to survey differences in DNA methylation between these two cell types, in both humans and mice. That study minimized the importance of cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, claiming these are restricted to localized genomic regions, and instead emphasized that widespread and highly conserved differences in non-CpG methylation distinguish neurons and glia. We reanalyzed the data from that study and came to markedly different conclusions. In particular, we found widespread cell type-specific differences in CpG methylation, with a genome-wide tendency for neuronal CpG-hypermethylation punctuated by regions of glia-specific hypermethylation. Alarmingly, our analysis indicated that the majority of genes identified by the primary study as exhibiting cell type-specific CpG methylation differences were misclassified. To verify the accuracy of our analysis, we isolated neuronal and glial DNA from mouse cortex and performed quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing at nine loci. The pyrosequencing results corroborated our analysis, without exception. Most interestingly, we found that gene-associated neuron vs. glia CpG methylation differences are highly conserved across human and mouse, and are very likely to be functional. In addition to underscoring the importance of independent verification to confirm the conclusions of genome-wide epigenetic analyses, our data indicate that CpG methylation plays a major role in neuroepigenetics, and that the mouse is likely an excellent model in which to study the role of DNA methylation in human neurodevelopment and disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Evolutionary conservation of essential and highly expressed genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scharfe Maren

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The constant increase in development and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics poses a serious threat to human health. New sequencing technologies are now on the horizon that will yield massive increases in our capacity for DNA sequencing and will revolutionize the drug discovery process. Since essential genes are promising novel antibiotic targets, the prediction of gene essentiality based on genomic information has become a major focus. Results In this study we demonstrate that pooled sequencing is applicable for the analysis of sequence variations of strain collections with more than 10 individual isolates. Pooled sequencing of 36 clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates revealed that essential and highly expressed proteins evolve at lower rates, whereas extracellular proteins evolve at higher rates. We furthermore refined the list of experimentally essential P. aeruginosa genes, and identified 980 genes that show no sequence variation at all. Among the conserved nonessential genes we found several that are involved in regulation, motility and virulence, indicating that they represent factors of evolutionary importance for the lifestyle of a successful environmental bacterium and opportunistic pathogen. Conclusion The detailed analysis of a comprehensive set of P. aeruginosa genomes in this study clearly disclosed detailed information of the genomic makeup and revealed a large set of highly conserved genes that play an important role for the lifestyle of this microorganism. Sequencing strain collections enables for a detailed and extensive identification of sequence variations as potential bacterial adaptation processes, e.g., during the development of antibiotic resistance in the clinical setting and thus may be the basis to uncover putative targets for novel treatment strategies.

  5. A guide to calculating habitat-quality metrics to inform conservation of highly mobile species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieri, Joanna A.; Sample, Christine; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Earl, Julia E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Federico, Paula; Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Semmens, Darius J.; Skraber, T.; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady J.

    2018-01-01

    Many metrics exist for quantifying the relative value of habitats and pathways used by highly mobile species. Properly selecting and applying such metrics requires substantial background in mathematics and understanding the relevant management arena. To address this multidimensional challenge, we demonstrate and compare three measurements of habitat quality: graph-, occupancy-, and demographic-based metrics. Each metric provides insights into system dynamics, at the expense of increasing amounts and complexity of data and models. Our descriptions and comparisons of diverse habitat-quality metrics provide means for practitioners to overcome the modeling challenges associated with management or conservation of such highly mobile species. Whereas previous guidance for applying habitat-quality metrics has been scattered in diversified tracks of literature, we have brought this information together into an approachable format including accessible descriptions and a modeling case study for a typical example that conservation professionals can adapt for their own decision contexts and focal populations.Considerations for Resource ManagersManagement objectives, proposed actions, data availability and quality, and model assumptions are all relevant considerations when applying and interpreting habitat-quality metrics.Graph-based metrics answer questions related to habitat centrality and connectivity, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify basic spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require the least data.Occupancy-based metrics answer questions about likelihood of persistence or colonization, are suitable for populations that undergo localized extinctions, quantify spatial and temporal patterns of occupancy and movement, and require a moderate amount of data.Demographic-based metrics answer questions about relative or absolute population size, are suitable for populations with any movement pattern, quantify demographic

  6. Habitat Re-Creation (Ecological Restoration) as a Strategy for Conserving Insect Communities in Highly Fragmented Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuey, John A

    2013-12-05

    Because of their vast diversity, measured by both numbers of species as well as life history traits, insects defy comprehensive conservation planning. Thus, almost all insect conservation efforts target individual species. However, serious insect conservation requires goals that are set at the faunal level and conservation success requires strategies that conserve intact communities. This task is complicated in agricultural landscapes by high levels of habitat fragmentation and isolation. In many regions, once widespread insect communities are now functionally trapped on islands of ecosystem remnants and subject to a variety of stressors associated with isolation, small population sizes and artificial population fragmentation. In fragmented landscapes ecological restoration can be an effective strategy for reducing localized insect extinction rates, but insects are seldom included in restoration design criteria. It is possible to incorporate a few simple conservation criteria into restoration designs that enhance impacts to entire insect communities. Restoration can be used as a strategy to address fragmentation threats to isolated insect communities if insect communities are incorporated at the onset of restoration planning. Fully incorporating insect communities into restoration designs may increase the cost of restoration two- to three-fold, but the benefits to biodiversity conservation and the ecological services provided by intact insect communities justify the cost.

  7. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life-history strategies and relationships with host plants.

  8. Cosmetic results in early stage breast cancer patients with high-dose brachytherapy after conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Felipe; Pineda, Beatriz E

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: to reveal cosmetic results in patients at early stages of low risk breast cancer treated with partial accelerated radiotherapy using high dose rate brachytherapy. Methods and materials: from March 2001 to July 2003,14 stages l and ll breast cancer patients were treated at the Colombian national cancer institute in Bogota with conservative surgery and radiotherapy upon the tumor bed (partial accelerated radiotherapy), using interstitial implants with iridium 192 (high dose rate brachytherapy) with a dose of 32 Gys, over 4 days, at 8 fractions twice a day. Results: with an average follow up of 17.7 months, good cosmetic results were found among 71.4 % of patients and excellent results among 14.3% of patients, furthermore none of the patients neither local nor regional or distant relapses. Conclusion: among patients who suffer from breast cancer at early stages, it showed is possible to apply partial accelerated radiotherapy upon the tumor bed with high doses over 4 days with good to excellent cosmetic results

  9. Swertia chirayta, a Threatened High-Value Medicinal Herb: Microhabitats and Conservation Challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Kumar Pradhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of threats, identifying favorable growing conditions, and predicting future population scenarios are vital for the conservation and management of threatened species. This study investigated the availability, microhabitat characteristics, threat status, and community associations of Swertia chirayta, a highly threatened Himalayan medicinal herb, in 22 populations in Sikkim, India, using the vertical belt transect method. Of the 14 microhabitats identified, open grassy slope emerged as the most favorable and wet grassy slope as the least favorable for S. chirayta. The species was dominant in 8 of the 10 major plant communities identified. Among 9 major types of disturbance identified, human movement and collection of non-timber forest products appeared as the biggest threats to S. chirayta. Disturbances significantly affected the availability of the species. S. chirayta, though under high anthropogenic threat, maintains high microhabitat pliability, which is vital for its conservation and management, provided immediate conservation measures are taken.

  10. Evaluation of highly conserved hsp65-specific nested PCR primers for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, P; Tiwari, K; Das, A; Kumar, D; Mishra, M N; Desikan, P; Nath, G

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a new nested set of primers designed for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex targeting a highly conserved heat shock protein gene (hsp65). The nested primers were designed using multiple sequence alignment assuming the nucleotide sequence of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv hsp65 genome as base. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium species along with other non-mycobacterial and fungal species were included to evaluate the specificity of M. tuberculosis hsp65 gene-specific primers. The sensitivity of the primers was determined using serial 10-fold dilutions, and was 100% as shown by the bands in the case of M. tuberculosis complex. None of the other non M. tuberculosis complex bacterial and fungal species yielded any band on nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The first round of amplification could amplify 0.3 ng of the template DNA, while nested PCR could detect 0.3 pg. The present hsp65-specific primers have been observed to be sensitive, specific and cost-effective, without requiring interpretation of biochemical tests, real-time PCR, sequencing or high-performance liquid chromatography. These primer sets do not have the drawbacks associated with those protocols that target insertion sequence 6110, 16S rDNA, rpoB, recA and MPT 64.

  11. Differential Regulation of Receptor Activation and Agonist Selectivity by Highly Conserved Tryptophans in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding Site

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Dustin K.; Stokes, Clare; Horenstein, Nicole A.; Papke, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown previously that a highly conserved Tyr in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) ligand-binding domain (LBD) (α7 Tyr188 or α4 Tyr195) differentially regulates the activity of acetylcholine (ACh) and the α7-selective agonist 3-(4-hydroxy,2-methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (4OH-GTS-21) in α4β2 and α7 nAChR. In this study, we mutated two highly conserved LBD Trp residues in human α7 and α4β2 and expressed the receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes. α7 Re...

  12. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  14. Comparative analyses reveal high levels of conserved colinearity between the finger millet and rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasachary; Dida, Mathews M; Gale, Mike D; Devos, Katrien M

    2007-08-01

    Finger millet is an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 36) grass that belongs to the Chloridoideae subfamily. A comparative analysis has been carried out to determine the relationship of the finger millet genome with that of rice. Six of the nine finger millet homoeologous groups corresponded to a single rice chromosome each. Each of the remaining three finger millet groups were orthologous to two rice chromosomes, and in all the three cases one rice chromosome was inserted into the centromeric region of a second rice chromosome to give the finger millet chromosomal configuration. All observed rearrangements were, among the grasses, unique to finger millet and, possibly, the Chloridoideae subfamily. Gene orders between rice and finger millet were highly conserved, with rearrangements being limited largely to single marker transpositions and small putative inversions encompassing at most three markers. Only some 10% of markers mapped to non-syntenic positions in rice and finger millet and the majority of these were located in the distal 14% of chromosome arms, supporting a possible correlation between recombination and sequence evolution as has previously been observed in wheat. A comparison of the organization of finger millet, Panicoideae and Pooideae genomes relative to rice allowed us to infer putative ancestral chromosome configurations in the grasses.

  15. A highly conserved metalloprotease effector enhances virulence in the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Martín, José M; Pacheco-Arjona, José Ramón; Bello-Rico, Víctor; Vargas, Walter A; Monod, Michel; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-09-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola causes maize anthracnose, an agronomically important disease with a worldwide distribution. We have identified a fungalysin metalloprotease (Cgfl) with a role in virulence. Transcriptional profiling experiments and live cell imaging show that Cgfl is specifically expressed during the biotrophic stage of infection. To determine whether Cgfl has a role in virulence, we obtained null mutants lacking Cgfl and performed pathogenicity and live microscopy assays. The appressorium morphology of the null mutants is normal, but they exhibit delayed development during the infection process on maize leaves and roots, showing that Cgfl has a role in virulence. In vitro chitinase activity assays of leaves infected with wild-type and null mutant strains show that, in the absence of Cgfl, maize leaves exhibit increased chitinase activity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Cgfl is highly conserved in fungi. Similarity searches, phylogenetic analysis and transcriptional profiling show that C. graminicola encodes two LysM domain-containing homologues of Ecp6, suggesting that this fungus employs both Cgfl-mediated and LysM protein-mediated strategies to control chitin signalling. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Pig epidermal growth factor precursor contains segments that are highly conserved among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Jensen, L.G.; Sørensen, B S

    1998-01-01

    segment with that of the human, the rat and the mouse EGF precursors, in order to identify highly conserved domains. The examined part of the precursor contains EGF itself and six so-called EGF-like modules. The overall amino acid identity among the four species is 64%. However, the amino acid identity...... differed from around 30% in some segments to around 70% in others. The highest amino acid identity, 71%, was observed for a 345-aa segment that contains three EGF-like modules and which is homologous to a part of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor). The amino acid identities are 64% for EGF...... itself, and 50-67% for the remaining three EGF-like modules. The segment of the LDL receptor that is homologous to a part of the EGF precursor is important for the function of the LDL receptor, and EGF-like modules seem to be involved in protein-protein interactions in a number of proteins. In conclusion...

  17. Current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.Y.-L.; Yang, K.-H.; Hsu, C.-H.; Chien, M.-H.; Hong, G.-B.

    2007-01-01

    Growing concern in Taiwan has arisen about energy consumption and its adverse environmental impact. The current situation of energy conservation in high energy-consuming industries in Taiwan, including the iron and steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, textiles and electric/electrical industries has been presented. Since the energy consumption of the top 100 energy users (T100) comprised over 50% of total industry energy consumption, focusing energy consumption reduction efforts on T100 energy users can achieve significant results. This study conducted on-site energy audits of 314 firms in Taiwan during 2000-2004, and identified potential electricity savings of 1,022,656 MWH, fuel oil savings of 174,643 kiloliters (KL), steam coal savings of 98,620 ton, and natural gas (NG) savings of 10,430 kilo cubic meters. The total potential energy saving thus was 489,505 KL of crude oil equivalent (KLOE), representing a reduction of 1,447,841 ton in the carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 39,131-ha plantation forest

  18. High Temperature Chemistry of Chlorinated Acenaphthylene. 3C Bay Acetylene Additions and Annealing by Five-Membered Ring Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Grant J; Russell, Douglas K

    2015-12-24

    Experimental and theoretical results concerning the growth and isomerization of chlorinated acenaphthylene, C12H8, during the pyrolysis of chlorohydrocarbons are presented here. A fullerene subunit, C12H8, is a useful system to investigate regarding C60 formation. However, direct experimental observation of isomerization and annealing processes in particular are difficult to confirm due to the high symmetry of the parent molecule. Chlorination lowers the symmetry, essentially labeling carbon atoms, allowing growth and isomerization to be followed directly. Pyrolysis of dichloro- and trichloroethylene, and their copyrolyses with trichlorobenzenes, provides an efficient and general source of chlorinated acenaphthylenes in a range of degrees of chlorination and over a number of unique congeners. Analysis of congener yields as a function of reagents employed, guided by DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level calculations, strongly suggests that C2 addition across three-carbon bays in naphthalene is a major driver of growth. Additionally, extremely facile five-membered ring shifts are operative, with chlorine promoting isomerization. Theoretical study of C16H10- and C18H10-based congeners indicate that this is a general phenomenon, and with chlorine also favoring internal cyclopentafused rings in addition to increased isomerization rates, this suggests halogen moieties may be an important feature for efficient fullerene growth.

  19. High precision conformal radiotherapy employing conservative margins in childhood benign and low-grade brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Rakesh; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Sarin, Rajiv; Sharma, Dayananda S.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report local control and follow up outcome data of high precision conformal radiotherapy in childhood brain tumours. Materials and methods: Between December 1999 and December 2002, 26 children (17 boys and 9 girls, median age 11.5 years) with incompletely excised or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours [13 craniopharyngiomas, 11 low-grade gliomas (LGG) and 2 others] were treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) (12 patients) and stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT) (14 patients). Gross tumour volume (GTV) included neuro-imaging based visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed. Clinical target volume (CTV) consisted of GTV + 5 mm margin and planning target volume (PTV) consisted of additional 5 mm margin for CRT and 2 mm for SCRT. Treatment was delivered with 3-9 conformal fixed fields to a median dose of 54 Gy/30 fractions. Results: The actuarial 2 and 3 year disease free and overall survival was 96 and 100%, respectively (median follow up: 25 months, range 12-47 months). Radiological follow up available in 25 patients revealed complete response in 1, partial regression in 10, stable disease in 13 and progression in 1 patient (within the CTV). One patient with craniopharyngioma on a routine imaging revealed a mild asymptomatic cyst enlargement, which resolved with conservative management. A patient with chiasmatic glioma developed cystic degeneration and hydrocephalus 9 months after SCRT requiring cyst drainage and placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Conclusion: High-precision conformal techniques delivering irradiation to a computer generated target volume employing 7-10 mm 3D margins beyond the visible tumour and/or resected tumour bed appear to be safe in children with incompletely resected or recurrent benign and low-grade brain tumours, based on these data

  20. A novel, highly conserved metallothionein family in basidiomycete fungi and characterization of two representative SlMTa and SlMTb genes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoai; Rineau, François; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann; Colpaert, Jan V; Ruytinx, Joske

    2017-07-01

    The basidiomycete Suillus luteus is an important member of the ectomycorrhizal community that thrives in heavy metal polluted soils covered with pioneer pine forests. This study aimed to identify potential heavy metal chelators in S. luteus. Two metallothionein (MT) coding genes, SlMTa and SlMTb, were identified. When heterologously expressed in yeast, both SlMTa and SlMTb can rescue the Cu sensitive mutant from Cu toxicity. In S. luteus, transcription of both SlMTa and SlMTb is induced by Cu but not Cd or Zn. Several putative Cu-sensing and metal-response elements are present in the promoter sequences. These results indicate that SlMTa and SlMTb function as Cu-thioneins. Homologs of the S. luteus MTs are present in 49 species belonging to 10 different orders of the subphylum Agaricomycotina and are remarkably conserved. The length of the proteins, number and distribution of cysteine residues indicate a novel family of fungal MTs. The ubiquitous and highly conserved features of these MTs suggest that they are important for basic cellular functions in species in the subphylum Agaricomycotina. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Highly Conserved Proline at Position 438 in Pseudorabies Virus gH Is Important for Regulation of Membrane Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Christina; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Gerhard, Marika; Backovic, Marija; Rey, Felix A.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane fusion in herpesviruses requires viral glycoproteins (g) gB and gH/gL. While gB is considered the actual fusion protein but is nonfusogenic per se, the function of gH/gL remains enigmatic. Crystal structures for different gH homologs are strikingly similar despite only moderate amino acid sequence conservation. A highly conserved sequence motif comprises the residues serine-proline-cysteine corresponding to positions 437 to 439 in pseudorabies virus (PrV) gH. The PrV-gH structure sho...

  2. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3′ noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J.; Barnes, David W.

    2007-01-01

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3′ UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3′ mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology. PMID:17227856

  3. Gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved proteins in the human lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-translational modification of lysine residues of specific proteins by ubiquitin modulates the degradation, localization, and activity of these target proteins. Here, we identified gains of ubiquitylation sites in highly conserved regions of human proteins that occurred during human evolution. Results We analyzed human ubiquitylation site data and multiple alignments of orthologous mammalian proteins including those from humans, primates, other placental mammals, opossum, and platypus. In our analysis, we identified 281 ubiquitylation sites in 252 proteins that first appeared along the human lineage during primate evolution: one protein had four novel sites; four proteins had three sites each; 18 proteins had two sites each; and the remaining 229 proteins had one site each. PML, which is involved in neurodevelopment and neurodegeneration, acquired three sites, two of which have been reported to be involved in the degradation of PML. Thirteen human proteins, including ERCC2 (also known as XPD and NBR1, gained human-specific ubiquitylated lysines after the human-chimpanzee divergence. ERCC2 has a Lys/Gln polymorphism, the derived (major allele of which confers enhanced DNA repair capacity and reduced cancer risk compared with the ancestral (minor allele. NBR1 and eight other proteins that are involved in the human autophagy protein interaction network gained a novel ubiquitylation site. Conclusions The gain of novel ubiquitylation sites could be involved in the evolution of protein degradation and other regulatory networks. Although gains of ubiquitylation sites do not necessarily equate to adaptive evolution, they are useful candidates for molecular functional analyses to identify novel advantageous genetic modifications and innovative phenotypes acquired during human evolution.

  4. High risks of losing genetic diversity in an endemic Mauritian gecko: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeves Buckland

    Full Text Available Genetic structure can be a consequence of recent population fragmentation and isolation, or a remnant of historical localised adaptation. This poses a challenge for conservationists since misinterpreting patterns of genetic structure may lead to inappropriate management. Of 17 species of reptile originally found in Mauritius, only five survive on the main island. One of these, Phelsuma guimbeaui (lowland forest day gecko, is now restricted to 30 small isolated subpopulations following severe forest fragmentation and isolation due to human colonisation. We used 20 microsatellites in ten subpopulations and two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA markers in 13 subpopulations to: (i assess genetic diversity, population structure and genetic differentiation of subpopulations; (ii estimate effective population sizes and migration rates of subpopulations; and (iii examine the phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes found in different subpopulations. Microsatellite data revealed significant population structure with high levels of genetic diversity and isolation by distance, substantial genetic differentiation and no migration between most subpopulations. MtDNA, however, showed no evidence of population structure, indicating that there was once a genetically panmictic population. Effective population sizes of ten subpopulations, based on microsatellite markers, were small, ranging from 44 to 167. Simulations suggested that the chance of survival and allelic diversity of some subpopulations will decrease dramatically over the next 50 years if no migration occurs. Our DNA-based evidence reveals an urgent need for a management plan for the conservation of P. guimbeaui. We identified 18 threatened and 12 viable subpopulations and discuss a range of management options that include translocation of threatened subpopulations to retain maximum allelic diversity, and habitat restoration and assisted migration to decrease genetic erosion and inbreeding for the viable

  5. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas and Pangolin (Manis javanica.for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  6. The existence of High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support Implementation of FSC Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulistyowati, Sri; Hadi, Sudharto P.

    2018-02-01

    High Conservation Value Forest (HCVF) is the identification of High Conservation Values that are important and need to be protected. Under FSC certification mechanism, HCVF becomes one of Principles and Criteria to attain certification. In this study, we identify the existence of HCVF in Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal to support implementation process of FSC certification. Qualitative method was conducted through observation and secondary data from Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal. Data analysis showed through ecolabel certification, Perum Perhutani KPH Kendal has been identified HCVF area covering 2,715.5 hectares consists of HCV 1 until 6. Secondary Natural Forest (HAS) Subah and Kaliwungu for Ulolanang and Pagerwunung Nature Reserve buffer zone include as HCV 1.1, conservation area of leopard (Panthera pardus melas) and Pangolin (Manis javanica).for HCV 1.2, conservation area of lutung (Trachypiyhecus auratus) as endemic species for CITES App I and Critically Endangered species include as HCV 1.3, Goa kiskendo for bats species habitat include as HCV 1.4, regions of interest species for Deer (Cervus timorensis) and Kepodang (Oriolus chinensis) as HCV 2.3, Germplasm Protection Region/ KPPN area with high biodiversity include as HCV 3, river border area and water springs for HCV 4. While, utilization of firewood, grass for cattle fodder include as HCV 5 and 14 cultural sites include as HCV 6. From monitoring and evaluation of HCVF data, showed that in 2011-2015 the level of diversity for flora and fauna were increased.

  7. Structure of genes for dermaseptins B, antimicrobial peptides from frog skin. Exon 1-encoded prepropeptide is conserved in genes for peptides of highly different structures and activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouille, V; Amiche, M; Nicolas, P

    1997-09-01

    We cloned the genes of two members of the dermaseptin family, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides isolated from the skin of the arboreal frog Phyllomedusa bicolor. The dermaseptin gene Drg2 has a 2-exon coding structure interrupted by a small 137-bp intron, wherein exon 1 encoded a 22-residue hydrophobic signal peptide and the first three amino acids of the acidic propiece; exon 2 contained the 18 additional acidic residues of the propiece plus a typical prohormone processing signal Lys-Arg and a 32-residue dermaseptin progenitor sequence. The dermaseptin genes Drg2 and Drg1g2 have conserved sequences at both untranslated ends and in the first and second coding exons. In contrast, Drg1g2 comprises a third coding exon for a short version of the acidic propiece and a second dermaseptin progenitor sequence. Structural conservation between the two genes suggests that Drg1g2 arose recently from an ancestral Drg2-like gene through amplification of part of the second coding exon and 3'-untranslated region. Analysis of the cDNAs coding precursors for several frog skin peptides of highly different structures and activities demonstrates that the signal peptides and part of the acidic propieces are encoded by conserved nucleotides encompassed by the first coding exon of the dermaseptin genes. The organization of the genes that belong to this family, with the signal peptide and the progenitor sequence on separate exons, permits strikingly different peptides to be directed into the secretory pathway. The recruitment of such a homologous 'secretory' exon by otherwise non-homologous genes may have been an early event in the evolution of amphibian.

  8. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Timothy E; Neumayer, Leigh A; Factor, Rachel E; Ellefson, Christina L; Sorensen, Kristina M; Ambrose, Brady J; Goodrich, Jeffrey B; Hart, Vern P; Jensen, Scott C; Patel, Hemang

    2011-01-01

    In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz) can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each pathology type from the other four using a multivariate

  9. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Vern P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Methods Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. Results The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each

  10. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in a father and daughter from a large highly inbred family: a 16-year follow-up of 59 living members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shyamal Kumar; Kaul, Kanwar K; Hussein, Akhtar; Wilroy, Robert S; Agarwal, Kisan; Sohel, Saira

    2013-08-01

    To report the autosomal dominant inheritance of the Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome in a highly inbred family, the initiation of Torsades de Pointes, and the natural history of the syndrome based on a 16-year follow-up of the kindred. A family tree was constructed that included 66 blood relatives from three successive generations. Electrocardiograms were obtained from 59 living members including the proband, four members from a nuclear family, and 54 from the extended family. Evoked response audiometry was recorded for the proband and the nuclear family. All 59 family members were followed up regularly for 16 years. A total of 24 living members were affected--QTc: 480-680 ms. The proband had long QTc, bilateral high-tone sensorineural deafness, recurrent syncope, and Torsades de Pointes. The asymptomatic father had long QTc and unilateral high-tone sensorineural deafness that involved specifically the left ear. One asymptomatic sibling of the proband had long QTc and normal hearing. The mother and another sibling were asymptomatic; QTc and hearing were normal in both. A total of 21 affected members from the extended family had only long QTc, and all were asymptomatic. There were three congenitally deaf first cousins who had recurrent syncope and adrenergic-triggered sudden death. In all, seven of 10 parents had consanguineous marriage to a first cousin. Each affected offspring had at least one affected parent. The severely symptomatic proband who received only β-blocker therapy and the 23 affected members without antiadrenergic therapy, all remained asymptomatic throughout the 16-year follow-up period. Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome was inherited as autosomal dominant in this kindred. The majority of the affected members had a mild phenotype. The severity of auditory and cardiac phenotypes corresponded.

  11. Geometrid moth assemblages reflect high conservation value of naturally regenerated secondary forests in temperate China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The widespread destruction of mature forests in China has led to massive ecological degradation, counteracted in recent decades by substantial efforts to promote forest plantations and protect secondary forest ecosystems. The value of the resulting forests for biodiversity conservation is widely

  12. Liberals, Conservatives and Romantic Nationalists in Interwar Education Policy in Greece: "The High Mountains" Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiades, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Greek historiography of interwar education policy unproblematically accepts the assumption that the bone of contention between the "Liberal demoticists" and the "Conservative purists" was the language issue; particularly whether "demotic" or "katharevousa" should be the language of instruction in schooling.…

  13. Gene co-regulation is highly conserved in the evolution of eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, B.; Noort, V. van; Huynen, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Differences between species have been suggested to largely reside in the network of connections among the genes. Nevertheless, the rate at which these connections evolve has not been properly quantified. Here, we measure the extent to which co-regulation between pairs of genes is conserved over

  14. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-11-09

    highly conserved during tumor progression and a change only occurs in a small fraction (4.1 %). Our study supports the notion that targeting AR could be effective for many BC patients and that re-testing of AR status in formerly negative or mixed type BC's is recommended.

  15. Androgen receptor status is highly conserved during tumor progression of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogg, André; Trippel, Mafalda; Pfaltz, Katrin; Lädrach, Claudia; Droeser, Raoul A.; Cihoric, Nikola; Salhia, Bodour; Zweifel, Martin; Tapia, Coya

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of new and more efficient anti-androgen drugs targeting androgen receptor (AR) in breast cancer (BC) is becoming an increasingly important area of investigation. This would potentially be most useful in triple negative BC (TNBC), where better therapies are still needed. The assessment of AR status is generally performed on the primary tumor even if the tumor has already metastasized. Very little is known regarding discrepancies of AR status during tumor progression. To determine the prevalence of AR positivity, with emphasis on TNBCs, and to investigate AR status during tumor progression, we evaluated a large series of primary BCs and matching metastases and recurrences. AR status was performed on 356 primary BCs, 135 matching metastases, and 12 recurrences using a next-generation Tissue Microarray (ngTMA). A commercially available AR antibody was used to determine AR-status by immunohistochemistry. AR positivity was defined as any nuclear staining in tumor cells ≥1 %. AR expression was correlated with pathological tumor features of the primary tumor. Additionally, the concordance rate of AR expression between the different tumor sites was determined. AR status was positive in: 87 % (307/353) of primary tumors, 86.1 % (105/122) of metastases, and in 66.7 % (8/12) of recurrences. TNBC tested positive in 11.4 %, (4/35) of BCs. A discrepant result was seen in 4.3 % (5/117) of primary BC and matching lymph node (LN) metastases. Three AR negative primary BCs were positive in the matching LN metastasis, representing 17.6 % of all negative BCs with lymph node metastases (3/17). Two AR positive primary BCs were negative in the matching LN metastasis, representing 2.0 % of all AR positive BCs with LN metastases (2/100). No discrepancies were seen between primary BC and distant metastases or recurrence (n = 17). Most primary (87 %) and metastasized (86.1 %) BCs are AR positive including a significant fraction of TNBCs (11.4 %). Further, AR status is highly

  16. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%, olive ridley (27.1% and loggerhead turtles (8.7%. Most olive ridley (81.7% and loggerhead (82.1% turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0% and entangled (31.8%. Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E, but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W. The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  17. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%), olive ridley (27.1%) and loggerhead turtles (8.7%). Most olive ridley (81.7%) and loggerhead (82.1%) turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0%) and entangled (31.8%). Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E), but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W). The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  18. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  19. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  20. A High-Accuracy Linear Conservative Difference Scheme for Rosenau-RLW Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the initial-boundary value problem for Rosenau-RLW equation. We propose a three-level linear finite difference scheme, which has the theoretical accuracy of Oτ2+h4. The scheme simulates two conservative properties of original problem well. The existence, uniqueness of difference solution, and a priori estimates in infinite norm are obtained. Furthermore, we analyze the convergence and stability of the scheme by energy method. At last, numerical experiments demonstrate the theoretical results.

  1. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, Megan A.; Keating, Jennifer L.; Denes, Samuel K.; Hawk, Kathy; Fiore, Angela; Thatcher, Julie; Becerra, Jennifer; Hall, Suzanne; Swaisgood, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive ...

