WorldWideScience

Sample records for highly conducting plasma

  1. High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.

  2. A cold plasma plume with a highly conductive liquid electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guangliang; Chen Wenxing; Chen Shihua; Yang Size

    2008-01-01

    A cold dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma plume with one highly conductive liquid electrode has been developed to treat thermally sensitive materials, and its preliminary discharging characteristics have been studied. The averaged electron temperature and density is estimated to be 0.6eV and 10 11 /cm 3 , respectively. The length of plasma plume can reach 5 cm with helium gas (He), and the conductivity of the outer electrode affects the plume length obviously. This plasma plume could be touched by bare hand without causing any burning or painful sensation, which may provide potential application for safe aseptic skin care. Moreover, the oxidative particles (e.g., OH, O * , O 3 ) in the downstream oxygen (O2) gas of the plume have been applied to treat the landfill leachate. The results show that the activated O 2 gas can degrade the landfill leachate effectively, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and suspended solid (SS) can be decreased by 52%, 57%, 76% and 92%, respectively. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  3. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaojun; Jiang Song; Liu Kefu

    2014-01-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%. (plasma technology)

  4. Treatment of Wastewater with High Conductivity by Pulsed Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojun; Jiang, Song; Liu, Kefu

    2014-07-01

    A wastewater treatment system was established by means of pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The main advantage of this system is that the wastewater is employed as one of the electrodes for the degradation of rhodamine B, which makes use of the high conductivity and lessenes its negative influence on the discharge process. At the same time, the reactive species like ozone and ultraviolet (UV) light generated by the DBD can be utilized for the treatment of wastewater. The effects of some factors like conductivity, peak pulse voltage, discharge frequency and pH values were investigated. The results show that the combination of these reactive species could enhance the degradation of the dye while the ozone played the most important role in the process. The degradation efficiency was enhanced with the increase of energy supplied. The reduction in the concentration of rhodamine B was much more effective with high solution conductivity; under the highest conductivity condition, the degradation rate could rise to 99%.

  5. Development of high conductive C/C composite tiles for plasma facing armor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Namiki, K.; Tsujimura, S.; Toyoda, M.; Seki, M.; Takatsu, H.

    1991-01-01

    C/C composites with high thermal conductivity were developed in unidirectional, two-dimensional and felt types, and were fabricated as full-scale armor tile. Their thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the plasma-side surface is 250∝550 W/mdeg C, that is comparable to that of pyrolytic graphite. It was shown by heat load tests that the C/C composites have low surface erosion characteristics and high thermal shock resistance. Various kinds of C/C composites were successfully bonded to metal substrate, and their mechanical strength and thermal shock resistance were tested. (orig.)

  6. MHD stabilization of high β mirror plasma partially enclosed by conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.Z.; Kesner, J.; Lane, B.

    1985-04-01

    An MHD formulation is used to study a wall stabilized high β mirror plasma with isotropic pressure. The stabilizing wall extends axially only a part of the distance between the mirror midplane and throat. We model this arrangement using a wall that approaches the plasma surface in the bad curvature region and is distant from the plasma in the good curvature region. A variational method is used to solve the equation in the distant wall region and an iterative method is used to solve the equation when the wall is close to the plasma. A jump condition is used to connect the regions of close and distant plasma-wall proximity. A simple trial function is used to perform the variational calculation (the choice of trial function is substantiated by an exact numerical solution). The results show that for a low mirror ratio case more conducting wall surface is needed for stability than in the high mirror ratio case. This agrees with the physical mechanism of the wall stabilization

  7. Evaluation of electrical conductivity in high-pressure plasmas formed in xenon with sodium as additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, N V [Faculty of Philosophy, Nis (Yugoslavia); Stojilkovic, S M [Faculty of Electronics, Nis (Yugoslavia); Milic, B S [Dept. of Physics and Meteorology, Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1990-02-01

    Results of a numerical evaluation of the electrical conductivity in high-pressure plasmas of intermediate degrees of ionization formed in xenon with, respectively, 1% and 10% of sodium are presented, for temperatures between 2000 K and 20 000 K, and for pressures ranging from the normal atmospheric value p{sub atm} = 0.1 MPa up to 2.5 MPa. The equilibrium plasma composition, necessary for the evaluations, was determined on the ground of the Saha equations combined with the charge conservation relation and the assumption that the pressure remained constant in the course of temperature variations. The ionization energy lowering, required in conjunction with the Saha equations, was obtained with the aid of a modified expression for the plasma Debye radius proposed previously. The electron elastic collisions with the charged particles were described by the Spitzer-Haerm (or, rather, Rutherford) formula, and those with the neutrals were taken into account by a polynomial formula interpolating some selected experimental results. The evaluated electrical conductivity is found to increase with the pressure at fixed temperature (except in the mixture with 10% of sodium, in which case an indistinct maximum at p = 10 p{sub atm} can be seen for 6000 K). This feature is opposite to what is found in pure xenon plasma and, except in the upper part of the temperature range analysed, agrees well with the behaviour of pure alkaline vapours. The numerical values obtained for the electrical conductivity are smaller than the figures resulting from the approximate formulae commonly used in numerical estimates of this transport coefficient in moderately non-ideal plasmas of intermediate degrees of ionization, much in accordance with the trends suggested by the experiment. (orig.).

  8. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-09-02

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10{sup -4} and 2.3x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates.

  9. High rate deposition of transparent conducting oxide thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Ida, Satoshi; Miyata, Toshihiro

    2002-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) thin films have been deposited at a high rate above 370 nm/min by vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) using sintered oxide fragments as the source material. It was found that the deposition rate of TCO films was strongly dependent on the deposition pressure, whereas the obtained electrical properties were relatively independent of the pressure. Resistivities of 5.6x10 -4 and 2.3x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% (with substrate included) in the visible range were obtained in Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) thin films deposited at 100 and 350 deg. C, respectively. In addition, a resistivity as low as 1.4x10 -4 Ω·cm and an average transmittance above 80% were also obtained in indium-tin-oxide (ITO) films deposited at 300 deg. C. The deposited TCO films exhibited uniform distributions of resistivity and thickness on large area substrates

  10. Electrical conductivity of highly ionized dense hydrogen plasma. II. Comparison of experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik; Popovic, M M; Popovic, S S; Radtke, R

    1976-05-11

    The electrical conductivity of a non-ideal hydrogen plasma at p = 10 atm and T = 14,000-21,500 K is derived from electrical measurements and the radial temperature distribution of a pulsed wall-stabilized hydrogen arc using the theoretical temperature dependence of conductivity in an ideal binary collision plasma. From the comparison of theory and experiment, a suggestion to modify the cut-off parameter for charged particle potential from rsub(D) is derived, where rsub(D) is the Debye length. An estimate of Kaklyugin and Norman (Kaklyugin, A.S. and Norman, G.E., 1973 Teplofiz. vysok. temp., vol.11, 238-244) which takes into account both particle correlation and electron localisation in the environment of ions agrees very well with the experimental results over the whole temperature range.

  11. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, Brian -Tinh Van [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (104-106K) and high density plasmas (1022-1024cm-3) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (1013 - 1015W/cm2) and subpicosecond (10-12-10-13s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature (~40eV) super-critical density (~1023/cm3) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical (~1018/cm3) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films.

  12. Time-resolved electron thermal conduction by probing of plasma formation in transparent solids with high power subpicosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, B.T.V.

    1994-02-01

    This dissertation work includes a series of experimental measurements in a search for better understanding of high temperature (10 4 -10 6 K) and high density plasmas (10 22 -10 24 cm -3 ) produced by irradiating a transparent solid target with high intensity (10 13 - 10 15 W/cm 2 ) and subpicosecond (10 -12 -10 -13 s) laser pulses. Experimentally, pump and probe schemes with both frontside (vacuum-plasma side) and backside (plasma-bulk material side) probes are used to excite and interrogate or probe the plasma evolution, thereby providing useful insights into the plasma formation mechanisms. A series of different experiments has been carried out so as to characterize plasma parameters and the importance of various nonlinear processes. Experimental evidence shows that electron thermal conduction is supersonic in a time scale of the first picosecond after laser irradiation, so fast that it was often left unresolved in the past. The experimental results from frontside probing demonstrate that upon irradiation with a strong (pump) laser pulse, a thin high temperature (∼40eV) super-critical density (∼10 23 /cm 3 ) plasma layer is quickly formed at the target surface which in turn becomes strongly reflective and prevents further transmission of the remainder of the laser pulse. In the bulk region behind the surface, it is also found that a large sub-critical (∼10 18 /cm 3 ) plasma is produced by inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption and collisional ionization. The bulk underdense plasma is evidenced by large absorption of the backside probe light. A simple and analytical model, modified from the avalanche model, for plasma evolution in transparent materials is proposed to explain the experimental results. Elimination of the bulk plasma is then experimentally illustrated by using targets overcoated with highly absorptive films

  13. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

    1989-03-01

    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Conductivity of a relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.

    1989-03-01

    The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Dynamical renormalization group approach to transport in ultrarelativistic plasmas: The electrical conductivity in high temperature QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, Daniel; Vega, Hector J. de; Wang Shangyung

    2003-01-01

    The dc electrical conductivity of an ultrarelativistic QED plasma is studied in real time by implementing the dynamical renormalization group. The conductivity is obtained from the real-time dependence of a dissipative kernel closely related to the retarded photon polarization. Pinch singularities in the imaginary part of the polarization are manifest as secular terms that grow in time in the perturbative expansion of this kernel. The leading secular terms are studied explicitly and it is shown that they are insensitive to the anomalous damping of hard fermions as a result of a cancellation between self-energy and vertex corrections. The resummation of the secular terms via the dynamical renormalization group leads directly to a renormalization group equation in real time, which is the Boltzmann equation for the (gauge invariant) fermion distribution function. A direct correspondence between the perturbative expansion and the linearized Boltzmann equation is established, allowing a direct identification of the self-energy and vertex contributions to the collision term. We obtain a Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space that describes the dynamics of the departure from equilibrium to leading logarithmic order in the coupling. This equation determines that the transport time scale is given by t tr =24 π/e 4 T ln(1/e). The solution of the Fokker-Planck equation approaches asymptotically the steady-state solution as ∼e -t/(4.038...t tr ) . The steady-state solution leads to the conductivity σ=15.698 T/e 2 ln(1/e) to leading logarithmic order. We discuss the contributions beyond leading logarithms as well as beyond the Boltzmann equation. The dynamical renormalization group provides a link between linear response in quantum field theory and kinetic theory

  16. ICRF Faraday shield plasma sheath models: Low and high conductivity limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whealton, J.H.; Ryan, P.M.; Raridon, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Using a 2-D nonlinear formulation which explicitly considers the plasma edge near a Faraday shield in a self consistent manner, progress is indicated in the modeling of the ion motion for a Faraday shield concept and model suggested by Perkins. Several models are considered which may provide significant insight into the impurities generation for ICRH antennas. 6 refs., 8 figs

  17. Development of unidirectional C/C composite with high thermal conductivity and its application to plasma facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, Kimihiro; Onozuka, Masanori; Ikeda, Takeshi; Akiba, Masato.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional C/C composite named 'MFC-1' with high conductivity was developed, and full-scale armor tiles were fabricated. The thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the plasma-side surface is more than 300-500 W/m·degC, which is higher than those of other C/C composites ever made, even superior to that of pyrolytic carbon. It was shown by high heat load tests done using an electron beam test facility that the unidirectional C/C composite was very resistant against both surface erosion as well as severe thermal shock. The 'MFC-1' was successfully brazed to copper substrate, and its high thermal shock resistance was observed in heat load tests (20 MW/m 2 , 3s, not cooled). A functionally gradient material has been also developed as compliant layer for the MFC-1 bonded to copper. (author)

  18. Development of unidirectional C/C composite with high thermal conductivity and its application to plasma facing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, Kimihiro (Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)); Onozuka, Masanori; Ikeda, Takeshi; Akiba, Masato

    1994-03-01

    Unidirectional C/C composite named 'MFC-1' with high conductivity was developed, and full-scale armor tiles were fabricated. The thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the plasma-side surface is more than 300-500 W/m[center dot]degC, which is higher than those of other C/C composites ever made, even superior to that of pyrolytic carbon. It was shown by high heat load tests done using an electron beam test facility that the unidirectional C/C composite was very resistant against both surface erosion as well as severe thermal shock. The 'MFC-1' was successfully brazed to copper substrate, and its high thermal shock resistance was observed in heat load tests (20 MW/m[sup 2], 3s, not cooled). A functionally gradient material has been also developed as compliant layer for the MFC-1 bonded to copper. (author).

  19. Dynamo generation of a magnetic field by decaying Lehnert waves in a highly conducting plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizerski, Krzysztof A.; Moffatt, H. K.

    2018-03-01

    Random waves in a uniformly rotating plasma in the presence of a locally uniform seed magnetic field and subject to weak kinematic viscosity ? and resistivity ? are considered. These "Lehnert" waves may have either positive or negative helicity, and it is supposed that waves of a single sign of helicity are preferentially excited by a symmetry-breaking mechanism. A mean electromotive force proportional to ? is derived, demonstrating the conflicting effects of the two diffusive processes. Attention is then focussed on the situation ?, relevant to conditions in the universe before and during galaxy formation. An ?-effect, axisymmetric about the rotation vector, is derived, decaying on a time-scale proportional to ?; this amplifies a large-scale seed magnetic field to a level independent of ?, this field being subsequently steady and having the character of a "fossil field". Subsequent evolution of this fossil field is briefly discussed.

  20. Electron conductivity model for dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.T.; More, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    An electron conductivity model for dense plasmas is described which gives a consistent and complete set of transport coefficients including not only electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity, but also thermoelectric power, and Hall, Nernst, Ettinghausen, and Leduc--Righi coefficients. The model is useful for simulating plasma experiments with strong magnetic fields. The coefficients apply over a wide range of plasma temperature and density and are expressed in a computationally simple form. Different formulas are used for the electron relaxation time in plasma, liquid, and solid phases. Comparisons with recent calculations and available experimental measurement show the model gives results which are sufficiently accurate for many practical applications

  1. Conductivity of rf-heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-05-01

    The electron velocity distribution of rf-heated plasma may be so far from Maxwellian that Spitzer conductivity no longer holds. A new conductivity for such plasmas is derived and the result can be put in a remarkably general form. The new expression should be of great practical value in examining schemes for current ramp-up in tokamaks by means of lower-hybrid or other waves

  2. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  4. Measurement of temperature, electric conductivity and density of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevova, I.; Nefedov, A.; Oberman, F.; Urinson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Three instruments are briefly described developed by the High Temperatures Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences for the measurement of plasma temperature, electric conductivity and density. The temperature measuring instrument uses as a standard a light source whose temperature may significantly differ from plasma temperature because three light fluxes are compared, namely the flux emitted by the plasma, the flux emitted directly by the standard source, and the flux emitted by the standard source after passage through the plasma. The results of measurement are computer processed. Electric conductivity is measured using a coil placed in a probe which is automatically extended for a time of maximally 0.3 seconds into the plasma stream. The equipment for measuring plasma density consists of a special single-channel monochromator, a temperature gauge, a plasma pressure gauge, and of a computer for processing the results of measurement. (Ha)

  5. High-frequency plasma oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhiezer, A I; Fainberg, Y B; Sitenko, A G; Stepanov, K; Kurilko, V; Gorbatenko, M; Kirochkin, U [Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (USSR)

    1958-07-01

    It is well known that the electrical conductivity of a plasma, the ion-electron equilibration time, and the time required to heat the electron component of the plasma all increase greatly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the usual method of Joule heating a plasma may be difficult to apply in the region of high temperatures (> 10{sup 6}K), especially if the plasma current alone, without any additional measures, is used to generate magnetic fields for the confinement of the plasma. Therefore, it is of interest to study methods of plasma heating that do not directly use Joule heat, especially methods by which energy is directly supplied to the ion component during the time between collisions. Some of these methods make use of ionic resonance as well as other resonance phenomena which can occur in plasma in an external magnetic field. This paper deals with certain aspects of the theory of high-frequency plasma oscillations.

  6. Electrodynamic forces and plasma conductivity inside the current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Frank, A.G.; Markov, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    The process of accumulation and explosive release of magnetic energy was studied in a current sheet of plasma of a high-current linear discharge. The distribution of current density and of electrodynamic forces were measured and the time evolution of these quantities was determined. The evolution of the plasma conductivity was also obtained. The measured and calculated electrodynamic forces may explain the plasma acceleration up to the velocities about 3x10 4 m/s only near the sheet edges. (D.Gy.)

  7. Temporal evolution of the after glow plasma conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surmeian, A.; Diplasu, C.; Musa, G.; Popescu, I-Iovitz

    2001-01-01

    Due to their exhibited advantages over continuous and RF glows, the pulsed discharges gain more attention in a wide variety of application fields, like film deposition, plasma chemistry, semiconductor processing, etc. For this reason, fast time-resolved experimental methods need to be developed in order to control the main parameters of the high voltage pulsed plasmas. It is well known that electric probes present major advantages over many other diagnostic techniques for studying plasma parameters, but the use of these probes in the high voltage pulsed plasmas encounters enormous difficulties. One of them is the issue of galvanic insulation of the probe during the high voltage pulse. Also, the plasma potential may change rapidly, inducing spurious currents in the probe. Other problems could arise in the afterglow when the probe can exert great influence over the plasma potential by the current that it draws from the plasma. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the determination of the electrical conductivity of the afterglow of the high voltage pulsed discharges, using a low frequency RF plane probe. The application of a small low frequency signal to the plane probe could successfully eliminate all the disadvantages mentioned above. (authors)

  8. Unexpected high plasma cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan F B; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that more than 8% of patients examined for vitamin B12 deficiency unexpectedly have increased plasma levels of the vitamin, but so far there are no guidelines for the clinical interpretation of such findings. In this review, we summarise known associations between high plasma...... cobalamin binding proteins, transcobalamin and haptocorrin. Based on current knowledge, we suggest a strategy for the clinical interpretation of unexpected high plasma cobalamin. Since a number of the associated diseases are critical and life-threatening, the strategy promotes the concept of 'think...

  9. Dual regulation of root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporins by plant nitrate accumulation and high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Tillard, Pascal; Gojon, Alain; Maurel, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The water status and mineral nutrition of plants critically determine their growth and development. Nitrate (NO3(-)), the primary nitrogen source of higher plants, is known to impact the water transport capacity of roots (root hydraulic conductivity, Lpr). To explore the effects and mode of action of NO3(-) on Lpr, we used an extended set of NO3(-) transport (nrt1.1, nrt1.2, nrt1.5 and nrt2.1), signaling (nrt1.1 and nrt2.1) and metabolism (nia) mutants in Arabidopsis, grown under various NO3(-) conditions. First, a strong positive relationship between Lpr and NO3(-) accumulation, in shoots rather than in roots, was revealed. Secondly, a specific 30% reduction of Lpr in nrt2.1 plants unraveled a major role for the high-affinity NO3(-) transporter NRT2.1 in increasing Lpr These results indicate that NO3(-)signaling rather than nitrogen assimilation products governs Lpr in Arabidopsis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to investigate the effects of NO3(-) availability on plasma membrane aquaporin (plasma membrane intrinsic protein; PIP) expression. Whereas PIP regulation mostly occurs at the post-translational level in wild-type plants, a regulation of PIPs at both the transcriptional and translational levels was uncovered in nrt2.1 plants. In conclusion, this work reveals that control of Arabidopsis Lpr and PIP functions by NO3(-) involves novel shoot to root signaling and NRT2.1-dependent functions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  11. High Thermal Conductivity Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bootle, John

    1999-01-01

    ... applications and space based radiators. The advantage of this material compared to competing materials that it can be used to fabricate high strength, high thermal conductivity, relatively thin structures less than 0.050" thick...

  12. Dense high-temperature plasma transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giniyatova, Sh.G.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the transport processes in dense high-temperature semiclassical plasma are studied on the base of the kinetic equation, where the semiclassical potential was used, in its collision integral. The coefficient of plasma electrical conductivity, viscosity and thermal conductivity were received. There were compared with the other authors' results. The Grad's method was used obtaining of viscosity and thermal coefficients. (author)

  13. Density measurements of microsecond-conduction-time POS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.; Goodrich, P.J.; Weber, B.V.; Commisso, R.J.; Grossmann, J.M.; Kellogg, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the electron density in a coaxial microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch during switch operation are described. Current conduction is observed to cause a radial redistribution of the switch plasma. A local reduction in axial line density of more than an order of magnitude occurs by the time opening begins. This reduction, and the scaling of conduction current with plasma density, indicate that current conduction in this experiment is limited by hydrodynamic effects. It is hypothesized that the density reduction allows the switch to open by an erosion mechanism. Initial numerical modeling efforts have reproduced the principal observed results. A model that predicts accurately the conduction current is presented

  14. Single-shot optical conductivity measurement of dense aluminum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churina, I. V.; Cho, B.-I.; Bernstein, A.; Stoker, D. S.; Dalton, A.; Symes, D. R.; Ditmire, T.

    2009-01-01

    The optical conductivity of a dense femtosecond laser-heated aluminum plasma heated to 0.1-1.5 eV was measured using frequency-domain interferometry with chirped pulses, permitting simultaneous observation of optical probe reflectivity and probe pulse phase shift. Coupled with published models of bound-electron contributions to the conductivity, these two independent experimental data yielded a direct measurement of both real and imaginary components of the plasma conductivity.

  15. Experiments on microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Coleman, M.; Miller, A.R.; Parks, D.; Robertson, K.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a series of experiments carried out on ACE 2 and ACE 4 to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the conduction and opening phases on plasma opening switches in a radial geometry with conduction times on the order of a microsecond. The results indicate both conduction and opening physics are similar to that observed on lower current systems in a coaxial geometry

  16. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  17. Directional rf probe for measurement of conductivity of flowing plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Chakravarthy, D.P.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    An electrodeless immersible rf probe for measurement of plasma conductivity in the range 0.01 to 100 mho/m has been designed and fabricated. The probe, with an overall diameter of 11 mm, employs unidirectional electromagnetic field lines which reduce the inaccuracies caused by insertion of the probe in a flowing plasma. In the range studied the probe output shows a linear relationship with the conductivity of the medium. Such probes are of interest in the study of MHD and reentry plasmas

  18. High-temperature plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.

    1988-03-01

    Both magnetic and inertial confinement research are entering the plasma parameter range of fusion reactor interest. This paper reviews the individual and common technical problems of these two approaches to the generation of thermonuclear plasmas, and describes some related applications of high-temperature plasma physics

  19. Containment of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.W.; Ferguson, H.R.P.; Fletcher, H. Jr.; Gardner, J.; Harrison, B.K.; Larsen, K.M.

    1973-01-01

    Apparatus is described for confining a high temperature plasma which comprises: 1) envelope means shaped to form a toroidal hollow chamber containing a plasma, 2) magnetic field line generating means for confining the plasma in a smooth toroidal shape without cusps. (R.L.)

  20. Kubo conductivity of a strongly magnetized two-dimensional plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1971-01-01

    The Kubo formula is used to evaluate the bulk electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding-center plasma in a strong dc magnetic field. The particles interact only electrostatically. An ?anomalous' electrical conductivity is derived for this system, which parallels a recent result of Taylor and McNamara for the coefficient of spatial diffusion.

  1. Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)

  2. Longitudinal and radial MHD linear induction accelerator with hot conducting plasma core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denno, K.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual design of linear induction accelerator is presented using for the core continuum a highly conductive plasma with sustained pumping velocity. Karlovitz criterion of boundary theory is employed in the process of design

  3. The pressure, internal energy, and conductivity of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, E.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Department of Computational Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    The pressure, internal energy, and conductivity of a tantalum plasma were calculated at the temperatures 10-100 kK and densities less than 3 g/cm{sup 3}. The plasma composition, pressure, and internal energy were obtained by means of the corresponding system of the coupled mass action law equations. We have considered atom ionization up to +3. The conductivity was calculated within the relaxation time approximation. Comparisons of our results with available measurements and calculation data show good agreement in the area of correct applicability of the present model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. A self-similar model for conduction in the plasma erosion opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Grossmann, J.M.; Ottinger, P.F.; Colombant, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The conduction phase of the plasma erosion opening switch (PEOS) is characterized by combining a 1-D fluid model for plasma hydrodynamics, Maxwell's equations, and a 2-D electron-orbit analysis. A self-similar approximation for the plasma and field variables permits analytic expressions for their space and time variations to be derived. It is shown that a combination of axial MHD compression and magnetic insulation of high-energy electrons emitted from the switch cathode can control the character of switch conduction. The analysis highlights the need to include additional phenomena for accurate fluid modeling of PEOS conduction

  5. Microscopic electrical conductivity of nanodiamonds after thermal and plasma treatments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jan; Kozak, Halyna; Stehlík, Štěpán; Švrček, V.; Pichot, V.; Spitzer, D.; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 16 (2016), s. 1105-1111 ISSN 2059-8521 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01809S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * conductive AFM * diamond * nanoparticles * plasma Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  6. Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukhovitskii, Dmitry I.; Petrov, Oleg F.; Hyde, Truell W.; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Dropmann, Michael; Matthews, Lorin S.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane-air mixture and the CeO2 particles injected into it. A good correlation between the theory and experimental data points to the adequacy of our approach. Our main conclusion is that a level of the electrical conductivity due to the thermal ionization of the dust particles is sufficiently high to compete with that of the potassium-doped plasmas.

  7. Calibration-free electrical conductivity measurements for highly conductive slags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, Christopher J.; Gao, Huang; Pal, Uday B.; Van den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David K.

    2000-01-01

    This research involves the measurement of the electrical conductivity (K) for the ESR (electroslag remelting) slag (60 wt.% CaF 2 - 20 wt.% CaO - 20 wt.% Al 2 O 3 ) used in the decontamination of radioactive stainless steel. The electrical conductivity is measured with an improved high-accuracy-height-differential technique that requires no calibration. This method consists of making continuous AC impedance measurements over several successive depth increments of the coaxial cylindrical electrodes in the ESR slag. The electrical conductivity is then calculated from the slope of the plot of inverse impedance versus the depth of the electrodes in the slag. The improvements on the existing technique include an increased electrochemical cell geometry and the capability of measuring high precision depth increments and the associated impedances. These improvements allow this technique to be used for measuring the electrical conductivity of highly conductive slags such as the ESR slag. The volatilization rate and the volatile species of the ESR slag measured through thermogravimetric (TG) and mass spectroscopy analysis, respectively, reveal that the ESR slag composition essentially remains the same throughout the electrical conductivity experiments

  8. CONFINEMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, H.R.

    1963-05-01

    The confinement of a high temperature plasma in a stellarator in which the magnetic confinement has tended to shift the plasma from the center of the curved, U-shaped end loops is described. Magnetic means are provided for counteracting this tendency of the plasma to be shifted away from the center of the end loops, and in one embodiment this magnetic means is a longitudinally extending magnetic field such as is provided by two sets of parallel conductors bent to follow the U-shaped curvature of the end loops and energized oppositely on the inside and outside of this curvature. (AEC)

  9. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  10. High current plasma electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiksel, G.; Almagri, A.F.; Craig, D.

    1995-07-01

    A high current plasma electron emitter based on a miniature plasma source has been developed. The emitting plasma is created by a pulsed high current gas discharge. The electron emission current is 1 kA at 300 V at the pulse duration of 10 ms. The prototype injector described in this paper will be used for a 20 kA electrostatic current injection experiment in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch. The source will be replicated in order to attain this total current requirement. The source has a simple design and has proven very reliable in operation. A high emission current, small size (3.7 cm in diameter), and low impurity generation make the source suitable for a variety of fusion and technological applications

  11. High temperature divertor plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi.

    1991-02-01

    High temperature divertor plasma operation has been proposed, which is expected to enhance the core energy confinement and eliminates the heat removal problem. In this approach, the heat flux is guided through divertor channel to a remote area with a large target surface, resulting in low heat load on the target plate. This allows pumping of the particles escaping from the core and hence maintaining of the high divertor temperature, which is comparable to the core temperature. The energy confinement is then determined by the diffusion coefficient of the core plasma, which has been observed to be much lower than the thermal diffusivity. (author)

  12. High conductivity Be-Cu alloys for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilley, E.A.; Adachi, Takao; Ishibashi, Yoshiki

    1995-01-01

    The optimum material has not yet been identified. This will result in heat from plasma to the first wall and divertor. That is, because of cracks and melting by thermal power and shock. Today, it is considered to be some kinds of copper, alloys, however, for using, it must have high conductivity. And it is also needed another property, for example, high strength and so on. We have developed some new beryllium copper alloys with high conductivity, high strength, and high endurance. Therefore, we are introducing these new alloys as suitable materials for the heat sink in fusion reactors

  13. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  14. Characterization and Conduction Mechanism of Highly Conductive Vanadate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuaki Nishida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent studies of highly conductive barium iron vanadate glass with a composition of 20 BaO ∙ 10 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 (in mol %. Isothermal annealing of the vanadate glass for several ten minutes at a given temperature, higher than glass transition temperature or crystallization temperature, caused an increase in σ. Substitution of CuI (3d10, ZnII (3d10 and CuII (3d9 for FeIII (3d5 was investigated to elucidate the effect of electron configuration on the conductivity (σ. A marked decrease in the activation energy of conduction (Ea was also observed after the annealing. Values of Ea were correlated to the energy gap between the donor level and the conduction band (CB in the n-type semiconductor model. Isothermal annealing of ZnII-substituted vanadate glass (20 BaO ∙ 5 ZnO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 at 450 °C for 30 min showed an increase in σ from 2.5 × 10–6 to 2.1 × 10–1 S cm–1, which was one order of magnitude larger than that of non-substituted vanadate glass (3.4 × 10–2 S cm–1. Under the same annealing condition, σ’s of 2.0 × 10–1 and 3.2 × 10–1 S cm–1 were observed for 20 BaO ∙ 5 Cu2O ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 and 20 BaO ∙ 5 CuO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 glasses, respectively. These results demonstrate an increase in the carrier (electron density in the CB, primarily composed of anti-bonding 4s-orbitals.

  15. Effects of plasma jet parameters, ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation on stagnation conditions of an imploding plasma liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, Milos

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal expansion rates and leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ≈ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear

  16. Improved GAMMA 10 tandem mirror confinement in high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.; Cho, T.; Higaki, H.; Hirata, M.; Hojo, H.; Ichimura, M.; Ishii, K.; Ishimoto, Y.; Itakura, A.; Katanuma, I.; Kohagura, J.; Minami, R.; Nakashima, Y.; Numakura, T.; Saito, T.; Saosaki, S.; Takemura, Y.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2003-01-01

    GAMMA 10 experiments have advanced in high density experiments after the last IAEA fusion energy conference in 2000 where we reported the production of the high density plasma through use of ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency and neutral beam injection in the anchor cells. However, the diamagnetic signal of the plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating was applied for the potential formation. Recently a high density plasma has been obtained without degradation of the diamagnetic signal and with much improved reproducibility than before. The high density plasma was attained through adjustment of the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions. The potential confinement of the plasma has been extensively studied. Dependences of the ion confinement time, ion-energy confinement time and plasma confining potential on plasma density were obtained for the first time in the high density region up to a density of 4x10 18 m -3 . (author)

  17. Potential of mean force for electrical conductivity of dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The electrical conductivity in dense plasmas can be calculated with the relaxation-time approximation provided that the interaction potential between the scattering electron and the ion is known. To date there has been considerable uncertainty as to the best way to define this interaction potential so that it correctly includes the effects of ionic structure, screening by electrons and partial ionization. Current approximations lead to significantly different results with varying levels of agreement when compared to bench-mark calculations and experiments. We present a new way to define this potential, drawing on ideas from classical fluid theory to define a potential of mean force. This new potential results in significantly improved agreement with experiments and bench-mark calculations, and includes all the aforementioned physics self-consistently.

  18. The electrical conductivity of a weakly non-ideal, dense plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosado, R.J.; Leclair, J.; Schram, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The electrical conductance of a non-ideal plasma was measured and compared with Spitzer's formula for ideal plasmas and a correction to this formula proposed by Rovinskii. The measured conductance proved to agree better with the Spitzer result

  19. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results

  20. Thermal conductivity of highly porous mullite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barea, Rafael; Osendi, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Jose M.F.; Miranzo, Pilar

    2005-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of highly porous mullite materials (35-60 vol.% porosity) has been measured up to 1000 deg C by the laser flash method. These materials were fabricated by a direct consolidation method based on the swelling properties of starch granules in concentrated aqueous suspensions and showed mainly spherical shaped pores of about 30 μm in diameter. From the point of view of heat conduction, they behave as a bi-phase material of voids dispersed in the continuous mullite matrix. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity for the different porosities was modeled by a simple equation that considers the contribution to heat conduction of the mullite matrix and the gas inside the pores, as well as the radiation. The thermal conductivity of the matrix was taken from the measurements done in a dense mullite while the conductivity in the voids was assumed to be that of the testing atmosphere

  1. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena  (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  2. Very high plasma switches. Basic plasma physics and switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, H.J.; Roche, M.; Buzzi, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of some high power switches recently developed for very high power technology is made with a special attention to the aspects of plasma physics involved in the mechanisms, which determine the limits of the possible switching parameters

  3. Plasma influence on throat conductance of the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardtke, A.; Finken, K.H.; Reiter, D.; Dippel, K.H.; Goebel, D.M.; McGrath, R.T.; Sagara, A.

    1989-01-01

    On the TEXTOR pump limiter ALT-I conductance measurements for the backstreaming of gas from the pump limiter vessel through the pump limiter entrance have been performed. In these experiments neutral gas has been injected into the pump limiter plenum during a short pulse. The influence of the instreaming plasma results in a reduction of the conductance of the outstreaming gas. For helium the conductance is reduced to about 40% of the molecular conductance when a plasma flux of 0.8 A/cm 2 (T e =T i =11 eV) is streaming into the pump limiter throat. The reduction of the conductance for backstreaming hydrogen and deuterium under the same plasma conditions is smaller; about 70% of the molecular conductance is obtained. This reduction can be explained by an increased recycling of ions which have been produced in the throat back to the neutralizer plate. The experimental results can be reproduced by Monte Carlo neutral transport code calculations if the recycling coefficient is about 0.85 for hydrogen and deuterium and about 0.95 for helium ions. Processes causing these high recycling coefficients are discussed and their influence is estimated. (orig.)

  4. Turbulence of high-beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, V.I.; Chirkov, A.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Principals of numerical modelling of turbulence in high-beta plasma (β > 0.1) are discussed. Creation of transport model for axial symmetric nonuniform confining magnetic field is considered. Numerical model of plasma turbulence in FRC is presented. The physical and mathematical models are formulated from nonuniform axial symmetric high-beta plasma. It is shown that influence of waves arise under this plasma conditions lead to chaotic motion of charged particles across magnetic field. (author)

  5. Thermal conductivity of high purity vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity of four high-purity vanadium samples were measured over the temperature range 5 to 300 0 K. The highest purity sample had a resistance ratio (rho 273 /rho 4 . 2 ) of 1524. The highest purity sample had a thermal conductivity maximum of 920 W/mK at 9 0 K and had a thermal conductivity of 35 W/mK at room temperature. At low temperatures, the thermal resistivity was limited by the scattering of electrons by impurities and phonons. The thermal resistivity of vanadium departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures. The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of high purity vanadium showed no anomalous behavior above 130 0 K. The intrinsic electrical resistivity at low temperatures was due primarily to interband scattering of electrons. The Seebeck coefficient was positive from 10 to 240 0 K and had a maximum which was dependent upon sample purity

  6. Effects of a conducting E layer on classical F region cross-field plasma diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vickrey, J.F.; Kelley, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of cross-field plasma diffusion in the F region ionosphere is significantly increased when the magnetic field lines thread a highly conducting E region below. This reduces the lifetime of small-scale F region electron density irregularities in the polar ionosphere where the presence of a highly conducting E region is comonplace. A simple mmodel is developed to describe the effects of a conducting E layer on classical F region plasma diffusion. In the absence of an E region, the difference in ion and electron diffusion rates leads to a charge separation and, hence, to an electrostatic field that retards ion diffusion. When the highly conducting magnetic field lines are tied to a conducting E region, however, electrons can flow along B to reduce the ambipolar diffusion electric field, and ions can proceed perpendicular to B at a rate approaching their own (higher) diffusion velocity. It is shown that the enhanced total diffusion rate that results depends strongly on the height of the F layer and on the ratio of the E to F region Pedersen conductivities

  7. High H⁻ ionic conductivity in barium hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H(-)) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm(-1) at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  8. High-vacuum plasma pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorodnov, A.M.; Minajchev, V.E.; Miroshkin, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    The action of an electric-arc high-vacuum pump intended for evacuating the volumes in which the operation processes are followed by a high gas evolution is considered. The operation of the pump is based on the principle of controlling the getter feed according to the gas load and effect of plasma sorbtion pumping. The pump performances are given. The starting pressure is about 5 Pa, the limiting residual pressure is about 5x10 -6 Pa, the pumping out rate of nitrogen in the pressure range 5x10 -5 -5x10 -3 Pa accounts for about 4000 l/s, the power consumption comes to 6 kW. Analyzing the results of the test operation of the pump, it has been concluded that its principal advantages are the high starting pressure, controlled getter feed rate and possibility of pumping out the gases which are usually pumped out with difficulty. The operation reliability of the pump is defined mainly by reliable operation of the ignition system of the vacuum arc [ru

  9. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena 
    (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  10. Highly Conductive Multifunctional Graphene Polycarbonate Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonessi, Mitra; Gaier, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Graphene nanosheet bisphenol A polycarbonate nanocomposites (0.027 2.2 vol %) prepared by both emulsion mixing and solution blending methods, followed by compression molding at 287 C, exhibited dc electrical percolation threshold of approx.0.14 and approx.0.38 vol %, respectively. The conductivities of 2.2 vol % graphene nanocomposites were 0.512 and 0.226 S/cm for emulsion and solution mixing. The 1.1 and 2.2 vol % graphene nanocomposites exhibited frequency-independent behavior. Inherent conductivity, extremely high aspect ratio, and nanostructure directed assembly of the graphene using PC nanospheres are the main factors for excellent electrical properties of the nanocomposites. Dynamic tensile moduli of nanocomposites increased with increasing graphene in the nanocomposite. The glass transition temperatures were decreased with increasing graphene for the emulsion series. High-resolution electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) showed isolated graphene with no connectivity path for insulating nanocomposites and connected nanoparticles for the conductive nanocomposites. A stacked disk model was used to obtain the average particle radius, average number of graphene layers per stack, and stack spacing by simulation of the experimental SANS data. Morphology studies indicated the presence of well-dispersed graphene and small graphene stacking with infusion of polycarbonate within the stacks.

  11. Atomic processes in high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Y.

    1990-03-01

    Much theoretical and experimental efforts have been expended in recent years to study those atomic processes which are specially relevant to understanding high temperature laboratory plasmas. For magnetically confined fusion plasmas, the temperature range of interest spans from the hundreds of eV at plasma edges to 10 keV at the center of the plasma, where most of the impurity ions are nearly fully ionized. These highly stripped ions interact strongly with electrons in the plasma, leading to further excitation and ionization of the ions, as well as electron capture. Radiations are emitted during these processes, which easily escape to plasma container walls, thus cooling the plasma. One of the dominant modes of radiation emission has been identified with dielectronic recombination. This paper reviews this work

  12. Robe Development for Electrical Conductivity Analysis in an Electron Gun Produced Helium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Bitteker, Leo; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The use of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power conversion systems, potentially coupled with a fission power source, is currently being investigated as a driver for an advanced propulsion system, such as a plasma thruster. The efficiency of a MHD generator is strongly dependent on the electrical conductivity of the fluid that passes through the generator; power density increases as fluid conductivity increases. Although traditional MHD flows depend on thermal ionization to enhance the electrical conductivity, ionization due to nuclear interactions may achieve a comparable or improved conductivity enhancement while avoiding many of the limitations inherent to thermal ionization. Calculations suggest that nuclear-enhanced electrical conductivity increases as the neutron flux increases; conductivity of pure He-3 greater than 10 mho/m may be achievable if exposed to a flux greater than 10(exp 12) neutrons/cm2/s.) However, this remains to be demonstrated experimentally. An experimental facility has been constructed at the Propulsion Research Center at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, using helium as the test fluid. High energy electrons will be used to simulate the effects of neutron-induced ionization of helium gas to produce a plasma. These experiments will be focused on diagnosis of the plasma in a virtually static system; results will be applied to future tests with a MHD system. Initial experiments will utilize a 50 keV electron gun that can operate at up to a current of 200 micro A. Spreading the electron beam over a four inch diameter window results in an electron flux of 1.5x 10(exp 13) e/sq cm/s. The equivalent neutron flux that would produce the same ionization fraction in helium is 1x10(exp 12) n/sq cm/s. Experiments will simulate the neutron generated plasma modeled by Bitteker, which takes into account the products of thermal neutron absorption in He-3, and includes various ion species in estimating the conductivity of the resulting plasma. Several

  13. Plasma Diagnostics in High Density Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltrini, A. M.; Moshkalyov, S.; Monteiro, M. J. R.; Machida, M.; Kostryukov, A.; Besseler, E.; Biasotto, C.; Diniz, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Langmuir electric probes and optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics were developed for applications in high density plasmas. These diagnostics were employed in two plasma sources: an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma and an RF driven inductively coupled plasma (ICP) plasma. Langmuir probes were tested using a number of probing dimensions, probe tip materials, circuits for probe bias and filters. Then, the results were compared with the optical spectroscopy measurements. With these diagnostics, analyses of various plasma processes were performed in both reactors. For example, it has been shown that species like NH radicals generated in gas phase can have critical impact on films deposited by ECR plasmas. In the ICP source, plasmas in atomic and molecular gases were shown to have different spatial distributions, likely due to nonlocal electron heating. The low-to-high density transitions in the ICP plasma were also studied. The role of metastables is shown to be significant in Ar plasmas, in contrast to plasmas with additions of molecular gases

  14. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  15. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuzairi, Tomy [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424 (Indonesia); Okada, Mitsuru [Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Bhattacharjee, Sudeep [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Nagatsu, Masaaki, E-mail: nagatsu.masaaki@shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Department of Engineering, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  16. Surface conductivity dependent dynamic behaviour of an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet for microscale surface processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abuzairi, Tomy; Okada, Mitsuru; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Spatio-temporal behaviors of capillary APPJs are studied for various substrates. • Plasma irradiation area depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity. • Surface irradiation area was significantly broadened in polymer-like substrate. • Effect of applying a substrate bias on the APPJ irradiation area was investigated. - Abstract: An experimental study on the dynamic behaviour of microcapillary atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) with 5 μm tip size for surfaces of different conductivity is reported. Electrical and spatio-temporal characteristics of the APPJs are monitored using high voltage probe, current monitor and high speed intensified charge couple device camera. From these experimental results, we presented a simple model to understand the electrical discharge characteristics of the capillary APPJs with double electrodes, and estimated the velocity of the ionization fronts in the jet and the electron density to be 3.5–4.2 km/s and 2–7 × 10"1"7 m"−"3. By analyzing the dynamics of the microcapillary APPJs for different substrate materials, it was found that the surface irradiation area strongly depended on the substrate conductivity and permittivity, especially in the case of polymer-like substrate, surface irradiation area was significantly broadened probably due to the repelling behaviour of the plasma jets from the accumulated electrical charges on the polymer surface. The effect of applying a substrate bias in the range from −900 V to +900 V on the plasma irradiation onto the substrates was also investigated. From the knowledge of the present results, it is helpful for choosing the substrate materials for microscale surface modification.

  17. New aspects of high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, Eiki

    2005-10-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on 'New aspects of high energy density plasma' held at National Institute for Fusion Science are collected in this proceedings. The papers reflect the present status and recent progress in the experiments and theoretical works on high energy density plasma produced by pulsed power technology. The 13 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  18. Investigation of surface treatment of conductive wire in cylindrical atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Rubin; Kagohashi, Tsutomu; Zheng Wei

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene insulated electric wire was treated in He and Ar dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric pressure plasmas generated in a quartz tube wound with tubular electrodes. The wire was put penetrating through the high voltage and the grounded electrodes, improving the discharge and facilitating uniform surface treatment. In this work, the influences of conductivity of the wire on the effects of surface treatment and discharge behavior were investigated. Surface properties of the wire samples were analyzed by means of surface energy measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In order to reveal the mechanism for treating the conductive wire, I-V discharge waveforms were measured and time-resolved plasma images were taken. It was demonstrated that the conductive wire was involved in the discharge process, reducing the breakdown voltage significantly and enhancing the discharge. It shows that the discharge mode was strongly dependent on the conductivity of a wire. Intensive surface discharges developed along the conductive wire were found to be mainly responsible for noticeable improvement in the treatment effect.

  19. Ion thermal conductivity for a pure tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, C.W. III.

    1981-06-01

    The ion thermal conductivity is calculated for a wide range of aspect ratios and collision frequencies. The calculation is done by solving the drift kinetic equation, with a model collision operator, using a finite element method, and then calculating the energy weighted friction force to determine the heat flux. The thermal conductivity, determined from the heat flux, is then curve fitted to analytic formulas. These formulas allow the conductivity to be calculated at all collision frequencies and aspect ratios down to about 3

  20. Measurement of plasma conductivity using faraday rotation of submillimeter waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given, including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two-path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique

  1. Characterization of RFX-mod passive conducting structures to optimize plasma start up and equilibrium control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchiori, G.; Grando, L.; Cavinato, M.