  2. Innovative Surgical Management of the Synovial Chondromatosis of Temporo-Mandibular Joints: Highly Conservative Surgical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionna, Franco; Amantea, Massimiliano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Ballini, Andrea; Maglione, Maria Grazia; Aversa, Corrado; De Cecio, Rossella; Russo, Daniela; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is an uncommon disease characterized by a benign nodular cartilaginous proliferation arising from the joint synovium, bursae, or tendon sheaths. Although the temporomandibular joint is rarely affected by neoplastic lesions, SC is the most common neoplastic lesion of this joint. The treatment of this disease consists in the extraoral surgery with a wide removal of the lesion; in this study, the authors described a more conservative intraoral surgical approach. Patient with SC of temporomandibular joint typically refer a limitation in the mouth opening, together with a persistent not physiological mandibular protrusion and an appearance of a neoformation located at the right preauricular region: the authors reported 1 scholar patient. After biopsy of the neoformation, confirming the synovial chondromatosis, the patient underwent thus to the surgical excision of the tumor, via authors' conservative transoral approach, to facilitate the enucleation of the neoformation. The mass fully involved the pterygo-maxillary fossa with involvement of the parotid lodge and of the right TMJ: this multifocal extension suggested for a trans-oral surgical procedure, in the light of the suspicion of a possible malignant nature of the neoplasm. Our intraoral conservative approach to surgery is aimed to reduce the presence of unaesthetic scars in preauricular and facial regions, with surgical results undoubtedly comparable to the traditional surgical techniques much more aggressive. Our technique could be a valid, alternative, and safe approach to treat this rare and complex kind of oncological disease.

  3. Development of Androgen- and Estrogen-Responsive bio-assays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, E.; Jansen, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX® (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell

  4. Development of androgen-and estrogen-responsive bioassays, members of a panel of human cell line-based highly selective steroid-responsive bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, E.; Jansen, H.J..; Riteco, J.A.C.; Brouwer, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have established highly sensitive and specific androgen and estrogen reporter cell lines which we have named AR (androgen receptor) and ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) CALUX® (Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression), respectively. Both bioassays are member of a panel of CALUX reporter cell

  5. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Comparative analyses of six solanaceous transcriptomes reveal a high degree of sequence conservation and species-specific transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Shu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae is a family of closely related species with diverse phenotypes that have been exploited for agronomic purposes. Previous studies involving a small number of genes suggested sequence conservation across the Solanaceae. The availability of large collections of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for the Solanaceae now provides the opportunity to assess sequence conservation and divergence on a genomic scale. Results All available ESTs and Expressed Transcripts (ETs, 449,224 sequences for six Solanaceae species (potato, tomato, pepper, petunia, tobacco and Nicotiana benthamiana, were clustered and assembled into gene indices. Examination of gene ontologies revealed that the transcripts within the gene indices encode a similar suite of biological processes. Although the ESTs and ETs were derived from a variety of tissues, 55–81% of the sequences had significant similarity at the nucleotide level with sequences among the six species. Putative orthologs could be identified for 28–58% of the sequences. This high degree of sequence conservation was supported by expression profiling using heterologous hybridizations to potato cDNA arrays that showed similar expression patterns in mature leaves for all six solanaceous species. 16–19% of the transcripts within the six Solanaceae gene indices did not have matches among Solanaceae, Arabidopsis, rice or 21 other plant gene indices. Conclusion Results from this genome scale analysis confirmed a high level of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level of the coding sequence among Solanaceae. Additionally, the results indicated that part of the Solanaceae transcriptome is likely to be unique for each species.

  7. NFAT5 regulates HIV-1 in primary monocytes via a highly conserved long terminal repeat site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Ranjbar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor-viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5-LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Pathogenic Fungi Reveals Highly Expressed Conserved Cell Wall Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Champer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such fungal proteins are of interest to the development of vaccines or drug targets. Protein samples were derived from 13 fungal species, cultured in rich or in minimal media; these included clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Candida, Mucor, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides species. Proteomes were analyzed by quantitative MSE (Mass Spectrometry—Elevated Collision Energy. Several thousand proteins were identified and quantified in total across all fractions and culture conditions. The 42 most abundant proteins identified in fungal cell walls or supernatants shared no to very little homology with human proteins. In contrast, all but five of the 50 most abundant cytosolic proteins had human homologs with sequence identity averaging 59%. Proteomic comparisons of the secreted or surface localized fungal proteins highlighted conserved homologs of the Aspergillus fumigatus proteins 1,3-β-glucanosyltransferases (Bgt1, Gel1-4, Crf1, Ecm33, EglC, and others. The fact that Crf1 and Gel1 were previously shown to be promising vaccine candidates, underlines the value of the proteomics data presented here.

  9. The conservation value of South East Asia's highly degraded forests: evidence from leaf-litter ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Paul; Edwards, David P.; Fayle, Tom M.; Newton, Rob J.; Khen, Chey Vun; Bottrell, Simon H.; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    South East Asia is widely regarded as a centre of threatened biodiversity owing to extensive logging and forest conversion to agriculture. In particular, forests degraded by repeated rounds of intensive logging are viewed as having little conservation value and are afforded meagre protection from conversion to oil palm. Here, we determine the biological value of such heavily degraded forests by comparing leaf-litter ant communities in unlogged (natural) and twice-logged forests in Sabah, Borneo. We accounted for impacts of logging on habitat heterogeneity by comparing species richness and composition at four nested spatial scales, and examining how species richness was partitioned across the landscape in each habitat. We found that twice-logged forest had fewer species occurrences, lower species richness at small spatial scales and altered species composition compared with natural forests. However, over 80 per cent of species found in unlogged forest were detected within twice-logged forest. Moreover, greater species turnover among sites in twice-logged forest resulted in identical species richness between habitats at the largest spatial scale. While two intensive logging cycles have negative impacts on ant communities, these degraded forests clearly provide important habitat for numerous species and preventing their conversion to oil palm and other crops should be a conservation priority. PMID:22006966

  10. The ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor homologs of Old World primate RV2 rhadinoviruses are highly conserved nuclear antigens expressed in differentiated epithelium in infected macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burnside Kellie L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ORF59 DNA polymerase processivity factor of the human rhadinovirus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, is required for efficient copying of the genome during virus replication. KSHV ORF59 is antigenic in the infected host and is used as a marker for virus activation and replication. Results We cloned, sequenced and expressed the genes encoding related ORF59 proteins from the RV1 rhadinovirus homologs of KSHV from chimpanzee (PtrRV1 and three species of macaques (RFHVMm, RFHVMn and RFHVMf, and have compared them with ORF59 proteins obtained from members of the more distantly-related RV2 rhadinovirus lineage infecting the same non-human primate species (PtrRV2, RRV, MneRV2, and MfaRV2, respectively. We found that ORF59 homologs of the RV1 and RV2 Old World primate rhadinoviruses are highly conserved with distinct phylogenetic clustering of the two rhadinovirus lineages. RV1 and RV2 ORF59 C-terminal domains exhibit a strong lineage-specific conservation. Rabbit antiserum was developed against a C-terminal polypeptide that is highly conserved between the macaque RV2 ORF59 sequences. This anti-serum showed strong reactivity towards ORF59 encoded by the macaque RV2 rhadinoviruses, RRV (rhesus and MneRV2 (pig-tail, with no cross reaction to human or macaque RV1 ORF59 proteins. Using this antiserum and RT-qPCR, we determined that RRV ORF59 is expressed early after permissive infection of both rhesus primary fetal fibroblasts and African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (Vero in vitro. RRV- and MneRV2-infected foci showed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 that correlated with production of infectious progeny virus. Immunohistochemical studies of an MneRV2-infected macaque revealed strong nuclear expression of ORF59 in infected cells within the differentiating layer of epidermis corroborating previous observations that differentiated epithelial cells are permissive for replication of KSHV-like rhadinoviruses

  11. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  12. Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, William E; Swan, Susan S; McDaniel, Mary M; Stebbins, John G; Seixas, Noah S; Morgan, Michael S

    2002-10-01

    Washington State has experienced a striking increase in workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in one industry with a high rate of hearing loss claims. We evaluated 10 representative foundries with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews, and existing audiometry. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85 dBA. All companies were out of compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees with important findings on audiograms were not aware of their findings. There was a significant positive correlation between management-interview scores and worksite-average employee-interview scores (r = 0.70, P = 0.02). Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation program activities can achieve a greater positive impact on employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programs in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing substantial risk of occupational hearing loss. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  14. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashem, Anwar M.; Van Domselaar, Gary; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi; She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D.; Sui, Jianhua; He, Runtao; Marasco, Wayne A.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. → Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. → The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. → The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  15. A high-order relaxation method with projective integration for solving nonlinear systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafitte, Pauline; Melis, Ward; Samaey, Giovanni

    2017-07-01

    We present a general, high-order, fully explicit relaxation scheme which can be applied to any system of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws in multiple dimensions. The scheme consists of two steps. In a first (relaxation) step, the nonlinear hyperbolic conservation law is approximated by a kinetic equation with stiff BGK source term. Then, this kinetic equation is integrated in time using a projective integration method. After taking a few small (inner) steps with a simple, explicit method (such as direct forward Euler) to damp out the stiff components of the solution, the time derivative is estimated and used in an (outer) Runge-Kutta method of arbitrary order. We show that, with an appropriate choice of inner step size, the time step restriction on the outer time step is similar to the CFL condition for the hyperbolic conservation law. Moreover, the number of inner time steps is also independent of the stiffness of the BGK source term. We discuss stability and consistency, and illustrate with numerical results (linear advection, Burgers' equation and the shallow water and Euler equations) in one and two spatial dimensions.

  16. A new world monkey microsatellite (ap74) highly conserved in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oklander, Luciana Ines; Steinberg, Eliana Ruth; Dolores Mudry, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRS became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of noninvasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: lemur catta, alouatta caraya, ateles belzebuth, ateles chamek, pan troglodytes, papio sp., and Homo sapiens. in all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp), except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. the analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.

  17. Quantitative RT-PCR based platform for rapid quantification of the transcripts of highly homologous multigene families and their members during grain development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Bowra, Steve; Elek, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    expression combined with genetic variation in large multigene families with high homology among the alleles is very challenging. Results We designed a rapid qRT-PCR system with the aim of characterising the variation in the expression of hordein genes families. All the known D-, C-, B-, and gamma......-hordein sequences coding full length open reading frames were collected from commonly available databases. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and the members of the different hordein families were classified into subfamilies. Primer sets were designed to discriminate the gene expression level of whole families...... and its subgroups. More over the results indicate the genotypic specific gene expression. Conclusions Quantitative RT-PCR with SYBR Green labelling can be a useful technique to follow gene expression levels of large gene families with highly homologues members. We showed variation in the temporal...

  18. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Owen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive psychoacoustic technique to measure hearing thresholds in the endangered giant panda; a species that uses acoustic communication to coordinate reproduction. Our results suggest that giant pandas have functional hearing into the ultrasonic range, with good sensitivity between 10.0 and 16.0 kHz, and best sensitivity measured at 12.5–14.0 kHz. We estimated the lower and upper limits of functional hearing as 0.10 and 70.0 kHz respectively. While these results suggest that panda hearing is similar to that of some other terrestrial carnivores, panda hearing thresholds above 14.0 kHz were significantly lower (i.e., more sensitive than those of the polar bear, the only other bear species for which data are available. We discuss the implications of this divergence, as well as the relationship between hearing sensitivity and the spectral parameters of panda vocalizations. We suggest that these data, placed in context, can be used towards the development of a sensory-based model of noise disturbance for the species.

  20. 77 FR 11785 - Energy Conservation Program: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document for High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... standards for high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Accordingly, DOE will hold a public meeting to discuss..._standards/commercial/high_intensity_discharge_lamps.html . DATES: The Department will hold a public meeting... Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, Framework Document for High-Intensity Discharge Lamps, EERE-2010-BT-STD...

  1. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, Wouter H.; Weel, Hanneke; van Dijk, C. Niek; van Tulder, Maurits W.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine

    2015-01-01

    To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and retrospective

  2. Curli Fibers Are Highly Conserved between Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli with Respect to Operon Structure and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römling, Ute; Bian, Zhao; Hammar, Mårten; Sierralta, Walter D.; Normark, Staffan

    1998-01-01

    Mouse-virulent Salmonella typhimurium strains SR-11 and ATCC 14028-1s express curli fibers, thin aggregative fibers, at ambient temperature on plates as judged by Western blot analysis and electron microscopy. Concomitantly with curli expression, cells develop a rough and dry colony morphology and bind the dye Congo red (called the rdar morphotype). Cloning and characterization of the two divergently transcribed operons required for curli biogenesis, csgBA(C) and csgDEFG, from S. typhimurium SR-11 revealed the same gene order and flanking genes as in Escherichia coli. The divergence of the curli region between S. typhimurium and E. coli at the nucleotide level is above average (22.4%). However, a high level of conservation at the protein level, which ranged from 86% amino acid homology for the fiber subunit CsgA to 99% homology for the lipoprotein CsgG, implies functional constraints on the gene products. Consequently, S. typhimurium genes on low-copy-number plasmids were able to complement respective E. coli mutants, although not always to wild-type levels. rpoS and ompR are required for transcriptional activation of (at least) the csgD promoter. The high degree of conservation at the protein level and the identical regulation patterns in E. coli and S. typhimurium suggest similar roles of curli fibers in the same ecological niche in the two species. PMID:9457880

  3. Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Jason E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a global level beyond known immune signaling cascades. Results In the present study, we employed a multivariate modeling approach to characterize and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks between these three model systems after infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype. Using this approach we identified functions and pathways that display similar behavior and/or regulation including the well-studied impact on the interferon response and the inflammasome. Our results also suggest a primary response role for airway epithelial cells in initiating hypercytokinemia, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses. We further demonstrate that we can use a transcriptional regulatory model from the human cell culture data to make highly accurate predictions about the behavior of important components of the innate immune system in tissues from whole organisms. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a global regulatory network modeling conserved host response between in vitro and in vivo models.

  4. High- and Low-Achieving Fraternity Environments at a Selective Institution: Their Influence on Members' Binge Drinking and GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maholchic-Nelson, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    This correlational study tested the efficacy of the social-ecological theory (Moos, 1979) by employing the University Residential Environmental Scale and multiple regression analysis to examine the influences of personal attributes (SAT, parents' level of education, race/ethnicity, and high school drinking) and environmental factors (high/low…

  5. Catchment-scale conservation units identified for the threatened Yarra pygmy perch (Nannoperca obscura) in highly modified river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Chris J; Unmack, Peter J; Hammer, Michael P; Adams, Mark; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation caused by human activities alters metapopulation dynamics and decreases biological connectivity through reduced migration and gene flow, leading to lowered levels of population genetic diversity and to local extinctions. The threatened Yarra pygmy perch, Nannoperca obscura, is a poor disperser found in small, isolated populations in wetlands and streams of southeastern Australia. Modifications to natural flow regimes in anthropogenically-impacted river systems have recently reduced the amount of habitat for this species and likely further limited its opportunity to disperse. We employed highly resolving microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and the spatial scale that dispersal takes place across the distribution of this freshwater fish and used this information to identify conservation units for management. The levels of genetic variation found for N. obscura are amongst the lowest reported for a fish species (mean heterozygosity of 0.318 and mean allelic richness of 1.92). We identified very strong population genetic structure, nil to little evidence of recent migration among demes and a minimum of 11 units for conservation management, hierarchically nested within four major genetic lineages. A combination of spatial analytical methods revealed hierarchical genetic structure corresponding with catchment boundaries and also demonstrated significant isolation by riverine distance. Our findings have implications for the national recovery plan of this species by demonstrating that N. obscura populations should be managed at a catchment level and highlighting the need to restore habitat and avoid further alteration of the natural hydrology.

  6. High Elevation Refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Conservation and Wild Bees of the White Mountain National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Erika M; Rehan, Sandra M

    2017-01-01

    Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire. Four introduced species were also observed in the specimens collected. A checklist of the species found in the WMNF, as well as those found previously in Strafford County, NH, is included with new state records and introduced species noted as well as a map of collecting locations. Of particular interest was the relatively high abundance of Bombus terricola Kirby 1837 found in many of the higher elevation collection sites and the single specimen documented of Bombus fervidus (Fabricius 1798). Both of these bumble bee species are known to have declining populations in the northeast and are categorized as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein, highly conserved in metazoans, and essential for embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qiongmei; Huang, C.-H.; Peng Jianbin; Hashmi, Sarwar; Ye Tianzhang; Chen Ying

    2007-01-01

    We report here the identification and characterization of STIP, a multi-domain nuclear protein that contains a G-patch, a coiled-coil, and several short tryptophan-tryptophan repeats highly conserved in metazoan species. To analyze their functional role in vivo, we cloned nematode stip-1 genes and determined the spatiotemporal pattern of Caenorhabditis elegans STIP-1 protein. RNA analyses and Western blots revealed that stip-1 mRNA was produced via trans-splicing and translated as a 95-kDa protein. Using reporter constructs, we found STIP-1 to be expressed at all developmental stages and in many tissue/cell types including worm oocyte nuclei. We found that STIP-1 is targeted to the nucleus and forms large polymers with a rod-like shape when expressed in mammalian cells. Using deletion mutants, we mapped the regions of STIP-1 involved in nuclear import and polymer assembly. We further showed that knockdown of C. elegans stip-1 by RNA interference arrested development and resulted in morphologic abnormalities around the 16-cell stage followed by 100% lethality, suggesting its essential role in worm embryogenesis. Importantly, the embryonic lethal phenotype could be faithfully rescued with Drosophila and human genes via transgenic expression. Our data provide the first direct evidence that STIP have a conserved essential nuclear function across metazoans from worms to humans

  8. Implementing a High Performance Work Place in the Distribution and Logistics Industry: Recommendations for Leadership & Team Member Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Laura Harding

    2012-01-01

    Leadership development and employee engagement are two elements critical to the success of organizations. In response to growth opportunities, our Distribution and Logistics company set on a course to implement High Performance Work Place to meet the leadership and employee engagement needs, and to find methods for improving work processes. This…

  9. A conserved motif in the linker domain of STAT1 transcription factor is required for both recognition and release from high-affinity DNA-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüntelmann, Bettina; Staab, Julia; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Binding to specific palindromic sequences termed gamma-activated sites (GAS) is a hallmark of gene activation by members of the STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family of cytokine-inducible transcription factors. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the signal-dependent finding of target genes by STAT dimers have not yet been very well studied. In this study, we have characterized a sequence motif in the STAT1 linker domain which is highly conserved among the seven human STAT proteins and includes surface-exposed residues in close proximity to the bound DNA. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that a lysine residue in position 567 of the full-length molecule is required for GAS recognition. The substitution of alanine for this residue completely abolished both binding to high-affinity GAS elements and transcriptional activation of endogenous target genes in cells stimulated with interferon-γ (IFNγ), while the time course of transient nuclear accumulation and tyrosine phosphorylation were virtually unchanged. In contrast, two glutamic acid residues (E559 and E563) on each monomer are important for the dissociation of dimeric STAT1 from DNA and, when mutated to alanine, result in elevated levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT1 as well as prolonged IFNγ-stimulated nuclear accumulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that the kinetics of signal-dependent GAS binding is determined by an array of glutamic acid residues located at the interior surface of the STAT1 dimer. These negatively charged residues appear to align the long axis of the STAT1 dimer in a position perpendicular to the DNA, thereby facilitating the interaction between lysine 567 and the phosphodiester backbone of a bound GAS element, which is a prerequisite for transient gene induction.

  10. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center st......INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  11. High spatial resolution mapping of land cover types in a priority area for conservation in the Brazilian savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Hess, L. L.; Davis, F. W.; Caylor, K. K.; Nackoney, J.; Antunes Daldegan, G.

    2017-12-01

    Savannas are heterogeneous landscapes consisting of highly mixed land cover types that lack clear distinct boundaries. The Brazilian Cerrado is a Neotropical savanna considered a biodiversity hotspot for conservation due to its biodiversity richness and rapid transformation of its landscape by crop and pasture activities. The Cerrado is one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes and only 2.2% of its original extent is strictly protected. Accurate mapping and monitoring of its ecosystems and adjacent land use are important to select areas for conservation and to improve our understanding of the dynamics in this biome. Land cover mapping of savannas is difficult due to spectral similarity between land cover types resulting from similar vegetation structure, floristically similar components, generalization of land cover classes, and heterogeneity usually expressed as small patch sizes within the natural landscape. These factors are the major contributor to misclassification and low map accuracies among remote sensing studies in savannas. Specific challenges to map the Cerrado's land cover types are related to the spectral similarity between classes of land use and natural vegetation, such as natural grassland vs. cultivated pasture, and forest ecosystem vs. crops. This study seeks to classify and evaluate the land cover patterns across an area ranked as having extremely high priority for future conservation in the Cerrado. The main objective of this study is to identify the representativeness of each vegetation type across the landscape using high to moderate spatial resolution imagery using an automated scheme. A combination of pixel-based and object-based approaches were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types. The random forest classifier was used to map the major ecosystems present across the area, and demonstrated to have an effective result with 68% of overall accuracy. Post

  12. Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Pieter J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. Results The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2 and non-canonical (B2 and C1422 HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF→AAA and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef’s association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2, the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Conclusion Based on these findings, we

  13. Identification of immunogenic HLA-B7 "Achilles' heel" epitopes within highly conserved regions of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Groot, Anne S; Rivera, Daniel S; McMurry, Julie A

    2008-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in class I human leukocyte antigen molecules (HLA) have been shown to determine susceptibility to HIV infection as well as the rate of progression to AIDS. In particular, the HLA-B7 supertype has been shown to be associated with high viral loads and rapid progression to dise...

  14. Prediction for the high-level alpha-active waste to be generated by nuclear power stations in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1977-04-01

    Starting with a forecast for the nuclear power generating capacity to be installed in the Member States of the European Communities before the end of this century, a prediction is made of the annual production of high-level alpha-active waste from reprocessing plants and the corresponding accumulation up to the year 2000. The isotopic composition of the alpha-active waste from individual reactor types was calculated and an estimation of the influence of recycling plutonium through light water reactors on the produced quantity of higher actinides is made

  15. Naphthacenodithiophene Based Polymers-New Members of the Acenodithiophene Family Exhibiting High Mobility and Power Conversion Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Knall, Astrid Caroline; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Nikolka, Mark; Nielsen, Christian B.; Purushothaman, Balaji; Sadhanala, Aditya; Hurhangee, Michael; Broch, Katharina; Harkin, David J.; Nová k, Jiří ; Neophytou, Marios; Hayoz, Pascal; Sirringhaus, Henning; McCulloch, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Wide-bandgap conjugated polymers with a linear naphthacenodithiophene (NDT) donor unit are herein reported along with their performance in both transistor and solar cell devices. The monomer is synthesized starting from 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene with a double Fries rearrangement as the key step. By copolymerization with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) via a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction, NDT-BT co-polymers with high molecular weights and narrow polydispersities are afforded. These novel wide-bandgap polymers are evaluated as the semiconducting polymer in both organic field effect transistor and organic photovoltaic applications. The synthesized polymers reveal an optical bandgap in the range of 1.8 eV with an electron affinity of 3.6 eV which provides sufficient energy offset for electron transfer to PC70BM acceptors. In organic field effect transistors, the synthesized polymers demonstrate high hole mobilities of around 0.4 cm2 V–1 s–1. By using a blend of NDT-BT with PC70BM as absorber layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, power conversion efficiencies of 7.5% are obtained. This value is among the highest obtained for polymers with a wider bandgap (larger than 1.7 eV), making this polymer also interesting for application in tandem or multijunction solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  16. Naphthacenodithiophene Based Polymers-New Members of the Acenodithiophene Family Exhibiting High Mobility and Power Conversion Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Knall, Astrid Caroline

    2016-08-18

    Wide-bandgap conjugated polymers with a linear naphthacenodithiophene (NDT) donor unit are herein reported along with their performance in both transistor and solar cell devices. The monomer is synthesized starting from 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene with a double Fries rearrangement as the key step. By copolymerization with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BT) via a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction, NDT-BT co-polymers with high molecular weights and narrow polydispersities are afforded. These novel wide-bandgap polymers are evaluated as the semiconducting polymer in both organic field effect transistor and organic photovoltaic applications. The synthesized polymers reveal an optical bandgap in the range of 1.8 eV with an electron affinity of 3.6 eV which provides sufficient energy offset for electron transfer to PC70BM acceptors. In organic field effect transistors, the synthesized polymers demonstrate high hole mobilities of around 0.4 cm2 V–1 s–1. By using a blend of NDT-BT with PC70BM as absorber layer in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, power conversion efficiencies of 7.5% are obtained. This value is among the highest obtained for polymers with a wider bandgap (larger than 1.7 eV), making this polymer also interesting for application in tandem or multijunction solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  17. A highly conserved Poc1 protein characterized in embryos of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica: localization and functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Fourrage

    Full Text Available Poc1 (Protein of Centriole 1 proteins are highly conserved WD40 domain-containing centriole components, well characterized in the alga Chlamydomonas, the ciliated protazoan Tetrahymena, the insect Drosophila and in vertebrate cells including Xenopus and zebrafish embryos. Functions and localizations related to the centriole and ciliary axoneme have been demonstrated for Poc1 in a range of species. The vertebrate Poc1 protein has also been reported to show an additional association with mitochondria, including enrichment in the specialized "germ plasm" region of Xenopus oocytes. We have identified and characterized a highly conserved Poc1 protein in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica. Clytia Poc1 mRNA was found to be strongly expressed in eggs and early embryos, showing a punctate perinuclear localization in young oocytes. Fluorescence-tagged Poc1 proteins expressed in developing embryos showed strong localization to centrioles, including basal bodies. Anti-human Poc1 antibodies decorated mitochondria in Clytia, as reported in human cells, but failed to recognise endogenous or fluorescent-tagged Clytia Poc1. Injection of specific morpholino oligonucleotides into Clytia eggs prior to fertilization to repress Poc1 mRNA translation interfered with cell division from the blastula stage, likely corresponding to when neosynthesis normally takes over from maternally supplied protein. Cell cycle lengthening and arrest were observed, phenotypes consistent with an impaired centriolar biogenesis or function. The specificity of the defects could be demonstrated by injection of synthetic Poc1 mRNA, which restored normal development. We conclude that in Clytia embryos, Poc1 has an essentially centriolar localization and function.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of the diacylglycerol kinase family of proteins and identification of multiple highly-specific conserved inserts and deletions within the catalytic domain that are distinctive characteristics of different classes of DGK homologs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhey S Gupta

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK family of proteins, which phosphorylates diacylglycerol into phosphatidic acid, play important role in controlling diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. Most vertebrate species contain 10 different DGK isozymes, which are grouped into 5 different classes based on the presence or absence of specific functional domains. However, the relationships among different DGK isozymes or how they have evolved from a common ancestor is unclear. The catalytic domain constitutes the single largest sequence element within the DGK proteins that is commonly and uniquely shared by all family members, but there is limited understanding of the overall function of this domain. In this work, we have used the catalytic domain sequences to construct a phylogenetic tree for the DGK family members from representatives of the main vertebrate classes and have also examined the distributions of various DGK isozymes in eukaryotic phyla. In a tree based on catalytic domain sequences, the DGK homologs belonging to different classes formed strongly supported clusters which were separated by long branches, and the different isozymes within each class also generally formed monophyletic groupings. Further, our analysis of the sequence alignments of catalytic domains has identified >10 novel sequence signatures consisting of conserved signature indels (inserts or deletions, CSIs that are distinctive characteristics of either particular classes of DGK isozymes, or are commonly shared by members of two or more classes of DGK isozymes. The conserved indels in protein sequences are known to play important functional roles in the proteins/organisms where they are found. Thus, our identification of multiple highly specific CSIs that are distinguishing characteristics of different classes of DGK homologs points to the existence of important differences in the catalytic domain function among the DGK isozymes. The identified CSIs in conjunction with

  19. FY 1998 annual summary report on advanced fabrication techniques for high-melting metal-based members. Development of techniques for creating members for high-efficiency power generation; 1998 nendo koyuten kinzokukei buzai no kodo kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu hatsuden'yo buzai sosei gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The R and D programs were implemented to develop techniques for creating members of high-melting metals, having a very high melting point and potentially excellent high-temperature strength characteristics. These are expected to replace Ni-based superalloys for gas turbine members, to further increase operating temperature of the turbine. The programs were aimed to improve their high-temperature strength and toughness and hence their reliability by microscopically controlling their compositions and structures, and also aimed to improve their durability by coating them with a film capable of preventing oxidation and resisting to gas-induced corrosion to impart resistance to oxidation and corrosion to them. For the design of Nb-based solid solution alloys, it is found that dissolution of Mo at around 30 at.% or less and W at 20 at.% or less in Nb improves their high-temperature strength and toughness. For the design of high-strength Nb-based composite materials, it is found that Si-containing Nb-based composite materials, prepared by mechanical alloying, are amorphous or present in the form of solid solution of Ni supersaturated with Si. The R and D activities were also directed to development of techniques for creating Nb-based superhigh-temperature members, their evaluation, and imparting oxidation resistance to them. (NEDO)

  20. Conservation challenges for the Austral and Neotropical America section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Vale, Mariana M; Bonacic, Cristian; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio; List, Rurik; Bynum, Nora; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Simonetti, Javier A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Austral and Neotropical America (ANA) section of the Society for Conservation Biology includes a vast territory with some of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in the world. With more than 573 million people, the economic growth of the region still depends strongly on natural resource exploitation and still has high rates of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. A survey among the ANA section membership, with more than 700 members, including most of the section's prominent ecologists and conservationists, indicates that lack of capacity building for conservation, corruption, and threats such as deforestation and illegal trade of species, are among the most urgent problems that need to be addressed to improve conservation in the region. There are, however, strong universities and ecology groups taking the lead in environmental research and conservation, a most important issue to enhance the ability of the region to solve conservation and development conflicts.

  1. Computation and Analysis of High Rocky Slope Safety in a Water Conservancy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated method, covering the actual monitoring analysis, practical geological model, and theoretical mathematical simulation model, is systematically proposed and successfully applied. Deformation characteristic of a unique high rocky slope was firstly analyzed from multiple angles and multiple layers by changeable elevations and distances. Arrangements of monitoring points were listed and monitoring equipment was designed to comprise a complete monitoring system. Present larger displacement was concluded for bottom larger displacement caused by water erosion and middle larger displacement formed by seepage. Temporal and spatial displacements rule study of multiple-points linkage effects with water factor proved this conclusion. To better excavate useful message and analyze the deep rule from the practical monitoring data, the slope geological model was conducted and rock mechanic parameters were researched. Finally, a unique three-dimensional finite element model was applied to approach the structure character using numerical simulations. The corresponding strength criterion was used to determine the safety coefficient by selecting a typical section. Subsequently, an integrated three-dimensional finite element model of the slope and dam was developed and more detailed deformation evolution mechanism was revealed. This study is expected to provide a powerful and systematic method to analyze very high, important, and dangerous slopes.

  2. Constrained instanton and baryon number non-conservation at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sil'vestrov, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    The main subject of this paper is the calculation of corrections to instanton action ΔS∼(mρ) 4 log(mρ)/g 2 (ρ is the intanton radius) in the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. The total cross section for baryon number violating processes at high energies is usually parametrized as σ tat ∝exp(4π/αF(ε)), where α=g 2 /4π, ε=√s/E 0 , E 0 =√6πm w /α. In the present paper the third nontrivial term of the F(ε) expansion is obtained. The unknown correction to F(ε) are expected to be of the order of ε 8/3 . The total cross section is extremely sensitive to the value of single instanton action. For sufficiently heavy Higgs boson the ρ-dependent part of the instanton action is changed drastically. 21 refs.; 1 fig

  3. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenalf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Jackson, Timothy N W; Casewell, Nicholas R; Undheim, Eivind A B; Vidal, Nicolas; Ali, Syed A; King, Glenn F; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae) have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74%) and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%), while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation.

  4. Molecular Evolution of Vertebrate Neurotrophins: Co-Option of the Highly Conserved Nerve Growth Factor Gene into the Advanced Snake Venom Arsenalf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagar, Kartik; Fry, Bryan Grieg; Jackson, Timothy N. W.; Casewell, Nicholas R.; Undheim, Eivind A. B.; Vidal, Nicolas; Ali, Syed A.; King, Glenn F.; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae) have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74%) and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%), while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation. PMID:24312363

  5. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenalf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartik Sunagar

    Full Text Available Neurotrophins are a diverse class of structurally related proteins, essential for neuronal development, survival, plasticity and regeneration. They are characterized by major family members, such as the nerve growth factors (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, which have been demonstrated here to lack coding sequence variations and follow the regime of negative selection, highlighting their extremely important conserved role in vertebrate homeostasis. However, in stark contrast, venom NGF secreted as part of the chemical arsenal of the venomous advanced snake family Elapidae (and to a lesser extent Viperidae have characteristics consistent with the typical accelerated molecular evolution of venom components. This includes a rapid rate of diversification under the significant influence of positive-selection, with the majority of positively-selected sites found in the secreted β-polypeptide chain (74% and on the molecular surface of the protein (92%, while the core structural and functional residues remain highly constrained. Such focal mutagenesis generates active residues on the toxin molecular surface, which are capable of interacting with novel biological targets in prey to induce a myriad of pharmacological effects. We propose that caenophidian NGFs could participate in prey-envenoming by causing a massive release of chemical mediators from mast cells to mount inflammatory reactions and increase vascular permeability, thereby aiding the spread of other toxins and/or by acting as proapoptotic factors. Despite their presence in reptilian venom having been known for over 60 years, this is the first evidence that venom-secreted NGF follows the molecular evolutionary pattern of other venom components, and thus likely participates in prey-envenomation.

  6. Estimation of individual doses from external exposures and dose-group classification of cohort members in high background radiation area in Yangjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yongling; Shen Hong; Sun Quanfu; Wei Luxin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: In order to estimate annual effective doses from external exposures in the high background radiation area (HBRA) and in the control area (CA) , the authors measured absorbed dose rates in air from terrestrial gamma radiation with different dosimeters. A dose group classification was an important step for analyzing the dose effects relationship among the cohort members in the investigated areas. The authors used the hamlet specific average annual effective doses of all the 526 hamlets in the investigated areas. A classification of four dose groups was made for the cohort members (high, moderate, low and control) . Methods: For the purpose of studying the dose effect relationships among the cohort members in HBRA and CA, it would be ideal that each subject has his own record of individual accumulated doses received before the evaluation. However, rt is difficult to realize it in practice (each of 106517 persons should wear TLD for a long time) . Thus the authors planned two sets of measurements. Firstly, to measure the environmental dose rates (outdoor, indoor, over the bed) in every hamlet of the investigated area (526 hamlets) , considering the occupancy factors for males and females of different age groups to convert to the annual effective dose from the data of dose rates. Secondly, to measure the individual cumulative dose with TLD for part of the subjects in the investigated areas. Results: Based on the two sets of measurements, the estimates of average annual effective doses in HBRA were 211.86 and 206.75 x 10 -5 Sv/a, respectively, 68.60 and 67.11 x 10 -5 Sv/a, respectively(gamma radiation only) . The intercomparison between these two sets of measurement showed that they were in good correlation. Thus the authors are able to yield the equations of linear regression: Y = 0.9937 + 6.0444, r = 0.9949. Conclusions: The authors took the value obtained from direct measurement as 'standard' , and 15 % for uncertainty of measurement. Since the estimates of

  7. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expression and genomic analysis of midasin, a novel and highly conserved AAA protein distantly related to dynein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons I R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The largest open reading frame in the Saccharomyces genome encodes midasin (MDN1p, YLR106p, an AAA ATPase of 560 kDa that is essential for cell viability. Orthologs of midasin have been identified in the genome projects for Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Results Midasin is present as a single-copy gene encoding a well-conserved protein of ~600 kDa in all eukaryotes for which data are available. In humans, the gene maps to 6q15 and encodes a predicted protein of 5596 residues (632 kDa. Sequence alignments of midasin from humans, yeast, Giardia and Encephalitozoon indicate that its domain structure comprises an N-terminal domain (35 kDa, followed by an AAA domain containing six tandem AAA protomers (~30 kDa each, a linker domain (260 kDa, an acidic domain (~70 kDa containing 35–40% aspartate and glutamate, and a carboxy-terminal M-domain (30 kDa that possesses MIDAS sequence motifs and is homologous to the I-domain of integrins. Expression of hemagglutamin-tagged midasin in yeast demonstrates a polypeptide of the anticipated size that is localized principally in the nucleus. Conclusions The highly conserved structure of midasin in eukaryotes, taken in conjunction with its nuclear localization in yeast, suggests that midasin may function as a nuclear chaperone and be involved in the assembly/disassembly of macromolecular complexes in the nucleus. The AAA domain of midasin is evolutionarily related to that of dynein, but it appears to lack a microtubule-binding site.

  9. Toxicity and cosmetic result of partial breast high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for conservatively operated early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Xia; Tripuraneni Prabhakar; Giap Huan; Lin Ray; Chu Colin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Objective To study the method, side effects and cosmetic outcome of high- dose-rate (HDR) accelerated partial breast interstitial irradiation (APBI) alone in early stage breast cancer' after conservative surgery. Methods: From February 2002 to June 2003,47 breast cancer lesions from 46 patients suffering from stage I/II breast cancer were treated with HDR 192 Ir APBI after conservative surgery. All patients were over 40 year-old, with T1-2N0-1 (≤3 lymph nodes positive), surgical margin > 1-2 mm, but those having lobular or inflammatory breast cancer were excluded. HDR brachytherapy with 34 Gy, 10 fractions/5 days was used after surgery, toxic reaction and cosmetic outcome were observed in one month, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results: Follow up of 1846 months, 34 months was carried out for the whole group. During the treatment, acute reactions including: erythema, edema, tenderness and infection, all under I-II grade, none of III-IV grade were observed in 21 patients(46%); late toxicity reactions: skin fibrosis, breast tenderness, fat necrosis, and telangiectasia, totally 20 patients (43%) were observed: 2 patients in III grade but one patient received 6 cycle chemotherapy. The result of cosmetic outcome evaluation was excellent or good, at 6 months 95% and 12 months 98%, respectively, but there was no recurfence. Conclusions: Excellent and favorable cosmetic results are noted after APBI by interstitial alone. Acute and late reactions are few. Long term observation is necessary for the rate of' local control. (authors)

  10. Using 'WeChat' online social networking in a real-world needs analysis of family members of youths at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, TianHong; Xu, LiHua; Tang, YingYing; Cui, HuiRu; Li, HuiJun; Wei, YanYan; Xu, YangYang; Jiang, LiJuan; Zhu, YiKang; Li, ChunBo; Jiang, KaiDa; Xiao, ZePing; Wang, JiJun

    2018-04-01

    The argument surrounding the safety and effectiveness of interventions for the population of individuals at a clinical high risk of developing psychosis has been ongoing for the past 30 years. However, few studies have assessed the needs of this special young population, who are struggling with the recent onset of psychotic symptoms. The sample consisted of 171 family members of 108 clinical high-risk individuals included from the ShangHai at Risk for Psychosis research programme. A 'WeChat' group was established to provide mutual support. There were 22,007 valid messages sent within the group between 1 April 2015 and 27 June 2016. Chat records were subsequently analysed to determine the needs of families during intervention at the early stages of psychosis. Families of clinical high-risk individuals were highly involved in the entire medical process, and the major concerns of the families of clinical high-risk individuals focused on both functional recovery and medication. The themes of 'take medication', 'go to school' and 'study in school' were often discussed within the group. A family-focused intervention targeting functional recovery and real-time professional explanations of medication would meet the major needs of families of Chinese clinical high-risk individuals.

  11. Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved α+β core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Das, Debanu; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The first structures from the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663) reveal that some members of this family form tightly intertwined dimers consisting of two domains (N-terminal α+β core and C-terminal zinc-finger domains), whereas others contain only the core domain. The presence of the zinc-finger domain suggests that some members of this family may perform functions associated with transcriptional regulation, protein–protein interaction, RNA binding or metal-ion sensing. Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2-DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23-SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63-THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like α+β core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet flanked by several α-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2-DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure

  12. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [fr

  13. Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members [es

  14. Estimating Discharge and Nonpoint Source Nitrate Loading to Streams From Three End-Member Pathways Using High-Frequency Water Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Hood, Krista; Terziotti, Silvia; Wolock, David M.

    2017-12-01

    The myriad hydrologic and biogeochemical processes taking place in watersheds occurring across space and time are integrated and reflected in the quantity and quality of water in streams and rivers. Collection of high-frequency water quality data with sensors in surface waters provides new opportunities to disentangle these processes and quantify sources and transport of water and solutes in the coupled groundwater-surface water system. A new approach for separating the streamflow hydrograph into three components was developed and coupled with high-frequency nitrate data to estimate time-variable nitrate loads from chemically dilute quick flow, chemically concentrated quick flow, and slowflow groundwater end-member pathways for periods of up to 2 years in a groundwater-dominated and a quick-flow-dominated stream in central Wisconsin, using only streamflow and in-stream water quality data. The dilute and concentrated quick flow end-members were distinguished using high-frequency specific conductance data. Results indicate that dilute quick flow contributed less than 5% of the nitrate load at both sites, whereas 89 ± 8% of the nitrate load at the groundwater-dominated stream was from slowflow groundwater, and 84 ± 25% of the nitrate load at the quick-flow-dominated stream was from concentrated quick flow. Concentrated quick flow nitrate concentrations varied seasonally at both sites, with peak concentrations in the winter that were 2-3 times greater than minimum concentrations during the growing season. Application of this approach provides an opportunity to assess stream vulnerability to nonpoint source nitrate loading and expected stream responses to current or changing conditions and practices in watersheds.

  15. Estimating discharge and non-point source nitrate loading to streams from three end-member pathways using high-frequency water quality and streamflow data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. P.; Tesoriero, A. J.; Hood, K.; Terziotti, S.; Wolock, D.

    2017-12-01

    The myriad hydrologic and biogeochemical processes taking place in watersheds occurring across space and time are integrated and reflected in the quantity and quality of water in streams and rivers. Collection of high-frequency water quality data with sensors in surface waters provides new opportunities to disentangle these processes and quantify sources and transport of water and solutes in the coupled groundwater-surface water system. A new approach for separating the streamflow hydrograph into three components was developed and coupled with high-frequency specific conductance and nitrate data to estimate time-variable watershed-scale nitrate loading from three end-member pathways - dilute quickflow, concentrated quickflow, and slowflow groundwater - to two streams in central Wisconsin. Time-variable nitrate loads from the three pathways were estimated for periods of up to two years in a groundwater-dominated and a quickflow-dominated stream, using only streamflow and in-stream water quality data. The dilute and concentrated quickflow end-members were distinguished using high-frequency specific conductance data. Results indicate that dilute quickflow contributed less than 5% of the nitrate load at both sites, whereas 89±5% of the nitrate load at the groundwater-dominated stream was from slowflow groundwater, and 84±13% of the nitrate load at the quickflow-dominated stream was from concentrated quickflow. Concentrated quickflow nitrate concentrations varied seasonally at both sites, with peak concentrations in the winter that were 2-3 times greater than minimum concentrations during the growing season. Application of this approach provides an opportunity to assess stream vulnerability to non-point source nitrate loading and expected stream responses to current or changing conditions and practices in watersheds.

  16. Distinct activation phenotype of a highly conserved novel HLA-B57-restricted epitope during dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Elizabeth; Woda, Marcia; Thomas, Stephen J; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Stephens, Henry A F; Rothman, Alan L; Mathew, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the sequence of T-cell epitopes between dengue virus (DENV) serotypes is believed to alter memory T-cell responses during second heterologous infections. We identified a highly conserved, novel, HLA-B57-restricted epitope on the DENV NS1 protein. We predicted higher frequencies of B57-NS1(26-34) -specific CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals undergoing secondary rather than primary DENV infection. However, high tetramer-positive T-cell frequencies during acute infection were seen in only one of nine subjects with secondary infection. B57-NS1(26-34) -specific and other DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as total CD8(+) T cells, expressed an activated phenotype (CD69(+) and/or CD38(+)) during acute infection. In contrast, expression of CD71 was largely limited to DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells. In vitro stimulation of cell lines indicated that CD71 expression was differentially sensitive to stimulation by homologous and heterologous variant peptides. CD71 may represent a useful marker of antigen-specific T-cell activation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  18. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  19. Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Pascal, Thierry; Tabb, Amy; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2018-05-15

    Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325 , having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP , was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  20. Neuronal patterning of the tubular collar cord is highly conserved among enteropneusts but dissimilar to the chordate neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Urata, Makoto; Praher, Daniela; Wanninger, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    A tubular nervous system is present in the deuterostome groups Chordata (cephalochordates, tunicates, vertebrates) and in the non-chordate Enteropneusta. However, the worm-shaped enteropneusts possess a less complex nervous system featuring only a short hollow neural tube, whereby homology to its chordate counterpart remains elusive. Since the majority of data on enteropneusts stem from the harrimaniid Saccoglossus kowalevskii, putative interspecific variations remain undetected resulting in an unreliable ground pattern that impedes homology assessments. In order to complement the missing data from another enteropneust family, we investigated expression of key neuronal patterning genes in the ptychoderid Balanoglossus misakiensis. The collar cord of B. misakiensis shows anterior Six3/6 and posterior Otx + Engrailed expression, in a region corresponding to the chordate brain. Neuronal Nk2.1/Nk2.2 expression is absent. Interestingly, we found median Dlx and lateral Pax6 expression domains, i.e., a condition that is reversed compared to chordates. Comparative analyses reveal that adult nervous system patterning is highly conserved among the enteropneust families Harrimaniidae, Spengelidae and Ptychoderidae. BmiDlx and BmiPax6 have no corresponding expression domains in the chordate brain, which may be indicative of independent acquisition of a tubular nervous system in Enteropneusta and Chordata.

  1. Assessment of some high-order finite difference schemes on the scalar conservation law with periodical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina BOGOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic/hypersonic flows with strong shocks need special treatment in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in order to accurately capture the discontinuity location and his magnitude. To avoid numerical instabilities in the presence of discontinuities, the numerical schemes must generate low dissipation and low dispersion error. Consequently, the algorithms used to calculate the time and space-derivatives, should exhibit a low amplitude and phase error. This paper focuses on the comparison of the numerical results obtained by simulations with some high resolution numerical schemes applied on linear and non-linear one-dimensional conservation low. The analytical solutions are provided for all benchmark tests considering smooth periodical conditions. All the schemes converge to the proper weak solution for linear flux and smooth initial conditions. However, when the flux is non-linear, the discontinuities may develop from smooth initial conditions and the shock must be correctly captured. All the schemes accurately identify the shock position, with the price of the numerical oscillation in the vicinity of the sudden variation. We believe that the identification of this pure numerical behavior, without physical relevance, in 1D case is extremely useful to avoid problems related to the stability and convergence of the solution in the general 3D case.

  2. A highly Conserved Aspartic Acid Residue of the Chitosanase from Bacillus Sp. TS Is Involved in the Substrate Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhanping; Zhao, Shuangzhi; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhengying; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2016-11-01

    The chitosanase from Bacillus sp. TS (CsnTS) is an enzyme belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 8. The sequence of CsnTS shares 98 % identity with the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17. Crystallography analysis and site-direct mutagenesis of the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 identified the important residues involved in the catalytic interaction and substrate binding. However, despite progress in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the chitosanase from the family GH8, the functional roles of some residues that are highly conserved throughout this family have not been fully elucidated. This study focused on one of these residues, i.e., the aspartic acid residue at position 318. We found that apart from asparagine, mutation of Asp318 resulted in significant loss of enzyme activity. In-depth investigations showed that mutation of this residue not only impaired enzymatic activity but also affected substrate binding. Taken together, our results showed that Asp318 plays an important role in CsnTS activity.

  3. The highly conserved codon following the slippery sequence supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeth F Mathew

    Full Text Available HIV-1 utilises -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating -1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the 'intercodon' contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules-eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA-were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to -1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1.

  4. The implications of RCRA [Resource Conservation and Recovery Act] regulation for the disposal of transuranic and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmon, C.F.; Sharples, F.E.; Smith, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    In May of 1987 the Department of Energy (DOE) published a rule interpreting the definition of ''byproduct'' under the Atomic Energy Act. This byproduct rule clarified the role of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in the regulation of DOE's radioactive waste management activities. According to the rule, only the radioactive portion of DOE's mixed radioactive and hazardous waste (mixed waste), including mixed transuranic (TRU) and high-level waste (HLW), is exempt from RCRA under the byproduct exemption. The portion of a waste that is hazardous as defined by RCRA is subject to full regulation under RCRA. Because the radioactive and hazardous portions of m any, if not most, DOE wastes are likely to be inseparable, the rule in effect makes most mixed wastes subject to dual regulation. The potential application of RCRA to facilities such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and the HLW repository creates unique challenges for both the DOE and regulatory authorities. Strategies must be developed to assure compliance with RCRA without either causing excessive administrative burdens or abandoning the goal of minimizing radiation exposure. This paper will explore some of the potential regulatory options for and recent trends in the regulation of TRU and HLW under RCRA

  5. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  6. Implications of high-/low-context communication for target audience member interpretation of messages in the Nimechill abstinence campaign in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraya, Julie Gathoni; Neville Miller, Ann; Mjomba, Leonard

    2011-09-01

    Although it ran on multiple mass media for the better part of a year, end line evaluation of the Nimechill youth abstinence campaign in Kenya indicated that exposure to the campaign had no relationship to youth decisions to defer sexual debut. One possible explanation of this lack of association could be that target audience members derived inconsistent and confusing meanings from visuals as opposed to text in the campaign. Employing Hall's concept of high- and low-context communication, we assessed target population interpretation of four campaign posters via 12 focus-group discussions and four individual in-depth interviews with Nairobi youth. We found that although participants endorsed and recognized campaign objectives, contextual cues in some campaign visuals were interpreted by participants as being contradictory to the abstinence message in the poster texts. In addition noticeable differences arose between the low-income and middle-/high-income groups in interpretation of one of the posters. We conclude with recommendations regarding use of visuals in high-context cultures and involvement of youth from various socioeconomic strata in campaign planning.

  7. High conservation level of CD8(+) T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Kedzierska, Katherine; McCaw, James M; Kelso, Anne; Leder, Karin; McVernon, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines require regular updates due to antigenic drift causing loss of effectiveness and therefore providing little or no protection against novel influenza A subtypes. Next generation vaccines capable of eliciting CD8(+) T cell (CTL) mediated cross-protective immunity may offer a long-term alternative strategy. However, measuring pre- and existing levels of CTL cross-protection in humans is confounded by differences in infection histories across individuals. During 2000-2003, H1N2 viruses circulated persistently in the human population for the first time and we hypothesized that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) contained novel CTL epitopes that may have contributed to the survival of the viruses. This study describes the immunogenic NP peptides of H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans over the past century, 1918-2003, by comparing this historical dataset to reference NP peptides from H1N2 that circulated in humans during 2000-2003. Observed peptides sequences ranged from highly conserved (15%) to highly variable (12%), with variation unrelated to reported immunodominance. No unique NP peptides which were exclusive to the H1N2 viruses were noted. However, the virus had inherited the NP from a recently emerged H3N2 variant containing novel peptides, which may have assisted its persistence. Any advantage due to this novelty was subsequently lost with emergence of a newer H3N2 variant in 2003. Our approach has potential to provide insight into the population context in which influenza viruses emerge, and may help to inform immunogenic peptide selection for CTL-inducing influenza vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1725-1732, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Surgical versus conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the lower leg (anterior tibial cortex, navicular and fifth metatarsal base): a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallee, W.H.; Weel, H.; van Dijk, C.N.; van Tulder, M.W.; Kerkhoffs, G.M.; Lin, C.W.C.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare surgical and conservative treatment for high-risk stress fractures of the anterior tibial cortex, navicular and proximal fifth metatarsal. Methods Systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and PEDro were performed to identify relevant prospective and

  9. Comparing the cost-effectiveness of water conservation policies in a depleting aquifer:A dynamic analysis of the Kansas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research analyzes two groundwater conservation policies in the Kansas High Plains located within the Ogallala aquifer: 1) cost-share assistance to increase irrigation efficiency; and 2) incentive payments to convert irrigated crop production to dryland crop production. To compare the cost-effec...

  10. Spatially conserved regulatory elements identified within human and mouse Cd247 gene using high-throughput sequencing data from the ENCODE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Hannibal, Tine Dahlbæk; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we have utilized the wealth of high-throughput sequencing data produced during the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project to identify spatially conserved regulatory elements within the Cd247 gene from human and mouse. We show the presence of two transcription factor binding sites...

  11. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Important regional technology research and development--Advanced machining technology for high-melting point metal based members (Development of creating technology for high-efficiency power generating members); 1999 nendo koyuten kinzokukei buzai no kodo kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu hatsuden'yo buzai sosei gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development is conducted concerning technologies of creating high-melting point metal based members for the purpose of enabling gas turbines to withstand still higher temperatures. In the research which deals mainly with Nb, solid solution state is enhanced, high-temperature strength and tenacity are improved by enhanced composition and diffusion, and surfaces are modified in terms of resistance to oxidation and corrosion by the technologies of multi-layer coating and slope-structured coating. In the designing and evaluation of high-strength Nb based solid solution alloys, alloys excellent in high-temperature strength and room-temperature tenacity are obtained, which contain 5-30at% Mo and 5-15at% W. In the designing and evaluation of Nb based composite materials, it is found that it strengthens the composition of Nb based enhanced solid solution alloys to add Si to Nb alloys for the precipitation of silicides in the Nb based solid solution alloy matrices. In the study of the creation technology for and evaluation of Nb based ultrahigh-temperature members, experiments are conducted with attention focused on the discharge plasma sintering method. In the development of technologies for providing oxidation resisting capability, studies are conducted about ion implantation and ion plating. (NEDO)

  12. Lithofacies, paleoenvironment and high-resolution stratigraphy of the D5 and D6 members of the Middle Jurassic carbonates Dhruma Formation, outcrop analog, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Ibrahim M.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammad H.; Bashri, Mazin A.; Abdulghani, Waleed M.

    2018-03-01

    This study characterizes the lithofacies, paleoenvironment and stratigraphic architecture of the D5 and D6 members of carbonates Dhruma Formation outcrops in central Saudi Arabia. The study integrates detailed lithofacies analysis based on vertical and lateral profiles, in addition to thin-sections petrography to reveal the high-resolution architecture framework. Nine lithofacies types (LFTs) were defined namely: (1) skeletal peletal spiculitic wackestone (15%), (2) peloidal echinoderm packstone (19%), (3) fissile shale (36%), (4) peloidal spiculitic echinoderm pack-grainstone (5%), (5) cross-bedded peloidal skeletal oolitic grainstone (7%), (6) oolitic grainstone (2%), (7) intraformational rudstone (cycles and cycle sets with 5th to 6th orders magnitude, and thickness ranges from a few centimeters up to 6 m with an average of 1.5 m. Those are stacked to form four high-frequency sequences with thickness range from 1 m up to 14 m. The latter were grouped into a single depositional sequence of 3rd order magnitude. The architectural analysis also shows that the potential reservoir units were intensively affected by muddy-textured rocks which act as reservoir seals. These variations in the stratigraphic sequences in Middle Jurassic Dhruma Formation and its equivalents could be attributed to the eustatic sea-level changes, climate, tectonics, and local paleoenvironments. This study attempts to provide detailed insight into reservoir heterogeneity and architecture. The analog may help to understand and predict lithofacies heterogeneity, architecture, and quality in the subsurface equivalent reservoirs.

  13. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  14. "There's a Problem, and We've Got to Face It": How Staff Members Wrestled with Race in an Urban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Educators who initiate school reform work often find that attempts to raise student achievement and change school culture are derailed when staff members refuse to address issues of race. At the same time, staff members who collectively resist engaging in discussions of racism and racial inequality may be actively involved in their own individual…

  15. Model My Watershed: A high-performance cloud application for public engagement, watershed modeling and conservation decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mayorga, E.; McFarland, M.; Robbins, A.; Haag, S.; Shokoufandeh, A.; Evans, B. M.; Arscott, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    The Model My Watershed Web app (https://app.wikiwatershed.org/) and the BiG-CZ Data Portal (http://portal.bigcz.org/) and are web applications that share a common codebase and a common goal to deliver high-performance discovery, visualization and analysis of geospatial data in an intuitive user interface in web browser. Model My Watershed (MMW) was designed as a decision support system for watershed conservation implementation. BiG CZ Data Portal was designed to provide context and background data for research sites. Users begin by creating an Area of Interest, via an automated watershed delineation tool, a free draw tool, selection of a predefined area such as a county or USGS Hydrological Unit (HUC), or uploading a custom polygon. Both Web apps visualize and provide summary statistics of land use, soil groups, streams, climate and other geospatial information. MMW then allows users to run a watershed model to simulate different scenarios of human impacts on stormwater runoff and water-quality. BiG CZ Data Portal allows users to search for scientific and monitoring data within the Area of Interest, which also serves as a prototype for the upcoming Monitor My Watershed web app. Both systems integrate with CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure, including visualizing observational data from CUAHSI Water Data Center and storing user data via CUAHSI HydroShare. Both systems also integrate with the new EnviroDIY Water Quality Data Portal (http://data.envirodiy.org/), a system for crowd-sourcing environmental monitoring data using open-source sensor stations (http://envirodiy.org/mayfly/) and based on the Observations Data Model v2.

  16. X-ray fluorescence in Member States (Italy): Full field X-ray fluorescence imaging with high-energy and high-spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, F. P.; Masini, N.; Pappalardo, L., E-mail: romanop@lns.infn.it [IBAM, CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Cosentino, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Rizzo, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    A full field X-ray camera for the X-Ray Fluorescence imaging of materials with high-energy and high-spatial resolution was designed and developed. The system was realized by coupling a pinhole collimator with a positionsensitive CCD detector. X-Ray fluorescence is induced on the samples by irradiation with an external X-ray tube. The characteristic X-ray spectra of the investigated materials are obtained by using a multi-frames acquisition in single-photon counting. The energy resolution measured at the Fe-Kα line was 157 eV. The spatial resolution of the system was determined by the analysis of a sharp-edge at different magnification values; it was estimated to be 90 μm at a magnification value of 3.2x and 190 μm at 0.8x. The present set-up of the system is suited to analyze samples with dimensions up to 5x4 cm{sup 2}. Typical measurement time is in the range between 1h to 4 h. (author)

  17. Ex Situ gene conservation in high elevation white pine species in the United States-a beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Anna Schoettle; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler; David Conklin; Andrew Bower; Chris Jensen; Rob Mangold; Doug Daoust; Gary Man

    2011-01-01

    The eight white pine species native to the western United States face an array of biotic and abiotic challenges that impact the viability of populations or the species themselves. Well-established programs are already in place to conserve and restore Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don and P. lambertiana Dougl. throughout significant portions of their geographic ranges....

  18. A Highly Conserved GEQYQQLR Epitope Has Been Identified in the Nucleoprotein of Ebola Virus by Using an In Silico Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tuhin Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV is a deadly virus that has caused several fatal outbreaks. Recently it caused another outbreak and resulted in thousands afflicted cases. Effective and approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment against this virus is still absent. In this study, we aimed to predict B-cell epitopes from several EBOV encoded proteins which may aid in developing new antibody-based therapeutics or viral antigen detection method against this virus. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA was performed for the identification of conserved region among glycoprotein (GP, nucleoprotein (NP, and viral structural proteins (VP40, VP35, and VP24 of EBOV. Next, different consensus immunogenic and conserved sites were predicted from the conserved region(s using various computational tools which are available in Immune Epitope Database (IEDB. Among GP, NP, VP40, VP35, and VP30 protein, only NP gave a 100% conserved GEQYQQLR B-cell epitope that fulfills the ideal features of an effective B-cell epitope and could lead a way in the milieu of Ebola treatment. However, successful in vivo and in vitro studies are prerequisite to determine the actual potency of our predicted epitope and establishing it as a preventing medication against all the fatal strains of EBOV.

  19. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  20. Inhibitory control and visuo-spatial reversibility in Piaget’s seminal number conservation task: A high-density ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoire eBorst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present high-density ERP study on 13 adults aimed to determine whether number conservation relies on the ability to inhibit the overlearned length-equals-number strategy and then imagine the shortening of the row that was lengthened. Participants performed the number-conservation task and, after the EEG session, the mental imagery task. In the number-conservation task, first two rows with the same number of tokens and the same length were presented on a computer screen (COV condition and then, the tokens in one of the two rows were spread apart (INT condition. Participants were instructed to determine whether the two rows had an identical number of tokens. In the mental imagery task, two rows with different lengths but the same number of tokens were presented and participants were instructed to imagine the tokens in the longer row aligning with the tokens in the shorter row. In the number-conservation task, we found that the amplitudes of the centro-parietal N2 and fronto-central P3 were higher in the INT than in the COV conditions. In addition, the differences in response times between the two conditions were correlated with the differences in the amplitudes of the fronto-central P3. In light of previous results reported on the number-conservation task in adults, the present results suggest that inhibition might be necessary to succeed the number-conservation task in adults even when the transformation of the length of one of the row is displayed. Finally, we also reported correlations between the speed at which participants could imagine the shortening of one of the row in the mental imagery task, the speed at which participants could determine that the two rows had the same number of tokens after the tokens in one of the row were spread apart and the latency of the late positive parietal component in the number-conservation task. Therefore, performing the number-conservation task might involve mental transformation processes in adults.

  1. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    identification of approximately 25% of the essential genes required for craniofacial development. The identification of zebrafish models for two human disease syndromes indicates that homologs to the other genes are likely to also be relevant for human craniofacial development. The initial characterization of wdr68 suggests an important role in craniofacial development for the highly conserved Wdr68-Dyrk1 protein complexes.