    2007-01-01

    The load assembly of RFX-mod consists of three toroidal conducting structures whose eddy currents affect the plasma equilibrium magnetic configuration. The high number of electromagnetic probes mounted on the components of the load assembly allowed to analyse the response of each structure to a variation of the magnetic field vertical component. The capability of evaluating the axisymmetric toroidal currents in the passive structures and therefore their contribution to the equilibrium configuration by a 2D FE MHD equilibrium code was validated. The design and implementation of a feedback control system of the magnetic field vertical component before the gas ionization allowed meeting the requirement of an accurate control of this quantity in view of operation at higher plasma current and independently of the magnetizing winding programming

  2. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-In; Kim, Seil; Lee, Kun-Jae; Choa, Yong-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  3. Highly conducting one-dimensional solids

    CERN Document Server

    Evrard, Roger; Doren, Victor

    1979-01-01

    Although the problem of a metal in one dimension has long been known to solid-state physicists, it was not until the synthesis of real one-dimensional or quasi-one-dimensional systems that this subject began to attract considerable attention. This has been due in part to the search for high­ temperature superconductivity and the possibility of reaching this goal with quasi-one-dimensional substances. A period of intense activity began in 1973 with the report of a measurement of an apparently divergent conduc­ tivity peak in TfF-TCNQ. Since then a great deal has been learned about quasi-one-dimensional conductors. The emphasis now has shifted from trying to find materials of very high conductivity to the many interesting problems of physics and chemistry involved. But many questions remain open and are still under active investigation. This book gives a review of the experimental as well as theoretical progress made in this field over the last years. All the chapters have been written by scientists who have ...

  4. Full densification of inkjet-printed copper conductive tracks on a flexible substrate utilizing a hydrogen plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young-Tae [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young-In [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seil [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Jae [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choa, Yong-Ho, E-mail: choa15@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Fusion Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Hydrogen thermally- and plasma- treatments are applied to reduce and sinter the inkjet-printed copper patterns at low temperature. • Plasma sintered Cu patterns have fully densified microstructure with the resistivity of 3.23 μW cm. • Cu conductive track with dense microstructure remains its electrical resistivity after 1 month. • Thermal sintered Cu patterns show a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. - Abstract: Low temperature sintering techniques are crucial in developing flexible printed electronics. In this work, we demonstrate a novel hydrogen plasma sintering method that achieves a full reduction and densification of inkjet-printed patterns using a copper complex ion ink. After inkjet printing on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates, both hydrogen plasma and conventional hydrogen thermal treatment were employed to compare the resulting microstructures, electrical properties and anti-oxidation behavior. The plasma treated pattern shows a fully densified microstructure with a resistivity of 3.23 μΩ cm, while the thermally treated pattern shows a relatively poor microstructure and high resistivity. In addition, the hydrogen plasma-treated copper pattern retains its electrical resistivity for one month without any significant decrease. This novel hydrogen plasma sintering technique could be used to produce conductive patterns with excellent electrical properties, allowing for highly reliable flexible printed electronics.

  5. Time resolved plasma characterization in a long conduction time planar plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, L.K.; Greenly, J.B.; Qi, N.; Hammer, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss additional experiments in which the plasma dynamics and properties will be monitored in detail before and during opening. Space and time resolved density, temperature and motion information about the plasma and neutrals is given by emission spectroscopy and streak photography and correlated to the current and voltage traces. Specifically, we will look for the effects of neutrals evolving off of surfaces, stagnation of the switch plasma, and rvec J x rvec B motion of the plasma downstream of the switch. Diagnostics include current and voltage monitors, a multi-aperture biased Faraday cup, emission spectroscopy and streak photography. Pairs of B dot loops are positioned in the stripline just upstream and downstream of the POS. Also, two single B loops were placed further downstream to look for bulk plasma motion. An inductive monitor gives the voltage at the upstream side of the POS and the Faraday cup monitors the gun plasma consistency from shot to shot

  6. Heating and conduction in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, H.D.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Nuckolls, J.H.

    1974-01-01

    A series of experiments conducted by G. McCall of LASL provides important clues concerning the electron distributions heated in the absorption of intense (less than or approximately equal to 10/sup lb/ W/cm 2 ) laser radiation and the thermal transport of energy. Presented here is a tentative interpretation of these experiments obtained from LASNEX calculations. (U.S.)

  7. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  8. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, R S

    2015-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 10 10 J/m 3 . The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I 4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  9. Pressure-induced shift of the plasma in a helical system with ideally conducting wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    The global plasma shift is calculated analytically for a helical system with an ideal wall. The derived expression for the plasma shift, incorporating both the finite-β plasma expansion and the opposing reaction of the nearby ideal wall, can be used for interpreting the observable high-β equilibrium effects in LHD and other helical devices. (author)

  10. Physical phenomena in a low-temperature non-equilibrium plasma and in MHD generators with non-equilibrium conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Golubev, V.S.; Dykhne, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper assesses the position in 1975 of theoretical and experimental work on the physics of a magnetohydrodynamic generator with non-equilibrium plasma conductivity. This research started at the beginning of the 1960s; as work on the properties of thermally non-equilibrium plasma in magnetic fields and also in MHD generator ducts progressed, a number of phenomena were discovered and investigated that had either been unknown in plasma physics or had remained uninvestigated until that time: ionization instability and ionization turbulence of plasma in a magnetic field, acoustic instability of a plasma with anisotropic conductivity, the non-equilibrium ionization wave and the energy balance of a non-equilibrium plasma. At the same time, it was discovered what physical requirements an MHD generator with non-equilibrium conductivity must satisfy to achieve high efficiency in converting the thermal or kinetic energy of the gas flow into electric energy. The experiments on MHD power generation with thermally non-equilibrium plasma carried out up to 1975 indicated that it should be possible to achieve conversion efficiencies of up to 20-30%. (author)

  11. Thermal conductivity in high critical temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castello, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A measuring procedure to obtain the electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of samples of low conductivity has been developed. The setup was designed to allow the removal of the sample in clean fashion, so that further heat treatments could be performed, and therefore no adhesives were used in the mounting of the thermocouples or heat sinks, etc. The heat equation has been analyzed with time-dependent boundary conditions, with the purpose of developing a dynamic measuring method which avoids the long delays involved in reaching thermal equilibrium above 30K. Based on this analysis, the developed measuring method allows a precise and reliable measurements, in a continuous fashion, for temperatures above 25K. The same setup is used in a stationary mode at low temperatures, so the sample needs to be mounted only once. κ(T) has been measured in two ceramic samples of La 2 CuO 4 : the first semiconducting, the other superconducting (SC) as a consequence of an oxygen annealing. Both exhibit a strong thermal resistivity due to defects, though lower in the SC, where two maxima are observed and are attributed to an AF ordering: T N ' ≅ 40K and T N '' ≅ 240K. The low temperature dependence is T 1 .6 and T 2 .3 respectively. It was interpreted that the former sample presents a greater dispersion due to localized excitations, characteristic of amorphouus materials, 'tunneling two-level systems' (TS). A third syntherized sample of CuO exhibits a typical behaviour of an insulator, with T 2 .6 at low temperatures, a maximum at 40K and a decrease in T -1 at high temperatures. κ(T) in a SC sample of La 1 .85Sr 1 .15CuO 4 with T c =35.5K has also been measured, observing a small increase below T c because of the diminishing of the phonon dispersion due to the condensating electrons. κ(T) is lower than in the previous samples and thus a greater number of defects was inferred. At low temperatures, its dependence is T 1 .4 in agreement with the

  12. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Jamil A.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 (97% TD). This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  13. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil A. Khan

    2009-11-21

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  14. Growth of carbon nanotubes in arc plasma treated graphite disc: microstructural characterization and electrical conductivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, B. B.; Sahu, R. K.; Dash, T.; Pradhan, S.

    2018-03-01

    Circular graphite discs were treated in arc plasma by varying arcing time. Analysis of the plasma treated discs by field emission scanning electron microscope revealed globular grain morphologies on the surfaces, but when the same were observed at higher magnification and higher resolution under transmission electron microscope, growth of multiwall carbon nanotubes of around 2 nm diameter was clearly seen. In situ growth of carbon nanotube bundles/bunches consisting of around 0.7 nm tube diameter was marked in the case of 6 min treated disc surface. Both the untreated and the plasma treated graphite discs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectra of X-ray, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy and BET surface area measurement. From Raman spectra, BET surface area and microstructure observed in transmission electron microscope, growth of several layers of graphene was identified. Four-point probe measurements for electrical resistivity/conductivity of the graphite discs treated under different plasma conditions showed significant increase in conductivity values over that of untreated graphite conductivity value and the best result, i.e., around eightfold increase in conductivity, was observed in the case of 6 min plasma treated sample exhibiting carbon nanotube bundles/bunches grown on disc surface. By comparing the microstructures of the untreated and plasma treated graphite discs, the electrical conductivity increase in graphite disc is attributed to carbon nanotubes (including bundles/bunches) growth on disc surface by plasma treatment.

  15. Complementary variational principle method applied to thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-12-14

    The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.

  16. High-fidelity plasma codes for burn physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Graziani, Frank [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Murillo, Michael [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Accurate predictions of equation of state (EOS), ionic and electronic transport properties are of critical importance for high-energy-density plasma science. Transport coefficients inform radiation-hydrodynamic codes and impact diagnostic interpretation, which in turn impacts our understanding of the development of instabilities, the overall energy balance of burning plasmas, and the efficacy of self-heating from charged-particle stopping. Important processes include thermal and electrical conduction, electron-ion coupling, inter-diffusion, ion viscosity, and charged particle stopping. However, uncertainties in these coefficients are not well established. Fundamental plasma science codes, also called high-fidelity plasma codes, are a relatively recent computational tool that augments both experimental data and theoretical foundations of transport coefficients. This paper addresses the current status of HFPC codes and their future development, and the potential impact they play in improving the predictive capability of the multi-physics hydrodynamic codes used in HED design.

  17. Internal modes in high-temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crew, G.B.

    1983-02-01

    The linear stability of current-carrying toroidal plamsas is examined to determine the possibility of exciting global internal modes. The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory provides a useful framework for the analysis of these modes, which involve a kinking of the central portion of the plasma column. Non-ideal effects can also be important, and these are treated for high-temperature regimes where the plasma is collisionless

  18. Finite-difference time-domain analysis on radar cross section of conducting cube scatterer covered with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Zhang Guangfu; Yuan Naichang

    2004-01-01

    A PLJERC-FDTD algorithm is applied to the study of the scattering of perfectly conducting cube covered with homogeneous isotropic plasmas. The effects of plasma thickness, density and collision frequency on the radar cross section (RCS) of the conducting cube scatterer have been obtained. The results illustrate that the plasma cloaking can greatly reduce the RCS of radar targets, and the RCS of the perfectly conducting cube scatterer decreases with increasing plasma thickness when the plasma frequency is greatly less than the electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency; the RCS of the perfectly conducting cube scatterer decreases with increasing plasma thickness and plasma collision frequency when the plasma frequency is almost half as much as the EM wave frequency; the effects of plasma thickness and collision frequency on the RCS of the perfectly conducting cube scatterer is small when the plasma frequency is close to the EM wave frequency

  19. Comparison of bootstrap current and plasma conductivity models applied in a self-consistent equilibrium calculation for Tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Maria Celia Ramos; Ludwig, Gerson Otto [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Lab. Associado de Plasma]. E-mail: mcr@plasma.inpe.br

    2004-07-01

    Different bootstrap current formulations are implemented in a self-consistent equilibrium calculation obtained from a direct variational technique in fixed boundary tokamak plasmas. The total plasma current profile is supposed to have contributions of the diamagnetic, Pfirsch-Schlueter, and the neoclassical Ohmic and bootstrap currents. The Ohmic component is calculated in terms of the neoclassical conductivity, compared here among different expressions, and the loop voltage determined consistently in order to give the prescribed value of the total plasma current. A comparison among several bootstrap current models for different viscosity coefficient calculations and distinct forms for the Coulomb collision operator is performed for a variety of plasma parameters of the small aspect ratio tokamak ETE (Experimento Tokamak Esferico) at the Associated Plasma Laboratory of INPE, in Brazil. We have performed this comparison for the ETE tokamak so that the differences among all the models reported here, mainly regarding plasma collisionality, can be better illustrated. The dependence of the bootstrap current ratio upon some plasma parameters in the frame of the self-consistent calculation is also analysed. We emphasize in this paper what we call the Hirshman-Sigmar/Shaing model, valid for all collisionality regimes and aspect ratios, and a fitted formulation proposed by Sauter, which has the same range of validity but is faster to compute than the previous one. The advantages or possible limitations of all these different formulations for the bootstrap current estimate are analysed throughout this work. (author)

  20. Experimental studies of microwave interaction with a plasma-covered planar conducting surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Rodgers, J.; DeGrange, J.E.; Segalov, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present experimental studies of the reflection and absorption of microwave radiation from a plasma-covered planar conducting surface. In the experiments, microwave radiation from both highpower, short pulse (10 GHz, 100 MW, 30 ns) and low power (10 GHz, 10 mW, CW) sources is radiated at a 30 cm diameter conducting plate. A time-varying plasma is created on the surface of the conductor by 19 coaxial plasma guns embedded in the surface of the plate and discharged using a fast-rise capacitor bank. The plasma density distribution on the conducting surface is a function of time and the charging voltage on the capacitor bank. Incident and reflected microwave radiation has been measured for a wide variety of experimental conditions

  1. Construction of a high beta plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.; Torabi-Fard, A.

    1976-02-01

    A high beta plasma source has been designed and constructed. This source will serve as a means of developing and exercising different diagnostic techniques as required for ALVAND I, linear theta pinch experiment. Also, it will serve to acquaint the technicians with some of the techniques and safety rules of high voltage and capacitor discharge experiments. The operating parameters of the theta pinch and Z-pinch preionization is presented and the program of diagnostic measurements on the high beta plasma source is discussed

  2. Experimental study of high beta toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.

    1983-09-01

    Experiments on the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole have produced a wide range of stable high β plasmas with β significantly above single fluid MHD theory predictions. A stable β approx. 8% plasma, twice the fluid limit, is obtained with 5 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/ and tau/sub β/ approx. = 6000 tau/sub Alfven/ = 600 μsec. The enhanced stability is explained with a kinetic treatment that includes the effect of finite ion gyroradius which couples the ballooning mode to an ion drift wave. In a more collisional, large gyroradius (2 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/) regime, a stable β approx. 35% plasma is obtained with a decay time of 1000 Alfven times. Measurement of the equilibrium magnetic field in this regime indicates that the diamagnetic current density is five times smaller than predicted by ideal MHD, probably due to ion gyroviscosity. Particle transport is anomalous and ranges from agreement with the classical diffusion rate at the highest beta, lowest field plasma (B/sub P/ = 200 G), to thirteen times the classical rate in a β=11%, high field plasma (B/sub P/ = 860 G) where the level of enhancement increase with magnetic field. Fluctuations in density, electrostatic potential, and magnetic field have been studied in plasmas with β from 0.1% to 40%

  3. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, K.M.; Batha, S.

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I i ) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I i discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed

  4. Noble Gas Plasmas with Metallic Conductivity: A New Light Source from a New State of Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    triggered by uv lamp Spark Blocking Laser Pulse that is Incident from the Right Laser PulseSpark Discharge High-Power Dense Microplasma Optical Switch...flash width ~35.ps Plasma density ~1022/cc Radius ~ 1.μm • fs laser breakdown In a dense gas Tachibana Spark discharge Electrode spacing=100μm...Demonstration of Opaque Plasma Discharge Blocking Intense Laser Pulse-due to formation of dense plasma condensate b) Intense laser pulse arrested at

  5. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  6. First-principles thermal conductivity of warm-dense deuterium plasmas for inertial confinement fusion applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S X; Collins, L A; Boehly, T R; Kress, J D; Goncharov, V N; Skupsky, S

    2014-04-01

    Thermal conductivity (κ) of both the ablator materials and deuterium-tritium (DT) fuel plays an important role in understanding and designing inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. The extensively used Spitzer model for thermal conduction in ideal plasmas breaks down for high-density, low-temperature shells that are compressed by shocks and spherical convergence in imploding targets. A variety of thermal-conductivity models have been proposed for ICF hydrodynamic simulations of such coupled and degenerate plasmas. The accuracy of these κ models for DT plasmas has recently been tested against first-principles calculations using the quantum molecular-dynamics (QMD) method; although mainly for high densities (ρ > 100 g/cm3), large discrepancies in κ have been identified for the peak-compression conditions in ICF. To cover the wide range of density-temperature conditions undergone by ICF imploding fuel shells, we have performed QMD calculations of κ for a variety of deuterium densities of ρ = 1.0 to 673.518 g/cm3, at temperatures varying from T = 5 × 103 K to T = 8 × 106 K. The resulting κQMD of deuterium is fitted with a polynomial function of the coupling and degeneracy parameters Γ and θ, which can then be used in hydrodynamic simulation codes. Compared with the "hybrid" Spitzer-Lee-More model currently adopted in our hydrocode lilac, the hydrosimulations using the fitted κQMD have shown up to ∼20% variations in predicting target performance for different ICF implosions on OMEGA and direct-drive-ignition designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The lower the adiabat of an imploding shell, the more variations in predicting target performance using κQMD. Moreover, the use of κQMD also modifies the shock conditions and the density-temperature profiles of the imploding shell at early implosion stage, which predominantly affects the final target performance. This is in contrast to the previous speculation that κQMD changes mainly the

  7. Anomalous conductivity and electron heating in a plasma unstable to the two-stream instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, W.H.M.; Hamberger, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment to excite the electron-ion two-stream instability in a cylindrical Q-machine plasma column is described. The mechanism for establishing a large pulsed electron drift velocity in the plasma by applying a potential difference between the end electrodes is discussed. The pulsed current-voltage characteristic of the plasma column and the temporal evolution of the electron density, drift velocity and thermal velocity are measured. In contrast with the behaviour of some computer simulations of the two-stream instability, the plasma exhibits a constant conductivity and the electron thermal velocity increases to values far in excess of the drift velocity. The electrical dissipation is consistent with the increase of the electron thermal energy, both indicating an anomalous conductivity of the same order as an empirical scaling found in earlier experiments on a toroidal discharge. (author)

  8. Experimental investigation of thermal conduction and related phenomena in a laser heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, D.R.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal conduction in plasmas is of major importance especially in controlled nuclear fusion studies. Direct measurements are rare. When the temperature gradient in a plasma becomes large enough classical thermal conduction (Heat flux q = -kΔT) no longer applies and it is thought that q is limited to some fraction of the free streaming limit qsub(m). The main experiment is the heating of a z-pinch plasma by a fast rising, intense carbon dioxide laser pulse. Electron temperature and density in time and space are diagnosed by ruby laser scattering. The profiles obtained were consistent with a flux limited to approximately 3% of the free streaming limit. Ion acoustic turbulence is observed along the temperature gradient. It is shown that the observed turbulence level is consistent with the heat flux limitation. At electron densities > 10 17 cm -3 backscattered light is observed from the plasma whose growth rate implies that it is Brillouin scattered. (author)

  9. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering of transparent conducting oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sittinger, V.; Ruske, F.; Werner, W.; Jacobs, C.; Szyszka, B.; Christie, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) has been used in order to study the deposition of transparent conducting oxides. We summarize the studies carried out on different materials (indium tin oxide-ITO and aluminium-doped zinc oxide-AZO) using rather different technological approaches, namely sputtering of ceramic targets and reactive sputtering. For the deposition of AZO reactive HPPMS for metallic targets has been used. A feedback control loop has been implemented in order to stabilize the discharge at any given setpoint on the hysteresis curve. The hysteresis was also found to have a rather untypical form. Reactive HPPMS was found to be a promising tool for obtaining high quality films of low total thickness. In the case of ITO deposition a ceramic target has been used. The process has been characterized in terms of its plasma emission and increasing indium ionization was found for higher peak power densities. The properties of the deposited films were compared to DC sputtered films. While for DC sputtering the choice of oxygen addition and shieldings is crucial for determining surface morphology and resistivity, in HPPMS sputtering peak power density has been found to be a good parameter for influencing the crystal structure. The morphologies obtained differ strongly from those seen in DC sputtering. At high power densities films with low surface roughness and excellent resistivity could be deposited without the use of shieldings

  10. Effects of non-uniformities on electrical conduction in weakly ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, M.; Murakami, Y.; Nitta, T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of non-uniformities on the flow of electric current in weakly ionized plasmas is investigated by taking into account the ion slip as well as the Hall current. An Ohm's law for a non-uniform plasma is derived, from which the formula previously obtained by Numano, i.e. an extension of Rosa's equation, is obtainable as a special case. Making use of this new Ohm's law, the effective electrical conductivity and the effective Hall parameter are determined for isotropically turbulent plasmas. It is found that when the ion-slip effect is absent they are in good agreement with the results obtained previously. (author)

  11. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morales-Masis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H2-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H2-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  12. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jeangros, Q. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hessler-Wyser, A. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Nicolay, S. [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  13. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  14. High-Latitude Space Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultqvist, B.; Hagfors, T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Nobel Symposium No. 54 on High Latitude Magnetospheric/Ionospheric Plasma Physics. The main purpose of the symposium was to prepare for the European research effort in space plasma physics in the mid-1980's, in which two major constituents are the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT) facilities and the Swedish satellite Viking. The physics of the high-latitude ionosphere and how this part of near space is affected by the properties of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field are explored. A detailed discussion is provided on high-latitude magnetospheric physics at altitudes of 1-2 earth radii, the main focus of the Viking project. Specific topics considered include the role of the auroral ionosphere in magnetospheric substorms, the low altitude cleft, ionospheric modification and stimulated emissions, plasma physics on auroral field lines, solar wind-magnetosphere energy coupling, cold plasma distribution above a few thousand kilometers at high latitudes, hot electrons in and above the auroral ionosphere, the correlation of auroral kilometric radiation with visual auroras and with Birkeland currents, electrostatic waves in the topside ionosphere, solitary waves and double layers, and an Alfven wave model of auroral arcs

  15. Theory of high temperature plasmas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Liu, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    This is a report on the technical progress in our analytic studies of high-temperature fusion plasmas. We also emphasize that the research summarized here makes extensive use of computational methods and therefore forms a strong interface with our numerical modeling program which is discussed later in the report

  16. Adhesive Stretchable Printed Conductive Thin Film Patterns on PDMS Surface with an Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yi; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a plasma surface modification with printing process was developed to fabricate printed flexible conductor patterns or devices directly on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. An atmospheric plasma treatment was first used to oxidize the PDMS surface and create a hydrophilic silica surface layer, which was confirmed with photoelectron spectra. The plasma operating parameters, such as gas types and plasma powers, were optimized to obtain surface silica layers with the longest lifetime. Conductive paste with epoxy resin was screen-printed on the plasma-treated PDMS surface to fabricate flexible conductive tracks. As a result of the strong binding forces between epoxy resin and the silica surface layer, the printed patterns showed great adhesion on PDMS and were undamaged after several stringent adhesion tests. The printed conductive tracks showed strong mechanical stability and exhibited great electric conductivity under bending, twisting, and stretching conditions. Finally, a printed pressure sensor with good sensitivity and a fast response time was fabricated to demonstrate the capability of this method for the realization of printed electronic devices.

  17. Highly conductive polymers: superconductivity in nanochannels or an experimental artifact?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, Harley; Park, Seongho; Zhirnov, Victor; Cavin, Ralph; Kohl, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant body of literature concerning the potential formation of electrically conductive moieties in polymeric materials. The conductive path is not associated with conjugation (such as in the case of 'conductive polymers') but rather associated with a new conductivity route. The objective of the experiments reported herein was to provide insight into the phenomenon of unusually high electrical conductivity in polymers that have been reported by several research groups. In some experiments, the test apparatus did indeed indicate high levels of conductance. Arguments pro and con for high conductivity based on known physical phenomena and the collected data were examined.

  18. High beta plasmas in the PBX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.; Chance, M.

    1986-04-01

    Bean-shaped configurations favorable for high β discharges have been investigated in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX) tokamak. Strongly indented bean-shaped plasmas have been successfully formed, and beta values of over 5% have been obtained with 5 MW of injected neutral beam power. These high beta discharges still lie in the first stability regime for ballooning modes, and MHD stability analysis implicates the external kink as responsible for the present β limit

  19. Conditions of the existence of 'short circuit' effect for plasma in a conducting cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhilinskij, A.P.; Kuteev, B.V.

    1975-01-01

    It has been experimentally established that in a cylindrical container with conducting side and end walls, the phenomenon of short circuit (the Symon effect) is not always realized. The short circuiting of plane end and of side surfaces causes an acceleration of a plasma decay only during the initial stage in a comparatively short time. Characteristic lifetimes during the late stage remain unchanged in this case. In conditions of a stable plasma they correspond to classical values of the plasma decay constant at the ambipolar diffusion of charged particles along and across force lines of a magnetic field. A fundamental change in the nature of the diffusion and a decrease of the plasma lifetime almost by two orders are realized in an instrument in which an end conducting wall for plasma in created with a short cylinder at the end of a solenoid in a sharply nonuniform magnetic field. The data obtained testify to the fact that the short circuit effect takes place in conditions when on boundaries of plasma the possibility of simultaneous flowing of unipolar electron flows along and of ion flows across a magnetic field is assured. The results of the experiments are compared with a theory

  20. Effect of finite conductivity on the vertical stability of a tokamak plasma column with a noncircular cross section without conducting shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Keiichi; Okuda, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Yuji.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of finite conductivity on the stability of a tokamak plasma column with noncircular cross section without conducting shell was investigated by considering the current filaments model. The study is made for the plasma with rectangular cross section, and in this case, the position control of plasma column is a serious problem. The equation of motion of the plasma column is described for the vertical force applied to the column. The calculation of stability was made for the cases with cross sections of circular, rectangular and D type shapes. The plasma column was considered as an assembly of a lot of circular conductors, and this method can be applied to the plasma column with proper distribution of conductivity. As the results of calculation, it can be said that the electromotive force produced by the column moving in the magnetic field generates surface current on the plasma column, and in case of the finite conductivity of plasma, this current attenuates with time, and the distribution of the current soaks into the plasma column. Consequently, the recovery force acting on the plasma column is reduced, but contributes to the vertical stabilization for several hundreds μsec. (Kato, T.)

  1. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  2. Transport in JET high performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Two type of high performance scenarios have been produced in JET during DTE1 campaign. One of them is the well known and extensively used in the past ELM-free hot ion H-mode scenario which has two distinct regions- plasma core and the edge transport barrier. The results obtained during DTE-1 campaign with D, DT and pure T plasmas confirms our previous conclusion that the core transport scales as a gyroBohm in the inner half of plasma volume, recovers its Bohm nature closer to the separatrix and behaves as ion neoclassical in the transport barrier. Measurements on the top of the barrier suggest that the width of the barrier is dependent upon isotope and moreover suggest that fast ions play a key role. The other high performance scenario is a relatively recently developed Optimised Shear Scenario with small or slightly negative magnetic shear in plasma core. Different mechanisms of Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) formation have been tested by predictive modelling and the results are compared with experimentally observed phenomena. The experimentally observed non-penetration of the heavy impurities through the strong ITB which contradicts to a prediction of the conventional neo-classical theory is discussed. (author)

  3. The compact mirrors with high pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikeev, A.V.; Bagryansky, P.A.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lizunov, A.A.; Murakhtin, S.V.; Prikhodko, V.V.; Collatz, S.; Noack, K.

    2004-01-01

    The gas dynamic trap (GDP) experimental facility at the Budker Institute Novosibirsk is a long axial-symmetric mirror system with a high mirror ratio variable in the range of 12.5 - 100 for the confinement of a two-component plasma. One component is a collisional plasma with ion and electron temperatures up to 100 eV and density up to 10 14 cm -3 . The second component is the population of high-energetic fast ions with energies of 2-18 keV and a density up to 10 13 cm -3 which is produced by neutral beam injection (NBI). GDP is currently undergoing an upgrade whose first stage is the achievement of the synthesized hot ion plasmoid experiment (SHIP). This experiment aims at the investigation of plasmas and at the knowledge of plasma parameters that have never been achieved before in magnetic mirrors. The paper presents the physical concept of the SHIP experiment, the results of numerical pre-calculations and draws conclusions regarding possible scenarios of experiments. The simulation of a maximal NBI power regime with hydrogen injection gave a fast ion density of 1.2*10 14 cm -3 with a mean energy of 14 keV. The calculation of the deuterium injection regime with 2 MW NBI power gave a maximal fast ion density of 1.9*10 14 cm -3 with a beam energy of 9 keV. The calculation of an experimental scenario with reduced magnetic field resulted in a maximal β-value of 62%, so this regime is recommended for the study of high-β effects in plasmas confined in axial-symmetric mirrors

  4. Electrical conductivity of a fully ionized plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaucher, B.; Vaclavik, J.; Schneider, H.

    1975-01-01

    In this experimental work the authors have investigated the electrical conductivity of a homogeneous fully ionized plasma in a homogeneous magnetic field. In particular, the conductivity perpendicular to the magnetic field was studied by means of the magnetoacoustic resonance for different values of the parameter ωsub(c)/γsub(ei) where ωsub(c) is the electron cyclotron frequency and γsub(ei) is the collision frequency between electrons and ions. (Auth.)

  5. Electrical conductivity and charge carrier screening in weakly non-ideal argon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, K.; Lang, S.; Radtke, R.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed argon discharge as a stable source of weakly non-ideal plasmas is described in connection with the diagnostic necessities for conductivity measurements. The parameters overlap the range for stationary arcs and allow comparison with measurements in cascade arcs. The measured conductivities are explained using the binary collision model considering collisions with neutrals, excited atoms, and ions. A relation between the screening parameter and non-ideality is proposed which should be valid for all elements. (author)

  6. Electrical conductivity and charge carrier screening in weakly non-ideal argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K; Lang, S; Radtke, R [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Jena. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik

    1983-07-14

    A pulsed argon discharge as a stable source of weakly non-ideal plasmas is described in connection with the diagnostic necessities for conductivity measurements. The parameters overlap the range for stationary arcs and allow comparison with measurements in cascade arcs. The measured conductivities are explained using the binary collision model considering collisions with neutrals, excited atoms, and ions. A relation between the screening parameter and non-ideality is proposed which should be valid for all elements.

  7. Temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance in Josephson tunnel junctions determined from plasma resonance experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper

    1978-01-01

    The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature Tc of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosφ conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency fp...

  8. A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.

  9. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.

    2008-09-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, its surface is rapidly ionized and forms a dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 15 W/cm 2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as = 10 18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. Because such a plasma mirror can be used with arbitrarily high laser intensities, this process should eventually lead to the production of very intense pulses in the X-ray domain. In this thesis, we demonstrate that for laser intensities about 10 19 W/cm 2 , two mechanisms can contribute to the generation of high order harmonics: the coherent wake emission and the relativistic emission. These two mechanisms are studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, we show that, thanks to very different properties, the harmonics generated by these two processes can be unambiguously distinguished experimentally. We then investigate the phase properties of the harmonic, in the spectral and in the spatial domain. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the coherence of the generation mechanisms to get information on the dynamics of the plasma electrons. (author)

  10. Conductance Effects on Inner Magnetospheric Plasma Morphology: Model Comparisons with IMAGE EUV, MENA, and HENA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M.; Ridley, A. J.; Kozyra, J. U.; Gallagher, D. L.; Brandt, P. C.; Henderson, M. G.; Denton, M. H.; Jahn, J. M.; Roelof, E. C.; DeMajistre, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    Modeling results of the inner magnetosphere showing the influence of the ionospheric conductance on the inner magnetospheric electric fields during the April 17, 2002 magnetic storm are presented. Kinetic plasma transport code results are analyzed in combination with observations of the inner magnetospheric plasma populations, in particular those from the IMAGE satellite. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are made with the observations from EW, MENA, and HENA, covering the entire energy range simulated by the model (0 to 300 keV). The electric field description, and in particular the ionospheric conductance, is the only variable between the simulations. Results from the data-model comparisons are discussed, detailing the strengths and weaknesses of each conductance choice for each energy channel.

  11. High-speed photography application to pulsed hot plasma investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borov'etskij, M.; Koz'yarkevich, V.; Skrzhechanovskij, V.; Socha, R.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma focus is investigated using an electron-optical chamber for high-speed photography (KSK-1). Experimental devices for studying dynamics and structure of a plasma layer in the chosen interval, recording plasma spectra with time resolution as well as for studying the dynamics and structure of a plasma layer by Schlieren- and shadow methods are briefly described. Experimental results are presented

  12. High thermal conductivity materials for thermal management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broido, David A.; Reinecke, Thomas L.; Lindsay, Lucas R.

    2018-05-29

    High thermal conductivity materials and methods of their use for thermal management applications are provided. In some embodiments, a device comprises a heat generating unit (304) and a thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) in thermal communication with the heat generating unit (304) for conducting heat generated by the heat generating unit (304) away from the heat generating unit (304), the thermally conductive unit (306, 308, 310) comprising a thermally conductive compound, alloy or composite thereof. The thermally conductive compound may include Boron Arsenide, Boron Antimonide, Germanium Carbide and Beryllium Selenide.

  13. Atomic processes in high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Y.

    1991-07-01

    This is the final report on the project Atomic Processes in High Temperature Plasmas', which has been completed in June 30, 1991. The original contract started in 1978. The dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients were calculated for ions with the number of electrons N = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, and 12. The result was then used to construct a new and improved rate formula. Other important resonant processes, which are closely related to DR, were also studied to interpret experiments and to test the DR theory. The plasma field and the density effects on the rate coefficients was found to be important, and a consistent correction procedure is being developed. The available data on the DR rates and their accuracy do not yet fully meet the requirement for plasma modeling; there are serious gaps in the available data, and the currently adopted theoretical procedure needs improvements. Critical assessment of the current status of the DR problem is presented, and possible future work needed is summarized

  14. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, H.

    2010-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm -2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10 -18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)

  15. Cesium-plasma-conductivity enhancement in the advanced thermionic energy converter. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikopoulos, C.N.

    Two methods of plasma conductivity enhancement in a cesium vapor thermionic energy converter have been studied. The first involved resonance photoabsorption of several cesium lines and the second utilized cesium plasma sustenance by application of microwave power. An extensive study of ionization processes in a cesium discharge in the presence of resonance ionization was made. Calculations were made of expected percentage excitation levels for several cesium resonance transitions for different values of neutral density and temperature as well as incident radiation power levels. The results of some of these computations were tabulated. Several ionization schemes were considered. A number of cesium transitions were investigated in the range of 799 to 870 nanometers for four different cesium reservoir temperatures, 467, 511, 550 and 591 K. The related absorption coefficients of the radiation lines in the plasma were deduced and tabulated. The resulting plasma conductivity increase was recorded and the associated ionization enhancement was deduced. A microwave cavity was built where the emitter and collector of a simple thermionic converter made up two of the cavity walls and resonant microwave power was externally applied. The I-V characteristics of the thermionic converter were studied under several microwave power levels in the range of 0 to 2 watts. Significant shifts to higher currents were observed as the microwave power levels were raised. In conclusion, both methods show promise as auxiliary ionization mechanisms for the thermionic energy converter, especially at low emitter temperatures

  16. High explosive driven plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, A.E.; Bowers, R.L.; Brownell, J.H.; Goforth, J.H.; Oliphant, T.A.; Weiss, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental effort is underway to understand and improve upon the performance of high explosive driven plasma opening switches such as those first described by Pavlovskii et al. We have modeled these switches in both planar and cylindrical geometry using a one dimensional Lagrangian MHD code. This one-dimensional analysis is now essentially complete. It has shown that simple, one-dimensional, compression of the current-carrying channel can explain the observed resistance increases during the time of flight of the HE detonation products. Our calculations imply that ionization plays an important role as an energy sink and the performance of these switches might be improved by a judicious choice of gases. We also predict improved performance by lowering the pressure in the plasma channel. The bulk of our experimental effort to date has been with planar switches. We have worked with current densities of 0.25 to 0.4 MA/cm and have observed resistance increases of 40 to 60 mΩ. Significant resistance increases are observed later than the time of flight of the HE detonation products. We suggest that these resistance increases are due to mixing between the hot plasma and the relatively cooler detonation products. Such mixing is not included in the 1-D, Lagrangian code. We are presently beginning a computational effort with a 2-D Eulerian code. The status of this effort is discussed. Experimentally we have designed an apparatus that will permit us to test the role of different gases and pressures. This system is also in a planar geometry, but the plasma channel is doughnut shaped, permitting us to avoid edge effects associated with the planar rectangular geometry. The first experiments with this design are quite encouraging and the status of this effort is also discussed

  17. Convective mechanism for inhibition of heat conduction in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.H.Y.; Willi, O.; Trainor, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    In laser-produced plasmas, the laser energy is absorbed only below and up to the critical density. For laser fusion applications, this energy must be transported beyond the corona via electron thermal conduction towards colder, higher density regions of the target to heat up material and cause ablation, which in turn generates an inward pressure to compress the fusion fuel. If the heat conduction is inhibited, the consequences will be a weaker ablation and therefore a weaker implosion. For many years now, the inhibition of heat conduction, i.e., the reduction of heat conduction relative to classical conduction, in laser-produced plasmas at relevant irradiances has been apparent from the large body of experimental evidence. Many mechanisms, such as dc magnetic fields, ion acoustic turbulence, and Weibel instabilities, have been proposed to be the cause of inhibition of heat conduction. Even improved calculations of the classical heat flux have been carried out to solve this problem. Nevertheless, no single one of the above mentioned mechanisms can explain the large inhibition observed in the experiments

  18. Interferometric measurements of plasma density in highplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The coupled-cavity laser interferometer technique is particularly applicable to the measurement of pulsed plasma densities. This technique is based on the fact that if a small fraction of a gas laser's output radiation is reflected into the laser with an external mirror, the intensity of the laser output is modulated. These amplitude or intensity modulations are produced by changes in the laser gain. A rotating corner mirror or an oscillating mirror can be used to produce a continuous feedback modulation of the interferometer which produces a continuous background fringe pattern. The presence of plasma in the outer cavity causes an additional change which results in a phase shift of the regular period of the background fringe pattern. The integral of the plasma density along the line of sight can be evaluated by comparison of the time history of the fringes obtained with and without plasma

  19. The equation of state and ionization equilibrium of dense aluminum plasma with conductivity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kun; Shi, Zongqian; Shi, Yuanjie; Bai, Jun; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli

    2015-01-01

    The equation of state, ionization equilibrium, and conductivity are the most important parameters for investigation of dense plasma. The equation of state is calculated with the non-ideal effects taken into consideration. The electron chemical potential and pressure, which are commonly used thermodynamic quantities, are calculated by the non-ideal free energy and compared with results of a semi-empirical equation of state based on Thomas-Fermi-Kirzhnits model. The lowering of ionization potential, which is a crucial factor in the calculation of non-ideal Saha equation, is settled according to the non-ideal free energy. The full coupled non-ideal Saha equation is applied to describe the ionization equilibrium of dense plasma. The conductivity calculated by the Lee-More-Desjarlais model combined with non-ideal Saha equation is compared with experimental data. It provides a possible approach to verify the accuracy of the equation of state and ionization equilibrium

  20. Multichannel euv spectroscopy of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.

    1983-11-01

    Spectroscopy of magnetically confined high temperature plasmas in the visible through x-ray spectral ranges deals primarily with the study of impurity line radiation or continuum radiation. Detailed knowledge of absolute intensities, temporal behavior, and spatial distributions of the emitted radiation is desired. As tokamak facilities become more complex, larger, and less accessible, there has been an increased emphasis on developing new instrumentation to provide such information in a minimum number of discharges. The availability of spatially-imaging detectors for use in the vacuum ultraviolet region (especially the intensified photodiode array) has generated the development of a variety of multichannel spectrometers for applications on tokamak facilities

  1. Thermal conductivity of plasma modified polyethylene terephthalate and polyamide-6 layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalacska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribological performance of the materials greatly depends on the temperature of the contacting zones and surfaces and hence on the heat conducting behaviour of the materials. Heat conduction of polymers is, however, greatly affected even by a very narrow (few tens of nm modified layer formed on the surface after subjecting the polymer to plasma treatment. In this article the heat flow inhibiting properties of plasma modified surface layers were investigated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polyamide-6 (PA6 engineering polymers. Nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation gave rise to compositional and structural changes of the polymers in a depth of 110 nm. It was found that even this thin layer exhibited significant heat flow inhibiting effect. The modified layer considerably decreased the thermal conductivity coefficient of the treated polymer and resulted in a reduced heat transmission for PET and PA6 by 33 and 28%, respectively. This new information supports and is in accordance with the former tribological results about extra friction heat generation experienced under NPIII surface layer of PA6 and PET during dry sliding.

  2. Device for plasma confinement and heating by high currents and nonclassical plasma transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1973-12-11

    A toroidal plasma containment device having means for inducing high total plasma currents and current densities and at the same time emhanced plasma heating, strong magnetic confinement, high energy density containment, magnetic modulation, microwaveinduced heating, and diagnostic accessibility is described. (Official Gazette)

  3. Effect of Samarium Oxide on the Electrical Conductivity of Plasma-Sprayed SOFC Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, S. N.; Samadi, H.; Nemati, A.

    2016-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are rapidly becoming recognized as a new alternative to traditional energy conversion systems because of their high energy efficiency. From an ecological perspective, this environmentally friendly technology, which produces clean energy, is likely to be implemented more frequently in the future. However, the current SOFC technology still cannot meet the demands of commercial applications due to temperature constraints and high cost. To develop a marketable SOFC, suppliers have tended to reduce the operating temperatures by a few hundred degrees. The overall trend for SOFC materials is to reduce their service temperature of electrolyte. Meanwhile, it is important that the other components perform at the same temperature. Currently, the anodes of SOFCs are being studied in depth. Research has indicated that anodes based on a perovskite structure are a more promising candidate in SOFCs than the traditional system because they possess more favorable electrical properties. Among the perovskite-type oxides, SrTiO3 is one of the most promising compositions, with studies demonstrating that SrTiO3 exhibits particularly favorable electrical properties in contrast with other perovskite-type oxides. The main purpose of this article is to describe our study of the effect of rare-earth dopants with a perovskite structure on the electrical behavior of anodes in SOFCs. Sm2O3-doped SrTiO3 synthesized by a solid-state reaction was coated on substrate by atmospheric plasma spray. To compare the effect of the dopant on the electrical conductivity of strontium titanate, different concentrations of Sm2O3 were used. The samples were then investigated by x-ray diffraction, four-point probe at various temperatures (to determine the electrical conductivity), and a scanning electron microscope. The study showed that at room temperature, nondoped samples have a higher electrical resistance than doped samples. As the temperature was increased, the electrical

  4. FDTD analysis of reflection of electromagnetic wave from a conductive plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2003-01-01

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm is applied to study the electro-magnetic reflection of conduction plane covered with inhomogeneous time-varying plasma, homogeneous plasma and inhomogeneous plasma. The collisions frequency of plasma is a function of electron density and plasma temperature. The number density profile follows a parabolic function. A discussion on the effect of various plasma parameters on the reflection coefficient is presented. Under the one-dimensional case, transient electromagnetic propagation through various plasmas has been obtained, and the reflection coefficients of EM wave through various plasma are calculated under different conditions. The results illustrate that a plasma cloaking system can successfully absorb the incident EM wave

  5. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.

    2009-07-01

    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  6. A plasma microlens for ultrashort high power lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzir, Yiftach; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Ferber, Yair; Zigler, Arie; Hubbard, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a technique for generation of miniature plasma lens system that can be used for focusing and collimating a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. The plasma lens was created by a nanosecond laser, which ablated a capillary entrance. The spatial configuration of the ablated plasma focused a high intensity femtosecond laser pulse. This configuration offers versatility in the plasma lens small f-number for extremely tight focusing of high power lasers with no damage threshold restrictions of regular optical components.

  7. Nanostructure design for drastic reduction of thermal conductivity while preserving high electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    The design and fabrication of nanostructured materials to control both thermal and electrical properties are demonstrated for high-performance thermoelectric conversion. We have focused on silicon (Si) because it is an environmentally friendly and ubiquitous element. High bulk thermal conductivity of Si limits its potential as a thermoelectric material. The thermal conductivity of Si has been reduced by introducing grains, or wires, yet a further reduction is required while retaining a high electrical conductivity. We have designed two different nanostructures for this purpose. One structure is connected Si nanodots (NDs) with the same crystal orientation. The phonons scattering at the interfaces of these NDs occurred and it depended on the ND size. As a result of phonon scattering, the thermal conductivity of this nanostructured material was below/close to the amorphous limit. The other structure is Si films containing epitaxially grown Ge NDs. The Si layer imparted high electrical conductivity, while the Ge NDs served as phonon scattering bodies reducing thermal conductivity drastically. This work gives a methodology for the independent control of electron and phonon transport using nanostructured materials. This can bring the realization of thermoelectric Si-based materials that are compatible with large scale integrated circuit processing technologies.

  8. Hyper-resistivity and electron thermal conductivity due to destroyed magnetic surfaces in axisymmetric plasma equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weening, R. H. [Department of Radiologic Sciences, Thomas Jefferson University, 901 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107-5233 (United States)

    2012-06-15

    In order to model the effects of small-scale current-driven magnetic fluctuations in a mean-field theoretical description of a large-scale plasma magnetic field B(x,t), a space and time dependent hyper-resistivity {Lambda}(x,t) can be incorporated into the Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E Dot-Operator B. Using Boozer coordinates, a theoretical method is presented that allows for a determination of the hyper-resistivity {Lambda}({psi}) functional dependence on the toroidal magnetic flux {psi} for arbitrary experimental steady-state Grad-Shafranov axisymmetric plasma equilibria, if values are given for the parallel plasma resistivity {eta}({psi}) and the local distribution of any auxiliary plasma current. Heat transport in regions of plasma magnetic surfaces destroyed by resistive tearing modes can then be modeled by an electron thermal conductivity k{sub e}({psi})=({epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}/e{sup 2}){Lambda}({psi}), where e and m{sub e} are the electron charge and mass, respectively, while {epsilon}{sub 0} is the permittivity of free space. An important result obtained for axisymmetric plasma equilibria is that the {psi}{psi}-component of the metric tensor of Boozer coordinates is given by the relation g{sup {psi}{psi}}({psi}){identical_to}{nabla}{psi} Dot-Operator {nabla}{psi}=[{mu}{sub 0}G({psi})][{mu}{sub 0}I({psi})]/{iota}({psi}), with {mu}{sub 0} the permeability of free space, G({psi}) the poloidal current outside a magnetic surface, I({psi}) the toroidal current inside a magnetic surface, and {iota}({psi}) the rotational transform.