  2. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Khalid J H; Ali, Juma A M; Eze, Anthonius A; Looi, Wan Limm; Tagoe, Daniel N A; Creek, Darren J; Barrett, Michael P; de Koning, Harry P

    2017-08-01

    Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU) and 5F,2'deoxyuridine (5F,2'dUrd), and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1); the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2'dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1). To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [ 3 H]-uridine but not of [ 3 H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [ 3 H]-inosine but not [ 3 H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2'dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2'dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  3. Functional and genetic evidence that nucleoside transport is highly conserved in Leishmania species: Implications for pyrimidine-based chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid J.H. Alzahrani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania pyrimidine salvage is replete with opportunities for therapeutic intervention with enzyme inhibitors or antimetabolites. Their uptake into cells depends upon specific transporters; therefore it is essential to establish whether various Leishmania species possess similar pyrimidine transporters capable of drug uptake. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of pyrimidine transport in L. major and L. mexicana. In both species, two transporters for uridine/adenosine were detected, one of which also transported uracil and the antimetabolites 5-fluoruracil (5-FU and 5F,2′deoxyuridine (5F,2′dUrd, and was designated uridine-uracil transporter 1 (UUT1; the other transporter mediated uptake of adenosine, uridine, 5F,2′dUrd and thymidine and was designated Nucleoside Transporter 1 (NT1. To verify the reported L. donovani model of two NT1-like genes encoding uridine/adenosine transporters, and an NT2 gene encoding an inosine transporter, we cloned the corresponding L. major and L. mexicana genes, expressing each in T. brucei. Consistent with the L. donovani reports, the NT1-like genes of either species mediated the adenosine-sensitive uptake of [3H]-uridine but not of [3H]-inosine. Conversely, the NT2-like genes mediated uptake of [3H]-inosine but not [3H]-uridine. Among pyrimidine antimetabolites tested, 5-FU and 5F,2′dUrd were the most effective antileishmanials; resistance to both analogs was induced in L. major and L. mexicana. In each case it was found that the resistant cells had lost the transport capacity for the inducing drug. Metabolomics analysis found that the mechanism of action of 5-FU and 5F-2′dUrd was similar in both Leishmania species, with major changes in deoxynucleotide metabolism. We conclude that the pyrimidine salvage system is highly conserved in Leishmania species - essential information for the development of pyrimidine-based chemotherapy. Keywords: Leishmania, Pyrimidine metabolism, Uracil

  4. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  5. Multidisciplinary approach for the esophageal carcinoma with intent to conserve the esophagus centering on high-dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masao; Kuroda, Yasumasa; Okamoto, Yoshiaki

    1997-01-01

    Forty-seven patients with operable squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus were treated by initial concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CDDP-5 FU-44 Gy) followed by definitive high-dose of radiotherapy (CRT group: 35 patients) or surgery (CRT-S group: 12 patients). Clinical CR rate showed 86% in CRT group; and pathological CR rate 18% in CRT-S group. The overall median survival was 45 months, survival at 1, 3, 5 years being 96%, 52%, 48%, respectively. No treatment-related mortality was observed. The rate of the 'esophagus conservation' was 66%. Our results demonstrated that the multidisciplinary approach with intent to conserve the esophagus centering on high-dose radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy provides a significant improvement of both survival and quality of life in patients with operable esophageal carcinoma. (author)

  6. Characterization of a highly efficient antibiotic-degrading metallo-β-lactamase obtained from an uncultured member of a permafrost community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Marcelo Monteiro; Selleck, Christopher; Enculescu, Charmaine; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Mitić, Nataša; Craig, Whitney R; Helweh, Waleed; Hugenholtz, Philip; Tyson, Gene W; Tierney, David L; Larrabee, James A; Schenk, Gerhard

    2017-08-16

    Antibiotic resistance is a major global health problem, one that threatens to derail the benefits garnered from arguably the greatest success of modern medicine, the discovery of antibiotics. Among the most potent agents contributing to antibiotic resistance are metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). The discovery of MBL-like enzymes in microorganisms that are not in contact with the human population is of particular concern as these proteins already have the in-built capacity to inactivate antibiotics, even though they may not need MBL activity for their survival. Here, we demonstrate that a microbiome from a remote and frozen environment in Alaska harbours at least one highly efficient MBL, LRA-8. LRA-8 is homologous to the B3 subgroup of MBLs and has a substrate profile and catalytic properties similar to well-known members of this enzyme family, which are expressed by major human pathogens. LRA-8 is predominantly a penicillinase, but is also active towards carbapenems, but not cephalosporins. Spectroscopic studies indicate that LRA-8 has an active site structure similar to that of other MBLs (in particular B3 subgroup representative AIM-1), and a combination of steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic data demonstrate that the enzyme is likely to employ a metal ion-bridging hydroxide to initiate catalysis. The rate-limiting step is the decay of a chromophoric, tetrahedral intermediate, as is observed in various other MBLs. Thus, studying the properties of such "pristine" MBL-like proteins may provide insight into the structural plasticity of this family of enzymes that may facilitate functional promiscuity, while important insight into the evolution of MBLs may also be gained.

  7. Highly transparent poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings for the conservation of matte painted artworks

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, A.; Gherardi, Francesca; Goidanich, S.; Delaney, J. K.; de la Rie, E. R.; Ubaldi, M. C.; Toniolo, L.; Simonutti, R.

    2015-01-01

    A nanocomposite coating based on TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) is used as consolidant of matte painted surfaces (temperas, watercolors, modern paintings). The aim of this work is to provide advances in the conservation of these works of art, while preserving their optical appearance, in terms of colour and gloss. Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) measurements of a painting-model (an acrylic black monochrome) treated with the nanocomposite coatings revealed that it...

  8. 75 FR 31609 - Conservation Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... producers who are members of the protected groups have participated in NRCS conservation programs at parity..., color, national origin, gender, sex, or disability status. Therefore, the CSP rule portends no adverse...

  9. DNA analysis indicates that Asian elephants are native to Borneo and are therefore a high priority for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Borneo's elephants is controversial. Two competing hypotheses argue that they are either indigenous, tracing back to the Pleistocene, or were introduced, descending from elephants imported in the 16th-18th centuries. Taxonomically, they have either been classified as a unique subspecies or placed under the Indian or Sumatran subspecies. If shown to be a unique indigenous population, this would extend the natural species range of the Asian elephant by 1300 km, and therefore Borneo elephants would have much greater conservation importance than if they were a feral population. We compared DNA of Borneo elephants to that of elephants from across the range of the Asian elephant, using a fragment of mitochondrial DNA, including part of the hypervariable d-loop, and five autosomal microsatellite loci. We find that Borneo's elephants are genetically distinct, with molecular divergence indicative of a Pleistocene colonisation of Borneo and subsequent isolation. We reject the hypothesis that Borneo's elephants were introduced. The genetic divergence of Borneo elephants warrants their recognition as a separate evolutionary significant unit. Thus, interbreeding Borneo elephants with those from other populations would be contraindicated in ex situ conservation, and their genetic distinctiveness makes them one of the highest priority populations for Asian elephant conservation.

  10. Summoning compassion to address the challenges of conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallach, Arian D; Bekoff, Marc; Batavia, Chelsea; Nelson, Michael P; Ramp, Daniel

    2018-04-27

    Conservation practice is informed by science, but also reflects ethical beliefs about how we ought to value and interact with the Earth's biota. As human activities continue to drive extinctions and diminish critical life-sustaining ecosystem processes, achieving conservation goals becomes increasingly urgent. In our determination to react decisively, conservation challenges can be handled without due deliberation, particularly when wildlife individuals are sacrificed "for the greater good" of wildlife collectives (populations, species, ecosystems). With growing recognition of the widespread sentience and sapience of many nonhuman animals, standard conservation practices that categorically prioritize collectives without due consideration for the wellbeing of individuals are ethically untenable. Here we highlight three overarching ethical orientations characterizing current and historical practices in conservation that suppress compassion: instrumentalism, collectivism, and nativism. We illustrate how establishing a commitment to compassion could re-orient conservation in more ethically expansive directions, which incorporate recognition of the intrinsic value of wildlife, the sentience of nonhuman animals, and the values of novel ecosystems, introduced species and their members. A compassionate conservation approach allays practices that intentionally and unnecessarily harm wildlife individuals, while aligning with critical conservation goals. Although the urgency of achieving effective outcomes for solving major conservation problems may enhance the appeal of quick and harsh measures, the costs are too high. Continuing to justify moral indifference when causing the suffering of wildlife individuals, particularly those who possess sophisticated capacities for emotion, consciousness, and sociality, risks estranging conservation practice from prevailing, and appropriate, social values. As conservationists and compassionate beings, we must demonstrate concern for both

  11. The selective conservative management of small traumatic pneumothoraces following stab injuries is safe: experience from a high-volume trauma service in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2015-02-01

    The selective conservative management of small pneumothoraces (PTXs) following stab injuries is controversial. We reviewed a cohort of patients managed conservatively in a high volume trauma service in South Africa. A retrospective review over a 2-year period identified 125 asymptomatic patients with small PTXs measuring chest radiograph who were managed conservatively. Of the 125 patients included in the study, 92% were male (115/125), and the median age for all patients was 21 years (19-24). Ninety-seven per cent (121/125) of the weapons involved were knives, and 3% (4/125) were screwdrivers. Sixty-one per cent of all injuries were on the left side. Eighty-two per cent (102/125) sustained a single stab, and 18% (23/125) had multiple stabs. Thirty-nine per cent (49/125) had a PTX <0.5 cm (Group A), 26% (32/125) were ≥ 0.5 to <1 cm (Group B), 19% (24/125) were ≥ 1 to <1.5 cm (Group C) and 15% (20/125) were ≥ 1.5 to <2 cm (Group D). Three per cent of all patients (4/125) eventually required ICDs (one in Group C, three in Group D). All four patients had ICDs in situ for 24 h. The remaining 97% (121/125) were all managed successfully by active clinical observation alone. There were no subsequent readmissions, morbidity or mortality as a direct result of our conservative approach. The selective conservative management of asymptomatic small PTXs from stab injuries is safe if undertaken in the appropriate setting.

  12. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  13. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  14. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order...... of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any to other within the order....

  15. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  16. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA

  17. The Highly Conserved COPII Coat Complex Sorts Cargo from the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Targets It to the Golgi

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, Christopher; Ferro-Novick, Susan; Miller, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is driven by a conserved cytoplasmic coat complex called the COPII coat. The COPII coat complex contains an inner shell (Sec23/Sec24) that sorts cargo into ER-derived vesicles and an outer cage (Sec13/Sec31) that leads to coat polymerization. Once released from the ER, vesicles must tether to and fuse with the target membrane to deliver their protein and lipid contents. This delivery step also depends on the COPII coat, with coat proteins bin...

  18. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  19. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Diverse Sets of Conserved, Nonconserved, and Species-Specific miRNAs in Jute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tariqul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating a broad range of biological processes, acting by cleaving mRNAs or by translational repression. A group of plant microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved; however, others are expressed in a species-specific manner. Jute is an agroeconomically important fibre crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available for microRNAs in jute to date. In this study, Illumina sequencing revealed a total of 227 known microRNAs and 17 potential novel microRNA candidates in jute, of which 164 belong to 23 conserved families and the remaining 63 belong to 58 nonconserved families. Among a total of 81 identified microRNA families, 116 potential target genes were predicted for 39 families and 11 targets were predicted for 4 among the 17 identified novel microRNAs. For understanding better the functions of microRNAs, target genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology and their pathways illustrated by KEGG pathway analyses. The presence of microRNAs identified in jute was validated by stem-loop RT-PCR followed by end point PCR and qPCR for randomly selected 20 known and novel microRNAs. This study exhaustively identifies microRNAs and their target genes in jute which will ultimately pave the way for understanding their role in this crop and other crops.

  20. Relatively High Complication and Revision Rates of the Mayo® Metaphysical Conservative Femoral Stem in Young Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutenberg, Tal Frenkel; Warshevski, Yaniv; Gold, Aviram; Shasha, Nadav; Snir, Nimrod; Chechik, Ofir; Dolkart, Oleg; Eilig, Dynai; Herman, Amir; Rath, Ehud; Kramer, Moti; Drexler, Michael

    2018-05-08

    The Mayo metaphysical conservative femoral stem (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) is a wedge-shaped implant designed to transfer loads proximally, reduce femoral destruction, and enable the preservation of bone stock in the proximal femur. Thus, it is a potentially preferred prosthesis for active, non-elderly patients who may require additional future surgeries. This retrospective case study analyzed the outcomes of consecutive patients who underwent total hip replacements with this stem between May 2001 and February 2013. All patients underwent clinical assessment, radiological evaluation for the presence and development of radiolucent lines, and functional assessment (numerical analog scale, Harris hip score, and Short Form-12 questionnaire). Ninety-five hips (79 patients) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 43 years (range, 18-64 years), and the mean follow-up was 97 months (range, 26.9-166 months). The postoperative clinical assessments and functional assessments revealed significant improvements. Sixteen patients (20.3%) had 18 orthopedic complications, the most common of which were an intraoperative femoral fracture and implant dislocation requiring revision surgeries in 10 hips (10.5%). Radiological analysis revealed evidence of femoral remodeling in 64 (67.4%) implants, spot welds (neocortex) in 35 (36.8%), and osteolysis in 3 (3.2%). These results suggest that the conservative hip femoral implant has an unacceptable complication rate for non-elderly patients. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Engaging Citizens In Discussions of Coastal Climate ChangeTwo examples of place-based research that engaged community members will be presented. Lessons learned in how to engage community members and working with high school students and hands-on learning across generations can provide insights into social and ecosystem change will be shared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, L. E.; Johnson, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    By engaging community members as research partners, people become not just the subject of the story, they become storytellers as well. Participatory community-based research that engages community residents in gathering and sharing their lived experiences is instrumental in connecting people to each other and their forests and forest science and helpful when confronted by change. Two examples of place-based research that engaged community members as researchers will be presented. What factors led to collaborative outcomes that integrated citizen-informed knowledge with scientific knowledge? What lessons were learned in how best to engage community members? How did working with high school students draw even hesitant members of the community to participate? By strengthening bonds between students and their communities, both natural and social environments, we can provide young people with opportunities to better understand how they fit into the greater community and their natural environment. Hands-on learning that explores experiences in nature across generations can benefit communities, especially youth, and can provide insights into social and ecosystem change.

  2. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, C

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of {sup 137}Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m{sup 2}. Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of {sup 134,137}Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of {sup 137}Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of {sup 137}Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or

  3. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornberg, C.

    2000-11-01

    From 1990 to 1999, estimations of the effective dose from external as well as internal irradiation from 137 Cs and 134 Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia, highly contaminated due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The villages were situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant and the deposition of 137 Cs was in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq/m 2 . Yearly expeditions were conducted in autumn by members of the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmoe and Goeteborg, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg and the the first 5 years also by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The dose levels and their change in time were estimated for various groups of the general public. The body burden of 134,137 Cs and hence, the effective dose, was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of cesium radionuclides, together with direct measurements of the body content using a portable detector. The effective dose from external irradiation was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a special case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137 Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137 Cs via mushrooms from a highly contaminated forest in the area. During pregnancy there is an increased excretion of cesium resulting in a biological half-time of cesium which was 54% of the half-time before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137 Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq/l) to that in the mother's body (Bq/kg) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137 Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from the concentration of 137 Cs in urine showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the cesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion was found to introduce systematic

  4. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  5. Comparative interactomics: analysis of arabidopsis 14-3-3 complexes reveals highly conserved 14-3-3 interactions between humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Liu, Li; McClung, Scott; Laughner, Beth; Chen, Sixue; Ferl, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    As a first step in the broad characterization of plant 14-3-3 multiprotein complexes in vivo, stringent and specific antibody affinity purification was used to capture 14-3-3s together with their interacting proteins from extracts of Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures. Approximately 120 proteins were identified as potential in vivo 14-3-3 interacting proteins by mass spectrometry of the recovered complexes. Comparison of the proteins in this data set with the 14-3-3 interacting proteins from a similar study in human embryonic kidney cell cultures revealed eight interacting proteins that likely represent reasonably abundant, fundamental 14-3-3 interaction complexes that are highly conserved across all eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis 14-3-3 interaction data set was also compared to a yeast in vivo 14-3-3 interaction data set. Four 14-3-3 interacting proteins are conserved in yeast, humans, and Arabidopsis. Comparisons of the data sets based on biochemical function revealed many additional similarities in the human and Arabidopsis data sets that represent conserved functional interactions, while also leaving many proteins uniquely identified in either Arabidopsis or human cells. In particular, the Arabidopsis interaction data set is enriched for proteins involved in metabolism.

  6. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  7. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  8. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenkov, Vasily D.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism

  9. A high-order finite-volume method for hyperbolic conservation laws on locally-refined grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCorquodale, Peter; Colella, Phillip

    2011-01-28

    We present a fourth-order accurate finite-volume method for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on Cartesian grids with multiple levels of refinement. The underlying method is a generalization of that in [5] to nonlinear systems, and is based on using fourth-order accurate quadratures for computing fluxes on faces, combined with fourth-order accurate Runge?Kutta discretization in time. To interpolate boundary conditions at refinement boundaries, we interpolate in time in a manner consistent with the individual stages of the Runge-Kutta method, and interpolate in space by solving a least-squares problem over a neighborhood of each target cell for the coefficients of a cubic polynomial. The method also uses a variation on the extremum-preserving limiter in [8], as well as slope flattening and a fourth-order accurate artificial viscosity for strong shocks. We show that the resulting method is fourth-order accurate for smooth solutions, and is robust in the presence of complex combinations of shocks and smooth flows.

  10. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit’s promise in improving students’ understanding of the targeted ideas. PMID:27909024

  11. Highly conserved non-coding elements on either side of SOX9 associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Sabina; Fantes, Judy A; Amiel, Jeanne; Kleinjan, Dirk-Jan; Thomas, Sophie; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Jamshidi, Negar; Essafi, Abdelkader; Heaney, Simon; Gordon, Christopher T; McBride, David; Golzio, Christelle; Fisher, Malcolm; Perry, Paul; Abadie, Véronique; Ayuso, Carmen; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Lees, Melissa M; Picard, Arnaud; Temple, I Karen; Thomas, Paul; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Vekemans, Michel; Roest Crollius, Hugues; Hastie, Nicholas D; Munnich, Arnold; Etchevers, Heather C; Pelet, Anna; Farlie, Peter G; Fitzpatrick, David R; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2009-03-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an important subgroup of cleft palate. We report several lines of evidence for the existence of a 17q24 locus underlying PRS, including linkage analysis results, a clustering of translocation breakpoints 1.06-1.23 Mb upstream of SOX9, and microdeletions both approximately 1.5 Mb centromeric and approximately 1.5 Mb telomeric of SOX9. We have also identified a heterozygous point mutation in an evolutionarily conserved region of DNA with in vitro and in vivo features of a developmental enhancer. This enhancer is centromeric to the breakpoint cluster and maps within one of the microdeletion regions. The mutation abrogates the in vitro enhancer function and alters binding of the transcription factor MSX1 as compared to the wild-type sequence. In the developing mouse mandible, the 3-Mb region bounded by the microdeletions shows a regionally specific chromatin decompaction in cells expressing Sox9. Some cases of PRS may thus result from developmental misexpression of SOX9 due to disruption of very-long-range cis-regulatory elements.

  12. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  13. High spatial resolution mapping of the Cerrado's land cover and land use types in the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F.; Roberts, D. A.; Davis, F. W.; Antunes Daldegan, G.; Nackoney, J.; Hess, L. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, Cerrado, is the second largest biome over South America and the most floristically diverse savanna in the world. This biome is considered a conservation hotspot in respect to its biodiversity importance and rapid transformation of its landscape. The Cerrado's natural vegetation has been severely transformed by agriculture and pasture activities. Currently it is the main agricultural frontier in Brazil and one of the most threatened Brazilian biomes. This scenario results in environmental impacts such as ecosystems fragmentation as well as losses in connectivity, biodiversity and gene flow, changes in the microclimate and energy, carbon and nutrients cycles, among others. The Priority Areas for Conservation is a governmental program from Brazil that identifies areas with high conservation priority. One of this program's recommendation is a natural vegetation map including their major ecosystem classes. This study aims to generate more precise information for the Cerrado's vegetation. The main objective of this study is to identify which ecosystems are being prioritized and/or threatened by land use, refining information for further protection. In order to test methods, the priority area for conservation Chapada da Contagem was selected as the study site. This area is ranked as "extremely high priority" by the government and is located in the Federal District and Goias State, Brazil. Satellites with finer spatial resolution may improve the classification of the Cerrado's vegetation. Remote sensing methods and two criteria were tested using RapidEye 3A imagery (5m spatial resolution) collected in 2014 in order to classify the Cerrado's major land cover types of this area, as well as its land use. One criterion considers the Cerrado's major terrestrial ecosystems, which are divided into forest, savanna and grassland. The other involves scaling it down to the major physiognomic groups of each ecosystem. Other sources of environmental dataset such

  14. A new highly conserved antibiotic sensing/resistance pathway in firmicutes involves an ABC transporter interplaying with a signal transduction system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Coumes-Florens

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems and ABC transporters often contribute jointly to adaptive bacterial responses to environmental changes. In Bacillus subtilis, three such pairs are involved in responses to antibiotics: BceRSAB, YvcPQRS and YxdJKLM. They are characterized by a histidine kinase belonging to the intramembrane sensing kinase family and by a translocator possessing an unusually large extracytoplasmic loop. It was established here using a phylogenomic approach that systems of this kind are specific but widespread in Firmicutes, where they originated. The present phylogenetic analyses brought to light a highly dynamic evolutionary history involving numerous horizontal gene transfers, duplications and lost events, leading to a great variety of Bce-like repertories in members of this bacterial phylum. Based on these phylogenetic analyses, it was proposed to subdivide the Bce-like modules into six well-defined subfamilies. Functional studies were performed on members of subfamily IV comprising BceRSAB from B. subtilis, the expression of which was found to require the signal transduction system as well as the ABC transporter itself. The present results suggest, for the members of this subfamily, the occurrence of interactions between one component of each partner, the kinase and the corresponding translocator. At functional and/or structural levels, bacitracin dependent expression of bceAB and bacitracin resistance processes require the presence of the BceB translocator loop. Some other members of subfamily IV were also found to participate in bacitracin resistance processes. Taken together our study suggests that this regulatory mechanism might constitute an important common antibiotic resistance mechanism in Firmicutes. [Supplemental material is available online at http://www.genome.org.].

  15. Glued structural members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell C. Moody; Jen Y. Liu

    1999-01-01

    Glued structural members are manufactured in a variety of configurations. Structural composite lumber (SCL) products consist of small pieces of wood glued together into sizes common for solid-sawn lumber. Glued-laminated timber (glulam) is an engineered stress-rated product that consists of two or more layers of lumber in which the grain of all layers is oriented...

  16. CERN welcomes new members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Lithuania is on course to become an associate member of CERN, pending final approval by the Lithuanian parliament. Associate membership will allow representatives of the Baltic nation to take part in meetings of the CERN Council, which oversees the Geneva-based physics lab.

  17. DUBNA: Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The political upheaval in what was the Soviet Union was reflected in an Extraordinary Plenipotentiaries Committee of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) Member States, held in Dubna, near Moscow, on 10-13 December, with representatives of eleven sovereign republics of the former Soviet State taking part

  18. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  19. High-Level Systemic Expression of Conserved Influenza Epitope in Plants on the Surface of Rod-Shaped Chimeric Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Petukhova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines in the human consensus M2e sequence were changed to serine residues. This work intends to show some biological properties of these viruses following plant infections. Agroinfiltration experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed the efficient systemic expression of M2e peptides, and two point amino acid substitutions in recombinant CPs significantly influenced the symptoms and development of viral infections. Joint expression of RNA interference suppressor protein p19 from tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV did not affect the accumulation of CP-M2e-ser recombinant protein in non-inoculated leaves. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from either infected leaves or purified TMV-M2e particles proved the genetic stability of TMV‑based viral vectors. Immunoelectron microscopy of crude plant extracts demonstrated that foreign epitopes are located on the surface of chimeric virions. The rod‑shaped geometry of plant-produced M2e epitopes is different from the icosahedral or helical filamentous arrangement of M2e antigens on the carrier virus-like particles (VLP described earlier. Thereby, we created a simple and efficient system that employs agrobacteria and plant viral vectors in order to produce a candidate broad-spectrum flu vaccine.

  20. Toward High School Biology: Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better foundation, we used research-based design principles and collaborated in the development of a curricular intervention that applies chemistry ideas to living and nonliving contexts. Six eighth grade teachers and their students participated in a test of the unit during the Spring of 2013. Two of the teachers had used an earlier version of the unit the previous spring. The other four teachers were randomly assigned either to implement the unit or to continue teaching the same content using existing materials. Pre- and posttests were administered, and the data were analyzed using Rasch modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. The results showed that, when controlling for pretest score, gender, language, and ethnicity, students who used the curricular intervention performed better on the posttest than the students using existing materials. Additionally, students who participated in the intervention held fewer misconceptions. These results demonstrate the unit's promise in improving students' understanding of the targeted ideas. © 2016 C. F. Herrmann-Abell et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  1. An attempt to conserve whatnot somniferum (L.) dual - a highly essential medicinal plant, through in vitro callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, J.R.; Sahoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple effective protocol was developed for conservation and plant propagation through callus cultures of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Seed germination percentage reached a maximum value of 64.3% on half MS + GA3 0.25 mg/l at third week of culture. Three different basal media compared for seed germination, MS was most effective. Out of 25 combinations of growth regulators evaluated, MS + 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2, 4-D found to be best for callus induction and proliferation regardless to explants. Among the four different explants tested, In vivo leaf explant was found most suitable for callus induction, proliferation and fresh weight gain. The highest callus induction frequency percentage 86.4% was recorded with In vivo leaf explant whereas, 43.4% in In vitro leaf explant at day 30 on MS augmented with 1.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D. Among different growth regulator combinations tested in augmentation with MS for shoot initiation and elongation, 2.0 mg/l BA + 1.0 mg/l NAA was the best eliciting a maximum of 82.3% shoot induction with highest shoot number 4.8 shoots/callus. The original callus was sub-cultured 2 times on fresh shoot multiplication medium after each harvest of the shoots. Of three different auxins tested for In vitro rooting, IBA was most effective compared to IPA and NAA. Half-strength MS medium containing IBA at an optimum concentration of 2.0 mg/l induced rooting in 83.1% of the In vitro derived shoots. The rooted plantlets were acclimated and eventually established in soil. (author)

  2. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dale; Bell, Samuel D; Fay, John; Bothi, Kim L; Gatere, Lydiah; Kabila, Makando; Mukamba, Mwangala; Matokwani, Edwin; Mushimbalume, Matthews; Moraru, Carmen I; Lehmann, Johannes; Lassoie, James; Wolfe, David; Lee, David R; Buck, Louise; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-08-23

    In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has been developed to promote and maintain sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices, leading to direct and indirect conservation outcomes. The Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model operates primarily with communities surrounding national parks, strengthening conservation benefits produced by these protected areas. COMACO first identifies the least food-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources while meeting household needs. In addition, COMACO identifies people responsible for severe natural resource depletion and trains them to generate alternative income sources. In an effort to maintain compliance with these practices, COMACO provides extension support and access to high-value markets that would otherwise be inaccessible to participants. Because the model is continually evolving via adaptive management, success or failure of the model as a whole is difficult to quantify at this early stage. We therefore test specific hypotheses and present data documenting the stabilization of previously declining wildlife populations; the meeting of thresholds of productivity that give COMACO access to stable, high-value markets and progress toward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by participants and other community members. Together, these findings describe a unique, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation.

  3. Comprehensive Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples Using High-Resolution Image-Based 3D Reconstructions and X-Ray CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Established contemporary conservation methods within the fields of Natural and Cultural Heritage encourage an interdisciplinary approach to preservation of heritage material (both tangible and intangible) that holds "Outstanding Universal Value" for our global community. NASA's lunar samples were acquired from the moon for the primary purpose of intensive scientific investigation. These samples, however, also invoke cultural significance, as evidenced by the millions of people per year that visit lunar displays in museums and heritage centers around the world. Being both scientifically and culturally significant, the lunar samples require a unique conservation approach. Government mandate dictates that NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office develop and maintain protocols for "documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach" for both current and future collections of astromaterials. Documentation, considered the first stage within the conservation methodology, has evolved many new techniques since curation protocols for the lunar samples were first implemented, and the development of new documentation strategies for current and future astromaterials is beneficial to keeping curation protocols up to date. We have developed and tested a comprehensive non-destructive documentation technique using high-resolution image-based 3D reconstruction and X-ray CT (XCT) data in order to create interactive 3D models of lunar samples that would ultimately be served to both researchers and the public. These data enhance preliminary scientific investigations including targeted sample requests, and also provide a new visual platform for the public to experience and interact with the lunar samples. We intend to serve these data as they are acquired on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisistion and Curation website at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/. Providing 3D interior and exterior documentation of astromaterial

  4. Mammals of the high altitudes of western Arunachal Pradesh, eastern Himalaya: an assessment of threats and conservation needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Madhusudan, M.D.; Datta, A.

    2006-01-01

    he high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, India, located in the Eastern Himalaya biodiversity hotspot, remain zoologically unexplored and unprotected. We report results of recent mammal surveys in the high altitude habitats of western Arunachal Pradesh. A total of 35 mammal species (including 12

  5. The relationship between the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.; Cloke, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the potential applicability of the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to the disposal of spent commercial nuclear fuel and of high-level (vitrified) radioactive waste. The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and the associated regulations issued by the US NRC provides many requirements that apply to these waste forms and largely, if not entirely, pre-empts the applicability of RCRA. The RCRA would apply only to the non-radioactive components of these wastes, and then only in respect to hazardous components. In view of these restrictions it becomes important to evaluate whether any components of spent fuel or high-level waste are toxic, as defined by the RCRA regulations. Present indications are that they are not and, hence, the US DOE is proceeding on the basis that these wastes and others that may be generated in the future are non-hazardous in respect to RCRA definitions

  6. Supporting Members and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  7. Highly regio- and diastereoselective, acidic clay supported intramolecular nitrile oxide-alkene cycloaddition on D-ribose derived nitriles: an efficient synthetic route to isoxazoline fused five and six membered carbocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Amarendra; Das, Sulagna; Pal, Shantanu

    2014-10-29

    An efficient synthetic route to isoxazoline fused carbocycles from carbohydrate scaffolds that comprise of free hydroxyl group(s) is described with high regio- and stereoselectivity. Montmorillonite K-10/chloramine T oxidation and in situ intramolecular nitrile oxide-alkene cycloaddition (INOC) of D-ribose derived oximes have been developed for the diversity oriented synthesis of isoxazoline fused five and six membered carbocycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 25 € instead of 31 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your Staff Association member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.  

  9. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  10. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Summer is coming, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 24 € instead of 30 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children under 100 cm. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  11. [Comment on] BOSP members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The new Board on Ocean Science and Policy (BOSP) (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402) met for the first time on May 4. John B. Slaughter, former director of the National Science Foundation and now chancellor of the University of Maryland in College Park, is the board's chairman. Other board members are D. James Baker, Jr. (University of Washington, Seattle); Kirk Bryan (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University); John P. Craven (University of Hawaii); Charles L. Drake (Dartmouth College); Paul M. Fye (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Edward D. Goldberg (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); G. Ross Heath (Oregon State University); Judith T. Kildow (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); John A. Knauss (University of Rhode Island); James J. McCarthy (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University); H. William Menard (Scripps Institution of Oceanography); C. Barry Raleigh (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory); Roger Revelle (University of California, San Diego); David A. Ross (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); Brian J. Rothschild (University of Maryland); William M. Sackett (University of South Florida); John H. Steele (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution); and Carl Wunsch (MIT). Wallace Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory), an original board member, resigned after the first meeting. Broecker told Eos that combining the science and policy boards resulted in a new board whose mission is too broad. A new board member will be appointed in Broecker's place

  12. Multivariate analysis and clustering reveal high morphological diversity in Tunisian autochthonous grapes (Vitis vinifera: insights into characterization, conservation and commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Lamine

    2014-06-01

    Significance and impact of the study: In this investigation, we highlight the importance of importance of breeding programs, commercialization and evaluation of economically valuable characteristics of the highly diverse autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Tunisia.

  13. Crystal structure and size-dependent neutralization properties of HK20, a human monoclonal antibody binding to the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 of gp41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Charles; Corti, Davide; Buzon, Victor; Seaman, Mike S; Lutje Hulsik, David; Hinz, Andreas; Vanzetta, Fabrizia; Agatic, Gloria; Silacci, Chiara; Mainetti, Lara; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Sallusto, Federica; Weiss, Robin; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2010-11-18

    The human monoclonal antibody (mAb) HK20 neutralizes a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates by targeting the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 (HR1) of gp41, which is transiently exposed during HIV-1 entry. Here we present the crystal structure of the HK20 Fab in complex with a gp41 mimetic 5-Helix at 2.3 Å resolution. HK20 employs its heavy chain CDR H2 and H3 loops to bind into a conserved hydrophobic HR1 pocket that is occupied by HR2 residues in the gp41 post fusion conformation. Compared to the previously described HR1-specific mAb D5, HK20 approaches its epitope with a different angle which might favor epitope access and thus contribute to its higher neutralization breadth and potency. Comparison of the neutralization activities of HK20 IgG, Fab and scFv employing both single cycle and multiple cycle neutralization assays revealed much higher potencies for the smaller Fab and scFv over IgG, implying that the target site is difficult to access for complete antibodies. Nevertheless, two thirds of sera from HIV-1 infected individuals contain significant titers of HK20-inhibiting antibodies. The breadth of neutralization of primary isolates across all clades, the higher potencies for C-clade viruses and the targeting of a distinct site as compared to the fusion inhibitor T-20 demonstrate the potential of HK20 scFv as a therapeutic tool.

  14. Snake venomics of Lachesis muta rhombeata and genus-wide antivenomics assessment of the paraspecific immunoreactivity of two antivenoms evidence the high compositional and immunological conservation across Lachesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Molina-Sánchez, Pedro; Zorita, Virginia; Madrigal, Marvin; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Núñez, Vitelbina; Andrés, Vicente; Gutiérrez, José María; Calvete, Juan J

    2013-08-26

    We report the proteomic analysis of the Atlantic bushmaster, Lachesis muta rhombeata, from Brazil. Along with previous characterization of the venom proteomes of L. stenophrys (Costa Rica), L. melanocephala (Costa Rica), L. acrochorda (Colombia), and L. muta muta (Bolivia), the present study provides the first overview of the composition and distribution of venom proteins across this wide-ranging genus, and highlights the remarkable similar compositional and pharmacological profiles across Lachesis venoms. The paraspecificity of two antivenoms, produced at Instituto Vital Brazil (Brazil) and Instituto Clodomiro Picado (Costa Rica) using different conspecific taxa in the immunization mixtures, was assessed using genus-wide comparative antivenomics. This study confirms that the proteomic similarity among Lachesis sp. venoms is mirrored in their high immunological conservation across the genus. The clinical and therapeutic consequences of genus-wide venomics and antivenomics investigations of Lachesis venoms are discussed. The proteomics characterization of L. m. rhombeata venom completes the overview of Lachesis venom proteomes and confirms the remarkable toxin profile conservation across the five clades of this wide-ranging genus. Genus-wide antivenomics showed that two antivenoms, produced against L. stenophrys or L. m. rhombeata, exhibit paraspecificity towards all other congeneric venoms. Our venomics study shows that, despite the broad geographic distribution of the genus, monospecific antivenoms may achieve clinical coverage for any Lachesis sp. envenoming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Subsets of Women With Close or Positive Margins After Breast-Conserving Surgery With High Local Recurrence Risk Despite Breast Plus Boost Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupe, Krystine; Truong, Pauline T.; Alexander, Cheryl; Lesperance, Mary; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To examine the effect of surgical margin status on local recurrence (LR) and survival following breast-conserving therapy; (2) To identify subsets with close or positive margins with high LR risk despite whole breast radiotherapy (RT) plus boost. Methods and Materials: Subjects were 2,264 women with pT1–3, any N, M0 invasive breast cancer, treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole breast ± boost RT. Five-year Kaplan-Meier (KM) LR, breast cancer–specific and overall survival (BCSS and OS) were compared between cohorts with negative (n = 1,980), close (n = 222), and positive (n = 62) margins. LR rates were analyzed according to clinicopathologic characteristics. Multivariable Cox regression modeling and matched analysis of close/positive margin cases and negative margin controls were performed. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years. Boost RT was used in 92% of patients with close or positive margins. Five-year KM LR rates in the negative, close and positive margin cohorts were 1.3%, 4.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p = 0.001). BCSS and OS were similar in the three margin subgroups. In the close/positive margin cohort, LR rates were 10.2% with age 10% despite whole breast plus boost RT. These patients should be considered for more definitive surgery.

  16. High throughput sequencing of small RNA component of leaves and inflorescence revealed conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNA loci in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Zheng, Yun; Kudapa, Himabindu; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Hivrale, Vandana; Varshney, Rajeev K; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2015-06-01

    Among legumes, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important crop after soybean. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles by regulating target gene expression important for plant development and tolerance to stress conditions. Additionally, recently discovered phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), a new class of small RNAs, are abundantly produced in legumes. Nevertheless, little is known about these regulatory molecules in chickpea. The small RNA population was sequenced from leaves and flowers of chickpea to identify conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNAs/phasiRNA loci. Bioinformatics analysis revealed 157 miRNA loci for the 96 highly conserved and known miRNA homologs belonging to 38 miRNA families in chickpea. Furthermore, 20 novel miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families were identified. Sequence analysis revealed approximately 60 phasiRNA loci. Potential target genes likely to be regulated by these miRNAs were predicted and some were confirmed by modified 5' RACE assay. Predicted targets are mostly transcription factors that might be important for developmental processes, and others include superoxide dismutases, plantacyanin, laccases and F-box proteins that could participate in stress responses and protein degradation. Overall, this study provides an inventory of miRNA-target gene interactions for chickpea, useful for the comparative analysis of small RNAs among legumes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  18. Biodiversity conservation in a telecoupled world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roman Carrasco

    2017-09-01

    Conservation practitioners need to adopt a global perspective on telecoupling and focus on the new conservation opportunities represented by shaping the social norms of affluent consumers in emerging and high-income economies.

  19. The highly conserved 5' untranslated region as an effective target towards the inhibition of Enterovirus 71 replication by unmodified and appropriate 2'-modified siRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Jun-Xia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is a highly infectious agent that plays an etiological role in hand, foot, and mouth disease. It is associated with severe neurological complications and has caused significant mortalities in recent large-scale outbreaks. Currently, no effective vaccine or specific clinical therapy is available against EV71. Methods Unmodified 21 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs and classic 2′-modified (2′-O-methylation or 2′-fluoro modification siRNAs were designed to target highly conserved 5′ untranslated region (UTR of the EV71 genome and employed as anti-EV71 agents. Real-time TaqMan RT-PCR, western blot analysis and plaque assays were carried out to evaluate specific viral inhibition by the siRNAs. Results Transfection of rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells with siRNAs targeting the EV71 genomic 5′ UTR significantly delayed and alleviated the cytopathic effects of EV71 infection, increased cell viability in EV71-infected RD cells. The inhibitory effect on EV71 replication was sequence-specific and dosage-dependent, with significant corresponding decreases in viral RNA, VP1 protein and viral titer. Appropriate 2′-modified siRNAs exhibited similar RNA interference (RNAi activity with dramatically increased serum stability in comparison with unmodified counterparts. Conclusion Sequences were identified within the highly conserved 5′ UTR that can be targeted to effectively inhibit EV71 replication through RNAi strategies. Appropriate 2′-modified siRNAs provide a promising approach to optimizing siRNAs to overcome barriers on RNAi-based antiviral therapies for broader administration.

  20. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  1. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  2. SeqAPASS to evaluate conservation of high-throughput screening targets across non-mammalian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell-based high-throughput screening (HTS) and computational technologies are being applied as tools for toxicity testing in the 21st century. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) embraced these technologies and created the ToxCast Program in 2007, which has served as a...

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.63) is Palau which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 2 March 2007. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 144 Member States became Members

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.64) is Nepal which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 8 July 2008. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 145 Member States became Members

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.62) is Montenegro which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 30 October 2006. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 143 Member States became Members

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [ru

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [fr

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.61) are Belize, Mozambique and Malawi, which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 31 March 2006, 18 September 2006 and 2 October 2006 respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 142 Member States became Members [fr

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [fr

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [fr

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.59) is the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2004. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 138 Member States became Members

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.66) are Bahrain, Burundi, Congo and Lesotho which deposited their Instruments of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 June 2009, 24 June 2009, 15 July 2009 and 13 July 2009, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 150 Member States became Members [es

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [es

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.60) is Chad, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2005. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 139 Member States became Members

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members [es

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.58) is Kyrgyzstan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2003. The list shows the dates on which the present 137 Member States became Members

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.65) is the Sultanate of Oman which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 5 February 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 146 Member States became Members

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.67) is Cambodia which deposited its Instrument of Acceptance of the Statute on 23 November 2009. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 151 Member States became Members [ru

  2. Use of genotyping by sequencing data to develop a high-throughput and multifunctional SNP panel for conservation applications in Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Docker, Margaret F; Baker, Cyndi; Jackson, Aaron; Lampman, Ralph; McIlraith, Brian; Moser, Mary L; Statler, David P; Young, William P; Wildbill, Andrew J; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing data can be mined for highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop high-throughput genomic assays for nonmodel organisms. However, choosing a set of SNPs to address a variety of objectives can be difficult because SNPs are often not equally informative. We developed an optimal combination of 96 high-throughput SNP assays from a total of 4439 SNPs identified in a previous study of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and used them to address four disparate objectives: parentage analysis, species identification and characterization of neutral and adaptive variation. Nine of these SNPs are FST outliers, and five of these outliers are localized within genes and significantly associated with geography, run-timing and dwarf life history. Two of the 96 SNPs were diagnostic for two other lamprey species that were morphologically indistinguishable at early larval stages and were sympatric in the Pacific Northwest. The majority (85) of SNPs in the panel were highly informative for parentage analysis, that is, putatively neutral with high minor allele frequency across the species' range. Results from three case studies are presented to demonstrate the broad utility of this panel of SNP markers in this species. As Pacific lamprey populations are undergoing rapid decline, these SNPs provide an important resource to address critical uncertainties associated with the conservation and recovery of this imperiled species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  4. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21,50 € instead of 27 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  5. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 23 € instead of 29 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 6 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12:00 p.m. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 33 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 33 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  6. Cryogenic support member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Nicol, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    A cryogenic support member is described for restraining a cryogenic system comprising; a rod having a depression at a first end. The rod is made of non-metallic material. The non-metallic material has an effectively low thermal conductivity; a metallic plug; and a metallic sleeve. The plug and the sleeve are shrink-fitted to the depression in the rod and assembled thereto such that the plug is disposed inside the depression of the rod. The sleeve is disposed over the depression in the rod and the rod is clamped therebetween. The shrink-fit clamping the rod is generated between the metallic plug and the metallic sleeve

  7. US/FRG joint report on the pebble bed high temperature reactor resource conservation potential and associated fuel cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuchert, E.; Ruetten, H.J.; Worley, B.A.; Vondy, D.R.

    1979-11-01

    Independent analyses at ORNL and KFA have led to the general conclusion that the flexibility in design and operation of a high-temperature gas-cooled pebble-bed reactor (PBR) can result in favorable ore utilization and fuel costs in comparison with other reactor types, in particular, with light-water reactors (LWRs). Fuel reprocessign and recycle show considerable promise for reducing ore consumption, and even the PBR throwaway cycle is competitive with fuel recycle in an LWR. The best performance results from the use of highly enriched fuel. Proliferation-resistant measures can be taken using medium-enriched fuel at a modest ore penalty, while use of low-enriched fuel would incur further ore penalty. Breeding is possible but net generation of fuel at a significant rate would be expensive, becoming more feasible as ore costs increase substantially. The 233 U inventory for a breeder could be produced by prebreeders using 235 U fuel

  8. Identification of urocortin III, an additional member of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family with high affinity for the CRF2 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K; Li, C; Perrin, M H; Blount, A; Kunitake, K; Donaldson, C; Vaughan, J; Reyes, T M; Gulyas, J; Fischer, W; Bilezikjian, L; Rivier, J; Sawchenko, P E; Vale, W W

    2001-06-19

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides includes the mammalian peptides CRF, urocortin, and urocortin II, as well as piscine urotensin I and frog sauvagine. The mammalian peptides signal through two G protein-coupled receptor types to modulate endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress, as well as a range of peripheral (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and immune) activities. The three previously known ligands are differentially distributed anatomically and have distinct specificities for the two major receptor types. Here we describe the characterization of an additional CRF-related peptide, urocortin III, in the human and mouse. In searching the public human genome databases we found a partial expressed sequence tagged (EST) clone with significant sequence identity to mammalian and fish urocortin-related peptides. By using primers based on the human EST sequence, a full-length human clone was isolated from genomic DNA that encodes a protein that includes a predicted putative 38-aa peptide structurally related to other known family members. With a human probe, we then cloned the mouse ortholog from a genomic library. Human and mouse urocortin III share 90% identity in the 38-aa putative mature peptide. In the peptide coding region, both human and mouse urocortin III are 76% identical to pufferfish urocortin-related peptide and more distantly related to urocortin II, CRF, and urocortin from other mammalian species. Mouse urocortin III mRNA expression is found in areas of the brain including the hypothalamus, amygdala, and brainstem, but is not evident in the cerebellum, pituitary, or cerebral cortex; it is also expressed peripherally in small intestine and skin. Urocortin III is selective for type 2 CRF receptors and thus represents another potential endogenous ligand for these receptors.

  9. Thermal effects in concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    When subjected to temperature changes and restrained from free movement, a member develops stresses. Restrained members are sometimes assumed to act independently of other members. A method of analysis and design for thermal stresses in such members is provided. The method of analysis, based on the ultimate strength concept, greatly reduces the computational efforts for determining thermal effects in concrete members. Available charts and tables and the recommendations given herein simplify the design. (Auth.)

  10. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: High levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean Condor widen the problem to a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Pérez, Miguel A; Torres Bianchini, Laura; Sampietro, Luciano; Bravo, Guillermo F; Jácome, N Luis; Astore, Vanesa; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America. Wild condors from Argentina (n = 76) presented high lead levels consistent with both recent and previous exposure (up to 104 μg/dL blood level, mean 15.47 ± 21.21 μg/dL and up to 148.20 ppm bone level, mean 23.08 ± 31.39 ppm). In contrast, captive bred individuals -not exposed to lead contamination- had much lower lead levels (mean blood level 5.63 ± 3.08 μg/dL, and mean bone level 2.76 ± 3.06 ppm). Condors were exposed to lead throughout their entire range in continental Argentina, which represents almost sixty percent (>4000 km) of their geographical distribution. We also present evidence of lead exposure events in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Lead poisoning is a widespread major conservation threat for the Andean Condor, and probably other sympatric carnivores from South America. The high number and wide range of Andean Condors with lead values complement the results for the California Condor and other scavengers in North America suggesting lead poisoning is a continental threat. Urgent actions are needed to reduce this poison in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrating Landsat Data and High-Resolution Imagery for Applied Conservation Assessment of Forest Cover in Latin American Heterogenous Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Rueda, X.; Lambin, E.; Mendenhall, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Large intact forested regions of the world are known to be critical to maintaining Earth's climate, ecosystem health, and human livelihoods. Remote sensing has been successfully implemented as a tool to monitor forest cover and landscape dynamics over broad regions. Much of this work has been done using coarse resolution sensors such as AVHRR and MODIS in combination with moderate resolution sensors, particularly Landsat. Finer scale analysis of heterogeneous and fragmented landscapes is commonly performed with medium resolution data and has had varying success depending on many factors including the level of fragmentation, variability of land cover types, patch size, and image availability. Fine scale tree cover in mixed agricultural areas can have a major impact on biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability but may often be inadequately captured with the global to regional (coarse resolution and moderate resolution) satellite sensors and processing techniques widely used to detect land use and land cover changes. This study investigates whether advanced remote sensing methods are able to assess and monitor percent tree canopy cover in spatially complex human-dominated agricultural landscapes that prove challenging for traditional mapping techniques. Our study areas are in high altitude, mixed agricultural coffee-growing regions in Costa Rica and the Colombian Andes. We applied Random Forests regression tree analysis to Landsat data along with additional spectral, environmental, and spatial variables to predict percent tree canopy cover at 30m resolution. Image object-based texture, shape, and neighborhood metrics were generated at the Landsat scale using eCognition and included in the variable suite. Training and validation data was generated using high resolution imagery from digital aerial photography at 1m to 2.5 m resolution. Our results are promising with Pearson's correlation coefficients between observed and predicted percent tree canopy cover of .86 (Costa

  12. Deep-ocean disposal of high-activity nuclear wastes: a conservative assessment of the seafood critical pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, M.S.; Economides, B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper applies conventional 'worst-case' assumptions to modelling the effects of possible future disposal of high-activity wastes in the oceans. It otherwise uses previously published and generally accepted data to assess the possible intakes of the waste nuclides via consumption of seaweeds, molluscs, crustaceans, plankton and fish. Model-predicted intakes for critical groups generally exceed ICRP-recommended limits, with 244 Cm, 241 Am and 137 Cs being the most potentially hazardous nuclides. The various seafood consumption pathways are found to rank, in decreasing order of potential hazard, as seaweeds > molluscs > plankton > fish > crustaceans. (Auth.)

  13. Breast-Conservative Surgery With Close or Positive Margins: Can the Breast Be Preserved With High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinot, Jose Luis; Roldan, Susana; Maronas, Maria; Tortajada, Isabel; Carrascosa, Maria; Chust, Maria Luisa; Estornell, Marian; Mengual, Jose Luis; Arribas, Leoncio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the likelihood of preserving the breast in women who show close or positive margins after conservative surgery for early breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Since 1996, 125 women with less than 5 mm or positive margins and positive separate cavity margin sampling were entered in a prospective trial with high-dose radiotherapy. A standard dose of 50 Gy to the whole breast was followed by a high-dose-rate brachytherapy application delivering 3 fractions of 4.4 Gy in 24 hours. The median follow-up was 84 months. Results: There were only seven local recurrences, with an actuarial local control rate of 95.8% at 5 years and 91.1% at 9 years. Actuarial overall and cause-specific survival rates were 92.6% and 95% at 5 years and 86.7% and 90.4% at 9 years, respectively. Late fibrosis was the most common complication, in 30% of patients, with good or excellent cosmetic results in 77%. The final result was that 95.2% of breasts were preserved. Conclusions: Close or positive-margin breast cancer can be well managed with a high-dose boost in a wide tumor bed by means of high-dose-rate brachytherapy. This technique can avoid mastectomy or poor cosmetic resection, with minimal risk of local or general failure

  14. High-throughput SHAPE analysis reveals structures in HIV-1 genomic RNA strongly conserved across distinct biological states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A Wilkinson

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication and pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is tightly linked to the structure of its RNA genome, but genome structure in infectious virions is poorly understood. We invent high-throughput SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension technology, which uses many of the same tools as DNA sequencing, to quantify RNA backbone flexibility at single-nucleotide resolution and from which robust structural information can be immediately derived. We analyze the structure of HIV-1 genomic RNA in four biologically instructive states, including the authentic viral genome inside native particles. Remarkably, given the large number of plausible local structures, the first 10% of the HIV-1 genome exists in a single, predominant conformation in all four states. We also discover that noncoding regions functioning in a regulatory role have significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001 SHAPE reactivities, and hence more structure, than do viral coding regions that function as the template for protein synthesis. By directly monitoring protein binding inside virions, we identify the RNA recognition motif for the viral nucleocapsid protein. Seven structurally homologous binding sites occur in a well-defined domain in the genome, consistent with a role in directing specific packaging of genomic RNA into nascent virions. In addition, we identify two distinct motifs that are targets for the duplex destabilizing activity of this same protein. The nucleocapsid protein destabilizes local HIV-1 RNA structure in ways likely to facilitate initial movement both of the retroviral reverse transcriptase from its tRNA primer and of the ribosome in coding regions. Each of the three nucleocapsid interaction motifs falls in a specific genome domain, indicating that local protein interactions can be organized by the long-range architecture of an RNA. High-throughput SHAPE reveals a comprehensive view of HIV-1 RNA genome structure, and further

  15. The lytic origin of herpesvirus papio is highly homologous to Epstein-Barr virus ori-Lyt: evolutionary conservation of transcriptional activation and replication signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryon, J J; Fixman, E D; Houchens, C; Zong, J; Lieberman, P M; Chang, Y N; Hayward, G S; Hayward, S D

    1993-01-01

    Herpesvirus papio (HVP) is a B-lymphotropic baboon virus with an estimated 40% homology to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We have cloned and sequenced ori-Lyt of herpesvirus papio and found a striking degree of nucleotide homology (89%) with ori-Lyt of EBV. Transcriptional elements form an integral part of EBV ori-Lyt. The promoter and enhancer domains of EBV ori-Lyt are conserved in herpesvirus papio. The EBV ori-Lyt promoter contains four binding sites for the EBV lytic cycle transactivator Zta, and the enhancer includes one Zta and two Rta response elements. All five of the Zta response elements and one of the Rta motifs are conserved in HVP ori-Lyt, and the HVP DS-L leftward promoter and the enhancer were activated in transient transfection assays by the EBV Zta and Rta transactivators. The EBV ori-Lyt enhancer contains a palindromic sequence, GGTCAGCTGACC, centered on a PvuII restriction site. This sequence, with a single base change, is also present in the HVP ori-Lyt enhancer. DNase I footprinting demonstrated that the PvuII sequence was bound by a protein present in a Raji nuclear extract. Mobility shift and competition assays using oligonucleotide probes identified this sequence as a binding site for the cellular transcription factor MLTF. Mutagenesis of the binding site indicated that MLTF contributes significantly to the constitutive activity of the ori-Lyt enhancer. The high degree of conservation of cis-acting signal sequences in HVP ori-Lyt was further emphasized by the finding that an HVP ori-Lyt-containing plasmid was replicated in Vero cells by a set of cotransfected EBV replication genes. The central domain of EBV ori-Lyt contains two related AT-rich palindromes, one of which is partially duplicated in the HVP sequence. The AT-rich palindromes are functionally important cis-acting motifs. Deletion of these palindromes severely diminished replication of an ori-Lyt target plasmid. Images PMID:8389916

  16. Genetic structure analysis of a highly inbred captive population of the African antelope Addax nasomaculatus. Conservation and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E; Leizagoyen, C; Martínez, A M; González, S; Delgado, J V; Postiglioni, A

    2011-01-01

    The African antelope Addax nasomaculatus is a rare mammal at high risk of extinction, with no more than 300 individuals in the wild and 1,700 captive animals distributed in zoos around the world. In this work, we combine genetic data and genealogical information to assess the structure and genetic diversity of a captive population located at Parque Lecocq Zoo (N=27), originated from only two founders. We amplified 39 microsatellites previously described in other Artiodactyls but new to this species. Seventeen markers were polymorphic, with 2-4 alleles per locus (mean=2.71). Mean expected heterozygosity (He) per locus was between 0.050 (marker ETH3) and 0.650 (marker D5S2), with a global He of 0.43. The mean inbreeding coefficient of the population computed from pedigree records of all registered individuals (N=53) was 0.222. The mean coancestry of the population was 0.298 and F(IS) index was -0.108. These results reflect the importance of an adequate breeding management on a severely bottlenecked captive population, which would benefit by the incorporation of unrelated individuals. Thanks to the successful amplification of a large number of microsatellites commonly used in domestic bovids, this study will provide useful information for the management of this population and serve as future reference for similar studies in other captive populations of this species. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The Courir shops propose the following offer: 15% discount on all articles (not on sales) in the Courir shops (Val Thoiry, Annemasse and Neydens) and 5% discount on sales upon presentation of your Staff Association membership card and an identity card before payment. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 €. Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Bonus! Free for children under 5.

  18. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2013-01-01

    La banque LCL propose aux membres de l’Association du personnel les avantages suivants : – Un barème Privilège sur le Prêt immobilier – Des avantages tarifaires sur l’épargne, notamment l’assurance-vie. – Un taux préférentiel de prêt à la consommation. En outre, jusqu’au 30 septembre 2013, elle offre 50€ à tous les nouveaux clients, membres de l'Association du personnel. Summer is here, enjoy our offers for the aquatic parcs! Tickets "Zone terrestre" : 21 € instead of de 26 €. Access to Aqualibi : 5 euros instead of 8 euros on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Free car park. * * * * * * * Full day ticket: – Children : 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF &...

  19. Offers for our members

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The warm weather arrives, it's time to take advantage of our offers Walibi and Aquapark! Walibi : Tickets "Zone terrestre": 21 € instead of 26 € Access to Aqualibi: 5 € instead of 8 € on presentation of your SA member ticket. Free for children (3-11 years old) before 12 h 00. Free for children under 3, with limited access to the attractions. Car park free. * * * * * Aquaparc : Half-day ticket (5 hours): – Children: 26 CHF instead of 35 CHF – Adults : 32 CHF instead of 43 CHF Day ticket: – Children: 30 CHF instead of 39 CHF – Adults : 36 CHF instead of 49 CHF Free for children under 5.

  20. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Natasha A; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D) polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  1. Crystal structure and size-dependent neutralization properties of HK20, a human monoclonal antibody binding to the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 of gp41.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sabin

    Full Text Available The human monoclonal antibody (mAb HK20 neutralizes a broad spectrum of primary HIV-1 isolates by targeting the highly conserved heptad repeat 1 (HR1 of gp41, which is transiently exposed during HIV-1 entry. Here we present the crystal structure of the HK20 Fab in complex with a gp41 mimetic 5-Helix at 2.3 Å resolution. HK20 employs its heavy chain CDR H2 and H3 loops to bind into a conserved hydrophobic HR1 pocket that is occupied by HR2 residues in the gp41 post fusion conformation. Compared to the previously described HR1-specific mAb D5, HK20 approaches its epitope with a different angle which might favor epitope access and thus contribute to its higher neutralization breadth and potency. Comparison of the neutralization activities of HK20 IgG, Fab and scFv employing both single cycle and multiple cycle neutralization assays revealed much higher potencies for the smaller Fab and scFv over IgG, implying that the target site is difficult to access for complete antibodies. Nevertheless, two thirds of sera from HIV-1 infected individuals contain significant titers of HK20-inhibiting antibodies. The breadth of neutralization of primary isolates across all clades, the higher potencies for C-clade viruses and the targeting of a distinct site as compared to the fusion inhibitor T-20 demonstrate the potential of HK20 scFv as a therapeutic tool.

  2. Multi-species comparative analysis of the equine ACE gene identifies a highly conserved potential transcription factor binding site in intron 16.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Hamilton

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is essential for control of blood pressure. The human ACE gene contains an intronic Alu indel (I/D polymorphism that has been associated with variation in serum enzyme levels, although the functional mechanism has not been identified. The polymorphism has also been associated with cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, renal disease and elite athleticism. We have characterized the ACE gene in horses of breeds selected for differing physical abilities. The equine gene has a similar structure to that of all known mammalian ACE genes. Nine common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs discovered in pooled DNA were found to be inherited in nine haplotypes. Three of these SNPs were located in intron 16, homologous to that containing the Alu polymorphism in the human. A highly conserved 18 bp sequence, also within that intron, was identified as being a potential binding site for the transcription factors Oct-1, HFH-1 and HNF-3β, and lies within a larger area of higher than normal homology. This putative regulatory element may contribute to regulation of the documented inter-individual variation in human circulating enzyme levels, for which a functional mechanism is yet to be defined. Two equine SNPs occurred within the conserved area in intron 16, although neither of them disrupted the putative binding site. We propose a possible regulatory mechanism of the ACE gene in mammalian species which was previously unknown. This advance will allow further analysis leading to a better understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the associations seen between the human Alu polymorphism and enzyme levels, cardiovascular disease states and elite athleticism.

  3. High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jeffrey D; Tolbert, Michele; Li, Mei-Ling; Tolbert, Blanton S

    2013-07-01

    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health. Currently, there are no antivirals or vaccines to slow down or prevent EV71 infections, thus underscoring the urgency to better understand mechanisms of host-enterovirus interactions. EV71 uses a type I internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit via a pathway that requires the cytoplasmic localization of hnRNP A1, which acts as an IRES trans-activating factor. The mechanism of how hnRNP A1 trans activates EV71 RNA translation is unknown, however. Here, we report that the UP1 domain of hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with stem loop II (SLII) of the IRES, via a thermodynamically well-defined biphasic transition that involves conserved bulge 5'-AYAGY-3' and hairpin 5'-RY(U/A)CCA-3' loops. Calorimetric titrations of wild-type and mutant SLII constructs reveal these structural elements are essential to form a high-affinity UP1-SLII complex. Mutations that alter the bulge and hairpin primary or secondary structures abrogate the biphasic transition and destabilize the complex. Notably, mutations within the bulge that destabilize the complex correlate with a large reduction in IRES-dependent translational activity and impair EV71 replication. Taken together, this study shows that a conserved SLII structure is necessary to form a functional hnRNP A1-IRES complex, suggesting that small molecules that target this stem loop may have novel antiviral properties.