  9. Foundations of High-Pressure Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anthony B.; Uhrlandt, Dirk

    2018-06-01

    An introduction to the main methods used to produce, model and measure thermal plasmas is provided, with emphasis on the differences between thermal plasmas and other types of processing plasmas. The critical properties of thermal plasmas are explained in physical terms and their importance in different applications is considered. The characteristics, and advantages and disadvantages, of the different main types of thermal plasmas (transferred and non-transferred arcs, radio-frequency inductively-coupled plasmas and microwave plasmas) are discussed. The methods by which flow is stabilized in arc plasmas are considered. The important concept of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is explained, leading into a discussion of the importance of thermophysical properties, and their calculation in LTE and two-temperature plasmas. The standard equations for modelling thermal plasmas are presented and contrasted with those used for non-equilibrium plasmas. Treatments of mixed-gas and non-LTE plasmas are considered, as well as the sheath regions adjacent to electrodes. Finally, the main methods used for electrical, optical, spectroscopic and laser diagnostics of thermal plasmas are briefly introduced, with an emphasis on the required assumptions for their reliable implementation, and the specific requirements of thermal plasmas.

  10. Self-organization process of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma in the presence of thermal conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Shao-ping; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya; Watanabe, K.; Hayashi, T.; Todo, Y.; Watanabe, T.H.; Kageyama, A.; Takamaru, H.

    1995-12-01

    A self-organization process of a magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) plasma with a finite thermal conductivity is investigated by means of a three-dimensional MHD simulation. With no thermal conduction an MHD system self-organizes to a non-Taylor's state in which the electric current perpendicular to the magnetic field remains comparable to the parallel electric current. In the presence of thermal conductivity the perpendicular component of electric current and the nonuniformity of thermal pressure generated by driven reconnection tend to be smoothened. Thus, the self-organized state approaches to a force-free minimum energy state under the influence of thermal conduction. Detailed energy conversion processes are also studied to find that the rapid decay of magnetic energy during the self-organization process is caused not only through the ohmic heating, but also through the work done by the j x B force. (author)

  11. Improving electrical conductivity in polycarbonate nanocomposites using highly conductive PEDOT/PSS coated MWCNTs

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian

    2013-07-10

    We describe a strategy to design highly electrically conductive polycarbonate nanocomposites by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) coated with a thin layer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/ poly(styrenesulfonate), a conductive polymer. We found that this coating method improves the electrical properties of the nanocomposites in two ways. First, the coating becomes the main electrical conductive path. Second, the coating promotes the formation of a percolation network at a low filler concentration (0.3 wt %). To tailor the electrical properties of the conductive polymer coating, we used a polar solvent ethylene glycol, and we can tune the final properties of the nanocomposite by controlling the concentrations of the elementary constituents or the intrinsic properties of the conductive polymer coating. This very flexible technique allows for tailoring the properties of the final product. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Emission spectroscopy of highly ionized high-temperature plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belevtsev, A A; Chinnov, V F; Isakaev, E Kh [Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences Izhorskaya 13/19, Moscow, 125412 (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-01

    This paper deals with advanced studies on the optical emission spectroscopy of atmospheric pressure highly ionized high-temperature argon and nitrogen plasma jets generated by a powerful arc plasmatron. The emission spectra are taken in the 200-1000 nm range with a spectral resolution of {approx}0.01-0.02 nm. The exposure times are 6 x 10{sup -6}-2 x 10{sup -2} s, the spatial resolution is 0.02-0.03 mm. The recorded jet spectra are abundant in spectral lines originating from different ionization stages. In nitrogen plasmas, tens of vibronic bands are also observed. To interpret and process these spectra such that plasma characteristics can be derived, a purpose-developed automated processing system is applied. The use of a CCD camera at the spectrograph output allows a simultaneous recording of the spectral and chord intensity distributions of spectral lines, which can yet belong to the overlapped spectra of the first and second orders of interference. The modern optical diagnostic means and methods used permit the determination of spatial distributions of electron number densities and temperatures and evaluation of rotational temperatures. The radial profiles of the irradiating plasma components can also be obtained. Special attention is given to the method of deriving rotational temperatures using vibronic bands with an incompletely identified rotational structure.

  13. High thermal conductivity lossy dielectric using a multi layer configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Kiggans, Jr., James O.

    2003-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for loss dielectrics. A loss dielectric includes at least one high dielectric loss layer and at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. A method of manufacturing a loss dielectric includes providing at least one high dielectric loss layer and providing at least one high thermal conductivity-electrically insulating layer adjacent the at least one high dielectric loss layer. The systems and methods provide advantages because the loss dielectrics are less costly and more environmentally friendly than the available alternatives.

  14. Electrical conductivity of highly ionized dense hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.; Guenther, K.

    1976-01-01

    A diagnostic technique for the determination of pressure, temperature and its radial distribution, the strength of the electric field and the current of a wall-stabilized pulse hydrogen arc at a pressure of 10 atm and a maximum power of 120 kW/cm arc length is developed. (author)

  15. Long conduction time plasma opening switch experiments at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, M.E.; Simpson, W.W.; Cooper, G.W.; Usher, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce the size and cost of large pulsed power drivers. The program basis is inductive energy storage and Plasma Opening Switches (POS). Inductive energy storage has well known advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced stress on the vacuum interface. The Sandia approach is to retain the reliable and efficient Marx generator and the temporal pulse compression of the water dielectric capacitor. A triggered closing switch, developed at Sandia, transfers the capacitor charge into the energy storage inductor. This approach has several advantages, including relaxed requirements on Marx jitter and inductance, and much faster current risetime in the energy storage inductor. The POS itself is the key to the Sandia program. The switch design uses an auxiliary magnetic field to inject the plasma and hold it in place during conduction. After opening begins, the self magnetic field of the power pulse pushes on the plasma to increase the opened gap. The authors use magnetic pressure because they desire POS gaps of several cm. Typical plasma opening switches do not achieve large gaps. Improved opening allows more efficient transfer to loads. They present results from recent experiments at Sandia. Their driver presently supplies 650 kA with a 240 ns risetime to the input of the POS. The storage inductor is a 17 Ohm magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) that is five meters long. They discuss the ways in which magnetic field influences the POS, and the ways in which they control the magnetic fields

  16. High thermal conductivity connector having high electrical isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, Ralph C.; Gonczy, John D.; Nicol, Thomas H.

    1995-01-01

    A method and article for providing a low-thermal-resistance, high-electrical-isolation heat intercept connection. The connection method involves clamping, by thermal interference fit, an electrically isolating cylinder between an outer metallic ring and an inner metallic disk. The connection provides durable coupling of a heat sink and a heat source.

  17. Magnetogravitational stability of resistive plasma through porous medium with thermal conduction and FLR corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaghela, D.S.; Chhajlani, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of stability of self gravitating magnetized plasma in porous medium is studied incorporating electrical resistivity, thermal conduction and FLR corrections. Normal mode analysis is applied to derive the dispersion relation. Wave propagation is discussed for parallel and perpendicular directions to the magnetic field. Applying Routh Hurwitz Criterion the stability of the medium is discussed and it is found that Jeans' criterion determines the stability of the medium. Magnetic field, porosity and resistivity of the medium have no effect on Jeans' Criterion in longitudinal direction. For perpendicular direction, in case of resistive medium Jeans' expression remains unaffected by magnetic field but for perfectly conducting medium magnetic field modifies the Jeans' expression to show the stabilizing effect. Thermal conductivity affects the sonic mode by making the process isothermal instead of adiabatic. Porosity of the medium is effective only in case of perpendicular direction to magnetic field for perfectly conducting plasma as it reduces the stabilizing effect of magnetic field. For longitudinal wave propagation, though Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) corrections have no effect on sonic mode but it changes the growth rate for Alfven mode. For transverse wave propagation FLR corrections and porosity affect the Jeans' expression in case of non-viscous medium but viscosity of the medium removes the effect of FLR and porosity on Jeans' condition. (author)

  18. Fluid simulation of the conduction phase of the plasma erosion opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, J.M.; Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The conduction phase of the plasma erosion openings switch (PEOS) is studied using a 1 1/2-D electromagnetic two-fluid code. The focus of this work is on understanding how two effects, a current-limiting model of electron emission, and the magnetic insulation of electrons at the cathode, determine current conduction in the plasma. Simulations are performed in the parameter regimes of the Gamble I, POP, and PBFA II pulsed power generators, and previous low-density, short-rise time simulations of the PEOS. Fluid code results are compared to a 1-D analytic theory and to the Gamble I and POP experiments. Good agreement between theory and simulation, but mixed agreement between simulation and experiment is found. Experimental Β-field measurements on POP show weaker j x Β compression than the simulation. Current penetration and plasma current channels qualitatively similar to experimental observation are found in the Gamble I regime. However, magnetic insulation of electrons emitted from the cathode bunches the electron flow into narrower current channels than observed experimentally. In several cases, the presence of an electron-scattering or energy-loss mechanism near the cathode must be invoked to overcome magnetic insulation and widen the current channels

  19. Time-resolved probing of electron thermal conduction in femtosecond-laser-pulse-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vue, B.T.V.

    1993-06-01

    We present time-resolved measurements of reflectivity, transmissivity and frequency shifts of probe light interacting with the rear of a disk-like plasma produced by irradiation of a transparent solid target with 0.1ps FWHM laser pulses at peak intensity 5 x 10 l4 W/CM 2 . Experimental results show a large increase in reflection, revealing rapid formation of a steep gradient and overdense surface plasma layer during the first picosecond after irradiation. Frequency shifts due to a moving ionization created by thermal conduction into the solid target are recorded. Calculations using a nonlinear thermal heat wave model show good agreement with the measured frequency shifts, further confining the strong thermal transport effect

  20. Open cell conducting foams for high synchrotron radiation accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Petracca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The possible use of open cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerators is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  1. Microstructural characterization of high strength and high conductivity nanocomposite wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, F.; Snoeck, E.; Casanove, M.J.; Roucau, C.; Peyrade, J.P.; Askenazy, S.; Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, Toulouse

    1996-01-01

    The generation of high pulsed magnetic fields by non-destructive magnets is a subject of research in several laboratories in the world. Combining copper and niobium seems to be a promising way to develop composites for such application. CuNb nanofilamentary wires with interesting mechanical properties for non-destructive magnets were obtained. For heavily deformed nanofilamentary wires, the fiber size decreases and the TEM studies reveal a strong fiber-matrix orientation relationship. The Cu/Nb interfaces become semi-coherent and almost completely relaxed, with a distance between misfit dislocations in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. As lowering the filament section improves the mechanical properties, one may expect to elaborate wires with larger numbers of dilaments exhibiting enhanced mechanical properties. The subsequent reduction of the filament section may lead to the formation of mono-crystalline Nb fibers and to perfect coherency of the Cu/Nb interfaces over larger distances

  2. Optimizing Compliance and Thermal Conductivity of Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings via Controlled Powders and Processing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Srinivasan, Vasudevan; Nakamura, Toshio; Sampath, Sanjay; Bertrand, Pierre; Bertrand, Ghislaine

    2012-09-01

    The properties and performance of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are strongly dependent on the microstructural defects, which are affected by starting powder morphology and processing conditions. Of particular interest is the use of hollow powders which not only allow for efficient melting of zirconia ceramics but also produce lower conductivity and more compliant coatings. Typical industrial hollow spray powders have an assortment of densities resulting in masking potential advantages of the hollow morphology. In this study, we have conducted process mapping strategies using a novel uniform shell thickness hollow powder to control the defect microstructure and properties. Correlations among coating properties, microstructure, and processing reveal feasibility to produce highly compliant and low conductivity TBC through a combination of optimized feedstock and processing conditions. The results are presented through the framework of process maps establishing correlations among process, microstructure, and properties and providing opportunities for optimization of TBCs.

  3. Minimizing energy losses in perovskite solar cells using plasma-treated transparent conducting layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dao, Van-Duong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Larina, Liudmila L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Solar Photovoltaics, Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Choi, Ho-Suk, E-mail: hchoi@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-30

    This study reports for increasing the efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by modifying the surface of a fluorine-doped indium tin oxide (FTO) substrate using an atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Surface modification of the FTO film involved several challenges, such as control of the blocking layer uniformity, removal of pinholes, and deposition of a dense layer. This strategy allows the suppression of charge recombination at the interface between the FTO substrate and hole conductor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that the plasma treatment increased the charge transfer resistance between the FTO and hole conductor from 95.1 to 351.1 Ω, indicating enhanced resistance to the electron back reaction. Analyses of the open-circuit photovoltage decay revealed that modification of the surface of the FTO substrate by plasma treatment increased time constant from 6.44 ms to 13.15 ms. The effect is ascribed to suppression of the electron recombination rate. PSCs based on the newly developed electrode had 39% higher efficiency than reference devices. The obtained results provide direct evidence in favor of the developed strategy. - Highlights: • Plasma treatment of FTO glass effectively increases the efficiency of PSCs. • The surface becomes superhydrophilic after plasma treatment. • The superhydrophilic surface provides uniform and pinhole-free coverage of TiO{sub 2} BL. • The transmittance of the plasma-treated FTO/BL is higher than the pristine FTO/BL. • The electron recombination is reduced due to its high quality of TiO{sub 2} BL.

  4. Super-high magnetic fields in spatially inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastoyashchiy, Anatoly F.

    2012-01-01

    The new phenomenon of a spontaneous magnetic field in spatially inhomogeneous plasma is found. The criteria for instability are determined, and both the linear and nonlinear stages of the magnetic field growth are considered; it is shown that the magnetic field can reach a considerable magnitude, namely, its pressure can be comparable with the plasma pressure. Especially large magnetic fields can arise in hot plasma with a high electron density, for example, in laser-heated plasma. In steady-state plasma, the magnetic field can be self-sustaining. The considered magnetic fields may play an important role in thermal insulation of the plasma. (author)

  5. A nonconjugated radical polymer glass with high electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yongho; Agarkar, Varad; Sung, Seung Hyun; Savoie, Brett M.; Boudouris, Bryan W.

    2018-03-01

    Solid-state conducting polymers usually have highly conjugated macromolecular backbones and require intentional doping in order to achieve high electrical conductivities. Conversely, single-component, charge-neutral macromolecules could be synthetically simpler and have improved processibility and ambient stability. We show that poly(4-glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl), a nonconjugated radical polymer with a subambient glass transition temperature, underwent rapid solid-state charge transfer reactions and had an electrical conductivity of up to 28 siemens per meter over channel lengths up to 0.6 micrometers. The charge transport through the radical polymer film was enabled with thermal annealing at 80°C, which allowed for the formation of a percolating network of open-shell sites in electronic communication with one another. The electrical conductivity was not enhanced by intentional doping, and thin films of this material showed high optical transparency.

  6. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Nicholas J.; Davidson, Howard L.; Kerns, John A.; Makowiecki, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  7. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  8. Integrated plasma control for high performance tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Deranian, R.D.; Ferron, J.R.; Johnson, R.D.; LaHaye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Sustaining high performance in a tokamak requires controlling many equilibrium shape and profile characteristics simultaneously with high accuracy and reliability, while suppressing a variety of MHD instabilities. Integrated plasma control, the process of designing high-performance tokamak controllers based on validated system response models and confirming their performance in detailed simulations, provides a systematic method for achieving and ensuring good control performance. For present-day devices, this approach can greatly reduce the need for machine time traditionally dedicated to control optimization, and can allow determination of high-reliability controllers prior to ever producing the target equilibrium experimentally. A full set of tools needed for this approach has recently been completed and applied to present-day devices including DIII-D, NSTX and MAST. This approach has proven essential in the design of several next-generation devices including KSTAR, EAST, JT-60SC, and ITER. We describe the method, results of design and simulation tool development, and recent research producing novel approaches to equilibrium and MHD control in DIII-D. (author)

  9. Symmetry of the complete second-order nonlinear conductivity tensor for an unmagnetized relativistic turbulent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new exact symmetry is proved for the complete second-order nonlinear conductivity tensor of an unmagnetized relativistic turbulent plasma. The symmetry is not limited to principal parts. If Cerenkov resonance is ignored, the new symmetry reduces to the well-known symmetry related to the Manley--Rowe relations, crossing symmetry, and nondissipation of the principal part of the nonlinear current. Also, a new utilitarian representation for the complete tensor is obtained in which all derivatives are removed and the pole structure is clearly exhibited

  10. The effect of electron thermal conduction on plasma pressure gradient during reconnection of magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1987-12-01

    The interplay of electron cross-field thermal conduction and the reconnection of magnetic field lines around an m = 1 magnetic island prior to a sawtooth crash can generate a large pressure gradient in a boundary layer adjacent to the reconnecting surface, leading to an enhanced gradient of poloidal beta to satisfy the threshold condition for ideal MHD modes. This narrow boundary layer and the short onset time of a sawtooth crash can be supported by fine-grained turbulent processes in a tokamak plasma. 11 refs

  11. Structure of slow shocks in a magnetized plasma with heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.L.; Tsai, R.H.; Wu, B.H.; Lee, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of slow shocks in the presence of a heat conduction parallel to the local magnetic field is simulated from the set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. In this study, a pair of slow shocks is formed through the evolution of a current sheet initiated by the presence of a normal magnetic field. It is found that the slow shock consists of two parts: The isothermal main shock and foreshock. Significant jumps in plasma density, velocity and magnetic field occur across the main shock, but the temperature is found to be continuous across the main shock. The foreshock is featured by a smooth temperature variation and is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream region. The plasma density downstream of the main shock decreases with time, while the downstream temperature increases with time, keeping the downstream pressure constant. It is shown that the jumps in plasma density, pressure, velocity, and magnetic field across the main shock are determined by the set of modified isothermal Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. It is also found that a jump in the temperature gradient is present across the main shock in order to satisfy the energy conservation. The present results can be applied to the heating in the solar corona and solar wind

  12. Calculation of the neoclassical conductivity of plasma and fraction of trapped particles for elongated Damavand Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, F.; Khorasani, S.

    2007-01-01

    Configuration of Tokamak plasma has a dominant effect on its parameters. In the calculation of transport, there are some transport coefficients and quantities, where the knowledge of their precise values, according to the system of equations, is essential to be realized. Tokamak has a toroidal configuration, in addition to classical effects, it is necessary to study the neoclassical effects due to the field curvature. The trapped particles in strong electromagnetic fields oscillate on banana-shaped orbits which in turn affect many other collisional transport parameters. Here, a precise estimation of trapped particles based on the standard equilibrium model for an elliptical shape of Tokamak plasma has been carried out using Lin-Liu model. It should be added that in this calculation, the profile of the averaged magnetic field on the flux surfaces has been derived using analytical integration and consideration of an elliptic shape for ellipticity function in the limit of large aspect ratio and zero shift of magnetic flux surfaces. Having the fraction of the trapped particles, by ,following the formulation and using an appropriate model in various collisional regimes, the neoclassical conductivity of plasma in Damavand Tokamak is obtained and the respective variations have been found. The presented results can exploit the computation of transport and other quantities of Damavand Tokamak

  13. High-Speed Imaging of Dusty Plasma Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawidian, H.; Mikikian, M.; Lecas, T.; Boufendi, L.; Coueedel, L.; Vallee, O.

    2011-01-01

    Dust particles in a plasma acquire negative charges by capturing electrons. If the dust particle density is high, a huge loss of free electrons can trigger unstable behaviors in the plasma. Several types of plasma behaviors are analyzed thanks to a high-speed camera like dust particle growth instabilities (DPGI) and a new phenomenon called plasma spheroids. These small plasma spheroids are about a few mm, have a slightly enhanced luminosity, and are observed in the vicinity of the electrodes. Different behaviors are identified for these spheroids like a rotational motion, or a chaotic regime (fast appearance and disappearance).

  14. High-Speed Imaging of Dusty Plasma Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawidian, H.; Couëdel, L.; Mikikian, M.; Lecas, T.; Boufendi, L.; Vallée, O.

    2011-11-01

    Dust particles in a plasma acquire negative charges by capturing electrons. If the dust particle density is high, a huge loss of free electrons can trigger unstable behaviors in the plasma. Several types of plasma behaviors are analyzed thanks to a high-speed camera like dust particle growth instabilities (DPGI) and a new phenomenon called plasma spheroids. These small plasma spheroids are about a few mm, have a slightly enhanced luminosity, and are observed in the vicinity of the electrodes. Different behaviors are identified for these spheroids like a rotational motion, or a chaotic regime (fast appearance and disappearance).

  15. Plasma conditions for non-Maxwellian electron distributions in high current discharges and laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, K.G.; Pulsifer, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    Results from the standard quasilinear theory of ion-acoustic and Langmuir plasma microturbulence are incorporated into the kinetic theory of the electron distribution function. The theory is then applied to high current discharges and laser-produced plasmas, where either the current flow or the nonlinear laser-light absorption acts, respectively, as the energy source for the microturbulence. More specifically, the theory is applied to a selenium plasma, whose charge state is determined under conditions of collisional-radiative equilibrium, and plasma conditions are found under which microturbulence strongly influences the electron kinetics. In selenium, we show that this influence extends over a wide range of plasma conditions. For ion-acoustic turbulence, a criterion is derived, analogous to one previously obtained for laser heated plasmas, that predicts when Ohmic heating dominates over electron-electron collisions. This dominance leads to the generation of electron distributions with reduced high-energy tails relative to a Maxwellian distribution of the same temperature. Ion-acoustic turbulence lowers the current requirements needed to generate these distributions. When the laser heating criterion is rederived with ion-acoustic turbulence included in the theory, a similar reduction in the laser intensity needed to produce non-Maxwellian distributions is found. Thus we show that ion-acoustic turbulence uniformly (i.e., by the same numerical factor) reduces the electrical and heat conductivities, as well as the current (squared) and laser intensity levels needed to drive the plasma into non-Maxwellian states

  16. High-throughput screening of ionic conductivity in polymer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Pedro; Basak, Pratyay; Carson Meredith, J.

    2009-01-01

    Combinatorial and high-throughput techniques have been successfully used for efficient and rapid property screening in multiple fields. The use of these techniques can be an advantageous new approach to assay ionic conductivity and accelerate the development of novel materials in research areas such as fuel cells. A high-throughput ionic conductivity (HTC) apparatus is described and applied to screening candidate polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications. The device uses a miniature four-point probe for rapid, automated point-to-point AC electrochemical impedance measurements in both liquid and humid air environments. The conductivity of Nafion 112 HTC validation standards was within 1.8% of the manufacturer's specification. HTC screening of 40 novel Kynar poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)/acrylic polyelectrolyte (PE) membranes focused on varying the Kynar type (5x) and PE composition (8x) using reduced sample sizes. Two factors were found to be significant in determining the proton conducting capacity: (1) Kynar PVDF series: membranes containing a particular Kynar PVDF type exhibited statistically identical mean conductivity as other membranes containing different Kynar PVDF types that belong to the same series or family. (2) Maximum effective amount of polyelectrolyte: increments in polyelectrolyte content from 55 wt% to 60 wt% showed no statistically significant effect in increasing conductivity. In fact, some membranes experienced a reduction in conductivity.

  17. Highly Confined Electronic and Ionic Conduction in Oxide Heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    The conductance confined at the interface of complex oxide heterostructures provides new opportunities to explore nanoelectronic as well as nanoionic devices. In this talk I will present our recent results both on ionic and electronic conductivity at different heterostructures systems. In the first...... unattainable for Bi2O3-based materials, is achieved[1]. These confined heterostructures provide a playground not only for new high ionic conductivity phenomena that are sufficiently stable but also uncover a large variety of possible technological perspectives. At the second part, I will discuss and show our...

  18. Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a partially ionized magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Bin; Wang Xiaogang

    2005-01-01

    Power absorption of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a uniformly magnetized plasma layer covering a highly conducting surface is studied under atmosphere conditions. It is assumed that the system consists of not only electrons and positive ions but negative ions as well. By a general formula derived in our previous work [B. Guo and X. G. Wang, Plasma Sci. Tech. 7, 2645 (2005)], the total power absorption in the plasma layer with multiple reflections between an air-plasma interface and the conducting surface is computed. The results show that although the existence of negative ions greatly reduces the total power absorption, the magnetization of the plasma can, however, partially enhance it. Parameter dependence of the effects is calculated and discussed

  19. Propagation of high frequency electrostatic surface waves along the planar interface between plasma and dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.

    2018-04-01

    An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.

  20. Thermal Conductivity Analysis and Lifetime Testing of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying (SPS has become an interesting method for the production of thermal barrier coatings for gas turbine components. The development of the SPS process has led to structures with segmented vertical cracks or column-like structures that can imitate strain-tolerant air plasma spraying (APS or electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD coatings. Additionally, SPS coatings can have lower thermal conductivity than EB-PVD coatings, while also being easier to produce. The combination of similar or improved properties with a potential for lower production costs makes SPS of great interest to the gas turbine industry. This study compares a number of SPS thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with vertical cracks or column-like structures with the reference of segmented APS coatings. The primary focus has been on lifetime testing of these new coating systems. Samples were tested in thermo-cyclic fatigue at temperatures of 1100 °C for 1 h cycles. Additional testing was performed to assess thermal shock performance and erosion resistance. Thermal conductivity was also assessed for samples in their as-sprayed state, and the microstructures were investigated using SEM.

  1. Research on high energy density plasmas and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Recently, technologies on lasers, accelerators, and pulse power machines have been significantly advanced and input power density covers the intensity range from 10 10 W/cm 2 to higher than 10 20 W/cm 2 . As the results, high pressure gas and solid targets can be heated up to very high temperature to create hot dense plasmas which have never appeared on the earth. The high energy density plasmas opened up new research fields such as inertial confinement fusion, high brightness X-ray radiation sources, interiors of galactic nucleus,supernova, stars and planets, ultra high pressure condensed matter physics, plasma particle accelerator, X-ray laser, and so on. Furthermore, since these fields are intimately connected with various industrial sciences and technologies, the high energy density plasma is now studied in industries, government institutions, and so on. This special issue of the Journal of Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research reviews the high energy density plasma science for the comprehensive understanding of such new fields. In May, 1998, the review committee for investigating the present status and the future prospects of high energy density plasma science was established in the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research. We held three committee meetings to discuss present status and critical issues of research items related to high energy density plasmas. This special issue summarizes the understandings of the committee. This special issue consists of four chapters: They are Chapter 1: Physics important in the high energy density plasmas, Chapter 2: Technologies related to the plasma generation; drivers such as lasers, pulse power machines, particle beams and fabrication of various targets, Chapter 3: Plasma diagnostics important in high energy density plasma experiments, Chapter 4: A variety of applications of high energy density plasmas; X-ray radiation, particle acceleration, inertial confinement fusion, laboratory astrophysics

  2. Atomic processes in high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    This review covers dense atomic plasmas such as that produced in inertial confinement fusion. The target implosion physics along with the associated atomic physics, i.e., free electron collision phenomena, electron states I, electron states II, and nonequilibrium plasma states are described

  3. High-Current Plasma Electron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushenets, J.Z.; Krokhmal, V.A.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Felsteiner, J.; Gushenets, V.

    2002-01-01

    In this report we present the design, electrical schemes and preliminary results of a test of 4 different electron plasma cathodes operating under Kg h-voltage pulses in a vacuum diode. The first plasma cathode consists of 6 azimuthally symmetrically distributed arc guns and a hollow anode having an output window covered by a metal grid. Plasma formation is initiated by a surface discharge over a ceramic washer placed between a W-made cathode and an intermediate electrode. Further plasma expansion leads to a redistribution of the discharge between the W-cathode and the hollow anode. An accelerating pulse applied between the output anode grid and the collector extracts electrons from this plasma. The operation of another plasma cathode design is based on Penning discharge for preliminary plasma formation. The main glow discharge occurs between an intermediate electrode of the Penning gun and the hollow anode. To keep the background pressure in the accelerating gap at P S 2.5x10 4 Torr either differential pumping or a pulsed gas puff valve were used. The operation of the latter electron plasma source is based on a hollow cathode discharge. To achieve a sharp pressure gradient between the cathode cavity and the accelerating gap a pulsed gas puff valve was used. A specially designed ferroelectric plasma cathode initiated plasma formation inside the hollow cathode. This type of the hollow cathode discharge ignition allowed to achieve a discharge current of 1.2 kA at a background pressure of 2x10 4 Torr. All these cathodes were developed and initially tested inside a planar diode with a background pressure S 2x10 4 Torr under the same conditions: accelerating voltage 180 - 300 kV, pulse duration 200 - 400 ns, electron beam current - 1 - 1.5 kA, and cross-sectional area of the extracted electron beam 113 cm 2

  4. Pulsed high-density plasmas for advanced dry etching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banna, Samer; Agarwal, Ankur; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Pargon, Erwine; Joubert, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Plasma etching processes at the 22 nm technology node and below will have to satisfy multiple stringent scaling requirements of microelectronics fabrication. To satisfy these requirements simultaneously, significant improvements in controlling key plasma parameters are essential. Pulsed plasmas exhibit considerable potential to meet the majority of the scaling challenges, while leveraging the broad expertise developed over the years in conventional continuous wave plasma processing. Comprehending the underlying physics and etching mechanisms in pulsed plasma operation is, however, a complex undertaking; hence the full potential of this strategy has not yet been realized. In this review paper, we first address the general potential of pulsed plasmas for plasma etching processes followed by the dynamics of pulsed plasmas in conventional high-density plasma reactors. The authors reviewed more than 30 years of academic research on pulsed plasmas for microelectronics processing, primarily for silicon and conductor etch applications, highlighting the potential benefits to date and challenges in extending the technology for mass-production. Schemes such as source pulsing, bias pulsing, synchronous pulsing, and others in conventional high-density plasma reactors used in the semiconductor industry have demonstrated greater flexibility in controlling critical plasma parameters such as ion and radical densities, ion energies, and electron temperature. Specifically, plasma pulsing allows for independent control of ion flux and neutral radicals flux to the wafer, which is key to eliminating several feature profile distortions at the nanometer scale. However, such flexibility might also introduce some difficulty in developing new etching processes based on pulsed plasmas. Therefore, the main characteristics of continuous wave plasmas and different pulsing schemes are compared to provide guidelines for implementing different schemes in advanced plasma etching processes based on

  5. Measurement of the Electrical Conductivity of He3 Plasma Induced by Neutron Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, J.; Nygaard, K.

    1966-03-01

    The conductivity of a He plasma created by the inelastic reaction with thermal neutrons: 3 He + n th -> 3 H + p + 0.76 MeV is studied as a function of neutron flux, gas temperature and gas density. Using reported values of the electron mobility the electron density is calculated from experimental conductivity values. Further, by accepting a reasonable value for the mean energy lost in creating one ion-pair, the recombination coefficient is estimated. The measurements performed so far cover temperatures between 300 - 1600 K and densities between 0.25 - 1 times the density at atmospheric pressure and 300 K. The neutron flux is varied between 10 10 - 10 11 n/cm 2 /s. As a sample of results achieved at 1600 K and the lowest density (corresponding to about atmospheric pressure) and the highest neutron flux the following values are obtained for the conductivity, the electron density and the recombination coefficient respectively: σ 0.2 S/m, n e 6x10 11 /cm 3 , α = 2xl0 -10 cm 3 /s. An extrapolation of data obtained shows that the concept of neutron induced conductivity should be attractive for MHD power generation

  6. Measurement of the Electrical Conductivity of He{sup 3} Plasma Induced by Neutron Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J; Nygaard, K

    1966-03-15

    The conductivity of a He plasma created by the inelastic reaction with thermal neutrons: {sup 3}He + n{sub th} -> {sup 3}H + p + 0.76 MeV is studied as a function of neutron flux, gas temperature and gas density. Using reported values of the electron mobility the electron density is calculated from experimental conductivity values. Further, by accepting a reasonable value for the mean energy lost in creating one ion-pair, the recombination coefficient is estimated. The measurements performed so far cover temperatures between 300 - 1600 K and densities between 0.25 - 1 times the density at atmospheric pressure and 300 K. The neutron flux is varied between 10{sup 10} - 10{sup 11} n/cm{sup 2}/s. As a sample of results achieved at 1600 K and the lowest density (corresponding to about atmospheric pressure) and the highest neutron flux the following values are obtained for the conductivity, the electron density and the recombination coefficient respectively: {sigma} 0.2 S/m, n{sub e} 6x10{sup 11}/cm{sup 3}, {alpha} = 2xl0{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s. An extrapolation of data obtained shows that the concept of neutron induced conductivity should be attractive for MHD power generation.

  7. Structure of intermediate shocks and slow shocks in a magnetized plasma with heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.L.; Wu, B.H.; Lee, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of slow shocks and intermediate shocks in the presence of a heat conduction parallel to the local magnetic field is simulated from the set of magnetohydrodynamic equations. This study is an extension of an earlier work [C. L. Tsai, R. H. Tsai, B. H. Wu, and L. C. Lee, Phys. Plasmas 9, 1185 (2002)], in which the effects of heat conduction are examined for the case that the tangential magnetic fields on the two side of initial current sheet are exactly antiparallel (B y =0). For the B y =0 case, a pair of slow shocks is formed as the result of evolution of the initial current sheet, and each slow shock consists of two parts: the isothermal main shock and the foreshock. In the present paper, cases with B y ≠0 are also considered, in which the evolution process leads to the presence of an additional pair of time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDISs). Across the main shock of the slow shock, jumps in plasma density, velocity, and magnetic field are significant, but the temperature is continuous. The plasma density downstream of the main shock decreases with time, while the downstream temperature increases with time, keeping the downstream pressure constant. The foreshock is featured by a smooth temperature variation and is formed due to the heat flow from downstream to upstream region. In contrast to the earlier study, the foreshock is found to reach a steady state with a constant width in the slow shock frame. In cases with B y ≠0, the plasma density and pressure increase and the magnetic field decreases across TDIS. The TDIS initially can be embedded in the slow shock's foreshock structure, and then moves out of the foreshock region. With an increasing B y , the propagation speed of foreshock leading edge tends to decrease and the foreshock reaches its steady state at an earlier time. Both the pressure and temperature downstreams of the main shock decrease with increasing B y . The results can be applied to the shock heating in the solar corona and

  8. High temperature heat capacities and electrical conductivities of boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Tsuneo; Arita, Yuri; Naito, Keiji; Imai, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    The heat capacities and the electrical conductivities of B x C(x=3, 4, 5) were measured by means of direct heating pulse calorimetry in the temperature range from 300 to 1500 K. The heat capacities of B x C increased with increasing x value. This increase in the heat capacity is probably related to the change of the lattice vibration mode originated from the reduction of the stiffness of the intericosahedral chain accompanied with a change from C-B-C to C-B-B chains. A linear relationship between the logarithm of σT (σ is the electrical conductivity and T is the absolute temperature) of B x C and the reciprocal temperature was observed, indicating the presence of small polaron hopping as the predominant conduction mechanism. The electrical conductivity of B x C also increased with increasing x value (from 4 to 5) due to an increase of the polaron hopping of holes between carbon atoms at geometrically nonequivalent sites, since these nonequivalent sites of carbon atoms were considered to increase in either B 11 C icosahedra or in icosahedral chains with increasing x. The electrical conductivity of B 3 C was higher than that of B 4 C, which is probably due to the precipitation of high-conducting carbon. The thermal conductivity and the thermodynamic quantities of B 4 C were also determined precisely from the heat capacity value. (orig.)

  9. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-10-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications.

  10. Survey of Processing Methods for High Strength High Conductivity Wires for High Field Magnet Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will deal with the basic concepts of attaining combination of high strength and high conductivity in pure materials, in-situ composites and macrocomposites. It will survey current attainments, and outline where some future developments may lie in developing wire products that are close to the theoretical strength of future magnet applications

  11. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  12. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3 exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure δ-Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ, deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3/YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value of the pure δ-Bi2O3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk.

  13. High ionic conductivity in confined bismuth oxide-based heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanna, Simone; Esposito, Vincenzo; Christensen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    Bismuth trioxide in the cubic fluorite phase (δ-Bi2O3) exhibits the highest oxygen ionic conductivity. In this study, we were able to stabilize the pure -Bi2O3 at low temperature with no addition of stabilizer but only by engineering the interface, using highly coherent heterostructures made...... of alternative layers of δ-Bi2O3 and Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The resulting [δ-Bi2O3=YSZ] heterostructures are found to be stable over a wide temperature range (500-750 °C) and exhibits stable high ionic conductivity over a long time comparable to the value...... of the pure δ-Bi2O3, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the conductivity of YSZ bulk....

  14. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Shozo

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  15. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  16. Universal Scaling in Highly Doped Conducting Polymer Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A. J.; Huisman, E. H.; Katsouras, I.; van Hal, P. A.; Geuns, T. C. T.; Blom, P. W. M.; van der Molen, S. J.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  17. Universal scaling in highly doped conducting polymer films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronemeijer, A.J.; Huisman, E.H.; Katsouras, I.; Hal, P.A. van; Geuns, T.C.T.; Blom, P.W.M.; Molen, S.J. van der; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2010-01-01

    Electrical transport of a highly doped disordered conducting polymer, viz. poly-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene stabilized with poly-4-styrenesulphonic acid, is investigated as a function of bias and temperature. The transport shows universal power-law scaling with both bias and temperature. All

  18. Free-standing nanocomposites with high conductivity and extensibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kyoung-Yong; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Kim, Youn Tae; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Aliev, Ali E; Baughman, Ray H

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of electronic circuits that are stretchable and bendable promises tantalizing applications such as skin-like electronics, roll-up displays, conformable sensors and actuators, and lightweight solar cells. The preparation of highly conductive and highly extensible materials remains a challenge for mass production applications, such as free-standing films or printable composite inks. Here we present a nanocomposite material consisting of carbon nanotubes, ionic liquid, silver nanoparticles, and polystyrene–polyisoprene–polystyrene having a high electrical conductivity of 3700 S cm −1 that can be stretched to 288% without permanent damage. The material is prepared as a concentrated dispersion suitable for simple processing into free-standing films. For the unstrained state, the measured thermal conductivity for the electronically conducting elastomeric nanoparticle film is relatively high and shows a non-metallic temperature dependence consistent with phonon transport, while the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity is metallic. We connect an electric fan to a DC power supply using the films to demonstrate their utility as an elastomeric electronic interconnect. The huge strain sensitivity and the very low temperature coefficient of resistivity suggest their applicability as strain sensors, including those that operate directly to control motors and other devices. (paper)

  19. Highly Conductive and Reliable Copper-Filled Isotropically Conductive Adhesives Using Organic Acids for Oxidation Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Deng, Dunying; Cheng, Yuanrong; Xiao, Fei

    2015-07-01

    The easy oxidation of copper is one critical obstacle to high-performance copper-filled isotropically conductive adhesives (ICAs). In this paper, a facile method to prepare highly reliable, highly conductive, and low-cost ICAs is reported. The copper fillers were treated by organic acids for oxidation prevention. Compared with ICA filled with untreated copper flakes, the ICA filled with copper flakes treated by different organic acids exhibited much lower bulk resistivity. The lowest bulk resistivity achieved was 4.5 × 10-5 Ω cm, which is comparable to that of commercially available Ag-filled ICA. After 500 h of 85°C/85% relative humidity (RH) aging, the treated ICAs showed quite stable bulk resistivity and relatively stable contact resistance. Through analyzing the results of x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, we found that, with the assistance of organic acids, the treated copper flakes exhibited resistance to oxidation, thus guaranteeing good performance.

  20. Spectroscopic diagnostics of high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, W.

    1990-01-01

    A three-year research program for the development of novel XUV spectroscopic diagnostics for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is proposed. The new diagnostic system will use layered synthetic microstructures (LSM) coated, flat and curved surfaces as dispersive elements in spectrometers and narrow band XUV filter arrays. In the framework of the proposed program we will develop impurity monitors for poloidal and toroidal resolved measurements on PBX-M and Alcator C-Mod, imaging XUV spectrometers for electron density and temperature fluctuation measurements in the hot plasma core in TEXT or other similar tokamaks and plasma imaging devices in soft x-ray light for impurity behavior studies during RF heating on Phaedrus T and carbon pellet ablation in Alcator C-Mod. Recent results related to use of multilayer in XUV plasma spectroscopy are presented. We also discuss the latest results reviewed to q o and local poloidal field measurements using Zeeman polarimetry

  1. Three dimensional equilibrium solutions for a current-carrying reversed-field pinch plasma with a close-fitting conducting shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koliner, J. J.; Boguski, J., E-mail: boguski@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J. R.; Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cianciosa, M. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hanson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFP plasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit B{sub θ} measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreement between each other and the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of B{sub θ} at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.

  2. Computational Simulation of High Energy Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-30

    the imploding liner. The PFS depends on a lithium barrier foil slowing the advance of deuterium up the coaxial gun to the corner. There the plasma ...the coaxial gun section, and Figure 4 shows the physical state of the plasma just prior to pinch. Figure 5 shows neutron yield reaching 1014 in this...details the channel geometry between the center cylinder and coaxial gas gun . The deuterium injection starts when the pressure of the deuterium gas in

  3. Thermal conductivity reduction of tungsten plasma facing material due to helium plasma irradiation in PISCES using the improved 3-omega method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Shuang [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Simmonds, Michael [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Qin, Wenjing; Ren, Feng [School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Tynan, George R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Doerner, Russell P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Chen, Renkun, E-mail: rkchen@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The near-surface region of plasma facing material (PFM) plays an important role in thermal management of fusion reactors. In this work, we measured thermal conductivity of tungsten (W) surface layers damaged by He plasma in PISCES at UCSD. We studied the damage effect on both bulk, and thin film, W. We observed that the surface morphology of both bulk and thin film was altered after exposure to He plasma with the fluence of 1 × 10{sup 26} m{sup −2} (bulk) and 2 × 10{sup 24} m{sup −2} (thin film). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals that the depth of the irradiation damaged layer was approximately 20 nm on the bulk W exposed to He plasma at 773 K for 2000 s. In order to measure the thermal conductivity of this exceedingly thin damaged layer in the bulk W, we adopted the well-established ‘3-omega’ method and employed novel nanofabrication techniques to improve the measurement sensitivity. For the damaged W thin film sample, we measured the reduction in electrical conductivity and used the Wiedemann-Franz (W-F) law to extract the thermal conductivity. Results from both measurements show that thermal conductivity in the damaged layers was reduced by at least ∼80% compared to that of undamaged W. This large reduction in thermal conductivity can be attributed to the scattering of electrons, the dominant heat carriers in W, caused by defects introduced by He plasma irradiation.

  4. Temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance in Josephson tunnel junctions determined from plasma resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, N.F.; Soerensen, O.H.; Mygind, J.

    1978-01-01

    The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency f/sub p/ as the temperature is decreased from T/sub c/. We used three different schemes for observation of the plasma oscillations: (a) second-harmonic generation (excitation at approx. 4.5 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 4.5 GHz); (b) mixing (excitations at approx. 9 and approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz); (c) parametric half-harmonic oscillation (excitation at approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz). Measurements were possible in two temperature intervals; 0.994 or = T/T/sub c/ > or = 0.930, with the result that as the temperature was decreased the cosphi amplitude first increased from about zero to positive values and then at lower temperatures decreased approaching -1 at the lowest temperatures of the experiment

  5. Highly Transparent and Conductive Metallized Nanofibers by Electrospinning and Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sam S.; Yarin, Alexander L.

    2017-11-01

    Transparent conducting films (TCFs) and transparent heaters (THs) are of interest for a wide variety of applications, from displays to window defrosters. Here, we demonstrate production of highly flexible, conducting, and transparent copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), and silver (Ag) nanofibers suitable for use not only in TCFs and THs but also in some other engineering applications. The merging of fibers at their intersections (i.e. self-junctioning) minimizes contact resistance in these films. These metallized nanofibers exhibited a remarkably low sheet resistance at a high optical transmittance. This low sheet resistance allows them to serve as low-voltage heaters, achieving a high heating temperature at a relatively low applied voltage. These nanofibers are free-standing, flexible, stretchable, and their mechanical reliability was confirmed through various mechanical endurance tests.

  6. Conducting polymer nanowire arrays for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Wu, Haiping; Meng, Yuena; Wei, Zhixiang

    2014-01-15

    This Review provides a brief summary of the most recent research developments in the fabrication and application of one-dimensional ordered conducting polymers nanostructure (especially nanowire arrays) and their composites as electrodes for supercapacitors. By controlling the nucleation and growth process of polymerization, aligned conducting polymer nanowire arrays and their composites with nano-carbon materials can be prepared by employing in situ chemical polymerization or electrochemical polymerization without a template. This kind of nanostructure (such as polypyrrole and polyaniline nanowire arrays) possesses high capacitance, superior rate capability ascribed to large electrochemical surface, and an optimal ion diffusion path in the ordered nanowire structure, which is proved to be an ideal electrode material for high performance supercapacitors. Furthermore, flexible, micro-scale, threadlike, and multifunctional supercapacitors are introduced based on conducting polyaniline nanowire arrays and their composites. These prototypes of supercapacitors utilize the high flexibility, good processability, and large capacitance of conducting polymers, which efficiently extend the usage of supercapacitors in various situations, and even for a complicated integration system of different electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  8. Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, L.