  4. CT-image based conformal high-dose rate brachytherapy boost in the conservative treatment of stage I - II breast cancer - introducing the procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaszewska, M.; Skowronek, J.; Chichel, A.; Kanikowski, M.; Dymnicka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy (RT) has become the standard treatment for the majority of patients with early breast cancer. With regard to boost technique some disagreements are found between groups that are emphasizing the value of electron boost treatment and groups pointing out the value of interstitial brachytherapy (BT) boost treatment. We present the preliminary results in treating selected patients with early-stage breast cancer using high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HD R-BT) as a boost after breast conservation therapy (BCT). Materials/Methods: Between January 2006 and August 2007, a total of 58 female patients with first and second stage breast cancer underwent BCT. This therapeutic procedure involves BCS, whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) and additional irradiation to the tumour bed (boost) using interstitial HDR-BT via flexible implant tubes. A 10 Gy boost dose was received by all patients. The treatment planning was based on CT-guided 3D (three-dimensional) reconstruction of the surgical clips, implant tubes and critical structures localization (skin and ribs). The accuracy of tumour bed localization, the conformity of planning target volume and treated volume were analyzed. Results: The evaluations of implant parameters involved the use of: dose volume histogram (DVH), the volume encompassed by the 100% reference isodose surface (V100%), the high dose volumecalculation (V150%, V200%, V300%), the dose non-uniformity ratio (DNR), and the conformity index (COIN). Our results were as follows: the mean PTV volume, the mean high dose volume (V150%; V200%; V300%), the DNR and COIN mean value were estimated at 57.38, 42.98, 21.38, 7.90, 0.52 and 0.83 respectively. Conclusions: CT-guided 3D HDR-BT is most appropriate for planning the boost procedure after BT especially in large breast volume, in cases with a deep seated tumour bed, as well as in patients with high risk for local recurrences. This technique reduces the

  5. The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current Training of U.S. Special Operations Medical Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    capacity even in normoxic conditions. For example, high dosages of dexamethasone are used in aerobic endurance sports to enhance physical performance. This...is why the World Anti- Doping Agency prohibits the administration of any glucosteroids during competitions [25]. Fischler and colleagues [24...Medicine; 2004. Technical Note TN04-05. 4. Bärtsch P, Saltin B. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness. Scand J Med Sci Sports

  6. AFLP polymorphisms allow high resolution genetic analysis of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis agents circulating in Panama and other members of the Leishmania genus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Restrepo

    Full Text Available American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, and causes significant health problems throughout the Americas. In Panama, Leishmania parasites are endemic, causing thousands of new cases every year, mostly of the cutaneous form. In the last years, the burden of the disease has increased, coincident with increasing disturbances in its natural sylvatic environments. The study of genetic variation in parasites is important for a better understanding of the biology, population genetics, and ultimately the evolution and epidemiology of these organisms. Very few attempts have been made to characterize genetic polymorphisms of parasites isolated from Panamanian patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Here we present data on the genetic variability of local isolates of Leishmania, as well as specimens from several other species, by means of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP, a technique seldom used to study genetic makeup of parasites. We demonstrate that this technique allows detection of very high levels of genetic variability in local isolates of Leishmania panamensis in a highly reproducible manner. The analysis of AFLP fingerprints generated by unique selective primer combinations in L. panamensis suggests a predominant clonal mode of reproduction. Using fluorescently labeled primers, many taxon-specific fragments were identified which may show potential as species diagnostic fragments. The AFLP permitted a high resolution genetic analysis of the Leishmania genus, clearly separating certain groups among L. panamensis specimens and highly related species such as L. panamensis and L. guyanensis. The phylogenetic networks reconstructed from our AFLP data are congruent with established taxonomy for the genus Leishmania, even when using single selective primer combinations. Results of this study demonstrate that AFLP polymorphisms can be informative for genetic characterization in Leishmania parasites, at

  7. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  8. The Chthonomonas calidirosea Genome Is Highly Conserved across Geographic Locations and Distinct Chemical and Microbial Environments in New Zealand's Taupō Volcanic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin C; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F; Huttenhower, Curtis; McDonald, Ian R; Morgan, Xochitl C

    2016-06-15

    Chthonomonas calidirosea T49(T) is a low-abundance, carbohydrate-scavenging, and thermophilic soil bacterium with a seemingly disorganized genome. We hypothesized that the C. calidirosea genome would be highly responsive to local selection pressure, resulting in the divergence of its genomic content, genome organization, and carbohydrate utilization phenotype across environments. We tested this hypothesis by sequencing the genomes of four C. calidirosea isolates obtained from four separate geothermal fields in the Taupō Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. For each isolation site, we measured physicochemical attributes and defined the associated microbial community by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Despite their ecological and geographical isolation, the genome sequences showed low divergence (maximum, 1.17%). Isolate-specific variations included single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction-modification systems, and mobile elements but few major deletions and no major rearrangements. The 50-fold variation in C. calidirosea relative abundance among the four sites correlated with site environmental characteristics but not with differences in genomic content. Conversely, the carbohydrate utilization profiles of the C. calidirosea isolates corresponded to the inferred isolate phylogenies, which only partially paralleled the geographical relationships among the sample sites. Genomic sequence conservation does not entirely parallel geographic distance, suggesting that stochastic dispersal and localized extinction, which allow for rapid population homogenization with little restriction by geographical barriers, are possible mechanisms of C. calidirosea distribution. This dispersal and extinction mechanism is likely not limited to C. calidirosea but may shape the populations and genomes of many other low-abundance free-living taxa. This study compares the genomic sequence variations and metabolisms of four strains of Chthonomonas calidirosea, a rare thermophilic bacterium from

  9. Geographies of Conservation I: De-extinction and Precision Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    Extinction has long been a central concern in biodiversity conservation. Today, de-extinction offers interesting possibilities of restoring charismatic species and ecosystem function, but also risks and costs. Most de-extinction depends on genetic engineering and synthetic biology. These technologies are also proposed for use in ‘gene tweaking’ in wild species to enhance their chance of survival. Within conservation, the resulting debates pit an optimistic world of high-tech ‘precision con...

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 135 Member States of the Agency as of 19 March 2003. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/56) is the Republic of Honduras. The dates on which the present 135 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 130 Member States of the Agency as of 1 December 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/52) is Angola. The dates on which the present 130 Member States became Members, and the state Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute are given in an Attachment

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.55) is the Republic of Botswana, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 20 March 2002. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 134 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The document lists the 132 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 2001. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/53) are Central African Republic and Azerbaijan. The dates on which the present 132 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  14. Evaluation the consistency of location of moist desquamation and skin high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Eng-Yen; Liang, Ji-An; Meng, Fan-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether the location of moist desquamation matches high dose area for breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after breast conservative surgery. One hundred and nine breast cancer patients were enrolled to this study. Their highest skin dose area (the hot spot) was estimated from the treatment planning. We divided the irradiated field into breast; sternal/parasternal; axillary; and inframammary fold areas. The location for moist desquamation was recorded to see if it matches the hot spot. We also analyzed other possible risk factors which may be related to the moist desquamation. Forty-eight patients with 65 locations developed moist desquamation during the RT course. Patients with larger breast sizes and easy to sweat are two independent risk factors for moist desquamation. The distribution of moist desquamation occurred most in the axillary area. All nine patients with the hot spots located at the axillary area developed moist desquamation at the axillary area, and six out of seven patients with the hot spots located at the inframammary fold developed moist desquamation there. The majority of patients with moist desquamation over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas had the hot spots located at these areas. For a patient with moist desquamation, if a hot spot is located at the axillary or inframammary fold areas, it is very likely to have moist desquamation occur there. On the other hand, if moist desquamation occurs over the breast or sternal/parasternal areas, we can highly expect these two areas are also the hot spot locations

  15. High diversity of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius lineages and toxigenic traits in healthy pet-owning household members. Underestimating normal household contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Torres, Carmen; Lozano, Carmen; Zarazaga, Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Forty-three unrelated pet-owning households were screened in Spain to study the Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius nasal carriage, their genetic lineages and virulence traits. Sixty-seven healthy owners and 66 healthy pets were investigated. Isolates characterization was performed and potential interspecies transmission was assessed. S. aureus was present in 51.2% of households studied while S. pseudintermedius in 30.2%. Twenty-eight owners (41.8%) carried S. aureus: one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [t5173-ST8-SCCmecIVa] and 27 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Three owners (4.5%) were colonized by methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP). Fifteen pets (22.7%) carried S. pseudintermedius: two methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) [ST71-SCCmecII/III; ST92-SCCmecV] and 13 MSSP; in addition, 8 pets (12.1%) presented MSSA. High diversity of spa and sequence types (STs) was detected. Typical livestock-associated S. aureus lineages (CC398, CC9) were observed in humans and/or companion animals and hospital and/or community-acquired S. aureus lineages (CC45, CC121, CC5, CC8) were detected among pets. Almost 40% of S. pseudintermedius were multidrug-resistant. S. aureus isolates harboured a remarkable high number of virulence genes. The expA gene was detected in 3 S. pseudintermedius isolates. Identical strains from both owners and their pets were identified in 5 households (11.6%): (a) four MSSA (t073-ST45/CC45, t159-ST121/CC121, t209-ST109/CC9, t021-ST1654([new])/singleton) and (b) one multidrug-resistant MSSP (ST142([new])). Highly clonally diverse and toxigenic S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius are common colonizers of healthy humans and pets. The presence of these bacterial species, virulence genes, and interspecies transmission detected, points out to consider pet ownership as a risk factor to acquire, maintain and spread, potential pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Control of HIV replication in astrocytes by a family of highly conserved host proteins with a common Rev-interacting domain (Risp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendeau, Michelle; Kramer, Susanne; Hadian, Kamyar; Rothenaigner, Ina; Bell, Jeanne; Hauck, Stefanie M; Bickel, Christian; Nagel, Daniel; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Werner, Thomas; Leib-Mösch, Christine; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-10-23

    In human astrocytes, restriction of HIV replication involves inhibition of HIV Rev activity. We previously identified a Rev-interacting human protein fragment (16.4.1) that can reduce Rev activity. The 16.4.1 sequence is contained in a group of highly similar host cell proteins, which we call the Risp family. Here we investigate whether the Risp family is connected to HIV replication in astrocytes. Cell/tissue lysates were analyzed for Risp expression by western blot with various anti-Risp antibodies. The interaction of astrocytic Risp members with Rev was investigated by affinity chromatography. Astrocytes were transfected with expression plasmids containing cDNAs encoding full-length Risp or the isolated 16.4.1 region for Risp overexpression or with siRNAs designed for Risp knock-down. Rev activity was investigated with a Rev-reporter assay. RNA levels were quantified by real-time RT-PCR, HIV Gag levels by p24ELISA. Expression of the Risp family was demonstrated in human brain tissues and astrocytes. Astrocytes were shown to produce Risp family members that interact with Rev. Production of HIV Gag proteins and Rev-dependent RNAs in persistently infected astrocytes increased upon Risp knock-down and decreased upon Risp overexpression. Risp knock-down increased Rev activity and raised proportions of Rev proteins in the nucleus of astrocytes. Our results link the Risp family to restriction of HIV production and inhibition of Rev activity in astrocytes. We conclude that the Risp family represents a novel family of host factors that can control HIV replication and may be important for the containment of HIV infection in brain reservoirs.

  17. High Rates of Access to Health Care, Disclosure of Sexuality and Gender Identity to Providers Among House and Ball Community Members in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Trieweiler, Sarah; Guidry, John; Rash, Nelisa; Stamper, Layla; Conron, Kerith; Turcotte, Nicole; Gratch, Ilana; Lowery, Paige

    2018-01-01

    The House and Ball community is an important cultural manifestation of resiliency for Black and Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender women. Participants at the August 2013 House of Latex Ball in New York City were surveyed about insurance coverage, health care access, experiences in health care, and housing instability. The sample (n = 367) was 58% Black/African American and 20% Hispanic/Latino, with a mean age of 31. Fifty-five percent were gay and bisexual men. Although only 6% identified as transgender, nearly one half were gender nonconforming. Strong majorities had health insurance, were in regular medical care, and were "out" to their providers. Some were unstably housed and had recently exchanged sex for shelter or money. High rates of health care access and disclosure indicate resiliency and agency. Unstable housing and income insecurity may be structural drivers of vulnerability for this population to HIV infection and other health risks.

  18. High heritability and genetic correlation of intravenous glucose- and tolbutamide-induced insulin secretion among non-diabetic family members of type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Hornbak, Malene; Allin, Kristine H.

    2014-01-01

    ∈±∈SE: 0.49∈±∈0.14) and beta cell responsiveness to glucose (h 2∈±∈SE: 0.66∈±∈0.12). Additionally, strong genetic correlations were found between measures of beta cell response after glucose and tolbutamide stimulation, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.77 to 0.88. Furthermore, we identified......Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of quantitative measures of glucose regulation obtained from a tolbutamide-modified frequently sampled IVGTT (t-FSIGT) and to correlate the heritability of the glucose-stimulated beta cell response to the tolbutamide...... after tolbutamide (DIT), insulin sensitivity (SI), glucose effectiveness (SG) and beta cell responsiveness to glucose were calculated. A polygenic variance component model was used to estimate heritability, genetic correlations and associations. Results: We found high heritabilities for acute insulin...

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.74) is Swaziland, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 15 February 2013. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 159 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [fr

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  7. Family members' experiences of autopsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, F; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    Background. The experiences of family members will teach us how to handle an autopsy, the ultimate quality assessment tool. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine surviving family members' experience of autopsy. Method. Seven GPs were asked to approach surviving family members of

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  9. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.69) is the Commonwealth of Dominica, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 17 February 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 153 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  12. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The 42nd revision of INFCIRC/2 lists the 113 Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency as of 1 January 1993. It includes Slovenia as a new Member State as of 21 September 1992, Cambodia replaces the former name ''Democratic Kampuchea'' and Czechoslovakia was deleted as it ceased to be a member of the Agency as of 1 January 1993 (INFCIRC/417)

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government [es

  14. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  15. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.70) is Papua New Guinea, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 April 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 154 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  16. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  19. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.76) is Brunei Darussalam, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 18 February 2014. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 162 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  20. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.73) is Trinidad and Tobago, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 9 November 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 158 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.68) is the Lao People's Democratic Republic which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 November 2011. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 152 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statue with the depositary Government

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.71) is Rwanda, which deposited its instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 4 September 2012. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 155 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  3. It's not too late for the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja: high levels of genetic diversity and differentiation can fuel conservation programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R L Lerner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja is the largest Neotropical bird of prey and is threatened by human persecution and habitat loss and fragmentation. Current conservation strategies include local education, captive rearing and reintroduction, and protection or creation of trans-national habitat blocks and corridors. Baseline genetic data prior to reintroduction of captive-bred stock is essential for guiding such efforts but has not been gathered previously.We assessed levels of genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for harpy eagles using samples collected throughout a large portion of their geographic distribution in Central America (n = 32 and South America (n = 31. Based on 417 bp of mitochondrial control region sequence data, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and South America, although haplotype diversity was significantly higher for South America. Historical restriction of gene flow across the Andes (i.e. between our Central and South American subgroups is supported by coalescent analyses, the haplotype network and significant F(ST values, however reciprocally monophyletic lineages do not correspond to geographical locations in maximum likelihood analyses. A sudden population expansion for South America is indicated by a mismatch distribution analysis, and further supported by significant (p<0.05 negative values of Fu and Li's D(F and F, and Fu's F(S. This expansion, estimated at approximately 60 000 years BP (99 000-36 000 years BP 95% CI, encompasses a transition from a warm and dry time period prior to 50 000 years BP to an interval of maximum precipitation (50 000-36 000 years BP. Notably, this time period precedes the climatic and habitat changes associated with the last glacial maximum. In contrast, a multimodal distribution of haplotypes was observed for Central America suggesting either population equilibrium or a recent decline.High levels of

  4. Ubiquitin--conserved protein or selfish gene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catic, André; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2005-11-01

    The posttranslational modifier ubiquitin is encoded by a multigene family containing three primary members, which yield the precursor protein polyubiquitin and two ubiquitin moieties, Ub(L40) and Ub(S27), that are fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27, respectively. The gene encoding polyubiquitin is highly conserved and, until now, those encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) have been generally considered to be equally invariant. The evolution of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties is, however, proving to be more dynamic. It seems that the genes encoding Ub(L40) and Ub(S27) are actively maintained by homologous recombination with the invariant polyubiquitin locus. Failure to recombine leads to deterioration of the sequence of the ribosomal ubiquitin moieties in several phyla, although this deterioration is evidently constrained by the structural requirements of the ubiquitin fold. Only a few amino acids in ubiquitin are vital for its function, and we propose that conservation of all three ubiquitin genes is driven not only by functional properties of the ubiquitin protein, but also by the propensity of the polyubiquitin locus to act as a 'selfish gene'.

  5. Biodiversity, Urban Areas, and Agriculture: Locating Priority Ecoregions for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Ricketts

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and agriculture are two of the most important threats to biodiversity worldwide. The intensities of these land-use phenomena, however, as well as levels of biodiversity itself, differ widely among regions. Thus, there is a need to develop a quick but rigorous method of identifying where high levels of human threats and biodiversity coincide. These areas are clear priorities for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we combine distribution data for eight major plant and animal taxa (comprising over 20,000 species with remotely sensed measures of urban and agricultural land use to assess conservation priorities among 76 terrestrial ecoregions in North America. We combine the species data into overall indices of richness and endemism. We then plot each of these indices against the percent cover of urban and agricultural land in each ecoregion, resulting in four separate comparisons. For each comparison, ecoregions that fall above the 66th quantile on both axes are identified as priorities for conservation. These analyses yield four "priority sets" of 6-16 ecoregions (8-21% of the total number where high levels of biodiversity and human land use coincide. These ecoregions tend to be concentrated in the southeastern United States, California, and, to a lesser extent, the Atlantic coast, southern Texas, and the U.S. Midwest. Importantly, several ecoregions are members of more than one priority set and two ecoregions are members of all four sets. Across all 76 ecoregions, urban cover is positively correlated with both species richness and endemism. Conservation efforts in densely populated areas therefore may be equally important (if not more so as preserving remote parks in relatively pristine regions.

  6. Non-native and native organisms moving into high elevation and high latitude ecosystems in an era of climate change: new challenges for ecology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchard, Aníbal; Albihn, Ann; Alexander, Jake; Burgess, Treena; Daehler, Curt; Essl, Franz; Evengard, Birgitta; Greenwood, Greg; Haider, Sylvia; Lenoir, Jonathan; McDougall, K.; Milbau, Ann; Muths, Erin L.; Nunez, Martin; Pellissier, Lois; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Rew, Lisa; Robertson, Mark; Sanders, Nathan; Kueffer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Cold environments at high elevation and high latitude are often viewed as resistant to biological invasions. However, climate warming, land use change and associated increased connectivity all increase the risk of biological invasions in these environments. Here we present a summary of the key discussions of the workshop ‘Biosecurity in Mountains and Northern Ecosystems: Current Status and Future Challenges’ (Flen, Sweden, 1–3 June 2015). The aims of the workshop were to (1) increase awareness about the growing importance of species expansion—both non-native and native—at high elevation and high latitude with climate change, (2) review existing knowledge about invasion risks in these areas, and (3) encourage more research on how species will move and interact in cold environments, the consequences for biodiversity, and animal and human health and wellbeing. The diversity of potential and actual invaders reported at the workshop and the likely interactions between them create major challenges for managers of cold environments. However, since these cold environments have experienced fewer invasions when compared with many warmer, more populated environments, prevention has a real chance of success, especially if it is coupled with prioritisation schemes for targeting invaders likely to have greatest impact. Communication and co-operation between cold environment regions will facilitate rapid response, and maximise the use of limited research and management resources.

  7. Profitability and Farmers Conservation Efforts on Sustainable Potato Farming in Wonosobo Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Fatma Leslie Pratiwi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It takes into account in potato farming sustainability, since it was recognised as a holticultural commodity for farmers’ subsistence in Wonosobo Regency. For the reason that farming land was being degraded by errossion, the potato productivity apparently continued to decline. Potato farming sustainability can be deliberated from economic (profitability and environmental (conservation efforts points of view in order to remain profitable in a long term sustainable environment. This study is aimed to (1 to analyse the profitability of potato farming; (2 to analyse farmers’ effort on soil conservation and factors which affected sustainability of potato farming. The method used in this study was basic descriptive analysis. The study site was in Kejajar District, Wonosobo Regency, subsequently 50 random farmers as respondences was obtained. Gross Margin, Return on Invested Capital, and Operating Ratio were used to measure the profitability of potato farming. Conservation Activity Index (CAI was used to measure farmers’ effort on soil conservation, while paired liner regression model with Ordinary Least Square (OLS method was used to understand the factors which affected the conservation efforts of test sites. The study results revealed that the potato farming was profitable. Farmers conservation efforts mostly was in average category (74%, and only view in high category (16% and low category (10%. Factors affected the farmers conservation efforts i.e. land area, potato products, potato price, the off-farm income, number of family members, farmers ages, and village dummy.

  8. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  9. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kinoshita, Natsuko

    2012-09-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. IAA-Ala Resistant3, an evolutionarily conserved target of miR167, mediates Arabidopsis root architecture changes during high osmotic stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kinoshita, Natsuko; Wang, Huan; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Liu, Jun; MacPherson, Cameron R.; Machida, Yasunori; Kamiya, Yuji; Hannah, Matthew A.; Chuaa, Nam Hai

    2012-01-01

    The functions of microRNAs and their target mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana development have been widely documented; however, roles of stress-responsive microRNAs and their targets are not as well understood. Using small RNA deep sequencing and ATH1 microarrays to profile mRNAs, we identified IAA-Ala Resistant3 (IAR3) as a new target of miR167a. As expected, IAR3 mRNA was cleaved at the miR167a complementary site and under high osmotic stress miR167a levels decreased, whereas IAR3 mRNA levels increased. IAR3 hydrolyzes an inactive form of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]-alanine) and releases bioactive auxin (IAA), a central phytohormone for root development. In contrast with the wild type, iar3 mutants accumulated reduced IAA levels and did not display high osmotic stress-induced root architecture changes. Transgenic plants expressing a cleavage-resistant form of IAR3 mRNA accumulated high levels of IAR3 mRNAs and showed increased lateral root development compared with transgenic plants expressing wild-type IAR3. Expression of an inducible noncoding RNA to sequester miR167a by target mimicry led to an increase in IAR3 mRNA levels, further confirming the inverse relationship between the two partners. Sequence comparison revealed the miR167 target site on IAR3 mRNA is conserved in evolutionarily distant plant species. Finally, we showed that IAR3 is required for drought tolerance. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Does formal mentoring for faculty members matter? A survey of clinical faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Elza; Brubaker, Linda; Williams, Valerie N; Novielli, Karen D; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Pollart, Susan M; Dandar, Valerie; Bunton, Sarah A

    2016-06-01

    Mentoring relationships, for all medical school faculty members, are an important component of lifelong development and education, yet an understanding of mentoring among medical school clinical faculty members is incomplete. This study examined associations between formal mentoring relationships and aspects of faculty members' engagement and satisfaction. It then explored the variability of these associations across subgroups of clinical faculty members to understand the status of mentoring and outcomes of mentoring relationships. The authors hypothesised that academic clinical faculty members currently in formal mentoring relationships experience enhanced employee engagement and satisfaction with their department and institution. Medical school faculty members at 26 self-selected USA institutions participated in the 2011-2014 Faculty Forward Engagement Survey. Responses from clinical faculty members were analysed for relationships between mentoring status and perceptions of engagement by faculty members. Of the 11 953 clinical faculty respondents, almost one-third reported having a formal mentoring relationship (30%; 3529). Most mentored faculty indicated the relationship was important (86%; n = 3027), and over three-fourths were satisfied with their mentoring experience (77%; n = 2722). Mentored faculty members across ranks reported significantly higher levels of satisfaction and more positive perceptions of their roles in the organisation. Faculty members who were not receiving mentoring reported significantly less satisfaction with their workplace environment and lower overall satisfaction. Mentored clinical faculty members have significantly greater satisfaction with their department and institution. This multi-institutional study provides evidence that fostering mentoring opportunities may facilitate faculty members' satisfaction and engagement, which, in turn, may help medical schools retain high-quality faculty staff committed to the multidimensional

  12. Building Standards and Codes for Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, James G.; Pierlert, James H.

    1977-01-01

    Current activity intended to lead to energy conservation measures in building codes and standards is reviewed by members of the Office of Building Standards and Codes Services of the National Bureau of Standards. For journal availability see HE 508 931. (LBH)

  13. Sequence of cDNAs for mammalian H2A. Z, an evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal histone H2A isoprotein species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C L; Bonner, W M

    1988-02-11

    The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal H2A isoprotein, H2A.Z, have been determined for the rat, cow, and human. As a basal histone, H2A.Z is synthesized throughout the cell cycle at a constant rate, unlinked to DNA replication, and at a much lower rate in quiescent cells. Each of the cDNA isolates encodes the entire H2A.Z polypeptide. The human isolate is about 1.0 kilobases long. It contains a coding region of 387 nucleotides flanked by 106 nucleotides of 5'UTR and 376 nucleotides of 3'UTR, which contains a polyadenylation signal followed by a poly A tail. The bovine and rat cDNAs have 97 and 94% nucleotide positional identity to the human cDNA in the coding region and 98% in the proximal 376 nucleotides of the 3'UTR which includes the polyadenylation signal. A potential stem-forming sequence imbedded in a direct repeat is found centered at 261 nucleotides into the 3'UTR. Each of the cDNA clones could be transcribed and translated in vitro to yield H2A.Z protein. The mammalian H2A.Z cDNA coding sequences are approximately 80% similar to those in chicken and 75% to those in sea urchin.

  14. Particle-number conserving analysis for the 2-quasiparticle and high-K multi-quasiparticle states in doubly-odd 174,176Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bingheng; Lei Yi'an; Zhang Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Two-quasiparticle bands and low-lying excited high-K four-, six-, and eight-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd 174,176 Lu are analyzed by using the cranked shell model (CSM) with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving (PNC) method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The proton and neutron Nilsson level schemes for 174,176 Lu are taken from the adjacent odd-A Lu and Hf isotopes, which are adopted to reproduce the experimental bandhead energies of the one-quasiproton and one-quasineutron bands of these odd-A Lu and Hf nuclei, respectively. Once the quasiparticle configurations are determined, the experimental bandhead energies and the moments of inertia of these two- and multi-quasiparticle bands are well reproduced by PNC-CSM calculations. The Coriolis mixing of the low-K (K=|Ω 1 -Ω 2 |) two-quasiparticle band of the Gallagher-Moszkowski doublet with one nucleon in the Ω=1/2 orbital is analyzed. (authors)

  15. NOA36 Protein Contains a Highly Conserved Nucleolar Localization Signal Capable of Directing Functional Proteins to the Nucleolus, in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Ivan S.; Jimenez-Nuñez, Maria D.; Iglesias, Concepción; Campos-Caro, Antonio; Moreno-Sanchez, David; Ruiz, Felix A.; Bolívar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    NOA36/ZNF330 is an evolutionarily well-preserved protein present in the nucleolus and mitochondria of mammalian cells. We have previously reported that the pro-apoptotic activity of this protein is mediated by a characteristic cysteine-rich domain. We now demonstrate that the nucleolar localization of NOA36 is due to a highly-conserved nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) present in residues 1–33. This NoLS is a sequence containing three clusters of two or three basic amino acids. We fused the amino terminal of NOA36 to eGFP in order to characterize this putative NoLS. We show that a cluster of three lysine residues at positions 3 to 5 within this sequence is critical for the nucleolar localization. We also demonstrate that the sequence as found in human is capable of directing eGFP to the nucleolus in several mammal, fish and insect cells. Moreover, this NoLS is capable of specifically directing the cytosolic yeast enzyme polyphosphatase to the target of the nucleolus of HeLa cells, wherein its enzymatic activity was detected. This NoLS could therefore serve as a very useful tool as a nucleolar marker and for directing particular proteins to the nucleolus in distant animal species. PMID:23516598

  16. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  17. A comparison of high-resolution specific conductance-based end-member mixing analysis and a graphical method for baseflow separation of four streams in hydrologically challenging agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Scott C.; Capel, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the relative contributions of different sources of water to a stream hydrograph is important for understanding the hydrology and water quality dynamics of a given watershed. To compare the performance of two methods of hydrograph separation, a graphical program [baseflow index (BFI)] and an end-member mixing analysis that used high-resolution specific conductance measurements (SC-EMMA) were used to estimate daily and average long-term slowflow additions of water to four small, primarily agricultural streams with different dominant sources of water (natural groundwater, overland flow, subsurface drain outflow, and groundwater from irrigation). Because the result of hydrograph separation by SC-EMMA is strongly related to the choice of slowflow and fastflow end-member values, a sensitivity analysis was conducted based on the various approaches reported in the literature to inform the selection of end-members. There were substantial discrepancies among the BFI and SC-EMMA, and neither method produced reasonable results for all four streams. Streams that had a small difference in the SC of slowflow compared with fastflow or did not have a monotonic relationship between streamflow and stream SC posed a challenge to the SC-EMMA method. The utility of the graphical BFI program was limited in the stream that had only gradual changes in streamflow. The results of this comparison suggest that the two methods may be quantifying different sources of water. Even though both methods are easy to apply, they should be applied with consideration of the streamflow and/or SC characteristics of a stream, especially where anthropogenic water sources (irrigation and subsurface drainage) are present.

  18. Method of localization and implantation of the lumpectomy site for high dose rate brachytherapy after conservative surgery for T1 and T2 breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, F.; Chisela, F.; Engel, J.; Venkatesan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes our technique of localization and implantation of the lumpectomy site of patients with T1 and T2 breast cancer. Our method was developed as part of our Phase I/II pilot study of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone after conservative surgery for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: In March 1992, we started a pilot study of HDR brachytherapy to the lumpectomy site as the sole radiotherapy after conservative surgery for clinical T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer. Initially, the protocol required intraoperative placement of the interstitial needles at the time of definitive surgery to the breast. The protocol was then generalized to allow the implantation of the lumpectomy site after definitive surgery to the breast, either at the time of subsequent axillary nodal dissection or postoperatively. To date, five patients have been implanted intraoperatively at the time of definitive breast surgery. Twelve patients were implanted after definitive breast surgery, with 7 patients being done at the time of axillary nodal dissection and 5 patients postoperatively. We devised a method of accurately localizing and implanting the lumpectomy site after definitive breast surgery. The method relies on the previous placement of surgical clips by the referring surgeon to mark the lumpectomy site. For each patient, a breast mold is made with radio-opaque angiocatheters taped onto the mold in the supero-inferior direction. A planning CT scan is then obtained through the lumpectomy site. The volume of the lumpectomy site, the number of implant planes necessary, and the orientation of the implants are then determined from the CT scan. The angiocatheters provide a reference grid on the CT films to locate the entry and exit points of the interstitial needles on the plastic mold. The entry and exit points for reference needles are then transferred onto the patient's skin enabling implantation of the lumpectomy site. Needle positions with respect to

  19. Conservation and genetic characterisation of common bean landraces from Cilento region (southern Italy): high differentiation in spite of low genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Daniele; Cennamo, Paola; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Di Novella, Riccardo; Caputo, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction. The analysis conducted using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci in 140 individuals revealed a high degree of homozygosity within each landrace and a strong genetic differentiation that was reflected in the success in assigning individuals to the source landrace. On the contrary, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, analysed in one individual per landrace, were highly similar among common bean landraces but allowed the identification of a cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata Walp.), a crop largely cultivated in the Old World before the arrival of common bean from Americas. In conclusion, our study highlighted that conservation of landraces is important not only for the cultural and socio-economic value that they have for local communities, but also because the time and conditions in which they have been selected have led to that genetic distinctiveness that is at the basis of many potential agronomical applications and dietary benefits.

  20. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Comparative genomics of CytR, an unusual member of the LacI family of transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Sernova

    Full Text Available CytR is a transcription regulator from the LacI family, present in some gamma-proteobacteria including Escherichia coli and known not only for its cellular role, control of transport and utilization of nucleosides, but for a number of unusual structural properties. The present study addressed three related problems: structure of CytR-binding sites and motifs, their evolutionary conservation, and identification of new members of the CytR regulon. While the majority of CytR-binding sites are imperfect inverted repeats situated between binding sites for another transcription factor, CRP, other architectures were observed, in particular, direct repeats. While the similarity between sites for different genes in one genome is rather low, and hence the consensus motif is weak, there is high conservation of orthologous sites in different genomes (mainly in the Enterobacteriales arguing for the presence of specific CytR-DNA contacts. On larger evolutionary distances candidate CytR sites may migrate but the approximate distance between flanking CRP sites tends to be conserved, which demonstrates that the overall structure of the CRP-CytR-DNA complex is gene-specific. The analysis yielded candidate CytR-binding sites for orthologs of known regulon members in less studied genomes of the Enterobacteriales and Vibrionales and identified a new candidate member of the CytR regulon, encoding a transporter named NupT (YcdZ.

  2. Project CHOICE: #26. A Career Education Unit for Junior High School. Careers in Conservation of the Environment and Natural Resources. (Agriculture and Ecological Studies Cluster; Science and Engineering Occupations Cluster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern County Superintendent of Schools, Bakersfield, CA.

    This junior high teaching unit on careers in conservation of the environment and natural resources is one in a series of career guidebooks developed by Project CHOICE (Children Have Options in Career Education) to provide the classroom teacher with a source of career-related activities linking classroom experiences with the world of work. The unit…

  3. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [ru

  4. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  5. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment

  6. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.72) are Fiji and Togo, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 2 November 2012 and 1 November 2012, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 157 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  7. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  8. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [es

  9. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.42) are: Armenia, Coratia, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Slovak Republic and Uzbekistan. The Attachment to the circular shows the dates on which the 120 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  10. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  11. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government

  12. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-13

    The new member since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.44) is Yemen. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 122 States became members of the Agency, as well as the State whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute.

  13. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  14. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-15

    The document lists the 127 Member States of the Agency as of 1 January 1998. The new Members since the last issue of of the list (INFCIRC/2/49) are Malta and the Republic of Moldova. In an attachment are given the dates on which the present 127 states become Members, the state (Burkina Faso) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute.

  15. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-18

    The document lists the 128 Member States of the Agency as of 18 September 1998. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/50) is Burkina Faso. In an attachment the dates on which the present 128 states became Members, and the state (Benin) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 42nd session of the General Conference are given

  16. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-16

    The document lists the 129 Member States of the Agency as of 1 June 1999. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/51) is Benin. The dates on which the present 129 states became Members, and the state (Honduras) whose application for membership of the Agency has been recommended by the Board of Governors to be considered at the 43rd session of the General Conference are given in an Attachment.

  17. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.75) are San Marino and the Bahamas, which deposited their instruments of acceptance of the Statute on 25 November 2013 and 7 January 2014, respectively. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 161 Member States deposited instruments of ratification or acceptance of the Statute with the depositary Government [fr

  18. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The new Members since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.54) are the Republic of Tajikistan, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 10 September 2001 and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which deposited the instrument of acceptance of the Statute on 31 October 2001. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 133 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference, but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  19. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  20. The members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  1. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  2. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document lists the 136 Member States of the Agency as of 6 May 2003. The new Members since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/57) are Eritrea and the Republic of Seychelles. Cambodia withdrew from the Agency with effect from 26 March 2003. The dates on which the present 136 Member States became Members are given in an Attachment. It also shows the States whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  3. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-10

    The document lists the 124 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1996. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.47) is Georgia. In an attachment are given the dates on which the 124 Member States became Members, the State (Latvia) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  4. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-11

    No new Member has joined the Agency since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.45). The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 122 Member States became Members. It also shows the State whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  5. The members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-26

    The new Member since the last list of Member States was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.46) is Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the present 123 Member States became Members. It also shows the States whose applications for membership of the Agency have been approved by the General Conference but which have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the State whose application for membership has been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  6. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... merging the metal halide lamp fixture and the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp rulemakings. This NOPR... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  7. Planning for land use and conservation: Assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Baldwin; Ryan Scherzinger; Don Lipscomb; Miranda Mockrin; Susan Stein

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in planning and ecological software make it possible to conduct highly technical analyses to prioritize conservation investments and inform local land use planning. We review these tools, termed conservation planning tools, and assess the knowledge of a key set of potential users: the land use planning community. We grouped several conservation software...

  8. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  9. Identifying temporal bottlenecks for the conservation of large-bodied fishes: Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens show highly restricted movement and habitat use over-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnette Thayer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between species’ size and home range size has been well studied. In practice, home range may provide a good surrogate of broad spatial coverage needed for species conservation, however, many species can show restricted movement during critical life stages, such as breeding and over-wintering. This suggests the existence of either a behavioral or habitat mediated ‘temporal bottleneck,’ where restricted or sedentary movement can make populations more susceptible to harm during specific life stages. Here, we study over-winter movement and habitat use of Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the largest freshwater fish in North America. We monitored over-winter movement of 86 fish using a hydro-acoustic receiver array in the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. Overall, 20 fish remained within our study system throughout the winter. Lake Sturgeon showed strong aggregation and sedentary movement over-winter, demonstrating a temporal bottleneck. Movement was highly restricted during ice-on periods (ranging from 0.9 km/day in November and April to 0.2 km/day in mid-November to mid-March, with Lake Sturgeon seeking deeper, slower pools. We also show that Lake Sturgeon have strong aggregation behavior, where distance to conspecifics decreased (from 575 to 313 m in preparation for and during ice-on periods. Although the Lake Sturgeon we studied had access to 1100 kilometers of unfragmented riverine habitat, we show that during the over-winter period Lake Sturgeon utilized a single, deep pool (<0.1% of available habitat. The temporal discrepancy between mobile and sedentary behaviors in Lake Sturgeon suggest adaptive management is needed with more localized focus during periods of temporal bottlenecks, even for large-bodied species.

  10. The human homolog of S. cerevisiae CDC27, CDC27 Hs, is encoded by a highly conserved intronless gene present in multiple copies in the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devor, E.J.; Dill-Devor, R.M. [Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We have obtained a number of unique sequences via PCR amplification of human genomic DNA using degenerate primers under low stringency (42{degrees}C). One of these, an 853 bp product, has been identified as a partial genomic sequence of the human homolog of the S. cerevisiae CDC27 gene, CDC27Hs (GenBank No. U00001). This gene, reported by Turgendreich et al. is also designated EST00556 from Adams et al. We have undertaken a more detailed examination of our sequence, MCP34N, and have found that: 1. the genomic sequence is nearly identical to CDC27Hs over its entire 853 bp length; 2. an MCP34N-specific PCR assay of several non-human primate species reveals amplification products in chimpanzee and gorilla genomes having greater than 90% sequence identity with CDC27Hs; and 3. an MCP34N-specific PCR assay of the BIOS hybrid cell line panel gives a discordancy pattern suggesting multiple loci. Based upon these data, we present the following initial characterization: 1. the complete MCP34N sequence identity with CDC27Hs indicates that the latter is encoded by an intronless gene; 2. CDC27Hs is highly conserved among higher primates; and 3. CDC27Hs is present in multiple copies in the human genome. These characteristics, taken together with those initially reported for CDC27Hs, suggest that this is an old gene that carries out an important but, as yet, unknown function in the human brain.

  11. Defining population structure and genetic signatures of decline in the giant garter snake (Thamnophis gigas): implications for conserving threatened species within highly altered landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Hansen, Eric C.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation can disrupt the ability of species to disperse across landscapes, which can alter the levels and distribution of genetic diversity within populations and negatively impact long-term viability. The giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is a state and federally threatened species that historically occurred in the wetland habitats of California’s Great Central Valley. Despite the loss of 93 % of historic wetlands throughout the Central Valley, giant gartersnakes continue to persist in relatively small, isolated patches of highly modified agricultural wetlands. Gathering information regarding genetic diversity and effective population size represents an essential component for conservation management programs aimed at this species. Previous mitochondrial sequence studies have revealed historical patterns of differentiation, yet little is known about contemporary population structure and diversity. On the basis of 15 microsatellite loci, we estimate population structure and compare indices of genetic diversity among populations spanning seven drainage basins within the Central Valley. We sought to understand how habitat loss may have affected genetic differentiation, genetic diversity and effective population size, and what these patterns suggest in terms of management and restoration actions. We recovered five genetic clusters that were consistent with regional drainage basins, although three northern basins within the Sacramento Valley formed a single genetic cluster. Our results show that northern drainage basin populations have higher connectivity than among central and southern basins populations, and that greater differentiation exists among the more geographically isolated populations in the central and southern portion of the species’ range. Genetic diversity measures among basins were significantly different, and were generally lower in southern basin populations. Levels of inbreeding and evidence of population

  12. Novel cross-strand three-purine stack of the highly conserved 5'-GA/AAG-5' internal loop at the 3'-end termini of Parvovirus Genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, S.-H.; Chin, K.-H.

    2001-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR), distance geometry (DG) and molecular dynamics / energy minimization (MD/EM) methods to study a 2x3 asymmetric internal loop structure of the highly conserved '5'-(GA)/(AAG)-5' bubble' present at the 3'-end hairpin of the single-stranded DNA genome of parvoviruses. This motif contains an unpaired adenosine stacked between two bracketed sheared G·A pairs. However, the phenomenal cross-strand G-G and A-A stacking in the tandem sheared G·A pairs has undergone considerable change. A novel three-purine stacking pattern is observed instead; the inserted A18 base is completely un-stacked from its neighboring G17 and A19 bases, but well stacked with the cross-strand A4 and G3 bases to form a novel A4/A18/G3 stack that is different from the double G/G, A/A or quadruple G/G/G/G stack present in the 5'-(GA)/(AG)-5' or 5'-(GGA)/(AGG)-5' motifs. Unlike the bulged purine residue that usually causes about 20 degree kink in the helical axis of the parent helix when bracketed by canonical G·C or A·T base pairs, no significant kink is observed in the present helix containing a bulged-adenine that is bracketed by sheared G ·A pairs. The phosphodiesters connecting G3-A4 and G17-A18 residues adopt unusual ζ torsional angles close to the trans domain, yet that connecting A18-A19 residues resumes the normal ζ(g - ) value. The well structured '5'-(GAA)/(AG)-5'' internal loop in the parvovirus genomes explains its resistance to single-strand specific endonuclease susceptibility

  13. Highly Conserved Arg Residue of ERFNIN Motif of Pro-Domain is Important for pH-Induced Zymogen Activation Process in Cysteine Cathepsins K and L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Pulakesh; Biswas, Sampa

    2018-06-01

    Pro-domain of a cysteine cathepsin contains a highly conserved Ex 2 Rx 2 Fx 2 Nx 3 Ix 3 N (ERFNIN) motif. The zymogen structure of cathepsins revealed that the Arg(R) residue of the motif is a central residue of a salt-bridge/H-bond network, stabilizing the scaffold of the pro-domain. Importance of the arginine is also demonstrated in studies where a single mutation (Arg → Trp) in human lysosomal cathepsin K (hCTSK) is linked to a bone-related genetic disorder "Pycnodysostosis". In the present study, we have characterized in vitro Arg → Trp mutant of hCTSK and the same mutant of hCTSL. The R → W mutant of hCTSK revealed that this mutation leads to an unstable zymogen that is spontaneously activated and auto-proteolytically degraded rapidly. In contrast, the same mutant of hCTSL is sufficiently stable and has proteolytic activity almost like its wild-type counterpart; however it shows an altered zymogen activation condition in terms of pH, temperature and time. Far and near UV circular dichroism and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence experiments have revealed that the mutation has minimal effect on structure of the protease hCTSL. Molecular modeling studies shows that the mutated Trp31 in hCTSL forms an aromatic cluster with Tyr23 and Trp30 leading to a local stabilization of pro-domain and supplements the loss of salt-bridge interaction mediated by Arg31 in wild-type. In hCTSK-R31W mutant, due to presence of a non-aromatic Ser30 residue such interaction is not possible and may be responsible for local instability. These differences may cause detrimental effects of R31W mutation on the regulation of hCTSK auto-activation process compared to altered activation process in hCTSL.

  14. Six Highly Conserved Targets of RNAi Revealed in HIV-1-Infected Patients from Russia Are Also Present in Many HIV-1 Strains Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Kretova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available RNAi has been suggested for use in gene therapy of HIV/AIDS, but the main problem is that HIV-1 is highly variable and could escape attack from the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs due to even single nucleotide substitutions in the potential targets. To exhaustively check the variability in selected RNA targets of HIV-1, we used ultra-deep sequencing of six regions of HIV-1 from the plasma of two independent cohorts of patients from Russia. Six RNAi targets were found that are invariable in 82%–97% of viruses in both cohorts and are located inside the domains specifying reverse transcriptase (RT, integrase, vpu, gp120, and p17. The analysis of mutation frequencies and their characteristics inside the targets suggests a likely role for APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G, A3G in G-to-A mutations and a predominant effect of RT biases in the detected variability of the virus. The lowest frequency of mutations was detected in the central part of all six targets. We also discovered that the identical RNAi targets are present in many HIV-1 strains from many countries and from all continents. The data are important for both the understanding of the patterns of HIV-1 mutability and properties of RT and for the development of gene therapy approaches using RNAi for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Keywords: HIV-1, RNAi targets, gene therapy, ultra-deep sequencing, conserved HIV-1 sequences

  15. Conservation in gene encoding Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen Rv2660 and a high predicted population coverage of H56 multistage vaccine in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Angy P; Ong, Edison; Zhang, Lixin; Marrs, Carl F; He, Yongqun; Yang, Zhenhua

    2017-11-01

    H56/AERAS-456+IC31 (H56), composed of two early secretion proteins, Ag85B and ESAT-6, and a latency associated protein, Rv2660, and the IC31 Intercell adjuvant, is a new fusion subunit vaccine candidate designed to induce immunity against both new infection and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Efficacy of subunit vaccines may be affected by the diversity of vaccine antigens among clinical strains and the extent of recognition by the diverse HLA molecules in the recipient population. Although a previous study showed the conservative nature of Ag85B- and ESAT-6-encoding genes, genetic diversity of Rv2660c that encodes RV2660 is largely unknown. The population coverage of H56 as a whole yet remains to be assessed. The present study was conducted to address these important knowledge gaps. DNA sequence analysis of Rv2660c found no variation among 83 of the 84 investigated clinical strains belonging to four genetic lineages. H56 was predicted to have as high as 99.6% population coverage in the South Africa population using the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) Population Coverage Tool. Further comparison of H56 population coverage between South African Blacks and Caucasians based on the phenotypic frequencies of binding MHC Class I and Class II supertype alleles found that all of the nine MHC-I and six of eight MHC-II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertype alleles analyzed were significantly differentially expressed between the two subpopulations. This finding suggests the presence of race-specific functional binding motifs of MHC-I and MHC-II HLA alleles, which, in turn, highlights the importance of including diverse populations in vaccine clinical evaluation. In conclusion, H56 vaccine is predicted to have a promising population coverage in South Africa; this study demonstrates the utility of integrating comparative genomics and bioinformatics in bridging animal and clinical studies of novel TB vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1969 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  17. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 30 June 1975, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  18. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to 31 March 1974, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  19. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1970, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  20. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1972, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  1. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    In this document the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials which Members had delivered up to the end of 1971, in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D

  2. Working with Difficult Group Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes types of group members who are challenging in group settings including entitled, manipulative, and character-disordered clients. Provides suggestions for working with these group members, either as isolated cases or as homogenous populations, emphasizing the protection of other clients' rights. Includes 31 references. (Author/CRR)

  3. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic correlation of the braided river and vertical distribution characteristics of sand body-Take upper member of saihan formation of lower cretaceous in Bayanwula deposit, for instance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Mingjian; Peng Yunbiao; Yang Jianxin; Shen Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of which reference surface is base level cycle get rapid development. Its biggest advantage is the ability to apply to the continental sedimentary basins controlled by multiple factors, especially applied to the thin layer contrast of the paleochannel sandstone type uranium reservoir. This paper, by using drill core and logging data, has made the high resolution sequence stratigraphy studies on braided river uranium reservoir of Upper Member of Saihan Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Kls2) in Bayanwula deposit and identified the base level cycle interface. The study interval is divided into one long-term cycle and seven mid-term base level cycle, and high-resolution time stratigraphic framework of the deposit is established. Depth analysis is taken for the relationship between the braided river sand body and base level cycles. And the position, distribution, and genesis in vertical of the braided river sand body are discussed in detail. Ore body is mainly hosted in edge of braided bar sand body, which formed in the low accommodation space, and braided channel and the braided bar interchange. So uranium enriched in the mid-term base level cycle MSC2-MSC5 in the study area. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  5. Adapting the bioblitz to meet conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sophie S; Pauly, Gregory B; Moore, James; Fraga, Naomi S; Knapp, John J; Principe, Zachary; Brown, Brian V; Randall, John M; Cohen, Brian S; Wake, Thomas A

    2018-03-01

    When conservation strategies require new, field-based information, practitioners must find the best ways to rapidly deliver high-quality survey data. To address this challenge, several rapid-assessment approaches have been developed since the early 1990s. These typically involve large areas, take many months to complete, and are not appropriate when conservation-relevant survey data are urgently needed for a specific locale. In contrast, bioblitzes are designed for quick collection of site-specific survey data. Although bioblitzes are commonly used to achieve educational or public-engagement goals, conservation practitioners are increasingly using a modified bioblitz approach to generate conservation-relevant data while simultaneously enhancing research capacity and building working partnerships focused on conservation concerns. We term these modified events expert bioblitzes. Several expert bioblitzes have taken place on lands of conservation concern in Southern California and have involved collaborative efforts of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, botanic gardens, museums, and universities. The results of expert bioblitzes directly informed on-the-ground conservation and decision-making; increased capacity for rapid deployment of expert bioblitzes in the future; and fostered collaboration and communication among taxonomically and institutionally diverse experts. As research and conservation funding becomes increasingly scarce, expert bioblitzes can play an increasingly important role in biodiversity conservation. © 2018 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  7. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  8. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  9. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  10. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  11. An overview of the GAGE cancer/testis antigen family with the inclusion of newly identified members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, M F; Ditzel, H J

    2008-01-01

    . This review describes the structure and phylogeny of the GAGE family members and presents a revised nomenclature, which will enable a more clear distinction of genes and gene products. The GAGE gene locus at chromosome X p11.23 consists of at least 16 genes, each of which is located in one of an equal number...... of highly conserved tandem repeats, and more genes remain to be identified. These genes are likely the creation of unequal replication under positive selection after the divergence of primates from other mammals. The encoded products are predicted to be highly similar small acidic proteins involved in germ...

  12. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference

  13. The Members of the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The new members since the last list of Member States of the Agency was issued (INFCIRC/2/Rev.43) are: Kazakhstan and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea withdrew from membership of the Agency as of 13 June 1994. The Attachment hereto shows the dates on which the 121 States became members of the Agency, as well as those States whose application for membership of the Agency was approved by the General Conference, but who have not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute

  14. The Members of the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-22

    The document lists the 125 Member States of the Agency as of 1 September 1997. The new Member since the last issue of the list (INFCIRC/2/Rev.48) is Latvia. In an Attachment are given the dates on which the present 125 States became Members, the State (Republic of Moldova) whose application for membership of the Agency has been approved by the General Conference but which has not yet deposited an instrument of acceptance of the Statute and the States (Malta and Burkina Faso) whose applications for membership have been recommended by the Board of Governors for approval by the General Conference.

  15. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  16. Thermal effects in concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    The proposed method of analysis for concrete members subjected to temperature changes is consistent with the requirements of ultimate strength design. This also facilitates the provision of the same safety margin as for other loads. Due to cracks and creep in concrete, thermal stresses are nonlinear; they are dependent on the effective member stiffness, which in turn vary with the magnitude of loading. Therefore it is inconsistent to have an ultimate strength design in conjunction with an analysis based on the linear elastic theory. It is proposed that when the requirements of serviceability are met, the neutral axis corresponding to the ultimate load capacity conditions be considered for temperature-induced loadings. This conforms with the fact that the thermal load, because of creep and formation of cracks in the member, can be self-relieving as the failure load condition or ultimate capacity is approached. The maximum thermal load that can develop in dependent on the effective cross section of the member. Recommendations are made for determining the average effective member stiffness, which lies between the stiffness corresponding to the cracked (at ultimate condition) and the uncracked sections. In the proposed method, thermal stresses are not considered completely self-relieving. The stresses are considered simultaneously with stresses resulting from other causes. A step-by-step approach is presented for analysis and design of concrete members subjected to temperature changes

  17. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  18. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  19. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  20. Reef sharks: recent advances in ecological understanding to inform conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osgood, G J; Baum, J K

    2015-12-01

    Sharks are increasingly being recognized as important members of coral-reef communities, but their overall conservation status remains uncertain. Nine of the 29 reef-shark species are designated as data deficient in the IUCN Red List, and three-fourths of reef sharks had unknown population trends at the time of their assessment. Fortunately, reef-shark research is on the rise. This new body of research demonstrates reef sharks' high site restriction, fidelity and residency on coral reefs, their broad trophic roles connecting reef communities and their high population genetic structure, all information that should be useful for their management and conservation. Importantly, recent studies on the abundance and population trends of the three classic carcharhinid reef sharks (grey reef shark Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, blacktip reef shark Carcharhinus melanopterus and whitetip reef shark Triaenodon obesus) may contribute to reassessments identifying them as more vulnerable than currently realized. Because over half of the research effort has focused on only these three reef sharks and the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum in only a few locales, there remain large taxonomic and geographic gaps in reef-shark knowledge. As such, a large portion of reef-shark biodiversity remains uncharacterized despite needs for targeted research identified in their red list assessments. A research agenda for the future should integrate abundance, life history, trophic ecology, genetics, habitat use and movement studies, and expand the breadth of such research to understudied species and localities, in order to better understand the conservation requirements of these species and to motivate effective conservation solutions. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E.; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T.; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev. Edwin C.; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants. PMID:26758708

  2. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T; Dyer, Typhanye V; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev Edwin C; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 ( N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants.

  3. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  4. Promoting Effective Monitoring and Conservation through Online ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... communicates major findings of submitted records to relevant authorities concerned with conservation and advocacy thus contributing to a much wider sharing and dissemination of important aspects while contributing to avifaunal conservation. Through networking the system provides a highly attractive and authoritative, ...

  5. Conservation laws and nuclear transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Das Gupta, S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the consequences of energy and angular momentum conservation for nucleon-nucleon scattering in a nuclear environment during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We describe algorithms that ensure stricter enforcement of such conservation laws within popular microscopic models of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that the net effects on global observables are small

  6. Importance of uncharged polar residues and proline in the proximal two-thirds (Pro107–Ser128 of the highly conserved region of mouse ileal Na+-dependent bile acid transporter, Slc10a2, in transport activity and cellular expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeki Tohru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SLC10A2-mediated reabsorption of bile acids at the distal end of the ileum is the first step in enterohepatic circulation. Because bile acids act not only as detergents but also as signaling molecules in lipid metabolism and energy production, SLC10A2 is important as the key transporter for understanding the in vivo kinetics of bile acids. SLC10A family members and the homologous genes of various species share a highly conserved region corresponding to Gly104–Pro142 of SLC10A2. The functional importance of this region has not been fully elucidated. Results To elucidate the functional importance of this region, we previously performed mutational analysis of the uncharged polar residues and proline in the distal one-third (Thr130–Pro142 of the highly conserved region in mouse Slc10a2. In this study, proline and uncharged polar residues in the remaining two-thirds of this region in mouse Slc10a2 were subjected to mutational analysis, and taurocholic acid uptake and cell surface localization were examined. Cell surface localization of Slc10a2 is necessary for bile acid absorption. Mutants in which Asp or Leu were substituted for Pro107 (P107N or P107L were abundantly expressed, but their cell surface localization was impaired. The S126A mutant was completely impaired in cellular expression. The T110A and S128A mutants exhibited remarkably enhanced membrane expression. The S112A mutant was properly expressed at the cell surface but transport activity was completely lost. Replacement of Tyr117 with various amino acids resulted in reduced transport activity. The degree of reduction roughly depended on the van der Waals volume of the side chains. Conclusions The functional importance of proline and uncharged polar residues in the highly conserved region of mouse Slc10a2 was determined. This information will contribute to the design of bile acid-conjugated prodrugs for efficient drug delivery or SLC10A2 inhibitors for

  7. A Non-Member Spouse's Entitlement To The Member's Pension Interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motseotsile Clement Marumoagae

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important that married couples seek legal advice with regard to the assets falling within their joint estate, more particularly their retirement benefits. This article reflects on the entitlement (if any of non-member spouses to their spouses' retirement fund benefits. Pension benefits can be due before, during or after divorce, and parties to the marriage should be aware of their rights with regard to the accruing pension benefits of their spouses. While it is settled law that non-member spouses are entitled to receive a portion of their member spouses' pension benefits (known as "pension interest" immediately on divorce, it is not particularly clear whether non-member spouses are also entitled to receive the same before or sometime after divorce. In this article I provide a contextual understanding of the entitlements (if any which spouses or former spouses of members of pension funds have on such member spouses' retirement benefits. Furthermore, it shown in this article that various divisions of South African High Courts have been inconsistent in how they have approached the issue of the pension interest between divorcing spouses or divorced ex-spouses.

  8. Burnout in Female Faculty Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Vu, Lisa; Beck, Keli; Moore, Justin B

    2017-04-01

    Despite approximately equal numbers of male and female medical school graduates, women are entering academic medicine at a lower rate than their male colleagues. Of those who do assume a faculty position, female faculty members report higher levels of burnout, often attributable to gender-specific difficulties in clinical expectations and maintenance of work-life balance. Many of these struggles are attributable to issues that are amenable to supportive policies, but these policies are inconsistent in their availability and practice. This commentary presents evidence for inconsistencies in the day-to-day experience of female faculty members, and proposes solutions for the mitigation of the challenges experienced more often by female faculty members with the goal of diversifying and strengthening academic medicine.

  9. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  10. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  11. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1965 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part III contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  12. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 31 December 1964 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 31 December but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  13. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered by Members up to 30 June 1968 in compliance with requests the Agency had made under Article IX,D. Part II contains information about materials which had not been delivered by 30 June 1968 but which had been allocated, in accordance with Article XI.F.I of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project arrangements were in force on that date

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey on energy conservation technology of large plant using ultra high corrosion resistant materials; 2000 nendo chokotaishokusei zairyo wo mochiita ogata plant no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of achieving remarkable energy conservation/resource conservation in large plants, the paper carried out an investigational survey of effects obtained in case of applying amorphous super metal which is the newest corrosion resistant material. Amorphous alloys as an ultra high corrosion resistant material are a peculiar material which shows the extremely excellent corrosion resistance even in much strong acid by containing passivated elements with the needed concentration. The corrosion resistant amorphous alloy applied to large plants need the thickness and diameter of more than several millimeters as a bulk material. The subjects are scaling-up of bulk materials and stabilization of characteristics. Even under the tough dew point corrosion environment of the waste power plant, etc., heat recovery from exhaust gas is made possible by heat exchanger applied with ultra high corrosion resistant materials. Effects of the annual heat recovery from the nationwide refuse incinerators and coal thermal power plants are estimated to be approximately 5.2 million kL toe, that is, to be equal to energy conservation of 6 x a million kW class power plant. (NEDO)

  15. Exploiting deterministic maintenance opportunity windows created by conservative engineering design rules that result in free time locked into large high-speed coupled production lines with finite buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durandt, Casper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conservative engineering design rules for large serial coupled production processes result in machines having locked-in free time (also called ‘critical downtime’ or ‘maintenance opportunity windows’, which cause idle time if not used. Operators are not able to assess a large production process holistically, and so may not be aware that they form the current bottleneck – or that they have free time available due to interruptions elsewhere. A real-time method is developed to accurately calculate and display free time in location and magnitude, and efficiency improvements are demonstrated in large-scale production runs.

  16. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  17. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  18. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  19. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  20. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  2. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  3. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  4. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  5. Old and New World arenaviruses share a highly conserved epitope in the fusion domain of the glycoprotein 2, which is recognized by Lassa virus-specific human CD4+ T-cell clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meulen, Jan ter; Badusche, Marlis; Satoguina, Judith; Strecker, Thomas; Lenz, Oliver; Loeliger, Cornelius; Sakho, Mohamed; Koulemou, Kekoura; Koivogui, Lamine; Hoerauf, Achim

    2004-01-01

    Data from human studies and animal experiments indicate a dominant role of T-cells over antibodies in controlling acute Lassa virus infection and providing immunity to reinfection. Knowledge of the epitopes recognized by T-cells may therefore be crucial to the development of a recombinant Lassa virus vaccine. In order to study human T-cell reactivity to the most conserved structural protein of Lassa virus, the glycoprotein 2 (GP2), seven GP2-specific CD4+ T-cell clones (TCCs) were generated from the lymphocytes of a Lassa antibody positive individual. All TCC displayed high specific proliferation, showed DR-restriction, and produced IFN-γ upon stimulation with recombinant GP2. The epitope of four of the clones was localized to a short stretch of 13 amino acids located in the N-terminal part of GP2 (aa 289-301, numbering according to sequence of GPC). This epitope is conserved in all strains of Lassa virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), shows >90% similarity in all New World arenaviruses of clade B, and overlaps with the proposed fusion domain of GP2. Peptides with conservative aa exchanges, as they naturally occur in the epitope 289-301 of the Old World arenavirus Mopeia and some New World arenaviruses, continued to effectively stimulate the Lassa-GP2-specific T-cell clones tested. The finding of a human T-helper cell epitope, which is highly conserved between Old and New World arenaviruses, is of importance for the design of arenavirus vaccines

  6. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  8. ALA Salary Survey: Personal Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Libraries, 1971

    1971-01-01

    A survey of the members of the American Library Association revealed that the principal salary determinants are academic degree, type of employer and sex. The obvious differences in the earnings of men and women is not only found in the early experience years but any narrowing which does take place in the wage gap seems to take place at the…

  9. Slovenia joins IPPOG as member

    CERN Multimedia

    'marcelloni, claudia

    2018-01-01

    Slovenia became an official member of IPPOG on 19 April 2018. The MOU was signed by the head of Particle Physics Department at Jozef Stefan Institute representing Slovenia participation at IPPOG. Andrej Gorišek, country representative for Slovenia in IPPOG, brought the document to the meeting in Italy where IPPOG chairs signed it, confirming Slovenia membership to the collaboration.