    2009-12-07

    Paper, invented more than 2,000 years ago and widely used today in our everyday lives, is explored in this study as a platform for energy-storage devices by integration with 1D nanomaterials. Here, we show that commercially available paper can be made highly conductive with a sheet resistance as low as 1 ohm per square (Omega/sq) by using simple solution processes to achieve conformal coating of single-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and silver nanowire films. Compared with plastics, paper substrates can dramatically improve film adhesion, greatly simplify the coating process, and significantly lower the cost. Supercapacitors based on CNT-conductive paper show excellent performance. When only CNT mass is considered, a specific capacitance of 200 F/g, a specific energy of 30-47 Watt-hour/kilogram (Wh/kg), a specific power of 200,000 W/kg, and a stable cycling life over 40,000 cycles are achieved. These values are much better than those of devices on other flat substrates, such as plastics. Even in a case in which the weight of all of the dead components is considered, a specific energy of 7.5 Wh/kg is achieved. In addition, this conductive paper can be used as an excellent lightweight current collector in lithium-ion batteries to replace the existing metallic counterparts. This work suggests that our conductive paper can be a highly scalable and low-cost solution for high-performance energy storage devices.

  9. Highly Supersonic Ion Pulses in a Collisionless Magnetized Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Schrittwieser, R.

    1982-01-01

    The initial transient response of a collisionless plasma to a high positive voltage step is investigated. Four different pulses are observed. An electron plasma wave pulse is followed by an ion burst. The latter is overtaken and absorbed by a highly supersonic ion pulse. Thereafter, an ion...

  10. Analysis of plasma channels in mm-scale plasmas formed by high intensity laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, R; Habara, H; Iwawaki, T; Uematsu, Y; Tanaka, K A; Ivancic, S; Anderson, K; Haberberger, D; Stoeckl, C; Theobald, W; Sakagami, H

    2016-01-01

    A plasma channel created by a high intensity infrared laser beam was observed in a long scale-length plasma (L ∼ 240 μm) with the angular filter refractometry technique, which indicated a stable channel formation up to the critical density. We analyzed the observed plasma channel using a rigorous ray-tracing technique, which provides a deep understanding of the evolution of the channel formation. (paper)

  11. Highly Conductive Nano-Silver Circuits by Inkjet Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongbin; Wu, Minqiang

    2018-06-01

    Inkjet technology has become popular in the field of printed electronics due to its superior properties such as simple processes and printable complex patterns. Electrical conductivity of the circuits is one of the key factors in measuring the performance of printed electronics, which requires great material properties and a manufactured process. With excellent conductivity and ductility, silver is an ideal material as the wire connecting components. This review summarizes the progress of conductivity studies on inkjet printed nano-silver lines, including ink composition and nanoparticle morphology, deposition of nano-silver lines with uniform and high aspect ratios, sintering mechanisms and alternative methods of thermal sintering. Finally, the research direction on inkjet printed electronics is proposed.

  12. High electron thermal conductivity of chiral carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Nkrumah, George; Mensah, N.G.

    2003-11-01

    Solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation with energy dispersion relation obtained in the tight binding approximation, the carrier thermal conductivity κ e of a chiral carbon nanotube (CCNT) was determined. The dependence of κ e on temperature T, chiral geometric angle φ h and overlap integrals Δ z and Δ s were obtained. The results were numerically analysed. Unusually high values of κ e were observed suggesting that ne is nontrivial in the calculation of the thermal conductivity κ of CCNT. More interestingly we noted also that at 104 K and for Δ z and Δ s values of 0.020 eV and 0.0150 eV respectively the κ e value is about 41000 W/mK as reported for a 99.9% pure 12 C crystal. We predict that the electron thermal conductivity of CCNT should exceed 200,000 W/mK at ∼ 80 K. (author)

  13. PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  14. Development of high energy pulsed plasma simulator for plasma-lithium trench experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soonwook

    To simulate detrimental events in a tokamak and provide a test-stand for a liquid lithium infused trench (LiMIT) device, a pulsed plasma source utilizing a theta pinch in conjunction with a coaxial plasma accelerator has been developed. An overall objective of the project is to develop a compact device that can produce 100 MW/m2 to 1 GW/m2 of plasma heat flux (a typical heat flux level in a major fusion device) in ~ 100 mus (≤ 0.1 MJ/m2) for a liquid lithium plasma facing component research. The existing theta pinch device, DEVeX, was built and operated for study on lithium vapor shielding effect. However, a typical plasma energy of 3 - 4 kJ/m2 is too low to study an interaction of plasma and plasma facing components in fusion devices. No or little preionized plasma, ringing of magnetic field, collisions of high energy particles with background gas have been reported as the main issues. Therefore, DEVeX is reconfigured to mitigate these issues. The new device is mainly composed of a plasma gun for a preionization source, a theta pinch for heating, and guiding magnets for a better plasma transportation. Each component will be driven by capacitor banks and controlled by high voltage / current switches. Several diagnostics including triple Langmuir probe, calorimeter, optical emission measurement, Rogowski coil, flux loop, and fast ionization gauge are used to characterize the new device. A coaxial plasma gun is manufactured and installed in the previous theta pinch chamber. The plasma gun is equipped with 500 uF capacitor and a gas puff valve. The increase of the plasma velocity with the plasma gun capacitor voltage is consistent with the theoretical predictions and the velocity is located between the snowplow model and the weak - coupling limit. Plasma energies measured with the calorimeter ranges from 0.02 - 0.065 MJ/m2 and increases with the voltage at the capacitor bank. A cross-check between the plasma energy measured with the calorimeter and the triple probe

  15. Evaporation of carbon using electrons of a high density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhl, S.; Camps, E.; Escobar A, L.; Garcia E, J.L.; Olea, O.

    1999-01-01

    The high density plasmas are used frequently in the preparation of thin films or surface modification, for example to nitridation. In these processes, are used mainly the ions and the neutrals which compose the plasma. However, the electrons present in the plasma are not used, except in the case of chemical reactions induced by collisions, although the electron bombardment usually get hot the work piece. Through the adequate polarization of a conductor material, it is possible to extract electrons from a high density plasma at low pressure, that could be gotten the evaporation of this material. As result of the interaction between the plasma and the electron flux with the vapor produced, this last will be ionized. In this work, it is reported the use of this novelty arrangement to prepare carbon thin films using a high density argon plasma and a high purity graphite bar as material to evaporate. It has been used substrates outside plasma and immersed in the plasma. Also it has been reported the plasma characteristics (temperature and electron density, energy and ions flux), parameters of the deposit process (deposit rate and ion/neutral rate) as well as the properties of the films obtained (IR absorption spectra and UV/Vis, elemental analysis, hardness and refractive index. (Author)

  16. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in rapidly heated high energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, V.; Tallents, G. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emission spectra and the dynamics of high energy density plasmas created by optical and Free Electron Lasers (FELs) depend on the populations of atomic levels. Calculations of plasma emission and ionization may be simplified by assuming Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), where populations are given by the Saha-Boltzmann equation. LTE can be achieved at high densities when collisional processes are much more significant than radiative processes, but may not be valid if plasma conditions change rapidly. A collisional-radiative model has been used to calculate the times taken by carbon and iron plasmas to reach LTE at varying densities and heating rates. The effect of different energy deposition methods, as well as Ionization Potential Depression are explored. This work shows regimes in rapidly changing plasmas, such as those created by optical lasers and FELs, where the use of LTE is justified, because timescales for plasma changes are significantly longer than the times needed to achieve an LTE ionization balance

  17. Analysis of slug tests in formations of high hydraulic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, James J; Garnett, Elizabeth J; Healey, John M

    2003-01-01

    A new procedure is presented for the analysis of slug tests performed in partially penetrating wells in formations of high hydraulic conductivity. This approach is a simple, spreadsheet-based implementation of existing models that can be used for analysis of tests from confined or unconfined aquifers. Field examples of tests exhibiting oscillatory and nonoscillatory behavior are used to illustrate the procedure and to compare results with estimates obtained using alternative approaches. The procedure is considerably simpler than recently proposed methods for this hydrogeologic setting. Although the simplifications required by the approach can introduce error into hydraulic-conductivity estimates, this additional error becomes negligible when appropriate measures are taken in the field. These measures are summarized in a set of practical field guidelines for slug tests in highly permeable aquifers.

  18. Uniformly embedded silver nanomesh as highly bendable transparent conducting electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choo, Soyoung; Jung, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2015-01-01

    Ag-nanomesh-based highly bendable conducting electrodes are developed using a combination of metal nanotransfer printing and embossing for the 6-inch wafer scale. Two Ag nanomeshes, including pitch sizes of 7.5 and 10 μm, are used to obtain highly transparent (approximately 85% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm) and electrically conducting properties (below 10 Ω sq −1 ). The Ag nanomeshes are also distinguished according to the fabrication process, which is called transferred or embedded Ag nanomesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, in order to compare their stability against bending stress. Then the enhancement of bending stability when the Ag nanomesh is embedded in the PET substrate is confirmed. (paper)

  19. Uniformly embedded silver nanomesh as highly bendable transparent conducting electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choo, Soyoung; Jung, Pil-Hoon; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Yang-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2015-02-01

    Ag-nanomesh-based highly bendable conducting electrodes are developed using a combination of metal nanotransfer printing and embossing for the 6-inch wafer scale. Two Ag nanomeshes, including pitch sizes of 7.5 and 10 μm, are used to obtain highly transparent (approximately 85% transmittance at a wavelength of 550 nm) and electrically conducting properties (below 10 Ω sq-1). The Ag nanomeshes are also distinguished according to the fabrication process, which is called transferred or embedded Ag nanomesh on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, in order to compare their stability against bending stress. Then the enhancement of bending stability when the Ag nanomesh is embedded in the PET substrate is confirmed.

  20. Fabrication of highly conductive carbon nanotube fibers for electrical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fengmei; Li, Can; Wei, Jinquan; Xu, Ruiqiao; Zhang, Zelin; Cui, Xian; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have great potential for use as electrical wires because of their outstanding electrical and mechanical properties. Here, we fabricate lightweight CNT fibers with electrical conductivity as high as that of stainless steel from macroscopic CNT films by drawing them through diamond wire-drawing dies. The entangled CNT bundles are straightened by suffering tension, which improves the alignment of the fibers. The loose fibers are squeezed by the diamond wire-drawing dies, which reduces the intertube space and contact resistance. The CNT fibers prepared by drawing have an electrical conductivity as high as 1.6 × 10 6 s m −1 . The fibers are very stable when kept in the air and under cyclic tensile test. A prototype of CNT motor is demonstrated by replacing the copper wires with the CNT fibers. (paper)

  1. Conductivity of alanine solution for high level dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Figel, M.; Regulla, D.F.

    1993-01-01

    The amino acid alanine is well known as a dosimetric detector material for high level dosimetry. Its application is based on the formation of radicals by ionising radiation. The free radicals are earlier detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy or chemically after dissolving the irradiated samples. Of all these methods the ESR/alanine system is the most advanced and is suggested for reference dosimetry. At present, however, the high cost of the system is a serious handicap for a large scale routine application in radiation plants. In this study the variation of electrical conductivity of L-alanine solution with applied dose is investigated in the range from 0.5-200 kGy. The conductivity was measured with a 50 MHz RF oscillator. This readout method is uncomplicated and may be suitable for routine application. The experiments were performed with L-alanine solution in glass ampoules. (Author)

  2. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team

    2016-10-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  3. Ordered Functionalized Silica Materials with High Proton Conductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marschall, R.; Rathouský, Jiří; Wark, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 26 (2007), s. 6401-6407 ISSN 0897-4756 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0577 Grant - others:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft(DE) CA 147/13-1, SPP1181 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : silica * high proton conductivity * Si-MCM-41 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.883, year: 2007

  4. Modification of microstructure and electrical conductivity of plasma-sprayed YSZ deposit through post-densification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Xianjin; Li Chengxin; Li Changjiu; Yang Guanjun

    2006-01-01

    4.5 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating was deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) as an electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) applications. The post treatment was employed using zirconium and yttrium nitrate solution infiltration to densify the coating microstructure for improvement of gas permeability. The deposition of YSZ through nitrate in voids of the coating was examined. Microstructure of the as-sprayed and densified coatings was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of infiltrating treatment on coating microstructure and electrical conductivity was examined. The electrical conductivity of APS-sprayed YSZ coating at the direction perpendicular to coating surface was much lower than that of bulk materials. Post-densification treatment improved the electrical conductivity of YSZ coating by about 25% compared with as-sprayed coating. It was found that the deposition of YSZ resulting from decomposition of nitrate in the lamellar interface gaps was different from that in vertical cracks in lamella owing to the orthogonal feature of those two types of gaps. The nanopores were formed in the deposited YSZ in nonbonded interface gaps while large pores were residued in vertical cracks in splats. The microstructural examination suggests that nanopores in the deposited YSZ in nonbonded interfaces in the coating were isolated from each other, which led to the significant reduction of gas permeability after densification. Moreover, the nanocontacts between lamellae resulted in high contact resistance and limit improvement of electrical conductivity of the coating after densification

  5. High Temperature Plasmas Theory and Mathematical Tools for Laser and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Spatschek, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Filling the gap for a treatment of the subject as an advanced course in theoretical physics with a huge potential for future applications, this monograph discusses aspects of these applications and provides theoretical methods and tools for their investigation. Throughout this coherent and up-to-date work the main emphasis is on classical plasmas at high-temperatures, drawing on the experienced author's specialist background. As such, it covers the key areas of magnetic fusion plasma, laser-plasma-interaction and astrophysical plasmas, while also including nonlinear waves and phenomena.

  6. High speed cine film studies of plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, D.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions. Several workers have filmed discharges in tokamaks including ASDEX, DITE, DIVA, ISX, JFT2, TFR and PLT. These films are discussed and examples given of the observed phenomena which include plasma limiter interactions, diverted discharges, disruptions, magnetic islands and moving glowing objects often known as 'UFOs'. Examples of plasma structures in ASDEX and DITE not previously published are also given. The paper also reports experiments in DITE to determine the origin of UFOs. (orig.)

  7. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2001-01-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  8. High plasma rotation velocity and density transitions by biased electrodes in RF produced, magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)

  9. MHD analysis of LHD high beta plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiguchi, K.; Nakajima, N.; Carreras, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of the interchange mode in the LHD plasma depends on the overlap of the vortices with different helicity. If the vortices are separated in the radial direction, each mode saturates mildly with generating the local flat regions in the pressure profile. In the case of the significant overlap of the vortices, the convection is enhanced and the sudden global reduction of the pressure occurs. Succession of the saturated pressure profile in the increase of beta can suppress the overlap. Self-organization of the pressure profile to suppress the overlap of the vortices can be the stabilizing mechanism in the LHD plasma. (orig.)

  10. Recent development in high energy plasma production techniques by the deflagration plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.; Chang, C.N.; Tripathi, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports experimental data and experience which establish the phenomenon of deflagration in plasma as unique and with quite different properties from the normal snowplow modes. Demonstrates that extremely high velocities and energies in plasma beams are possible with obvious applications in many field and, in particular, in fusion. Suggests that the potential of deflagration beams' scalability to very high energy quasi-neutral plasma beam is possible with present day technology. Discusses plasma deflagration in a T-tube; coaxial deflagration plasma guns; a typical deflagration gun and its operating procedures; electrical design considerations; kinetic theory point of view of the deflagration acceleration of particles; measurements and results; properties of the deflagration gun; applications; inertial confinement experiments; injection into magnetic confinement systems; interaction experiments; and highly energetic beams

  11. High duty factor plasma generator for CERN's Superconducting Proton Linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Kronberger, M; Scrivens, R; Chaudet, E; Faircloth, D; Favre, G; Geisser, J-M; Küchler, D; Mathot, S; Midttun, O; Paoluzzi, M; Schmitzer, C; Steyaert, D

    2010-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 is a 160 MeV linear accelerator currently under construction. It will inject negatively charged hydrogen ions into CERN's PS-Booster. Its ion source is a noncesiated rf driven H(-) volume source directly inspired from the one of DESY and is aimed to deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 0.4 ms at a 2 Hz repetition rate. The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) project is part of the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. It consists of an extension of Linac4 up to 5 GeV and is foreseen to deliver protons to a future 50 GeV synchrotron (PS2). For the SPL high power option (HP-SPL), the ion source would deliver pulses of 80 mA of H(-) during 1.2 ms and operate at a 50 Hz repetition rate. This significant upgrade motivates the design of the new water cooled plasma generator presented in this paper. Its engineering is based on the results of a finite element thermal study of the Linac4 H(-) plasma generator that identified critical components and thermal barriers. A cooling system is proposed which achieves the required heat dissipation and maintains the original functionality. Materials with higher thermal conductivity are selected and, wherever possible, thermal barriers resulting from low pressure contacts are removed by brazing metals on insulators. The AlN plasma chamber cooling circuit is inspired from the approach chosen for the cesiated high duty factor rf H(-) source operating at SNS.

  12. Electrical conductivity and shear viscosity of quark gluon plasma in a quasiparticle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.K.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic heavy-ion collisions (HIC) have reported the formation of a strongly coupled quark gluon plasma (sQGP). To study the properties of this sQGP is the main focus nowadays. Among these the shear viscosity (η) and electrical conductivity (σ el ) could reflect the transport properties of the medium. By studying the shear viscosity or more specifically shear viscosity to entropy density ratio (η/s), one can understand the nature of interactions among the constituents of the produced medium, it gives a measure of the fluidity. Electrical conductivity represents the linear response of the system to an applied external electric field. The basic question one could ask is that whether the matter created at heavy ion collision experiment is an electrical conductor or an insulator. Recent lattice QCD as well as phenomenological studies have shown that these transport quantities show some kind of minimum in its variation with respect to temperature near the temperature corresponding to the transition from hadronic phase to quark-gluon phase

  13. High Resolution Global Electrical Conductivity Variations in the Earth's Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelbert, A.; Sun, J.; Egbert, G. D.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical conductivity of the Earth's mantle is a valuable constraint on the water content and melting processes. In Kelbert et al. (2009), we obtained the first global inverse model of electrical conductivity in the mantle capable of providing constraints on the lateral variations in mantle water content. However, in doing so we had to compromise on the problem complexity by using the historically very primitive ionospheric and magnetospheric source assumptions. In particular, possible model contamination by the auroral current systems had greatly restricted our use of available data. We have now addressed this problem by inverting for the external sources along with the electrical conductivity variations. In this study, we still focus primarily on long period data that are dominated by quasi-zonal source fields. The improved understanding of the ionospheric sources allows us to invert the magnetic fields directly, without a correction for the source and/or the use of transfer functions. It allows us to extend the period range of available data to 1.2 days - 102 days, achieving better sensitivity to the upper mantle and transition zone structures. Finally, once the source effects in the data are accounted for, a much larger subset of observatories may be used in the electrical conductivity inversion. Here, we use full magnetic fields at 207 geomagnetic observatories, which include mid-latitude, equatorial and high latitude data. Observatory hourly means from the years 1958-2010 are employed. The improved quality and spatial distribution of the data set, as well as the high resolution modeling and inversion using degree and order 40 spherical harmonics mapped to a 2x2 degree lateral grid, all contribute to the much improved resolution of our models, representing a conceptual step forward in global electromagnetic sounding. We present a fully three-dimensional, global electrical conductivity model of the Earth's mantle as inferred from ground geomagnetic

  14. High mobility transparent conducting oxides for thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, S.; Tiwari, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    A special class of transparent conducting oxides (TCO) with high mobility of > 65 cm 2 V -1 s -1 allows film resistivity in the low 10 -4 Ω cm range and a high transparency of > 80% over a wide spectrum, from 300 nm to beyond 1500 nm. This exceptional coincidence of desirable optical and electrical properties provides opportunities to improve the performance of opto-electronic devices and opens possibilities for new applications. Strategies to attain high mobility (HM) TCO materials as well as the current status of such materials based on indium and cadmium containing oxides are presented. Various concepts used to understand the underlying mechanisms for high mobility in HMTCO films are discussed. Examples of HMTCO layers used as transparent electrodes in thin film solar cells are used to illustrate possible improvements in solar cell performance. Finally, challenges and prospects for further development of HMTCO materials are discussed.

  15. Rf-biasing of highly idealized plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, R.H.J.; Blauw, M.A.; Goedheer, W.J.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    Remote plasmas, which are subjected to a radio-frequency (RF) biased surface, have been investigated theoretically and experimentally for decades. The relation between the complex power (DC) voltage characteristics, the ion energy distribution and control losses of the ion bombardment are of

  16. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1994-01-01

    expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  17. Conductive MOF electrodes for stable supercapacitors with high areal capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheberla, Dennis; Bachman, John C; Elias, Joseph S; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Shao-Horn, Yang; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs. One class of materials whose surface area far exceeds that of activated carbons, potentially allowing them to challenge the dominance of carbon electrodes in EDLCs, is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The high porosity of MOFs, however, is conventionally coupled to very poor electrical conductivity, which has thus far prevented the use of these materials as active electrodes in EDLCs. Here, we show that Ni 3 (2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene) 2 (Ni 3 (HITP) 2 ), a MOF with high electrical conductivity, can serve as the sole electrode material in an EDLC. This is the first example of a supercapacitor made entirely from neat MOFs as active materials, without conductive additives or other binders. The MOF-based device shows an areal capacitance that exceeds those of most carbon-based materials and capacity retention greater than 90% over 10,000 cycles, in line with commercial devices. Given the established structural and compositional tunability of MOFs, these results herald the advent of a new generation of supercapacitors whose active electrode materials can be tuned rationally, at the molecular level.

  18. Conductive MOF electrodes for stable supercapacitors with high areal capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheberla, Dennis; Bachman, John C.; Elias, Joseph S.; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Shao-Horn, Yang; Dincă, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Owing to their high power density and superior cyclability relative to batteries, electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) have emerged as an important electrical energy storage technology that will play a critical role in the large-scale deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources, smart power grids, and electrical vehicles. Because the capacitance and charge-discharge rates of EDLCs scale with surface area and electrical conductivity, respectively, porous carbons such as activated carbon, carbon nanotubes and crosslinked or holey graphenes are used exclusively as the active electrode materials in EDLCs. One class of materials whose surface area far exceeds that of activated carbons, potentially allowing them to challenge the dominance of carbon electrodes in EDLCs, is metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The high porosity of MOFs, however, is conventionally coupled to very poor electrical conductivity, which has thus far prevented the use of these materials as active electrodes in EDLCs. Here, we show that Ni3(2,3,6,7,10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene)2 (Ni3(HITP)2), a MOF with high electrical conductivity, can serve as the sole electrode material in an EDLC. This is the first example of a supercapacitor made entirely from neat MOFs as active materials, without conductive additives or other binders. The MOF-based device shows an areal capacitance that exceeds those of most carbon-based materials and capacity retention greater than 90% over 10,000 cycles, in line with commercial devices. Given the established structural and compositional tunability of MOFs, these results herald the advent of a new generation of supercapacitors whose active electrode materials can be tuned rationally, at the molecular level.

  19. Potential formation and confinement in high density plasma on the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsu, K.

    2002-01-01

    After the attainment of doubling of the density due to the potential confinement, GAMMA 10 experiments have been directed to realization of a high density plasma and also to study dependence of the confining potential and confinement time on the plasma density. These problems are important to understand the physics of potential formation in tandem mirrors and also for the development of a tandem mirror reactor. We reported high density plasma production by using an ion cyclotron range of frequency heating at a high harmonic frequency in the last IAEA Conference. However, the diamagnetic signal of the high density plasma decreased when electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) was applied due to some instabilities. Recently, the high density plasma production was much improved by adjusting the spacing of the conducting plates installed in the anchor transition regions, which enabled us to produce a high density plasma without degradation of the diamagnetic signal with ECRH and also to study the density dependence. In this paper we report production of a high density plasma and dependence of the confining potential and the confinement time on the density. (author)

  20. Highly conductive grain boundaries in copper oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuermeier, Jonas, E-mail: j.deuermeier@campus.fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, i3N/CENIMAT, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wardenga, Hans F.; Morasch, Jan; Siol, Sebastian; Klein, Andreas, E-mail: aklein@surface.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, i3N/CENIMAT, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-06-21

    High conductivity in the off-state and low field-effect mobility compared to bulk properties is widely observed in the p-type thin-film transistors of Cu{sub 2}O, especially when processed at moderate temperature. This work presents results from in situ conductance measurements at thicknesses from sub-nm to around 250 nm with parallel X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An enhanced conductivity at low thickness is explained by the occurrence of Cu(II), which is segregated in the grain boundary and locally causes a conductivity similar to CuO, although the surface of the thick film has Cu{sub 2}O stoichiometry. Since grains grow with an increasing film thickness, the effect of an apparent oxygen excess is most pronounced in vicinity to the substrate interface. Electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}O grains are at least partially short-circuited by this effect. The study focuses on properties inherent to copper oxide, although interface effects cannot be ruled out. This non-destructive, bottom-up analysis reveals phenomena which are commonly not observable after device fabrication, but clearly dominate electrical properties of polycrystalline thin films.

  1. Plasma focusing and diagnosis of high energy particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin.

    1990-09-01

    Various novel concepts of focusing and diagnosis of high energy charged particle beams, based on the interaction between the relativistic particle beam and the plasma, are reviewed. This includes overdense thin plasma lenses, and (underdense) adiabatic plasma lens, and two beam size monitor concepts. In addition, we introduce another mechanism for measuring flat beams based on the impulse received by heavy ions in an underdense plasma. Theoretical investigations show promise of focusing and diagnosing beams down to sizes where conventional methods are not possible to provide. 21 refs

  2. Highly Stretchable and Conductive Superhydrophobic Coating for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaojing; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Chen, Zhonghua; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-03-28

    Superhydrophobic materials integrating stretchability with conductivity have huge potential in the emerging application horizons such as wearable electronic sensors, flexible power storage apparatus, and corrosion-resistant circuits. Herein, a facile spraying method is reported to fabricate a durable superhydrophobic coating with excellent stretchable and electrical performance by combing 1-octadecanethiol-modified silver nanoparticles (M-AgNPs) with polystyrene- b-poly(ethylene- co-butylene)- b-polystyrene (SEBS) on a prestretched natural rubber (NR) substrate. The embedding of M-AgNPs in elastic SEBS matrix and relaxation of prestretched NR substrate construct hierarchical rough architecture and endow the coating with dense charge-transport pathways. The fabricated coating exhibits superhydrophobicity with water contact angle larger than 160° and a high conductivity with resistance of about 10 Ω. The coating not only maintains superhydrophobicity at low/high stretch ratio for the newly generated small/large protuberances but also responds to stretching and bending with good sensitivity, broad sensing range, and stable response cycles. Moreover, the coating exhibits excellent durability to heat and strong acid/alkali and mechanical forces including droplet impact, kneading, torsion, and repetitive stretching-relaxation. The findings conceivably stand out as a new tool to fabricate multifunctional superhydrophobic materials with excellent stretchability and conductivity for flexible electronics under wet or corrosive environments.

  3. Indium tin oxide films prepared by atmospheric plasma annealing and their semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yali; Li Chunyang; He Deyan; Li Junshuai

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) films using the atmospheric plasma annealing (APA) technique combined with the spin-coating method. The ITO film with a low resistivity of ∼4.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high visible light transmittance, above 85%, was achieved. Hall measurement indicates that compared with the optimized ITO films deposited by magnetron sputtering, the above-mentioned ITO film has a higher carrier concentration of ∼1.21 x 10 21 cm -3 and a lower mobility of ∼11.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . More interestingly, these electrical characteristics result in the semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature for the ITO films prepared by APA.

  4. Plasma resonance in anisotropic layered high-Tc superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1999-01-01

    The plasma resonance is described theoretically by the inductive coupling model for a large stacked Josephson-junction system such as the intrinsic Josephson-junction array in anisotropic high- T-c superconductors. Eigenmodes of the plasma oscillation are analytically described and a numerical...

  5. Corrosion properties of plasma deposited high-alloy steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voleník, Karel; Pražák, M.; Kalabisová, E.; Kreislová, K.; Neufuss, Karel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, - (2002), s. 243-254 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/99/0298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma deposits, high-alloy steel, polarization curves, corrosion test Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  6. Annotated bibliography of highly ionized atoms of importance to plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, R.W.

    1975-04-01

    A bibliography is presented of the literature on highly ionized atoms which have relevance to plasmas. The bibliography is annotated with keywords, and indexed by subjects and authors. It should be of greatest use to researchers working on the problems of impurity cooling and diagnostics of CTR plasmas. (U.S.)

  7. FDTD analysis of 3-D conducting target coated by anisotropic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lijun; Liu Shaobin; Mo Jinjun; Yuan Naichang

    2006-01-01

    The JEC finite-difference time-domain (JEC-FDTD) method is extended to three dimensional anisotropic dispersive media- the magnetized plasma. The problem which incorporates both anisotropy and frequency dispersion at the same time is solved for the electromagnetic wave propagation. The three dimensional JEC-FDTD formulations for anisotropic magnetized plasma are derived. The method is applied to the electromagnetic scattering of dihedral corner reflector and sphere-cone coated with anisotropic magnetized plasma. By simulating the interaction of electromagnetic wave with magnetized plasma, some numerical results are obtained, which indicate that an appropriate plasma coating may efficiently reduce the RCS of a metallic target. (authors)

  8. Dielectric elastomers with novel highly-conducting electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Holger; Uhl, Detlev

    2013-04-01

    Beside the characteristics of the elastomer material itself, the performance of dielectric elastomers in actuator, sensor as well as generator applications depends also on the properties of the electrode material. Various electrode materials based on metallic particles dispersed in a silicone matrix were manufactured and investigated. Anisotropic particles such as silver-coated copper flakes and silver-coated glass flakes were used for the preparation of the electrodes. The concentration of the metallic particles and the thickness of the electrode layers were varied. Specific conductivities derived from resistance measurements reached about 100 S/cm and surmount those of the reference materials based on graphite and carbon black by up to three orders of magnitude. The high conductivities of the new electrode materials can be maintained even at very large stretch deformations up to 200 %.

  9. Thermal and electrical conductivities of high purity tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of three high purity tantalum samples have been measured as functions of temperature over a temperature range of 5K to 65K. Sample purities ranged up to a resistivity ratio of 1714. The highest purity sample had a residual resistivity of .76 x 10 -10 OMEGA-m. The intrinsic resistivity varied as T 3 . 9 from 10K to 31K. The thermal conductivity of the purest sample had a maximum of 840 W/mK at 9.8K. The intrinsic thermal resistivity varied as T 2 . 4 from 10K to 35K. At low temperatures electrons were scattered primarily by impurities and by phonons with both interband and intraband transitions observed. The electrical and thermal resistivity is departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures

  10. Conductive cooling of high-power RIB targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, W.L.; Drake, D.M.; Wilson, M.T.; Lenz, J.W.; Hsu, H.-H.

    2002-01-01

    A short review is presented of target cooling approaches suggested for targets irradiated by intense high-energy proton beams to produce radioactive species for use in a broad range of physics studies. This work reports on conductive cooling approaches for operation at temperatures lower than effective for radiative cooling. The possibilities for conductive cooling are discussed, and a prototype test target is described. This target was constructed for an experiment, designed to validate the numerical analysis approaches, at the TRIUMF/ISAC facility. Fabrication issues and the results of the experiment are presented, followed by a discussion of the implications of the experiment outcome for future development of targets to produce intense beams of radioactive ions

  11. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B z ) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is ∼2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed

  12. High-frequency heating of plasma with two ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.; Longinov, A.V.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1975-01-01

    The authors consider the penetration of electromagnetic waves with a frequency of the order of the ion cyclotron frequencies and with a fixed longitudinal wave number ksub(long), so that Nsub(long)=ksub(long)c/ω>>1 deep into an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species. The propagation of two kinds of waves (fast and slow) with widely differing polarization and transverse refraction index is possible. For both types of waves there is an evanescence region at the plasma periphery. The evanescence region is narrow for slow waves and they easily penetrate the plasma. In a dense plasma they become electrostatic and can reach the ion-ion hybrid resonance region. However, the damping of these waves due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons in a high-temperature plasma is strong and therefore they are not suitable for heating plasma of large dimensions, as they are absorbed at the plasma periphery. The fast waves have a wider evanescence region and can be excited effectively only if N 2 is not too high. These waves can be completely absorbed in the plasma (due to Cherenkov interaction with electrons) if xi approximately (v 2 sub(Ti)/v 2 sub(A))Zsub(e)(ωsub(pi)a/c)exp(-Zsub(e) 2 ) > 1, where a is the plasma radius and Zsub(e) = ω/(√2 ksub(long)vsub(Te)). Fast waves can also reach the region where they are transformed into slow waves. In this region their damping increases considerably. It is shown that the transformation region in an inhomogeneous plasma with two ion species in a non-uniform magnetic field may be at the centre of the plasma. Fast waves can be used effectively for heating plasma of large dimensions. (author)

  13. An investigation of pulsed high density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis a wall-stabilized argon cascade arc is studied at values of pulsed pressure up to 14 bar and a pulsed current range up to 2200 A with a time duration of about 2 ms. The basic plasma is a CW cascade arc with a 5 mm diameter plasma column and a length of 90 mm, which operates at a 60 A DC current and at one atmosphere filling pressure. The author starts with an extensive summary of the CW arc investigations. After a brief introduction of the basic transport equations the mass equations of the constituent particles are treated using the extended collisional radiative model. The energy balance equations and the momentum balance are discussed. The electron density is determined from measurements of the continuum radiation. The final chapter contains the experimental results on the electron temperatures and electron densities in the pressure and current pulsed plasma. Attention is given to the deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium values of the ground level densities of the different argon systems. (Auth.)

  14. High performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Bell, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    Plasmas composed of nominally equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium (DT) have been created in TFTR with the goals of producing significant levels of fusion power and of examining the effects of DT fusion alpha particles. Conditioning of the limiter by the injection of lithium pellets has led to an approximate doubling of the energy confinement time, τ E , in supershot plasmas at high plasma current (I p ≤ 2.5 MA) and high heating power (P b ≤ 33 MW). Operation with DT typically results in an additional 20% increase in τ E . In the high poloidal beta, advanced tokamak regime in TFTR, confinement enhancement H triple-bond τ E /τ E ITER-89P > 4 has been obtained in a limiter H-mode configuration at moderate plasma current I p = 0.85 - 1.5 MA. By peaking the plasma current profile, β N dia triple-bond 10 8 tperpendicular > aB 0 /I p = 3 has been obtained in these plasmas, exceeding the β N limit for TFTR plasmas with lower internal inductance, l i . Confinement of alpha particles appears to be classical and losses due to collective effects have not been observed. While small fluctuations in fusion product loss were observed during ELMs, no large loss was detected in DT plasmas

  15. Effect of Microstructure on the Thermal Conductivity of Plasma Sprayed Y2O3 Stabilized Zirconia (8% YSZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Hu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of microstructure on the thermal conductivity of plasma-sprayed Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs is investigated. Nine freestanding samples deposited on aluminum alloys are studied. Cross-section morphology such as pores, cracks, m-phase content, grain boundary density of the coated samples are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD. Multiple linear regressions are used to develop quantitative models that describe the relationship between the particle parameters, m-phase content and features of the microstructure such as porosity, crack-porosity, and the length density of small and big angle-cracks. Moreover, the relationship between the microstructure and thermal conductivity is investigated. Results reveal that the thermal conductivity of the coating is mainly determined by the microstructure and grain boundary density at room temperature (25 °C, and by the length density of big-angle-crack, monoclinic phase content and grain boundary density at high temperature (1200 °C.

  16. Highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Akio; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Goto, Sumitaka; Saito, Yukio; Jinbo, Ryutaro; Ogiwara, Norio; Saido, Masahiro.

    1996-01-01

    In a composite member for use in walls of a thermonuclear reactor, if carbon fibers and boron carbide are mixed, since they are brought into contact with each other directly, boron is reacted with the carbon fibers to form boron carbide to lower thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers. Then, in the present invention, graphite or amorphous carbon is filled between the carbon fibers to provide a fiber bundle of not less than 500 carbon fibers. Further, the surface of the fiber bundle is coated with graphite or amorphous carbon to suppress diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers or reaction of them. Then, lowering of thermal conductivity of the carbon fibers is prevented, as well as the mixing amount of the carbon fiber bundles with boron carbide, a sintering temperature and orientation of carbon fiber bundles are optimized to provide a highly thermal conductive carbon fiber/boron carbide composite material. In addition, carbide or boride type short fibers, spherical graphite, and amorphous carbon are mixed in the boron carbide to prevent development of cracks. Diffusion or solid solubilization of boron to carbon fibers is reduced or reaction of them if the carbon fibers are bundled. (N.H.)

  17. Divertor, thermonuclear device and method of neutralizing high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Hideo.

    1995-01-01

    The thermonuclear device comprises a thermonuclear reactor for taking place fusion reactions to emit fusion plasmas, and a divertor made of a hydrogen occluding material, and the divertor is disposed at a position being in contact with the fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction. The divertor is heated by fusion plasmas after nuclear fusion reaction, and hydrogen is released from the hydrogen occluding material as a constituent material. A gas blanket is formed by the released hydrogen to cool and neutralize the supplied high temperature nuclear fusion plasmas. This prevents the high temperature plasmas from hitting against the divertor, elimination of the divertor by melting and evaporation, and solve a problem of processing a divertor activated by neutrons. In addition, it is possible to utilize hydrogen isotopes of fuels effectively and remove unnecessary helium. Inflow of impurities from out of the system can also be prevented. (N.H.)

  18. To the probe theory in a highly-ionized high-pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksht, F.G.; Rybakov, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    The probe theory in highly-ionized high-pressure plasma is presented. The situation typical for high-pressure plasma, when the plasma in the main part of the near-probe layer is in the state of local ionization equilibrium with general temperature for electrons and heavy particles. Possibility is discussed for determining the parameters of non-perturbed plasma through analysis of the probe characteristic at place of ion saturation, transition area and by the probe floating potential. The experiments were carried out by example of highly-ionized xenon plasma under atmospheric pressure

  19. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershin, L.; Mitrasinovic, A.; Mostaghimi, J.

    2013-06-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO2-CH4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO2-CH4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders.

  20. Treatment of refractory powders by a novel, high enthalpy dc plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershin, L; Mitrasinovic, A; Mostaghimi, J

    2013-01-01

    Thermophysical properties of CO 2 –CH 4 mixtures at high temperatures are very attractive for materials processing. In comparison with argon, at the same temperature, such a mixture possesses much higher enthalpy and higher thermal conductivity. At high temperatures, CO 2 –CH 4 mixture has a complex composition with strong presence of CO which, in the case of powder treatment, could reduce oxidation. In this work, a dc plasma torch with graphite cathode was used to study the effect of plasma gas composition on spheroidization of tungsten carbide and alumina powders. Two different gas compositions were used to generate the plasma while the torch current was kept at 300 A. Various techniques were employed to assess the average concentration of carbides and oxides and the final shape of the treated powders. Process parameters such as input power and plasma gas composition allow controlling the degree of powder oxidation and spheroidization of high melting point ceramic powders. (paper)

  1. Plasma characteristics of a high power helicon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemba, T; Euripides, P; Slough, J; Winglee, R; Giersch, L; Carscadden, J; Schnackenberg, T; Isley, S

    2006-01-01

    A new high power helicon (HPH) plasma system has been designed to provide input powers of several tens of kilowatts to produce a large area (0.5 m 2 ) of uniform high-density, of at least 5 x 10 17 m -3 , plasma downstream from the helicon coil. Axial and radial plasma characteristics show that the plasma is to a lesser extent created in and near the helicon coil and then is accelerated into the axial and equatorial regions. The bulk acceleration of the plasma is believed to be due to a coupling of the bulk of the electrons to the helicon field, which in turn transfers energy to the ions via ambipolar diffusion. The plasma beta is near unity a few centimetres away from the HPH system and Bdot measurements show ΔB perturbations in the order of the vacuum magnetic field magnitude. In the equatorial region, a magnetic separatrix is seen to develop roughly at the mid-point between the helicon and chamber wall. The magnetic perturbation develops on the time scale of the plasma flow speed and upon the plasma reaching the chamber wall decays to the vacuum magnetic field configuration within 200 μs

  2. Plasma characteristics of a high power helicon discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemba, T; Euripides, P; Slough, J; Winglee, R; Giersch, L; Carscadden, J; Schnackenberg, T; Isley, S [Box 351310, University of Washington, Seattle WA, 98195 (United States)

    2006-08-01

    A new high power helicon (HPH) plasma system has been designed to provide input powers of several tens of kilowatts to produce a large area (0.5 m{sup 2}) of uniform high-density, of at least 5 x 10{sup 17} m{sup -3}, plasma downstream from the helicon coil. Axial and radial plasma characteristics show that the plasma is to a lesser extent created in and near the helicon coil and then is accelerated into the axial and equatorial regions. The bulk acceleration of the plasma is believed to be due to a coupling of the bulk of the electrons to the helicon field, which in turn transfers energy to the ions via ambipolar diffusion. The plasma beta is near unity a few centimetres away from the HPH system and Bdot measurements show {delta}B perturbations in the order of the vacuum magnetic field magnitude. In the equatorial region, a magnetic separatrix is seen to develop roughly at the mid-point between the helicon and chamber wall. The magnetic perturbation develops on the time scale of the plasma flow speed and upon the plasma reaching the chamber wall decays to the vacuum magnetic field configuration within 200 {mu}s.

  3. Second topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahoda, F.C.; Freese, K.B.

    1978-02-01

    This report contains the program and abstracts of papers presented at the Second American Physical Society Topical Conference on High Temperature Plasma Diagnostics, March 1-3, 1978, Santa Fe, New Mexico

  4. HIGH FREQUENCY ELECTROSTATIC INSTABILITIES IN A PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M W; Auer, P L

    1963-06-15

    The dispersion relation is examined for a collisionless infinite plasma in the presence of an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution and a uniform external magnetic field. Unstable solutions exist below the muitiples of the electron cyclotron frequency provided the temperature anisotropy is sufficiently large. The dependence of the growth rate upon harmonic number, density, angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, and frequency is discussed for zero as well as non-zero parallel temperatures. In the latter case, the waves are strongly damped as their frequency approaches a multiple of the gyro- frequency. (auth)

  5. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-01-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  6. Physical processes in high field insulating liquid conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, Michael; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Anderson, Delmar; Wilkins, Frank; Obregon, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In the power grid transmission where a large amount of energy is transmitted to long distances, High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission of up to 1MV becomes more attractive since is more efficient than the counterpart AC. However, two of the most difficult problems to solve are the cable connections to the high voltage power sources and their insulation from the ground. The insulating systems are usually composed of transformer oil and solid insulators. The oil behavior under HVDC is similar to that of a weak electrolyte. Its behavior under HVDC is dominated more by conductivity than dielectric constant. Space charge effects in the oil bulk near high voltage electrodes and impeded plastic insulators affect the voltage oil hold-off. We have constructed an experimental facility where we study the oil and plastic insulator behavior in an actual HVDC System. Experimental results will be presented and compared with the present understanding of the physics governing the oil behavior under very high electrical stresses. Sandia National Laboratories managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. D.O.E., NNSA under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  7. The history of re-connection and the concept of the solar wind plasma with relatively small electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertkov, A. D.

    1995-01-01

    Petschek's 're-connection' model, aspiring to be universal, treated as a boundary problem meets unresolvable difficulties connected with impossibility to specify correctly boundary and initial conditions. This problem was incorrectly formulated. Hence, ineradicable logarithmic singularities occurred on the boundary surfaces. Attempts to eliminate them by incorporating the finite electrical conductivity are incorrect. This should lead to the change in the equation type, boundary condition type and in consequence to the change in solutions. Besides, the slow mode shocks cannot be driven by small internal source. As an alternative a new plasma concept is suggested. The state of fully ionized plasma in space depends completely on the entropy of the plasma heating source and on the process in which plasma is involved. The presumptive source of the solar wind creation - the induction electric field of the solar origin - has very low entropy. The state of plasma should be very far from the thermodynamic equilibrium. Debye's screening is not complete. The excitation of the powerful resonant self-consistent electric fields in plasma provides low electric conductivity. The MHD problems should be treated in frameworks of dissipative theories.

  8. Purification of charybdotoxine, a specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Phillips, M.; Miller, C.

    1986-01-01

    Charybdotoxim is a high-affinity specific inhibitor of the high-conductance Ca 2+ -activated K + channel found in the plasma membranes of many vertebrate cell types. Using Ca 2+ -activated K + channels reconstituted into planar lipid bilayer membranes as an assay, the authors have purified the toxin from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus by a two-step procedure involving chromatofocusing on SP-Sephadex, followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Charybdotoxin is shown to be a highly basic protein with a mass of 10 kDa. Under the standard assay conditions, the purified toxin inhibits the Ca 2+ -activated K + channel with an apparent dissociation constant of 3.5 nM. The protein is unusually stable, with inhibitory potency being insensitive to boiling or exposure to organic solvents. The toxin's activity is sensitive to chymotrypsin treatment and to acylation of lysine groups. The protein may be radioiodinated without loss of activity

  9. Engaging high school students as plasma science outreach ambassadors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Amy; Boffard, John

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to plasma science among future scientists and engineers is haphazard. In the U.S., plasma science is rare (or absent) in mainstream high school and introductory college physics curricula. As a result, talented students may be drawn to other careers simply due to a lack of awareness of the stimulating science and wide array of fulfilling career opportunities involving plasmas. In the interest of enabling informed decisions about career options, we have initiated an outreach collaboration with the Madison West High School Rocket Club. Rocket Club members regularly exhibit their activities at public venues, including large-scale expos that draw large audiences of all ages. Building on their historical emphasis on small scale rockets with chemical motors, we worked with the group to add a new feature to their exhibit that highlights plasma-based spacecraft propulsion for interplanetary probes. This new exhibit includes a model satellite with a working (low power) plasma thruster. The participating high school students led the development process, to be described, and enthusiastically learned to articulate concepts related to plasma thruster operation and to compare the relative advantages of chemical vs. plasma/electrical propulsion systems for different scenarios. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1617602.

  10. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  11. Design of a conductivity meter for highly insulating liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, M; Perez, A T; Soria-Hoyo, C [Dep. Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2007-03-07

    The accurate measurement of the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids is an important issue in many industrial applications. The lack of repeatability is a common problem to the available procedures and commercial techniques. In this paper, we present a device to measure the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids. The variable inter-electrode gap allows us to assure the existence of an ohmic regime, since only under ohmic regime conditions is the value of the conductivity meaningful.

  12. Design of a conductivity meter for highly insulating liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M; Perez, A T; Soria-Hoyo, C

    2007-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids is an important issue in many industrial applications. The lack of repeatability is a common problem to the available procedures and commercial techniques. In this paper, we present a device to measure the electrical conductivity of low conducting liquids. The variable inter-electrode gap allows us to assure the existence of an ohmic regime, since only under ohmic regime conditions is the value of the conductivity meaningful

  13. Avoiding vacuum arcs in high gradient normal conducting RF structures

    CERN Document Server

    Sjøbæk, Kyrre Ness; Adli, Erik; Grudiev, Alexej; Wuensch, Walter

    In order to build the Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), accelerating structures reaching extremely high accelerating gradients are needed. Such structures have been built and tested using normal-conducting copper, powered by X-band RF power and reaching gradients of 100 MV/m and above. One phenomenon that must be avoided in order to reliably reach such gradients, is vacuum arcs or “breakdowns”. This can be accomplished by carefully designing the structure geometry such that high surface fields and large local power flows are avoided. The research presented in this thesis presents a method for optimizing the geometry of accelerating structures so that these breakdowns are made less likely, allowing the structure to operate reliably at high gradients. This was done primarily based on a phenomenological scaling model, which predicted the maximum gradient as a function of the break down rate, pulse length, and field distribution in the structure. The model is written in such a way that it allows direct comparis...

  14. Improving electrical conductivity in polycarbonate nanocomposites using highly conductive PEDOT/PSS coated MWCNTs

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Jian; Lubineau, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    concentration (0.3 wt %). To tailor the electrical properties of the conductive polymer coating, we used a polar solvent ethylene glycol, and we can tune the final properties of the nanocomposite by controlling the concentrations of the elementary constituents

  15. High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amekpewu, M., E-mail: mamek219@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, University for Development Studies, Navrongo (Ghana); Mensah, S.Y. [Department of Physics, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, U.C.C. (Ghana); Musah, R. [Department of Applied Physics, University for Development Studies, Navrongo (Ghana); Mensah, N.G. [Department of Mathematics, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, U.C.C. (Ghana); Abukari, S.S.; Dompreh, K.A. [Department of Physics, College of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, U.C.C. (Ghana)

    2016-05-01

    High frequency conductivity of hot electrons in undoped single walled achiral Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) under the influence of ac–dc driven fields was considered. We investigated semi-classically Boltzmann's transport equation with and without the presence of the hot electrons’ source by deriving the current densities in CNTs. Plots of the normalized current density versus frequency of ac-field revealed an increase in both the minimum and maximum peaks of normalized current density at lower frequencies as a result of a strong injection of hot electrons. The applied ac-field plays a twofold role of suppressing the space-charge instability in CNTs and simultaneously pumping an energy for lower frequency generation and amplification of THz radiations. These have enormous promising applications in very different areas of science and technology.

  16. Thermal conductivities and conduction mechanisms of Sb-Te Alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Sb-Te alloys have drawn much attention due to its application in phase change memory as well as the unique properties as chalcogenide. In this work, the thermal conductivities of Sb-x mol%Te alloys (x = 14, 25, 44, 60, 70, and 90) have been measured by the hot strip method from room temperature up to temperature just below the respective melting points. For the intermetallic compound Sb 2 Te 3 (x = 60), the thermal conductivity decreases up to approximately 600 K and then increases. For other Sb-x mol%Te alloys where x > 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys decrease with increasing temperature. In contrast, for x < 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys keep roughly constant up to approximately 600 K and then increase with increasing temperature. It is proposed that free electron dominates the heat transport below 600 K, and ambipolar diffusion also contributes to the increase in the thermal conductivity at higher temperatures. The prediction equation from temperature and chemical composition has been proposed for thermal conductivities of Sb-Te alloys.

  17. [High plasma folate in patients with phenylketonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Żółkowska, Joanna; Przybylska-Kruszewska, Amanda; Gładysz, Dominika; Korycińska-Chaaban, Dorota; Nowacka, Maria; Hozyasz, Kamil K

    2016-04-01

    Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of metabolism treated with a closely monitored low phenylalanine diet. Protein substitutes used for treatment are supplemented with vitamins and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma folic acid concentrations in children with phenylketonuria. Retrospective analysis of medical records of 73 patients with phenylketonuria and 28 with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (on normal diet) was carried out. Intake of folic acid was calculated on the basis of protein substitute intake. Folate concentrations were analyzed according to their intake, and concentration of homocysteine and phenylalanine. In 76.7% patients with phenylketonuria intake of folic acid exceeded recommended dietary allowance. Serum folic acid concentrations above upper reference level were detected in 75.3% patients with phenylketonuria and only in 25% patients with hyperphenylalaninemia (pphenylketonuria requires further detailed research. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  18. Plasma Photonic Devices for High Energy Density Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.

    2005-01-01

    High power laser technologies are opening a variety of attractive fields of science and technology using high energy density plasmas such as plasma physics, laboratory astrophysics, material science, nuclear science including medical applications and laser fusion. The critical issues in the applications are attributed to the control of intense light and enormous density of charged particles including efficient generation of the particles such as MeV electrons and protons with a current density of TA/cm2. Now these application possibilities are limited only by the laser technology. These applications have been limited in the control of the high power laser technologies and their optics. However, if we have another device consisted of the 4th material, i.e. plasma, we will obtain a higher energy density condition and explore the application possibilities, which could be called high energy plasma device. One of the most attractive devices has been demonstrated in the fast ignition scheme of the laser fusion, which is cone-guiding of ultra-intense laser light in to high density regions1. This is one of the applications of the plasma device to control the ultra-intense laser light. The other role of the devices consisted of transient plasmas is control of enormous energy-density particles in a fashion analogous to light control with a conventional optical device. A plasma fibre (5?m/1mm), as one example of the devices, has guided and deflected the high-density MeV electrons generated by ultra-intense laser light 2. The electrons have been well collimated with either a lens-like plasma device or a fibre-like plasma, resulting in isochoric heating and creation of ultra-high pressures such as Giga bar with an order of 100J. Plasmas would be uniquely a device to easily control the higher energy density particles like a conventional optical device as well as the ultra-intense laser light, which could be called plasma photonic device. (Author)

  19. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  20. Stationary spectra of short-wave convective and magnetostatic fluctuations in a finite-pressure plasma and anomalous heat conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakulenko, M.O.

    1992-01-01

    Within the general renormalized statistical approach, the low-frequency short-wave stationary spectra of potential and magnetic perturbations in a finite-pressure plasma, are obtained. Anomalous heat conductivity considerably enhances due to non-linear interaction between magnetic excitations. 11 refs. (author)

  1. Long-time tails of the heat-conductivity time correlation functions for a magnetized plasma - a kinetic theory approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The long-time behaviour of the longitudinal and the transverse heat conductivity time correlation functions for a magnetized one-component plasma is studied by means of kinetic theory. To that end these correlation functions, which are defined as the inverse Laplace transforms of the dynamic heat

  2. Highly Electrically Conducting Glass-Graphene Nanoplatelets Hybrid Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E; Nistal, A; Khalifa, A; Essa, Y; Martín de la Escalera, F; Osendi, M I; Miranzo, P

    2015-08-19

    Hybrid coatings consisting of a heat resistant Y2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 (YAS) glass containing 2.3 wt % of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were developed by flame spraying homogeneous ceramic powders-GNP granules. Around 40% of the GNPs survived the high spraying temperatures and were distributed along the splat-interfaces, forming a percolated network. These YAS-GNP coatings are potentially interesting in thermal protection systems and electromagnetic interference shields for aerospace applications; therefore silicon carbide (SiC) materials at the forefront of those applications were employed as substrates. Whereas the YAS coatings are nonconductive, the YAS-GNP coatings showed in-plane electrical conductivity (∼10(2) S·m(-1)) for which a low percolation limit (below 3.6 vol %) is inferred. Indentation tests revealed the formation of a highly damaged indentation zone showing multiple shear displacements between adjacent splats probably favored by the graphene sheets location. The indentation radial cracks typically found in brittle glass coatings are not detected in the hybrid coatings that are also more compliant.

  3. Electromagnetic-implosion generation of pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.; Broderick, N.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Kloc, D.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the generation of pulsed high-energy-density plasmas by electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding liners or hollow Z-pinches) at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Presents a comparison of experimental data with one-dimensional MHD and two-dimensional calculations. Points out that the study is distinct from other imploding liner efforts in that the approach is to produce a hot, dense plasma from the imploded liner itself, rather than to compress a magnetic-field-performed plasma mixture. The goal is to produce an intense laboratory pulsed X-ray source

  4. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canizares, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper concentrates on reviewing highlights of the Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) results on thermal plasmas, particularly supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies from the Einstein observatory. During Einstein's short but happy life, we made over 400 observations with the FPCS of 40 different objects. Three quarters of these were objects in which the emission was primarily from optically thin thermal plasma, primarily supernova remnants (SNRs) and clusters of galaxies. Thermal plasmas provide an excellent illustration of how spectral data, particularly high resolution spectral data, can be an important tool for probing the physical properties of astrophysical objects. (author)

  5. Equilibrium and stability of high-beta plasma in a finite l=+-1 toroidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Todoroki, J.; Hamada, S.; Gesso, H.; Nogi, Y.; Osanai, Y.; Yoshimura, H.

    1983-01-01

    The equilibrium and stability are theoretically and experimentally investigated of high-beta plasma in the Modified Bumpy Torus, which is an asymmetric closed-line system with fairly large l=0 and l=+-1 field components. The finiteness of the l=+-1 component induces significant stabilizing effects due both to self formation of a magnetic well and to the conducting wall. (author)

  6. Enhanced Electron Attachment to Highly-Excited Molecules and Its Applications in Pulsed Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, W.X.; Ma, C.Y.; McCorkle, D.L.; Pinnaduwage, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies conducted over the past several years have shown that electron attachment to highly-excited states of molecules have extremely large cross sections. We will discuss the implications of this for pulsed discharges used for H - generation, material processing, and plasma remediation

  7. Model for Generation of Neutrons in a Compact Diode with Laser-Plasma Anode and Suppression of Electron Conduction Using a Permanent Cylindrical Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Kozlovskii, K. I.; Rashchikov, V. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2018-04-01

    A model for acceleration of deuterons and generation of neutrons in a compact laser-plasma diode with electron isolation using magnetic field generated by a hollow cylindrical permanent magnet is presented. Experimental and computer-simulated neutron yields are compared for the diode structure under study. An accelerating neutron tube with a relatively high neutron generation efficiency can be constructed using suppression of electron conduction with the aid of a magnet placed in the vacuum volume.

  8. Topics in high-intensity laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with pre-formed and laser-produced plasmas is studied. Through experiments and simulations we have investigated stimulated Compton scattering in preformed plasmas and the plasma physics aspects of tunnel-ionized gases. A theoretical study is presented on the nonlinear dynamics of relativistic plasma waves driven by colinear optical mixing. The electron density-fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering have been directly observed for the first time. A CO2 laser was focused into pre-formed plasmas with densities n(e) varied from 0.4-6 x 10(exp 16) cu cm. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter were probed using Thomson scattering. At low n(e), the scattered spectra peak at a frequency shift Delta omega is approximately kv e and appears to be in a linear regime. At the highest n(e), a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function. Tunnel-ionized plasmas have been studied through experiments and particle simulations. Experimentally, qualitative evidence for plasma temperature control by varying the laser polarization was obtained by the measurement of stimulated Compton scattering fluctuation spectra and x-ray emission from such plasmas. A higher parallel temperature than expected from the single-particle tunneling model was observed. Simulations indicate that stochastic heating and the Weibel instability play an important role in plasma heating in all directions and isotropization. The non-linear dynamics associated with beatwave (Delta omega, Delta k) excited long wavelength plasma waves in the presence of strong, short wavelength density ripple have been examined, using the relativistic Lagrangian oscillator model. This model shows period doubling that roughly follows Feigenbaum scaling, and a transition to chaos

  9. Edge density profiles in high-performance JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, D.D.R.; Viaccoz, B.; Vince, J.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed electron density profiles of the scrape-off layer in high-performance JET plasmas (plasma current, I p nbi ∝17 MW) have been measured by means of a lithium beam diagnostic system featuring high spatial resolution [Kadota (1978)[. Measurements were taken over a period of several seconds, allowing examination of the evolution of the edge profile at a location upstream from the divertor target. The data clearly show the effects of the H-mode transition - an increase in density near the plasma separatrix and a reduction in density scrape-off length. The profiles obtained under various plasma conditions are compared firstly with data from other diagnostics, located elsewhere in the vessel, and also with the predictions of an 'onion-skin' model (DIVIMP), which used, as initial parameters, data from an array of probes located in the divertor target. (orig.)

  10. Characteristics of MHD stability of high beta plasmas in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Nakajima, N.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Todo, Y.; Suzuki, Y.

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand characteristics of the MHD stability of high beta plasmas obtained in the LHD experiments, full MHD simulations have been performed for the first time. Since there is a magnetic hill in a plasma peripheral region, the ballooning modes extending into the plasma peripheral region with a chaotic magnetic field are destabilized. However, in the nonlinear phase, the core region comes under the in influence of the instabilities and the central pressure decreases. There is a tendency that modes are suppressed as the beta value and/or magnetic Reynolds number increase, which is consistent with a result that high beta plasmas enter the second stable region of the ideal ballooning modes as beta increases and remaining destabilized ballooning modes are considered to be resistive type. (author)

  11. High efficiency nebulization for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorabchi, Kaveh; McCormick, Ryan; Levine, Jonathan A.; Liu Huiying; Nam, S.-H.; Montaser, Akbar

    2006-01-01

    A pneumatically-driven, high efficiency nebulizer is explored for helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The aerosol characteristics and analyte transport efficiencies of the high efficiency nebulizer for nebulization with helium are measured and compared to the results obtained with argon. Analytical performance indices of the helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are evaluated in terms of detection limits and precision. The helium inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection limits obtained with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min are higher than those achieved with the ultrasonic nebulizer consuming 2 mL/min solution, however, precision is generally better with high efficiency nebulizer (1-4% vs. 3-8% with ultrasonic nebulizer). Detection limits with the high efficiency nebulizer at 200 μL/min solution uptake rate approach those using ultrasonic nebulizer upon efficient desolvation with a heated spray chamber followed by a Peltier-cooled multipass condenser

  12. Preparation of Highly Conductive Yarns by an Optimized Impregnation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amba Sankar, K. N.; Mohanta, Kallol

    2018-03-01

    We report the development of the electrical conductivity in textile yarns through impregnation and post-treatment of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). The conductive polymer is deposited on fibers, which fills the gap space within the hierarchical structure of the yarns. Organic nonpolar solvents act as reducing agent to increase the density of PEDOT moieties on the yarns, galvanizing increment in conductivity values. Post-treatment by ethylene glycol transforms the resonance configuration of the conductive moieties of conjugated polymer, which helps in further enhancement of electrical conductivity of the yarns. We have optimized the method in terms of loading and conformal change of the polymer to have a lesser resistance of the coated conductive yarns. The minimum resistance achieved has a value of 77 Ωcm-1. This technique of developing conductivity in conventional yarns enables retaining the flexibility of yarns and feeling of softness which would find suitable␣applications for wearable electronics.

  13. Downstream plasma transport and metal ionization in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M.; McLain, Jake T.; Ruzic, David N.; Yu, He

    2014-01-01

    Downstream plasma transport and ionization processes in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron were studied. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of electron density (n e ) and temperature (T e ) were characterized with a 3D scanning triple Langmuir probe. Plasma expanded from the racetrack region into the downstream region, where a high n e peak was formed some time into the pulse-off period. The expansion speed and directionality towards the substrate increased with a stronger magnetic field (B), largely as a consequence of a larger potential drop in the bulk plasma region during a relatively slower sheath formation. The fraction of Cu ions in the deposition flux was measured on the substrate using a gridded energy analyzer. It increased with higher pulse voltage. With increased B field from 200 to 800 Gauss above racetrack, n e increased but the Cu ion fraction decreased from 42% to 16%. A comprehensive model was built, including the diffusion of as-sputtered Cu flux, the Cu ionization in the entire plasma region using the mapped n e and T e data, and ion extraction efficiency based on the measured plasma potential (V p ) distribution. The calculations matched the measurements and indicated the main causes of lower Cu ion fractions in stronger B fields to be the lower T e and inefficient ion extraction in a larger pre-sheath potential.

  14. Synthesis, ionic conductivity, and thermal properties of proton conducting polymer electrolyte for high temperature fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Takahito; Hamaguchi, Yohei; Uno, Takahiro; Kubo, Masataka [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurima Machiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Aihara, Yuichi; Sonai, Atsuo [Samsung Yokohama Research Institute, 2-7 Sugasawa-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0027 (Japan)

    2006-01-16

    Hyperbranched polymer (poly-1a) with sulfonic acid groups at the end of chains was successfully synthesized. Interpenetration reaction of poly-1a with a hyperbranched polymer with acryloyl groups at the end of chains (poly-1b) as a cross-linker afforded a tough electrolyte membrane. The poly-1a and the resulting electrolyte membrane showed the ionic conductivities of 7x10{sup -4} and 8x10{sup -5} S/cm, respectively, at 150C under dry condition. The ionic conductivities of the poly-1a and the electrolyte membrane exhibited the VTF type temperature dependence. And also, both poly-1a and the resulting electrolyte membrane were thermally stable up to 200C. (author)

  15. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O 2 /He or N 2 /He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation. (paper)

  16. Spectroscopy of reactive species produced by low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma on conductive target material surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Sakakita, Hajime; Kato, Susumu; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Masanori; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Okazaki, Toshiya; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2016-10-01

    A method for blood coagulation using low-energy atmospheric-pressure plasma (LEAPP) is confirmed as an alternative procedure to reduce tissue damage caused by heat. Blood coagulation using LEAPP behaves differently depending on working gas species; helium is more effective than argon in promoting fast coagulation. To analyse the difference in reactive species produced by helium and argon plasma, spectroscopic measurements were conducted without and with a target material. To compare emissions, blood coagulation experiments using LEAPP for both plasmas were performed under almost identical conditions. Although many kinds of reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and excited nitrogen molecules were observed with similar intensity in both plasmas, intensities of nitrogen ion molecules and nitric oxide molecules were extremely strong in the helium plasma. It is considered that nitrogen ion molecules were mainly produced by penning ionization by helium metastable. Near the target, a significant increase in the emissions of reactive species is observed. There is a possibility that electron acceleration was induced in a local electric field formed on the surface. However, in argon plasma, emissions from nitrogen ion were not measured even near the target surface. These differences between the two plasmas may be producing the difference in blood coagulation behaviour. To control the surrounding gas of the plasma, a gas-component-controllable chamber was assembled. Filling the chamber with O2/He or N2/He gas mixtures selectively produces either reactive oxygen species or reactive nitrogen species. Through selective treatments, this chamber would be useful in studying the effects of specific reactive species on blood coagulation.

  17. Control and metrology of high harmonic generation on plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchoce, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    When an ultra intense femtosecond laser with high contrast is focused on a solid target, the laser field at focus is sufficient enough to completely ionize the target surface during the rising edge of the laser pulse and form a plasma. This dense plasma entirely reflects the incident beam in the specular direction: this is a so-called plasma mirror. As the interaction between the laser and the plasma mirror is highly non-linear, it thus leads to the high harmonic generation (HHG) in the reflected beam. In the temporal domain, this harmonic spectrum is associated to a train of atto-second pulses. The aim of my PhD were to experimentally control this HHG and to measure the properties of the harmonics. We first studied the optimization of the harmonic signal, and then the spatial characterization of the harmonic beam in the far-field (harmonic divergence). These characterizations are not only important to develop an intense XUV/atto-second light source, but also to get a better understanding of the laser-matter interaction at very high intensity. We have thus been able to get crucial information of the electrons and ions dynamics of the plasma, showing that the harmonics can also be used as a diagnostic of the laser-plasma interaction. We then developed a new general approach for optically-controlled spatial structuring of overdense plasmas generated at the surface of initially plain solid targets. We demonstrate it experimentally by creating sinusoidal plasma gratings of adjustable spatial periodicity and depth, and study the interaction of these transient structures with an ultra-intense laser pulse to establish their usability at relativistically high intensities. We then show how these gratings can be used as a 'spatial ruler' to determine the source size of the high-order harmonic beams produced at the surface of an overdense plasma. These results open new directions both for the metrology of laser-plasma interactions and the emerging field of ultrahigh

  18. Design concept of conducting shell and in-vessel components suitable for plasma vertical stability and remote maintenance scheme in DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utoh, Hiroyasu, E-mail: uto.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Takase, Haruhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Tobita, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); Mori, Kazuo; Kudo, Tatsuya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan); International Fusion Energy Research Centre, 2-166, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Someya, Youji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Kazuo; Nakamura, Makoto; Tokunaga, Shinsuke [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Aomori-ken 039-3212 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design of in-vessel component including conducting shell has been investigated. • The conducting shell design for plasma vertical stability was clarified from the plasma vertical stability analysis. • The calculation results showed that the double-loop shell has the most effect on plasma vertical stability. - Abstract: In order to realize a feasible DEMO, we designed an in-vessel component including the conducting shell. The project is affiliated with the broader approach DEMO design activities and is conceptualized from a plasma vertical stability and engineering viewpoint. The dependence of the plasma vertical stability on the conducing shell parameters and the electromagnetic force at plasma disruption were investigated in numerical simulations (programmed in the 3D eddy current analysis code and a plasma position control code). The simulations assumed the actual shape and position of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components. The plasma vertical stability was most effectively maintained by the double-loop shell.

  19. Interaction of a spheromak-like compact toroid with a high beta spherical tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D.Q.; McLean, H.S.; Baker, K.L.; Evans, R.W.; Horton, R.D.; Terry, S.D.; Howard, S.; Schmidt, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    Recent experiments using accelerated spheromak-like compact toroids (SCTs) to fuel tokamak plasmas have quantified the penetration mechanism in the low beta regime; i.e. external magnetic field pressure dominates plasma thermal pressure. However, fusion reactor designs require high beta plasma and, more importantly, the proper plasma pressure profile. Here, the effect of the plasma pressure profile on SCT penetration, specifically, the effect of diamagnetism, is addressed. It is estimated that magnetic field pressure dominates penetration even up to 50% local beta. The combination of the diamagnetic effect on the toroidal magnetic field and the strong poloidal field at the outer major radius of a spherical tokamak will result in a diamagnetic well in the total magnetic field. Therefore, the spherical tokamak is a good candidate to test the potential trapping of an SCT in a high beta diamagnetic well. The diamagnetic effects of a high beta spherical tokamak discharge (low aspect ratio) are computed. To test the penetration of an SCT into such a diamagnetic well, experiments have been conducted of SCT injection into a vacuum field structure which simulates the diamagnetic field effect of a high beta tokamak. The diamagnetic field gradient length is substantially shorter than that of the toroidal field of the tokamak, and the results show that it can still improve the penetration of the SCT. Finally, analytic results have been used to estimate the effect of plasma pressure on penetration, and the effect of plasma pressure was found to be small in comparison with the magnetic field pressure. The penetration condition for a vacuum field only is reported. To study the diamagnetic effect in a high beta plasma, additional experiments need to be carried out on a high beta spherical tokamak. (author)

  20. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Rosmej, F.B.

    1999-01-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.)

  1. High resolution X-ray spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu. [Multicharged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Rosmej, F.B. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1999-11-01

    The application of recently developed spectroscopic instruments in laser produced plasmas with simultaneous high spectral and spatial resolution combined with high luminosity discovered new types of X-ray spectra. These new types are characterised by the disappearance of the resonance lines and the strong emission of dielectronic satellite spectra. Several types of transitions of highly charged ions are discovered which are unknown from usual sources employed in atomic physics. New theoretical models are developed and successfully applied for the interpretation and for plasma diagnostics. (orig.) 28 refs.

  2. Anomalous high-frequency resistivity of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.; Dawson, J.M.

    1971-06-01

    In one- and two-dimensional computer simulations we investigate anomalous high-frequency resistivity in a plasma driven by a large electric field oscillating near the electron plasma frequency. The large field excites the oscillating two-stream and the ion-acoustic decay instabilities in agreement with the linear theory. When the ion and electron fluctuations saturate, a strong anomalous heating of the plasma sets in. This strong heating is due to an efficient coupling of the externally imposed large electric field to the plasma by ion fluctuations. We determine the anomalous collision frequency and the saturation fluctuation amplitudes as a function of the external field amplitude and frequency, and the electron-ion mass ratio. A simple nonlinear theory gives results in reasonable agreement with simulations. 24 refs., 10 figs

  3. High frequency parametric wave phenomena and plasma heating: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1975-11-01

    A survey of parametric instabilities in plasma, and associated particle heating, is presented. A brief summary of linear theory is given. The physical mechanism of decay instability, the purely growing mode (oscillating two-stream instability) and soliton and density cavity formation is presented. Effects of density gradients are discussed. Possible nonlinear saturation mechanisms are pointed out. Experimental evidence for the existence of parametric instabilities in both unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas is reviewed in some detail. Experimental observation of plasma heating associated with the presence of parametric instabilities is demonstrated by a number of examples. Possible application of these phenomena to heating of pellets by lasers and heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas by high power microwave sources is discussed

  4. Effects of in situ plasma treatment on optical and electrical properties of index-matched transparent conducting oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong Hwan; Yoo, Hana; Choi, Bum Ho; Kim, Young Baek; Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Dong Chan

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of in situ plasma-treatment on optical and electrical properties of index-matched indium tin oxide (IMITO) thin film. To render the IMITO-coated surface hydrophilic and study the optical and electrical characteristics, we performed in situ oxygen plasma post-treatment without breaking vacuum. The 94.6% transmittance in the visible wavelength range (400-700 nm) increased on average to 96.4% and the maximum transmittance reached 98% over a broad wavelength range. The surface roughness and sheet resistance improved from 0.9 nm and 200 Ω/sq to 0.0905 nm and 100 Ω/sq, respectively, by in situ plasma post-treatment. We confirmed by contact angle measurement that the hydrophobic IMITO surface was altered to hydrophilic. The improved optical and electrical characteristics of in situ plasma-treated IMITO makes it adequate for high-resolution liquid crystal on silicon displays.

  5. Equilibrium of high beta plasma in closed magnetic line system (MBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesso, H.; Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Nogi, Y.; Osaniai, Y.; Yoshimura, H.; Todoroki, J.; Hamada, S.; Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Atomic Energy Research Inst.)

    1985-01-01

    The beta effects on the plasma equilibrium in Modified Bumpy Torus (MBT) sector, which is an asymmetric closed line system with l = 0 and fairly large l = +- 1 field distortions, are studied. For this purpose, the equilibrium of high beta plasma produced by theta-pinch is compared with that of betaless plasma numerically calculated from the measured magnetic field profiles in device. The equilibrium condition depends weakly on beta value, but the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated as the beta value increases. The m = 1 long wavelength MHD instability is not observed during the observation time of approx. 15 μs. These experimental results are compared with MHD theory based on the new ordering taking the finiteness of l = +- 1 field distortion (deltasub(+-1) > or approx. 1) into account, which suggests significant stabilizing effects due to self formation of magnetic well and also due to the conducting wall. (author)

  6. Sustainment dynamo reexamined: nonlocal electrical conductivity of plasma in a stochastic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.; Moses, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The plasma dynamo is both an intriguing and a practical concept. The intrigue derives from attempting to explain naturally occurring and man-made plasmas whose strong field-aligned currents j/sub parallel/ apparently disobey the most naive Ohm's law j/sub parallel/ = sigma/sub parallel/E/sub parallel/. The practical importance derives from the dynamo's role both in formation and in sustainment of reversed-field pinch (RFP) and Spheromak fusion plasmas. We will examine certain features of the documented quasi-steady discharges on ZT-40M, and RFP in apparent need of a sustainment dynamo. We will show that the tail electrons (which carry j/sub parallel/) are probably wandering (along stochastic B Vector-field lines) over much of the minor radius in one mean-free-path

  7. New Mixed Conductivity Mechanisms in the Cold Plasma Device Based on Silver-Modified Zeolite Microporous Electronic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Sevgul Ozturk; Galioglu, Sezin; Ozturk, Seckin; Kurç, Burcu Akata; Koç, Emrah; Salamov, Bahtiyar G.

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed the interaction between microdischarge and microporous zeolite electronic materials modified by silver (Ag0) nanoparticles (resistivity 1011 to 106 Ω cm) on the atmospheric pressure cold plasma generation in air. The generation and maintenance of stable cold plasma is studied according to the effect of the Ag0 nanoparticles. The role of charge carriers in mixed conductivity processes and electrical features of zeolite from low pressure to atmospheric pressure is analyzed in air microplasmas for both before and after breakdown regimes. The results obtained from the experiments indicate that Ag0 nanoparticles play a significant role in considerably reducing the breakdown voltage in plasma electronic devices with microporous zeolite electronic materials.

  8. High Thermal Conductivity Functionally Graded Heat Sinks for High Power Packaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase I program proposes the development of a high thermal conductivity (400 W/mK), low coefficient of thermal expansion (7-10 ppm/?K), and light...

  9. Experimental study on dynamic stabilization of the MHD instability in pinch plasmas surrounded by a conducting shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shunji; Ishii, Shozo; Kawamoto, Shigeshi; Hayashi, Izumi

    1981-01-01

    Experimental study on the dynamic stabilization of MHD instability with a pinch plasma generator was done, and the results were compared with the theoretical works. The previous results of theoretical analysis showed that a conducting shell worked effectively for the dynamic stabilization of MHD instability. The present experiment was carried out with a linear plasma generator which consisted of a discharge tube, a coil and a conducting shell. The macroscopic behavior of plasma was observed with an image converter camera, and the phenomena due to the instability was measured by a magnetic probe. A sine-cosine coil was employed for the observation of the growth of instability. The following results were obtained. When the frequency of RF current for dynamic stabilization was larger than the growth rate of instability, the experimental results were in agreement with the theoretical ones. The effect of a conducting shell was clearly seen. For the helical instability of short wave length, the dynamic stabilization was easily obtained even without a conducting shell. The self-reversal phenomena due to the helical instability of short wave length was suppressed by the RF current along the axis of a discharge tube. (Kato, T.)

  10. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  11. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, John D.; Spitzig, William A.; Gibson, Edwin D.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1991-08-27

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  12. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 microN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  13. [High beta tokamak research and plasma theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Our activities on High Beta Tokamak Research during the past 12 months of the present budget period can be divided into four areas: completion of kink mode studies in HBT; completion of carbon impurity transport studies in HBT; design of HBT-EP; and construction of HBT-EP. Each of these is described briefly in the sections of this progress report

  14. Dynamic characteristics of non-ideal plasmas in an external high frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, V M [Department of Theoretical Physics, I. I. Mechnikov Odessa National University, 65026 Odessa (Ukraine); Djuric, Z [Silvaco Data System, Silvaco Technology Centre, Compass Point, St. Ives PE27 5JL (United Kingdom); Mihajlov, A A [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Sakan, N M [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Tkachenko, I M [Department of Applied Mathematics, ETSII, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia 46022 (Spain)

    2004-07-21

    The dynamic electric conductivity, dielectric permeability and refraction and reflection coefficients of a completely ionized gaseous plasma in a high frequency (HF) external electric field are calculated. These results are obtained within the self-consistent field approach developed earlier for the static conductivity determination. The plasma electron density, N{sub e}, and temperature, T, varied within the following limits: 10{sup 19} {<=} N{sub e} {<=} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3} and 2 x 10{sup 4} {<=} T {<=} 10{sup 6} K, respectively. The external electric field frequency, f, varied in the range 3 GHz{<=} f {<=} 0.05{omicron}{sub p}, where {omicron}{sub p} is the circular plasma frequency. Thus, the upper limit for f is either in the microwave or in the far infrared frequency band. The final results are shown in a parameterized form, suitable for laboratory applications.

  15. Dynamic characteristics of non-ideal plasmas in an external high frequency electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, V M; Djuric, Z; Mihajlov, A A; Sakan, N M; Tkachenko, I M

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic electric conductivity, dielectric permeability and refraction and reflection coefficients of a completely ionized gaseous plasma in a high frequency (HF) external electric field are calculated. These results are obtained within the self-consistent field approach developed earlier for the static conductivity determination. The plasma electron density, N e , and temperature, T, varied within the following limits: 10 19 ≤ N e ≤ 10 21 cm -3 and 2 x 10 4 ≤ T ≤ 10 6 K, respectively. The external electric field frequency, f, varied in the range 3 GHz≤ f ≤ 0.05ο p , where ο p is the circular plasma frequency. Thus, the upper limit for f is either in the microwave or in the far infrared frequency band. The final results are shown in a parameterized form, suitable for laboratory applications

  16. Highly conductive paper for energy-storage devices

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, L.; Choi, J. W.; Yang, Y.; Jeong, S.; La Mantia, F.; Cui, L.-F.; Cui, Y.

    2009-01-01

    substrates can dramatically improve film adhesion, greatly simplify the coating process, and significantly lower the cost. Supercapacitors based on CNT-conductive paper show excellent performance. When only CNT mass is considered, a specific capacitance

  17. Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1966-11-15

    The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = {mu}{rho}/{sigma} x curlV and V -{mu}/({sigma}{mu}{sub 0}) x curlB (MKS units) where {rho}, {sigma} and {mu} denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given.

  18. Conductivity determination of electrolytes at high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Gutierrez, Norberto; Petragalli, I.P

    1981-01-01

    An experimental layout is designed that would allow operation up to 350 deg C and 10 8 Pascal, thus facilitating measurements of conductivity in electrolytes with an accuracy of 0.1%. The unit was tested with ClK solutions at 25 deg C and pressures up to 6 x 10 7 Pascal, showing that under these conditions it yields results in good agreement with the electric conductivity data found in the bibliography. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. High pressure studies of ionic conductivity in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samara, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the ionic conductivity provides information about the volume relaxation associated with the formation of lattice defects as well as with the diffusive motion of these defects, and thereby helps elucidate the conduction process. Pressure results on a variety of crystals will be discussed with emphasis on recent results on crystals with large lattice polarizabilities and soft phonon modes. Pressure is shown to be an important--sometimes essential, variable in the study of ionic transport processes

  20. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glasses Prepared using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    The increasing focus on better building insulation is important to lower energy consumption. Development of new and improved insulation materials can contribute to solving this problem. Foam glass has a good insulating effect due to its large gas volume (porosity >90 %). It can be produced with o...... the thermal conductivity varies with gas composition. This allows us to determine the contribution of the gas and solid phase to the total thermal conductivity of a foam glass....

  1. Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.

    1966-11-01

    The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = μρ/σ x curlV and V -μ/(σμ 0 ) x curlB (MKS units) where ρ, σ and μ denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given

  2. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milchberg, Howard M

    2013-03-30

    The eventual success of laser-plasma based acceleration schemes for high-energy particle physics will require the focusing and stable guiding of short intense laser pulses in reproducible plasma channels. For this goal to be realized, many scientific issues need to be addressed. These issues include an understanding of the basic physics of, and an exploration of various schemes for, plasma channel formation. In addition, the coupling of intense laser pulses to these channels and the stable propagation of pulses in the channels require study. Finally, new theoretical and computational tools need to be developed to aid in the design and analysis of experiments and future accelerators. Here we propose a 3-year renewal of our combined theoretical and experimental program on the applications of plasma waveguides to high-energy accelerators. During the past grant period we have made a number of significant advances in the science of laser-plasma based acceleration. We pioneered the development of clustered gases as a new highly efficient medium for plasma channel formation. Our contributions here include theoretical and experimental studies of the physics of cluster ionization, heating, explosion, and channel formation. We have demonstrated for the first time the generation of and guiding in a corrugated plasma waveguide. The fine structure demonstrated in these guides is only possible with cluster jet heating by lasers. The corrugated guide is a slow wave structure operable at arbitrarily high laser intensities, allowing direct laser acceleration, a process we have explored in detail with simulations. The development of these guides opens the possibility of direct laser acceleration, a true miniature analogue of the SLAC RF-based accelerator. Our theoretical studies during this period have also contributed to the further development of the simulation codes, Wake and QuickPIC, which can be used for both laser driven and beam driven plasma based acceleration schemes. We

  3. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics. (paper)

  4. Observation of high-temperature bubbles in an ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, K.; Yoshimura, S.; Tanaka, M. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Creation and annihilation of high-temperature bubbles have been observed in an electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The electron temperature in the bubble core is three times higher than that in the ambient region, and the size perpendicular to the magnetic field is much smaller than the plasma diameter. Formation of a bubble accompanies large negative spikes in the floating potential of a Langmuir probe, and the spatiotemporal behavior of the bubble has been visualized with a high-impedance wire grid detector. It is found that the bubble is in a prolate spheroidal shape with the axis along the magnetic field and occurs randomly in time and independently in space.

  5. High speed photography diagnostics in laser-plasma interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report on their effort in the development of techniques involved in laser-plasma experiments. This includes not only laser technology but also diagnostics studies and targets design and fabrication. Among the different kind of diagnostics currently used are high speed streak cameras, fast oscilloscopes and detectors sensitive in the i.r., visible, the u.v. region and the x-rays. In this presentation the authors describe the three high power lasers which are still in operation (P 102, OctAL and PHEBUS) and the main diagnostics used to characterize the plasma

  6. Characteristics of extreme ultraviolet emission from high-Z plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, H.; Higashiguchi, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Suzuki, C.; Tomita, K.; Nishikino, M.; Fujioka, S.; Endo, A.; Li, B.; Otsuka, T.; Dunne, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray sources in the 2 to 7 nm spectral region related to the beyond EUV (BEUV) question at 6.x nm and the water window source based on laser-produced high-Z plasmas. Resonance emission from multiply charged ions merges to produce intense unresolved transition arrays (UTAs), extending below the carbon K edge (4.37 nm). An outline of a microscope design for single-shot live cell imaging is proposed based on high-Z plasma UTA source, coupled to multilayer mirror optics.

  7. Hybrid simulation of electrode plasmas in high-power diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Dale R.; Rose, David V.; Bruner, Nichelle; Clark, Robert E.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Hahn, Kelly D.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    New numerical techniques for simulating the formation and evolution of cathode and anode plasmas have been successfully implemented in a hybrid code. The dynamics of expanding electrode plasmas has long been recognized as a limiting factor in the impedance lifetimes of high-power vacuum diodes and magnetically insulated transmission lines. Realistic modeling of such plasmas is being pursued to aid in understanding the operating characteristics of these devices as well as establishing scaling relations for reliable extrapolation to higher voltages. Here, in addition to kinetic and fluid modeling, a hybrid particle-in-cell technique is described that models high density, thermal plasmas as an inertial fluid which transitions to kinetic electron or ion macroparticles above a prescribed energy. The hybrid technique is computationally efficient and does not require resolution of the Debye length. These techniques are first tested on a simple planar diode then applied to the evolution of both cathode and anode plasmas in a high-power self-magnetic pinch diode. The impact of an intense electron flux on the anode surface leads to rapid heating of contaminant material and diode impedance loss.

  8. Asymptotic method for non-linear magnetosonic waves in an isothermal plasma with a finite conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusco, D [Messina Univ. (Italy). Instituto de Matematica

    1979-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a three-dimensional theory of non-linear magnetosonic waves in a turbulent plasma. A perturbation method is used that allows a transport equation, like Burgers equation but with a variable coefficient to be obtained.

  9. Spherical conducting probes in finite Debye length plasmas and E x B fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patacchini, Leonardo; Hutchinson, Ian H

    2011-01-01

    The particle-in-cell code SCEPTIC3D (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2010 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 52 035005) is used to calculate the interaction of a transversely flowing magnetized plasma with a negatively charged spherical conductor, in the entire range of magnetization and Debye length. The results allow the first fully self-consistent analysis of probe operation where neither the ion Larmor radius nor the Debye length are approximated by zero or infinity. An important transition in plasma structure occurs when the Debye length exceeds the average ion Larmor radius, as the sphere starts to shield the convective electric field driving the flow. A remarkable result is that in those conditions, the ion current can significantly exceed the unmagnetized orbital motion limit. When both the Debye length and the Larmor radius are small compared with the probe dimensions, however, their ratio does not affect the collection pattern significantly, and Mach-probe calibration methods derived in the context of quasineutral strongly magnetized plasmas (Patacchini and Hutchinson 2009 Phys. Rev. E 80 036403) hold for Debye lengths and ion Larmor radii smaller than about 10% of the probe radius.

  10. Recent experiments on the hydrodynamics of laser-produced plasmas conducted at the PALS laboratory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Redaelli, R.; Benocci, R.; Stabile, H.; Canova, F.; Desai, T.; Lucchini, G.; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Skála, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman; Rus, Bedřich; Ullschmied, Jiří; Malka, V.; Fauré, J.; Koenig, M.; Limpouch, J.; Nazarov, W.; Pepler, D.; Nagai, K.; Norimatsu, T.; Nishimura, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 25, - (2007), s. 127-141 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : equation of state * laboratory astrophysics * plasma hydrodynamics * shock acceleration * pressure * smoothing. Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2007

  11. Studies on the propagation of relativistic plasma waves in high density plasmas produced by hypersonic ionizing shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high density plasmas suitable for the propagation large amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20 kv arc driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 p > 10 17 cm -3 ). The shock can be made to reflect off the end of the tube, collide with its wake, and thus increase the plasma density further. After reflecting, the plasma is at rest. The shock speed is measured using piezoelectric pressure probes and the ion density is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques on argon 488.0 nm and 422.8 nm lines. The future plans are to excite large amplitude relativistic plasma waves in this plasma by either injecting a short pulse laser (Laser Wake Field Scheme), two beating lasers (Plasma Beat Wave Scheme), or a short bunch of relativistic electrons (Plasma Wake Field Scheme). Results of recent computational and theoretical studies, as well as initial experimental measurements on the plasma using LIF, are reported. Implications for the application of high density plasmas produced in this way to such novel schemes as the plasma wave accelerator, photon accelerator, plasma wave undulator, and also plasma lens, are discussed. The effect of plasma turbulence is also discussed

  12. High beta capture and mirror confinement of laser produced plasmas. Semiannual report, July 1, 1975--January 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, A.F.; Polk, D.H.; Fader, W.J.; Tomlinson, R.G.; Jong, R.A.; Ard, W.B.; Mensing, A.E.; Churchill, T.L.; Stufflebeam, J.H.; Bresnock, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The Laser Initiated Target Experiment (LITE) at the United Technologies Research Center is designed to address the target plasma buildup approach to a steady state mirror fusion device. A dense, mirror confined, target plasma is produced by high power laser irradiation of a solid lithium hydride particle, electrically suspended in a vacuum at the center of an established minimum-B magnetic field. Following expansion in and capture by the magnetic field, this target plasma is irradiated by an energetic neutral hydrogen beam. Charge exchange collisions with energetic beam particles serve to heat the confined plasma while ionization of the neutral beam atoms and trapping in the mirror magnetic field add particles to the confined plasma. For sufficiently high beam intensities, confined plasmas losses will be offset so that buildup of the plasma density occurs, thus demonstrating sustenance and fueling as well as the heating by neutral beam injection of a steady state mirror fusion device. Investigations of the decay of the magnetically confined target plasmas and initial studies of energetic neutral beam injection into confined target plasmas, conducted during this report period, are presented. Additional development of the LITE experimental systems including improvements in the laser plasma production facility, the energetic neutral beam line, and the heavy ion probe diagnostic is reported. A series of calculations on enhanced scattering and classical decay for plasma mirror confined in a LITE type system are discussed

  13. Sheath impedance effects in very high frequency plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzenbach, W.; Howling, A.A.; Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Hollenstein, C.

    1995-05-01

    The frequency dependence (13.56 MHz to 70 MHz) of the ion energy distribution at the ground electrode was measured by mass spectrometry in a symmetrical capacitive argon discharge. Reduced sheath impedance at Very High Frequency allows high levels of plasma power and substrate ion flux whilst maintaining low levels of ion energy and electrode voltage. The lower limit of ion bombardment energy is fixed by the sheath floating potential at high frequency, in contrast to low frequencies where only the rf voltage amplitude is determinant. The capacitive sheaths are thinner at high frequencies which accentuates the high frequency reduction in sheath impedance. It is argued that the frequency dependence of sheath impedance is responsible for the principal characteristics of Very High Frequency plasmas. The measurements are summarised by simple physical descriptions and compared with a Particle-In-Cell simulation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  14. On impurity handling in high performance stellarator/heliotron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burhenn, R.; Feng, Y.; Ida, K.

    2008-10-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) and Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X, under construction) are experiments specially designed to demonstrate long pulse (quasi steady-state) operation, which is an intrinsic property of Stellarators and Heliotrons. Significant progress was made in establishment of high performance plasmas. A crucial point is the increasing impurity confinement towards high density as observed at several machines (TJ-II, W7-AS, LHD) which can lead to impurity accumulation and early pulse termination by radiation collapse at high density. In addition, theoretical predictions for non-axisymmetric configurations prognosticate the absence of impurity screening by ion temperature gradients in standard ion root plasmas. Nevertheless, scenarios were found where impurity accumulation was successfully avoided in LHD and/or W7-AS by the onset of drag forces in the high density and low temperature scrape-off-layer, the generation of magnetic islands at the plasma boundary and to a certain degree also by ELMs, flushing out impurities and reducing the net-impurity influx into the core. Additionally, a reduction of impurity core confinement was observed in the W7-AS High Density H-mode (HDH) regime and by application of sufficient ECRH heating power. The exploration of such purification mechanisms is a demanding task for successful steady-state operation. The impurity transport at the plasma edge/SOL was identified to play a major role for the global impurity behaviour in addition to the core confinement. (author)

  15. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, Richard Howell; Biewer, Theodore M.; Caughman, John B.; Chen, Guangye; Owen, Larry W.; Sparks, Dennis O.

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Gamma(p) > 10(23) M-3 s(-1), and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of similar to 10 MW/m(2). An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength vertical bar B vertical bar in the antenna region up to similar to 0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3 x 10(19) M-3 in He and 2.5 x 10(19) m(-3) in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial vertical bar B vertical bar profile.

  16. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Chen, G. C.; Owen, L. W.; Sparks, D. O.

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Γ p 10 23 m -3 s -1 , and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of ∼10 MW/m 2 . An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength |B| in the antenna region up to ∼0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3x10 19 m -3 in He and 2.5x10 19 m -3 in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial |B| profile.

  17. Estimated Viscosities and Thermal Conductivities of Gases at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1962-01-01

    Viscosities and thermal conductivities, suitable for heat-transfer calculations, were estimated for about 200 gases in the ground state from 100 to 5000 K and 1-atmosphere pressure. Free radicals were included, but excited states and ions were not. Calculations for the transport coefficients were based upon the Lennard-Jones (12-6) potential for all gases. This potential was selected because: (1) It is one of the most realistic models available and (2) intermolecular force constants can be estimated from physical properties or by other techniques when experimental data are not available; such methods for estimating force constants are not as readily available for other potentials. When experimental viscosity data were available, they were used to obtain the force constants; otherwise the constants were estimated. These constants were then used to calculate both the viscosities and thermal conductivities tabulated in this report. For thermal conductivities of polyatomic gases an Eucken-type correction was made to correct for exchange between internal and translational energies. Though this correction may be rather poor at low temperatures, it becomes more satisfactory with increasing temperature. It was not possible to obtain force constants from experimental thermal conductivity data except for the inert atoms, because most conductivity data are available at low temperatures only (200 to 400 K), the temperature range where the Eucken correction is probably most in error. However, if the same set of force constants is used for both viscosity and thermal conductivity, there is a large degree of cancellation of error when these properties are used in heat-transfer equations such as the Dittus-Boelter equation. It is therefore concluded that the properties tabulated in this report are suitable for heat-transfer calculations of gaseous systems.

  18. Outlook for the use of microsecond plasma opening switches to generate high-power nanosecond current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G.I.; Maslennikov, D.D.; Ushakov, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Paper deals with a phenomenon of current breaking in a conducting plasma volume of plasma opening switchers with a nanosecond time of energy initiation and their application in high-power generators. One determined the conditions to ensure megavolt voltages under the erosion mode making use of external applied magnetic field to ensure magnetic insulation of gap of plasma opening switchers. One studied the peculiar features of application of plasma opening switchers under 5-6 MV voltages to ensure X-ray and gamma-radiation pulses [ru

  19. High resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A.Ya. [Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center of VNIIFTRI (MISDC), Mendeleevo, Moscow region, (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-01

    In recent years new classes of X-ray spectroscopic instruments possessing both dispersive and focusing properties have been manufactured. Their principal advantage over more traditional instruments is that they combine very high luminosity with high spatial resolution, while preserving the highest possible spectral resolution of their dispersive elements. These instruments opened up the registration of plasmas in new regimes and surroundings. The measurements delivered new information about the properties of even previously studied traditional plasma objects (e.g. ns-laser produced plasmas). Also the detailed investigation of relatively new plasma laboratory sources with very small dimensions and low energy content (e.g. mJ fs-laser pulses) became possible. The purpose of this report is to give a short review of the experimental and theoretical results obtained in the past few years by MISDC (Multi-charged Ions Spectra Data Center) research team in the field of X-ray spectroscopy of a laser-produced plasma. Experimental spectra have been obtained at various laser installations with nanosecond, sub-nanosecond, picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses interacting with solid, gaseous or cluster targets in collaborations with research teams from Russia, USA, Germany, France, Poland, Belgium, Italy, China and Israel. Practically all results have been obtained with the help of spectrographs with spherically bent mica crystals operating in FSSR-1D, 2D schemes. (author)

  20. Tube Inner Coating of Non-Conductive Films by Pulsed Reactive Coaxial Magnetron Plasma with Outer Anode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Timan Idriss Gasab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The double-ended coaxial magnetron pulsed plasma (DCMPP method with auxiliary outer anode was introduced in order to achieve the uniform coating of non-conductive thin films on the inner walls of insulator tubes. In this study, titanium (Ti was employed as a cathode (sputtering target, and a glass tube was used as a substrate. In an argon (Ar and oxygen (O2 gas mixture, magnetron plasma was generated. Oxygen gas was introduced to deposit a titanium oxide (TiO2 film. A comparison between films coated with and without an auxiliary outer anode was made. As a result, it was clearly shown that the DCMPP method using an auxiliary outer anode enhanced the uniformity of the deposited non-conductive film compared to the conventional DCMPP method. Moreover, the optimum conditions under which the thin TiO2 film was deposited on the inner wall of the glass tube were revealed. From the results, it was supposed that the auxiliary outer anode contributed to the uniformity of the distributions of deposited negative charge on the non-conductive film and consequently the electric field and the plasma density uniform.

  1. Development of high capacity, high rate lithium ion batteries utilizing metal fiber conductive additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soonho; Kim, Youngduk; Kim, Kyung Joon; Kim, Tae Hyung; Lee, Hyungkeun; Kim, Myung H.

    As lithium ion cells dominate the battery market, the performance improvement is an utmost concern among developers and researchers. Conductive additives are routinely employed to enhance electrode conductivity and capacity. Carbon particulates—graphite or carbon black powders—are conventional and popular choices as conductive fillers. However, percolation requirements of particles demand significant volumetric content of impalpable, and thereby high area conductive fillers. As might be expected, the electrode active surface area escalates unnecessarily, resulting in overall increase in reaction with electrolytes and organic solvents. The increased reactions usually manifest as an irreversible loss of anode capacity, gradual oxidation and consumption of electrolyte on the cathode—which causes capacity decline during cycling—and an increased threat to battery safety by gas evolution and exothermic solvent oxidation. In this work we have utilized high aspect ratio, flexible, micronic metal fibers as low active area and high conductivity additives. The metal fibers appear well dispersed within the electrode and to satisfy percolation requirements very efficiently at very low volumetric content compared to conventional carbon-based conductive additives. Results from 18650-type cells indicate significant enhancements in electrode capacity and high rate capability while the irreversible capacity loss is negligible.

  2. Highly conducting p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin films preparation without additional hydrogen dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chandralina; Das, Debajyoti

    2018-04-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline silicon thin film has been successfully prepared at a low substrate temperature (250 °C) in planar inductively coupled RF (13.56 MHz) plasma CVD, without any additional hydrogen dilution. The effect of B2H6 flow rate on structural and electrical properties of the films has been studied. The p-type nc-Si:H films prepared at 5 ≤ B2H6 (sccm) ≤ 20 retains considerable amount of nanocrystallites (˜80 %) with high conductivity ˜101 S cm-1 and dominant crystallographic orientation which has been correlated with the associated increased ultra- nanocrystalline component in the network. Such properties together make the material significantly effective for utilization as p-type emitter layer in heterojunction nc-Si solar cells.

  3. Fused silica thermal conductivity dispersion at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchut, P.; Decruppe, D.; Delrive, L.

    2004-01-01

    A continuous CO 2 laser is focused to locally anneal small fused silica spots. A noncontact radiometry diagnostic enables us to follow surface temperature variation that occurs from site to site. A 'steady state' dispersion of surface temperature is observed across our sample. We show that nonhomogeneous silica thermal conductivity, above 1000 K is responsible for this temperature dispersion

  4. High-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration and laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Blaclard, Guillaume; Godfrey, Brendan; Kirchen, Manuel; Lee, Patrick; Lehe, Remi; Lobet, Mathieu; Vincenti, Henri

    2016-10-01

    Large-scale numerical simulations are essential to the design of plasma-based accelerators and laser-plasma interations for ultra-high intensity (UHI) physics. The electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations, as it is based on first principles, and captures all kinetic effects, and also scale favorably to many cores on supercomputers. The standard PIC algorithm relies on second-order finite-difference discretization of the Maxwell and Newton-Lorentz equations. We present here novel formulations, based on very high-order pseudo-spectral Maxwell solvers, which enable near-total elimination of the numerical Cherenkov instability and increased accuracy over the standard PIC method for standard laboratory frame and Lorentz boosted frame simulations. We also present the latest implementations in the PIC modules Warp-PICSAR and FBPIC on the Intel Xeon Phi and GPU architectures. Examples of applications will be given on the simulation of laser-plasma accelerators and high-harmonic generation with plasma mirrors. Work supported by US-DOE Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by the European Commission through the Marie Slowdoska-Curie fellowship PICSSAR Grant Number 624543. Used resources of NERSC.

  5. Development of dispersion interferometer for magnetic confinement plasmas and high-pressure plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Kawahata, K.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.; Urabe, K.; Terashima, K.; Shirai, N.

    2015-09-01

    A CO2 laser dispersion interferometer (DI) has been developed for both magnetically fusion plasmas and high pressure industrial plasmas. The DI measures the phase shift caused by dispersion in a medium. Therefore, it is insensitive to the mechanical vibrations and changes in the neutral gas density, which degrade the resolution of the electron density measurement. We installed the DI on the Large Helical Device (LHD) and demonstrated a high density resolution of 2× 1017 m-3 without any vibration-free bench. The measured electron density with the DI shows good agreement with results of the existing far infrared laser (a wavelength of 119 μ m) interferometer. The DI system is also applied to the electron density measurement of high-pressure small-scale plasmas. The significant suppression of the phase shift caused by the neutral gas is proven. The achieved density resolution was 1.5× 1019 m-3 with a response time of 100 μ s. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  6. Electrostatic and electromagnetic traps for high-temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrent'ev, O.A.

    Theoretical and experimental aspects of thermal isolation are considered for a high-temperature plasma in systems with electrostatic as well as electric and magnetic fields. Specific types of traps are discussed, together with diagnostic methods and fundamental experimental results. (U.S.)

  7. A high-voltage pulse generator for corona plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, K.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Gompel, van F.M.; Leuken, van H.E.M.; Matyas, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a high-voltage pulse generator for producing corona plasma. The generator consists of three resonant charging circuits, a transmission line transformer, and a triggered spark-gap switch. Voltage pulses in the order of 30-100 kV with a rise time of 10-20 ns, a pulse duration of

  8. Simulation of transition dynamics to high confinement in fusion plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G. S.; Madsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The transition dynamics from the low (L) to the high (H) confinement mode in magnetically confined plasmas is investigated using a first-principles four-field fluid model. Numerical results are in agreement with measurements from the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak - EAST...

  9. Discharge efficiency in high-Xe-content plasma display panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Heusler, G.

    2004-01-01

    We study theoretically the overall output performance and the dominating reaction processes of the vacuum ultraviolet (UV) radiation production in high-Xe partial pressures in plasma display panels (PDPs) with Ne-Xe gas mixtures. A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model is applied for the

  10. Characterizing electrostatic turbulence in tokamak plasmas with high MHD activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Filho, Z O; Santos Lima, G Z dos; Caldas, I L; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetsov, Yu K [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66316, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R L, E-mail: viana@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-09-01

    One of the challenges in obtaining long lasting magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas in tokamaks is to control electrostatic turbulence near the vessel wall. A necessary step towards achieving this goal is to characterize the turbulence level and so as to quantify its effect on the transport of energy and particles of the plasma. In this paper we present experimental results on the characterization of electrostatic turbulence in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR), operating in the Institute of Physics of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In particular, we investigate the effect of certain magnetic field fluctuations, due to magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) instabilities activity, on the spectral properties of electrostatic turbulence at plasma edge. In some TCABR discharges we observe that this MHD activity may increase spontaneously, following changes in the edge safety factor, or after changes in the radial electric field achieved by electrode biasing. During the high MHD activity, the magnetic oscillations and the plasma edge electrostatic turbulence present several common linear spectral features with a noticeable dominant peak in the same frequency. In this article, dynamical analyses were applied to find other alterations on turbulence characteristics due to the MHD activity and turbulence enhancement. A recurrence quantification analysis shows that the turbulence determinism radial profile is substantially changed, becoming more radially uniform, during the high MHD activity. Moreover, the bicoherence spectra of these two kinds of fluctuations are similar and present high bicoherence levels associated with the MHD frequency. In contrast with the bicoherence spectral changes, that are radially localized at the plasma edge, the turbulence recurrence is broadly altered at the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer.

  11. Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Raymond W.

    2012-07-30

    This project, Development and Testing of a High Capacity Plasma Chemical Reactor in the Ukraine was established at the Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT). The associated CRADA was established with Campbell Applied Physics (CAP) located in El Dorado Hills, California. This project extends an earlier project involving both CAP and KIPT conducted under a separate CRADA. The initial project developed the basic Plasma Chemical Reactor (PCR) for generation of ozone gas. This project built upon the technology developed in the first project, greatly enhancing the output of the PCR while also improving reliability and system control.

  12. Momentum Transport Studies in High E x B Shear Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Kaye, S.M.; Bell, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, B.P.; Rewoldt, B.P.; Wang, W.; Levinton, F.M.; Yuh, H.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted on NSTX to study both steady state and perturbative momentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter space under investigation, where the low aspect ratio of NSTX results in rapid plasma rotation with E x B shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy confinement time is found to exceed five. Momentum pinch velocities of order 10-40 m/s are inferred from the measured angular momentum flux evolution after non-resonant magnetic perturbations are applied to brake the plasma

  13. Effects of hydrogenation on thermal conductivity of ultrananocrystalline diamond/amorphous carbon composite films prepared via coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeichi, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Takashi; Tabara, Mitsuru; Kawawaki, Shuichi; Kohno, Masamichi; Takahashi, Koji; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2018-06-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) composite (UNCD/a-C:H) and UNCD/non-hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite (UNCD/a-C) films were prepared via coaxial arc plasma deposition, and their thermal conductivity and interfacial conductance in grain boundaries were measured using a time-domain thermoreflectance method. The interfacial conductance was estimated to be 1,010 and 4,892 MW/(m2·K) for UNCD/a-C:H and UNCD/a-C films, respectively. The reasons for the hydrogenated film having lower interfacial conductance than the non-hydrogenated film are 1) the reduced number of carriers that contribute to heat transport and 2) the hydrogen atoms, which are preferentially located at the grain boundaries and enhance phonon scattering.

  14. High-speed photographic observation of plasma-limiter interactions in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausing, R.E.; Emerson, L.C.; Heatherly, L.

    1981-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures confirm that arcing occurs during periods of plasma instability in ISX-B. Various types of plasma-limiter interactions are described and illustrated. Arcing and other visible phenomena are correlated to plasma parameters

  15. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-β NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, W.

    2004-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data

  16. Internal kink mode dynamics in high-β NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Zhu, W.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2005-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode non-linear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experiment. (author)

  17. Endogenous magnetic reconnection and associated high energy plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.; Basu, B.

    2018-02-01

    An endogenous reconnection process involves a driving factor that lays inside the layer where a drastic change of magnetic field topology occurs. A process of this kind is shown to take place when an electron temperature gradient is present in a magnetically confined plasma and the evolving electron temperature fluctuations are anisotropic. The width of the reconnecting layer remains significant even when large macroscopic distances are considered. In view of the fact that there are plasmas in the Universe with considerable electron thermal energy contents this feature can be relied upon in order to produce generation or conversion of magnetic energy, high energy particle populations and momentum and angular momentum transport.

  18. 14th High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP 14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Preface The High-Tech Plasma Processes Conference (HTPP) is a bi-annual international conference based in Europe with topics encompassing the whole area of plasma processing science. This conference is open to all the international community in the world involved in plasma science and plasma technology. The aim of the conference is to bring different scientific communities together, facilitate the contacts between science, technology and industry and provide a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas. For this edition of HTPP, as was the case for the last, we have achieved a well balanced participation from the communities of both thermal and non-thermal plasma researchers. 75 people from 17 countries attended the conference with the total number of contributions being 74, consisting of 19 invited talks and 55 poster contributions. As a HTPP tradition a poster competition has been carried out during the conference. The winner of the poster competition was Fabrice Mavier from Université de Limoges, France with his paper “Pulsed arc plasma jet synchronized with drop-on-demand dispenser” All the participants also ejoyed the social program including an “unconventional” tour of the city, the visit to the famous Hofbräuhaus and the dinner at the Blutenburg, a beautiful inner-city castle. We have received papers corresponding to the contributions of HTPP-2014 that have been submitted for publication in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Each submitted contribution has been peer reviewed and the Editors are very grateful to the referees for their careful support in improving the original manuscripts. In total, 18 manuscripts have been accepted for publication covering a range of topics of plasma processing science from plasma fundamentals to process applications through to experiments, diagnostics and modelling. We deeply thank the authors for their enthusiastic and high-grade contributions and we

  19. Conference on atomic processes in high temperature plasmas: a topical conference of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts are included for approximately 100 of the papers presented at the meeting. The following sessions were held at the conference: (1) electron ionization and excitation rates, (2) radiation from low density plasmas, (3) electron-ion cross sections and rates, (4) oscillator strengths and atomic structure, (5) spectroscopy and atomic structure, (6) astrophysical plasmas, (7) particle transport, (8) ion-atom cross sections and rates, (9) wall effects in laboratory plasmas, (10) spectroscopy and photoionization, and (11) radiation from high density plasmas

  20. Lattice thermal conductivity of silicate glasses at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Y.; Hsieh, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic and transport properties of magma holds the key to understanding the thermal evolution and chemical differentiation of Earth. The discovery of the remnant of a deep magma ocean above the core mantle boundary (CMB) from seismic observations suggest that the CMB heat flux would strongly depend on the thermal conductivity, including lattice (klat) and radiative (krad) components, of dense silicate melts and major constituent minerals around the region. Recent measurements on the krad of dense silicate glasses and lower-mantle minerals show that krad of dense silicate glasses could be significantly smaller than krad of the surrounding solid mantle phases, and therefore the dense silicate melts would act as a thermal insulator in deep lower mantle. This conclusion, however, remains uncertain due to the lack of direct measurements on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicate melts under relevant pressure-temperature conditions. Besides the CMB, magmas exist in different circumstances beneath the surface of the Earth. Chemical compositions of silicate melts vary with geological and geodynamic settings of the melts and have strong influences on their thermal properties. In order to have a better view of heat transport within the Earth, it is important to study compositional and pressure dependences of thermal properties of silicate melts. Here we report experimental results on lattice thermal conductivities of silicate glasses with basaltic and rhyolitic compositions up to Earth's lower mantle pressures using time-domain thermoreflectance coupled with diamond-anvil cell techniques. This study not only provides new data for the thermal conductivity of silicate melts in the Earth's deep interior, but is crucial for further understanding of the evolution of Earth's complex internal structure.

  1. Wall stabilization of high beta plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.S.; Strait, E.J.; Lao, L.L.; Turnbull, A.D.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Mauel, M.

    1995-02-01

    Detailed analysis of recent high beta discharges in the DIII-D tokamak demonstrates that the resistive vacuum vessel can provide stabilization of low n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. The experimental beta values reaching up to β T = 12.6% are more than 30% larger than the maximum stable beta calculated with no wall stabilization. Plasma rotation is essential for stabilization. When the plasma rotation slows sufficiently, unstable modes with the characteristics of the predicted open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes mode are observed. Through slowing of the plasma rotation between the q = 2 and q = 3 surfaces with the application of a non-axisymmetric field, the authors have determined that the rotation at the outer rational surfaces is most important, and that the critical rotation frequency is of the order of Ω/2π = 1 kHz

  2. Angular dependence of high Mach number plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.A.; Brecht, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper a 2-1/2-dimensional hybrid code is used to examine the collisionless large spatial scale (kc/ω pi ∼ 1) low-frequency (ω ∼ ω ci ) interaction initiated by a plasma shell of finite width traveling at high Alfven Mach number relative to a uniform background plasma. Particular attention is given to the angle of the relative velocity relative to the ambient magnetic field for the range of angles O < θ < π/2. An attempt is made to parameterize some of the important physics including the Alfven ion cyclotron instability, the field-aligned electromagnetic ion counter streaming instability, mixing of the plasma shell with the background ions, and structuring of the interaction region. These results are applicable to various astrophysical interactions such as bow shocks and interplanetary shocks

  3. High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    With the development of intense (>1019 W cm-2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm-2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.

  4. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  5. High speed and high functional inverter power supplies for plasma generation and control, and their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesugi, Yoshihiko; Razzak, Mohammad A.; Kondo, Kenji; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Takamura, Shuichi; Imai, Takahiro; Toyoda, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    The Rapid development of high power and high speed semiconductor switching devices has led to their various applications in related plasma fields. Especially, a high speed inverter power supply can be used as an RF power source instead of conventional linear amplifiers and a power supply to control the magnetic field in a fusion plasma device. In this paper, RF thermal plasma production and plasma heating experiments are described emphasis placed on using a static induction transistor inverter at a frequency range between 200 kHz and 2.5 MHz as an RF power supply. Efficient thermal plasma production is achieved experimentally by using a flexible and easily operated high power semiconductor inverter power supply. Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) inverter power supplies driven by a high speed digital signal processor are applied as tokamak joule coil and vertical coil power supplies to control plasma current waveform and plasma equilibrium. Output characteristics, such as the arbitrary bipolar waveform generation of a pulse width modulation (PWM) inverter using digital signal processor (DSP) can be successfully applied to tokamak power supplies for flexible plasma current operation and fast position control of a small tokamak. (author)

  6. Tungsten and carbon surface change under high dose plasma exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, Y.V.; Khripunov, B.I.; Petrov, V.B.

    2009-01-01

    Study of surface composition dynamics has been made on the LENTA linear plasma simulator. Experiments have been made on tungsten and carbon materials subjected to steady-state plasma exposure. The achieved ion doses on the surface were 10 21 ion cm -2 . WL 10 tungsten containing 1% of La2O3 oxide and titanium-doped graphite RG-T were studied. The following experimental conditions were varied in these experiments: energy of ions, surface temperature, working gas. Irradiations of tungsten WL 10 were executed in deuterium plasma at low ion energies (about 20 eV) and at 200 eV for temperatures below 340 K. Graphite RG-T was exposed at 1300 K. Elevated surface temperature (about 1050K) was also characteristic of experiments on tungsten sample under nitrogen plasma impact (simulated inter-ELMs condition). Surface microstructure modification has been observed and surface composition changes were found on the materials showing influence of high dose plasma irradiations on element redistribution in the near surface layers. (author)

  7. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  8. Electromagnetic interaction of a rotating plasma flow with a conducting mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Sato, Hirofumi; Iwaya, Tohru; Sato, Naoyuki; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of a conducting mesh (floating) on the penetrating current (a fraction of discharge current flowing in the downstream across a magnetic field) and the rotational velocity has been investigated and results have been compared with Simpson's model. The velocity was independent of the conductance of the mesh contrary to Simpson's model since the mesh is floating in the present study. (author)

  9. High levels of circulating triiodothyronine induce plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Oliveira, Felipe Leite de; Nobrega, Alberto Félix; Vasconcellos, Rita; Cordeiro, Aline; Paiva, Luciana Souza de; Taub, Dennis D; Borojevic, Radovan; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Mello-Coelho, Valéria de

    2014-03-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism on B-cell physiology are still poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the influence of high-circulating levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) on bone marrow, blood, and spleen B-cell subsets, more specifically on B-cell differentiation into plasma cells, in C57BL/6 mice receiving daily injections of T3 for 14 days. As analyzed by flow cytometry, T3-treated mice exhibited increased frequencies of pre-B and immature B-cells and decreased percentages of mature B-cells in the bone marrow, accompanied by an increased frequency of blood B-cells, splenic newly formed B-cells, and total CD19(+)B-cells. T3 administration also promoted an increase in the size and cellularity of the spleen as well as in the white pulp areas of the organ, as evidenced by histological analyses. In addition, a decreased frequency of splenic B220(+) cells correlating with an increased percentage of CD138(+) plasma cells was observed in the spleen and bone marrow of T3-treated mice. Using enzyme-linked immunospot assay, an increased number of splenic immunoglobulin-secreting B-cells from T3-treated mice was detected ex vivo. Similar results were observed in mice immunized with hen egg lysozyme and aluminum adjuvant alone or together with treatment with T3. In conclusion, we provide evidence that high-circulating levels of T3 stimulate plasma cytogenesis favoring an increase in plasma cells in the bone marrow, a long-lived plasma cell survival niche. These findings indicate that a stimulatory effect on plasma cell differentiation could occur in untreated patients with Graves' disease.

  10. Resistive wall mode stabilization in slowly rotating high beta plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimerdes, H [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Strait, E J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Betti, R [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Chu, M S [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Hu, B [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); In, Y [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Jackson, G L [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); La Haye, R J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lanctot, M J [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Liu, Y Q [Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Navratil, G A [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Takahashi, H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    DIII-D experiments show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) can remain stable in high {beta} scenarios despite a low net torque from nearly balanced neutral beam injection heating. The minimization of magnetic field asymmetries is essential for operation at the resulting low plasma rotation of less than 20 krad s{sup -1} (measured with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy using C VI emission) corresponding to less than 1% of the Alfven velocity or less than 10% of the ion thermal velocity. In the presence of n = 1 field asymmetries the rotation required for stability is significantly higher and depends on the torque input and momentum confinement, which suggests that a loss of torque-balance can lead to an effective rotation threshold above the linear RWM stability threshold. Without an externally applied field the measured rotation can be too low to neglect the diamagnetic rotation. A comparison of the instability onset in plasmas rotating with and against the direction of the plasma current indicates the importance of the toroidal flow driven by the radial electric field in the stabilization process. Observed rotation thresholds are compared with predictions for the semi-kinetic damping model, which generally underestimates the rotation required for stability. A more detailed modeling of kinetic damping including diamagnetic and precession drift frequencies can lead to stability without plasma rotation. However, even with corrected error fields and fast plasma rotation, plasma generated perturbations, such as edge localized modes, can nonlinearly destabilize the RWM. In these cases feedback control can increase the damping of the magnetic perturbation and is effective in extending the duration of high {beta} discharges.

  11. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  12. Crude venom from nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) elicits a sodium conductance in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Rossana; Costa, Roberta; Rizzo, Valentina; Remigante, Alessia; Nofziger, Charity; La Spada, Giuseppa; Marino, Angela; Paulmichl, Markus; Dossena, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Cnidarians may negatively impact human activities and public health but concomitantly their venom represents a rich source of bioactive substances. Pelagia noctiluca is the most venomous and abundant jellyfish of the Mediterranean Sea and possesses a venom with hemolytic and cytolytic activity for which the mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of mammalian cells to crude venom from the nematocysts of P. noctiluca profoundly alters the ion conductance of the plasma membrane, therefore affecting homeostatic functions such as the regulation and maintenance of cellular volume. Venom-treated cells exhibited a large, inwardly rectifying current mainly due to permeation of Na+ and Cl-, sensitive to amiloride and completely abrogated following harsh thermal treatment of crude venom extract. Curiously, the plasma membrane conductance of Ca2+ and K+ was not affected. Current-inducing activity was also observed following delivery of venom to the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane, consistent with a pore-forming mechanism. Venom-induced NaCl influx followed by water and consequent cell swelling most likely underlie the hemolytic and cytolytic activity of P. noctiluca venom. The present study underscores unique properties of P. noctiluca venom and provides essential information for a possible use of its active compounds and treatment of envenomation.

  13. Synthesis of nano-particle and highly porous conducting perovskites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    State Key Laboratory of Materials-oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology,. No. 5 Xin Mofan Road, ... the molecule level mixing of the raw materials. The solid ... which were then calcined at 1000°C to form highly.

  14. High Thermal Conductivity of Copper Matrix Composite Coatings with Highly-Aligned Graphite Nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Vincenzo; Ucciardello, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Nanocomposite coatings with highly-aligned graphite nanoplatelets in a copper matrix were successfully fabricated by electrodeposition. For the first time, the disposition and thermal conductivity of the nanofiller has been evaluated. The degree of alignment and inclination of the filling materials has been quantitatively evaluated by polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy. The room temperature values of the thermal conductivity were extracted for the graphite nanoplatelets by the dependence of the Raman G-peak frequency on the laser power excitation. Temperature dependency of the G-peak shift has been also measured. Most remarkable is the global thermal conductivity of 640 ± 20 W·m−1·K−1 (+57% of copper) obtained for the composite coating by the flash method. Our experimental results are accounted for by an effective medium approximation (EMA) model that considers the influence of filler geometry, orientation, and thermal conductivity inside a copper matrix. PMID:29068424

  15. Highly conductive interwoven carbon nanotube and silver nanowire transparent electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Stapleton, Rakesh A Afre, Amanda V Ellis, Joe G Shapter, Gunther G Andersson, Jamie S Quinton and David A Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodes fabricated using commercially available silver nanowires (AgNWs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs produced sheet resistances in the range 4–24 Ω squ−1 with specular transparencies up to 82 %. Increasing the aqueous dispersibility of SWCNTs decreased the bundle size present in the film resulting in improved SWCNT surface dispersion in the films without compromising transparency or sheet resistance. In addition to providing conduction pathways between the AgNW network, the SWCNTs also provide structural support, creating stable self-supporting films. Entanglement of the AgNWs and SWCNTs was demonstrated to occur in solution prior to deposition by monitoring the transverse plasmon resonance mode of the AgNWs during processing. The interwoven AgNW/SWCNT structures show potential for use in optoelectronic applications as transparent electrodes and as an ITO replacement.

  16. Source conductance scaling for high frequency superconducting quasiparticle receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qing; Feldman, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that the optimum source conductance G(sub s) for the superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) quasiparticle mixer should have a l/f dependence. This would imply that the critical current density of SIS junctions used for mixing should increase as frequency squared, a stringent constraint on the design of submillimeter SIS mixers, rather than in simple proportion to frequency as previously believed. We have used Tucker's quantum theory of mixing for extensive numerical calculations to determine G(sub s) for an optimized SIS receiver. We find that G(sub s) is very roughly independent of frequency (except for the best junctions at low frequency), and discuss the implications of our results for the design of submillimeter SIS mixers.

  17. Low-temperature thermal conductivity of highly porous copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomás, G; Bonfait, G; Martins, D; Cooper, A

    2015-01-01

    The development and characterization of new materials is of extreme importance in the design of cryogenic apparatus. Recently Versarien ® PLC developed a technique capable of producing copper foam with controlled porosity and pore size. Such porous materials could be interesting for cryogenic heat exchangers as well as of special interest in some devices used in microgravit.y environments where a cryogenic liquid is confined by capillarity.In the present work, a system was developed to measure the thermal conductivity by the differential steady-state mode of four copper foam samples with porosity between 58% and 73%, within the temperatures range 20 - 260 K, using a 2 W @ 20 K cryocooler. Our measurements were validated using a copper control sample and by the estimation of the Lorenz number obtained from electrical resistivity measurements at room temperature. With these measurements, the Resistivity Residual Ratio and the tortuosity were obtained. (paper)

  18. Transient Plasma Photonic Crystals for High-Power Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, G; Spatschek, K H

    2016-06-03

    A new type of transient photonic crystals for high-power lasers is presented. The crystal is produced by counterpropagating laser beams in plasma. Trapped electrons and electrically forced ions generate a strong density grating. The lifetime of the transient photonic crystal is determined by the ballistic motion of ions. The robustness of the photonic crystal allows one to manipulate high-intensity laser pulses. The scheme of the crystal is analyzed here by 1D Vlasov simulations. Reflection or transmission of high-power laser pulses are predicted by particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that a transient plasma photonic crystal may act as a tunable mirror for intense laser pulses. Generalizations to 2D and 3D configurations are possible.

  19. High density plasma via hole etching in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.; Lee, K.P.; Leerungnawarat, P.; Chu, S.N.G.; Ren, F.; Pearton, S.J.; Zetterling, C.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Throughwafer vias up to 100 μm deep were formed in 4H-SiC substrates by inductively coupled plasma etching with SF 6 /O 2 at a controlled rate of ∼0.6 μm min-1 and use of Al masks. Selectivities of >50 for SiC over Al were achieved. Electrical (capacitance-voltage: current-voltage) and chemical (Auger electron spectroscopy) analysis techniques showed that the etching produced only minor changes in reverse breakdown voltage, Schottky barrier height, and near surface stoichiometry of the SiC and had high selectivity over common frontside metallization. The SiC etch rate was a strong function of the incident ion energy during plasma exposure. This process is attractive for power SiC transistors intended for high current, high temperature applications and also for SiC micromachining

  20. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O_2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H_2O_2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H_2O_2 addition with O_2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH"•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O_2 injected and H_2O_2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  1. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  2. Conduction cooled high temperature superconducting dipole magnet for accelerator applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenberg, N.; Nielsen, G.; Hauge, N.

    2012-01-01

    A 3T proof-of-principle dipole magnet for accelerator applications, based on 2nd generation high temperature superconducting tape was designed, built, and tested by a consortium under the lead of Danfysik. The magnet was designed to have a straight, circular bore with a good field region of radius...

  3. High-order harmonics generation from overdense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, F.; Thaury, C.; Monot, P.; Martin, Ph.; Geindre, J.P.; Audebert, P.; Marjoribanks, R.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. When an intense laser beam reflects on an overdense plasma generated on a solid target, high-order harmonics of the incident laser frequency are observed in the reflected beam. This process provides a way to produce XUV femtosecond and attosecond pulses in the μJ range from ultrafast ultraintense lasers. Studying the mechanisms responsible for this harmonic emission is also of strong fundamental interest: just as HHG in gases has been instrumental in providing a comprehensive understanding of basic intense laser-atom interactions, HHG from solid-density plasmas is likely to become a unique tool to investigate many key features of laser-plasma interactions at high intensities. We will present both experimental and theoretical evidence that two mechanisms contribute to this harmonic emission: - Coherent Wake Emission: in this process, harmonics are emitted by plasma oscillations in te overdense plasma, triggered in the wake of jets of Brunel electrons generated by the laser field. - The relativistic oscillating mirror: in this process, the intense laser field drives a relativistic oscillation of the plasma surface, which in turn gives rise to a periodic phase modulation of the reflected beam, and hence to the generation of harmonics of the incident frequency. Left graph: experimental harmonic spectrum from a polypropylene target, obtained with 60 fs laser pulses at 10 19 W/cm 2 , with a very high temporal contrast (10 10 ). The plasma frequency of this target corresponds to harmonics 15-16, thus excluding the CWE mechanism for the generation of harmonics of higher orders. Images on the right: harmonic spectra from orders 13 et 18, for different distances z between the target and the best focus. At the highest intensity (z=0), harmonics emitted by the ROM mechanism are observed above the 15th order. These harmonics have a much smaller spectral width then those due to CWE (below the 15th order). These ROM harmonics vanish as soon

  4. Highly conductive side chain block copolymer anion exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhu; Hickner, Michael A

    2016-06-28

    Block copolymers based on poly(styrene) having pendent trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium (with four carbon ring-ionic group alkyl linkers) or benzyltrimethyl ammonium groups with a methylene bridge between the ring and ionic group were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation radical (RAFT) polymerization as anion exchange membranes (AEMs). The C4 side chain polymer showed a 17% increase in Cl(-) conductivity of 33.7 mS cm(-1) compared to the benzyltrimethyl ammonium sample (28.9 mS cm(-1)) under the same conditions (IEC = 3.20 meq. g(-1), hydration number, λ = ∼7.0, cast from DMF/1-propanol (v/v = 3 : 1), relative humidity = 95%). As confirmed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the side chain block copolymers with tethered ammonium cations showed well-defined lamellar morphologies and a significant reduction in interdomain spacing compared to benzyltrimethyl ammonium containing block copolymers. The chemical stabilities of the block copolymers were evaluated under severe, accelerated conditions, and degradation was observed by (1)H NMR. The block copolymer with C4 side chain trimethyl styrenylbutyl ammonium motifs displayed slightly improved stability compared to that of a benzyltrimethyl ammonium-based AEM at 80 °C in 1 M NaOD aqueous solution for 30 days.

  5. Electrochemical Properties for Co-Doped Pyrite with High Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchao Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the hydrothermal method was adopted to synthesize nanostructure Co-doped pyrite (FeS2. The structural properties and morphology of the synthesized materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. Co in the crystal lattice of FeS2 could change the growth rate of different crystal planes of the crystal particles, which resulted in various polyhedrons with clear faces and sharp outlines. In addition, the electrochemical performance of the doping pyrite in Li/FeS2 batteries was evaluated using the galvanostatic discharge test, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that the discharge capacity of the doped material (801.8 mAh·g−1 with a doping ratio of 7% was significantly higher than that of the original FeS2 (574.6 mAh·g−1 because of the enhanced conductivity. Therefore, the doping method is potentially effective for improving the electrochemical performance of FeS2.

  6. Reduction of buffer layer conduction near plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy grown GaN/AlN interfaces by beryllium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, D.F.; Katzer, D.S.; Binari, S.C.; Glaser, E.R.; Shanabrook, B.V.; Roussos, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Beryllium doping of epitaxial GaN layers is used to reduce leakage currents through interfacial or buffer conducting layers grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on SiC. Capacitance-voltage measurements of Schottky barrier test structures and dc pinch-off characteristics of unintentionally doped GaN high-electron-mobility transistors indicate that these leakage currents are localized near the GaN/AlN interface of our AlGaN/GaN/AlN device structures. Insertion of a 2000 Aa Be:GaN layer at the interface reduces these currents by three orders of magnitude

  7. Olson sees how they conduct (High Tc superconductors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, C.

    1989-01-01

    Thanks to Cliff Olson's synchrotron radiation measurements of the surface of several of the new high-temperature superconducting materials, these ceramic-like crystals can now be classified as metals. This means their electronic band structure meets the criteria for a metal or conductor, rather than those of an insulator, or of a semiconductor. Working with graduate assistant Liu, Olson has now measured the energy gap in crystals of a bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide with a 100K or 300K transition temperature. They determined that the superconductivity gap is isotropic, or independent of direction within the layer. This is significant, because the high temperature materials are all anisotropic, layered in flat sheets, a fact that had led to speculations about a very different kind of superconducting coupling in these materials. The superconducting mechanism now turns out to be the same as that in classical superconductors

  8. Processing of Cu-Cr alloy for combined high strength and high conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O Olofinjanaa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High strength and high conductivity (HSHC are two intrinsic properties difficult to combine in metallic alloy design because; almost all strengthening mechanisms also lead to reduced conductivity. Precipitation hardening by nano-sized precipitates had proven to be the most adequate way to achieve the optimum combination of strength and conductivity in copper based alloys. However, established precipitation strengthened Cu- alloys are limited to very dilute concentration of solutes thereby limiting the volume proportion hardening precipitates. In this work, we report the investigation of the reprocessing of higher Cr concentration Cu- based alloys via rapid solidification. It is found that the rapid solidification in the as-cast ribbon imposed combined solution extension and ultra-refinement of Cr rich phases. X-ray diffraction evidences suggest that the solid solution extension was up to 6wt%Cr. Lattice parameters determined confirmed the many folds extension of solid solution of Cr in Cu.  Thermal aging studies of the cast ribbons indicated that peak aging treatments occurred in about twenty minutes. Peak aged hardness ranged from about 200 to well over 300Hv. The maximum peak aged hardness of 380Hv was obtained for alloy containing 6wt.%Cr but with conductivity of about 50%IACS. The best combined strength/conductivity was obtained for 4wt.%Cr  alloy with hardness of 350HV and conductivity of 80% IACS. The high strengths observed are attributed to the increased volume proportion of semi-coherent Cr rich nano-sized precipitates that evolved from the supersaturated solid solution of Cu-Cr that was achieved from the high cooling rates imposed by the ribbon casting process. The rapid overaging of the high Cr concentration Cu-Cr alloy is still a cause for concern in optimising the process for reaching peak HSHC properties. It is still important to investigate a microstructural design to slow or severely restrict the overaging process. The optimum

  9. High performance liquid chromatographic determination of glucosamine in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh-Habashi, Ali; Sattari, Saeed; Pasutto, Franco; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2002-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of glucosamine (GlcN) in rat plasma. Internal standard, galactosamine, was added to 100 micro L of plasma containing GlcN followed by precipitation of plasma proteins with acetonitrile. Evaporation of the decanted supernatant solution was accelerated by the addition of methanol. GlcN was derivatized by addition of a solution containing 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate. Sample cleanup included passage through an anion exchange cartridge. Analysis was accomplished by injection of 0.1 mL of the sample solution into an isocratic HPLC system consisting of a C18 column, a mobile phase of acetonitrile: water: acetic acid: triethylamine (4.5: 95.5:0.1:0.05), a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min, and a UV detector set at 254 nm. Galactosamine and GlcN appeared 26 and 29 min post-injection, respectively. The assay was linear over the range of 1.25-400 micro g/mL (CV<10%) with a detection limit of 0.63 microg/mL and a limit of quantification of 1.25 microg/mL. The method was applied to the determination of GlcN in rat plasma after oral administration of 350 mg/kg of GlcN hydrochloride. The present assay is specific, sensitive, precise, and accurate and is suitable for pharmacokinetic studies.

  10. High speed manyframe optical methods for plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhin, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.; Sklizkov, G.V.; Zakharenkov, Yu.A.; Zorev, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    A complex of active optical plasma and strong ionized shock wave diagnostics is described. The complex consisted of a specially developed high speed manyframe systems of shadow, schlieren and interferometric photography. The comparison of results obtained by a simultaneous registration of investigated object by means of different optical methods allowed us to determine optimal employment range for the methods. The sensitivity, temporal and space resolution of each optical method under conditions of high probe radiation refraction are discussed. The application boundaries of these methods for ionized shock wave investigation were found to depend on the shock wave front width. The methods described were used for the study of laser-produced plasma phenomena, occuring in the experiments on powerful nine-channel laser installation ''Kalmar''. (author)

  11. Characterization of Plasma-Polymerized Fused Polycyclic Compounds for Binding Conducting Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Norrman, Kion; Kingshott, Peter

    2005-01-01

    with hydrogen in the position which is able to co-polymerize with thiophene derivatives polymerized by conventional oxidative polymerization, thereby forming a conducting thiophene polymer bonded to the substrate. The durability of the surface modification procedure is demonstrated by micropatterning of PEDT...

  12. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Samulyak, R.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2018-01-01

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  13. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Samulyak, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have also been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  14. Gap formation processes in a high-density plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, J.M.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Weber, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    A gap opening process in plasma opening switches (POS) is examined with the aid of numerical simulations. In these simulations, a high density (n e =10 14 --5x10 15 cm -3 ) uniform plasma initially bridges a small section of the coaxial transmission line of an inductive energy storage generator. A short section of vacuum transmission line connects the POS to a short circuit load. The results presented here extend previous simulations in the n e =10 12 --10 13 cm -3 density regime. The simulations show that a two-dimensional (2-D) sheath forms in the plasma near a cathode. This sheath is positively charged, and electrostatic sheath potentials that are large compared to the anode--cathode voltage develop. Initially, the 2-D sheath is located at the generator edge of the plasma. As ions are accelerated out of the sheath, it retains its original 2-D structure, but migrates axially toward the load creating a magnetically insulated gap in its wake. When the sheath reaches the load edge of the POS, the POS stops conducting current and the load current increases rapidly. At the end of the conduction phase a gap exists in the POS whose size is determined by the radial dimensions of the 2-D sheath. Simulations at various plasma densities and current levels show that the radial size of the gap scales roughly as B/n e , where B is the magnetic field. The results of this work are discussed in the context of long-conduction-time POS physics, but exhibit the same physical gap formation mechanisms as earlier lower density simulations more relevant to short-conduction-time POS. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  15. Analytic analysis on asymmetrical micro arcing in high plasma potential RF plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M M

    2006-01-01

    We report experimental and analytical results on asymmetrical micro arcing in a RF (radio frequency) plasma. Micro arcing, resulting from high plasma potential, in RF plasma was found to occur only on the grounded electrode for a variety of electrode and surface configurations. The analytic derivation was based on a simple RF time-dependent Child-Langmuir sheath model and electric current continuity. We found that the minimum potential difference in one RF period across the grounded electrode sheath depends on the area ratio of the grounded electrode to the powered electrode. As the area ratio increases, the minimum potential difference across a sheath increases for the grounded electrode but not for the RF powered electrode. We showed that discharge time in micro arcing is more than 100 RF periods; thus the presence of a continuous high electric field in one RF cycle results in micro arcing on the grounded electrode. However, the minimum potential difference in one RF period across the powered electrode sheath is always small so that it prevents micro arcing occurring even though the average sheath voltage can be large. This simple analytic model is consistent with particle-in-cell simulation results

  16. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  17. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  18. Plasma-surface interactions under high heat and particle fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Bystrov, K.; Liu, F.; Liu, W.; Morgan, T.; Tanyeli, I.; van den Berg, M.; Xu, H.; Zielinski, J.

    2013-01-01

    The plasma-surface interactions expected in the divertor of a future fusion reactor are characterized by extreme heat and particle fluxes interacting with the plasma-facing surfaces. Powerful linear plasma generators are used to reproduce the expected plasma conditions and allow plasma-surface

  19. High density plasma heating in the Tokamak à configuration variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curchod, L.

    2011-04-01

    The Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) is a medium size magnetic confinement thermonuclear fusion experiment designed for the study of the plasma performances as a function of its shape. It is equipped with a high power and highly flexible electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) system. Up to 3 MW of 2 nd harmonic EC power in ordinary (O 2 ) or extraordinary (X 2 ) polarization can be injected from TCV low-field side via six independently steerable launchers. In addition, up to 1.5 MW of 3 rd harmonic EC power (X 3 ) can be launched along the EC resonance from the top of TCV vacuum vessel. At high density, standard ECH and ECCD are prevented by the appearance of a cutoff layer screening the access to the EC resonance at the plasma center. As a consequence, less than 50% of TCV density operational domain is accessible to X 2 and X 3 ECH. The electron Bernstein waves (EBW) have been proposed to overcome this limitation. EBW is an electrostatic mode propagating beyond the plasma cutoff without upper density limit. Since it cannot propagate in vacuum, it has to be excited by mode conversion of EC waves in the plasma. Efficient electron Bernstein waves heating (EBH) and current drive (EBCD) were previously performed in several fusion devices, in particular in the W7-AS stellarator and in the MAST spherical tokamak. In TCV, the conditions for an efficient O-X-B mode conversion (i.e. a steep density gradient at the O 2 plasma cutoff) are met at the edge of high confinement (H-mode) plasmas characterized by the appearance of a pedestal in the electron temperature and density profiles. TCV experiments have demonstrated the first EBW coupling to overdense plasmas in a medium aspect-ratio tokamak via O-X-B mode conversion. This thesis work focuses on several aspects of ECH and EBH in low and high density plasmas. Firstly, the experimental optimum angles for the O-X-B mode conversion is successfully compared to the full-wave mode conversion calculation

  20. The determination of the electron collision cross sections for the momentum transfer in potassium by measuring the DC conductivity of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luknarova, M.; Veis, S.

    1976-01-01

    The DC conductivity of a thermally produced plasma in a plasma diode has been measured in pure potassium vapour. The plasma diode consists of two tungsten electrodes heated to a temperature of 2200 K. A simple theory for determining the influence of the plasma sheaths on the measured conductivity was developed and experimental conditions were established under which the potential drops across the sheaths could be neglected. By measuring the DC conductivity of the plasma at temperatures ranging from 1250 to 1600 K the potassium momentum-transfer cross section has been obtained. The measured cross section (2.37 +- 0.24) x 10 -14 cm 2 at 1500 K is in good agreement with results of other workers. Results for the work function of tungsten in potassium vapour were also obtained. (author)

  1. Electrically conductive, black thermal control coatings for spacecraft applications. III - Plasma-deposited ceramic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hribar, V. F.; Bauer, J. L.; O'Donnell, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    Five black, electrically-conductive thermal control coatings have been formulated and tested for application on the Galileo spacecraft. The coatings consist of both organic and inorganic systems applied on titanium, aluminum, and glass/epoxy composite surfaces. The coatings were tested under simulated space environment conditions. Coated specimens were subjected to thermal radiation, convective and combustive heating, and cryogenic conditions over a temperature range between -196 C and 538 C. Mechanical, physical, thermal, electrical, and thermooptical properties are presented for one of these coatings. This paper describes the preparation, characteristics, and spraying of iron titanate on titanium and aluminum, and presents performance results.

  2. High-performance liquid chromatographic radioenzymatic assay for plasma catecyholamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaniecki, T.S.; Corder, C.N.; McDonald, R.H. Jr.; Feldman, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new assay method for plasma catecholamimes (CA) requiring only 50 μl has been developed, which uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (D), and epinephrine (E) compounds found in plasma are radioactively o-methylated with S-[methyl- 3 H]-adenosyl-L-methionine ( 3 H-SAM) 3 H-SAM by the reaction of catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT). The reaction is terminated and a standard mixture of nonradioactive o-methylated analogues of NE, D, and E is added to act as a carrier. Following separation by HPLC, the D,L-normetanephrine (NMN), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyl-amine or 3-methoxytyramine (3-MOT), and metanephrine (MN) radioactive peaks are collected which represent NE, D, and E, respectively. Then MNM and MN are oxidized to vanillin, and 3-MOT is acetylated. The products are subsequently separated by solvent extraction. This is necessary in order to avoid high radioactive blanks and to allow quantitation of the radioactivity by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The mean supine levels of NE, D, and E in normal subjects were respectively 182, 33, and 87 pg/ml of plasma. Similar assays on patients with pheochromocytoma revealed 797, 80, and 470 pg/ml

  3. Three plasma metabolite signatures for diagnosing high altitude pulmonary edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Tan, Guangguo; Liu, Ping; Li, Huijie; Tang, Lulu; Huang, Lan; Ren, Qian

    2015-10-01

    High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a potentially fatal condition, occurring at altitudes greater than 3,000 m and affecting rapidly ascending, non-acclimatized healthy individuals. However, the lack of biomarkers for this disease still constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis. Here, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Q-TOF mass spectrometry was applied to study plasma metabolite profiling from 57 HAPE and 57 control subjects. 14 differential plasma metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups from discovery set (35 HAPE subjects and 35 healthy controls) were identified. Furthermore, 3 of the 14 metabolites (C8-ceramide, sphingosine and glutamine) were selected as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for HAPE using metabolic pathway impact analysis. The feasibility of using the combination of these three biomarkers for HAPE was evaluated, where the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.981 and 0.942 in the discovery set and the validation set (22 HAPE subjects and 22 healthy controls), respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that this composite plasma metabolite signature may be used in HAPE diagnosis, especially after further investigation and verification with larger samples.

  4. Statistical approach for calculating opacities of high-Z plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Takeshi; Nakamura, Shinji; Takabe, Hideaki; Mima, Kunioki

    1992-01-01

    For simulating the X-ray radiation from laser produced high-Z plasma, an appropriate atomic modeling is necessary. Based on the average ion model, we have used a rather simple atomic model for opacity calculation in a hydrodynamic code and obtained a fairly good agreement with the experiment on the X-ray spectra from the laser-produced plasmas. We have investigated the accuracy of the atomic model used in the hydrodynamic code. It is found that transition energies of 4p-4d, 4d-4f, 4p-5d, 4d-5f and 4f-5g, which are important in laser produced high-Z plasma, can be given within an error of 15 % compared to the values by the Hartree-Fock-Slater (HFS) calculation and their oscillator strengths obtained by HFS calculation vary by a factor two according to the difference of charge state. We also propose a statistical method to carry out detail configuration accounting for electronic state by use of the population of bound electrons calculated with the average ion model. The statistical method is relatively simple and provides much improvement in calculating spectral opacities of line radiation, when we use the average ion model to determine electronic state. (author)

  5. Shear and bulk viscosity of high-temperature gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Hou, De-Fu

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the shear viscosity (η) and bulk viscosity (ζ) to entropy density (s) ratios η/s and ζ/s of a gluon plasma system in kinetic theory, including both the elastic {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the inelastic soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} processes. Due to the suppressed contribution to η and ζ in the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} forward scattering and the effective g≤ftrightarrow {gg} gluon splitting, Arnold, Moore and Yaffe (AMY) and Arnold, Dogan and Moore (ADM) have got the leading order computations for η and ζ in high-temperature QCD matter. In this paper, we calculate the correction to η and ζ in the soft gluon bremsstrahlung {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} process with an analytic method. We find that the contribution of the collision term from the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {ggg} soft gluon bremsstrahlung process is just a small perturbation to the {gg}≤ftrightarrow {gg} scattering process and that the correction is at ∼5% level. Then, we obtain the bulk viscosity of the gluon plasma for the number-changing process. Furthermore, our leading-order result for bulk viscosity is the formula \\zeta \\propto \\tfrac{{α }s2{T}3}{ln}{α }s-1} in high-temperature gluon plasma. Supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MSTC) under the “973” Project (2015CB856904(4)) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11735007, 11521064)

  6. Optimization of the plasma parameters for the high current and uniform large-scale pulse arc ion source of the VEST-NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Bongki; Park, Min; Heo, Sung Ryul; Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High power magnetic bucket-type arc plasma source for the VEST NBI system is developed with modifications based on the prototype plasma source for KSTAR. • Plasma parameters in pulse duration are measured to characterize the plasma source. • High plasma density and good uniformity is achieved at the low operating pressure below 1 Pa. • Required ion beam current density is confirmed by analysis of plasma parameters and results of a particle balance model. - Abstract: A large-scale hydrogen arc plasma source was developed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute for a high power pulsed NBI system of VEST which is a compact spherical tokamak at Seoul national university. One of the research target of VEST is to study innovative tokamak operating scenarios. For this purpose, high current density and uniform large-scale pulse plasma source is required to satisfy the target ion beam power efficiently. Therefore, optimizing the plasma parameters of the ion source such as the electron density, temperature, and plasma uniformity is conducted by changing the operating conditions of the plasma source. Furthermore, ion species of the hydrogen plasma source are analyzed using a particle balance model to increase the monatomic fraction which is another essential parameter for increasing the ion beam current density. Conclusively, efficient operating conditions are presented from the results of the optimized plasma parameters and the extractable ion beam current is calculated.

  7. Dynamic behaviour of the high confinement mode of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zohm, H.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes the dynamic behaviour of the High Confinement mode (H-mode) of fusion plasmas, which is one of the most promising regimes of enhanced energy confinement in magnetic fusion research. The physics of the H-mode is not yet fully understood, and the detailed behaviour is complex. However, we establish a simple physics picture of the phenomenon. Although a first principles theory of the anomalous transport processes in a fusion plasma has not yet been given, we show that within the picture developed here, it is possible to describe the dynamic behaviour of the H-mode, namely the dynamics of the L-H transition and the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs). (orig.)

  8. High-throughput anisotropic plasma etching of polyimide for MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliznetsov, Vladimir; Manickam, Anbumalar; Ranganathan, Nagarajan; Chen, Junwei

    2011-01-01

    This note describes a new high-throughput process of polyimide etching for the fabrication of MEMS devices with an organic sacrificial layer approach. Using dual frequency superimposed capacitively coupled plasma we achieved a vertical profile of polyimide with an etching rate as high as 3.5 µm min −1 . After the fabrication of vertical structures in a polyimide material, additional steps were performed to fabricate structural elements of MEMS by deposition of a SiO 2 layer and performing release etching of polyimide. (technical note)

  9. Very high energy probes of the quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Paige, F.; Madansky, L.

    1984-01-01

    Among the penetrating probes of nuclear matter the most frequently discussed have been those which involve the detection of photons or leptons with m/sub T/ approx. = P/sub T/ < 3 GeV. This is the expected range of emission from a hot, thermalized plasma of quarks and gluons. The suggestion has been made that in very high energy collisions of nuclei the properties of high P/sub T/ jets may also reflect the characteristics of the nuclear medium through which the parent partons have propagated just after the collision. In this note we expand on the possible uses of such a probe

  10. Plasma-Assisted Chemistry in High-Speed Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonov, Sergey B.; Yarantsev, Dmitry A.; Napartovich, Anatoly P.; Kochetov, Igor V.

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental problems related to the high-speed combustion are analyzed. The result of plasma-chemical modeling is presented as a motivation of experimental activity. Numerical simulations of the effect of uniform non-equilibrium discharge on the premixed hydrogen and ethylene-air mixture in supersonic flow demonstrate an advantage of such a technique over a heating. Experimental results on multi-electrode non-uniform discharge maintenance behind wallstep and in cavity of supersonic flow are presented. The model test on hydrogen and ethylene ignition is demonstrated at direct fuel injection to low-temperature high-speed airflow

  11. 13. TOPICAL CONFERENCE ON HIGH TEMPERATURE PLASMA DIAGNOSTICS SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.

    2000-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) has been employed as a standard electron temperature profile diagnostic on many tokamaks and stellarators, but most magnetically confined plasma devices cannot take advantage of standard ECE diagnostics to measure temperature. They are either overdense, operating at high density relative to the magnetic field (e.g. ω pe >> (Omega) ce in a spherical torus) or they have insufficient density and temperature to reach the blackbody condition (τ > 2). Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) are electrostatic waves which can propagate in overdense plasmas and have a high optical thickness at the electron cyclotron resonance layers, as a result of their large K i . This talk reports on measurements of EBW emission on the CDX-U spherical torus, where B 0 ∼ 2 kG, e > ∼ 10 13 cm -3 and T e ∼ 10 - 200 eV. Results will be presented for both direct detection of EBWs and for mode-converted EBW emission. The EBW emission was absolutely calibrated and compared to the electron temperature profile measured by a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic. Depending on the plasma conditions, the mode-converted EBW radiation temperature was found to be ≤ T e and the emission source was determined to be radially localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer. A Langmuir triple probe was employed to measure changes in edge density profile in the vicinity of the upper hybrid resonance where the mode conversion of the EBWs is expected to occur. Changes in the mode conversion efficiency may explain the observation of mode-converted EBW radiation temperatures below T e . Initial results suggest EBW emission and EBW heating are viable concepts for plasmas where ω pe >> (Omega) ce

  12. Operational characteristics of the high flux plasma generator magnum-PSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eck, H.J.N.; Abrams, T.; Van Den Berg, M.A.; Brons, S.D.N.; Van Eden, G.G.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Van Der Meiden, H.J.; Morgan, T.W.; van de Pol, Marc J.; Scholten, J.; Smeets, P.H.M.; De Temmerman, G.; De Vries, P.C.; Zeijlmans Van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    In Magnum-PSI (MAgnetized plasma Generator and NUMerical modeling for Plasma Surface Interactions), the high density, low temperature plasma of a wall stabilized dc cascaded arc is confined to a magnetized plasma beam by a quasi-steady state axial magnetic field up to 1.3 T. It aims at conditions

  13. Graphite-high density polyethylene laminated composites with high thermal conductivity made by filament winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The low thermal conductivity of polymers limits their use in numerous applications, where heat transfer is important. The two primary approaches to overcome this limitation, are to mix in other materials with high thermal conductivity, or mechanically stretch the polymers to increase their intrinsic thermal conductivity. Progress along both of these pathways has been stifled by issues associated with thermal interface resistance and manufacturing scalability respectively. Here, we report a novel polymer composite architecture that is enabled by employing typical composites manufacturing method such as filament winding with the twist that the polymer is in fiber form and the filler in form of sheets. The resulting novel architecture enables accession of the idealized effective medium composite behavior as it minimizes the interfacial resistance. The process results in neat polymer and 50 vol% graphite/polymer plates with thermal conductivity of 42 W·m–1·K–1 (similar to steel and 130 W·m–1·K–1 respectively.

  14. Enhancing Plasma Surface Modification using high Intensity and high Power Ultrasonic Acoustic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic wave generator (101 ), wherein the ultrasonic acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said surface (314) of the object (100) so that a laminar boundary layer (313) of a gas...... or a mixture of gases (500) flow in contact with said solid object (100) is thinned or destructed for at least a part of said surface (314). In this way, the plasma can more efficiently access and influence the surface of the solid object to be treated by the plasma, which speeds the process time up...

  15. Plasma Jet Printing and in Situ Reduction of Highly Acidic Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Avishek; Krishnamurthy, Satheesh; Bowen, James; Nordlund, Dennis; Meyyappan, M; Gandhiraman, Ram P

    2018-05-23

    Miniaturization of electronic devices and the advancement of Internet of Things pose exciting challenges to develop technologies for patterned deposition of functional nanomaterials. Printed and flexible electronic devices and energy storage devices can be embedded onto clothing or other flexible surfaces. Graphene oxide (GO) has gained much attention in printed electronics due its solution processability, robustness, and high electrical conductivity in the reduced state. Here, we introduce an approach to print GO films from highly acidic suspensions with in situ reduction using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Low-temperature plasma of a He and H 2 mixture was used successfully to reduce a highly acidic GO suspension (pH < 2) in situ during deposition. This technique overcomes the multiple intermediate steps required to increase the conductivity of deposited GO. X-ray spectroscopic studies confirmed that the reaction intermediates and the concentration of oxygen functionalities bonded to GO have been reduced significantly by this approach without any additional steps. Moreover, the reduced GO films showed enhanced conductivity. Hence, this technique has a strong potential for printing conducting patterns of GO for a range of large-scale applications.

  16. Improved conductivity of ZnO thin films by exposure to an atmospheric hydrogen plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illiberi, A.; Kniknie, B.; Deelen, J. van; Steijvers, H.L.A.H.; Habets, D.; Simons, P.J.P.M.; Janssen, A.C.; Beckers, E.H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnOx:Al) films have been deposited on a moving glass substrate by a high throughput metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process at atmospheric pressure. Thin (< 250 nm) ZnOx:Al films have a poor crystalline quality, due to a small grain size and the presence of

  17. High density high performance plasma with internal diffusion barrier in Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, R.; Kobayashi, M.; Miyazawa, J.

    2008-10-01

    A attractive high density plasma operational regime, namely an internal diffusion barrier (IDB), has been discovered in the intrinsic helical divertor configuration on the Large Helical Device (LHD). The IDB which enables core plasma to access a high density/high pressure regime has been developed. It is revealed that the IDB is reproducibly formed by pellet fueling in the magnetic configurations shifted outward in major radius. Attainable central plasma density exceeds 1x10 21 m -3 . Central pressure reaches 1.5 times atmospheric pressure and the central β value becomes fairly high even at high magnetic field, i.e. β(0)=5.5% at B t =2.57 T. (author)

  18. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedeji, O.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1991-01-01

    We have finished the first stages of our experimental and theoretical investigations on models for energy and momentum transport and for photon-particle collision processes in a turbulent quasi-stationary high density plasma. The system is explored by beginning to determine the turbulence phenomenology associated with an ionizing shock wave. The theoretical underpinnings are explored for phonon particle collisions by determining the collisional redistribution function, using Lioville Space Green's Function, which will characterize the inelastic scattering of the radiation from one frequency to another. We have observed that a weak magnetic field tends to increase the apparent random-like behaviors in a collisional turbulent plasma. On the theoretical side, we have been able to achieve a form for the collisional redistribution function. It remains to apply these concepts to a stationary turbulent plasma in the reflected ionizing shock wave and to exercise the implications of evaluations of the collisional redistribution function for such a system when it is probed by a strong radiation source. These results are discussed in detail in the publications, which have resulted from the this effort, cited at the end of the report

  19. High latitude plasma convection: Predictions for EISCAT and Sondre Stromfjord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, J.J.; Raitt, W.J.; Schunk, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    We have used a plasma convection model to predict diurnal patterns of horizontal drift velocities in the vicinity of the EISCAT incoherent scatter facility at Tromso, Norway and for Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland, a proposed new incoherent scatter facility site. The convection model includes the offset of 11.4 0 between the geographic and geomagnetic poles (northern hemisphere), the tendency of plasma to corotate about the geographic pole, and a magnetospheric electric field mapped to a circle about a center offset by 5 0 in the antisunward direction from the magnetic pole. Four different magnetospheric electric field configurations were considered, including a constant cross-tail electric field, asymmetric electric fields with enhancements on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, and an electric field pattern that is not aligned parallel to the noon-midnight magnetic meridian. The different electric field configurations produce different signatures in the plasma convection pattern which are clearly identified. Both of the high-latitude sites are better suited to study magnetospheric convection effects than either Chatanika, Alaska or Millstone Hill, Massachusetts. Also, each site appears to have unique capabilities with regard to studying certain aspects of the magnetospheric electric field

  20. Conductivity of cesium-seeded atmospheric pressure plasmas near thermal equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, L. P.

    1963-04-15

    Measurements were made of the electric conductivities of gaseous mixtures formed by the addition of small fractions of cesium vapor to nitrogen, helium, neon, or argon. The mixtures studied were maintained near thermal equilibrium at temperatures in the 1500 to 2000 deg K range and a total pressure of 1 atm. The cesium vapor pressures ranged over two decades, from 0.1 to 10 torr. The apparatus consists, in essence, of two heated zones connected by a slow flow. The first zone is a low-temperature (200 to 400 deg C) oven where the body-gas flow picks up the cesium vapor. The second zone is a small electrically heated furnace (1250 to 1850 deg C) containing a diode test section. The principal measurements taken were the seeding temperature, furnace temperature, and voltages and currents in the test section. The results exhibit variations with temperature, seeding pressure, and gas species that correlate reasonably well with simple theory and values for electron collision frequencies and cross sections taken from the literature. (auth)

  1. High-strength high-conductivity Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet fabricated via multiple roll bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, S.C.; Delagi, R.G.; Forster, J.A.; Krotz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Copper-niobium microcomposites are a new class of high-strength high-conductivity materials that have attractive properties for room- and elevated-temperature applications. Since Nb has little solid solubility in Cu, addition of Nb to Cu does not affect its conductivity. Copper-niobium microcomposites are melted and cast so that the microstructure of cast Cu-Nb ingots consists of 1- to 10 μm Nb dendrites uniformly distributed within the copper matrix. Extensive wire drawing with a true processing strain (η> 12) of Cu-Nb alloy leads to refinement and elongation of Nb dendrites into 1- to 10 nm-thick filaments. The presence of such fine Nb filaments causes a significant increase in the strength of Cu-Nb wires. The tensile strength of heavily drawn Cu-Nb wires was determined to be significantly higher than the values predicted by the rule of mixtures. This article reports the fabrication of high-strength Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet by multiple roll bonding. It is difficult and impractical to attain high processing strains (η>3) by simple cold rolling. In most practical cold-rolling operation, the thickness reduction does not exceed 90 pct (η ≅2). Therefore, innovative processing is required to generate high strength in Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet. Multiple roll bonding of Cu-Nb has been utilized to store high processing strain ( η>10) in the material and refine the Nb particle size within the copper matrix. This article describes the microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability of roll-bonded Cu-Nb microcomposite sheet

  2. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  3. Low Thermal Conductivity, High Durability Thermal Barrier Coatings for IGCC Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Eric [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Gell, Maurice [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are crucial to improved energy efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. The use of traditional topcoat materials, e.g. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), is limited at elevated temperatures due to (1) the accelerated undesirable phase transformations and (2) corrosive attacks by calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) deposits and moisture. The first goal of this project is to use the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process to further reduce the thermal conductivity of YSZ TBCs by introducing a unique microstructural feature of layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries (IPBs). Extensive process optimization accompanied with hundreds of spray trials as well as associated SEM cross-section and laser-flash measurements, yielded a thermal conductivity as low as 0.62 Wm⁻¹K⁻¹ in SPPS YSZ TBCs, approximately 50% reduction of APS TBCs; while other engine critical properties, such as cyclic durability, erosion resistance and sintering resistance, were characterized to be equivalent or better than APS baselines. In addition, modifications were introduced to SPPS TBCs so as to enhance their resistance to CMAS under harsh IGCC environments. Several mitigation approaches were explored, including doping the coatings with Al₂O₃ and TiO₂, applying a CMAS infiltration-inhibiting surface layer, and filling topcoat cracks with blocking substances. The efficacy of all these modifications was assessed with a set of novel CMAS-TBC interaction tests, and the moisture resistance was tested in a custom-built high-temperature moisture rig. In the end, the optimal low thermal conductivity TBC system was selected based on all evaluation tests and its processing conditions were documented. The optimal coating consisted on a thick inner layer of YSZ coating made by the SPPS process having a thermal conductivity 50% lower than standard YSZ coatings topped with a high temperature tolerant CMAS resistant gadolinium

  4. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-01-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability

  5. Highly conductive porous Na-embedded carbon nanowalls for high-performance capacitive deionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang; Hu, Yun Hang

    2018-05-01

    Highly conductive porous Na-embedded carbon nanowalls (Na@C), which were recently invented, have exhibited excellent performance for dye-sensitized solar cells and electric double-layer capacitors. In this work, Na@C was demonstrated as an excellent electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI). In a three-electrode configuration system, the specific capacity of the Na@C electrodes can achieve 306.4 F/g at current density of 0.2 A/g in 1 M NaCl, which is higher than that (235.2 F/g) of activated carbon (AC) electrodes. Furthermore, a high electrosorption capacity of 8.75 mg g-1 in 100 mg/L NaCl was obtained with the Na@C electrodes in a batch-mode capacitive deionization cell. It exceeds the electrosorption capacity (4.08 mg g-1) of AC electrodes. The Na@C electrode also showed a promising cycle stability. The excellent performance of Na@C electrode for capacitive deionization (CDI) can be attributed to its high electrical conductivity and large accessible surface area.

  6. High-resolution and high-conductive electrode fabrication on a low thermal resistance flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bongchul; Kno, Jinsung; Yang, Minyang

    2011-07-01

    Processes based on the liquid-state pattern transfer, like inkjet printing, have critical limitations including low resolution and low electrical conductivity when fabricating electrodes on low thermal resistance flexible substrates such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Those are due to the nonlinear transfer mechanism and the limit of the sintering temperature. Although the laser direct curing (LDC) of metallic inks is an alternative process to improve the resolution, it is also associated with the disadvantages of causing thermal damage to the polymer substrate. This paper suggests the laser induced pattern adhesion transfer method to fabricate electrodes of both high electrical conductivity and high resolution on a PET substrate. First, solid patterns are cost-effectively created by the LDC of the organometallic silver ink on a glass that is optically and thermally stable. The solid patterns sintered on the glass are transferred to the PET substrate by the photo-thermally generated adhesion force of the substrate. Therefore, we achieved electrodes with a minimum line width of 10 µm and a specific resistance of 3.6 μΩcm on the PET substrate. The patterns also showed high mechanical reliability.

  7. High performance supercapacitors based on highly conductive nitrogen-doped graphene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongcai; Zhang, Xinfeng; Yang, Shihe

    2011-07-21

    Thermal nitridation of reduced graphene oxide sheets yields highly conductive (∼1000-3000 S m(-1)) N-doped graphene sheets, as a result of the restoration of the graphene network by the formation of C-N bonded groups and N-doping. Even without carbon additives, supercapacitors made of the N-doped graphene electrodes can deliver remarkable energy and power when operated at higher voltages, in the range of 0-4 V. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  8. High density plasmas and new diagnostics: An overview (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.

    2016-01-01

    One of the limiting factors for the full understanding of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) fundamental mechanisms consists of few types of diagnostic tools so far available for such compact machines. Microwave-to-plasma coupling optimisation, new methods of density overboost provided by plasma wave generation, and magnetostatic field tailoring for generating a proper electron energy distribution function, suitable for optimal ion beams formation, require diagnostic tools spanning across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from microwave interferometry to X-ray spectroscopy; these methods are going to be implemented including high resolution and spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy made by quasi-optical methods (pin-hole cameras). The ion confinement optimisation also requires a complete control of cold electrons displacement, which can be performed by optical emission spectroscopy. Several diagnostic tools have been recently developed at INFN-LNS, including “volume-integrated” X-ray spectroscopy in low energy domain (2-30 keV, by using silicon drift detectors) or high energy regime (>30 keV, by using high purity germanium detectors). For the direct detection of the spatially resolved spectral distribution of X-rays produced by the electronic motion, a “pin-hole camera” has been developed also taking profit from previous experiences in the ECRIS field. The paper will give an overview of INFN-LNS strategy in terms of new microwave-to-plasma coupling schemes and advanced diagnostics supporting the design of new ion sources and for optimizing the performances of the existing ones, with the goal of a microwave-absorption oriented design of future machines

  9. Extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on molecular dynamics simulations, we reveal that double-walled carbon nanotubes can possess an extremely high anisotropy ratio of radial to axial thermal conductivities. The mechanism is basically the same as that for the high thermal conductivity anisotropy of graphene layers - the in-plane strong sp2 bonds lead to a very high intralayer thermal conductivity while the weak van der Waals interactions to a very low interlayer thermal conductivity. However, different from flat graphene layers, the tubular structures of carbon nanotubes result in a diameter dependent thermal conductivity. The smaller the diameter, the larger the axial thermal conductivity but the smaller the radial thermal conductivity. As a result, a DWCNT with a small diameter may have an anisotropy ratio of thermal conductivity significantly higher than that for graphene layers. The extremely high thermal conductivity anisotropy allows DWCNTs to be a promising candidate for thermal management materials.

  10. Spermine selectively inhibits high-conductance, but not low-conductance calcium-induced permeability transition pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elustondo, Pia A; Negoda, Alexander; Kane, Constance L; Kane, Daniel A; Pavlov, Evgeny V

    2015-02-01

    The permeability transition pore (PTP) is a large channel of the mitochondrial inner membrane, the opening of which is the central event in many types of stress-induced cell death. PTP opening is induced by elevated concentrations of mitochondrial calcium. It has been demonstrated that spermine and other polyamines can delay calcium-induced swelling of isolated mitochondria, suggesting their role as inhibitors of the mitochondrial PTP. Here we further investigated the mechanism by which spermine inhibits the calcium-induced, cyclosporine A (CSA) -sensitive PTP by using three indicators: 1) calcium release from the mitochondria detected with calcium green, 2) mitochondrial membrane depolarization using TMRM, and 3) mitochondrial swelling by measuring light absorbance. We found that despite calcium release and membrane depolarization, indicative of PTP activation, mitochondria underwent only partial swelling in the presence of spermine. This was in striking contrast to the high-amplitude swelling detected in control mitochondria and in mitochondria treated with the PTP inhibitor CSA. We conclude that spermine selectively prevents opening of the high-conductance state, while allowing activation of the lower conductance state of the PTP. We propose that the existence of lower conductance, stress-induced PTP might play an important physiological role, as it is expected to allow the release of toxic levels of calcium, while keeping important molecules (e.g., NAD) within the mitochondrial matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on the behaviour of high energy electrons in REPUTE-1 ULQ plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Morikawa, J.; Nihei, H.; Nakajima, T.; Ozawa, D.; Ohno, M.; Suzuki, T.; Himura, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morita, S.; Shirai, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In REPUTE-1 Ultra-Low-q (ULQ) plasmas, behaviors of high energy electrons have been studied through a low-Z pellet injection experiment, in addition to the measurements of soft-X ray PHA and Electron Energy Analyzer (EEA). The high energy tail has been measured in the soft-X ray spectrum, and EEA signal has shown a strong anisotropy of the electron distribution function (i.e., the electron flux to the electron drift side is dominant). To study temporal and spatial information on these high energy electrons, a low-Z pellet injection experiment has been conducted. A small piece of plastic pellet is injected from the top of the REPUTE-1 device, and the trajectory of the pellet inside the plasma is measured by CCD camera. We have observed a large deflection of the pellet trajectory to the toroidal direction opposite to the plasma current (i.e., the electron drift side). This suggests that a pellet is ablated selectively only from one side due to the high energy electrons with a large heat flux. We have calculated the heat flux carried by high energy electrons. Since the repulsion force to the pellet can be calculated with the 2 nd derivative of the pellet trajectory, we have estimated the heat flux of high energy electrons to be a few tens MW/m 2 around the plasma center. Experimental data by EEA measurement and low-Z pellet ablation show the large population of the high energy electrons at the core region in comparison with the edge region, suggesting a MHD dynamo mechanism for the production of the high energy electrons. (author)

  12. Preparation of high surface area and high conductivity polyaniline nanoparticles using chemical oxidation polymerization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, S.; Yusmaniar; Juliana, A.; Cahyana, U.; Purwanto, A.; Imaduddin, A.; Handoko, E.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, polyaniline nanoparticles were synthesized using a chemical oxidation polymerization technique. The ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS)/aniline ratio, APS dropping time, and polymerization temperature were optimized to increase the surface area and conductivity of the polyaniline.The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum confirmed the formation of emeraldine salt polyaniline. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that amorphous and crystalline phases of the polyaniline were formed with crystallinity less than 40%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that the finest nanoparticles with uniform size distribution were obtained at the polymerization temperature of 0°C. A surface area analyzer (SAA) showed that the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (SBET ) of 42.14 m2/gwas obtained from an APS/aniline ratio of 0.75 with a dropping time of 0 s at a polymerization temperature of 0°C. A four-point probe measurement conducted at 75–300K indicated relatively high conductivity of the semiconductor characteristic of the polyaniline.

  13. Radial convection of finite ion temperature, high amplitude plasma blobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, Jens; Kendl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We present results from simulations of seeded blob convection in the scrape-off-layer of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We consistently incorporate high fluctuation amplitude levels and finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects using a fully nonlinear global gyrofluid model. This is in line......-field transport compared to blobs simulated with the local model. The maximal blob amplitude is significantly higher in the global simulations than in the local ones. When the ion temperature is comparable to the electron temperature, global blob simulations show a reduced blob coherence and a decreased cross...

  14. Generalized MHD for numerical stability analysis of high-performance plasmas in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskii, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A set of generalized magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations is formulated to accommodate the effects associated with high ion and electron temperatures in high-performance plasmas in tokamaks. The effects of neoclassical bootstrap current, neoclassical ion viscosity, the ion finite Larmor radius effect and electron and ion drift effects are taken into account in two-fluid MHD equations together with gyroviscosity, parallel viscosity, electron parallel inertia and collisionless ion heat flux. The ion velocity is identified as the plasma velocity, while the electron velocity is expressed in terms of the plasma velocity and electric current. Ion and electron momentum equations are combined to give the plasma momentum equation. The perpendicular (with respect to the equilibrium magnetic field) ion momentum equation is used as perpendicular Ohm's law and the parallel electron momentum equation - as parallel Ohm's law. Perpendicular Ohm's law allows for the Hall and ion drift effects. Parallel Ohm's law includes the electron drift effect, collisionless skin effect and bootstrap current. In addition, both perpendicular and parallel Ohm's laws contain the resistivity. Due to the quasineutrality condition, the ions and electrons are characterized by the same number density which is described by the ion continuity equation. On the other hand, the ion and electron temperatures are allowed to be different. The ion temperature is described by the ion energy equation allowing for the oblique heat flux, in addition to the perpendicular ion heat flux. The electron temperature is determined by the condition of high parallel electron heat conductivity. The ion and electron parallel viscosities are represented in a form valid for all the collisionality regimes (Pfirsch-Schluter, plateau, and banana). An optimized form of the generalized MHD equations is then represented in terms of the toroidal coordinate system used in the JET equilibrium and stability codes. The derived equations

  15. Program for Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouleas, Thomas C.; Muggli, Patric

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 Program for Plasma-Based Concepts for Future High Energy Accelerators. The progress made under this program in the period since November 15, 2002 is reflected in this report. The main activities for this period were to conduct the first run of the E-164 high-gradient wakefield experiment at SLAC, to prepare for run 2 and to continue our collaborative effort with CERN to model electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators. Each of these is described. Also attached to this report are papers that were prepared or appeared during this period

  16. Forbidden lines of highly ionized ions for localized plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinnov, E.; Fonck, R.; Suckewer, S.

    1980-06-01

    Numerous optically forbidden lines resulting from magnetic dipole transitions in low-lying electron configurations of highly ionized Fe, Ti and Cr atoms have been identified in PLT and PDX tokamak discharges, and applied for localized diagnostics in the high-temperature (0.5 to 3.0 keV) interior of these plasmas. The measurements include determination of local ion densities and their variation in time, and of ion motions (ion temperature, plasma rotations) through Doppler effect of the lines. These forbidden lines are particularly appropriate for such measurements because under typical tokamak conditions their emissivities are quite high (10 11 to 10 14 photons/cm 3 -sec), and their relatively long wavelengths allow the use of intricate optical techniques and instrumentation. The spatial location of the emissivity is directly measurable, and tends to occur near radii where the ionization potential of the ion in question is equal to the local electron temperature. In future larger and presumably higher-temperature tokamaks analogous measurements with somewhat heavier atoms, particularly krypton, and perhaps zirconium appear both feasible and desirable

  17. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  18. High Voltage, Fast-Switching Module for Active Control of Magnetic Fields and Edge Plasma Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth; Prager, James; Slobodov, Ilia

    2016-10-01

    Fast, reliable, real-time control of plasma is critical to the success of magnetic fusion science. High voltage and current supplies are needed to mitigate instabilities in all experiments as well as disruption events in large scale tokamaks for steady-state operation. Silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFETs offer many advantages over IGBTs including lower drive energy requirements, lower conduction and switching losses, and higher switching frequency capabilities; however, these devices are limited to 1.2-1.7 kV devices. As fusion enters the long-pulse and burning plasma eras, efficiency of power switching will be important. Eagle Harbor Technologies (EHT), Inc. developing a high voltage SiC MOSFET module that operates at 10 kV. This switch module utilizes EHT gate drive technology, which has demonstrated the ability to increase SiC MOSFET switching efficiency. The module will allow more rapid development of high voltage switching power supplies at lower cost necessary for the next generation of fast plasma feedback and control. EHT is partnering with the High Beta Tokamak group at Columbia to develop detailed high voltage module specifications, to ensure that the final product meets the needs of the fusion science community.

  19. Properties of polyacrylic acid-coated silver nanoparticle ink for inkjet printing conductive tracks on paper with high conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qijin; Shen, Wenfeng; Xu, Qingsong; Tan, Ruiqin; Song, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with triethanolamine in the presence of polyacrylic acid. Silver nanoparticle-based ink was prepared by dispersing silver nanoparticles into a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. The mechanism for the dispersion and aggregation of silver nanoparticles in ink is discussed. The strong electrostatic repulsions of the carboxylate anions of the adsorbed polyacrylic acid molecules disturbed the aggregation of metal particles in solutions with a high pH value (pH > 5). An inkjet printer was used to deposit this silver nanoparticle-based ink to form silver patterns on photo paper. The actual printing qualities of the silver tracks were then analyzed by variation of printing passes, sintering temperature and time. The results showed that sintering temperature and time are associated strongly with the conductivity of the inkjet-printed conductive patterns. The conductivity of printed patterns sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10 7  S m −1 , which was approximately one third that of bulk silver. In addition, silver tracks on paper substrate also showed better electrical performance after folding. This study demonstrated that the resulting ink-jet printed patterns can be used as conductive tracks in flexible electronic devices. - Highlights: • An ink from silver nanoparticles coated with polyacrylic acid was prepared. • The ink was used for inkjet-printed tracks at varying printing parameters. • The conductivity of printed tracks sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10 7  S/m. • Mechanism for dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles in ink is discussed

  20. Properties of polyacrylic acid-coated silver nanoparticle ink for inkjet printing conductive tracks on paper with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Qijin [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Shen, Wenfeng, E-mail: wfshen@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Xu, Qingsong [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Tan, Ruiqin [Faculty of Information Science and Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Song, Weijie, E-mail: weijiesong@nimte.ac.cn [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Silver nanoparticles with a mean diameter of approximately 30 nm were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with triethanolamine in the presence of polyacrylic acid. Silver nanoparticle-based ink was prepared by dispersing silver nanoparticles into a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. The mechanism for the dispersion and aggregation of silver nanoparticles in ink is discussed. The strong electrostatic repulsions of the carboxylate anions of the adsorbed polyacrylic acid molecules disturbed the aggregation of metal particles in solutions with a high pH value (pH > 5). An inkjet printer was used to deposit this silver nanoparticle-based ink to form silver patterns on photo paper. The actual printing qualities of the silver tracks were then analyzed by variation of printing passes, sintering temperature and time. The results showed that sintering temperature and time are associated strongly with the conductivity of the inkjet-printed conductive patterns. The conductivity of printed patterns sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10{sup 7} S m{sup −1}, which was approximately one third that of bulk silver. In addition, silver tracks on paper substrate also showed better electrical performance after folding. This study demonstrated that the resulting ink-jet printed patterns can be used as conductive tracks in flexible electronic devices. - Highlights: • An ink from silver nanoparticles coated with polyacrylic acid was prepared. • The ink was used for inkjet-printed tracks at varying printing parameters. • The conductivity of printed tracks sintered at 150 °C increased to 2.1 × 10{sup 7} S/m. • Mechanism for dispersion and aggregation of the nanoparticles in ink is discussed.

  1. High Thermal Conductivity and High Wear Resistance Tool Steels for cost-effective Hot Stamping Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls, I.; Hamasaiid, A.; Padré, A.

    2017-09-01

    In hot stamping/press hardening, in addition to its shaping function, the tool controls the cycle time, the quality of the stamped components through determining the cooling rate of the stamped blank, the production costs and the feasibility frontier for stamping a given component. During the stamping, heat is extracted from the stamped blank and transported through the tool to the cooling medium in the cooling lines. Hence, the tools’ thermal properties determine the cooling rate of the blank, the heat transport mechanism, stamping times and temperature distribution. The tool’s surface resistance to adhesive and abrasive wear is also an important cost factor, as it determines the tool durability and maintenance costs. Wear is influenced by many tool material parameters, such as the microstructure, composition, hardness level and distribution of strengthening phases, as well as the tool’s working temperature. A decade ago, Rovalma developed a hot work tool steel for hot stamping that features a thermal conductivity of more than double that of any conventional hot work tool steel. Since that time, many complimentary grades have been developed in order to provide tailored material solutions as a function of the production volume, degree of blank cooling and wear resistance requirements, tool geometries, tool manufacturing method, type and thickness of the blank material, etc. Recently, Rovalma has developed a new generation of high thermal conductivity, high wear resistance tool steel grades that enable the manufacture of cost effective tools for hot stamping to increase process productivity and reduce tool manufacturing costs and lead times. Both of these novel grades feature high wear resistance and high thermal conductivity to enhance tool durability and cut cycle times in the production process of hot stamped components. Furthermore, one of these new grades reduces tool manufacturing costs through low tool material cost and hardening through readily

  2. Transparent conductive p-type lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films deposited by pulsed plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanwei; Zhang, Qun; Xi, Junhua; Ji, Zhenguo

    2012-07-01

    Transparent p-type Li0.25Ni0.75O conductive thin films were prepared on conventional glass substrates by pulsed plasma deposition. The effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure on structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated. The electrical resistivity decreases initially and increases subsequently as the substrate temperature increases. As the oxygen pressure increases, the electrical resistivity decreases monotonically. The possible physical mechanism was discussed. And a hetero p-n junction of p-Li0.25Ni0.75O/n-SnO2:W was fabricated by depositing n-SnO2:W on top of the p-Li0.25Ni0.75O, which exhibits typical rectifying current-voltage characteristics.

  3. Transparent conductive p-type lithium-doped nickel oxide thin films deposited by pulsed plasma deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanwei; Zhang Qun; Xi Junhua; Ji Zhenguo

    2012-01-01

    Transparent p-type Li 0.25 Ni 0.75 O conductive thin films were prepared on conventional glass substrates by pulsed plasma deposition. The effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure on structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated. The electrical resistivity decreases initially and increases subsequently as the substrate temperature increases. As the oxygen pressure increases, the electrical resistivity decreases monotonically. The possible physical mechanism was discussed. And a hetero p-n junction of p-Li 0.25 Ni 0.75 O/n-SnO 2 :W was fabricated by depositing n-SnO 2 :W on top of the p-Li 0.25 Ni 0.75 O, which exhibits typical rectifying current-voltage characteristics.

  4. Interaction of energetic ions with high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gericke, D.O.; Edie, D.; Grinenko, A.; Vorberger, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The talk will review the importance of energetic ions in different inertial confinement fusion scenarios: i) heavy ion beams are very efficient drivers that can deliver the energy for compression in indirect as well as direct drive approaches; ii) the interaction of α-particles, that are created in a burning plasma, with the surrounding cold plasma is essential for creating a burn wave; iii) laser-produced ion beams are also a strong candidate to create the hot spot needed for fast ignition. In all applications the ions interact with dense matter that is characterized by strongly coupled ions and (possibly) partially degenerate electrons. Moreover, the coupling between beam ions and target electrons can be strong as well. Under these conditions, standard approaches for the beam-plasma interactions process are known to fail. The presentation will demonstrate how advanced models for the energy loss of ions in dense plasmas can resolve the issues mentioned above. These models are largely built on quantum kinetic theory that is able to describe degeneracy and strong coupling in a systematic way. In particular, strong interactions require a quantum description for electron-ion collisions in dense plasma environments, which is done by direct solutions of the Schroedinger equation. Degeneracy and collective excitations can be included via the Lenard-Balescu description where strong interactions may be included via a pseudo-potential approach. Finally, results are shown for all three fusion applications described above. The effects related to strong coupling and degeneracy mainly concern the end of the stopping range where the beam ion dose not have enough energy to excite all possible degrees of freedom and, thus, certain processes are frozen out. However, we also find a significant reduction of the range for swift heavy ions in the GeV-range when stopping in dense matter is considered. The stopping range of α-particles in the

  5. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least...... substantially 100 W. In this way, a high sound intensity and power are obtained that efficiently enhances a gas-phase reaction in the plasma, which enhances the plasma process, e.g. enabling more efficient ozone or hydrogen generation using plasma in relation to reaction speed and/or obtained concentration......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...

  6. Sustained high βN plasmas on EAST tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiang; the EAST team

    2018-05-01

    Sustained high normalized beta (βN ∼ 1.9) plasmas with an ITER-like tungsten divertor have been achieved on EAST tokamak recently. The high power NBI heating system of 4.8 MW and the 4.6 GHz lower hybrid wave of 1 MW were developed and applied to produce edge and internal transport barriers in high βN discharges. The central flat q profile with q (ρ) ∼ 1 at ρ safety factor q95 = 4.7 is identified by the multi-channel far-infrared laser polarimeter and the EFIT code. The fraction of non-inductive current is about 40%. The relation between fishbone activity and ITB formation is observed and discussed.

  7. High-Q plasmas in the TFTR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Barnes, C.W.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Boivin, R.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.V.; Bush, C.E.; Dylla, H.F.; Efthimion, P.C.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kieras-Phillips, C.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; LaMarche, P.H.; LeBlanc, B.; Mansfield, D.K.; Marmar, E.S.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; Meade, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Mueller, D.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.K.; Paul, S.F.; Pitcher, S.; Ramsey, A.T.; Redi, M.H.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Scott, S.D.; Snipes, J.; Stevens, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Terry, J.L.; Timberlake, J.R.; Towner, H.H.; Ulrickson, M.; von Goeler, S.; Wieland, R.M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Wong, K.; Young, K.M.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    In the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 11 (1984)], the highest neutron source strength S n and D--D fusion power gain Q DD are realized in the neutral-beam-fueled and heated ''supershot'' regime that occurs after extensive wall conditioning to minimize recycling. For the best supershots, S n increases approximately as P 1.8 b . The highest-Q shots are characterized by high T e (up to 12 keV), T i (up to 34 keV), and stored energy (up to 4.7 MJ), highly peaked density profiles, broad T e profiles, and lower Z eff . Replacement of critical areas of the graphite limiter tiles with carbon-fiber composite tiles and improved alignment with the plasma have mitigated the ''carbon bloom.'' Wall conditioning by lithium pellet injection prior to the beam pulse reduces carbon influx and particle recycling. Empirically, Q DD increases with decreasing pre-injection carbon radiation, and increases strongly with density peakedness [n e (0)/left-angle n e right-angle] during the beam pulse. To date, the best fusion results are S n =5x10 16 n/sec, Q DD =1.85x10 -3 , and neutron yield=4.0x10 16 n/pulse, obtained at I p =1.6--1.9 MA and beam energy E b =95--103 keV, with nearly balanced co- and counter-injected beam power. Computer simulations of supershot plasmas show that typically 50%--60% of S n arises from beam--target reactions, with the remainder divided between beam--beam and thermonuclear reactions, the thermonuclear fraction increasing with P b

  8. Numerical study for enhancing the thermal conductivity of phase change material (PCM) storage using high thermal conductivity porous matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesalhy, Osama; Lafdi, Khalid; Elgafy, Ahmed; Bowman, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the melting process inside an irregular geometry filled with high thermal conductivity porous matrix saturated with phase change material PCM is investigated numerically. The numerical model is resting on solving the volume averaged conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy with phase change (melting) in the porous medium. The convection motion of the liquid phase inside the porous matrix is solved considering the Darcy, Brinkman and Forchiemer effects. A local thermal non-equilibrium assumption is considered due to the large difference in thermal properties between the solid matrix and PCM by applying a two energy equation model. The numerical code shows good agreement for pure PCM melting with another published numerical work. Through this study it is found that the presence of the porous matrix has a great effect on the heat transfer and melting rate of the PCM energy storage. Decreasing the porosity of the matrix increases the melting rate, but it also damps the convection motion. It is also found that the best technique to enhance the response of the PCM storage is to use a solid matrix with high porosity and high thermal conductivity

  9. A novel conductive-polymer-based integration process for high-performance flip-chip packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohokare, Saurabh

    Conductive polymers have recently attracted considerable attention for low-temperature fabrication of lead-free, reworkable, and flexible flip-chip interconnects. Using these materials, I demonstrate in this thesis a process that enables low-cost and high-resolution flip-chip interconnects using conventional micro-fabrication techniques. This fabrication process offers improved performance as compared to conventional flip-chip techniques, such as screen-printing, and allows for definition of interconnects with excellent surface uniformity and control over the bump profile. In order to demonstrate the utility and wide applicability of this process, several test implementations that serve as case studies were investigated. Specifically, novel InGaAsSb avalanche photodiodes (APDs), operating around lambda = 2m and targeted for free-space communication and biomedical spectroscopy applications, were fabricated and flip-chip-integrated to test the static electrical characteristics of the polymer bumps. Additionally, the dynamic electrical performance characteristics of the polymer bumps were studied by using AlGaAsSb/AlGaSb p-i-n photodetectors as a case study. The fabrication of these photodetectors, operating around lambda = 1.55mum and targeted for optical communication applications, was accomplished using a customized inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch process that resulted in a low dark current and excellent speed (3dB bandwidth of 10GHz) and, responsivity (60% external quantum efficiency) characteristics. Furthermore, flip-chip integration was used to demonstrate a three-dimensional, point-to-point micro-optical interconnect, which was 2.33mm-long in a system 15.27mm3 in volume. Lastly, high-speed parallel optical interconnects were demonstrated using polymer-flip-chip-integrated 10GHz vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and DOEs. Such interconnects offer the ability to alleviate the communication bottleneck that is projected to occur in future, high

  10. Highly Porous, Rigid-Rod Polyamide Aerogels with Superior Mechanical Properties and Unusually High Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jarrod C; Nguyen, Baochau N; McCorkle, Linda; Scheiman, Daniel; Griffin, Justin S; Steiner, Stephen A; Meador, Mary Ann B

    2017-01-18

    We report here the fabrication of polyamide aerogels composed of poly-p-phenylene-terephthalamide, the same backbone chemistry as DuPont's Kevlar. The all-para-substituted polymers gel without the use of cross-linker and maintain their shape during processing-an improvement over the meta-substituted cross-linked polyamide aerogels reported previously. Solutions containing calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) and para-phenylenediamine (pPDA) in N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) at low temperature are reacted with terephthaloyl chloride (TPC). Polymerization proceeds over the course of 5 min resulting in gelation. Removal of the reaction solvent via solvent exchange followed by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide provides aerogels with densities ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 g/cm 3 , depending on the concentration of calcium chloride, the formulated number of repeat units, n, and the concentration of polymer in the reaction mixture. These variables were assessed in a statistical experimental study to understand their effects on the properties of the aerogels. Aerogels made using at least 30 wt % CaCl 2 had the best strength when compared to aerogels of similar density. Furthermore, aerogels made using 30 wt % CaCl 2 exhibited the lowest shrinkage when aged at elevated temperatures. Notably, whereas most aerogel materials are highly insulating (thermal conductivities of 10-30 mW/m K), the polyamide aerogels produced here exhibit remarkably high thermal conductivities (50-80 mW/(m K)) at the same densities as other inorganic and polymer aerogels. These high thermal conductivities are attributed to efficient phonon transport by the rigid-rod polymer backbone. In conjunction with their low cost, ease of fabrication with respect to other polymer aerogels, low densities, and high mass-normalized strength and stiffness properties, these aerogels are uniquely valuable for applications such as lightweighting in consumer electronics, automobiles, and aerospace where weight reduction is

  11. The Fuel Performance Analysis of LWR Fuel containing High Thermal Conductivity Reinforcements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Su; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2015-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of fuel affects many performance parameters including the fuel centerline temperature, fission gas release and internal pressure. In addition, enhanced safety margin of fuel might be expected when the thermal conductivity of fuel is improved by the addition of high thermal conductivity reinforcements. Therefore, the effects of thermal conductivity enhancement on the fuel performance of reinforced UO2 fuel with high thermal conductivity compounds should be analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the fuel performance of modified UO2 fuel with high thermal conductivity reinforcements by using the FRAPCON-3.5 code. The fissile density and mechanical properties of the modified fuel are considered the same with the standard UO2 fuel. The fuel performance of modified UO2 with high thermal conductivity reinforcements were analyzed by using the FRAPCON-3.5 code. The thermal conductivity enhancement factors of the modified fuels were obtained from the Maxwell model considering the volume fraction of reinforcements

  12. High density plasma gun generates plasmas at 190 kilometers per second

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, P. N.

    1971-01-01

    Gun has thin metal foil disc which positions or localizes gas to be ionized during electrical discharge cycle, overcoming major limiting factor in obtaining such plasmas. Expanding plasma front travels at 190 km/sec, compared to plasmas of 50 to 60 km/sec previously achieved.

  13. Thermal history of the plasma and high-frequency gravitons

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Possible deviations from a radiation-dominated evolution, occurring prior the synthesis of light nuclei, impacted on the spectral energy density of high-frequency gravitons. For a systematic scrutiny of this situation, the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm must be complemented by (at least two) physical parameters describing, respectively, a threshold frequency and a slope. The supplementary frequency scale sets the lower border of a high-frequency domain where the spectral energy grows with a slope which depends, predominantly, upon the total sound speed of the plasma right after inflation. While the infra-red region of the graviton energy spectrum is nearly scale-invariant, the expected signals for typical frequencies larger than 0.01 nHz are hereby analyzed in a model-independent framework by requiring that the total sound speed of the post-inflationary plasma is smaller than the speed of light. Current (e.g. low-frequency) upper limits on the tensor power spectra (determined from the combined analysis of the three la...

  14. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    Fusion plasmas contain impurities, either intrinsic originating from the wall, or injected willfully with the aim of reducing power loads on machine components by converting heat flux into radiation. The understanding and the prediction of the effects of these impurities and their radiation on plasma performances is crucial in order to retain good confinement. In addition, it is important to understand the impact of pellet injection on plasma performance since this technique allows higher core densities which are required to maximise the fusion power. This thesis contributes to these efforts through both experimental investigations and modelling. Experiments were conducted at ASDEX Upgrade which has a full-W wall. Impurity seeding was applied to H-modes by injecting nitrogen and also medium-Z impurities such as Kr and Ar to assess the impact of both edge and central radiation on confinement. A database of about 25 discharges has been collected and analysed. A wide range of plasma parameters was achieved up to ITER relevant values such as high Greenwald and high radiation fractions. Transport analyses taking into account the radiation distribution reveal that edge localised radiation losses do not significantly impact confinement as long as the H-mode pedestal is sustained. N seeding induces higher pedestal pressure which is propagated to the core via profile stiffness. Central radiation must be limited and controlled to avoid confinement degradation. This requires reliable control of the impurity concentration but also possibilities to act on the ELM frequency which must be kept high enough to avoid an irreversible impurity accumulation in the centre and the consequent radiation collapse. The key role of the f{sub ELM} is confirmed also by the analysis of N+He discharges. Non-coronal effects affect the radiation of low-Z impurities at the plasma edge. Due to the radial transport, the steep temperature gradients and the ELM flush out, a local equilibrium cannot be

  15. Composites of aluminum alloy and magnesium alloy with graphite showing low thermal expansion and high specific thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Valerio; Boerner, Benji; Reich, Stephanie

    2017-12-01

    High thermal conductivity, low thermal expansion and low density are three important features in novel materials for high performance electronics, mobile applications and aerospace. Spark plasma sintering was used to produce light metal-graphite composites with an excellent combination of these three properties. By adding up to 50 vol.% of macroscopic graphite flakes, the thermal expansion coefficient of magnesium and aluminum alloys was tuned down to zero or negative values, while the specific thermal conductivity was over four times higher than in copper. No degradation of the samples was observed after thermal stress tests and thermal cycling. Tensile strength and hardness measurements proved sufficient mechanical stability for most thermal management applications. For the production of the alloys, both prealloyed powders and elemental mixtures were used; the addition of trace elements to cope with the oxidation of the powders was studied.

  16. High density turbulent plasma processes from a shock tube. Final performance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.A. III.

    1997-01-01

    A broad-based set of measurements has begun on high density turbulent plasma processes. This includes determinations of new plasma physics and the initiation of work on new diagnostics for collisional plasmas as follows: (1) A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of prompt relaminarization or of any systematic influence of end-wall material thermal conductivities on the turbulence parameters. (2) Point fluorescence emissions and averaged spectral line evolutions in turbulent plasmas produced in both the primary and the reflected shock wave flows exhibit ergodicity in the standard turbulence parameters. The data show first evidence of a reverse energy cascade in the collisional turbulent plasma. This suggests that the fully turbulent environment can be described using a stationary state formulation. In these same data, the author finds compelling evidence for a turbulent Stark effect on neutral emission lines in these data which is associated with evidence of large coherent structures and dominant modes in the Fourier analyses of the fluctuations in the optical spectra. (3) A neutral beam generator has been assembled by coupling a Colutron Ion Gun to a charge exchange chamber. Beam-target collisions where the target species is neutral and the beam is either singly charged or neutral have been performed using argon as the working gas. Spectral analysis of the emission shows specific radiative transitions characteristic of both Ar I and Ar II, indicating that some ionization of the target gas results. Gas and plasma parameters such as density, pressure, temperature and flow velocity and their fluctuations can now be followed in real time by spectroscopic analysis of carefully chosen radiative emissions

  17. Physics of high performance JET plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB ''Gas Box'' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling ''Wind Tunnel'' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in

  18. Physics of high performance jet plasmas in D-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    JET has recently operated with deuterium-tritium (D-T) mixtures, carried out an ITER physics campaign in hydrogen, deuterium, D-T and tritium, installed the Mark IIGB 'Gas Box' divertor fully by remote handling and started physics experiments with this more closed divertor. The D-T experiments set records for fusion power (16.1 MW), ratio of fusion power to plasma input power (0.62, and 0.95±0.17 if a similar plasma could be obtained in steady-state) and fusion duration (4 MW for 4 s). A large scale tritium supply and processing plant, the first of its kind, allowed the repeated use of the 20 g tritium on site to supply 99.3 g of tritium to the machine. The H-mode threshold power is significantly lower in D-T, but the global energy confinement time is practically unchanged (no isotope effect). Dimensionless scaling 'Wind Tunnel' experiments in D-T extrapolate to ignition with ITER parameters. The scaling is close to gyroBohm, but the mass dependence is not correct. Separating the thermal plasma energy into core and pedestal contributions could resolve this discrepancy (leading to proper gyroBohm scaling for the core) and also account for confinement degradation at high density and at high radiated power. Four radio frequency heating schemes have been tested successfully in D-T, showing good agreement with calculations. Alpha particle heating has been clearly observed and is consistent with classical expectations. Internal transport barriers have been established in optimised magnetic shear discharges for the first time in D-T and steady-state conditions have been approached with simultaneous internal and edge transport barriers. First results with the newly installed Mark IIGB divertor show that the in/out symmetry of the divertor plasma can be modified using differential gas fuelling, that optimised shear discharges can be produced, and that krypton gas puffing is effective in restoring L-mode edge conditions and establishing an internal transport barrier in such

  19. Prostatectomy-based validation of combined urine and plasma test for predicting high grade prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albitar, Maher; Ma, Wanlong; Lund, Lars; Shahbaba, Babak; Uchio, Edward; Feddersen, Søren; Moylan, Donald; Wojno, Kirk; Shore, Neal

    2018-03-01

    Distinguishing between low- and high-grade prostate cancers (PCa) is important, but biopsy may underestimate the actual grade of cancer. We have previously shown that urine/plasma-based prostate-specific biomarkers can predict high grade PCa. Our objective was to determine the accuracy of a test using cell-free RNA levels of biomarkers in predicting prostatectomy results. This multicenter community-based prospective study was conducted using urine/blood samples collected from 306 patients. All recruited patients were treatment-naïve, without metastases, and had been biopsied, designated a Gleason Score (GS) based on biopsy, and assigned to prostatectomy prior to participation in the study. The primary outcome measure was the urine/plasma test accuracy in predicting high grade PCa on prostatectomy compared with biopsy findings. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated using standard formulas, while comparisons between groups were performed using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, and Fisher's exact test. GS as assigned by standard 10-12 core biopsies was 3 + 3 in 90 (29.4%), 3 + 4 in 122 (39.8%), 4 + 3 in 50 (16.3%), and > 4 + 3 in 44 (14.4%) patients. The urine/plasma assay confirmed a previous validation and was highly accurate in predicting the presence of high-grade PCa (Gleason ≥3 + 4) with sensitivity between 88% and 95% as verified by prostatectomy findings. GS was upgraded after prostatectomy in 27% of patients and downgraded in 12% of patients. This plasma/urine biomarker test accurately predicts high grade cancer as determined by prostatectomy with a sensitivity at 92-97%, while the sensitivity of core biopsies was 78%. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Analyzing the Radiation Properties of High-Z Impurities in High-Temperature Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinke, M. L.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K. W.; Fournier, K. B.; Gu, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most tokamak-based reactor concepts require the use of noble gases to form either a radiative mantle or divertor to reduce conductive heat exhaust to tolerable levels for plasma facing components. Predicting the power loss necessary from impurity radiation is done using electron temperature-dependent 'cooling-curves' derived from ab initio atomic physics models. We present here a technique to verify such modeling using highly radiative, argon infused discharges on Alcator C-Mod. A novel x-ray crystal imaging spectrometer is used to measure spatially resolved profiles of line-emissivity, constraining impurity transport simulations. Experimental data from soft x-ray diodes, bare AXUV diodes and foil bolometers are used to determine the local emissivity in three overlapping spectral bands, which are quantitatively compared to models. Comparison of broadband measurements show agreement between experiment and modeling in the core, but not over the entire profile, with the differences likely due to errors in the assumed radial impurity transport outside of the core. Comparison of Ar 16+ x-ray line emission modeling to measurements suggests an additional problem with the collisional-radiative modeling of that charge state.

  1. Physics of integrated high-performance NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J. E.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Heidbrink, W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skiner, C. H.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wade, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.

    2005-01-01

    An overarching goal of magnetic fusion research is the integration of steady state operation with high fusion power density, high plasma β, good thermal and fast particle confinement, and manageable heat and particle fluxes to reactor internal components. NSTX has made significant progress in integrating and understanding the interplay between these competing elements. Sustained high elongation up to 2.5 and H-mode transitions during the I p ramp-up have increased β p and reduced l i at high current resulting in I p flat-top durations exceeding 0.8s for I p >0.8MA. These shape and profile changes delay the onset of deleterious global MHD activity yielding β N values >4.5 and β T ∼20% maintained for several current diffusion times. Higher ∫ N discharges operating above the non-wall limit are sustained via rotational stabilization of the RWM. H-mode confinement scaling factors relative to H98(y,2) span the range 1±0.4 for B T >4kG and show a stron (Nearly linear) residual scaling with B T . Power balance analysis indicates the electron thermal transport dominates the loss power in beam-heated H m ode discharges, but the core χ e can be significantly reduced through current profile modification consistent with reversed magnetic shear. Small ELM regimes have been obtained in high performance plasmas on NSTX, but the ELM type and associated pedestal energy loss are found to depend sensitively on the boundary elongation, magnetic balance, and edge collisionality. NPA data and TRANSP analysis suggest resonant interactions with mid-radius tearing modes may lead to large fast-ion transport. The associated fast-ion diffusion and/or loss likely impact(s) both the driven current and power deposition profiles from NBI heating. Results from experiments to initiate the plasma without the ohmic solenoid and integrated scenario with the TSC code will also be described. (Author)

  2. Apparatus and method for enhanced chemical processing in high pressure and atmospheric plasmas produced by high frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1989-11-28

    An apparatus and method for creating high temperature plasmas for enhanced chemical processing of gaseous fluids, toxic chemicals, and the like, at a wide range of pressures, especially at atmospheric and high pressures includes an electro-magnetic resonator cavity, preferably a reentrant cavity, and a wave guiding structure which connects an electro-magnetic source to the cavity. The cavity includes an intake port and an exhaust port, each having apertures in the conductive walls of the cavity sufficient for the intake of the gaseous fluids and for the discharge of the processed gaseous fluids. The apertures are sufficiently small to prevent the leakage of the electro-magnetic radiation from the cavity. Gaseous fluid flowing from the direction of the electro-magnetic source through the guiding wave structure and into the cavity acts on the plasma to push it away from the guiding wave structure and the electro-magnetic source. The gaseous fluid flow confines the high temperature plasma inside the cavity and allows complete chemical processing of the gaseous fluids at a wide range of pressures.

  3. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  4. Ulysses solar wind plasma observations at high southerly latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J L; Bame, S J; Feldman, W C; Gosling, J T; Hammond, C M; McComas, D J; Goldstein, B E; Neugebauer, M; Scime, E E; Suess, S T

    1995-05-19

    Solar wind plasma observations made by the Ulysses spacecraft through -80.2 degrees solar latitude and continuing equatorward to -40.1 degrees are summarized. Recurrent high-speed streams and corotating interaction regions dominated at middle latitudes. The speed of the solar wind was typically 700 to 800 kilometers per second poleward of -35 degrees . Corotating reverse shocks persisted farther south than did forward shocks because of the tilt of the heliomagnetic streamer belt. Sporadic coronal mass ejections were seen as far south as -60.5 degrees . Proton temperature was higher and the electron strahl was broader at higher latitudes. The high-latitude wind contained compressional, pressure-balanced, and Alfvénic structures.

  5. High-order harmonic generation in laser plasma plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plumes, covering the principles, past and present experimental status and important applications. It shows how this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range matured over the course of multiple studies and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications. Significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of researchers in this field carried out in various laser scientific centers worldwide are included in this first attempt to describe the important findings in this area of nonlinear spectroscopy. "High-Order Harmonic Generation in Laser Plasma Plumes" is a self-contained and unified review of the most recent achievements in the field, such as the application of clusters (fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes) for efficient harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in cluster-containin...

  6. Vortices, Reconnection and Turbulence in High Electron-Beta Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Plasmas in which the kinetic energy exceeds the magnetic energy by a significant factor are common in space and in the laboratory. Such plasmas can convect magnetic fields and create null points in whose vicinity first the ions become unmagnetized, then the electrons. This project focuses on the detailed study of the transition regime of these plasmas

  7. Measurements of Ion Stopping around the Bragg Peak in High-Energy-Density Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenje, Johan

    2015-11-01

    Over the last few decades, ion stopping in weakly- to strongly-coupled High-Energy-Density (HED) plasmas has been subject to extensive analytical and numerical studies, but only a limited set of experimental data exists to check the validity of these theories. Most of these experiments also did not probe the detailed characteristics of the Bragg peak (peak ion stopping) where the ion velocity is similar to the average thermal electron velocity. To the best of our knowledge, only one exploratory attempt to do this was conducted by Hicks et al., who were able to describe qualitatively the behavior of the Bragg peak for one plasma condition. The work described in this presentation makes significant advances over previous experimental efforts by quantitatively assessing the characteristics of the ion stopping, ranging from low-velocity stopping, through the Bragg peak, to high-velocity stopping for different HED plasma conditions. This was achieved by measuring the energy loss of DD-tritons, D3He-alphas, DD-protons and D3He-protons, with distinctly different velocities, and the results indicate that the stopping power varies strongly with Te and ne. This effort represents the first experimental test of state-of-art plasma-stopping-power theories around the Bragg peak, which is an important first step in our efforts of getting a fundamental understanding of DT-alpha stopping in HED plasmas, a prerequisite for understanding ignition margins in various implosion designs with varying hot spot areal density at the National Ignition Facility. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  8. A high-current pulsed cathodic vacuum arc plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oates, T.W.H.; Pigott, J.; Mckenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cathodic vacuum arcs (CVAs) are well established as a method for producing metal plasmas for thin film deposition and as a source of metal ions. Fundamental differences exist between direct current (dc) and pulsed CVAs. We present here results of our investigations into the design and construction of a high-current center-triggered pulsed CVA. Power supply design based on electrolytic capacitors is discussed and optimized based on obtaining the most effective utilization of the cathode material. Anode configuration is also discussed with respect to the optimization of the electron collection capability. Type I and II cathode spots are observed and discussed with respect to cathode surface contamination. An unfiltered deposition rate of 1.7 nm per pulse, at a distance of 100 mm from the source, has been demonstrated. Instantaneous plasma densities in excess of 1x10 19 m -3 are observed after magnetic filtering. Time averaged densities an order of magnitude greater than common dc arc densities have been demonstrated, limited by pulse repetition rate and filter efficiency

  9. High-Intensity High-order Harmonics Generated from Low-Density Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ganeev, R. A.; Haessler, S.; Salieres, P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the generation of high-order harmonics from lowly ionized plasma, using the 10 TW, 10 Hz laser of the Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS). We perform detailed studies on the enhancement of a single order of the high-order harmonic spectrum generated in plasma using the fundamental and second harmonic of the ALLS beam line. We observe quasi-monochromatic harmonics for various targets, including Mn, Cr, Sn, and In. We identify most of the ionic/neutral transitions responsible for the enhancement, which all have strong oscillator strengths. We demonstrate intensity enhancements of the 13th, 17th, 29th, and 33rd harmonics from these targets using the 800 nm pump laser and varying its chirp. We also characterized the attosecond nature of such plasma harmonics, measuring attosecond pulse trains with 360 as duration for chromium plasma, using the technique of ''Reconstruction of Attosecond Beating by Interference of Two-photon Transitions''(RABBIT). These results show that plasma harmonics are intense source of ultrashort coherent soft x-rays.

  10. Time-dependent simulation of plasma and electrodes in high-intensity discharge lamps with different electrode shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Flesch, P

    2003-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the modelling of d.c. and a.c. high-intensity Hg-discharge lamps with differently shaped electrodes. Different arc attachments on the electrodes are studied and insight for the development of new electrodes is gained. The model includes the entire discharge plasma (plasma column, hot plasma spots in front of electrodes, near-electrode non-LTE-plasma) as well as anode and cathode. No subdivision of the discharge space into different regions is necessary (like space charge layer, ionization zone, plasma column). This is achieved by using a differential equation for a non-LTE electrical conductivity which is applicable for local thermal equilibrium (LTE-)regions as well as for non-LTE plasma regions close to the electrodes in a high pressure plasma. Modelling results for a 0.6 MPa mercury discharge considering six different electrode shapes (anode and cathode) are presented and compared with experimental results. The electrodes have different diameters and different electrode tips, s...

  11. Role of impurities in magnetically confined high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the atomic physics concerned with plasma cooling by impurities and the limiting effect that impurities may have on heating of plasmas by neutral injection. A general description is given of the tokamak concept and the present and next generation experiments are described. The time and spatial behavior of O and Mo multicharged ions in present hydrogen plasmas is presented. This is followed by a discussion of the power loss from a plasma containing one percent Fe. Finally, the limitation of plasma heating by energetic H or D injection is summarized

  12. Highly Conductive Aromatic Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Inkjet Printable High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K Ujjain

    Full Text Available We report the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT via the 1,3-dipolar [3+2] cycloaddition of aromatic azides, which resulted in a detangled CNT as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Carboxylic moieties (-COOH on aromatic azide result in highly stable aqueous dispersion (max. conc. ~ 10 mg/mL H2O, making the suitable for inkjet printing. Printed patterns on polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate exhibit low sheet resistivity ~65 Ω. cm, which is attributed to enhanced conductivity. Fabricated Supercapacitors (SC assembled using these printed substrates exhibit good electrochemical performance in organic as well as aqueous electrolytes. High energy and power density (57.8 Wh/kg and 0.85 kW/kg in 1M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed supercapacitor. Capacitive retention varies from ~85-94% with columbic efficiency ~95% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles in different electrolytes, demonstrating the excellent potential of the device for futuristic power applications.

  13. Design of instantaneous liquid film thickness measurement system for conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new capacitive sensor with a dielectric film coating was designed to measure the thickness of the liquid film on a flat surface. The measured medium can be conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity such as silicone oil, syrup, CMC solution and melt. With the dielectric film coating, the defects caused by the humidity in a capacitor can be avoided completely. With a excitation frequency 0-20kHz, the static permittivity of capacitive sensor is obtained and stable when small thicknesses are monitored within the frequency of 0-3kHz. Based on the measurement principle, an experimental system was designed and verified including calibration and actual measurement for different liquid film thickness. Experimental results showed that the sensitivity, the resolution, repeatability and linear range of the capacitive sensor are satisfied to the liquid film thickness measurement. Finally, the capacitive measuring system was successfully applied to the water, silicone oil and syrup film thickness measurement.

  14. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa; Mizuno, Masaaki; Toyokuni, Shinya; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Adachi, Tetsuo; Kato, Masashi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Hori, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established

  15. Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with ultra-high electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiromasa [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mizuno, Masaaki [Center for Advanced Medicine and Clinical Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Toyokuni, Shinya [Department of Pathology and Biological Responses, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Maruyama, Shoichi [Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kodera, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery (Surgery II), Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroko [Department of Ophthalmology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Tetsuo [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, 501-1196 Gifu (Japan); Kato, Masashi [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Kikkawa, Fumitaka [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai-cho 65, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Hori, Masaru [Institute of Innovation for Future Society, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is a big challenge in plasma medicine. Reactive species generated from plasma are key factors for treating cancer cells, and thus, non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with high electron density has been developed and applied for cancer treatment. Various cancer cell lines have been treated with plasma, and non-thermal atmospheric plasma clearly has anti-tumor effects. Recent innovative studies suggest that plasma can both directly and indirectly affect cells and tissues, and this observation has widened the range of applications. Thus, cancer therapy using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma is promising. Animal experiments and understanding the mode of action are essential for clinical application in the future. A new academic field that combines plasma science, the biology of free radicals, and systems biology will be established.

  16. Strontium Zirconate TBC Sprayed by a High Feed-Rate Water-Stabilized Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ctibor, P.; Nevrla, B.; Cizek, J.; Lukac, F.

    2017-12-01

    A novel thermal barrier coating (TBC) material, strontium zirconate SrZrO3, was sprayed by a high feed-rate water-stabilized plasma torch WSP 500. Stainless steel coupons were used as substrates. Coatings with a thickness of about 1.2 mm were produced, whereas the substrates were preheated over 450 °C. The torch worked at 150 kW power and was able to spray SrZrO3 with a high spray rate over 10 kg per hour. Microstructure and microhardness, phase composition, adhesion, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion were evaluated. The coating has low thermal conductivity under 1 W/m K in the interval from room temperature up to 1200 °C. Its crystallite size is slightly over 400 nm and thermal expansion 12.3 µm K-1 in the similar temperature range.

  17. On the atomic line profiles in high pressure plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, J. F. J.; Gnybida, M.; Rijke, A. J.; Dijk, J. van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Suijker, J. L. G. [Philips Lighting R and D Category Professional Lamps, P.O. Box 80020, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-11-14

    In a previous contribution to this journal [H. P. Stormberg, J. Appl. Phys. 51(4), 1963 (1980)], Stormberg presented an analytical expression for the convolution of Lorentz and Levy line profiles, which models atomic radiative transitions in high pressure plasmas. Unfortunately, the derivations are flawed with errors and the final expression, while correct, is accompanied by misguiding comments about the meaning of the symbols used therein, in particular the “complex error function.” In this paper, we discuss the broadening mechanisms that give rise to Stormberg's model and present a correct derivation of his final result. We will also provide an alternative expression, based on the Faddeeva function, which has decisive computational advantages and emphasizes the real-valuedness of the result. The MATLAB/Octave scripts of our implementation have been made available on the publisher's website for future reference.

  18. Properties of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.

    1993-03-01

    In this thesis the fundamental equations of many-particle quantum-statistics of nonequilibrium are treated in respect to arbitrary high electric fields. Generalizations are found for the T-matrix approximation as well as for the shielded potential approximation valid for any field strength. These result in a non-Markovian behavior of the obtained collision integrals, also known as intra-collisional-field-effect (ICFE), and in a broadening of the energy conservation, the so-called collisional broadening (CB), caused by applied electric fields. In linear response it is shown in a new way, how the Debye-Onsager relaxation effect can be rederived from these collision integrals. Furthermore the complete quantum result is presented. Both effects, ICFE and CB, contribute to the right classical limit. The quantum result yields an surprising maximum of this field effects in dependence of the interacting mass ratio, which may be important in exciton-plasmas and semiconductors. (orig.)

  19. CENTER FOR PULSED POWER DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PLASMA STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Professor Bruce R. Kusse; Professor David A. Hammer

    2007-04-18

    This annual report summarizes the activities of the Cornell Center for Pulsed-Power-Driven High-Energy-Density Plasma Studies, for the 12-month period October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006. This period corresponds to the first year of the two-year extension (awarded in October, 2005) to the original 3-year NNSA/DOE Cooperative Agreement with Cornell, DE-FC03-02NA00057. As such, the period covered in this report also corresponds to the fourth year of the (now) 5-year term of the Cooperative Agreement. The participants, in addition to Cornell University, include Imperial College, London (IC), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), the University of Rochester (UR), the Weizmann Institute of Science (WSI), and the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Moscow. A listing of all faculty, technical staff and students, both graduate and undergraduate, who participated in Center research activities during the year in question is given in Appendix A.

  20. High power light gas helicon plasma source for VASIMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Glover, Timothy W.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; McCaskill, Greg E.; Winter, D. Scott; Baity, F. Wally; Carter, Mark D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    In the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a plasma flux to input gas rate ratio near 100% for both helium and deuterium at power levels up to 10 kW. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show enhanced efficiency operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 10 kW of input power. The data here uses a Boswell double-saddle antenna design with a magnetic cusp just upstream of the antenna. Similar to ORNL, for deuterium at near 10 kW, we find an enhanced performance of operation at magnetic fields above the lower hybrid matching condition

  1. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  2. Dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves in high-energy density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jun; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation on the propagation of electromagnetic waves and electron plasma waves in high energy density plasmas using the covariant Wigner function approach. Based on the covariant Wigner function and Dirac equation, a relativistic quantum kinetic model is established to describe the physical processes in high-energy density plasmas. With the zero-temperature Fermi–Dirac distribution, the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves containing the relativistic quantum corrected terms are derived. The relativistic quantum corrections to the dispersion relation and Landau damping are analyzed by comparing our results with those obtained in classical and non-relativistic quantum plasmas. We provide a detailed discussion on the Landau damping obtained in classical plasmas, non-relativistic Fermi plasmas and relativistic Fermi plasmas. The contributions of the Bohm potential, the Fermi statistics pressure and relativistic effects to the dispersion relation and Landau damping of waves are quantitatively calculated with real plasma parameters. (paper)

  3. Residual gas entering high density hydrogen plasma: rarefaction due to rapid heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. den Harder,; D.C. Schram,; W. J. Goedheer,; de Blank, H. J.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; van Rooij, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of background molecular hydrogen with magnetized (0.4 T) high density (1–5 × 10 20  m −3 ) low temperature (∼3 eV) hydrogen plasma was inferred from the Fulcher band emission in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI. In the plasma center,

  4. Thermographic determination of the sheath heat transmission coefficient in a high density plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.A.; Bystrov, K.E.; Pasquet, R.; Zielinski, J.J.; De Temmerman, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were performed in the Pilot-PSI linear plasma device, to determine the sheath heat transmission coefficients in a high recycling regime under various conditions of density (1–20 × 1020 m-3) and plasma composition (H2, Ar, N2) relevant for the ITER divertor plasma. The 2D surface

  5. The role of high speed photography in plasma instability research on the AEC tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Coster, D.P.; De Villiers, J.A.M.; Kotze, P.B.; Nothnagel, G.; O'Mahony, J.R.; Roberts, D.E.; Sherwell, D.

    1986-01-01

    High speed cine photography is a useful diagnostic aid for studying plasma behaviour and plasma surface interactions in fusion research devices like tokamaks. Such a system has been installed on the AEC tokamak. This paper reports some preliminary results obtained during typical plasma discharges

  6. Phosphine Plasma Activation of α-Fe 2 O 3 for High Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2018-04-12

    We report a phosphine (PH3) plasma activation strategy for significantly boosting the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor electrodes. Using Fe2O3 as a demonstration, we show that the plasma activation simultaneously improves the conductivity, creates atomic-scale vacancies (defects), as well as increases active surface area, and thus leading to a greatly enhanced performance with a high areal capacitance of 340 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2, compared to 66 mF cm-2 of pristine Fe2O3. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor devices based on plasma-activated Fe2O3 anodes and electrodeposited MnO2 cathodes can achieve a high stack energy density of 0.42 mWh cm-3 at a stack power density of 10.3 mW cm-3 along with good stability (88% capacitance retention after 9000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2). Our work provides a simple yet effective strategy to greatly enhance the electrochemical performance of Fe2O3 anodes and to further promote their application in asymmetric supercapacitors.

  7. Bremsstrahlung spectra for Al, Cs, and Au atoms in high-temperature, high-density plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, L.; Pratt, R.H.; Tseng, H.K.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented from a numerical calculation for the bremsstrahlung spectrum and Gaunt factors of Al, Cs, and Au atoms in high-temperature (-T), high-density (-rho) plasmas. Plasma temperatures kT = 0.1 and 1.0 keV and plasma densities rho = rho 0 (the normal solid density) and rho = 100rho 0 are considered. This allows us to determine the generality and identify the origins of features which we had previously identified in calculations for Cs. We also now present results for the total energy loss of an electron in such a plasma. We use a relativistic multipole code which treats the bremsstrahlung process as a single-electron transition in a static screened central potential. We take for the static potential corresponding to an atom in a hot dense plasma the finite-temperature, finite-density Thomas-Fermi model. This approach corresponds to an average atom in local thermodynamic equilibrium. In comparison to isolated-neutral-atom results we observe general suppression of cross sections and a particular suppression in the tip region of the spectrum. Within this model, both superscreening and shape resonances are found in the circumstances of extreme density. At more normal densities and except for the soft-photon end, the spectrum at these energies for an atom in a hot plasma (characterized by an average degree of ionization) can be well represented by the spectrum of the corresponding isolated ion, which has a similar potential shape at the distances which characterize the process

  8. The calculation of electron chemical potential and ion charge state and their influence on plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Zongqian; Wang, Kun; Li, Yao; Shi, Yuanjie; Wu, Jian; Jia, Shenli

    2014-01-01

    The electron chemical potential and ion charge state (average ion charge and ion distribution) are important parameters in calculating plasma conductivity in electrical explosion of metal wire. In this paper, the calculating method of electron chemical potential and ion charge state is discussed at first. For the calculation of electron chemical potential, the ideal free electron gas model and Thomas-Fermi model are compared and analyzed in terms of the coupling constant of plasma. The Thomas-Fermi ionization model, which is used to calculate ion charge state, is compared with the method based on Saha equation. Furthermore, the influence of electron degenerated energy levels and ion excited states in Saha equation on the ion charge state is also analyzed. Then the influence of different calculating methods of electron chemical potential and ion charge state on plasma conductivity is discussed by applying them in the Lee-More conductivity model

  9. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vesel, A.; Drenik, A.; Elersic, K.; Mozetič, M.; Kovač, J.; Gyergyek, T.; Stöckel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Pánek, Radomír; Balat-Pichelin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 305, June (2014), s. 674-682 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Inconel * Oxidation * High temperature * Oxygen plasma * Hydrogen plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2014 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433214007119

  10. Plasma properties and atomic processes at medium and high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    When the state of a plasma deviates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (L.T.E.) the equilibrium relations cannot be applied. The thermodynamic properties must then be described on the basis of models in which the individual atomic properties and elementary reactions intervene. The first part of the paper gives a schematic description of a plasma suffering power input, power losses and external constraints in the form of initial and boundary conditions. The rate equations for particle density, momentum and energy of open systems are summarized, including nuclear reactions. The second part gives a review of the progress made in understanding the properties of special types of non-L.T.E. plasmas such as glow discharge plasmas, negative ion plasmas (with application to the physics of SF 6 circuit-breakers) and Tokamak plasmas on the basis of these rate equations

  11. Physics of Collisional Plasmas Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Moisan, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Physics of Collisional Plasmas deals with the plasma physics of interest to laboratory research and industrial applications, such as lighting, fabrication of microelectronics, destruction of greenhouse gases. Its emphasis is on explaining the physical mechanisms, rather than the detailed mathematical description and theoretical analysis. At the introductory level, it is important to convey the characteristic physical phenomena of plasmas, before addressing the ultimate formalism of kinetic theory, with its microscopic, statistical mechanics approach. To this aim, this text translates the physical phenomena into more tractable equations, using the hydrodynamic model; this considers the plasma as a fluid, in which the macroscopic physical parameters are the statistical averages of the microscopic (individual) parameters. This book is an introduction to the physics of collisional plasmas, as opposed to plasmas in space. It is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering . The first chapter intr...

  12. Stability in high gain plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015, which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields

  13. High-frequency gyrotrons and their application to tokamak plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreischer, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of high frequency (100 to 200 GHz) and high power (> 100 kW) gyrotrons has been conducted. It is shown that high frequencies will be required in order for electron cyclotron radiation to propagate to the center of a compact tokamak power reactor. High power levels will be needed in order to ignite the plasma with a reasonable number of gyrotron units. In the first part of this research, a set of analytic expressions, valid for all TE cavity modes and all harmonics, is derived for the starting current and frequency detuning using the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in the weakly relativistic limit. The use of an optical cavity is also investigated

  14. Transport of high fluxes of hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijvers, W.A.J.; Al, R.S.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Peppel, van de R.J.E.; Schram, D.C.; Shumack, A.E.; Westerhout, J.; Rooij, van G.J.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    A study was made to quantify the losses during the convective hydrogen plasma transport in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI due to volume recombination. A transport efficiency of 35% was achieved at neutral background pressures below ~7 Pa in a magnetic field of 1.2 T. This efficiency decreased

  15. Sintering behavior and thermal conductivity of nickel-coated graphite flake/copper composites fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Chen, Jian-hao; Ren, Shu-bin; He, Xin-bo; Qu, Xuan-hui

    2018-04-01

    Nickel-coated graphite flakes/copper (GN/Cu) composites were fabricated by spark plasma sintering with the surface of graphite flakes (GFs) being modified by Ni-P electroless plating. The effects of the phase transition of the amorphous Ni-P plating and of Ni diffusion into the Cu matrix on the densification behavior, interfacial microstructure, and thermal conductivity (TC) of the GN/Cu composites were systematically investigated. The introduction of Ni-P electroless plating efficiently reduced the densification temperature of uncoated GF/Cu composites from 850 to 650°C and slightly increased the TC of the X-Y basal plane of the GF/Cu composites with 20vol%-30vol% graphite flakes. However, when the graphite flake content was greater than 30vol%, the TC of the GF/Cu composites decreased with the introduction of Ni-P plating as a result of the combined effect of the improved heat-transfer interface with the transition layer, P generated at the interface, and the diffusion of Ni into the matrix. Given the effect of the Ni content on the TC of the Cu matrix and on the interface thermal resistance, a modified effective medium approximation model was used to predict the TC of the prepared GF/Cu composites.

  16. The behavior of plasma with an arbitrary degree of degeneracy of electron gas in the conductive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A. V.; Gordeeva, N. M.

    2017-09-01

    We obtain an analytic solution of the boundary problem for the behavior (fluctuations) of an electron plasma with an arbitrary degree of degeneracy of the electron gas in the conductive layer in an external electric field. We use the kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision integral and the Maxwell equation for the electric field. We use the mirror boundary conditions for the reflections of electrons from the layer boundary. The boundary problem reduces to a one-dimensional problem with a single velocity. For this, we use the method of consecutive approximations, linearization of the equations with respect to the absolute distribution of the Fermi-Dirac electrons, and the conservation law for the number of particles. Separation of variables then helps reduce the problem equations to a characteristic system of equations. In the space of generalized functions, we find the eigensolutions of the initial system, which correspond to the continuous spectrum (Van Kampen mode). Solving the dispersion equation, we then find the eigensolutions corresponding to the adjoint and discrete spectra (Drude and Debye modes). We then construct the general solution of the boundary problem by decomposing it into the eigensolutions. The coefficients of the decomposition are given by the boundary conditions. This allows obtaining the decompositions of the distribution function and the electric field in explicit form.

  17. Silicon micromachining using a high-density plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, S.A.; Ashraf, H.; Atabo, L.; Chambers, A.; Hall, S.; Hopkins, J.; Nicholls, G.

    2001-01-01

    Dry etching of Si is critical in satisfying the demands of the micromachining industry. The micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) community requires etches capable of high aspect ratios, vertical profiles, good feature size control and etch uniformity along with high throughput to satisfy production requirements. Surface technology systems' (STS's) high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch tool enables a wide range of applications to be realized whilst optimizing the above parameters. Components manufactured from Si using an STS ICP include accelerometers and gyroscopes for military, automotive and domestic applications. STS's advanced silicon etch (ASE TM ) has also allowed the first generation of MEMS-based optical switches and attenuators to reach the marketplace. In addition, a specialized application for fabricating the next generation photolithography exposure masks has been optimized for 200 mm diameter wafers, to depths of ∼750 μm. Where the profile is not critical, etch rates of greater than 8 μm min -1 have been realized to replace previous methods such as wet etching. This is also the case for printer applications. Specialized applications that require etching down to pyrex or oxide often result in the loss of feature size control at the interface; this is an industry wide problem. STS have developed a technique to address this. The rapid progression of the industry has led to development of the STS ICP etch tool, as well as the process. (author)

  18. Coaxial plasma thrusters for high specific impulse propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Kurt F.; Gerwin, Richard A.; Barnes, Cris W.; Henins, Ivars; Mayo, Robert; Moses, Ronald, Jr.; Scarberry, Richard; Wurden, Glen

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental basis for coaxial plasma thruster performance is presented and the steady-state, ideal MHD properties of a coaxial thruster using an annular magnetic nozzle are discussed. Formulas for power usage, thrust, mass flow rate, and specific impulse are acquired and employed to assess thruster performance. The performance estimates are compared with the observed properties of an unoptimized coaxial plasma gun. These comparisons support the hypothesis that ideal MHD has an important role in coaxial plasma thruster dynamics.

  19. Mapping high-latitude plasma convection with coherent HF radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Villain, J.-P.; Hanuise, C.; Kelly, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this decade, a new technique for the study of ionosphere electrodynamics has been implemented in an evolving generation of high-latitude HF radars. Coherent backscatter from electron density irregularities at F region altitudes is utilized to observe convective plasma motion. The electronic beam forming and scanning capabilities of the radars afford an excellent combination of spatial (∼50 km) and temporal (∼1 min) resolution of the large-scale (∼10 6 km 2 ) convection pattern. In this paper, we outline the methods developed to synthesize the HF radar data into two-dimensional maps of convection velocity. Although any single radar can directly measure only the line-of-sight, or radial, component of the plasma motion, the convection pattern is sometimes so uniform and stable that scanning in azimuth serves to determine the transverse component as well. Under more variable conditions, data from a second radar are necessary to unambiguously resolve velocity vectors. In either case, a limited region of vector solution can be expanded into contiguous areas of single-radar radial velocity data by noting that the convection must everywhere be divergence-free, i.e., ∇·v=0. It is thus often possible to map velocity vectors without extensive second-radar coverage. We present several examples of two-dimensional velocity maps. These show instances of L shell-aligned flow in the dusk sector, the reversal of convection near magnetic midnight, and counterstreaming in the dayside cleft. We include a study of merged coherent and incoherent radar data that illustrates the applicability of these methods to other ionospheric radar systems. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  20. Characterization of Wet Air Plasma Jet Powered by Sinusoidal High Voltage and Nanosecond Pulses for Plasma Agricultural Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Keisuke; Shimada, Keisuke; Konishi, Hideaki; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2015-09-01

    Not only for the plasma sterilization but also for many of plasma life-science applications, atmospheric pressure plasma devices that allowed us to control its state and reactive species production are deserved to resolve the roles of the chemical species. Influence of the hydroxyl radical and ozone on germination of conidia of a strawberry pathogen is presented. Water addition to air plasma jet significantly improves germination suppression performance, while measured reactive oxygen species (ROS) are reduced. Although the results show a negative correlation between ROS and the germination suppression, this infers the importance of chemical composition generated by plasma. For further control of the plasma product, a plasma jet powered by sinusoidal high voltage and nanosecond pulses is developed and characterized with the voltage-charge Lissajous. Control of breakdown phase and discharge power by pulse-imposed phase is presented. This work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B) Grant Number 15K17480 and Exploratory Research Grant Number 23644199.