  10. Flame-Resistant Composite Materials For Structural Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Richard K.

    1995-01-01

    Matrix-fiber composite materials developed for structural members occasionally exposed to hot, corrosive gases. Integral ceramic fabric surface layer essential for resistance to flames and chemicals. Endures high temperature, impedes flame from penetrating to interior, inhibits diffusion of oxygen to interior where it degrades matrix resin, resists attack by chemicals, helps resist erosion, and provides additional strength. In original intended application, composite members replace steel structural members of rocket-launching structures that deteriorate under combined influences of atmosphere, spilled propellants, and rocket exhaust. Composites also attractive for other applications in which corrosion- and fire-resistant structural members needed.

  11. Identification and partial characterization of Taastrup virus: a newly identified member species of the Mononegavirales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, J.O.; Lundsgaard, T.; Pedersen, P.A.; Christensen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    We present a 8904-nt sequence of the central part of the RNA genome of a novel virus with a filovirus-like, nonidentical morphology named Taastrup virus (TV) detected in the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus. Sequence analysis identified five potential open reading frames (ORFs) and a complex pattern of homologies to various members of the Mononegavirales suggests a genome organization with the following order of genes: 3'-N-P-M-G-L-5'. Sequence analyses reveal an unusually large glycoprotein (G) containing both potential O-linked (14) and N-linked (9) glycosylation sites--a feature shared with the glycoproteins of Filoviridae and Pneumovirinae, and a nucleoprotein (N) with homology to the nucleoprotein of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the Rhabdoviridae. Highly conserved domains were identified in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) between TV and other viruses within the order of Mononegavirales, and homology was found in particular with members of the Rhabdoviridae. The sequence similarities and the unique filovirus-like but nonidentical morphology unambiguously refer this newly identified virus to the order of Mononegavirales but to no family more than any, to other within the order

  12. Nurse IOM members' contributions to the Institute of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Margaret; Holzemer, William L; Larson, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is the largest health care profession, and Institute of Medicine (IOM) nurse members have the potential to contribute to health policy through IOM activities. We studied reported activities of IOM nurse members. To describe activities of IOM nurse members within the IOM. An e-mail survey was conducted that asked nurse IOM members to assess self-reported IOM activities. Of 57 members, 47 had functioning e-mail addresses, and 33 usable responses were received. The survey consisted of 9 questions dealing with roles and responsibilities undertaken in the previous 5 years. Data analyses were descriptive. The data suggest that nurses have made considerable contributions to the IOM and their participation seems to be as high, or higher, than other disciplines. In an era of health care reform, there is additional opportunity for nurse IOM members to enhance their work in the IOM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fiscal 1998 research report (continued from the fiscal 1997 project). International survey project for rational energy use / Basic survey on efficient energy use in developing countries (Database construction project) / Survey on Japanese energy conservation technologies; 1998 nendo (1997 nendo jigyo kurikoshi) kokusai energy shiyo gorika nado chosa jigyo hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka kiso chosa (database kochiku jigyo) chosa hokokusho. Nippon no sho energy gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    As a part of development of the energy conservation technology database, revision was made on 'Directory of Energy Conservation Technology in Japan' which was published to present the energy conservation technology of the Japanese energy-intensive industry to Asian countries in fiscal 1996. The previous directory was composed of 307 technical items, and 126 items among them were deleted and new 63 items were added through this revision. The technologies with energy conservation effects more than 10% were mainly selected by knowledge of the industrial members of the committee and other specialists. The energy conservation effect widely ranges from low-level one to high-level one, and the number of all the energy conservation technologies is enormous. Consequently, it should be considered that the applicable extent of the energy conservation technologies is dependent on the energy cost or economical situation of Japan and developing countries. (NEDO)

  14. Understanding Heterogeneous Preferences of Cooperative Members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Garcia, P.; Dijk, van G.

    2009-01-01

    We study the heterogeneity in the preference structure of cooperative members. Using conjoint analysis the utility that members attach to intra-organizational and strategic attributes of their cooperative is elicited. Recognizing that members are not homogenous, a concomitant finitemixture

  15. A single amino-acid change in a highly conserved motif of gp41 elicits HIV-1 neutralization and protects against CD4 depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitdemange, Caroline; Achour, Abla; Dispinseri, Stefania; Malet, Isabelle; Sennepin, Alexis; Ho Tsong Fang, Raphaël; Crouzet, Joël; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Debré, Patrice; Vieillard, Vincent

    2013-09-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies against conserved regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein is a major goal of vaccine strategies. We previously identified 3S, a critical conserved motif of gp41 that induces the NKp44L ligand of an activating NK receptor. In vivo, anti-3S antibodies protect against the natural killer (NK) cell-mediated CD4 depletion that occurs without efficient viral neutralization. Specific substitutions within the 3S peptide motif were prepared by directed mutagenesis. Virus production was monitored by measuring the p24 production. Neutralization assays were performed with immune-purified antibodies from immunized mice and a cohort of HIV-infected patients. Expression of NKp44L on CD4(+) T cells and degranulation assay on activating NK cells were both performed by flow cytometry. Here, we show that specific substitutions in the 3S motif reduce viral infection without affecting gp41 production, while decreasing both its capacity to induce NKp44L expression on CD4(+) T cells and its sensitivity to autologous NK cells. Generation of antibodies in mice against the W614 specific position in the 3S motif elicited a capacity to neutralize cross-clade viruses, notable in its magnitude, breadth, and durability. Antibodies against this 3S variant were also detected in sera from some HIV-1-infected patients, demonstrating both neutralization activity and protection against CD4 depletion. These findings suggest that a specific substitution in a 3S-based immunogen might allow the generation of specific antibodies, providing a foundation for a rational vaccine that combine a capacity to neutralize HIV-1 and to protect CD4(+) T cells.

  16. A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P

  17. BVA members wow judges in photo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Earlier this year, BVA ran its inaugural photo competition, giving members the opportunity to showcase the work of the veterinary profession and the animals and wildlife they encounter. Standing out from over 400 high-quality entries, judges picked the images reproduced in this month's BVA News as the winning and highly commended photos. To see all the entries and hear from the winners, visit www.bva.co.uk/vet-photos-2016/. There will be another photo competition in 2017 with more categories to be announced. British Veterinary Association.

  18. Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dobrovolski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.

  19. Community Members Draw the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Freeland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a community-based task force’s redistricting plan in Ventura County, California, positively affected fair representation, social equity issues, community interests, and the electoral process. Examination and evaluation of the organizational strategies and collaborations involved in the task force’s redistricting process find that the Board of Supervisors districts that members of the community drew were successful in improving and maintaining fair representation. This finding is based on comparing supervisorial votes and policies with community members’ votes on state propositions and local measures, in addition to conducting interviews with task force members, politicians, and community activists. This study finds that citizen participation in governmental processes improves overall community health and political participation.

  20. Power reactors in member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    This is the first issue of a periodical computer-based listing of civilian nuclear power reactors in the Member States of the IAEA, presenting the situation as of 1 April 1975. It is intended as a replacement for the Agency's previous annual publication of ''Power and Research Reactors in Member States''. In the new format, the listing contains more information about power reactors in operation, under construction, planned and shut down. As far as possible all the basic design data relating to reactors in operation have been included. In future these data will be included also for other power reactors, so that the publication will serve to give a clear picture of the technical progress achieved. Test and research reactors and critical facilities are no longer listed. Of interest to nuclear power planners, nuclear system designers, nuclear plant operators and interested professional engineers and scientists

  1. New offer for our members

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Evolution 2, your specialist for Outdoor Adventures Be it for a ski lesson, a parachute jump or for a mountain bike descent, come live an unforgettable experience with our outdoor specialists. Benefit from a 10 % discount on all activities: Offer is open to SA members and their family members living in the same household, upon presentation of the membership card. Offer available for all bookings made between 1 June 2018 and 30 May 2019. Offer available on all the Evoltion2 sites. A wide range of summer and winter activities. More information on http://evolution2.com/ Contact and reservation : +33 (0)4.50.02.63.35 management@evolution2.com

  2. Materials Delivered by Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The information given in this document is divided into two parts. In part I the Director General is reporting to the Members of the Agency, under Article IX. G of the Statute, the quantities of materials delivered up to 30 September 1962 by Member States in compliance with requests the Agency has made under Article IX. D. Part II contains information about materials which have not yet been delivered but which have been allocated, in accordance with Article XI. F. 1 of the Statute, to approved Agency projects for which project agreements were in force on 30 September 1962. Reports on subsequent deliveries of materials and revised information about allocated but undelivered materials will be issued from time to time

  3. Communication Among Melanoma Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J; Albrecht, Terrance; Hay, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Harris-Wei, Julie; Meischke, Hendrika; Burke, Wylie

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to improve communication among family members may facilitate information flow about familial risk and preventive health behaviors. This is a secondary analysis of the effects of an interactive website intervention aimed at increasing communication frequency and agreement about health risk among melanoma families. Participants were family units, consisting of one family member with melanoma identified from a previous research study (the case) and an additional first degree relative and a parent of a child 0–17. Family triads were randomized to receive access to the website intervention or to serve as control families. Family communication frequency and agreement about melanoma prevention behaviors and beliefs were measured at baseline and again at one year post randomization. Intervention participants of all three types significantly increased the frequency of communication to their first degree relatives (Parents, siblings, children; range =14–18 percentage points; all pcommunication about cancer risk. PMID:28248624

  4. New support line for members

    Science.gov (United States)

    AGU has recently established a new customer "support line"—solutions@agu.org—as the point of contact on AGU's staff for members and other individual constituents who have not been able to resolve issues or get questions answered promptly or to their satisfaction through customary channels.Over the past year, there have been many changes at AGU. Unfortunately—and perhaps as a result of these changes—communication with members and individual constituents has suffered. Some individuals report, for example, that e-mail messages are not answered to their satisfaction, or in a timely manner. Instructions on AGU's Web site are unclear in some areas. Problems related specifically to the transition to electronic publishing are cropping up.

  5. Towards mobile staff members management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encheva, Sylvia

    2017-07-01

    Todays project management requires a number of abilities which involve finding quick solutions to shortage of staff members with possession of specific qualities. When persons with team responsibilities are under pressure or due to various circumstances are unable to perform exhaustive search in databases, an interactive visualization tool can come in quite handy in finding good solutions unforeseen occurrences. In particular we propose application of selected graphs for facilitating mobile human resource management.

  6. Biological conservation of aquatic inland habitats: these are better days

    OpenAIRE

    Ian J. Winfield

    2013-01-01

    The biodiversity of aquatic inland habitats currently faces unprecedented threats from human activities. At the same time, although much is known about the functioning of freshwater ecosystems the successful transfer of such knowledge to practical conservation has not been universal. Global awareness of aquatic conservation issues is also hampered by the fact that conditions under the water surface are largely hidden from the direct experience of most members of society. Connectivity, or lack...

  7. Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks

    CERN Document Server

    Nimmrichter, Johann; Schreiner, Manfred; LACONA VI Proceedings

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decades, the use of lasers in artworks conservation became an important tool for many conservators, scientists, architects and other experts, who are involved in the care of monuments and artefacts or laser technology. For the first time in 1995 Professor Costas Fotakis brought together restorers and scientists to discuss the potential of lasers in art conservation. Since then the field of "Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks" has gained enormously in importance. Nowadays restorers and laser scientists work close together in order to develop new fields of applications during the last years. Furthermore a large number of national and international research projects have been carried out by conservator-restorers, architects and scientists. In the last 10 years a number of historical and artistic high quality monuments (e.g. St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna) have been cleaned or measured by laser and brought the laser in the spectra of tools which are useful in the sensible field of artworks. ...

  8. Conservation when landowners have bargaining power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennox, Gareth D.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Acs, Szvetlana

    2013-01-01

    agreement. Implicitly assumed in such studies is therefore that those who ``produce'' biodiversity (landowners) receive none of the surplus available from trade. Instead, landowners could use their bargaining power to gain profits from conservation investments. We employ game theory to determine the surplus...... landowners could obtain in negotiations over conservation agreements, and the consequent effects on conservation outcomes, when enrolment decisions are governed by continuous variables (e.g. the proportion of a property to enrol). In addition, we consider how landowner uncertainty regarding the opportunity...... costs of other landowners affects these outcomes. Landowners' ability to gain surplus is highly variable and reflects variation in the substitutability of different properties for achieving a specified conservation objective. The ability of landowners to obtain profits from conservation agreements...

  9. Shielding member for thermonuclear device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masanori

    1997-06-30

    In a thermonuclear device for shielding fast neutrons by shielding members disposed in a shielding vessel (vacuum vessel and structures such as a blanket disposed in the vacuum vessel), the shielding member comprises a large number of shielding wires formed fine and short so as to have elasticity. The shielding wires are sealed in a shielding vessel together with water, and when the width of the shielding vessel is changed, the shielding wires follow after the change of the width while elastically deforming in the shielding vessel, so that great stress and deformation are not formed thereby enabling to improve reliability. In addition, the length, the diameter and the shape of each of the shielding wires can be selected in accordance with the shielding space of the shielding vessel. Even if the shape of the shielding vessel is complicated, the shielding wires can be inserted easily. Accordingly, the filling rate of the shielding members can be changed easily. It can be produced more easily compared with a conventional spherical pebbles. It can be produced more easily than existent spherical shielding pebbles thereby enabling to reduce the production cost. (N.H.)

  10. Assessment of the industrial energy-conservation program. Final report of the Committee on Assessment of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Industrial operations in the United States account for some 37% of the nation's consumptions of energy. It has been estimated that this figure will increase to 50% by 1990 unless appropriate industrial energy conservation measures are adopted. However, such measures are difficult to implement in spite of the potential of various existing, emerging, and advanced technologies that can be applied to the problem. Specifically, the application of many industrial energy conservation measures entails high economic, technological, and institutional risks and uncertainties that constrain industries from adopting such measures. Accordingly, in 1975 the federal government started a program designed to mitigate these risks and uncertainties via government-industry partnership arrangements in the interests of national energy conservation. An important element of this program is the Industrial Energy Conservation Program in the Federal Department of Energy (DOE). In June 1980, DOE asked the National Materials Advisory Board, a unit of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, to form a study committee to assess the effectiveness of the Industrial Energy Conservation Program. The committee concluded that federal support embodied in the DOE program, present and planned, is important to conserving additional industrial energy. However, the committee also concluded that the program needs various improvements in project selection and management and in transfer of results to industry. The committee's findings and recommendations and the results of the deliberation of the committee's three panels, a special report on heat and power, and a report on the visit by four members of the committee to Japan are presented.

  11. Power-law and runaway growth in conserved aggregation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The z-transform technique is used to analyze the Smoluchowski coagulation equation for conserved aggregation systems. A universal power law with the exponent -5/2 appears when a total 'mass' has a certain critical value. Below the threshold, ordinary scaling relations hold and the system exhibits a behavior like usual critical phenomena. Above the threshold, in contrast, the excess amount of mass coagulates into a runaway member, and remaining members follow the power law. Here the runaway growth coexists with the power law. It is argued that these behaviors are observed universally in conserved aggregation processes

  12. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  13. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  15. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  16. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  17. Structure and expression of GSL1 and GSL2 genes encoding gibberellin stimulated-like proteins in diploid and highly heterozygous tetraploid potato reveals their highly conserved and essential status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyalaghan, Sathiyamoorthy; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark W E J; Barrell, Philippa J; Latimer, Julie M; Mohan, Sara; Jones, E Eirian; Conner, Anthony J; Jacobs, Jeanne M E

    2014-01-02

    GSL1 and GSL2, Gibberellin Stimulated-Like proteins (also known as Snakin-1 and Snakin-2), are cysteine-rich peptides from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with antimicrobial properties. Similar peptides in other species have been implicated in diverse biological processes and are hypothesised to play a role in several aspects of plant development, plant responses to biotic or abiotic stress through their participation in hormone crosstalk, and redox homeostasis. To help resolve the biological roles of GSL1 and GSL2 peptides we have undertaken an in depth analysis of the structure and expression of these genes in potato. We have characterised the full length genes for both GSL1 (chromosome 4) and GSL2 (chromosome 1) from diploid and tetraploid potato using the reference genome sequence of potato, coupled with further next generation sequencing of four highly heterozygous tetraploid cultivars. The frequency of SNPs in GSL1 and GSL2 were very low with only one SNP every 67 and 53 nucleotides in exon regions of GSL1 and GSL2, respectively. Analysis of comprehensive RNA-seq data substantiated the role of specific promoter motifs in transcriptional control of gene expression. Expression analysis based on the frequency of next generation sequence reads established that GSL2 was expressed at a higher level than GSL1 in 30 out of 32 tissue and treatment libraries. Furthermore, both the GSL1 and GSL2 genes exhibited constitutive expression that was not up regulated in response to biotic or abiotic stresses, hormone treatments or wounding. Potato transformation with antisense knock-down expression cassettes failed to recover viable plants. The potato GSL1 and GSL2 genes are very highly conserved suggesting they contribute to an important biological function. The known antimicrobial activity of the GSL proteins, coupled with the FPKM analysis from RNA-seq data, implies that both genes contribute to the constitutive defence barriers in potatoes. The lethality of antisense knock

  18. The contribution of the European Society for Soil Conservation (ESSC) to scientific knowledge, education and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dazzi, Carmelo; Fullen, Michael A.; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Rickson, Jane; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Lo Papa, Giuseppe; Peres, Guenola; Sholten, Thomas; Kertész, Adam; Vasenev, Ivan; Dumitru, Mihail; Cornelis, Wim; Rubio, José L.

    2017-04-01

    Air-Soil-Water Interfaces and Environmental Protection) in 2015 and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (Soil: Our Common Future) in 2016. Since its inception, the Society has made significant advances, including developing a strong and growing global network of soil scholars. The ESSC honours major individual contributions to soil conservation through two awards made every four years at its Congresses, namely: • The 'Gerold Richter Award,' awarded to a person who has, over their career, made significant and internationally recognized contributions to the investigation and/or promotion of soil conservation in Europe. • The 'Young Person's Award' is presented to a member of the Society, aged 40 years or less, who over the previous four years has made important contributions to soil conservation in Europe through research, practise, policy-making or another relevant activity. The ESSC provides grants to young members to attend its conferences and promotes the organization of scientific meetings, soil conservation research, and co-operation between numerous institutions and individuals on soil conservation initiatives. The societal challenges that can be addressed through better soil protection, as well as developing new knowledge and scientific approaches to soil protection and sustainable management, mean the ESSC embraces the on-going development, application, review and criticism of highly innovative scientific methods for soil conservation. It is in this context that the ESSC analyses and publicizes the roles and functions of soil in natural and human-modified systems and the functional optimization of soils to ensure sustainable environmental protection.

  19. Strategic conservation planning for the Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Vaughn, Louise B.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Drew, C. Ashton

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern North Carolina/Southeastern Virginia Strategic Habitat Conservation Team (ENCSEVA) is a partnership among local federal agencies and programs with a mission to apply Strategic Habitat Conservation to accomplish priority landscape-level conservation within its geographic region. ENCSEVA seeks to further landscape-scale conservation through collaboration with local partners. To accomplish this mission, ENCSEVA is developing a comprehensive Strategic Habitat Conservation Plan (Plan) to provide guidance for its members, partners, and collaborators by establishing mutual conservation goals, objectives, strategies, and metrics to gauge the success of conservation efforts. Identifying common goals allows the ENCSEVA team to develop strategies that leverage joint resources and are more likely to achieve desired impacts across the landscape. The Plan will also provide an approach for ENCSEVA to meet applied research needs (identify knowledge gaps), foster adaptive management principles, identify conservation priorities, prioritize threats (including potential impacts of climate change), and identify the required capacity to implement strategies to create more resilient landscapes. ENCSEVA seeks to support the overarching goals of the South Atlantic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (SALCC) and to provide scientific and technical support for conservation at landscape scales as well as inform the management of natural resources in response to shifts in climate, habitat fragmentation and loss, and other landscape-level challenges (South Atlantic LCC 2012). The ENCSEVA ecoregion encompasses the northern third of the SALCC geography and offers a unique opportunity to apply landscape conservation at multiple scales through the guidance of local conservation and natural resource management efforts and by reporting metrics that reflect the effectiveness of those efforts (Figure 1). The Environmental Decision Analysis Team, housed within the North Carolina Cooperative

  20. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  1. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  2. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  3. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarik, Ingo, E-mail: kowarik@tu-berlin.de [Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, D 12165 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: > This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. > Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. > Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. > However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. > Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  4. TEACHING IN ONLINE COURSES: Experiences of Instructional Technology Faculty Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur AKDEMIR

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and computer technology have altered the education landscape. Online courses are offered throughout the world. Learning about the experiences of faculty members is important to guide practitioners and administrators. Using qualitative research methodology, this study investigated the experiences of faculty members teaching online courses. A convenience sampling was used to select the instructional technology faculty members to investigate their experiences in online courses. Semi-structured interviews with faculty members teaching online courses were used as the primary source to collect data about the experiences of faculty members in online courses. Results of the study showed that faculty members' interest in using technology and the amount of time available to them for online course design affected the quality of online courses. The findings of this study also indicated that design quality of online courses is affected by the interest of faculty members to use the technology and the time that they can devote to planning, designing, and developing online courses. The poor design of existing online courses, high learning expectations of ndividuals from these courses, and the future of online courses are the concerns of faculty members. Higher education institutions should support workshops and trainings to increase the skills and interests of non-instructional design faculty members to design and develop online courses.

  5. Association of Locoregional Control With High Body Mass Index in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Bedi, Meena; Saeed, Hina; Prior, Phillip; Rein, Lisa E.; Szabo, Aniko; Wilson, J. Frank; Currey, Adam D.; White, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Obesity, as measured by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for distant recurrence and decreased survival in breast cancer. We sought to determine whether the BMI correlated with local recurrence and reduced survival in a cohort of predominantly obese women treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 154 women with early-stage invasive breast cancer and 39 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ underwent prone whole breast irradiation. Cox proportional hazards regression, Kaplan-Meier methods with the log-rank test, and multivariate analysis were used to explore the association of the outcomes with the BMI. Results: The median patient age was 60 years, and the median follow-up duration was 73 months. The median BMI was 33.2 kg/m 2 ; 91% of the patients were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 ) and 69% of the patients were clinically obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ). The BMI was significantly associated with the locoregional recurrence-free interval for patients with invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; P=.047). Also, a trend was seen for increased locoregional recurrence with a higher BMI (P=.09) for patients with invasive disease, which was significant when examining the outcomes with a BMI stratified by the median value of 33.2 kg/m 2 (P=.008). A greater BMI was also significantly associated with decreased distant recurrence-free interval (HR, 1.09; P=.011) and overall survival (HR, 1.09; P=.004); this association remained on multivariate analysis (distant recurrence-free interval, P=.034; overall survival, P=.0007). Conclusions: These data suggest that the BMI might affect the rate of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients. A higher BMI predicted a worse distant recurrence-free interval and overall survival. The present investigation adds to the increasing evidence that BMI is an important prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer treated with breast conservation

  6. Association of Locoregional Control With High Body Mass Index in Women Undergoing Breast Conservation Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergom, Carmen; Kelly, Tracy; Bedi, Meena; Saeed, Hina; Prior, Phillip [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Rein, Lisa E.; Szabo, Aniko [Division of Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Wilson, J. Frank; Currey, Adam D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); White, Julia, E-mail: Julia.White@osumc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, James Cancer Hospital, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: Obesity, as measured by the body mass index (BMI), is a risk factor for distant recurrence and decreased survival in breast cancer. We sought to determine whether the BMI correlated with local recurrence and reduced survival in a cohort of predominantly obese women treated with breast conservation therapy. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2010, 154 women with early-stage invasive breast cancer and 39 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ underwent prone whole breast irradiation. Cox proportional hazards regression, Kaplan-Meier methods with the log-rank test, and multivariate analysis were used to explore the association of the outcomes with the BMI. Results: The median patient age was 60 years, and the median follow-up duration was 73 months. The median BMI was 33.2 kg/m{sup 2}; 91% of the patients were overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m{sup 2}) and 69% of the patients were clinically obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m{sup 2}). The BMI was significantly associated with the locoregional recurrence-free interval for patients with invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; P=.047). Also, a trend was seen for increased locoregional recurrence with a higher BMI (P=.09) for patients with invasive disease, which was significant when examining the outcomes with a BMI stratified by the median value of 33.2 kg/m{sup 2} (P=.008). A greater BMI was also significantly associated with decreased distant recurrence-free interval (HR, 1.09; P=.011) and overall survival (HR, 1.09; P=.004); this association remained on multivariate analysis (distant recurrence-free interval, P=.034; overall survival, P=.0007). Conclusions: These data suggest that the BMI might affect the rate of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients. A higher BMI predicted a worse distant recurrence-free interval and overall survival. The present investigation adds to the increasing evidence that BMI is an important prognostic factor in early-stage breast cancer treated with

  7. Phylogenetic analysis reveals conservation and diversification of micro RNA166 genes among diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Suvakanta; SarkarDas, Shabari; Singh, Archita; Gautam, Vibhav; Kumar, Pramod; Majee, Manoj; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the majority of the microRNAs, mature miR166s are derived from multiple members of MIR166 genes (precursors) and regulate various aspects of plant development by negatively regulating their target genes (Class III HD-ZIP). The evolutionary conservation or functional diversification of miRNA166 family members remains elusive. Here, we show the phylogenetic relationships among MIR166 precursor and mature sequences from three diverse model plant species. Despite strong conservation, some mature miR166 sequences, such as ppt-miR166m, have undergone sequence variation. Critical sequence variation in ppt-miR166m has led to functional diversification, as it targets non-HD-ZIPIII gene transcript (s). MIR166 precursor sequences have diverged in a lineage specific manner, and both precursors and mature osa-miR166i/j are highly conserved. Interestingly, polycistronic MIR166s were present in Physcomitrella and Oryza but not in Arabidopsis. The nature of cis-regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of MIR166 genes indicates their possible contribution to the functional variation observed among miR166 species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction and characterisation of a highly conserved, remote and cAMP responsive enhancer that regulates Msx1 gene expression in cardiac neural crest and outflow tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kerry Ann; Davidson, Scott; Liaros, Angela; Barrow, John; Lear, Marissa; Heine, Danielle; Hoppler, Stefan; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2008-05-15

    Double knockouts of the Msx1 and Msx2 genes in the mouse result in severe cardiac outflow tract malformations similar to those frequently found in newborn infants. Despite the known role of the Msx genes in cardiac formation little is known of the regulatory systems (ligand receptor, signal transduction and protein-DNA interactions) that regulate the tissue-specific expression of the Msx genes in mammals during the formation of the outflow tract. In the present study we have used a combination of multi-species comparative genomics, mouse transgenic analysis and in-situ hybridisation to predict and validate the existence of a remote ultra-conserved enhancer that supports the expression of the Msx1 gene in migrating mouse cardiac neural crest and the outflow tract primordia. Furthermore, culturing of embryonic explants derived from transgenic lines with agonists of the PKC and PKA signal transduction systems demonstrates that this remote enhancer is influenced by PKA but not PKC dependent gene regulatory systems. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of combining comparative genomics and transgenic analyses and provide a platform for the study of the possible roles of Msx gene mis-regulation in the aetiology of congenital heart malformation.

  9. Contributions of conserved residues at the gating interface of glycine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Leung, Ada W Y; Galpin, Jason D

    2011-01-01

    and the in vivo nonsense suppression method to incorporate unnatural amino acids to probe the electrostatic and hydrophobic contributions of five highly conserved side chains near the interface, Glu-53, Phe-145, Asp-148, Phe-187, and Arg-218. Our results suggest a salt bridge between Asp-148 in loop 7 and Arg-218......Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are chloride channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) family. The interface between the ligand binding domain and the transmembrane domain of pLGICs has been proposed to be crucial...

  10. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... published on October 23, 2013. That final rule adopted changes to definitions and energy conservation... revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct high velocity central air... Congress has provided in the AEMTCA for the Secretary of Energy to revise definitions and energy...

  11. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the member...

  12. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  13. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  14. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  15. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, de Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
    under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
    levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
    highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their

  16. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  17. Comparisons of Copy Number, Genomic Structure, and Conserved Motifs for α-Amylase Genes from Barley, Rice, and Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisen Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley is an important crop for the production of malt and beer. However, crops such as rice and wheat are rarely used for malting. α-amylase is the key enzyme that degrades starch during malting. In this study, we compared the genomic properties, gene copies, and conserved promoter motifs of α-amylase genes in barley, rice, and wheat. In all three crops, α-amylase consists of four subfamilies designated amy1, amy2, amy3, and amy4. In wheat and barley, members of amy1 and amy2 genes are localized on chromosomes 6 and 7, respectively. In rice, members of amy1 genes are found on chromosomes 1 and 2, and amy2 genes on chromosome 6. The barley genome has six amy1 members and three amy2 members. The wheat B genome contains four amy1 members and three amy2 members, while the rice genome has three amy1 members and one amy2 member. The B genome has mostly amy1 and amy2 members among the three wheat genomes. Amy1 promoters from all three crop genomes contain a GA-responsive complex consisting of a GA-responsive element (CAATAAA, pyrimidine box (CCTTTT and TATCCAT/C box. This study has shown that amy1 and amy2 from both wheat and barley have similar genomic properties, including exon/intron structures and GA-responsive elements on promoters, but these differ in rice. Like barley, wheat should have sufficient amy activity to degrade starch completely during malting. Other factors, such as high protein with haze issues and the lack of husk causing Lauting difficulty, may limit the use of wheat for brewing.

  18. Analysis of Member State RED implementation. Final Report (Task 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, D.; Alberici, S.; Toop, G. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kretschmer, B. [Institute for European Environmental Policy IEEP, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the way EU Member States have transposed the sustainability and chain of custody requirements for biofuels as laid down in the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) and Fuel Quality Directive (FQD). In the assessment of Member States' implementation, the report mainly focuses on effectiveness and administrative burden. Have Member States transposed the Directives in such a way that compliance with the sustainability criteria can be ensured as effectively as possible? To what extent does the Member States' implementation lead to unnecessary administrative burden for economic operators in the (bio)fuel supply chain? The report focuses specifically on the transposition of the sustainability and chain of custody requirements, not on the target for renewables on transport. This means that for example the double counting provision is not included as part of the scope of this report. This report starts with an introduction covering the implementation of the Renewable Energy (and Fuel Quality) Directive into national legislation, the methodology by which Member States were assessed against effectiveness and administrative burden and the categorisation of Member State's national systems for RED-implementation (Chapter 1). The report continues with a high level description of each Member State system assessed (Chapter 2). Following this, the report includes analysis of the Member States on the effectiveness and administrative burden of a number of key ('major') measures (Chapter 3). The final chapter presents the conclusions and recommendations (Chapter 4)

  19. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  20. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface