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Sample records for highly c-axis oriented

  1. Characterization of CBD grown ZnO films with high c-axis orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, S., E-mail: suleymanmku@gmail.com [Physics Department, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Bayansal, F.; Cetinkara, H.A.; Cakmak, H.M.; Gueder, H.S. [Physics Department, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2012-06-15

    Highly c-axis oriented ZnO films were deposited on seeded glass substrates. Successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method and chemical bath deposition (CBD) method were used to obtain seed layers and ZnO films. To see the effects of seed layer and deposition time, structural (e.g. grain size, microstrain and dislocation density), morphological, and electrical (e.g. resistivity, activation energy) properties of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and four point probe method. From the SEM images, resultant structures were found as well defined nanorods nearly perpendicular to the substrate surfaces and densely cover the substrates. The XRD patterns showed that ZnO films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with a preferred c-axis orientation along (002) plane. C-axis orientation was also supported by texture coefficient calculations. The lattice parameters of the structures were determined as a = 3.2268 A, b = 5.2745 A, {alpha} = {beta} = 90 Degree-Sign and {gamma} = 120 Degree-Sign . From the XRD patterns, it was revealed that, microstrain and dislocation density values of the structures decreased whereas grain size increased. This was attributed to enhancement occurred in lattice structure of the ZnO films. Activation energy values of the films were found in between 0.12 and 0.15 eV from the dark electrical resistivity-temperature characteristics in a temperature range of 300-500 K. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO nanorods (preferred orientation along (002) plane). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical activation energies were calculated in between 0.12 and 0.15 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstrain and dislocation density decreased with increasing deposition time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing deposition time was resulted in an increase in preferred orientation.

  2. Highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O₃ thin films on si wafer prepared by fast cooling immediately after sputter deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shinya; Hanzawa, Hiroaki; Wasa, Kiyotaka; Esashi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    2014-09-01

    We successfully developed sputter deposition technology to obtain a highly c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin film on a Si wafer by fast cooling (~-180°C/min) of the substrate after deposition. The c-axis orientation ratio of a fast-cooled film was about 90%, whereas that of a slow-cooled (~-40°C/min) film was only 10%. The c-axis-oriented monocrystalline Pb(Zr0.5, Ti0.5)O3 films showed reasonably large piezoelectric coefficients, e(31,f) = ~-11 C/m(2), with remarkably small dielectric constants, ϵ(r) = ~220. As a result, an excellent figure of merit (FOM) was obtained for piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) such as a piezoelectric gyroscope. This c-axis orientation technology on Si will extend industrial applications of PZT-based thin films and contribute further to the development of piezoelectric MEMS.

  3. High electron mobility through the edge states in random networks of c-axis oriented wedge-shaped GaN nanowalls grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Sain, A.; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Transport and optical properties of random networks of c-axis oriented wedge-shaped GaN nanowalls grown spontaneously on c-plane sapphire substrates through molecular beam epitaxy are investigated. Our study suggests a one dimensional confinement of carriers at the top edges of these connected nanowalls, which results in a blue shift of the band edge luminescence, a reduction of the exciton-phonon coupling, and an enhancement of the exciton binding energy. Not only that, the yellow luminescence in these samples is found to be completely suppressed even at room temperature. All these changes are highly desirable for the enhancement of the luminescence efficiency of the material. More interestingly, the electron mobility through the network is found to be significantly higher than that is typically observed for GaN epitaxial films. This dramatic improvement is attributed to the transport of electrons through the edge states formed at the top edges of the nanowalls.

  4. Highly c-axis oriented growth of GaN film on sapphire (0001 by laser molecular beam epitaxy using HVPE grown GaN bulk target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kushvaha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth temperature dependant surface morphology and crystalline properties of the epitaxial GaN layers grown on pre-nitridated sapphire (0001 substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (LMBE were investigated in the range of 500–750 °C. The grown GaN films were characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS. The x-ray rocking curve full width at a half maximum (FWHM value for (0002 reflection dramatically decreased from 1582 arc sec to 153 arc sec when the growth temperature was increased from 500 °C to 600 °C and the value further decreased with increase of growth temperature up to 720 °C. A highly c-axis oriented GaN epitaxial film was obtained at 720 °C with a (0002 plane rocking curve FWHM value as low as 102 arc sec. From AFM studies, it is observed that the GaN grain size also increased with increasing growth temperature and flat, large lateral grains of size 200-300 nm was obtained for the film grown at 720 °C. The micro-Raman spectroscopy studies also exhibited the high-quality wurtzite nature of GaN film grown on sapphire at 720 °C. The SIMS measurements revealed a non-traceable amount of background oxygen impurity in the grown GaN films. The results show that the growth temperature strongly influences the surface morphology and crystalline quality of the epitaxial GaN films on sapphire grown by LMBE.

  5. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jianliang; Chistyakov, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm"−"2) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm"−"2 improved the orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm"−"2 showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  6. C-axis orientated AlN films deposited using deep oscillation magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jianliang, E-mail: Jianliang.lin@swri.org [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78238 (United States); Chistyakov, Roman [Zpulser LLC, Mansfield, MA 02048 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Highly <0001> orientated AlN films were deposited by DOMS technique. • Controlled ion flux bombardment improved the <0001> texture and crystalline quality. • Excessive ion bombardment showed a detrimental effect on the c-axis orientation growth. • Improved c-axis alignment accompanied with stress relaxation with increasing film thickness. - Abstract: Highly <0001> c-axis orientated aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited on silicon (100) substrates by reactive deep oscillation magnetron sputtering (DOMS). No epitaxial favored bond layer and substrate heating were applied for assisting texture growth. The effects of the peak target current density (varied from 0.39 to 0.8 Acm{sup −2}) and film thickness (varied from 0.25 to 3.3 μm) on the c-axis orientation, microstructure, residual stress and mechanical properties of the AlN films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction rocking curve methodology, transmission electron microscopy, optical profilometry, and nanoindentation. All AlN films exhibited a <0001> preferred orientation and compressive residual stresses. At similar film thicknesses, an increase in the peak target current density to 0.53 Acm{sup −2} improved the <0001> orientation. Further increasing the peak target current density to above 0.53 Acm{sup −2} showed limited contribution to the texture development. The study also showed that an increase in the thickness of the AlN films deposited by DOMS improved the c-axis alignment accompanied with a reduction in the residual stress.

  7. Sonicated sol–gel preparation of nanoparticulate ZnO thin films with various deposition speeds: The highly preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation enhances the final properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.F.; Mamat, M.H.; Khusaimi, Z.; Sahdan, M.Z.; Musa, M.Z.; Zainun, A.R.; Suriani, A.B.; Md Sin, N.D.; Abd Hamid, S.B.; Rusop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimum stress of highly c-axis oriented ZnO was grown at suitable deposition speed. • The ZnO crystal orientation was influenced by strain/stress of the film. • Minimum stress/strain of ZnO film leads to lower defects. • Bandgap and defects were closely intertwined with strain/stress. • We report additional optical and electrical properties based on deposition speed. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates at various deposition speeds by a sonicated sol–gel dip-coating technique. This work studies the effects of deposition speed on the crystallisation behaviour and optical and electrical properties of the resulting films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that thin films were preferentially oriented along the (0 0 2) c-axis direction of the crystal. The transformation sequence of strain and stress effects in ZnO thin films has also been studied. The films deposited at a low deposition speed exhibited a large compressive stress of 0.78 GPa, which decreased to 0.43 GPa as the deposition speed increased to 40 mm/min. Interestingly, the enhancement in the crystallinity of these films led to a significant reduction in compressive stress. All films exhibited an average transmittance of greater than 90% in the visible region, with absorption edges at ∼380 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements indicated that the intensity of the emission peaks varied significantly with deposition speed. The optical band gap energy (E g ) was evaluated as 3.276–3.289 eV, which increased with decreasing compressive stress along the c-axis. The energy band gap of the resulting ZnO films was found to be strongly influenced by the preferred c-axis (0 0 2) orientation

  8. Purely hopping conduction in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition were studied in a metal-insulator-metal configuration over a wide temperature (200 to 450 K) and frequency (100 Hz to 1 MHz) range. The preferred oriented Al (1%) doped ZnO film with electrical conductivity 1.1×103 Ω-1 cm-1 was deposited for dual purpose: (1) to serve as nucleating center for LiNbO3 crystallites along preferred c-axis growth direction, and (2) to act as a suitable bottom electrode for electrical studies. The room temperature dc conductivity (σdc) of LiNbO3 film was about 5.34×10-10 Ω-1 cm-1 with activation energy ˜0.3 eV, indicating extrinsic conduction. The ac conductivity σac was found to be much higher in comparison to σdc in the low temperature region (300 K), σac shows a weak frequency dependence, whereas dielectric constant exhibits a strong frequency dispersion. The dielectric dispersion data has been discussed in the light of theoretical models based on Debye type mixed conduction and purely hopping conduction. The dominant conduction in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film is attributed to the purely hopping where both σdc and σac arise due to same mechanism.

  9. Highly c-axis oriented ZnO:Ni thin film nanostructure by RF magnetron sputtering: Structural, morphological and magnetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddheswaran, R.; Savková, Jarmila; Medlín, Rostislav; Očenášek, Jan; Životský, Ondřej; Novák, Petr; Šutta, Pavol

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly preferred oriented columnar ZnO:Ni thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • XRD and azimuthal studies explain the characteristics of orientation in [0 0 1] direction. • Surface morphology and grains distribution were explained by FE-SEM. • XTEM specimen prepared by ion slicing used for TEM microstructure analyses. • Tendency of ferromagnetism by influence of Ni content was studied by VSM. - Abstract: Nickel doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ni) thin films with different Ni concentrations were deposited on silicon substrates at 400 °C by reactive magnetron sputtering using a mixture of Ar and O 2 gases. The X-ray diffraction and azimuthal patterns of the ZnO:Ni were carried out, and the quality of the strong preferred orientation of crystalline columns in the direction [0 0 1] perpendicular to the substrate surface were analysed. The grain size, distribution, and homogeneity of the thin film surfaces were studied by FE-SEM. The EDX and mapping confirmed that the Ni is incorporated into ZnO uniformly. The microstructure of the textured columns was analysed by TEM and HRTEM analyses. The average thickness and length of the columns were found to be about 50 nm and 600 nm, respectively. The rise of ferromagnetism by the influence of Ni content was studied by VSM magnetic studies at room temperature

  10. Synthesis of c-axis oriented AlN thin films on different substrates: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriarte, G.F.; Rodriguez, J.G.; Calle, F.

    2010-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films have been deposited by reactive sputtering on different substrates. The crystallographic properties of layered film structures consisting of a piezoelectric layer, aluminum nitride (AlN), synthesized on a variety of substrates, have been examined. Aluminum nitride thin films have been deposited by reactive pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering using an aluminum target in an Ar/N 2 gas mixture. The influence of the most critical deposition parameters on the AlN thin film crystallography has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the rocking curve Full-Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the AlN-(0 0 0 2) peak. The relationship between the substrate, the synthesis parameters and the crystallographic orientation of the AlN thin films is discussed. A guide is provided showing how to optimize these conditions to obtain highly c-axis oriented AlN thin films on substrates of different nature.

  11. Observation of a three-dimensional vortex-line liquid in a highly c-axis-oriented (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox silver-sheathed tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.; Xu, G.; Du, J.; Zhou, Y.; Zeng, R.; Fu, X.; Hua, P.; Zhang, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We have measured the temperature dependence of resistance of a highly c-axis-oriented (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x silver-sheathed tape in the mixed state using the dc flux transformer geometry. In the vortex fluid regime, we have observed the onset of a nonlocal conductivity which corresponds to the peak (T peak ) in R bot (T) curves. This can be explained qualitatively in terms of the vortex decoupling which arises from an increased thermal fluctuation. At T peak , the vortices are three dimensional (3D) in character. This behavior is quite different from the results obtained recently by Safar et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 824 (1992)] and Busch et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 522 (1992)] in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y single crystals using the same measuring method. Their results show that the vortices are two dimensional in character. The difference of the vortex dimensionality between (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O y superconductors in the vortex liquid regime may be attributed to different anisotropies due to their different crystal structures and pinning disorders. In a 3D vortex line liquid, the results reveal that dissipation seems to originate from the thermally activated plastic motion of a pinned vortex line liquid. The field and temperature dependence of the activation energy is as follows: U(H,T)=U 0 (1-T/T c )H -0.45 . copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M. F., E-mail: mfmalek07@gmail.com; Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Musa, M. Z., E-mail: musa948@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Pulau Pinang, Jalan Permatang Pauh, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com; Ishak, A., E-mail: ishak@sarawak.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Sarawak, Kampus Kota Samarahan, Jalan Meranek, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-06

    Optimization of the growth time parameter was conducted to synthesize high-quality c-axis ZnO nanorod arrays. The effects of the parameter on the crystal growth and properties were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the growth time influence the properties of ZnO nanorods where the crystallite size of the structures was increased at higher deposition time. Field emission scanning electron microsope analysis confirmed the morphologies structure of the ZnO nanorods. The ZnO nanostructures prepared under the optimized growth conditions showed an intense XRD peak which reveal a higher c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays thus demonstrating the formation of defect free structure.

  13. Optical properties of the c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sharma, Anjali [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented Lithium Niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) thin films have been deposited onto epitaxially matched (001) sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural and optical properties of the thin films have been studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the optical phonon modes and defects in the c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin films. XRD analysis indicates the presence of stress in the as-grown LiNbO{sub 3} thin films and is attributed to the small lattice mismatch between LiNbO{sub 3} and sapphire. Refractive index (n = 2.13 at 640 nm) of the (006) LiNbO{sub 3} thin films was found to be slightly lower from the corresponding bulk value (n = 2.28). Various factors responsible for the deviation in the refractive index of (006) LiNbO{sub 3} thin films from the corresponding bulk value are discussed and the deviation is mainly attributed to the lattice contraction due to the presence of stress in deposited film.

  14. Optical properties of the c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sharma, Anjali; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented Lithium Niobate (LiNbO 3 ) thin films have been deposited onto epitaxially matched (001) sapphire substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Structural and optical properties of the thin films have been studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–Visible spectroscopy respectively. Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the optical phonon modes and defects in the c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 thin films. XRD analysis indicates the presence of stress in the as-grown LiNbO 3 thin films and is attributed to the small lattice mismatch between LiNbO 3 and sapphire. Refractive index (n = 2.13 at 640 nm) of the (006) LiNbO 3 thin films was found to be slightly lower from the corresponding bulk value (n = 2.28). Various factors responsible for the deviation in the refractive index of (006) LiNbO 3 thin films from the corresponding bulk value are discussed and the deviation is mainly attributed to the lattice contraction due to the presence of stress in deposited film.

  15. Improvement of thermoelectric performance in magnetically c-axis-oriented bismuth-based cobaltites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Shigeru; Kumagai, Toshiaki; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Tohru S.; Sakka, Yoshio; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Kishio, Kohji

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of thermoelectric Bi-based cobaltites with large magnetic anisotropy (Δχ = χ c - χ ab ) and relatively low resistivity using a crystallochemical process is reported. Doping of various rare earth (RE) ions into the Ca site in [(Bi 0.5 Pb 0.5 ) 2 Ca 2 O 4 ] y CoO 2 [(Bi, Pb)Ca222] enhanced Δχ comparable to that of [Ca 2 CoO 3-δ ] 0.62 CoO 2 . Tailoring of the Sr-doping level in Dy-doped (Bi, Pb)Ca222 enabled the resistivity to be reduced without decreasing Δχ. The magnetically c-axis-oriented (Sr, Dy)-doped (Bi, Pb)Ca222 bulk exhibited improved thermoelectric performance compared with the Sr-free RE-doped BiCa222 and a-axis grain-oriented [(Bi 0.5 Pb 0.5 ) 2 Sr 2 O 4 ] ∼0.55 CoO 2

  16. Deriving micro- to macro-scale seismic velocities from ice-core c axis orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerch, Johanna; Diez, Anja; Weikusat, Ilka; Eisen, Olaf

    2018-05-01

    One of the great challenges in glaciology is the ability to estimate the bulk ice anisotropy in ice sheets and glaciers, which is needed to improve our understanding of ice-sheet dynamics. We investigate the effect of crystal anisotropy on seismic velocities in glacier ice and revisit the framework which is based on fabric eigenvalues to derive approximate seismic velocities by exploiting the assumed symmetry. In contrast to previous studies, we calculate the seismic velocities using the exact c axis angles describing the orientations of the crystal ensemble in an ice-core sample. We apply this approach to fabric data sets from an alpine and a polar ice core. Our results provide a quantitative evaluation of the earlier approximative eigenvalue framework. For near-vertical incidence our results differ by up to 135 m s-1 for P-wave and 200 m s-1 for S-wave velocity compared to the earlier framework (estimated 1 % difference in average P-wave velocity at the bedrock for the short alpine ice core). We quantify the influence of shear-wave splitting at the bedrock as 45 m s-1 for the alpine ice core and 59 m s-1 for the polar ice core. At non-vertical incidence we obtain differences of up to 185 m s-1 for P-wave and 280 m s-1 for S-wave velocities. Additionally, our findings highlight the variation in seismic velocity at non-vertical incidence as a function of the horizontal azimuth of the seismic plane, which can be significant for non-symmetric orientation distributions and results in a strong azimuth-dependent shear-wave splitting of max. 281 m s-1 at some depths. For a given incidence angle and depth we estimated changes in phase velocity of almost 200 m s-1 for P wave and more than 200 m s-1 for S wave and shear-wave splitting under a rotating seismic plane. We assess for the first time the change in seismic anisotropy that can be expected on a short spatial (vertical) scale in a glacier due to strong variability in crystal-orientation fabric (±50 m s-1 per 10 cm

  17. Small polarons and c-axis transport in highly anisotropic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, A.F.; Schofield, A.J.

    2002-09-01

    Motivated by the anomalous c-axis transport properties of the quasi two-dimensional metal, Sr 2 RuO 4 , and some of its relatives, we have studied the interlayer hopping of single electrons that are coupled strongly to c-axis bosons. We find a c-axis resistivity that reflects the in-plane electronic scattering in the low and very high temperature limits (relative to the characteristic temperature of the boson T boson ). For temperatures near the T boson , a broad maximum in the resistivity can appear for sufficiently strong electron-boson coupling. This feature may account for the observed 'metallic to non-metallic crossover' seen in these layered oxides, where the boson may be a phonon. (author)

  18. Domain structures and temperature-dependent spin reorientation transitions in c-axis oriented Co-Cr thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusinski, Greg J.; Krishnan, Kannan M.; Thomas, Gareth; Nelson, E. C.

    2000-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented Co 95 Cr 5 films with perpendicular anisotropy were grown epitaxially on Si (111), using an Ag seed layer, by physical vapor deposition. Films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction, and Lorentz microscopy in a TEM. The following epitaxial relationship was confirmed: (111) Si (parallel sign)(111) Ag (parallel sign)(0001) CoCr ;[2(bar sign)20] Si (parallel sign)[2(bar sign)20] Ag (parallel sign)[1(bar sign)100] CoCr . Magnetic domain structures of these films were observed as a function of thickness; t, in the range, 200 Aa c ≅300 Aa, the magnetization was found to be effectively in-plane of the film, and above t c a regular, stripe-like domain pattern with a significant, alternating in sign, perpendicular component was observed. The spin reorientation transitions of the stripe domains to the in-plane magnetization were studied dynamically by observing the domains as a function of temperature by in situ heating up to 350 degree sign C. The critical transition thickness, t c , which is a function of K u and magnetostatic energy, was found to increase with increasing temperature. The stripe-domain period, L observed at room temperature was found to increase gradually with thickness; L=90 nm at t=300 Aa, and L=110 nm at t=700 Aa. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  19. Effects of c-axis Josephson coupling on dissipation, flux dynamics and the mechanism of high-Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.; Hettinger, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of the c-axis transport in highly anisotropic HTS materials strongly indicate that Josephson coupling is involved. This conclusion affects various properties of the HTS cuprates, including the irreversibility behavior for transport in the ab planes, the direct c-axis transport and potentially the mechanism of Cooper pairing

  20. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Minh D.; Houwman, Evert P.; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Thin films of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca2Nb3O10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain

  1. Large piezoelectric strain with ultra-low strain hysteresis in highly c-axis oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 films with columnar growth on amorphous glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Houwman, Evert P; Rijnders, Guus

    2017-10-10

    Thin films of PbZr 0 . 52 Ti 0 . 48 O 3 (PZT) with largely detached columnar grains, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on amorphous glass substrates covered with Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 nanosheets as growth template and using LaNiO 3 electrode layers, are shown to exhibit very high unipolar piezoelectric strain and ultra-low strain hysteresis. The observed increase of the piezoelectric coefficient with increasing film thickness is attributed to the reduction of clamping, because of the increasingly less dense columnar microstructure (more separation between the grains) with across the film thickness. A very large piezoelectric coefficient (490 pm/V) and a high piezoelectric strain (~0.9%) are obtained in 4-µm-thick film under an applied electric field of 200 kV/cm, which is several times larger than in usual PZT ceramics. Further very low strain hysteresis (H≈2-4%) is observed in 4 to 5 µm thick films. These belong to the best values demonstrated so far in piezoelectric films. Fatigue testing shows that the piezoelectric properties are stable up to 10 10 cycles. The growth of high quality PZT films with very large strain and piezoelectric coefficients, very low hysteresis and with long-term stability on a technologically important substrate as glass is of great significance for the development of practical piezo driven microelectromechanical actuator systems.

  2. The role of Al, Ba, and Cd dopant elements in tailoring the properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Dilawar [Department of Physics GC University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Center for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University Lahore, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Butt, M.Z., E-mail: mzakriabutt@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University Lahore, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Arif, Bilal [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey); Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Yakuphanoglu, Fahrettin [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Firat University, 23169 Elazig (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-01

    Highly c-axis oriented un-doped ZnO and Al-, Ba-, and Cd-doped ZnO thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrate employing sol-gel spin coating method. XRD analysis showed that all thin films possess hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation along c-axis. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was used to study the morphology of thin films. The morphology consists of spherical and non-spherical shape grains. EDX analysis confirms the presence of O, Zn, Al, Ba, and Cd in the relevant thin films. The optical properties of thin films were studied using UV–Vis spectrometer. All thin films possess more than 85% optical transmittance in the visible region. Blue shift in optical band gap E{sub g} has been observed on doping with Al, whereas doping with Ba and Cd resulted in red shift of E{sub g}. Urbach energy E{sub u} of all doped ZnO thin films was found to have excellent correlation with their band gap energy E{sub g}. Moreover, E{sub g} increases while E{sub u} decreases on the increase in crystallite size D. Optical parameters E{sub g} and E{sub u} as well as structural parameters lattice strain and stacking fault probability also show excellent correlation with the B-factor or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibrations of the dopant elements. Electrical conductivity measurement of the thin films was carried out using two-point probe method. The electrical conductivity was found to increase with the increase in crystallite orientation along c-axis.

  3. Epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} thin films on SrTiO{sub 3}-buffered Si(001) by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Hu, Chengqing; Yu, Edward T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bruley, John [IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, New York 10593 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) on Si(001) using a thin (1.6 nm) buffer layer of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The ALD growth of crystalline BTO films at 225  °C used barium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl), titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as co-reactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a high degree of crystallinity and c-axis orientation of as-deposited BTO films. Crystallinity is improved after vacuum annealing at 600  °C. Two-dimensional XRD confirms the tetragonal structure and orientation of 7–20-nm thick films. The effect of the annealing process on the BTO structure is discussed. A clean STO/Si interface is found using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confirmed by cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of 7–20 nm-thick BTO films are examined and show an effective dielectric constant of ∼660 for the heterostructure.

  4. Epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3-buffered Si(001) by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G.; Posadas, Agham B.; Demkov, Alexander A.; Hu, Chengqing; Yu, Edward T.; Bruley, John

    2014-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of epitaxial c-axis oriented BaTiO 3 (BTO) on Si(001) using a thin (1.6 nm) buffer layer of SrTiO 3 (STO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. The ALD growth of crystalline BTO films at 225  °C used barium bis(triisopropylcyclopentadienyl), titanium tetraisopropoxide, and water as co-reactants. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals a high degree of crystallinity and c-axis orientation of as-deposited BTO films. Crystallinity is improved after vacuum annealing at 600  °C. Two-dimensional XRD confirms the tetragonal structure and orientation of 7–20-nm thick films. The effect of the annealing process on the BTO structure is discussed. A clean STO/Si interface is found using in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and confirmed by cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of 7–20 nm-thick BTO films are examined and show an effective dielectric constant of ∼660 for the heterostructure

  5. Epitaxial growth of metallic buffer layer structure and c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin film on Si for high performance piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Pham Ngoc; Yoshida, Shinya; Tanaka, Shuji

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a metallic buffer layer structure, (100) SrRuO3 (SRO)/(100) Pt/(100) Ir/(100) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) layers for the epitaxial growth of a c-axis oriented Pb(Mn1/3,Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMnN-PZT) thin film on a (100) Si wafer for piezoelectric micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) application. The stacking layers were epitaxially grown on a Si substrate under the optimal deposition condition. A crack-free PMnN-PZT epitaxial thin films was obtained at a thickness up to at least 1.7 µm, which is enough for MEMS applications. The unimorph MEMS cantilevers based on the PMnN-PZT thin film were fabricated and characterized. As a result, the PMnN-PZT thin film exhibited -10 to -12 C/m2 as a piezoelectric coefficient e 31,f and ˜250 as a dielectric constants ɛr. The resultant FOM for piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (pMUT) is higher than those of general PZT and AlN thin films. This structure has a potential to provide high-performance pMUTs.

  6. Further improvements in conducting and transparent properties of ZnO:Ga films with perpetual c-axis orientation: Materials optimization and application in silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti

    2017-07-01

    Technologically appropriate device friendly ZnO:Ga films have been prepared at a low growth temperature (100 °C) by changing the RF power (P) applied to the magnetron plasma. Structurally preferred c-axis orientation of the ZnO:Ga network has been attained with I〈002〉/I〈103〉 > 5. The c-axis oriented grains of wurtzite ZnO:Ga grows geometrically and settles in tangentially, providing favorable conduction path for stacked layer devices. Nano-sheet like structures produced at the surface are interconnected and provide conducting path across the surface; however, those accommodate a lot of pores in between that help better light trapping and reduce the reflection loss. The optimized ZnO:Ga thin film prepared at RF power of 200 W has 〈002〉 oriented grains of average size ∼10 nm and exhibits a very high conductivity ∼200 S cm-1 and elevated transmission (∼93% at 500 nm) in the visible range. The optimized ZnO:Ga film has been used as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) window layer of RF-PECVD grown silicon thin film solar cells in glass/TCO/p-i-n-Si/Al configuration. The characteristics of identically prepared p-i-n-Si solar cells are compared by replacing presently developed ZnO:Ga TCO with the best quality U-type SnO2 coated Asahi glass substrates. The ZnO:Ga coated glass substrate offers a higher open circuit voltage (VOC) and the higher fill factor (FF). The ZnO:Ga film being more stable in hydrogen plasma than its SnO2 counterpart, maintains a high transparency to the solar radiation and improves the VOC, while reduced diffusion of Zn across the p-layer creates less defects at the p-i interface in Si:H cells and thereby, increases the FF. Nearly identical conversion efficiency is preserved for both TCO substrates. Excellent c-axis orientation even at low growth temperature promises improved device performance by extended parametric optimization.

  7. Evaluation of Intrinsic Shear Piezoelectric Coefficient d15 of c-Axis Oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Isaku; Akama, Kenji; Wasa, Kiyotaka; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2009-09-01

    Piezoelectric shear strain was measured for c-axis oriented epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films. The PZT films, with a composition near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), were epitaxially grown on (001) MgO substrates and then microfabricated into a rectangular shape by wet etching of the films. Lateral electrodes were deposited on both sides of the PZT films, to apply an external electric field perpendicular to the polarization. A sinusoidal input voltage of 100 kHz was applied between the lateral electrodes, and in-plane shear vibration was measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. In-plane displacement due to shear mode piezoelectric vibration was clearly observed and increased proportionally with the voltage. Finite element method (FEM) analysis was conducted to determine the horizontal electric field in the PZT film, and the piezoelectric coefficient d15 was calculated to be 440×10-12 m/V. The d15 of the PZT film represents the intrinsic shear piezoelectric effect, which is slightly smaller than that of bulk PZT, due to the absence of extrinsic effects such as longitudinal and transverse piezoelectric strain or domain rotation.

  8. Further improvements in conducting and transparent properties of ZnO:Ga films with perpetual c-axis orientation: Materials optimization and application in silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Praloy; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • ZnO:Ga film with perpetual c-axis orientation at low T{sub S} by RF magnetron sputtering. • High conductivity (200 S cm{sup −1}) and elevated transmission (∼93% at 500 nm) in nano-sheet like structure. • Si solar cell on ZnO:Ga with efficiency comparable to similar cell on U-type SnO{sub 2} coated Asahi glass. • Higher open circuit voltage and better fill factor with ZnO:Ga than SnO{sub 2}. - Abstract: Technologically appropriate device friendly ZnO:Ga films have been prepared at a low growth temperature (100 °C) by changing the RF power (P) applied to the magnetron plasma. Structurally preferred c-axis orientation of the ZnO:Ga network has been attained with I{sub 〈002〉}/I{sub 〈103〉} > 5. The c-axis oriented grains of wurtzite ZnO:Ga grows geometrically and settles in tangentially, providing favorable conduction path for stacked layer devices. Nano-sheet like structures produced at the surface are interconnected and provide conducting path across the surface; however, those accommodate a lot of pores in between that help better light trapping and reduce the reflection loss. The optimized ZnO:Ga thin film prepared at RF power of 200 W has 〈002〉 oriented grains of average size ∼10 nm and exhibits a very high conductivity ∼200 S cm{sup −1} and elevated transmission (∼93% at 500 nm) in the visible range. The optimized ZnO:Ga film has been used as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) window layer of RF-PECVD grown silicon thin film solar cells in glass/TCO/p-i-n-Si/Al configuration. The characteristics of identically prepared p-i-n-Si solar cells are compared by replacing presently developed ZnO:Ga TCO with the best quality U-type SnO{sub 2} coated Asahi glass substrates. The ZnO:Ga coated glass substrate offers a higher open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) and the higher fill factor (FF). The ZnO:Ga film being more stable in hydrogen plasma than its SnO{sub 2} counterpart, maintains a high transparency to the solar

  9. Deposition of stress free c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin film grown on (002) ZnO coated Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2012-01-01

    C-axis oriented lithium niobate thin films have been deposited on Si substrate using RF sputtering technique. A thin buffer layer of c-axis (002) oriented ZnO on Si substrate has been used as a nucleating layer to promote the growth of (006) oriented LiNbO 3 film. The processing gas composition and pressure are found to be very critical in obtaining stress free LiNbO 3 film having desired (006) orientation. The LiNbO 3 films deposited under unique combination of sputtering pressure (10 mTorr) and argon percentage (80%) in reactive gas (Ar + O 2 ) composition become almost stress free having lattice parameter (1.3867 A) close to the bulk value. The observed variation in the structural properties and optical phonon modes observed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the oriented LiNbO 3 thin film with stress has been correlated with growth kinetics.

  10. The Role of C-axis Polarized Phonons in High Temperature Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.; Homes, C. C.; Reichardt, W.

    1995-01-01

    We report on the optical conductivity of c-axis phonons in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ as a function of doping and temperature. At room temperature the frequencies and strengths of the modes are in good agreement with results from shell models based on neutron scattering. We discuss the apical oxygen mode which becomes asymmetric in underdoped materials and argue, with Burns, that the Au mode shifts from 570 cm -1 to 610 cm -1 for the two-fold coordinated copper sites in the chain layer in oxygen depleted materials. At low temperature there is a large transfer of c-axis phonon oscillator strength from O(4) apical and O (2, 3,) plane bending modes, to a very broad at 400 cm -1

  11. Effects of the APC materials on c-axis correlated pinning effects in a-axis oriented Y123/2D APC multilayer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, M.; Mukaida, M.; Horii, S.; Ichinose, A.; Kita, R.; Namba, M.; Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Yoshida, Y.; Teranishi, R.; Yamada, K.; Mori, N.

    2009-01-01

    For a-axis oriented and c-axis in-plane aligned YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ /artificial pinning center (Y123/APC) alternately-layered thin films, effects of the APC materials on the multilayer structures are discussed. Pr123, (Y 1-x Pr x )123 and Gd 2 CuO 4 (Gd214) were used as APCs. The multilayer structure was observed for Y123/Pr123 films and Y123/Gd214 films. However, some grains are also grown in the Y123/Gd214 film. For the Y123/Pr123 multilayer film, each Pr123 layer act as two-dimensional APCs (2D APCs) in the magnetic field angular dependences of the critical current density. The growth mechanism of the multilayer structure in the Y123/2D APC films is discussed by a transmission electron microscopy and an atomic force microscope. It is found that two conditions are needed to obtain the c-axis correlated pinning effects by 2D APC in the a-axis oriented and c-axis in-plane aligned Y123/APC multilayer films: the same structure as Y123; Y-free APC materials.

  12. Preparation of c-axis perpendicularly oriented ultra-thin L10-FePt films on MgO and VN underlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futamoto, Masaaki; Shimizu, Tomoki; Ohtake, Mitsuru

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin L10-FePt films of 2 nm average thickness are prepared on (001) oriented MgO and VN underlayers epitaxially grown on base substrate of SrTiO3(001) single crystal. Detailed cross-sectional structures are observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Continuous L10-FePt(001) thin films with very flat surface are prepared on VN(001) underlayer whereas the films prepared on MgO(001) underlayer consist of isolated L10-FePt(001) crystal islands. Presence of misfit dislocation and lattice bending in L10-FePt material is reducing the effective lattice mismatch with respect to the underlayer to be less than 0.5 %. Formation of very flat and continuous FePt layer on VN underlayer is due to the large surface energy of VN material where de-wetting of FePt material at high temperature annealing process is suppressed under a force balance between the surface and interface energies of FePt and VN materials. An employment of underlayer or substrate material with the lattice constant and the surface energy larger than those of L10-FePt is important for the preparation of very thin FePt epitaxial thin continuous film with the c-axis controlled to be perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  13. Deposition of stress free c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film grown on (002) ZnO coated Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2012-05-15

    C-axis oriented lithium niobate thin films have been deposited on Si substrate using RF sputtering technique. A thin buffer layer of c-axis (002) oriented ZnO on Si substrate has been used as a nucleating layer to promote the growth of (006) oriented LiNbO{sub 3} film. The processing gas composition and pressure are found to be very critical in obtaining stress free LiNbO{sub 3} film having desired (006) orientation. The LiNbO{sub 3} films deposited under unique combination of sputtering pressure (10 mTorr) and argon percentage (80%) in reactive gas (Ar + O{sub 2}) composition become almost stress free having lattice parameter (1.3867 A) close to the bulk value. The observed variation in the structural properties and optical phonon modes observed by Raman spectroscopic studies of the oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film with stress has been correlated with growth kinetics.

  14. Temperature stability of c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film layered structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)]. E-mail: mtomar@physics.du.ac.in; monikatomar@rediffmail.com; Gupta, Vinay; Mansingh, Abhai; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2001-08-07

    Theoretical calculations have been performed for the temperature stability of the c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film layered structures on passivated silicon (SiO{sub 2}/Si) substrate with and without a non-piezoelectric SiO{sub 2} overlayer. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) have been calculated. The thicknesses of various layers have been determined for optimum SAW performance with zero TCD. The presence of a non-piezoelectric SiO{sub 2} overlayer on LiNbO{sub 3} film is found to significantly enhance the coupling coefficient. The optimized results reveal that a high coupling coefficient of K{sup 2}=3.45% and a zero TCD can be obtained in the SiO{sub 2}/LiNbO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si structure with a 0.235{lambda} thick LiNbO{sub 3} layer sandwiched between 0.1{lambda} thick SiO{sub 2} layers. (author)

  15. Temperature stability of c-axis oriented LiNbO3/SiO2/Si thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Mansingh, Abhai; Sreenivas, K.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed for the temperature stability of the c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 thin film layered structures on passivated silicon (SiO 2 /Si) substrate with and without a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) have been calculated. The thicknesses of various layers have been determined for optimum SAW performance with zero TCD. The presence of a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer on LiNbO 3 film is found to significantly enhance the coupling coefficient. The optimized results reveal that a high coupling coefficient of K 2 =3.45% and a zero TCD can be obtained in the SiO 2 /LiNbO 3 /SiO 2 /Si structure with a 0.235λ thick LiNbO 3 layer sandwiched between 0.1λ thick SiO 2 layers. (author)

  16. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O_2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  17. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunj, Saurabh; Sreenivas, K.

    2016-05-01

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O2/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  18. Defect free C-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) films grown at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunj, Saurabh, E-mail: saurabhkunj22@gmail.com; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Radio frequency Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to fabricate ZnO thin films on quartz substrate at room temperature. The effect of varying oxygen to argon (O{sub 2}/Ar) gas ratio on the structural and photoluminescence properties of the film is analyzed.X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveals the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structured ZnO thin films with preferred orientation along (002) plane. Photoluminescence (PL) characterization reveals the preparation of highly crystalline films exhibiting intense Ultraviolet (UV) emission with negligible amount of defects as indicated by the absence of Deep Level Emission (DLE) in the PL spectra.

  19. On the use of response surface methodology to predict and interpret the preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, J.; Horny, N.; Tricoteaux, A.; Jouan, P.-Y.; Zadam, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with experimental design applied to response surface methodology (RSM) in order to determine the influence of the discharge conditions on preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films. The thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The preferred orientation was evaluated using a conventional Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer (θ-2θ) with the CuKα radiation. We have first determined the experimental domain for 3 parameters: sputtering pressure (2-6 mTorr), discharge current (312-438 mA) and nitrogen percentage (17-33%). For the setup of the experimental design we have used a three factors Doehlert matrix which allows the use of the statistical response surface methodology (RSM) in a spherical domain. A four dimensional surface response, which represents the (0 0 0 2) peak height as a function of sputtering pressure, discharge current and nitrogen percentage, was obtained. It has been found that the main interaction affecting the preferential c-axis orientation was the pressure-nitrogen percentage interaction. It has been proved that a Box-Cox transformation is a very useful method to interpret and discuss the experimental results and leads to predictions in good agreement with experiments

  20. On the use of response surface methodology to predict and interpret the preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, J.; Horny, N.; Tricoteaux, A. [IUT de Valenciennes, Departement Mesures Physiques, UVHC, Z.I. du Champ de l' Abbesse, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Jouan, P.-Y. [IUT de Valenciennes, Departement Mesures Physiques, UVHC, Z.I. du Champ de l' Abbesse, 59600 Maubeuge (France)], E-mail: pierre-yves.jouan@univ-valenciennes.fr; Zadam, M. [Electronic Department, Badji Mokhtar University, BP12 Annaba (Algeria)

    2008-01-15

    This paper deals with experimental design applied to response surface methodology (RSM) in order to determine the influence of the discharge conditions on preferred c-axis orientation of sputtered AlN thin films. The thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering on Si (1 0 0) substrates. The preferred orientation was evaluated using a conventional Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer ({theta}-2{theta}) with the CuK{alpha} radiation. We have first determined the experimental domain for 3 parameters: sputtering pressure (2-6 mTorr), discharge current (312-438 mA) and nitrogen percentage (17-33%). For the setup of the experimental design we have used a three factors Doehlert matrix which allows the use of the statistical response surface methodology (RSM) in a spherical domain. A four dimensional surface response, which represents the (0 0 0 2) peak height as a function of sputtering pressure, discharge current and nitrogen percentage, was obtained. It has been found that the main interaction affecting the preferential c-axis orientation was the pressure-nitrogen percentage interaction. It has been proved that a Box-Cox transformation is a very useful method to interpret and discuss the experimental results and leads to predictions in good agreement with experiments.

  1. The pseudogap in the c-axis optical conductivity in high Tc-cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, H.

    1999-01-01

    The pseudogap phenomenon is most remarkable in the underdoped region of high-T c cuprates. Since the superconducting state in the optimally doped high-T c cuprates is well described by the BCS-like d-wave superconductors, it is natural to assume that the pseudogap arises from the standard superconducting fluctuation. In particular in the layered compounds like high-T c cuprates Varlamov and his coworkers pointed out the density of states (DOS) correction to the superconducting fluctuation will play the crucial role. However, unfortunately in their analysis d-wave nature of the high-T c cuprates is ignored. Perhaps more seriously some unnecessary approximations were introduced in their analysis. The present theory gives somewhat different expressions of quasi-particle density of states for B = 0 and B ≠ 0, which can be tested experimentally. (orig.)

  2. Magnetotransport properties of c-axis oriented La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films on MgO-buffered SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young-Min; Ulyanov, Alexander N.; Shin, Geo-Myung; Lee, Sung-Yun; Yoo, Dae-Gil; Yoo, Sang-Im

    2009-01-01

    c-axis oriented La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) films on MgO-buffered SiO 2 /Si substrates were prepared, and their texture, microstructure, and magnetotransport properties were studied and compared to epitaxial LSMO/MgO (001) and polycrystalline LSMO/SiO 2 /Si films. c-axis oriented MgO buffer layers were obtained on amorphous SiO 2 layer through rf sputter deposition at low substrate temperature and consequent postannealing processes. In situ pulsed laser deposition-grown LSMO films, deposited on the MgO layer, show strong c-axis texture, but no in-plane texture. The c-axis oriented LSMO films which are magnetically softer than LSMO/SiO 2 /Si films exhibit relatively large low field magnetoresistance (LFMR) and sharper MR drop at lower field. The large LFMR is attributed to a spin-dependent scattering of transport current at the grain boundaries

  3. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2009-05-07

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm{sup -1} was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO{sub 3} film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO{sub 3} films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO{sub 3} single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO{sub 3} film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  4. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandilya, Swati; Sreenivas, K; Gupta, Vinay; Tomar, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO 3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm -1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO 3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO 3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO 3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO 3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  5. Structural and interfacial defects in c-axis oriented LiNbO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Si using Al : ZnO conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shandilya, Swati; Tomar, Monika; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-05-01

    Highly c-axis oriented LiNbO3 films are deposited using pulsed laser deposition on a silicon substrate using a transparent conducting Al doped ZnO layer. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopic analysis show the fabrication of single phase and oriented LiNbO3 films under the optimized deposition condition. An extra peak at 905 cm-1 was observed in the Raman spectra of LiNbO3 film deposited at higher substrate temperature and higher oxygen pressure, and attributed to the presence of niobium antisite defects in the lattice. Dielectric constant and ac conductivity of oriented LiNbO3 films deposited under the static and rotating substrate modes have been studied. Films deposited under the rotating substrate mode exhibit dielectric properties close to the LiNbO3 single crystal. The cause of deviation in the dielectric properties of the film deposited under the static substrate mode, in comparison with the bulk, are discussed in the light of the possible formation of an interdiffusion layer at the interface of the LiNbO3 film and the Al : ZnO layer.

  6. A modified phase coherence model for the non-linear c-axis V-I characteristics of highly anisotropic, high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Luo Sheng; Huang Sai Jun; He Yu Sheng; Li Chun Guang; Zhang Xue Qiang

    2003-01-01

    A modified Ambegaokar-Halperin thermal-fluctuation model has been developed to describe the c-axis V-I characteristics and low-current ohmic resistance of highly anisotropic superconductors in a magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. The model assumes loss of phase coherence across the CuO-planes associated with the correlated motion of pancake vortices in the liquid state. The predicted V-I characteristics in the current-induced transition from the superconducting to the resistive state are in good agreement with measurements on a 2212-BSCCO single crystal as a function of temperature and field, provided the effect of the interlayer capacitance is taken into account. The measurements are consistent with a flux pancake correlation length within the CuO-planes varying as xi sub 0 /(T/T sub 0 - 1) supnu, where xi sub 0 = 1.57 +- 0.08 mu m and nu = 0.50 +- 0.01. Our measurements imply a current-dependent interlayer resistance above and below T sub c.

  7. DAMPING MECHANISM OF THE STRONGLY RENORMALIZED C-AXIS PLASMA FREQUENCY IN HIGH-T-C CUPRATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMAREL, D; KIM, JH; SOMAL, HS; FEENSTRA, BJ; WITTLIN, A; DUIJN, AVHM; MENOVSKY, A; LEE, WY

    1994-01-01

    We study the charge dynamics of high-T-c superconductors with the electric field perpendicular to the planes, using polarized oblique-incidence reflectometry for thin films of Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu(3)O(10) and normal incidence reflectometry for single crystals of La1.85Sr0.15CuO4. In Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10 we

  8. Investigation on orientation, epitaxial growth and microstructure of a-axis-, c-axis-, (103)/(110)- and (113)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ films prepared on (001), (110) and (111) SrTiO3 single crystal substrates by spray atomizing and coprecipitating laser chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pei; Wang, Ying; Huang, Zhi liang; Mao, Yangwu; Xu, Yuan Lai

    2015-04-01

    a-axis-, c-axis-, (103)/(110)- and (113)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) films were pareared by spray atomizing and coprecipitating laser chemical vapor deposition. The surface of the a-axis-oriented YBCO film consisted of rectangular needle-like grains whose in-plane epitaxial growth relationship was YBCO [100] // STO [001] (YBCO [001] // STO [100]), and that of the c-axis-oriented YBCO film consisted of dense flat surface with epitaxial growth relationship of YBCO [001] // STO [001] (YBCO [100] //STO [100]). For the (103)/(110)-oriented and (113)-oriented YBCO film, they showed wedge-shaped and triangle-shaped grains, with corresponding in-plane epitaxial growth relationship of YBCO [110] // STO [110] (YBCO [010] // STO [010]) and YBCO [100] // STO [100] (YBCO [113] // STO [111], respectively.

  9. Enhanced c-axis orientation of aluminum nitride thin films by plasma-based pre-conditioning of sapphire substrates for SAW applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillinger, M.; Shaposhnikov, K.; Knobloch, T.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Artner, W.; Hradil, K.; Schneider, M.; Kaltenbacher, M.; Schmid, U.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) on sapphire has been investigated with two different pretreatments prior to sputter deposition of the AlN layer to improve the orientation and homogeneity of the thin film. An inverse sputter etching of the substrate in argon atmosphere results in an improvement of the uniformity of the alignment of the AlN grains and hence, in enhanced electro-mechanical AlN film properties. This effect is demonstrated in the raw measurements of SAW test devices. Additionally, the impulse response of several devices shows that a poor AlN thin film layer quality leads to a higher signal damping during the transduction of energy in the inter-digital transducers. As a result, the triple-transit signal cannot be detected at the receiver.

  10. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra-400076 (India); Thakur, Varun; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR) Bangalore- 560064 (India)

    2014-02-21

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close to a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a “dissipation less” transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls.

  11. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasker, H. P.; Dhar, S.; Thakur, Varun; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close to a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a “dissipation less” transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls

  12. Influence of substrate biasing on the growth of c-axis oriented AlN thin films by RF reactive sputtering in pure nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo-Lerma, L.; Naranjo, F.B.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica, Universidad de Alcala, Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Fernandez, S. [Departamento de Energias Renovables, Energia Solar Fotovoltaica, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    We report on the investigation of the influence of deposition conditions on structural, morphological and optical properties of AlN thin films deposited on sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by radio-frequency (RF) reactive sputtering. The deposition parameters studied are RF power, substrate temperature and substrate bias, while using pure nitrogen as reactive gas. The effect of such deposition parameters on AlN film properties are analyzed by different characterization methods as high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and linear optical transmission. AlN thin films with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve obtained for the (0002) diffraction peak of 1.2 are achieved under optimized conditions. The time resolved evolution of the self and externally-induced biasing of the substrate during deposition process is monitored and analyzed in terms of the rate of atomic species incorporation into the layer. The bias-induced change of the atomic incorporation leads to an enhancement in the structural quality of the layer and an increase of the deposition rate. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Tilted c-Axis Thin-Film Bulk Wave Resonant Pressure Sensors With Improved Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Anderås, Emil; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum nitride thin film bulk wave resonant pressure sensors employing c- and tilted c-axis texture, have been fabricated and tested for their pressure sensitivities. The c-axis tilted FBAR pressure sensors demonstrate substantially higher pressure sensitivity compared to its c-axis oriented counterpart. More specifically the thickness plate quasi-shear resonance has demonstrated the highest pressure sensitivity while further being able to preserve its performance in liquid environment.

  14. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature of the laser deposition process on LaAlO3 (100) substrates. The change in surface termination of the LaAlO3 substrate with temperature induces a change in AZO film orientation. The anisotropic nature of electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of the AZO films showed a favored thermoelectric performance in c-axis oriented films. These films gave the highest power factor of 0.26 W m−1 K−1 at 740 K.

  15. Enhancement of c-axis texture of AlN films by substrate implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.H.; Yeh, J.M.; Hwang, J.

    2005-01-01

    Highly oriented AlN films are successfully deposited on B + implanted Si(1 1 1) substrates in a radio frequency inductively coupled plasma (RF/ICP) system. The implanted energy and dose used for the B + implanted Si(1 1 1) substrates are 200 keV and 10 15 cm -2 , respectively. The c-axis texture of AlN films can be affected by RF gun power and ion implantation. Experimental results show that the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of AlN(0 0 2) in the X-ray rocking curve measurements decreases with increasing RF gun power. The optimum condition is at 500 W, where the FWHM of the AlN films deposited on Si(1 1 1) with and without B + implantation are 2.77 and 3.17, respectively. In average, the FWHM of the AlN films on B + implanted Si(1 1 1) are less than those on Si(1 1 1) by a factor of ∼10%. The enhancement of c-axis of AlN films due to B + implantation is attributed to the reduction of AlN grains. Raman spectra also suggest that ion implantation plays a role in reducing the tensile stress in AlN films deposited on B + implanted Si(1 1 1)

  16. Gaussian tunneling model of c-axis twist Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bille, A.; Klemm, R.A.; Scharnberg, K.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate the critical current density J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) for Josephson tunneling between identical high-temperature superconductors twisted an angle (var p hi) 0 about the c axis. Regardless of the shape of the two-dimensional Fermi surface and for very general tunneling matrix elements, an order parameter (OP) with general d-wave symmetry leads to J c J (π/4)=0. This general result is inconsistent with the data of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4160 (1999)] on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi2212), which showed J c J to be independent of (var p hi) 0 . If the momentum parallel to the barrier is conserved in the tunneling process, J c J should vary substantially with the twist angle (var p hi) 0 when the tight-binding Fermi surface appropriate for Bi2212 is taken into account, even if the OP is completely isotropic. We quantify the degree of momentum nonconservation necessary to render J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) constant within experimental error for a variety of pair states by interpolating between the coherent and incoherent limits using five specific models to describe the momentum dependence of the tunneling matrix element squared. From the data of Li et al., we conclude that the c-axis tunneling in Bi2212 must be very nearly incoherent, and that the OP must have a nonvanishing Fermi-surface average for T c . We further show that the apparent conventional sum-rule violation observed by Basov et al. [Science 283, 49 (1999)] can be consistent with such strongly incoherent c-axis tunneling.

  17. Characterization of reactively sputtered c-axis aligned nanocrystalline InGaZnO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, David M.; Zhu, Bin; Ast, Dieter G.; Thompson, Michael O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Levin, Barnaby D. A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Greene, Raymond G. [Corning Incorporated, Corning, New York 14831 (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Crystallinity and texturing of RF sputtered c-axis aligned crystal InGaZnO{sub 4} (CAAC IGZO) thin films were quantified using X-ray diffraction techniques. Above 190 °C, nanocrystalline films with an X-ray peak at 2θ = 30° (009 planes) developed with increasing c-axis normal texturing up to 310 °C. Under optimal conditions (310 °C, 10% O{sub 2}), films exhibited a c-axis texture full-width half-maximum of 20°. Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed these results, showing alignment variation of ±9° over a 15 × 15 nm field of view and indicating formation of much larger aligned domains than previously reported. At higher deposition temperatures, c-axis alignment was gradually lost as polycrystalline films developed.

  18. Electrical and optical properties of highly oriented nanocrystalline vanadium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, A.A.; Ibrahim, F.A.; El-Desoky, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Highly oriented nanocrystalline hydrated vanadium pentoxide, V 2 O 5 .nH 2 O, were grown epitaxially on a glass substrate along the c-axis to form a film of 200 nm thick. The films were prepared by dissolving V 2 O 5 powder in hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 , solution. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron micrograph and electron diffraction were used to identify the structure of the obtained nanocrystals. Homogenous nanocrystals of 7.0 ± 1.0 nm in size were obtained and were closed packed and are distributed evenly. Electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power were measured in the temperature range 300-480 K for the as prepared films parallel to the substrate surface; i.e. normal to the c-axis. The obtained results showed an n-type semiconducting behavior within the whole temperature range. It is also clear to see that a reversible abnormality at about 340 K is realized during the cooling electrical conductivity measurements. On the other hand, optical transmission and reflection were used to evaluate different optical parameters such as; optical band gap, nature of donor levels and different absorption bands parameters. Both the electrical and optical data are correlated and accordingly the conduction mechanism is verified. Electronic parameters such as effective mass, carriers' type and concentration and drift mobility were evaluated

  19. Transport currents along c-axis and (a,b) planes in YBCO single domain materials. Critical current densities and normal-superconducting transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porcar, L.; Bourgault, D.; Chaud, X.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.; Tixador, P.

    1998-01-01

    High transport currents along the (a,b) planes and along the c-axis have been measured in pulsed current of different pseudo-frequencies. Self field losses and transport current of 8000 A (20000 A cm -2 ) have been measured in Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ bars textured by the melting zone technique. Critical currents as high as 500 A (90000 A cm -2 ) along the (a,b) planes or 3000 A (7500 A cm -2 ) along the c-axis have been measured. For both orientations, the transition from the normal state to the superconducting state has been observed. Electric field of 1000 V m -1 and study of the superconducting state recovery are reported. (orig.)

  20. Spherulitic (c-axis) Growth for Terrestrial (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and Martian Hematite "blueberries"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Hematite concentrations observed by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor were considered a possible indicator for aqueous processes on Mars. Observations made by Opportunity show that the hematite at Meridiani Planum is present as spherules ( blueberries) and their fragments. The internal structure of the hematite spherules is not discernable at the resolution limit (approx.30 m/pixel) of Opportunity s Microscopic Imager (MI). A terrestrial analog for martian hematite spherules are spherules from hydrothermally altered and sulfate-rich tephra from the summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The objective of this study is to determine the crystal growth fabric of the Mauna Kea hematite spherules using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and to relate that crystalline fabric to the observed TES signature of Meridiani Planum "blueberries." TEM analysis of Mauna Kea spherules exhibited a radial growth pattern consisting of "fibrous" hematite with the c-axis of hematite particles aligned along the elongation direction of the hematite fibers. The individual fibers appear to be made of coalesced nano-particles of hematite arranged with their c-axis oriented radially to form a spherical structure. Lattice fringes suggest long-range order across particles and along fibers. According to interpretations of thermal emission spectra for Meridian Planum hematite, the absence of a band at approx. 390/cm implies a geometry where c-face emission dominates. Because the c-face is perpendicular to the c-axis, this is precisely the geometry for the Mauna Kea spherules because the c-axis is aligned parallel to their radial growth direction. Therefore, we conclude as a working hypothesis that the martian spherules also have radial, c-axis growth pattern on a scale that is too small to be detected by the MER MI. Furthermore, by analogy with the Mauna Kea spherules, the martian blueberries could have formed during hydrothermal alteration of

  1. c-axis ac susceptibility in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, O.; Lichtschlag, G.; Talalaevskii, A.; Kleiner, R.; Mueller, P.; Steinmeyer, F.; Gerhaeuser, W.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the angle and magnetic field dependence of the ac susceptibility in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystals at low external fields. The ac field was applied perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes. The first and third harmonics of the ac susceptibility exhibit remarkably sharp features when the dc field component perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes passes a threshold field H th . H th is strongly temperature dependent, but is independent of the parallel field component. We propose a simple model which excellently explains the data. Within this model the peak structures are related to the irreversibility line. We discuss the implications of the model for the interpretation of the ac susceptibility. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample prepared by a decomposition-crystallization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Zhengping; Zhou Lian; Ji Chunlin

    1992-01-01

    A decomposition-crystallization method, preparing highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample is reported. The effects of processing parameter, decomposition temperature, cooling rate and post-treatment condition on texture and superconductivity are investigated. The method has successfully prepared highly textured Bi-system bulk samples. High temperature annealing does not destroy the growing texture, but the cooling rate has some effect on texture and superconductivity. Annealing in N 2 /O 2 atmosphere can improve superconductivity of the textured sample. The study on the superconductivity of the Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O bulk material has been reported in numerous papers. The research on J c concentrates on the tape containing the 2223 phase, with very few studies on the J c of bulk sample. The reason for the lack of studies is that the change of superconducting phases at high temperatures has not been known. The authors have reported that the 2212 phase incongruently melted at about 875 degrees C and proceeded to orient the c-axis perpendicular to the surface in the process of crystallization of the 2212 phase. Based on that result, a decomposition-crystallization method was proposed to prepare highly oriented Bi-system bulk sample. In this paper, the process is described in detail and the effects of processing parameters on texture and superconductivity are reported

  3. Crystal orientation dependent thermoelectric properties of highly oriented aluminum-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.; Sarath Kumar, S. R.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the thermoelectric properties of highly oriented Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films can be improved by controlling their crystal orientation. The crystal orientation of the AZO films was changed by changing the temperature

  4. Irradiation effects on c-axis lattice parameter in EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} irradiated with energetic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Norito; Chimi, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Akihiro; Maeta, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Tsuru, Koji; Michikami, Osamu

    1997-03-01

    We report an irradiation effect on c-axis lattice parameter in EuBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} oxide superconductors when irradiated with ions of energy ranging from 0.85 to 200 MeV. For the irradiation with low energy (0.85-2 MeV) ions, the defect production and the resultant c-axis lattice expansion were dominated by elastic collisions. On the other hand, for the irradiation with high energy (120-200 MeV) ions, the change in the c-axis lattice parameter was found to be much greater than that expected from the elastic displacement of target atoms. For high energy ion irradiation we could observe the excessive increase of c-axis lattice parameter reflecting additional production of defects which can be attributed to the electronic excitation. The large increase in c-axis lattice parameter due to high energy ion irradiation should be taken into account for the study on the interaction between vortices and irradiation-induced defects. (author)

  5. Tunnel and thermal c-axis transport in BSCCO in the normal and pseudogap states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giura, M; Fastampa, R; Sarti, S; Pompeo, N; Silva, E

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of c-axis transport in double-layered cuprates, in particular with reference to Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ compounds. We exploit the effect of the two barriers on the thermal and tunnel transport. The resulting model is able to describe accurately the normal state c-axis resistivity in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ , from the underdoped side up to the strongly overdoped. We extend the model, without introducing additional parameters, in order to allow for the decrease of the barrier when an external voltage bias is applied. The extended model is found to describe properly the c-axis resistivity for small voltage bias above the pseudogap temperature T * , the c-axis resistivity for large voltage bias even below T c , and the differential dI/dV curves taken in mesa structures

  6. Highly oriented poly(di-n-alkylsilylene) films on oriented PTFE substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frey, H.H.; Frey, Holger; Sheiko, Sergej; Sheiko, S.; Moller, M.; Möller, Martin; Wittmann, Jean-Claude; Lot, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    Highly oriented polysilylene layers have potential applications in electrophotography, nonlinear optics, display fabrication, and microlithography. The preparation of such layers by crystallization on a highly oriented PTFE substrate is reported, and their assessment by optical birefringence,

  7. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  8. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  9. Theory of coherent c-axis Josephson tunneling between layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G. B.; Klemm, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    We calculate exactly the Josephson current for c-axis coherent tunneling between two layered superconductors, each with internal coherent tight-binding intra- and interlayer quasiparticle dispersions. Our results also apply when one or both of the superconductors is a bulk material, and include the usually neglected effects of surface states. For weak tunneling, our results reduce to our previous results derived using the tunneling Hamiltonian. Our results are also correct for strong tunneling. However, the c-axis tunneling expressions of Tanaka and Kashiwaya are shown to be incorrect in any limit. In addition, we consider the c-axis coherent critical current between two identical layered superconductors twisted an angle φ 0 about the c axis with respect to each other. Regardless of the order-parameter symmetry, our coherent tunneling results using a tight-binding intralayer quasiparticle dispersion are inconsistent with the recent c-axis twist bicrystal Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ twist junction experiments of Li et al. [Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4160 (1999)]. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Phase transition in cadmium sulfide single crystals shocked along the c axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Z.P.; Gupta, Y.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide crystals were shocked along the crystal c axis to peak stresses ranging between 18 and 75 kbar. Stress-time profiles were measured both at the impact surface and after transmission through 1 to 2-mm-thick samples. Detailed analysis of the present data in combination with published static results makes a persuasive case for the completion of the wurtzite to rocksalt phase change in less than 0.2 μs under shock loading. The main findings are: the transition stress is measured to be 32.5±1kbar; transformation to the final state is a two step process with the first step being too rapid (less than 10 ns) to be observed in our experiments and the second step occurring in 0.1 to 0.2 μs; the transition occurs directly from the elastic state prior to any plastic deformation. The calculated mean stress for the transition is 22.9 kbar in good agreement with the 23 kbar pressure reported in static high pressure studies; the presence of large shear stress has no effect on the transition pressure. Our results suggest that the onset of the phase transition results in plastic deformation and, subsequently, the phase transition and plasticity are coupled under shock loading. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. c-axis compression twinning in an off-stoichiometric compound Ti3Al with the D019 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishida, K.; Takahama, Y.; Inui, H.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of the c-axis compression twin in single crystals of a D0 19 compound Ti 3 Al with off-stoichiometric composition (Ti-36.5at.%Al) have been studied by trace analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Deformation twinning is operative only at high temperatures above 1000deg. C. All observed deformation twins are assigned to be of the type II and the twinning elements are determined as: K 1 :'{2-bar 121-bar 0-bar 3}', K 2 :{202-bar 1-bar }, η 1 : , η 2 :' ', s=0.346

  12. Significantly reduced c-axis thermal diffusivity of graphene-based papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Xie, Yangsu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Owing to their very high thermal conductivity as well as large surface-to-volume ratio, graphene-based films/papers have been proposed as promising candidates of lightweight thermal interface materials and lateral heat spreaders. In this work, we study the cross-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivity (k c ) and diffusivity (α c ) of two typical graphene-based papers, which are partially reduced graphene paper (PRGP) and graphene oxide paper (GOP), and compare their thermal properties with highly-reduced graphene paper and graphite. The determined α c of PRGP varies from (1.02 ± 0.09) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.31 ± 0.18) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12 K. This low α c is mainly attributed to the strong phonon scattering at the grain boundaries and defect centers due to the small grain sizes and high-level defects. For GOP, α c varies from (1.52 ± 0.05) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.28 ± 0.08) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12.5 K. The cross-plane thermal transport of GOP is attributed to the high density of functional groups between carbon layers which provide weak thermal transport tunnels across the layers in the absence of direct energy coupling among layers. This work sheds light on the understanding and optimizing of nanostructure of graphene-based paper-like materials for desired thermal performance.

  13. Structural and electrical properties of c-axis epitaxial and polycrystalline Sr sub 3 Bi sub 4 Ti sub 6 O sub 2 sub 1 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S T; Sun, H P; Pan Xiao Qing; Tan, W S; Liu, Z G; Ming, N B

    2003-01-01

    c-axis epitaxial and polycrystalline Sr sub 3 Bi sub 4 Ti sub 6 O sub 2 sub 1 (SBTi) thin films were fabricated on (001)SrTiO sub 3 (STO) single-crystal substrates and Pt/Ti sub 2 /SiO sub 2 /Si substrates respectively, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Structures of the films were systematically characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), including theta-2 theta-scans, rocking curve scans and phi-scans, atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The epitaxial orientation relation of the SBTi films on STO is established by selected-area electron diffraction and XRD phi-scans to be (001)SBTi || (001)STO, [11-bar 0]SBTi || [010]STO. Cross-sectional high-resolution TEM studies on the epitaxial SBTi film revealed that SBTi is a single-phase material. A special kind of irrational atomic shift along the [001] direction was observed and is discussed in detail. By using an evanescent microwave probe (EMP), the room-temperature dielectric constant of the epitaxial SBTi film was measured to be 21...

  14. Object-Oriented Programming in High Schools the Turing Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Richard C.

    This paper proposes an approach to introducing object-oriented concepts to high school computer science students using the Object-Oriented Turing (OOT) language. Students can learn about basic object-oriented (OO) principles such as classes and inheritance by using and expanding a collection of classes that draw pictures like circles and happy…

  15. Synthesis of highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes by secondary growth and their gas permeation properties

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yunyang; Zeng, Gaofeng; Pan, Yichang; Lai, Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    A seeded growth procedure was successfully developed to synthesize highly c-oriented and well-intergrown zeolitic imidazolate framework-69 (ZIF-69) membranes on porous α-alumina substrates. The synthesis conditions were optimized both for seed preparation and for secondary growth. For seeding, a facile method was developed to prepare smaller and flat ZIF-69 microcrystals in order to make thin and c-oriented seed layers. While for secondary growth, a synthesis condition that favored the growth along the c-direction was chosen in order to form highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes after growth. As a result, the majority of ZIF-69 grains inside the membrane have their straight channels along the crystallographic c-axis aligned perpendicularly to the substrate surface. Such alignment was confirmed by both XRD and pole figure analysis. The mixture-gas separation studies that were carried out at room temperature and 1atm gave separation factors of 6.3, 5.0, 4.6 for CO2/N2, CO2/CO and CO2/CH4 respectively, and a permeance of ∼1.0×10-7molm-2s-1Pa-1 for CO2 in almost all mixtures. Both the separation factor and permeance were better than the performance of the ZIF-69 membranes prepared by the in situ solvothermal method due to improvement in the membrane microstructure by the seeded growth method. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Synthesis of highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes by secondary growth and their gas permeation properties

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yunyang

    2011-09-01

    A seeded growth procedure was successfully developed to synthesize highly c-oriented and well-intergrown zeolitic imidazolate framework-69 (ZIF-69) membranes on porous α-alumina substrates. The synthesis conditions were optimized both for seed preparation and for secondary growth. For seeding, a facile method was developed to prepare smaller and flat ZIF-69 microcrystals in order to make thin and c-oriented seed layers. While for secondary growth, a synthesis condition that favored the growth along the c-direction was chosen in order to form highly c-oriented ZIF-69 membranes after growth. As a result, the majority of ZIF-69 grains inside the membrane have their straight channels along the crystallographic c-axis aligned perpendicularly to the substrate surface. Such alignment was confirmed by both XRD and pole figure analysis. The mixture-gas separation studies that were carried out at room temperature and 1atm gave separation factors of 6.3, 5.0, 4.6 for CO2/N2, CO2/CO and CO2/CH4 respectively, and a permeance of ∼1.0×10-7molm-2s-1Pa-1 for CO2 in almost all mixtures. Both the separation factor and permeance were better than the performance of the ZIF-69 membranes prepared by the in situ solvothermal method due to improvement in the membrane microstructure by the seeded growth method. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Theory of the c-axis penetration depth in the cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.J.; Kostur, V.N.; Levin, K.

    1996-01-01

    Recent measurements of the London penetration-depth tensor in the cuprates find a weak temperature dependence along the c direction that is seemingly inconsistent with evidence for d-wave pairing deduced from in-plane measurements. We demonstrate in this paper that these disparate results are not in contradiction, but can be explained within a theory based on incoherent quasiparticle hopping between the CuO 2 layers. By relating the calculated temperature dependence of the penetration depth λ c (T) to the c-axis resistivity, we show how the measured ratio λ 2 c (0)/λ 2 c (T) can provide insight into the behavior of c-axis transport below T c and the related issue of open-quote open-quote confinement.close-quote close-quote copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Impact of the AlN seeding layer thickness on GaN orientation on high index Si-substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Veit, Peter; Hempel, Thomas; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany). FNW/IEP/AHE

    2010-07-01

    Silicon is considered to be a reasonable alternative to substrates such as sapphire and SiC, because of its low price and availability in large diameters. Because of spontaneous and strain induced piezoelectric polarization field along the c-axis, leading to the separation of electrons and holes in quantum wells reducing the recombination efficiency, c-axis oriented GaN-based light emitters have a low efficiency, especially in the longer wavelength region. In order to reduce or eliminate these polarization effects, semi-polar or non-polar GaN-heterostructure is favored. In this work we investigated the growth of GaN applying a low temperature AlN seeding layer with various thicknesses. The impact of the AlN seeding layer on GaN orientation using different Si substrate orientations (e. g. (211), (711), (410), (100)+4.5 off) were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements in Bragg-Brentano geometry and X-ray pole figure measurements. We found that the thickness of the AlN seeding layer plays a significant role in obtaining different GaN textures. Applying a about 4 nm AlN seeding layer we achieved a single crystalline GaN epilayer on Si (211) with a 18 tilted c-axis orientation. Some of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy.

  19. High Performance Object-Oriented Scientific Programming in Fortran 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Charles D.; Decyk, Viktor K.; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.

    1997-01-01

    We illustrate how Fortran 90 supports object-oriented concepts by example of plasma particle computations on the IBM SP. Our experience shows that Fortran 90 and object-oriented methodology give high performance while providing a bridge from Fortran 77 legacy codes to modern programming principles. All of our object-oriented Fortran 90 codes execute more quickly thatn the equeivalent C++ versions, yet the abstraction modelling capabilities used for scentific programming are comparably powereful.

  20. Curriculum Orientations and Educational Philosophies of High School Arabic Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalem, Abeer Saleh

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the curriculum orientations of High school Arabic teacher in Riyadh city and to examine the relationship between curriculum orientation and their educational philosophies. The quantitative method (descriptive study) was adopted in this questionnaire survey-based study. Mean and standard deviation for the overall of…

  1. Huge magnetoresistance effect of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Youwei; Wang Zhiming; Ni Gang; Xing Dingyu; Xu Qingyu

    2004-01-01

    Graphite is a quasi-two-dimensional semimetal. However, for usual graphite the magnetoresistance is not so high due to its small crystal size and no preferred orientation. Huge positive magnetoresistance up to 85300% at 4.2 K and 4950% at 300 K under 8.15 T magnetic field was found in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The mechanism of huge positive magnetoresistance is not only due to ordinary magnetoresistance but also due to magnetic-field-driven semimetal-insulator transition

  2. Effect on C-axis transport properties of a critical state in Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J.H.; Maley, M.P.; Bulaevskii, L.N.

    1995-12-31

    At low temperatures, the c-axis transport properties of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals depend strongly on the magnetic field history for fields applied along the c-axis, indicating the effect of a critical state in the ab direction. In this study, the authors report zero field cooled (ZFC), field cooled warming (FCW), and field cooled cooling (FCC) c-axis transport properties. In addition, they also report magnetic relaxation measurements on the same samples to identify the c-axis dissipation mechanism. They observe a relaxation of the c-axis resistivity that follows the relaxation of the flux profile across the ab plane. By identifying the irreversible temperature vs. magnetic field for H // c, they construct a phase diagram of vortex states. Finally, they will discuss the implication of the phase diagram and the features related to the transport properties of the Josephson-coupled system and the role of pancake vortices in highly two-dimensional superconductors.

  3. Orientation estimation algorithm applied to high-spin projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D F; Lin, J; Zhang, X M; Li, J

    2014-01-01

    High-spin projectiles are low cost military weapons. Accurate orientation information is critical to the performance of the high-spin projectiles control system. However, orientation estimators have not been well translated from flight vehicles since they are too expensive, lack launch robustness, do not fit within the allotted space, or are too application specific. This paper presents an orientation estimation algorithm specific for these projectiles. The orientation estimator uses an integrated filter to combine feedback from a three-axis magnetometer, two single-axis gyros and a GPS receiver. As a new feature of this algorithm, the magnetometer feedback estimates roll angular rate of projectile. The algorithm also incorporates online sensor error parameter estimation performed simultaneously with the projectile attitude estimation. The second part of the paper deals with the verification of the proposed orientation algorithm through numerical simulation and experimental tests. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the orientation estimator can effectively estimate the attitude of high-spin projectiles. Moreover, online sensor calibration significantly enhances the estimation performance of the algorithm. (paper)

  4. Orientation estimation algorithm applied to high-spin projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D. F.; Lin, J.; Zhang, X. M.; Li, J.

    2014-06-01

    High-spin projectiles are low cost military weapons. Accurate orientation information is critical to the performance of the high-spin projectiles control system. However, orientation estimators have not been well translated from flight vehicles since they are too expensive, lack launch robustness, do not fit within the allotted space, or are too application specific. This paper presents an orientation estimation algorithm specific for these projectiles. The orientation estimator uses an integrated filter to combine feedback from a three-axis magnetometer, two single-axis gyros and a GPS receiver. As a new feature of this algorithm, the magnetometer feedback estimates roll angular rate of projectile. The algorithm also incorporates online sensor error parameter estimation performed simultaneously with the projectile attitude estimation. The second part of the paper deals with the verification of the proposed orientation algorithm through numerical simulation and experimental tests. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the orientation estimator can effectively estimate the attitude of high-spin projectiles. Moreover, online sensor calibration significantly enhances the estimation performance of the algorithm.

  5. A new technique for quantifying symmetry and opening angles in quartz c-axis pole figures: Implications for interpreting the kinematic and thermal properties of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, N. J. R.; Weinberg, R. F.; Wilson, C. J. L.; Law, R. D.

    2018-07-01

    Variations in flow kinematics influence the type of crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) in plastically deformed quartz, yet we currently lack a robust means of quantifying the diagnostic symmetries that develop in the c-axis (0001) pole figure. In this contribution, we demonstrate how the symmetry of common c-axis topologies may be quantified by analysing the intensity distribution across a line transect of the pole figure margin. A symmetry value (S) measures the relative difference in intensities between marginal girdle maxima in the pole figure, and thus the degree to which the pole figure defines orthorhombic or monoclinic end member symmetries. This provides a semi-quantitative depiction of whether the rocks underwent coaxial or non-coaxial flow, respectively, and may subsequently be used to quantify other topological properties, such as the opening angle of girdle maxima. The open source Matlab® toolbox MTEX is used to quantify pole figure symmetries in quartzite samples from the Main Central Thrust (NW Himalaya) and the Moine Thrust (NW Scotland).

  6. Development and characterization of highly oriented PAN nanofiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadrjahani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple and non-conventional electrospinning technique was employed for producing highly oriented Polyacrylonitrile (PAN nanofibers. The PAN nanofibers were electrospun from 14 wt% solution of PAN in dimethylformamid (DMF at 11 kv on a rotating drum with various linear speeds from 22.5 m/min to 67.7 m/min. The influence of take up velocity was investigated on the degree of alignment, internal structure and mechanical properties of collected PAN nanofibers. Using an image processing technique, the best degree of alignment was obtained for those nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy was used for measuring molecular orientation of PAN nanofibers. Similarly, a maximum chain orientation parameter of 0.25 was determined for nanofibers collected at a take up velocity of 59.5 m/min.

  7. c-Axis projected electron-positron momentum density in YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansil, A.; Smedskjaer, L.C.

    1990-11-01

    The authors present the theoretical c-axis projected electron-positron momentum density N 2γ (P x ,p y ) in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 based on the local density approximation (LDA) framework along various lines in momentum space. The calculations use the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) band structure formalism. The anisotropic distribution defined by taking cuts through the calculated spectra along different lines in the (p x ,p y ) plane possesses complex structures which arise from both Fermi surface effects and the anisotropy of the smoothly varying underlying background from filled bands; the maximum size of the anisotropy is about 10% of N 2γ (0,0). The theoretically predicted N 2γ (p x , y ) distribution is compared with the measured 2D-ACAR spectrum. The considerations suggest that in interpreting the 2D-ACAR data on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 in terms of a band theory LDA picture, a substantial, largely isotropic, background should be subtracted from both the 2D-ACAR's and the associated LCW-folded spectra

  8. Growth and Analysis of Highly Oriented (11n) BCSCO Films for Device Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, K. K.; Pandey, R. K.

    1995-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi2CaSr2Cu2O(x), have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 C) of Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (greater than 860 C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8 phase films on (001) NdGaO3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO3 substrate orientation. The best values, zero resistance (T(sab co)) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10(exp 5) A/sq cm respectively.

  9. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 O x have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO 3 substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880 degrees C) of Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 O 8 . Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860 degrees C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO 3 have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi 2 CaSr 2 Cu 2 O 8 phase films on (001) NdGaO 3 substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO 3 substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T co ) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10 5 A/cm 2 , respectively

  10. c-Axis correlated extended defects and critical current in YBa2Cu3Ox films grown on Au and Ag-nano dot decorated substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheenko, P.; Sarkar, A.; Dang, V.-S.; Tanner, J.L.; Abell, J.S.; Crisan, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report measurements of critical current in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films deposited on SrTiO 3 substrates decorated with silver and gold nanodots. An increase in critical current in these films, in comparison with the films deposited on non-decorated substrates, has been achieved. We argue that this increase comes from the c-axis correlated extended defects formed in the films and originated from the nanodots. Additionally to creating extended defects, the nanodots pin them and prevent their exit from the sample during the film growth, thus keeping a high density of defects and providing a lower rate of decrease of the critical current with the thickness of the films. The best pinning is achieved in the samples with silver nanodots by optimising their deposition temperature. The nanodots grown at a temperature of a few hundred deg. C have a small diameter of a few nanometres and a high surface density of 10 11 -10 12 particles/cm 2 . We give evidence of c-axis correlated extended defects in YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films by planar and cross-sectional atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and angle-dependent transport measurements of critical current.

  11. Attitudes and value orientations of high school students in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of attitudes and value orientations of high school students comes as the result of research based on data collected during April-June 2011 in six towns in Serbia. The main objective of this research was to detect the dominant attitudes and value orientations of high school students on a scale of traditionalism, homophobia, anti-Romism, ethnic stereotypes and attitudes toward abortion. The research was conducted in the following cities: Belgrade, Krusevac, Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Nis and Novi Pazar. The results showed that high school students in Serbia in regards to their beliefs do not differ much from the general social climate in which they grew up and were educated in. Traditional respondents are represented at the level of 33.9%; 27.9% of them are moderately traditional and 25% of them are non-traditional. On the one side there are extremely radical position of high school students especially in relation to Roma and LGBT people. On the other side, certain number of respondents howed high affinity and positive individual interprets of the lifestyles of those groups (such as the rights of marriage for homosexual population. Attitudes towards women's rights are also bipolar - high school students have a patriarchal attitude towards marriage, family and abortion, but they show sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. The obtained data should be interpreted in accordance with the changes in Serbian society - economic crisis, privatization, increase of violence in society and family, redefining of gender roles, etc.

  12. Holistic face representation is highly orientation-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Gideon; Levakov, Gidon; Avidan, Galia

    2017-09-29

    It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic processing (HP), relative to that required for nonface object recognition. Nevertheless, whether the holistic nature of face perception is achieved via a unique internal representation or by the employment of an automated attention mechanism is still debated. Previous studies had used the face inversion effect (FIE), a unique face-processing marker, or the face composite task, a gold standard paradigm measuring holistic processing, to examine the validity of these two different hypotheses, with some studies combining the two paradigms. However, the results of such studies remain inconclusive, particularly pertaining to the issue of the two proposed HP mechanisms-an internal representation as opposed to an automated attention mechanism. Here, using the complete composite paradigm design, we aimed to examine whether face rotation yields a nonlinear or a linear drop in HP, thus supporting an account that face processing is based either on an orientation-dependent internal representation or on automated attention. Our results reveal that even a relatively small perturbation in face orientation (30 deg away from upright) already causes a sharp decline in HP. These findings support the face internal representation hypothesis and the notion that the holistic processing of faces is highly orientation-specific.

  13. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  14. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, M M; Roldan, M A; Yamashita, Y; Sahonta, S-L; Ajia, I A; Iizuka, K; Kuramata, A; Humphreys, C J; Roqan, I S

    2016-07-14

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1-xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 10(7) cm(-2)) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1-xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1-xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  15. High-quality III-nitride films on conductive, transparent (2̅01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 using a GaN buffer layer

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila; Roldan, M. A.; Yamashita, Y.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Ajia, Idris A.; Iizuka, K.; Kuramata, A.; Humphreys, C. J.; Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the high structural and optical properties of InxGa1−xN epilayers (0 ≤ x ≤ 23) grown on conductive and transparent (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrates using a low-temperature GaN buffer layer rather than AlN buffer layer, which enhances the quality and stability of the crystals compared to those grown on (100)-oriented β-Ga2O3. Raman maps show that the 2″ wafer is relaxed and uniform. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals that the dislocation density reduces considerably (~4.8 × 107 cm−2) at the grain centers. High-resolution TEM analysis demonstrates that most dislocations emerge at an angle with respect to the c-axis, whereas dislocations of the opposite phase form a loop and annihilate each other. The dislocation behavior is due to irregular (01) β-Ga2O3 surface at the interface and distorted buffer layer, followed by relaxed GaN epilayer. Photoluminescence results confirm high optical quality and time-resolved spectroscopy shows that the recombination is governed by bound excitons. We find that a low root-mean-square average (≤1.5 nm) of InxGa1−xN epilayers can be achieved with high optical quality of InxGa1−xN epilayers. We reveal that (01)-oriented β-Ga2O3 substrate has a strong potential for use in large-scale high-quality vertical light emitting device design.

  16. Design of highly oriented (HOR) media for extremely high density recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee, C.H.; Wang, J.P.; Chong, T.C.; Low, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic properties and recording performance of highly oriented (HOR) longitudinal media are systematically studied via micromagnetic simulation. It was found that highly oriented longitudinal media could be achieved by controlling the anisotropy axes distribution. The effect of anisotropy constant, saturated magnetization and exchange coupling constants on the hysteresis loops are presented. It was further found that highly oriented media show an ultra-low transition noise. Another interesting observation made was that increasing M s for the HOR media decreases the coercivity, which suggests practical usage of this media with current head field. A 500 Gbit/in 2 recording media is simulated to support the application of the highly oriented longitudinal media for ultra high density recording

  17. Tuning of deep level emission in highly oriented electrodeposited ZnO nanorods by post growth annealing treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simimol, A.; Manikandanath, N. T.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anappara, Aji A.

    2014-01-01

    Highly dense and c-axis oriented zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods with hexagonal wurtzite facets were deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates by a simple and cost-effective electrodeposition method at low bath temperature (80 °C). The as-grown samples were then annealed at various temperatures (T A  = 100–500 °C) in different environments (e.g., zinc, oxygen, air, and vacuum) to understand their photoluminescence (PL) behavior in the ultra-violet (UV) and the visible regions. The PL results revealed that the as-deposited ZnO nanorods consisted of oxygen vacancy (V O ), zinc interstitial (Zn i ), and oxygen interstitial (O i ) defects and these can be reduced significantly by annealing in different environments at optimal annealing temperatures. However, the intensity of deep level emission increased for T A greater than the optimized values for the respective environments due to the introduction of various defect centers. For example, for T A  ≥ 450 °C in the oxygen and air environments, the density of O i defects increased, whereas, the green emission associated with V O is dominant in the vacuum annealed (T A  = 500 °C) ZnO nanorods. The UV peak red shifted after the post-growth annealing treatments in all the environments and the vacuum annealed sample exhibited highest UV peak intensity. The observations from the PL data are supported by the micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present study gives new insight into the origin of different defects that exist in the electrodeposited ZnO nanorods and how these defects can be precisely controlled in order to get the desired emissions for the opto-electronic applications

  18. Microstructural and electronic properties of highly oriented Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O7 films on LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kountz, D.J.; Gai, P.L.; Wilker, C.; Holstein, W.L.; Pellicone, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    Epitaxial T1 0.5 Pb 0.5 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 7 films produced by rf magnetron sputtering followed by annealing in the presence of thallium oxide vapor have been produced on (100) LaAl0 3 substrates. These films are highly c-axis oriented with rocking curve full width at half maximum less than 0.4 degrees. The resulting two copper oxide layer films exhibit microwave surface resistance at 10 GHz of 60 ± 3 μΩ at 4.2 K and 498 ± 10 μΩ at 70 K (T c =88 ± 2 K). The degree of lattice mismatch between this phase and the LaAl0 3 substrate is very small resulting in epitaxial thin films. This material exhibits very little intrinsic defect structure

  19. Enhancement of L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate in FePt alloy film by using an epitaxial cap-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Ohtake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available FePt alloy thin films with cap-layers of MgO or C are prepared on MgO(001 single-crystal substrates by using a two-step method consisting of low-temperature deposition at 200 °C followed by high-temperature annealing at 600 °C. The FePt film thickness is fixed at 10 nm, whereas the cap-layer thickness is varied from 1 to 10 nm. The influences of cap-layer material and cap-layer thickness on the variant structure and the L10 ordering are investigated. Single-crystal FePt(001 films with disordered fcc structure (A1 grow epitaxially on the substrates at 200 °C. Single-crystal MgO(001 cap-layers grow epitaxially on the FePt films, whereas the structure of C cap-layers is amorphous. The phase transformation from A1 to L10 occurs when the films are annealed at 600 °C. The FePt films with MgO cap-layers thicker than 2 nm consist of L10(001 variant with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas those with C cap-layers involve small volumes of L10(100 and (010 variants with the c-axis lying in the film plane. The in-plane and the out-of-plane lattices are respectively more expanded and contracted in the continuous-lattice MgO/FePt/MgO structure due to accommodations of misfits of FePt film with respect to not only the MgO substrate but also the MgO cap-layer. The lattice deformation promotes phase transformation along the perpendicular direction and L10 ordering. The FePt films consisting of only L10(001 variant show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropies and low in-plane coercivities. The present study shows that an introduction of epitaxial cap-layer is effective in controlling the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  20. Thermally activated dissipation and critical field Hc2 in c-oriented high-Tc Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.H.; Cui, C.G.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Li, S.L.; Li, J.; Li, L.

    1991-01-01

    A set of resistivity-temperature (R-T) curves measured under various applied fields in a high-T c Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin film which has a zero-resistance temperature T c0 of 110 K is reported. The remarkable broadening of the transition width is discussed under the flux-creep model, considering the very short coherence length of this oxide superconductor. The resistivity is thermally activated, which is consistent with the Arrhenius law with a magnetic field and orientation-dependent activation energy U 0 (H,Θ). The U 0 (H,Θ) has a very high value of 381.6 meV under a field of 0.1 T parallel to the c axis. The upper critical field H c2 determined from these R-T curves shows high values and the effect of flux creep to the H c2 (0) is examined by the irreversible behavior with the ''giant'' flux-creep model

  1. Growth and analysis of highly oriented (11n) BCSCO films for device research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, K.K.; Pandey, R.K. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Films of BCSCO superconductor of the type Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub x} have been grown by liquid phase epitaxy method (LPE), using a partially closed growth chamber. The films were grown on (001) and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrates by slow cooling process in an optimized temperature range below the peritectic melting point (880{degrees}C) of Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Optimization of parameters, such as seed rotation, soak of initial growth temperature and growth period results in the formation of 2122 phase BCSCO films. The films grown at rotation rates of less than 30 and more than 70 rpm are observed to be associated with the second phase of Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Higher growth temperatures (>860{degrees}C) also encourage to the formation of this phase. XRD measurements show that the films grown on (110) NdGaO{sub 3} have a preferred (11n)-orientation. It is pertinent to mention here that in our earlier results published elsewhere we obtained c-axis oriented Bi{sub 2}CaSr{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8} phase films on (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate. Critical current density is found to be higher for the films grown on (110) than (001) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate orientation. The best values of zero resistance (T{sub co}) and critical current density obtained are 87 K and 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}, respectively.

  2. Influence of the spatially inhomogeneous gap distribution on the quasiparticle current in c-axis junctions involving d-wave superconductors with charge density waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekino, T; Gabovich, A M; Suan Li, Mai; Szymczak, H; Voitenko, A I

    2016-11-09

    The quasiparticle tunnel current J(V) between the superconducting ab-planes along the c-axis and the corresponding conductance [Formula: see text] were calculated for symmetric junctions composed of disordered d-wave layered superconductors partially gapped by charge density waves (CDWs). Here, V is the voltage. Both the checkerboard and unidirectional CDWs were considered. It was shown that the spatial spread of the CDW-pairing strength substantially smears the peculiarities of G(V) appropriate to uniform superconductors. The resulting curves G(V) become very similar to those observed for a number of cuprates in intrinsic junctions, e.g. mesas. In particular, the influence of CDWs may explain the peak-dip-hump structures frequently found for high-T c oxides.

  3. Growth and coalescence control of inclined c-axis polar and semipolar GaN multilayer structures grown on Si(111), Si(112), and Si(115) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl; Wośko, Mateusz; Paszkiewicz, Bartłomiej; Paszkiewicz, Bogdan; Paszkiewicz, Regina [The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Sankowska, Iwona [The Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    Herein, silicon substrates in alternative orientations from the commonly used Si(111) were used to enable the growth of polar and semipolar GaN-based structures by the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy method. Specifically, Si(112) and Si(115) substrates were used for the epitaxial growth of nitride multilayer structures, while the same layer schemes were also deposited on Si(111) for comparison purposes. Multiple approaches were studied to examine the influence of the seed layers and the growth process conditions upon the final properties of the GaN/Si(11x) templates. Scanning electron microscope images were acquired to examine the topography of the deposited samples. It was observed that the substrate orientation and the process conditions allow control to produce an isolated GaN block growth or a coalesced layer growth, resulting in inclined c-axis GaN structures under various forms. The angles of the GaN c-axis inclination were determined by x-ray diffraction measurements and compared with the results obtained from the analysis of the atomic force microscope (AFM) images. The AFM image analysis method to determine the structure tilt was found to be a viable method to estimate the c-axis inclination angles of the isolated blocks and the not-fully coalesced layers. The quality of the grown samples was characterized by the photoluminescence method conducted at a wide range of temperatures from 77 to 297 K, and was correlated with the sample degree of coalescence. Using the free-excitation peak positions plotted as a function of temperature, analytical Bose-Einstein model parameters were fitted to obtain further information about the grown structures.

  4. High pressure dielectric studies on the structural and orientational glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminska, E; Tarnacka, M; Jurkiewicz, K; Kaminski, K; Paluch, M

    2016-02-07

    High pressure dielectric studies on the H-bonded liquid D-glucose and Orientationally Disordered Crystal (ODIC) 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose (levoglucosan) were carried out. It was shown that in both compounds, the structural relaxation is weakly sensitive to compression. It is well reflected in the low pressure coefficient of the glass transition and orientational glass transition temperatures which is equal to 60 K/GPa for both D-glucose and 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose. Although it should be noted that ∂Tg(0)/∂p evaluated for the latter compound seems to be enormously high with respect to other systems forming ODIC phase. We also found that the shape of the α-loss peak stays constant for the given relaxation time independently on the thermodynamic condition. Consequently, the Time Temperature Pressure (TTP) rule is satisfied. This experimental finding seems to be quite intriguing since the TTP rule was shown to work well in the van der Waals liquids, while in the strongly associating compounds, it is very often violated. We have also demonstrated that the sensitivity of the structural relaxation process to the temperature change measured by the steepness index (mp) drops with pressure. Interestingly, this change is much more significant in the case of D-glucose with respect to levoglucosan, where the fragility changes only slightly with compression. Finally, kinetics of ODIC-crystal phase transition was studied at high compression. It is worth mentioning that in the recent paper, Tombari and Johari [J. Chem. Phys. 142, 104501 (2015)] have shown that ODIC phase in 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose is stable in the wide range of temperatures and there is no tendency to form more ordered phase at ambient pressure. On the other hand, our isochronal measurements performed at varying thermodynamic conditions indicated unquestionably that the application of pressure favors solid (ODIC)-solid (crystal) transition in 1,6-anhydro-D-glucose. This result mimics the impact of pressure on the

  5. Crossover of the preferred growth orientation of AlN/Si(001) films during off-axis radio frequency sputter growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, H.W.; Kang, H.C.; Noh, D.Y.; Yi, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    We found that the crystallographic orientation of AlN/Si(001) thin films crosses over from the substrate normal towards the direction of incident flux during off-axis radio frequency magnetron sputter growth. At high growth temperatures, the crystalline c-axis orientation is maintained along the substrate normal direction initially, but jumps discontinuously towards the direction of incident flux. In contrast, at low growth temperatures, the c-axis direction shifts continuously towards the incident flux direction and saturates in the middle agreeing with the tangential rule of oblique deposition, i.e., tan β=1/2 tan α, where α and β denote the angles of incident flux and column incline, respectively. Selected area transmission electron diffraction patterns are consistent with the crossover measured by in situ x-ray scattering experiments

  6. c -Axis Dimer and Its Electronic Breakup: The Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Ti2 O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. F.; Koethe, T. C.; Hu, Z.; Weinen, J.; Agrestini, S.; Zhao, L.; Gegner, J.; Ott, H.; Panaccione, G.; Wu, Hua; Haverkort, M. W.; Roth, H.; Komarek, A. C.; Offi, F.; Monaco, G.; Liao, Y.-F.; Tsuei, K.-D.; Lin, H.-J.; Chen, C. T.; Tanaka, A.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2018-04-01

    We report on our investigation of the electronic structure of Ti2 O3 using (hard) x-ray photoelectron and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy. From the distinct satellite structures in the spectra, we have been able to establish unambiguously that the Ti-Ti c -axis dimer in the corundum crystal structure is electronically present and forms an a1 ga1 g molecular singlet in the low-temperature insulating phase. Upon heating, we observe a considerable spectral weight transfer to lower energies with orbital reconstruction. The insulator-metal transition may be viewed as a transition from a solid of isolated Ti-Ti molecules into a solid of electronically partially broken dimers, where the Ti ions acquire additional hopping in the a -b plane via the egπ channel, the opening of which requires consideration of the multiplet structure of the on-site Coulomb interaction.

  7. Hybrid orientation technology and strain engineering for ultra-high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report here RF MOSFET performance in sub-45-nm hybrid orientation CMOS technology. Based ... can provide a greater benefit for hole mobility (Yang et al. 2003). ... types of structures; type-I with p-FET on the (110) SOI and.

  8. Sputtered highly oriented PZT thin films for MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpat, Sriram S.

    Recently there has been an explosion of interest in the field of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). MEMS device technology has become critical in the growth of various fields like medical, automotive, chemical, and space technology. Among the many applications of ferroelectric thin films in MEMS devices, microfluidics is a field that has drawn considerable amount of research from bio-technology industries as well as chemical and semiconductor manufacturing industries. PZT thin films have been identified as best suited materials for micro-actuators and micro-sensors used in MEMS devices. A promising application for piezoelectric thin film based MEMS devices is disposable drug delivery systems that are capable of sensing biological parameters, mixing and delivering minute and precise amounts of drugs using micro-pumps or micro mixers. These devices call for low driving voltages, so that they can be battery operated. Improving the performance of the actuator material is critical in achieving battery operated disposal drug delivery systems. The device geometry and power consumption in MEMS devices largely depends upon the piezoelectric constant of the films, since they are most commonly used to convert electrical energy into a mechanical response of a membrane or cantilever and vice versa. Phenomenological calculation on the crystal orientation dependence of piezoelectric coefficients for PZT single crystal have reported a significant enhancement of the piezoelectric d33 constant by more than 3 times along [001] in the rhombohedral phase as compared to the conventionally used orientation PZT(111) since [111] is the along the spontaneous polarization direction. This could mean considerable improvement in the MEMS device performance and help drive the operating voltages lower. The motivation of this study is to investigate the crystal orientation dependence of both dielectric and piezoelectric coefficients of PZT thin films in order to select the appropriate

  9. Synergistic reinforcement of highly oriented poly(propylene) tapes by sepiolite nanoclay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilotti, E.; Deng, H.; Zhang, R.; Lu, D.; Bras, W.; Fischer, H.R.; Peijs, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of highly oriented nanocomposite tapes based on isotactic PP and needle-like sepiolite nanoclay, obtained by a solid state drawing process. The intrinsic 1D character of sepiolite allows its exploitation in 1D objects, such as oriented polymer fibres and tapes,

  10. Mental Health Issues Related to Sexual Orientation in a High School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan G.

    2017-01-01

    High school students are maturing physically, psychosocially, and sexually. Some may be unsure of their sexual orientation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether students who self-identified as homosexual-lesbian/gay, bisexual (LGB), and unsure of sexual orientation had more stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, bullying…

  11. Academic Identity Status, Goal Orientation, and Academic Achievement among High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…

  12. Highly Oriented Graphene Sponge Electrode for Ultra High Energy Density Lithium Ion Hybrid Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Wook; Lee, Dong Un; Li, Ge; Feng, Kun; Wang, Xiaolei; Yu, Aiping; Lui, Gregory; Chen, Zhongwei

    2016-09-28

    Highly oriented rGO sponge (HOG) can be easily synthesized as an effective anode for application in high-capacity lithium ion hybrid capacitors. X-ray diffraction and morphological analyses show that successfully exfoliated rGO sponge on average consists of 4.2 graphene sheets, maintaining its three-dimensional structure with highly oriented morphology even after the thermal reduction procedure. Lithium-ion hybrid capacitors (LIC) are fabricated in this study based on a unique cell configuration which completely eliminates the predoping process of lithium ions. The full-cell LIC consisting of AC/HOG-Li configuration has resulted in remarkably high energy densities of 231.7 and 131.9 Wh kg(-1) obtained at 57 W kg(-1) and 2.8 kW kg(-1). This excellent performance is attributed to the lithium ion diffusivity related to the intercalation reaction of AC/HOG-Li which is 3.6 times higher that of AC/CG-Li. This unique cell design and configuration of LIC presented in this study using HOG as an effective anode is an unprecedented example of performance enhancement and improved energy density of LIC through successful increase in cell operation voltage window.

  13. Orientation and deformation of mineral crystals in tooth surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Kazuhiro; Todoh, Masahiro; Niida, Atsushi; Shibuya, Ryota; Kitami, Shunsuke; Tadano, Shigeru

    2012-06-01

    Tooth enamel is the hardest material in the human body, and it is mainly composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp)-like mineral particles. As HAp has a hexagonal crystal structure, X-ray diffraction methods can be used to analyze the crystal structure of HAp in teeth. Here, the X-ray diffraction method was applied to the surface of tooth enamel to measure the orientation and strain of the HAp crystals. The c-axis of the hexagonal crystal structure of HAp was oriented to the surface perpendicular to the tooth enamel covering the tooth surface. Thus, the strain of HAp at the surface of teeth was measured by X-ray diffraction from the (004) lattice planes aligned along the c-axis. The X-ray strain measurements were conducted on tooth specimens with intact surfaces under loading. Highly accurate strain measurements of the surface of tooth specimens were performed by precise positioning of the X-ray irradiation area during loading. The strains of the (004) lattice plane were measured at several positions on the surface of the specimens under compression along the tooth axis. The strains were obtained as tensile strains at the labial side of incisor tooth specimens. In posterior teeth, the strains were different at different measurement positions, varying from tensile to compressive types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of object-oriented software technique in field of high energy and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yanlin; Ying Jun; Chen Tao

    1997-01-01

    The background for developing object-oriented software technique in high energy and nuclear physics has been introduced. The progress made at CERN and US has been outlined. The merit and future of various software techniques have been commented

  15. Retail offer advantage through brand orientation in Luxury, high fashion stores

    OpenAIRE

    Grujic, Maja

    2007-01-01

    This thesis provides a conceptualisation of brand orientation within the context of fashion retailing, specially the luxury, or, so-called, high fashion retailing. Most of the high fashion sold today is ready to wear collections and diffusion lines, targeted to customers of particular class, age, income, social status, and with particular orientations to fashion. In plethora of offers, retailer need to work on a number of distinctive features that will make its store special, not only because...

  16. Preparation of highly oriented Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films by sol-gel method and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highly oriented thin films of Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO (Cu/Al:ZnO) thin films were successfully deposited by sol–gel spin coating on glass substrates. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and found to exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. SEM images revealed that hexagonal rod shaped morphologies were grown perpendicular to the substrate surface due to repeated deposition process. High transmittance values were observed for pure ZnO compared to Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. The band gap widening is caused by the increase of carrier concentration, which is believed to be due to Burstein-Moss effect due to Al and Cu doping. PL spectra of Cu/Al:ZnO thin films indicate that the UV emission peaks slightly shifted towards lower energy side. XPS study was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O thin films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. Magnetic measurement studies exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which may be due to the increase in copper concentration in the doped films. The ferromagnetic behavior can be understood from the exchange coupling between localized ‘d’ spin of Cu ion mediated by free delocalized carriers. - Highlights: • High quality of Al:ZnO and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol–gel method. • The XRD analyses revealed that the deposited thin films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • XPS was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. • SEM studies were made for Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. • RTFM was observed in Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films.

  17. High-quality AlN films grown on chemical vapor-deposited graphene films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Bin-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of high-quality AlN films on graphene. The graphene films were synthesized by CVD and then transferred onto silicon substrates. Epitaxial aluminum nitride films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on both graphene as an intermediate layer and silicon as a substrate. The structural characteristics of the AlN films and graphene were investigated. Highly c-axis-oriented AlN crystal structures are investigated based on the XRDpatterns observations.

  18. Highly -oriented growth of polycrystalline silicon films on glass by pulsed magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinig, P.; Selle, B.; Fenske, F.; Fuhs, W.; Alex, V.; Birkholz, M.

    2002-01-01

    Nominally undoped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin films were deposited on glass at 450 deg. C at high deposition rate (>100 nm/min) by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The pulse frequency was found to have a significant influence on the preferred grain orientation. The x-ray diffraction pattern exhibits a strong enhancement of the (400) reflex with increasing pulse frequency. The quantitative evaluation reveals that over 90% of the grains are oriented. The observed change in preferred grain orientation in poly-Si films at low temperatures is associated with concurrent ion bombardment of the growing film

  19. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  20. Highly oriented as-deposited superconducting laser ablated thin films of Y1Ba2Cu3O/sub 7-//sub δ/ on SrTiO3, zirconia, and Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, G.; Polturak, E.; Fisher, B.; Cohen, D.; Kimel, G.

    1988-01-01

    KrF excimer laser ablation of an Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub δ/ pellet in 0.1--0.2 Torr of O 2 ambient was used to deposit thin superconducting films onto SrTiO 3 , yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), and silicon substrates at 600--700 0 C. The as-deposited 1-μm-thick films at 650--700 0 C substrate temperature were superconducting, without further high-temperature annealing. All films had a similar T/sub c/ onset of ∼92 K but different zero-resistance T/sub c/ of 90, 85, and 70 K for the films on SrTiO 3 , YSZ, and Si substrates, respectively. Angular x-ray diffraction analysis showed that all the films were highly oriented with the c axis perpendicular to their surface. Critical current densities at 77 K were about 40 000 and 10 000 A/cm 2 for the films on SrTiO 3 and YSZ, respectively. Smooth surface morphology was observed in all films, with occasional defects and cracks in the films on YSZ, which seems to explain the lower critical current in these films

  1. Preparation of highly oriented pyrographite structure for neutronography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarski, R.; Nowicki, A.; Pekalska, L.

    1988-01-01

    The method has been presented for obtaining the pyrographite plates of dimensions 170 x 60 mm, with possibility to obtain the square plates of side length 55 mm. Such plates are the starting material for investigations on obtaining a pyrographite filter for neutronography. An apparatus set has been constructed in order to obtain a high-ordered pyrographite. The conditions of recrystallization with the use of a given apparatus for obtaining the neutron filter of dimensions 40 x 40 mm have been determined. 43 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  2. Praseodymium Cuprate Thin Film Cathodes for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Roles of Doping, Orientation, and Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kunal; Hayamizu, Yoshiaki; Kim, Chang Sub; Kolchina, Liudmila M; Mazo, Galina N; Istomin, Sergey Ya; Bishop, Sean R; Tuller, Harry L

    2016-12-21

    Highly textured thin films of undoped, Ce-doped, and Sr-doped Pr 2 CuO 4 were synthesized on single crystal YSZ substrates using pulsed laser deposition to investigate their area-specific resistance (ASR) as cathodes in solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The effects of T' and T* crystal structures, donor and acceptor doping, and a-axis and c-axis orientation on ASR were systematically studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on half cells. The addition of both Ce and Sr dopants resulted in improvements in ASR in c-axis oriented films, as did the T* crystal structure with the a-axis orientation. Pr 1.6 Sr 0.4 CuO 4 is identified as a potential cathode material with nearly an order of magnitude faster oxygen reduction reaction kinetics at 600 °C compared to thin films of the commonly studied cathode material La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.8 Fe 0.2 O 3-δ . Orientation control of the cuprate films on YSZ was achieved using seed layers, and the anisotropy in the ASR was found to be less than an order of magnitude. The rare-earth doped cuprate was found to be a versatile system for study of relationships between bulk properties and the oxygen reduction reaction, critical for improving SOFC performance.

  3. Mechanism of Calcite Co-Orientation in the Sea Urchin Tooth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killian, Christopher; Metzler, Rebecca; Gong, Y. U. T.; Olson, Ian; Aizenberg, Joanna; Politi, Yael; Wilt, Fred; Scholl, Andreas; Young, Anthony; Doran, Andrew; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sea urchin teeth are remarkable and complex calcite structures, continuously growing at the forming end and self-sharpening at the mature grinding tip. The calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) crystals of tooth components, plates, fibers, and a high-Mg polycrystalline matrix, have highly co-oriented crystallographic axes. This ability to co-orient calcite in a mineralized structure is shared by all echinoderms. However, the physico-chemical mechanism by which calcite crystals become co-oriented in echinoderms remains enigmatic. Here, we show differences in calcite c-axis orientations in the tooth of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus), using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopy (X-PEEM) and microbeam X-ray diffraction ({mu}XRD). All plates share one crystal orientation, propagated through pillar bridges, while fibers and polycrystalline matrix share another orientation. Furthermore, in the forming end of the tooth, we observe that CaCO{sub 3} is present as amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). We demonstrate that co-orientation of the nanoparticles in the polycrystalline matrix occurs via solid-state secondary nucleation, propagating out from the previously formed fibers and plates, into the amorphous precursor nanoparticles. Because amorphous precursors were observed in diverse biominerals, solid-state secondary nucleation is likely to be a general mechanism for the co-orientation of biomineral components in organisms from different phyla.

  4. The Influence of Personality, Parenting Styles, and Perfectionism on Performance Goal Orientation in High Ability Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angie L.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explores relationships among gender, perceived parenting style, the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, perfectionism, and achievement goal orientation in a high ability and high achieving young adult population. Using data from Honors College students at a Midwestern university, a path model suggests that…

  5. Surface modification of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by reaction with atomic nitrogen at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luning; Pejakovic, Dusan A.; Geng Baisong; Marschall, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Dry etching of {0 0 0 1} basal planes of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) using active nitridation by nitrogen atoms was investigated at low pressures and high temperatures. The etching process produces channels at grain boundaries and pits whose shapes depend on the reaction temperature. For temperatures below 600 deg. C, the majority of pits are nearly circular, with a small fraction of hexagonal pits with rounded edges. For temperatures above 600 deg. C, the pits are almost exclusively hexagonal with straight edges. The Raman spectra of samples etched at 1000 deg. C show the D mode near 1360 cm -1 , which is absent in pristine HOPG. For deep hexagonal pits that penetrate many graphene layers, neither the surface number density of pits nor the width of pit size distribution changes substantially with the nitridation time, suggesting that these pits are initiated at a fixed number of extended defects intersecting {0 0 0 1} planes. Shallow pits that penetrate 1-2 graphene layers have a wide size distribution, which suggests that these pits are initiated on pristine graphene surfaces from lattice vacancies continually formed by N atoms. A similar wide size distribution of shallow hexagonal pits is observed in an n-layer graphene sample after N-atom etching.

  6. Polarity-dependence of the defect formation in c-axis oriented ZnO by the irradiation of an 8 MeV proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Kazuto; Yano, Mitsuaki; Gonda, Shun-ichi; Uedono, Akira; Ishibashi, Shoji; Kojima, Kazunobu; Chichibu, Shigefusa F.

    2018-04-01

    The polarity dependence of the radiation hardness of single-crystalline ZnO bulk crystals is studied by irradiating the Zn-polar and O-polar c-planes with an 8 MeV proton beam up to the fluence of 4.2 × 1016 p/cm2. To analyze the hardness, radiation-induced defects were evaluated using positron annihilation (PA) analysis, and the recovery by post-annealing was examined using continuous-wave photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. It was suggested by the PA and PL analyses that the major defects in both polarities were VZnVO divacancies. While the PA data did not show the clear dependence on the polarity, the PL and TRPL results showed that the Zn-polar c-plane had a little higher radiation tolerance than that of the O-polar c-plane, which was consistent with the result that the increase in the electrical resistance by proton beam irradiation was smaller for the former one. Considering these results in total, the polarity dependence is considered to be not so large, but the Zn-polar c-plane has a little higher tolerance than that of the O-polar one.

  7. Relationship Between Market Orientation and Business Performance in Czech and German High-Tech Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Jangl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to find out an index of market orientation, and explore the relationship between four components of market orientation in high-tech firms and their business performance. Business performance was studied as a one-dimensional construct. Market orientation in this study is defined as a process of intelligence generation about customers and competitors, intelligence dissemination and integration within the company across teams, and responsiveness to market intelligence in the form of coordinated action. The statistical sample was represented by 164 Czech and 187 German high-tech firms in the manufacturing industry. Respondents (sales and marketing managers completed a questionnaire and marked their rate of approval with individual statements on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7. Market orientation and business performance level was determined as the arithmetic mean (x̄ of the measured values. Depending on the size of the total market orientation index (MOI, Czech (x̄=5.2 and German (x̄=5.14 high-tech firms are medium market-oriented. The business performance index (BPI reached a slightly higher value in Germany (x̄=5.22 as compared to the Czech Republic (x̄=5.13. The main method to reach the target was correlation and regression analysis. This study confirmed a hypothesis about the existence of a correlation between components of market orientation and business performance. Three of the four relationships in the multiple regression model were significant. On the other hand, the study found no positive significant correlation between competitor intelligence generation and business performance.

  8. Impacts of orientation on daylighting in high-rise office buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbdolHamid Mahdavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation is one of the important factors in building design to use daylight and ‎conserve energy. Well-orientated buildings maximise daylight reception through ‎building facades and reduce the need for artificial lighting. Reasonable daylighting usage in office buildings is an important part of an architect’s designing process, which leads to lesser electricity consumption as well as providing a visual and thermal comfort for the occupants. Orientation is an important factor in passive design strategies. This paper focuses on the orientation effect on daylighting into office rooms. The research method of this study was simulation which is performed on a hypothetical model on a 25 storey high-rise office building in Malaysia. All simulations were carried out in the IES-VE software that uses RADIANCE program for illuminance calculations. To evaluate the daylight in various conditions, a new index SAZ was introduced which assesses daylight factor (DF and absolute Lux. Results showed similar SAZ in CIE overcast sky in various orientations; whereas, in sunny sky due to sun path in Malaysia, different results showed northern and southern rooms have the best illuminance distribution. However, the similar window form and size in four orientations lead to more energy consumption for artificial lighting and cooling loads.

  9. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-08-18

    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  10. Structure and blood compatibility of highly oriented PLA/MWNTs composites produced by solid hot drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengqiu; Zhao, Xiaowen; Ye, Lin; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2014-03-01

    Highly oriented poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composites were fabricated through solid hot drawing technology in an effort to improve the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA as blood-contacting medical devices. It was found that proper MWNTs content and drawing orientation can improve the tensile strength and modulus of PLA dramatically. With the increase in draw ratio, the cold crystallization peak became smaller, and the glass transition and the melting peak of PLA moved to high temperature, while the crystallinity increased, and the grain size decreased, indicating the stress-induced crystallization of PLA during drawing. MWNTs showed a nucleation effect on PLA, leading to the rise in the melting temperature, increase in crystallinity and reduction of spherulite size for the composites. Moreover, the intensity of (002) diffraction of MWNTs increased with draw ratio, indicating that MWNTs were preferentially aligned and oriented during drawing. Microstructure observation demonstrated that PLA matrix had an ordered fibrillar bundle structure, and MWNTs in the composite tended to align parallel to the drawing direction. In addition, the dispersion of MWNTs in PLA was also improved by orientation. Introduction of MWNTs and drawing orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging kinetic clotting time, reducing hemolysis ratio and platelet activation.

  11. Structure and properties of highly oriented polyoxymethylene produced by hot stretching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaowen; Ye Lin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Highly oriented POM was fabricated through solid hot stretching technology → Tensile strength and modulus of POM increased remarkably with draw ratio. → The crystal structure of POM changed from spherulite to mat texture by drawing. → Crystallinity and orientation factor of POM increased remarkably by drawing. → The mechanical structure model of microfibril of POM was established. - Abstract: Highly oriented self-reinforced polyoxymethylene (POM) was successfully fabricated through solid phase hot stretching technology. The tensile strength and modulus increased with draw ratio, which reached 900 MPa and 12 GPa, respectively at a high draw ratio of 900% without remarkable drop of the elongation at break. The structure and morphology of the drawn products were studied and the mechanical structure model of microfibril of POM was established. Raman spectral exhibited a low-frequency shift, which indicated two types of molecular chains with different response to the stress. During drawing, the spherulitic structure of POM was broken up and the mat texture crystals were formed. With the increase of draw ratio, the melting peak moved to high temperature and an additional shoulder peak ascribed to melting of highly chain-extended and oriented crystalline blocks was observed. X-ray diffraction showed that the crystallinity and orientation factor increased, while the grain size perpendicular to (1 0 0) crystal plane of POM decreased by drawing. The α relaxation peak corresponding to the glass transition temperature of POM (T g ) moved to high temperature with draw ratio. The section morphology of drawn POM exhibited a fibrillar structure which contributed to the significantly high tensile strength and modulus of the product.

  12. Magnetic properties of in-plane oriented barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaozhi; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Meng, Siqin; Yuan, Lixin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-28

    In-plane c-axis oriented Ba-hexaferrite (BaM) thin films were prepared on a-plane (112{sup ¯}0) sapphire (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates by DC magnetron sputtering followed by ex-situ annealing. The DC magnetron sputtering was demonstrated to have obvious advantages over the traditionally used RF magnetron sputtering in sputtering rate and operation simplicity. The sputtering power had a remarkable influence on the Ba/Fe ratio, the hematite secondary phase, and the grain morphology of the as-prepared BaM films. Under 80 W of sputtering power, in-plane c-axis highly oriented BaM films were obtained. These films had strong magnetic anisotropy with high hysteresis loop squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.96) along the in-plane easy axis and low M{sub r}/M{sub s} of 0.03 along the in-plane hard axis. X-ray diffraction patterns and pole figures revealed that the oriented BaM films grew via an epitaxy-like growth process with the crystallographic relationship BaM (101{sup ¯}0)//α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)//Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(112{sup ¯}0)

  13. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  14. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marstaller, J.

    1993-12-01

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  15. High resolution orientation mapping of secondary phases in ATI 718Plus® alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krakow Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline superalloy ATI 718Plus ® (hereafter 718Plus has been developed to replace the established alloy Inconel 718 by offering higher temperature capability for applications in gas turbines. The alloy exhibits two secondary phases in the austenitic matrix; it is strengthened by the γ′-phase with η-phase discontinuously precipitated at the grain boundaries. It can be utilized to control grain growth during forging. Generally, hexagonal η phase has been reported to possess a defined crystallographic orientation with the matrix. However, the material studied here exhibits blocky η-phase that has been precipitated and grown during thermo-mechanical processing. Therefore a measurable change in orientation relationship is expected. The standard technique for orientation mapping is electron back-scattered diffraction with spatial resolution of 100 nm. That is insufficient for studying η-phase in 718Plus. By applying high resolution orientation mapping in the transmission electron microscope (Philips CM 300 FEGTEM equipped with a Nanomegas ASTARTM system a resolution of 3 nm was achieved. The indexed diffraction data was analysed using the Matlab Toolbox Mtex. The analysis included grain reconstruction and exclusion of low confidence measurements. The data set allows generating phase boundary maps indicating interfaces characteristics. Quantitative assessment shows that only 19% of the γ-η-interfaces fulfil the orientation relationship.

  16. Effective electron collection in highly (110)-oriented ZnO porous nanosheet framework photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangyan; Tian Zhipeng; Yu Tao; Tian Hanmin; Zhang Jiyuan; Yuan Shikui; Zhang Xiaobo; Li Zhaosheng; Zou Zhigang

    2010-01-01

    A highly (110)-oriented ZnO porous nanosheet framework is designed as the photoanode in photoelectrochemical systems, by virtue of its anisotropic electronic properties. It can be facilely prepared in large scale via a hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that the orientation index of the (110) diffraction plane is 3.54, indicating the films possess (110) preferred orientation. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images exhibit that most of the nanosheets stand nearly perpendicularly on the substrate. The {002} lattice planes work just like conducting wires and induce the electrons to transport to the substrate. Chronoamperometry measurement demonstrates an effective electron collection. When the nanostructured photoanode is introduced to dye-sensitized solar cells, a conversion efficiency of 3.7% is obtained. The photoanode also has potential application in the other photoelectrochemical systems, such as photocatalytical splitting of water.

  17. Highly oriented thin films of a substituted oligo(para-phenylenevinylene) on friction-transferred PTFE substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.E; Hadziioannou, G; Lang, P.; Garnier, F.; Wittmann, J.C.

    Communication: Highly oriented thin films of oligo(p-phenylenevinylene)s, oligoPPVs, provide information about the structure of polyPPV and structure-property relationships. It is shown that deposition of a substituted oligoPPV onto highly preoriented PTFE substrates leads to highly oriented thin

  18. Fabrication of high-performance supercapacitors based on transversely oriented carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulidis, F.; Lei, C.; Lekakou, C.

    2013-04-01

    High-performance supercapacitors with organic electrolyte 1 M TEABF4 (tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) in PC (propylene carbonate) were fabricated and tested, based on multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) deposited by electrophoresis on three types of alternative substrates: aluminium foil, ITO (indium tin oxide) coated PET (polyethylene terephthalate) film and PET film. In all cases, SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) micrographs demonstrated that protruding, transversely oriented MWNT structures were formed, which should increase the transverse conductivity of these MWNT electrodes. The best supercapacitor cell of MWNT electrodes deposited on aluminium foil displayed good transverse orientation of the MWNT structures as well as an in-plane MWNT network at the feet of the protruding structures, which ensured good in-plane conductivity. Capacitor cells with MWNT electrodes deposited either on ITO-coated PET film or on PET film demonstrated lower but still very good performance due to the high density of transversely oriented MWNT structures (good transverse conductivity) but some in-plane inhomogeneities. Capacitor cells with drop-printed MWNTs on aluminium foil, without any transverse orientation, had 16-30 times lower specific capacitance and 5-40 times lower power density than the capacitor cells with the electrophoretically deposited MWNT electrodes.

  19. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  20. High-field fMRI unveils orientation columns in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Essa; Harel, Noam; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    2008-07-29

    Functional (f)MRI has revolutionized the field of human brain research. fMRI can noninvasively map the spatial architecture of brain function via localized increases in blood flow after sensory or cognitive stimulation. Recent advances in fMRI have led to enhanced sensitivity and spatial accuracy of the measured signals, indicating the possibility of detecting small neuronal ensembles that constitute fundamental computational units in the brain, such as cortical columns. Orientation columns in visual cortex are perhaps the best known example of such a functional organization in the brain. They cannot be discerned via anatomical characteristics, as with ocular dominance columns. Instead, the elucidation of their organization requires functional imaging methods. However, because of insufficient sensitivity, spatial accuracy, and image resolution of the available mapping techniques, thus far, they have not been detected in humans. Here, we demonstrate, by using high-field (7-T) fMRI, the existence and spatial features of orientation- selective columns in humans. Striking similarities were found with the known spatial features of these columns in monkeys. In addition, we found that a larger number of orientation columns are devoted to processing orientations around 90 degrees (vertical stimuli with horizontal motion), whereas relatively similar fMRI signal changes were observed across any given active column. With the current proliferation of high-field MRI systems and constant evolution of fMRI techniques, this study heralds the exciting prospect of exploring unmapped and/or unknown columnar level functional organizations in the human brain.

  1. Description of Sexual Orientation and Sexual Behaviors among High School Girls in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy

    2017-08-01

    Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ 2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Facile "modular assembly" for fast construction of a highly oriented crystalline MOF nanofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Yamada, Teppei; Otsubo, Kazuya; Sakaida, Shun; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2012-10-10

    The preparation of crystalline, ordered thin films of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) will be a critical process for MOF-based nanodevices in the future. MOF thin films with perfect orientation and excellent crystallinity were formed with novel nanosheet-structured components, Cu-TCPP [TCPP = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin], by a new "modular assembly" strategy. The modular assembly process involves two steps: a "modularization" step is used to synthesize highly crystalline "modules" with a nanosized structure that can be conveniently assembled into a thin film in the following "assembly" step. With this method, MOF thin films can easily be set up on different substrates at very high speed with controllable thickness. This new approach also enabled us to prepare highly oriented crystalline thin films of MOFs that cannot be prepared in thin-film form by traditional techniques.

  3. Electrical behaviors of c-axis textured 0.975Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.025BiCoO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feifei [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Yang, Bin, E-mail: binyang@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Zhang, Shantao, E-mail: stzhang@mail.nju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Danqing [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wu, Fengmin [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Wang, Dali [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Cao, Wenwu [Department of Physics, Condensed Matter Science and Technology Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The thin films of 0.975Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}–0.025BiCoO{sub 3} (BNT-BC) have been successfully deposited on (1 1 1) Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si (1 0 0) substrates by pulse laser deposition and their ferroelectric, dielectric, local piezoelectric properties and temperature dependent leakage current behaviors have been investigated systematically. X-ray diffraction indicates the films are single phased and c-axis oriented. The thin films exhibit ferroelectric polarization–electric field (P–E) hysteresis loop with a remnant polarization (P{sub r}) of 10.0 μC/cm{sup 2} and an excellent fatigue resistance property up to 5 × 10{sup 9} switching cycles. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss are 500 and 0.22 at 1 kHz, respectively. The tunability of the dielectric constant is about 12% at 20 kV/mm. The piezo-phase response hysteresis loop and piezo-amplitude response butterfly curve are observed by switching spectroscopy mode of piezoelectric force microscope (SS-PFM) and the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33} is about 19–63 pm/V, which is comparable to other reports. The dominant leakage current conduction mechanisms are ohmic conduction at low electric field and Schottky emission at high electric field, respectively. Our results may be helpful for further work on BNT-based thin films with improved electric properties.

  4. Highly efficient construction of oriented sandwich structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongyun; Xu Weiqing; Xu Shuping; Zhou Ji; Lombardi, John R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to solve the problem of low achievement in fabricating sandwich surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. We demonstrated a highly efficient sandwich structure by the oriented assembly of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a periodic hexagonal array of metal nanoprisms with 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT) as linkers. The metal nanoprism array was prepared by vacuum deposition of metal on a close-packed polystyrene nanosphere pre-patterned substrate. The metal nanoprism array presents different surface properties from the pits left from the removal of polystyrene nanospheres, which causes linkers to selectively adsorb on the metal nanoprism array and sequentially leads to the oriented immobilization of the second-layer metal NPs, avoiding mismatched orientation. These sandwich SERS substrates were characterized by extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and their enhancement activity was evaluated under different excitation wavelengths. The sandwich structure greatly increases the achievement of ‘hot spots’ to almost 100% of all the metal nanoprisms and enables a large amplification of SERS signals by a factor of ten. This method has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, high throughput, controllability and high reproducibility. It has significance in both the study of SERS substrates and the development of plasmonic devices. (paper)

  5. Refining the structural framework of the Khimti Khola region, east-central Nepal Himalaya, using quartz textures and c-axis fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kyle P.

    2018-02-01

    New quartz texture and c-axis fabric data from across the Paleoproterozoic Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss in the Khimti Khola region of east central Nepal provide new constraints on the internal structural framework of the Himalaya that help shed light on the convergence accommodation processes active in the upper portion of the crust during orogenesis. These data outline a strain history that varies across the unit. Deformation near the base of the unit occurred at ∼605 (±50) °C with evidence of significant static recrystallization and recovery preserved in quartz, whereas deformation near the top of the unit occurred at ∼540 (±50) ˚C with quartz characterized by dynamic recrystallization mechanisms. The strength of the quartz c-axis fabrics follows a similar spatial pattern, with those from near the top of the unit recording stronger fabrics than those measured from lower in the unit. Together, these data are interpreted to indicate strain localization, possibly at progressively lower temperature, near the top of the Ulleri-Phaplu-Melung orthogneiss. This interpretation is consistent with cooling ages that indicate the upper boundary of the unit coincides with an out-of-sequence shear zone. This study not only provides a structural characterization of the shear zone, helping to refine the kinematic framework of this portion of the Himalaya, but also confirms the utility of fabric strength analysis in deciphering strain localization within pervasively deformed rocks.

  6. Kinetic instability of AlGaN alloys during MBE growth under metal-rich conditions on m-plane GaN miscut towards the -c axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-HD, M.; Diaz, R. E.; Nguyen, T.; Jian, J.; Gardner, G. C.; Wang, H.; Manfra, M. J.; Malis, O.

    2018-04-01

    AlxGa1-xN layers with Al-composition above 0.6 (0.6 < x < 0.9) grown under metal-rich conditions by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on m-plane GaN miscut towards the -c axis are kinetically unstable. Even under excess Ga flux, the effective growth rate of AlGaN is drastically reduced, likely due to suppression of Ga-N dimer incorporation. The defect structure generated during these growth conditions is studied with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy scanning transmission electron microscopy as a function of Al flux. The AlGaN growth results in the formation of thin Al(Ga)N layers with Al-composition higher than expected and lower Al-composition AlGaN islands. The AlGaN islands have a flat top and are elongated along the c-axis (i.e., stripe-like shape). Possible mechanisms for the observed experimental results are discussed. Our data are consistent with a model in which Al-N dimers promote release of Ga-N dimers from the m-plane surface.

  7. A Fast and High-precision Orientation Algorithm for BeiDou Based on Dimensionality Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Jiaojiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A fast and high-precision orientation algorithm for BeiDou is proposed by deeply analyzing the constellation characteristics of BeiDou and GEO satellites features.With the advantage of good east-west geometry, the baseline vector candidate values were solved by the GEO satellites observations combined with the dimensionality reduction theory at first.Then, we use the ambiguity function to judge the values in order to obtain the optical baseline vector and get the wide lane integer ambiguities. On this basis, the B1 ambiguities were solved. Finally, the high-precision orientation was estimated by the determinating B1 ambiguities. This new algorithm not only can improve the ill-condition of traditional algorithm, but also can reduce the ambiguity search region to a great extent, thus calculating the integer ambiguities in a single-epoch.The algorithm is simulated by the actual BeiDou ephemeris and the result shows that the method is efficient and fast for orientation. It is capable of very high single-epoch success rate(99.31% and accurate attitude angle (the standard deviation of pitch and heading is respectively 0.07°and 0.13°in a real time and dynamic environment.

  8. Improvement of the crystallographic orientation of double-layered perpendicular recording media by using CoCr (Mo)/Cu intermediate layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ichiro; Yamamoto, T.; Kikukawa, A.; Tanahashi, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Futamoto, M.

    2001-01-01

    We have introduced intermediate layers of CoCr/Cu and CoCrMo/Cu between a CoCrPtB recording layer and a soft-magnetic CoTaZr underlayer. The combination of the FCC-Cu first-intermediate layer and the HCP-CoCrMo second-intermediate layer was found to enhance the c-axis vertical orientation of the CoCrPtB recording layer. In media with intermediate layers of CoCrMo/Cu, the thickness of the intermediate layers can be reduced without sacrificing good magnetic properties, and this leads to high resolutions

  9. Oriented hydroxyapatite single crystals produced by the electrodeposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, E.A. dos, E-mail: euler@ufs.br [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); IPCMS - Departement de Surfaces et Interfaces, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Moldovan, M.S. [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); IPCMS - Departement de Surfaces et Interfaces, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Jacomine, L. [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France); Mateescu, M. [IS2M - Equipe Interaction Surface-Matiere Vivant, 15, rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Werckmann, J. [IPCMS - Departement de Surfaces et Interfaces, 23, rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg (France); Anselme, K. [IS2M - Equipe Interaction Surface-Matiere Vivant, 15, rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse (France); Mille, P.; Pelletier, H. [INSA - Groupe Ingenierie des Surfaces, 24, Bld de la Victoire, 67084 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-25

    We propose here the use of cathodic electrodeposition as tool to fabricate implant coatings consisting in nano/micro single crystals of hydroxyapatite (HA), preferentially orientated along the c-axis. Coating characterization is the base of this work, where we discuss the mechanisms related to the deposition of oriented hydroxyapatite thin films. It is shown that when deposited on titanium alloys, the HA coating is constituted by two distinct regions with different morphologies: at a distance of few microns from the substrate, large HA single crystals are oriented along the c-axis and appear to grow up from a base material, consisting in an amorphous HA. This organized system has a great importance for cell investigation once the variables involved in the cell/surface interaction are reduced. The use of such systems could give a new insight on the effect of particular HA orientation on the osteoblast cells.

  10. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo, E-mail: jacklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  11. Crystal orientations in nacreous layers of organic-inorganic biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2009-01-01

    Abalone shell comprises a bio-composite material, combining the properties of inorganic calcite intergrown with organic nacre. This paper reports about the microstructure of this composite. By examining the Kikuchi patterns obtained for nacre (Haliotis discus hannai) using transmission electron microscopy, we have shown that the tiles within nacre have specific orientations. The stereographic projection spheres for the tiles of nacre can be divided into two main types, namely a right oriented region and a left oriented region with respect to the c axis as a reference plane (001). The cluster character of nacre can be explained in terms of the growth mechanism of the 'Christmas tree' pattern. The orientation of the c-axis in the nacreous layer is elucidated for the first time. We demonstrate the use of the soluble protein obtained from the tiles of nacre in in vitro calcium carbonate crystallization.

  12. Fabrication of crystal-oriented barium-bismuth titanate ceramics in high magnetic field and subsequent reaction sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Furushima, Ryoichi; Uematsu, Keizo; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Doshida, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    High magnetic field was applied to fabricate novel lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with a textured structure. A compact of crystallographically oriented grains was prepared by dry forming in a high magnetic field from a mixed slurry of bismuth titanate and barium titanate powders. Bismuth titanate particles with a size of about 1 μ m were used as the host material. In the forming process, the slurry was poured into a mold and set in a magnetic field of 10 T until completely dried. Bismuth titanate particles were highly oriented in the slurry under the magnetic field. The dried powder compact consisted of highly oriented bismuth titanate particles and randomly oriented barium titanate particles. Barium bismuth titanate ceramics with a- and b-axis orientations were successfully produced from the dried compact by sintering at temperatures above 1100 deg. C.

  13. Object-oriented Approach to High-level Network Monitoring and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    An absolute prerequisite for the management of large investigating methods to build high-level monitoring computer networks is the ability to measure their systems that are built on top of existing monitoring performance. Unless we monitor a system, we cannot tools. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the hope to manage and control its performance. In this underlying systems at NASA Langley Research Center, paper, we describe a network monitoring system that we use an object-oriented approach for the design, we are currently designing and implementing. Keeping, first, we use UML (Unified Modeling Language) to in mind the complexity of the task and the required model users' requirements. Second, we identify the flexibility for future changes, we use an object-oriented existing capabilities of the underlying monitoring design methodology. The system is built using the system. Third, we try to map the former with the latter. APIs offered by the HP OpenView system.

  14. Growth orientation and superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films prepared by the low-fluorine sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Li; Zhao Gaoyang; Xu Hui; Zhao Juanjuan

    2010-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films were deposited on (100)-oriented LaAlO 3 (LAO) single crystal substrates by the dip-coating process using low-fluorine solution. Their microstructures were characterized with the aid of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their superconducting properties were measured by the standard four-probe method. The experiment results show that the film obtained under high enough humidity conditions exhibits better c-axis texture and superconducting properties than the film under a relatively low humidity conditions. Based on the classical nucleation and chemical reaction thermodynamics theory, the underlying crystalline and growth mechanisms of YBCO films under certain humidity conditions are explained in combination with our experimental results. It is suggested that the unreacted intermediate phases such as BaF 2 and CuO aggregated in the YBCO grain boundary will cause lattice distortion in the YBCO matrix and further induce the formation of a-axis oriented YBCO grains as crystallization proceeds. Therefore, it is believed that the relative content of water vapor within the heat-treatment atmosphere plays quite an important role in the preparation of c-axis oriented YBCO film with good superconducting properties. (semiconductor materials)

  15. Review- Magnetic orientation and magnetic anisotropy in paramagnetic layered oxides containing rare-earth ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Horii, Atsushi Ishihara, Takayuki Fukushima, Tetsuo Uchikoshi, Hiraku Ogino, Tohru S Suzuki, Yoshio Sakka, Jun-ichi Shimoyama and Kohji Kishio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic anisotropies and easy axes of magnetization at room temperature were determined, and the effects of rare-earth (RE ions were clarified for RE-based cuprates, RE-doped bismuth-based cuprates and RE-doped Bi-based cobaltite regarding the grain orientation by magnetic field. The easy axis, determined from the powder orientation in a static field of 10 T, depended qualitatively on the type of RE ion for all three systems. On the other hand, the magnetization measurement of the c-axis oriented powders, aligned in static or rotating fields, revealed that the type of RE ion strongly affected not only the directions of the easy axis but also the absolute value of magnetic anisotropy, and an appropriate choice of RE ion is required to minimize the magnetic field used for grain orientation. We also studied the possibility of triaxial grain orientation in high-critical-temperature superconductors by a modulated oval magnetic field. In particular, triaxial orientation was attempted in a high-oxygen-pressure phase of orthorhombic RE-based cuprates Y2Ba4Cu7Oy. Although the experiment was performed in epoxy resin, which is not practical, in-plane alignment within 3° was achieved.

  16. Accuracy assessment of high resolution satellite imagery orientation by leave-one-out method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, Maria Antonia; Crespi, Mattia; Fratarcangeli, Francesca; Giannone, Francesca; Realini, Eugenio

    Interest in high-resolution satellite imagery (HRSI) is spreading in several application fields, at both scientific and commercial levels. Fundamental and critical goals for the geometric use of this kind of imagery are their orientation and orthorectification, processes able to georeference the imagery and correct the geometric deformations they undergo during acquisition. In order to exploit the actual potentialities of orthorectified imagery in Geomatics applications, the definition of a methodology to assess the spatial accuracy achievable from oriented imagery is a crucial topic. In this paper we want to propose a new method for accuracy assessment based on the Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV), a model validation method already applied in different fields such as machine learning, bioinformatics and generally in any other field requiring an evaluation of the performance of a learning algorithm (e.g. in geostatistics), but never applied to HRSI orientation accuracy assessment. The proposed method exhibits interesting features which are able to overcome the most remarkable drawbacks involved by the commonly used method (Hold-Out Validation — HOV), based on the partitioning of the known ground points in two sets: the first is used in the orientation-orthorectification model (GCPs — Ground Control Points) and the second is used to validate the model itself (CPs — Check Points). In fact the HOV is generally not reliable and it is not applicable when a low number of ground points is available. To test the proposed method we implemented a new routine that performs the LOOCV in the software SISAR, developed by the Geodesy and Geomatics Team at the Sapienza University of Rome to perform the rigorous orientation of HRSI; this routine was tested on some EROS-A and QuickBird images. Moreover, these images were also oriented using the world recognized commercial software OrthoEngine v. 10 (included in the Geomatica suite by PCI), manually performing the LOOCV

  17. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM-5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Donglong|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412516918; Schmidt, Joel E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413333736; Ristanovic, Zoran|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328233005; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412438003; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397

    2017-01-01

    Highly b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films.

  18. Characterization and modeling of a highly-oriented thin film for composite forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. D.; Sherwood, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) materials exhibit high impact strength, excellent abrasion resistance and high chemical resistance, making them attractive for a number of impact applications for automotive, marine and medical industries. One format of this class of materials that is being considered for the thermoforming process is a highly-oriented extruded thin film. Parts are made using a two-step manufacturing process that involves first producing a set of preforms and then consolidating these preforms into a final shaped part. To assist in the design of the processing parameters, simulations of the preforming and compression molding steps can be completed using the finite element method. Such simulations require material input data as developed through a comprehensive characterization test program, e.g. shear, tensile and bending, over the range of potential processing temperatures. The current research investigates the challenges associated with the characterization of thin, highly-oriented UHMWPE films. Variations in grip type, sample size and testing rates are explored to achieve convergence of the characterization data. Material characterization results are then used in finite element simulations of the tension test to explore element formulations that work well with the mechanical behavior. Comparisons of the results from the material characterization tests to results of simulations of the same test are performed to validate the finite element method parameters and the credibility of the user-defined material model.

  19. Ambient growth of highly oriented Cu{sub 2}S dendrites of superior thermoelectric behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulla, Rafiq; Rabinal, M.K., E-mail: mkrabinal@yahoo.com

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • A simple and ambient route to synthesize highly oriented dendrites of copper sulfide is proposed. • Remarkable enhancement is observed in Seebeck coefficient by room temperature, solution phase doping. • High thermoelectric power factor is observed at room temperature, indicating promising behaviour. - Abstract: Low-cost, non-toxic and efficient material is an urgent need for the thermoelectric energy conversion. Here, a rapid and ambient chemical route has been developed to grow dense and highly oriented dendrites of copper sulfide (Cu{sub 2}S) on copper substrate in a very simple approach, these films are uniform and covered with dense nanosheets. Room temperature solution doping of copper ions is carried out to improve thermoelectric performance. The Seebeck coefficient increased from ∼100 to 415 μV K{sup −1} with a slight decrease in electrical conductivity, this gives a high power factor (S{sup 2}σ) of about ∼400 μW m{sup −1} K{sup −2}. The improved thermoelectric properties in these films are accounted for resonant energy level doping and high phonon scattering. Such films with improved thermoelectric behaviour can be promising materials for energy conversion. The earth abundant, low cost, non toxic with a good thermoelectric property makes copper sulfide as a promising thermoelectric material for future applications.

  20. Orientation dependence of temporal and spectral properties of high-order harmonics in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxi; You, Yongsing; Ghimire, Shambhu; Reis, David A.; Browne, Dana A.; Schafer, Kenneth J.; Gaarde, Mette B.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the connection between crystal symmetry and temporal and spectral properties of high-order harmonics in solids. We calculate the orientation-dependent harmonic spectrum driven by an intense, linearly polarized infrared laser field, using a momentum-space description of the generation process in terms of strong-field-driven electron dynamics on the band structure. We show that the orientation dependence of both the spectral yield and the subcycle time profile of the harmonic radiation can be understood in terms of the coupling strengths and relative curvatures of the valence band and the low-lying conduction bands. In particular, we show that in some systems this gives rise to a rapid shift of a quarter optical cycle in the timing of harmonics in the secondary plateau as the crystal is rotated relative to the laser polarization. We address recent experimental results in MgO [Y. S. You et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 345 (2017)., 10.1038/nphys3955] and show that the observed change in orientation dependence for the highest harmonics can be interpreted in the momentum space picture in terms of the contributions of several different conduction bands.

  1. Polarization effects for pair creation by photon in oriented crystals at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Pair creation by a photon in an oriented crystal is considered in the frame of the quasiclassical operator method, which includes processes with polarized particles. Under some quite generic assumptions the general expression is derived for the probability of pair creation of longitudinally polarized electron (positron) by circularly polarized photon in oriented crystal. In the particular cases θ > V /m (θ is the angle of incidence, angle between the momentum of the initial photon and axis (plane) of crystal, V is the scale of a potential of axis or a plane relative to which the angle θ is defined) one has the constant field approximation and the coherent pair production theory correspondingly. Side by side with coherent process the probability of incoherent pair creation is calculated, which differs essentially from amorphous one. At high energy the pair creation in oriented crystal is strongly enhanced comparing with the amorphous medium. In the corresponding appendixes the integral polarization of positron is found in an external field and for the coherent and incoherent mechanisms

  2. Electronic Instability at High Flux-Flow Velocities in High-Tc Superconducting Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doettinger, S. G.; Huebener, R. P.; Gerdemann, R.

    1994-01-01

    At high flux-flow velocities in type-II superconductors the nonequilibrium distribution of the quasiparticles leads to an electronic instability and an aburpt switching into a state with higher electric resistivity, as predicted by Larkin and Ovchinnikow (LO). We report the first obervation...... of this effect in a high-temperature superconductor, namely in epitaxial c-axis oriented films of YBa(2)Cu3O(7)-(delta). Using the LO therory, we have extracted from out results the inelastic quasiparticle scattering rare tau(in)(-1), which strongly decreases with decreasing temperature below T-c...

  3. High levels of absorption in orientation-unbiased, radio-selected 3CR Active Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark; Willner, Steven P.

    2014-08-01

    A critical problem in understanding active galaxies (AGN) is the separation of intrinsic physical differences from observed differences that are due to orientation. Obscuration of the active nucleus is anisotropic and strongly frequency dependent leading to complex selection effects for observations in most wavebands. These can only be quantified using a sample that is sufficiently unbiased to test orientation effects. Low-frequency radio emission is one way to select a close-to orientation-unbiased sample, albeit limited to the minority of AGN with strong radio emission.Recent Chandra, Spitzer and Herschel observations combined with multi-wavelength data for a complete sample of high-redshift (1half the sample is significantly obscured with ratios of unobscured: Compton thin (22 24.2) = 2.5:1.4:1 in these high-luminosity (log L(0.3-8keV) ~ 44-46) sources. These ratios are consistent with current expectations based on modelingthe Cosmic X-ray Background. A strong correlation with radio orientation constrains the geometry of the obscuring disk/torus to have a ~60 degree opening angle and ~12 degree Compton-thick cross-section. The deduced ~50% obscured fraction of the population contrasts with typical estimates of ~20% obscured in optically- and X-ray-selected high-luminosity samples. Once the primary nuclear emission is obscured, AGN X-ray spectra are frequently dominated by unobscured non-nuclear or scattered nuclear emission which cannot be distinguished from direct nuclear emission with a lower obscuration level unless high quality data is available. As a result, both the level of obscuration and the estimated instrinsic luminosities of highly-obscured AGN are likely to be significantly (*10-1000) underestimated for 25-50% of the population. This may explain the lower obscured fractions reported for optical and X-ray samples which have no independent measure of the AGN luminosity. Correcting AGN samples for these underestimated luminosities would result in

  4. Orientation and properties of the blends on high-molecular mass polyacrylonitrile with trihydroxyethylenedimethacrylate under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomonosova, N.V.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular orientation of the drawn blends of high- molecular-mass poly(acrylonitrile) containing 5-50 wt % of trihydroxyethylenedimethacrylate and a change in the orientation of the drawn samples upon irradiation with accelerated electrons was studied by methods of birefringence, isometric heating, and IR dichroism. The degree of orientation of the unirradiated blends containing certain amounts of oligomer exceed that of the individual polymer. In the region of large drawing ratios, the differential degree of orientation of the polymer matrix is not affected by the irradiation, while the orientation of the oligomer component increase. High values of the strength (600-730 MPa) and the modulus (18-22 GPa) of the compositions are due to the presence of a crystalline skeleton formed by unfolded chains of the polymer matrix stabilized by the electron irradiation induced cross-linking

  5. A High Performance Backend for Array-Oriented Programming on Next-Generation Processing Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Simon Andreas Frimann

    The financial crisis, which started in 2008, spawned the HIPERFIT research center as a preventive measure against future financial crises. The goal of prevention is to be met by improving mathematical models for finance, the verifiable description of them in domain-specific languages...... and the efficient execution of them on high performance systems. This work investigates the requirements for, and the implementation of, a high performance backend supporting these goals. This involves an outline of the hardware available today, in the near future and how to program it for high performance....... The main challenge is to bridge the gaps between performance, productivity and portability. A declarative high-level array-oriented programming model is explored to achieve this goal and a backend implemented to support it. Different strategies to the backend design and application of optimizations...

  6. Kinetic electron emission from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surfaces induced by singly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Cernusca, S; Winter, H; Aumayr, F; Loerincik, J; Sroubek, Z

    2002-01-01

    We present total electron yields determined by current measurements for normal impact of H sup + , H sub 2 sup + , H sub 3 sup + , C sup + , N sup + and O sup + ions (E<=10 keV) on a clean highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface. The kinetic energy of the projectiles has been varied from near threshold up to 10 keV. By comparing the results to similar data obtained for a polycrystalline Au surface the role of different target properties for kinetic electron emission can be analysed.

  7. Growth of highly oriented carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z.P.; Xu, J.W.; Ren, Z.F.; Wang, J.H. [Materials Synthesis Laboratory, Departments of Physics and Chemistry, and Center for Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials (CAPEM), State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Siegal, M.P.; Provencio, P.N. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Highly oriented, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were grown on polished polycrystalline and single crystal nickel substrates by plasma enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition at temperatures below 666 {degree}C. The carbon nanotubes range from 10 to 500 nm in diameter and 0.1 to 50 {mu}m in length depending on growth conditions. Acetylene is used as the carbon source for the growth of the carbon nanotubes and ammonia is used for dilution gas and catalysis. The plasma intensity, acetylene to ammonia gas ratio, and their flow rates, etc. affect the diameters and uniformity of the carbon nanotubes. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Absence of field anisotropy in the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestar, A.; Setzer, A.; Esquinazi, P.; Garcia, N.

    2011-01-01

    We have measured the magnetization of bulk samples of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the graphene layers. Within experimental error the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of the samples show similar magnetic moments at saturation for the two magnetic field directions, in contrast to recently published data (J. Cervenka et al., Nat. Phys. 5 (2009) 840). To check that the SQUID device provides correctly the small ferromagnetic signals obtained after subtracting the 100 times larger diamagnetic background, we have prepared a sample with a superconducting Pb-film deposited on one of the HOPG surfaces. We show that the field dependence of the measured magnetic moment and after the background subtraction is highly reliable even in the sub-μ emu range providing the real magnetic properties of the embedded small ferromagnetic and superconducting signals. - Research Highlights: → We have measured the magnetization of bulk samples of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) at magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the graphene layers.→ Within experimental error the intrinsic ferromagnetic signals of the samples show similar magnetic moments at saturation for the two magnetic field directions.→ The absence of magnetic anisotropy of the intrinsic ferromagnetic order found in HOPG samples contrasts recently published data by Cervenka et al., Nat Phys 5, 840 (2009).

  9. Performance of Novel Randomly Oriented High Graphene Carbon in Lithium Ion Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul S. Kadam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of carbon material comprising the anode is the key to the performance of a lithium ion capacitor. In addition to determining the capacity, the structure of the carbon material also determines the diffusion rate of the lithium ion into the anode which in turn controls power density which is vital in high rate applications. This paper covers details of systematic investigation of the performance of a structurally novel carbon, called Randomly Oriented High Graphene (ROHG carbon, and graphite in a high rate application device, that is, lithium ion capacitor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows that ROHG is less resistive and has faster lithium ion diffusion rates (393.7 × 10−3 S·s(1/2 compared to graphite (338.1 × 10−3 S·s(1/2. The impedance spectroscopy data is supported by the cell data showing that the ROHG carbon based device has energy density of 22.8 Wh/l with a power density of 4349.3 W/l, whereas baseline graphite based device has energy density of 5 Wh/l and power density of 4243.3 W/l. This data clearly shows advantage of the randomly oriented graphene platelet structure of ROHG in lithium ion capacitor performance.

  10. Pollutant removal-oriented yeast biomass production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewater: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Min; Zheng, Shaokui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial single-cell-protein (SCP) production from high-organic-strength industrial wastewaters is considered an attractive method for both wastewater purification and resource utilization. In the last two decades, pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes, i.e., yeast treatment processes, have attracted a great deal of attention from a variety of research groups worldwide. Different from conventional SCP production processes, yeast treatment processes are characterized by higher pollutant removal rates, lower production costs, highly adaptive yeast isolates from nature, no excess nutrient supplements, and are performed under non-sterile conditions. Furthermore, yeast treatment processes are similar to bacteria-dominated conventional activated sludge processes, which offer more choices for yeast SCP production and industrial wastewater treatment. This review discusses why highly adaptive yeast species isolated from nature are used in the yeast treatment process rather than commercial SCP producers. It also describes the application of yeast treatment processes for treating high-carboxyhydrate, oil-rich and high-salinity industrial wastewater, focusing primarily on high-strength biodegradable organic substances, which usually account for the major fraction of biochemical oxygen demand. Also discussed is the biodegradation of xenobiotics, such as color (including dye and pigment) and toxic substances (including phenols, chlorophenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc.), present in industrial wastewater. Based on molecular information of yeast community structures and their regulation in yeast treatment systems, we also discuss how to maintain efficient yeast species in yeast biomass and how to control bacterial and mold proliferation in yeast treatment systems. - Highlights: • Pollutant removal-oriented yeast SCP production processes offer more choices. • Highly adaptive yeast isolates replace commercial SCP producers. • Yeasts degrade

  11. VO2 nanoparticles on edge orientated graphene foam for high rate lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guofeng; Zhang, Ruibo; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2018-05-01

    With the fully exposed graphene edges, high conductivity and large surface area, edge oriented graphene foam (EOGF), prepared by deposition of perpendicular graphene network encircling the struts of Ni foam, is a superior scaffold to support active materials for electrochemical applications. With VO2 as an example, EOGF loaded VO2 nanoparticle (VO2/EOGF) electrode has high rate performance as cathode in lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In addition to the Li+ intercalation into the lattice, contribution of non-diffusion-limited pseudocapacitance to the capacity is prominent at high rates. VO2/EOGF based supercapacitor also exhibits fast response, with a characteristic frequency of 15 Hz when the phase angle reaches -45°, or a relaxation time constant of 66.7 ms. These results suggest the promising potential of EOGF as a scaffold in supporting active nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage and other applications.

  12. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM‐5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Donglong; Schmidt, Joel E.; Ristanović, Zoran; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films. Herein, using structure‐directing agents with hydroxy groups, we demonstrate a new method to prepare highly b‐oriented zeolite ZSM‐5 films with a broad range of Si/Al ratios (Si/Al=45 to ∞)...

  13. Social Stress and Substance Use Disparities by Sexual Orientation Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Johns, Michelle M; Robin, Leah E; Kann, Laura K

    2017-10-01

    Sexual minority youth often experience increased social stress due to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and victimization. Increased stress may help explain the disproportionate use of substances like tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use by sexual minority youth. This study examined the effect of social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation among U.S. high school students. In 2016, data from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, conducted among a nationally representative sample of 15,624 U.S. high school students, were analyzed to examine the effect of school-related (threatened/injured at school, bullied at school, bullied electronically, felt unsafe at school) and non-school-related (forced sexual intercourse, early sexual debut) social stress on substance use disparities by sexual orientation, by comparing unadjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and adjusted (for social stressors, age, sex, and race/ethnicity) prevalence ratios (APRs). Unadjusted PRs reflected significantly (pprevention programs might appropriately include strategies to reduce social stress, including policies and practices designed to provide a safe school environment and improved access to social and mental health services. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. RELATIVE ORIENTATION AND MODIFIED PIECEWISE EPIPOLAR RESAMPLING FOR HIGH RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High resolution, optical satellite sensors are boosted to a new era in the last few years, because satellite stereo images at half meter or even 30cm resolution are available. Nowadays, high resolution satellite image data have been commonly used for Digital Surface Model (DSM generation and 3D reconstruction. It is common that the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs provided by the vendors have rough precision and there is no ground control information available to refine the RPCs. Therefore, we present two relative orientation methods by using corresponding image points only: the first method will use quasi ground control information, which is generated from the corresponding points and rough RPCs, for the bias-compensation model; the second method will estimate the relative pointing errors on the matching image and remove this error by an affine model. Both methods do not need ground control information and are applied for the entire image. To get very dense point clouds, the Semi-Global Matching (SGM method is an efficient tool. However, before accomplishing the matching process the epipolar constraints are required. In most conditions, satellite images have very large dimensions, contrary to the epipolar geometry generation and image resampling, which is usually carried out in small tiles. This paper also presents a modified piecewise epipolar resampling method for the entire image without tiling. The quality of the proposed relative orientation and epipolar resampling method are evaluated, and finally sub-pixel accuracy has been achieved in our work.

  15. Reusable Object-Oriented Solutions for Numerical Simulation of PDEs in a High Performance Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Object-oriented platforms developed for the numerical solution of PDEs must combine flexibility and reusability, in order to ease the integration of new functionalities and algorithms. While designing similar frameworks, a built-in support for high performance should be provided and enforced transparently, especially in parallel simulations. The paper presents solutions developed to effectively tackle these and other more specific problems (data handling and storage, implementation of physical models and numerical methods that have arisen in the development of COOLFluiD, an environment for PDE solvers. Particular attention is devoted to describe a data storage facility, highly suitable for both serial and parallel computing, and to discuss the application of two design patterns, Perspective and Method-Command-Strategy, that support extensibility and run-time flexibility in the implementation of physical models and generic numerical algorithms respectively.

  16. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Kaname [Department of Electronics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yamashita, Kenichi, E-mail: yamasita@kit.ac.jp [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yanagi, Hisao [Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST), 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192 (Japan); Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu [Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2016-08-08

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  17. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yanagi, Hisao; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2016-08-01

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ˜100 meV even in the "half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing" microcavity structure.

  18. Strong exciton-photon coupling in organic single crystal microcavity with high molecular orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Kaname; Yamashita, Kenichi; Yanagi, Hisao; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu

    2016-01-01

    Strong exciton-photon coupling has been observed in a highly oriented organic single crystal microcavity. This microcavity consists of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer (TPCO) single crystal laminated on a high-reflection distributed Bragg reflector. In the TPCO crystal, molecular transition dipole was strongly polarized along a certain horizontal directions with respect to the main crystal plane. This dipole polarization causes significantly large anisotropies in the exciton transition and optical constants. Especially the anisotropic exciton transition was found to provide the strong enhancement in the coupling with the cavity mode, which was demonstrated by a Rabi splitting energy as large as ∼100 meV even in the “half-vertical cavity surface emitting lasing” microcavity structure.

  19. HIPPO, the high-pressure preferred orientation diffractometer at LANSCE for characterization of bulk materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.; Dreele, R.B. von; Wenk, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    United States National Laboratory researchers and University of California faculty, representing a broad range of scientific disciplines, is building a novel time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer and associated in situ equipment at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy. The goal with the High-Pressure Preferred Orientation Instrument (HIPPO) is to investigate dynamic processes in heterogeneous bulk materials in a variety of environments. The instrument, which will become available in summer 2001, has the extremely high count-rates necessary to study time-dependent processes in small (1-mm diameter) and large (2-cm diameter) samples, and in a large variety of environmental conditions (10-2000 K cryostats and furnaces, 0-20 GPa pressure vessels, straining cells, goniometers, magnets, etc.). The 3-D arrangement of detectors allows direct measurements of crystal orientation distributions in polycrystalline materials. The analysis of TOF diffraction patterns with versatile Rietveld codes provides simultaneous information on crystal structure, texture, microstructure and phase proportions. While this instrument has many applications in materials science, it is also of great interest for geology and geophysics. Some applications include: kinetics of reactions, structure of silicate glasses and melts, high-pressure investigations of complex systems, evolution of texture and anisotropy during deformation and recrystallization. The Lujan Center aims at creating an instrument with high data through-put and easy access to researchers and students. While the HIPPO instrument will be part of the national user facility operated by the Lujan Center, the scientific program will be guided by the University of California consortium with the goal of satisfying national priorities and establishing an environment of scientific excellence. (author)

  20. HIPPO, the high-pressure preferred orientation diffractometer at LANSCE for characterization of bulk materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Dreele, R.B. von [Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wenk, H.R. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of California, Berkely, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    United States National Laboratory researchers and University of California faculty, representing a broad range of scientific disciplines, is building a novel time-of-flight (TOF) neutron diffractometer and associated in situ equipment at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (Lujan Center), under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy. The goal with the High-Pressure Preferred Orientation Instrument (HIPPO) is to investigate dynamic processes in heterogeneous bulk materials in a variety of environments. The instrument, which will become available in summer 2001, has the extremely high count-rates necessary to study time-dependent processes in small (1-mm diameter) and large (2-cm diameter) samples, and in a large variety of environmental conditions (10-2000 K cryostats and furnaces, 0-20 GPa pressure vessels, straining cells, goniometers, magnets, etc.). The 3-D arrangement of detectors allows direct measurements of crystal orientation distributions in polycrystalline materials. The analysis of TOF diffraction patterns with versatile Rietveld codes provides simultaneous information on crystal structure, texture, microstructure and phase proportions. While this instrument has many applications in materials science, it is also of great interest for geology and geophysics. Some applications include: kinetics of reactions, structure of silicate glasses and melts, high-pressure investigations of complex systems, evolution of texture and anisotropy during deformation and recrystallization. The Lujan Center aims at creating an instrument with high data through-put and easy access to researchers and students. While the HIPPO instrument will be part of the national user facility operated by the Lujan Center, the scientific program will be guided by the University of California consortium with the goal of satisfying national priorities and establishing an environment of scientific excellence. (author)

  1. A highly accurate positioning and orientation system based on the usage of four-cluster fibre optic gyros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Lin, Zhili; Zhang, Chunxi

    2013-01-01

    A highly accurate positioning and orientation technique based on four-cluster fibre optic gyros (FOGs) is presented. The four-cluster FOG inertial measurement unit (IMU) comprises three low-precision FOGs, one static high-precision FOG and three accelerometers. To realize high-precision positioning and orientation, the static alignment (north-seeking) before vehicle manoeuvre was divided into a low-precision self-alignment phase and a high-precision north-seeking (online calibration) phase. The high-precision FOG measurement information was introduced to obtain high-precision azimuth alignment (north-seeking) result and achieve online calibration of the low-precision three-cluster FOG. The results of semi-physical simulation were presented to validate the availability and utility of the highly accurate positioning and orientation technique based on the four-cluster FOGs. (paper)

  2. Oriented heat release in asphalt pavement induced by high-thermal-conductivity rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yinfei; Wang, Shengyue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new principle of using aligned high-thermal-conductivity rods to enhance the oriented heat conduction in asphalt pavement was proposed. The results showed that the designed structure absorbed more heat during the day. The heat flow in the designed structure presented a non-uniform horizontal distribution. At the depth of 4 cm, the horizontal and vertical heat fluxes through steel rods were thirteen and ten times higher than those through asphalt mixture, respectively. The maximum temperature of the designed structure reduced by 3.6 °C–6.5 °C at the depth of 4 cm. The results of indoor irradiation test showed a trend consistent with those of numerical simulation. After 500 thousand times of standard axis load were applied, the rutting depth of the designed structure reduced by 43.4%. The principle proposed is expected to be used to induce an oriented heat release accumulated in asphalt pavement and reduce pavement temperature and rutting. - Highlights: • Steel rods were inserted in the middle and bottom layers to build thermal channels. • Steel rods absorbed heat from asphalt mixture and rapidly released them to subgrade. • The heat flux through asphalt mixture decreased and pavement temperature reduced.

  3. Fabrication and Molecular Transport Studies of Highly c-Oriented AFI Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2017-01-10

    The AFI membrane with one-dimensional straight channels is an ideal platform for various applications. In this work, we report the fabrication of a highly c-oriented, compact and stable AFI membrane by epitaxial growth from an almost close-packed and c-oriented monolayer of plate-like seeds that is manually assembled on a porous alumina support. The straight channels in the membrane are not only aligned vertically along the membrane depth, but are also continuous without disruption. The transport resistance is thus minimized and as a result, the membrane shows almost two orders of magnitude greater permeance in pervaporation of hydrocarbons compared to reported values in the literature. The selectivity of p-xylene to 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) is approximately 850. In addition, through gas permeation studies on a number of gas and liquid molecules, different transport mechanisms including activated Knudsen diffusion, surface diffusion and molecular sieving were discovered for different diffusion species. The ratio of kinetic diameter to channel diameter, dm/dc, and the ratio of the Lennard-Jones length constant to channel diameter, σm/dc, are found very useful in explaining the different transport behaviors. These results should be useful not only for potential industrial applications of the AFI membranes but also for the fundamental understanding of transport in nanoporous structures.

  4. Disparities in safety belt use by sexual orientation identity among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Gordon, Allegra; Calzo, Jerel P

    2014-02-01

    We examined associations between adolescents' safety belt use and sexual orientation identity. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 26,468 weighted; mean age = 15.9 years; 35.4% White, 24.7% Black, 23.5% Latino, 16.4% other). We compared lesbian and gay (1.2%), bisexual (3.5%), and unsure (2.6%) youths with heterosexuals (92.7%) on a binary indicator of passenger safety belt use. We stratified weighted multivariable logistic regression models by sex and adjusted for survey wave and sampling design. Overall, 12.6% of high school students reported "rarely" or "never" wearing safety belts. Sexual minority youths had increased odds of reporting nonuse relative to heterosexuals (48% higher for male bisexuals, 85% for lesbians, 46% for female bisexuals, and 51% for female unsure youths; P < .05), after adjustment for demographic (age, race/ethnicity), individual (body mass index, depression, bullying, binge drinking, riding with a drunk driver, academic achievement), and contextual (living in jurisdictions with secondary or primary safety belt laws, percentage below poverty, percentage same-sex households) risk factors. Public health interventions should address sexual orientation identity disparities in safety belt use.

  5. An object-oriented classification method of high resolution imagery based on improved AdaTree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaohe, Zhang; Liang, Zhai; Jixian, Zhang; Huiyong, Sang

    2014-01-01

    With the popularity of the application using high spatial resolution remote sensing image, more and more studies paid attention to object-oriented classification on image segmentation as well as automatic classification after image segmentation. This paper proposed a fast method of object-oriented automatic classification. First, edge-based or FNEA-based segmentation was used to identify image objects and the values of most suitable attributes of image objects for classification were calculated. Then a certain number of samples from the image objects were selected as training data for improved AdaTree algorithm to get classification rules. Finally, the image objects could be classified easily using these rules. In the AdaTree, we mainly modified the final hypothesis to get classification rules. In the experiment with WorldView2 image, the result of the method based on AdaTree showed obvious accuracy and efficient improvement compared with the method based on SVM with the kappa coefficient achieving 0.9242

  6. Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation of high school students was studied and their relationship with school majoring, GPA and gender. To estimate epistemological beliefs and motivational orientation Schommer’s Epistemological Questionnaire (EQ and Work Preference Inventory (WPI were used. Through factor analysis of EQ 5 factors were extracted, that differ from those Schommer singled out. Negative correlation between naive epistemological beliefs on one side, and intrinsic (-0.327, p<0.01 and general motivation (-0.247, p<0.01 on the other, was determined. Students majoring in social sciences have more mature epistemological beliefs (F=11.278, df=1, p<0.01. Boys have more mature epistemological beliefs than girls only on factor Avoiding relating, ambiguity and dependence on authority (F=16.899, df=1, p<0.01. Correlation between epistemological beliefs and GPA was not determined. Students majoring in social sciences have higher level of motivation (F=6.626, df=1, p<0.05. Girls are more motivated by enjoying in what they are doing (F=6.261, df=1, p<0.05. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018

  7. Quantum oscillation of the c-axis resistivity due to entrance of pancake vortices into micro-fabricated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakeya, I.; Fukui, K.; Kawamata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Kadowaki, K.

    2008-01-01

    The c-axis resistance in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) with areas of the ab-plane less than 2 μm 2 were measured as functions of applied magnetic field and angle to the crystalline axes. When the magnetic field is tilted off from the lock-in state of Josephson vortices, several sharp dips are found. The separation between the dips approaches to the value corresponding to φ 0 with further tilting the external magnetic field. This behavior is attributed to the penetration of a quantized pancake vortex into the tiny IJJ. This argument is further supported by the result that the c-axis resistance under magnetic fields parallel to the c-axis shows identical stepwise behavior

  8. Growth orientation and superconducting properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films prepared by the low-fluorine sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Li; Zhao Gaoyang; Xu Hui; Zhao Juanjuan, E-mail: leili813@gmail.co [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2010-08-15

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films were deposited on (100)-oriented LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) single crystal substrates by the dip-coating process using low-fluorine solution. Their microstructures were characterized with the aid of X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Their superconducting properties were measured by the standard four-probe method. The experiment results show that the film obtained under high enough humidity conditions exhibits better c-axis texture and superconducting properties than the film under a relatively low humidity conditions. Based on the classical nucleation and chemical reaction thermodynamics theory, the underlying crystalline and growth mechanisms of YBCO films under certain humidity conditions are explained in combination with our experimental results. It is suggested that the unreacted intermediate phases such as BaF{sub 2} and CuO aggregated in the YBCO grain boundary will cause lattice distortion in the YBCO matrix and further induce the formation of a-axis oriented YBCO grains as crystallization proceeds. Therefore, it is believed that the relative content of water vapor within the heat-treatment atmosphere plays quite an important role in the preparation of c-axis oriented YBCO film with good superconducting properties. (semiconductor materials)

  9. Delighting the Customer: Creativity-Oriented High-Performance Work Systems, Frontline Employee Creative Performance, and Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Martinaityte, Ieva; Sacramento, Claudia; Aryee, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on self-determination theory, we proposed and tested a cross-level model of how perceived creativity-oriented high-performance work systems (HPWS) influence customer satisfaction. Data were obtained from frontline employees (FLEs), their managers, and branch records of two organizations (retail bank and cosmetics) in Lithuania. Results of multilevel structural equation modeling analyses revealed partial support for our model. Although perceived creativity-oriented HPWS related to crea...

  10. Edge-Oriented Graphene on Carbon Nanofiber for High-Frequency Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nazifah; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2018-03-01

    High-frequency supercapacitors are being studied with the aim to replace the bulky electrolytic capacitors for current ripple filtering and other functions used in power systems. Here, 3D edge-oriented graphene (EOG) was grown encircling carbon nanofiber (CNF) framework to form a highly conductive electrode with a large surface area. Such EOG/CNF electrodes were tested in aqueous and organic electrolytes for high-frequency supercapacitor development. For the aqueous and the organic cell, the characteristic frequency at - 45° phase angle was found to be as high as 22 and 8.5 kHz, respectively. At 120 Hz, the electrode capacitance density was 0.37 and 0.16 mF cm-2 for the two cells. In particular, the 3 V high-frequency organic cell was successfully tested as filtering capacitor used in AC/DC converter, suggesting the promising potential of this technology for compact power supply design and other applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Determining the phonon energy of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by scanning tunneling microscope light emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Yoichi; Michimata, Junichi; Watanabe, Shota; Katano, Satoshi; Inaoka, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) light emission spectra of isolated single Ag nanoparticles lying on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The STM light emission spectra exhibited two types of spectral structures (step-like and periodic). Comparisons of the observed structures and theoretical predictions indicate that the phonon energy of the ZO mode of HOPG [M. Mohr et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 035439 (2007)] can be determined from the energy difference between the cutoff of STM light emission and the step in the former structure, and from the period of the latter structure. Since the role of the Ag nanoparticles does not depend on the substrate materials, this method will enable the phonon energies of various materials to be measured by STM light emission spectroscopy. The spatial resolution is comparable to the lateral size of the individual Ag nanoparticles (that is, a few nm).

  12. Atomic force microscopy study of anion intercalation into highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliata, D; Haering, P; Haas, O; Koetz, R [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Siegenthaler, H [University of Berne (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the context of ion transfer batteries, we studied highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in perchloric acid, as a model to elucidate the mechanism of electrochemical intercalation in graphite. Aim of the work is the local and time dependent investigation of dimensional changes of the host material during electrochemical intercalation processes on the nanometer scale. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM), combined with cyclic voltammetry, as in-situ tool of analysis during intercalation and expulsion of perchloric anions into the HOPG electrodes. According to the AFM measurements, the HOPG interlayer spacing increases by 32% when perchloric anions intercalate, in agreement with the formation of stage IV of graphite intercalation compounds. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  13. Adsorption and manipulation of carbon onions on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite studied with atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianfeng; Shen Ziyong; Hou Shimin; Zhao Xingyu; Xue Zengquan; Shi Zujin; Gu Zhennan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon onions produced by DC arc discharge method were deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface and their adsorption and manipulation was studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM). Well-dispersed adsorption of carbon onions on HOPG surface was obtained and aggregations of onions were not observed. The van der Waals interaction between the onion and HOPG surface and that between two onions, were calculated and discussed using Hamaker's theory. The manipulation of adsorbed onions on HOPG surface was realized using the AFM in both the raster mode and the vector mode. The controllability and precision of two manipulation modes were compared and the vector mode manipulation was found superior, and is a useful technique for the construction of nano-scale devices based on carbon onions

  14. The relevance of goal-orientation for motivation in high versus low proneness to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Engel, Maike; Fladung, Anne-Katharina; Fritzsche, Anja; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-06-01

    The psychological mechanisms of why individuals with negative symptoms fail to initiate and perform goal-directed behavior are not well understood. Drawing on the reward-sensitivity and expectancy-value theories, we investigate whether negative symptom-like experiences (NSLE) are associated with generating less approach goals (aimed at reaching a positive outcome) and more avoidance goals (aimed at avoiding a negative outcome) and whether this type of goal-orientation explains motivational deficits (i.e., perceiving goals as less feasible and important and being less committed to them). Based on the continuum model of negative symptoms, we identified two parallelized extreme groups with high and low levels of NSLE (n = 37, respectively) in an ad-hoc online-sample of healthy individuals (N = 262) using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. In an online study, these participants were instructed to generate approach and avoidance goals and to rate each goal in terms of feasibility, importance and goal-commitment. Participants with low levels of NSLE generated more approach than avoidance goals. Participants with high levels of NSLE showed no such difference due to increased numbers of avoidance goals. Furthermore, avoidance goal-orientation predicted reduced subjective feasibility and importance of goals and less goal-commitment. Results are based on a healthy sample rather than people with psychosis. No longitudinal or behavioral data for goal-striving was collected. People with NSLE generate more avoidance goals than controls. This is dysfunctional because it correlates with feeling less committed to reach one's goals. Optimizing goal-setting could be a promising starting-point for psychological interventions aimed at reducing negative symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of DC bias on magnetic performance of high grades grain-oriented silicon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Guang; Cheng, Ling [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Transmission Technology,Beijing 102211 (China); Lu, Licheng [State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing 100031 (China); Yang, Fuyao; Chen, Xin [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Transmission Technology,Beijing 102211 (China); Zhu, Chengzhi [State Grid Zhejiang Electric Power Company, Hangzhou 310007 (China)

    2017-03-15

    When high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission adopting mono-polar ground return operation mode or unbalanced bipolar operation mode, the invasion of DC current into neutral point of alternating current (AC) transformer will cause core saturation, temperature increasing, and vibration acceleration. Based on the MPG-200D soft magnetic measurement system, the influence of DC bias on magnetic performance of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P{sub 1.7}=0.70–1.05 W/kg, B{sub 8}>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically realized in this paper. For the high magnetic induction GO steels (core losses are the same), greater thickness can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed. Finally, the magnetostriction and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel under DC biased magnetization were researched. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P{sub 1.7}=0.70–1.05 W/kg, B{sub 8}>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically analyzed. • Influence of DC biased magnetization on core loss, magnetostriction, and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel were researched. • Greater thickness and relatively lower magnetic induction (B{sub 8}>1.89 T yet) of GO steel can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed.

  16. Across plane ionic conductivity of highly oriented neodymium doped ceria thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baure, G; Kasse, R M; Rudawski, N G; Nino, J C

    2015-05-14

    A methodology to limit interfacial effects in thin films is proposed and explained. The strategy is to reduce the impact of the electrode interfaces and eliminate cross grain boundaries that impede ionic motion. To this end, highly oriented Nd0.1Ce0.9O2-δ (NDC) nanocrystalline thin films were grown using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on platinized single crystal a-plane sapphire substrates. High resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HR-XTEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) verified the films were textured with columnar grains. The average widths of the columns were approximately 40 nm and not significantly changed by film thickness between 100 and 300 nm. HR-XTEM and XRD determined the {111} planes of NDC were grown preferentially on top of the {111} planes of platinum despite the large lattice mismatch between the two planes. From the XRD patterns, the out of plane strains on the platinum and NDC layers were less than 1%. This can be explained by the coincident site lattice (CSL) theory. Rotating the {111} ceria planes 19.11° with respect to the {111} platinum planes forms a Σ7 boundary where 1 in 7 cerium lattice sites are coincident with the platinum lattice sites. This orientation lowers interfacial energy promoting the preferential alignment of those two planes. The across plane ionic conductivity was measured at low temperatures (<350 °C) for the various film thicknesses. It is here shown that columnar grain growth of ceria can be induced on platinized substrates allowing pathways that are clear of blocking grain boundaries that cause conductivities to diminish as film thickness decreases.

  17. Optimal orientation field to manufacture magnetostrictive composites with high magnetostrictive performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xufeng; Ou Jinping; Guan Xinchun; Qi Min

    2010-01-01

    Magnetostrictive properties have relationship with the applied orientation field during the preparation of giant magnetostrictive composites. To understand the dependence of the optimal orientation field on particle volume fraction, composites with 20%, 30% and 50% particles by volume were fabricated by distributing Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin under various orientation fields. Their magnetostrictive properties were tested without pre-stress at room temperature. The results indicate that as the particle volume fraction increases, the optimal orientation field increases. The main reason for this phenomenon is the packing density for the composites with higher particle volume fraction is larger than that for those with lower particle content.

  18. Optimal orientation field to manufacture magnetostrictive composites with high magnetostrictive performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Xufeng, E-mail: dongxf@dlut.edu.c [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Ou Jinping [School of Civil and Hydraulic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Guan Xinchun [School of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China); Qi Min [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)

    2010-11-15

    Magnetostrictive properties have relationship with the applied orientation field during the preparation of giant magnetostrictive composites. To understand the dependence of the optimal orientation field on particle volume fraction, composites with 20%, 30% and 50% particles by volume were fabricated by distributing Terfenol-D particles in an unsaturated polyester resin under various orientation fields. Their magnetostrictive properties were tested without pre-stress at room temperature. The results indicate that as the particle volume fraction increases, the optimal orientation field increases. The main reason for this phenomenon is the packing density for the composites with higher particle volume fraction is larger than that for those with lower particle content.

  19. Mesoscopic self-organization of a self-assembled supramolecular rectangle on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Au(111) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian-Ru; Wan, Li-Jun; Yuan, Qun-Hui; Bai, Chun-Li; Jude, Hershel; Stang, Peter J

    2005-01-25

    A self-assembled supramolecular metallacyclic rectangle was investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and Au(111) surfaces. The rectangles spontaneously adsorb on both surfaces and self-organize into well ordered adlayers. On highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, the long edge of the rectangle stands on the surface, forming a 2D molecular network. In contrast, the face of the rectangle lays flat on the Au(111) surface, forming linear chains. The structures and intramolecular features obtained through high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging are discussed.

  20. Prediction-Oriented Marker Selection (PROMISE): With Application to High-Dimensional Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soyeon; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lee, J Jack

    2017-06-01

    In personalized medicine, biomarkers are used to select therapies with the highest likelihood of success based on an individual patient's biomarker/genomic profile. Two goals are to choose important biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcomes and to cull unimportant biomarkers to reduce the cost of biological and clinical verifications. These goals are challenging due to the high dimensionality of genomic data. Variable selection methods based on penalized regression (e.g., the lasso and elastic net) have yielded promising results. However, selecting the right amount of penalization is critical to simultaneously achieving these two goals. Standard approaches based on cross-validation (CV) typically provide high prediction accuracy with high true positive rates but at the cost of too many false positives. Alternatively, stability selection (SS) controls the number of false positives, but at the cost of yielding too few true positives. To circumvent these issues, we propose prediction-oriented marker selection (PROMISE), which combines SS with CV to conflate the advantages of both methods. Our application of PROMISE with the lasso and elastic net in data analysis shows that, compared to CV, PROMISE produces sparse solutions, few false positives, and small type I + type II error, and maintains good prediction accuracy, with a marginal decrease in the true positive rates. Compared to SS, PROMISE offers better prediction accuracy and true positive rates. In summary, PROMISE can be applied in many fields to select regularization parameters when the goals are to minimize false positives and maximize prediction accuracy.

  1. Deposition of highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films by using metal organic chemical deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, K H; Choi, D K; Seong, W K; Kim, J D

    1999-01-01

    Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been grown on Pt/Ta/SiNx/Si substrates by using metal organic chemical vapor deposition with Pb(C sub 2 H sub 5) sub 4 , Zr(O-t-C sub 4 H sub 9) sub 4 , and Ti(O-i-C sub 3 H sub 7) sub 4 as source materials and O sub 2 as an oxidizing gas. The Zr fraction in the thin films was controlled by varying the flow rate of the Zr source material. The crystal structure and the electrical properties were investigated as functions of the composition. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that at a certain range of Zr fraction, highly (111)-oriented PZT thin films with no pyrochlore phases were deposited. On the other hand, at low Zr fractions, there were peaks from Pb-oxide phases. At high Zr fractions, peaks from pyrochlore phase were seen. The films also showed good electrical properties, such as a high dielectric constant of more than 1200 and a low coercive voltage of 1.35 V.

  2. ROSE: A realtime object oriented software environment for high fidelity replica simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovitch, A.

    1994-01-01

    An object oriented software environment used for the production testing and documentation of real time models for high fidelity training simulators encompasses a wide variety of software constructs including code generators for various classes of physical systems, model executive control programs, a high resolution graphics editor, as well as databases and associated access routines used to store and control information transfer among the various software entities. CAE Electronics' newly developed ROSE allows for the generation and integrated test of thermalhydraulic, analog control, digital control and electrical system models. Based on an iconical/standard subroutine representation of standard plant components along with an admittance matrix solution governed by the topology of the system under consideration, the ROSE blends together network solution algorithms and standard component models, both previously time tested via manual implementation into a single integrated automated software environment. The methodology employed to construct the ROSE, along with a synopsis of the various CASE tools integrated together to form a complete graphics based system for high fidelity real time code generation and validation is described in the presentation. (1 fig.)

  3. Synthesis of c-oriented YbBa2Cu3O7-δ films on single and polycrystalline substrates by oxidation of liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, J.S.; Merchant, N.; Maroni, V.A.; Gruen, D.M.; Tani, B.S.; Sandhage, K.H.; Craven, C.A.

    1991-11-01

    Textured superconducting films of YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ supported on single and polycrystalline substrates were prepared by oxidation of a liquid precursor alloy. The substrates were coated by dipping them into a molten alloy (YbBa 2 Cu 3 , m.p. ∼870 degree C), withdrawing them from the melt, then oxidizing the adhering liquid alloy layer to the corresponding oxide phase, i.e., YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . Samples prepared in this way exhibited a superconducting transition at ∼80 K following annealing in pure OP 2 at 500 degree C. With SrTiO 3 (100) and MgO (100) substrates, evidence was seen for the epitaxial growth of YbBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ crystals having their c-axis parallel to the [100] direction of the substrate. For polycrystalline MgO, x-ray diffraction and microstructural examination showed that the high-T c crystallites in the films were also oriented with their c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, but the a and b axes directions were randomly oriented rather than epitaxial

  4. Grain Oriented Perovskite Layer Structure Ceramics for High-Temperature Piezoelectric Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuierer, Paul Anton

    The perovskite layer structure (PLS) compounds have the general formula (A^{2+}) _2(B^{5+})_2 O_7, or (A^ {3+})_2(B^{4+ })_2O_7, and crystallize in a very anisotropic layered structure consisting of parallel slabs made up of perovskite units. Several of these compounds possess the highest Curie temperatures (T_{rm c} ) of any known ferroelectrics. Two examples are Sr_2Nb_2O _7 with T_{rm c} of 1342^circC, and La_2Ti_2O _7 with T_{rm c} of 1500^circC. This thesis is an investigation of PLS ceramics and their feasibility as a high temperature transducer material. Piezoelectricity in single crystals has been measured, but the containerless float zone apparatus necessary to grow high quality crystals of these refractory compounds is expensive and limited to a small number of research groups. Previous attempts to pole polycrystalline Sr_2Nb _2O_7 have failed, and to this point piezoelectricity has been absent. The initiative taken in this research was to investigate PLS ceramics by way of composition and processing schemes such that polycrystalline bodies could be electrically poled. The ultimate objective then was to demonstrate piezoelectricity in PLS ceramics, especially at high temperatures. Donor-doping of both La_2Ti _2O_7 and Sr_2Nb_2O _7 was found to increase volume resistivities at elevated temperatures, an important parameter to consider during the poling process. Sr_2Ta _2O_7 (T _{rm c} = -107 ^circC) was used to make solid solution compositions with moderately high Curie temperatures, of about 850^circC, and lower coercive fields. A hot-forging technique was employed to produce ceramics with high density (>99% of theoretical) and high degree of grain orientation (>90%). Texturing was characterized by x-ray diffraction and microscopy. Considerable anisotropy was observed in physical and electrical properties, including thermal expansion, resistivity, dielectric constant, and polarization. The direction perpendicular to the forging axis proved to be the

  5. Gender Differences in Self-Concept, Locus of Control, and Goal Orientation in Mexican High-Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Sánchez Escobedo, Pedro Antonio; Valadez-Sierra, María Dolores

    2015-01-01

    The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as…

  6. Non-interferometric determination of optical anisotropy in highly-oriented fibres using transport intensity equation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokkar, T. Z. N.; El-Farahaty, K. A.; El-Bakary, M. A.; Raslan, M. I.; Omar, E. Z.; Hamza, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    The optical setup of the transport intensity equation (TIE) technique is developed to be valid for measuring the optical properties of the highly-oriented anisotropic fibres. This development is based on the microstructure models of the highly-oriented anisotropic fibres and the principle of anisotropy. We provide the setup of TIE technique with polarizer which is controlled via stepper motor. This developed technique is used to investigate the refractive indices in the parallel and perpendicular polarization directions of light for the highly-oriented poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibres and hence its birefringence. The obtained results through the developed TIE technique for PET fibre are compared with that determined experimentally using the Mach-Zehnder interferometer under the same conditions. The comparison shows a good agreement between the obtained results from the developed technique and that obtained from the Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique.

  7. Language-mediated visual orienting behavior in low and high literates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk eHuettig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of formal literacy on spoken language-mediated visual orienting was investigated by using a simple look and listen task (cf. Huettig & Altmann, 2005 which resembles every day behavior. In Experiment 1, high and low literates listened to spoken sentences containing a target word (e.g., 'magar', crocodile while at the same time looking at a visual display of four objects (a phonological competitor of the target word, e.g., 'matar', peas; a semantic competitor, e.g., 'kachuwa', turtle, and two unrelated distractors. In Experiment 2 the semantic competitor was replaced with another unrelated distractor. Both groups of participants shifted their eye gaze to the semantic competitors (Experiment 1. In both experiments high literates shifted their eye gaze towards phonological competitors as soon as phonological information became available and moved their eyes away as soon as the acoustic information mismatched. Low literates in contrast only used phonological information when semantic matches between spoken word and visual referent were impossible (Experiment 2 but in contrast to high literates these phonologically-mediated shifts in eye gaze were not closely time-locked to the speech input. We conclude that in high literates language-mediated shifts in overt attention are co-determined by the type of information in the visual environment, the timing of cascaded processing in the word- and object-recognition systems, and the temporal unfolding of the spoken language. Our findings indicate that low literates exhibit a similar cognitive behavior but instead of participating in a tug-of-war among multiple types of cognitive representations, word-object mapping is achieved primarily at the semantic level. If forced, for instance by a situation in which semantic matches are not present (Experiment 2, low literates may on occasion have to rely on phonological information but do so in a much less proficient manner than their highly literate

  8. Object-oriented classification of land use in urban areas applying very high resolution satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.B.

    2001-08-01

    The availability of the new very high resolution satellite imagery will offer a wide range of new applications in the field of remote sensing. Information about actual land use is an important task for the management and planning in urban areas. High resolution satellite data will be an alternative to aerial photographs for updating and maintaining cartographic and geographic databases at reduced costs. The aim of the research is to formalize the visual interpretation procedure in order to automate the whole process. The assumption underlying this approach is that the land use functions can be distinguished on the basis of the differences in spatial distribution and pattern of land cover forms. Therefore a two-stage classification procedure is applied. In a first stage a land cover map is produced. In a second stage the morphological properties and spatial patterns of the land cover objects are analyzed with the structural analyzing and mapping system leading to a characterization and description of distinct urban land use categories. This information is then used for building a rule system that is implemented in a new commercial software tool called eCognition. An object-oriented classifier applies the rules to the land cover objects resulting in the required land use map. The potential of this method is demonstrated in a case study using IKONOS data covering a part of the metropolitan area of Vienna. (author)

  9. Automatic compilation from high-level biologically-oriented programming language to genetic regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Jacob; Lu, Ting; Weiss, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology promises to revolutionize our ability to engineer biological systems, providing important benefits for a variety of applications. Recent advances in DNA synthesis and automated DNA assembly technologies suggest that it is now possible to construct synthetic systems of significant complexity. However, while a variety of novel genetic devices and small engineered gene networks have been successfully demonstrated, the regulatory complexity of synthetic systems that have been reported recently has somewhat plateaued due to a variety of factors, including the complexity of biology itself and the lag in our ability to design and optimize sophisticated biological circuitry. To address the gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities, we present a platform that enables synthetic biologists to express desired behavior using a convenient high-level biologically-oriented programming language, Proto. The high level specification is compiled, using a regulatory motif based mechanism, to a gene network, optimized, and then converted to a computational simulation for numerical verification. Through several example programs we illustrate the automated process of biological system design with our platform, and show that our compiler optimizations can yield significant reductions in the number of genes (~ 50%) and latency of the optimized engineered gene networks. Our platform provides a convenient and accessible tool for the automated design of sophisticated synthetic biological systems, bridging an important gap between DNA synthesis and circuit design capabilities. Our platform is user-friendly and features biologically relevant compiler optimizations, providing an important foundation for the development of sophisticated biological systems.

  10. IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis regulates the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu; Liu, Genxia; Jin, Lin; Pang, Xiyao; Wang, Yanqiu; Wang, Zilu; Yu, Yan; Yu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor IGF-1R play a paramount role in tooth/bone formation while hsa-let-7c actively participates in the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the interaction between IGF-1/IGF-1R and hsa-let-7c on the committed differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remains unclear. In this study, human SCAPs were isolated and treated with IGF-1 and hsa-let-7c over/low-expression viruses. The odonto/osteogenic differentiation of these stem cells and the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were subsequently investigated. Alizarin red staining showed that hsa-let-7c low-expression can significantly promote the mineralization of IGF-1 treated SCAPs, while hsa-let-7c over-expression can decrease the calcium deposition of IGF-1 treated SCAPs. Western blot assay and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction further demonstrated that the expression of odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, COL-I/COL-I, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1) in IGF-1 treated SCAPs were significantly upregulated in Let-7c-low group. On the contrary, hsa-let-7c over-expression could downregulate the expression of these odonto/osteogenic markers. Moreover, western blot assay showed that the JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways were activated in Let-7c-low SCAPs but inhibited in Let-7c-over SCAPs. Together, the IGF-1/IGF-1R/hsa-let-7c axis can control the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of IGF-1-treated SCAPs via the regulation of JNK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:27833148

  11. Multiple Scattering Approach to Polarization Dependence of F K-Edge XANES Spectra for Highly Oriented Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, S.; Ono, M.; Kera, S.; Okudaira, K. K.; Fujikawa, T.; Ueno, N.

    2007-01-01

    The polarization dependence of F K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of highly-oriented thin-film of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been analyzed by using multiple scattering theory. The spectra show clear polarization dependence due to the highly-oriented structure. The multiple scattering calculations reflects a local structure around an absorbing atom. The calculated results obtained by considering intermolecular-interactions are in good agreement with the observed polarization-dependence. We have also analyzed structural models of the radiation damaged PTFE films

  12. Laterally orienting C. elegans using geometry at microscale for high-throughput visual screens in neurodegeneration and neuronal development studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan de Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available C. elegans is an excellent model system for studying neuroscience using genetics because of its relatively simple nervous system, sequenced genome, and the availability of a large number of transgenic and mutant strains. Recently, microfluidic devices have been used for high-throughput genetic screens, replacing traditional methods of manually handling C. elegans. However, the orientation of nematodes within microfluidic devices is random and often not conducive to inspection, hindering visual analysis and overall throughput. In addition, while previous studies have utilized methods to bias head and tail orientation, none of the existing techniques allow for orientation along the dorso-ventral body axis. Here, we present the design of a simple and robust method for passively orienting worms into lateral body positions in microfluidic devices to facilitate inspection of morphological features with specific dorso-ventral alignments. Using this technique, we can position animals into lateral orientations with up to 84% efficiency, compared to 21% using existing methods. We isolated six mutants with neuronal development or neurodegenerative defects, showing that our technology can be used for on-chip analysis and high-throughput visual screens.

  13. Highly Oriented Growth of Catalytically Active Zeolite ZSM-5 Films with a Broad Range of Si/Al Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Donglong; Schmidt, Joel E; Ristanović, Zoran; Chowdhury, Abhishek Dutta; Meirer, Florian; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2017-09-04

    Highly b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films are critical for applications in catalysis and separations and may serve as models to study diffusion and catalytic properties in single zeolite channels. However, the introduction of catalytically active Al 3+ usually disrupts the orientation of zeolite films. Herein, using structure-directing agents with hydroxy groups, we demonstrate a new method to prepare highly b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films with a broad range of Si/Al ratios (Si/Al=45 to ∞). Fluorescence micro-(spectro)scopy was used to monitor misoriented microstructures, which are invisible to X-ray diffraction, and show Al 3+ framework incorporation and illustrate the differences between misoriented and b-oriented films. The methanol-to-hydrocarbons process was studied by operando UV/Vis diffuse reflectance micro-spectroscopy with on-line mass spectrometry, showing that the b-oriented zeolite ZSM-5 films are active and stable under realistic process conditions. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Strength, anisotropy, and preferred orientation of solid argon at high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ho-kwang; Badro, James; Shu, Jinfu; Hemley, Russell J.; Singh, Anil K.

    2006-06-01

    The elasticity and plasticity of materials at high pressure are of great importance for the fundamental insight they provide on bonding properties in dense matter and for applications ranging from geophysics to materials technology. We studied pressure-solidified argon with a boron-epoxy-beryllium composite gasket in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Employing monochromatic synchrotron x-radiation and imaging plates in a radial diffraction geometry (Singh et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2157; Mao et al 1998 Nature 396 741), we observed low strength in solid argon below 20 GPa, but the strength increases drastically with applied pressure, such that at 55 GPa, the shear strength exceeded 2.7 GPa. The elastic anisotropy at 55 GPa was four times higher than the extrapolated value from 30 GPa. Extensive (111) slip develops under uniaxial compression, as manifested by the preferred crystallographic orientation of (220) in the compression direction. These macroscopic properties reflect basic changes in van der Waals bondings under ultrahigh pressures.

  15. Strength, anisotropy, and preferred orientation of solid argon at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Ho-kwang; Badro, James; Shu, Jinfu; Hemley, Russell J; Singh, Anil K

    2006-01-01

    The elasticity and plasticity of materials at high pressure are of great importance for the fundamental insight they provide on bonding properties in dense matter and for applications ranging from geophysics to materials technology. We studied pressure-solidified argon with a boron-epoxy-beryllium composite gasket in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Employing monochromatic synchrotron x-radiation and imaging plates in a radial diffraction geometry (Singh et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 2157; Mao et al 1998 Nature 396 741), we observed low strength in solid argon below 20 GPa, but the strength increases drastically with applied pressure, such that at 55 GPa, the shear strength exceeded 2.7 GPa. The elastic anisotropy at 55 GPa was four times higher than the extrapolated value from 30 GPa. Extensive (111) slip develops under uniaxial compression, as manifested by the preferred crystallographic orientation of (220) in the compression direction. These macroscopic properties reflect basic changes in van der Waals bondings under ultrahigh pressures

  16. Electronic Transport and Raman Spectroscopy Characterization in Ion-Implanted Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, R. F.; Turatti, A. M.; Camargo, B. C.; da Silva, R. R.; Kopelevich, Y.; Behar, M.; Balzaretti, N. M.; Gusmão, M. A.; Pureur, P.

    2018-02-01

    We report on Raman spectroscopy, temperature-dependent in-plane resistivity, and in-plane magnetoresistance experiments in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) implanted with As and Mn. A pristine sample was also studied for comparison. Two different fluences were applied, φ = 0.5× 10^{16} {ions}/{cm}2 and φ = 1.0× 10^{16} {ions}/{cm}2. The implantations were carried out with 20 keV ion energy at room temperature. The Raman spectroscopy results reveal the occurrence of drastic changes of the HOPG surface as a consequence of the damage caused by ionic implantation. For the higher dose, the complete amorphization limit is attained. The resistivity and magnetoresistance results were obtained placing electrical contacts on the irradiated sample surface. Owing to the strong anisotropy of HOPG, the electrical current propagates mostly near the implanted surface. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations were observed in the magnetoresistance at low temperatures. These results allow the extraction of the fundamental SdH frequencies and the carriers' effective masses. In general, the resistivity and magnetoresistance results are consistent with those obtained from Raman measurements. However, one must consider that the electrical conduction in our samples occurs as in a parallel association of a largely resistive thin sheet at the surface strongly modified by disorder with a thicker layer where damage produced by implantation is less severe. The SdH oscillations do not hint to significant changes in the carrier density of HOPG.

  17. Swift heavy ions induced irradiation effects in monolayer graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, J.; Yao, H.J.; Zhang, S.X.; Zhai, P.F.; Duan, J.L.; Sun, Y.M.; Li, G.P.; Liu, J.

    2014-01-01

    Monolayer graphene and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) were irradiated by swift heavy ions ( 209 Bi and 112 Sn) with the fluence between 10 11 and 10 14 ions/cm 2 . Both pristine and irradiated samples were investigated by Raman spectroscopy. It was found that D and D′ peaks appear after irradiation, which indicated the ion irradiation introduced damage both in the graphene and graphite lattice. Due to the special single atomic layer structure of graphene, the irradiation fluence threshold Φ th of the D band of graphene is significantly lower ( 11 ions/cm 2 ) than that (2.5 × 10 12 ions/cm 2 ) of HOPG. The larger defect density in graphene than in HOPG indicates that the monolayer graphene is much easier to be damaged than bulk graphite by swift heavy ions. Moreover, different defect types in graphene and HOPG were detected by the different values of I D /I D′ . For the irradiation with the same electronic energy loss, the velocity effect was found in HOPG. However, in this experiment, the velocity effect was not observed in graphene samples irradiated by swift heavy ions

  18. Recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manea, L. R.; Hristian, L.; Leon, A. L.; Popa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Among the foreground domains of all the research-development programs at national and international level, a special place is occupied by that concerning the nanosciences, nanotechnologies, new materials and technologies. Electrospinning found a well-deserved place in this space, offering the preparation of nanomaterials with distinctive properties and applications in medicine, environment, photonic sensors, filters, etc. These multiple applications are generated by the fact that the electrospinning technology makes available the production of nanofibers with controllable characteristics (length, porosity, density, and mechanical characteristics), complexity and architecture. The apparition of 3D printing technology favors the production of complex nanofibrous structures, controlled assembly, self-assembly of electrospun nanofibers for the production of scaffolds used in various medical applications. The architecture of fibrous deposits has a special influence on the subsequent development of the cells of the reconstructed organism. The present work proposes to study of recent progress concerning the production of controlled highly oriented electrospun nanofibrous arrays and progress in research on the production of complex 2D and 3D structures.

  19. Object-oriented wavefront correction in an asymmetric amplifying high-power laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Deen; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Wanjun; Hu, Dongxia; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Junpu; Zeng, Fa; Wang, Shenzhen; Zhou, Wei; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2018-05-01

    An object-oriented wavefront control method is proposed aiming for excellent near-field homogenization and far-field distribution in an asymmetric amplifying high-power laser system. By averaging the residual errors of the propagating beam, smaller pinholes could be employed on the spatial filters to improve the beam quality. With this wavefront correction system, the laser performance of the main amplifier system in the Shen Guang-III laser facility has been improved. The residual wavefront aberration at the position of each pinhole is below 2 µm (peak-to-valley). For each pinhole, 95% of the total laser energy is enclosed within a circle whose diameter is no more than six times the diffraction limit. At the output of the main laser system, the near-field modulation and contrast are 1.29% and 7.5%, respectively, and 95% of the 1ω (1053 nm) beam energy is contained within a 39.8 µrad circle (6.81 times the diffraction limit) under a laser fluence of 5.8 J cm-2. The measured 1ω focal spot size and near-field contrast are better than the design values of the Shen Guang-III laser facility.

  20. Effect of substituted rare earth element in (Yb1-xNd x)Ba2Cu3O y thin film on growth orientation and superconducting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, R.; Ichino, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Takai, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Ichinose, A.; Kita, R.; Mukaida, M.; Horii, S.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the orientation and superconducting properties in (Yb 1-x Nd x )Ba 2 Cu 3 O y (Yb/Nd123) thin films as a function of Yb/Nd composition ratio x. As a results, we needed so high oxygen pressure as to increase x for obtaining the c-axis oriented films. J c -B curves in the Yb/Nd123 thin films were superior to that in YBa 2 Cu 3 O y thin film. Since a RE fluctuation in a composition in the Yb/Nd123 thin films was observed with TEM-EDX, we speculated the pinning centers in the Yb/Nd123 thin films were strongly affected by the RE fluctuation

  1. Out-of-substrate plane orientation control of thin YBa2Cu3O x films on NdGaO3 tilted-axes substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozhaev, Peter B.; Mozhaeva, Julia E.; Bdikin, Igor K.; Kotelyanskii, Iosif M.; Lusanov, Valery A.; Hansen, Jorn Bindslev; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Kholkin, Andrey L.

    2006-01-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (YBCO)/CeO 2 /NdGaO 3 were prepared on tilted-axes NdGaO 3 substrates using laser ablation technique. Morphology, crystal structure and electrical properties of the obtained films were characterized. The seeding mechanisms are affected by the tilt angle, resulting in superior YBCO films on NdGaO 3 substrates in an intermediate range of tilt angles of 6-14 o . The introduction of CeO 2 layer leads to change of the YBCO film orientation: at low deposition rate c-oriented films are formed, while at high deposition rates the film grows with c-axis tilted along the [1 1 0] NdGaO 3 direction. Bi-epitaxial films and structures were prepared by removal of part of the CeO 2 layer using ion-beam milling

  2. Thermal wave interference with high-power VCSEL arrays for locating vertically oriented subsurface defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Erik; Kreutzbruck, Marc; Studemund, Taarna; Ziegler, Mathias

    2018-04-01

    Among the photothermal methods, full-field thermal imaging is used to characterize materials, to determine thicknesses of layers, or to find inhomogeneities such as voids or cracks. The use of classical light sources such as flash lamps (impulse heating) or halogen lamps (modulated heating) led to a variety of nondestructive testing methods, in particular, lock-in and flash-thermography. In vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), laser light is emitted perpendicularly to the surface with a symmetrical beam profile. Due to the vertical structure, they can be arranged in large arrays of many thousands of individual lasers, which allows power scaling into the kilowatt range. Recently, a high-power yet very compact version of such a VCSEL-array became available that offers both the fast timing behavior of a laser as well as the large illumination area of a lamp. Moreover, it allows a spatial and temporal control of the heating because individual parts of the array can be controlled arbitrarily in frequency, amplitude, and phase. In conjunction with a fast infrared camera, such structured heating opens up a field of novel thermal imaging and testing methods. As a first demonstration of this approach, we chose a testing problem very challenging to conventional thermal infrared testing: The detection of very thin subsurface defects perpendicularly oriented to the surface of metallic samples. First, we generate destructively interfering thermal wave fields, which are then affected by the presence of defects within their reach. It turned out that this technique allows highly sensitive detection of subsurface defects down to depths in excess of the usual thermographic rule of thumb, with no need for a reference or surface preparation.

  3. High genetic diversity and structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in its range of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zheng

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit moth Grapholita ( = Cydia molesta is a key fruit pest globally. Despite its economic importance, little is known about its population genetics in its putative native range that includes China. We used five polymorphic microsatellite loci and two mitochondrial gene sequences to characterize the population genetic diversity and genetic structure of G. molesta from nine sublocations in three regions of a major fruit growing area of China. Larval samples were collected throughout the season from peach, and in late season, after host switch by the moth to pome fruit, also from apple and pear. We found high numbers of microsatellite alleles and mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in all regions, together with a high number of private alleles and of haplotypes at all sublocations, providing strong evidence that the sampled area belongs to the origin of this species. Samples collected from peach at all sublocations were geographically structured, and a significant albeit weak pattern of isolation-by-distance was found among populations, likely reflecting the low flight capacity of this moth. Interestingly, populations sampled from apple and pear in the late season showed a structure differing from that of populations sampled from peach throughout the season, indicating a selective host switch of a certain part of the population only. The recently detected various olfactory genotypes in G. molesta may underly this selective host switch. These genetic data yield, for the first time, an understanding of population dynamics of G. molesta in its native range, and of a selective host switch from peach to pome fruit, which may have a broad applicability to other global fruit production areas for designing suitable pest management strategies.

  4. Deposition of highly oriented (K,Na)NbO3 films on flexible metal substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Thydén, Karl; Bowen, Jacob R.

    2018-01-01

    In view of developing flexible, highly textured Pb-free piezoelectric thin films, (K,Na)NbO3 was deposited by chemical solution deposition on cube-textured Ni-W alloy substrates. After heat treatment, a strong (001)pc out-of-plane preferential orientation is created in the (K,Na)NbO3 layer, which...

  5. Orientation dependent slip and twinning during compression and tension of strongly textured magnesium AZ31 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Samman, T., E-mail: al-samman@imm.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Li, X. [Institut fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, D-52064 Aachen (Germany); Chowdhury, S. Ghosh [CSIR National Metallurgical Laboratory, MST Division, Jamshedpur 831007 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Over recent years there have been a remarkable number of studies dealing with compression of magnesium. A literature search, however, shows a noticeably less number of papers concerned with tension and a very few papers comparing both modes, systematically, in one study. The current investigation reports the anisotropic deformation behavior and concomitant texture and microstructure evolution investigated in uniaxial tension and compression tests in two sample directions performed on an extruded commercial magnesium alloy AZ31 at different Z conditions. For specimens with the loading direction parallel to the extrusion axis, the tension-compression strength anisotropy was pronounced at high Z conditions. Loading at 45{sup o} from the extrusion axis yielded a tension-compression strength behavior that was close to isotropic. During tensile loading along the extrusion direction the extrusion texture resists twinning and favors prismatic slip (contrary to compression). This renders the shape change maximum in the basal plane and equal to zero along the c-axis, which resulted in the orientation of individual grains remaining virtually intact during all tension tests at different Z conditions. For the other investigated sample direction, straining was accommodated along the c-axis, which was associated with a lattice rotation, and thus, a change of crystal orientation. Uniaxial compression at a low Z condition (400 deg. C/10{sup -4} s{sup -1}) yielded a desired texture degeneration, which was explained on the basis of a more homogeneous partitioning of slip systems that reduces anisotropy and enhanced dynamic recrystallization (DRX), which counteracts the strong deformation texture. The critical strains for the nucleation of DRX in tensiled specimens at the highest investigated Z condition (200 deg. C/10{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were found to range between 4% and 5.6%.

  6. Characterization of highly (110)- and (111)-oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 films on BaPbO3 electrode using Ru conducting barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, C.-S.; Wu, J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Highly non-(001)-oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) films have been fabricated by rf-magnetron sputtering. The preferential (110)-oriented BaPbO 3 (BPO) deposited on Ru buffer layer induces the growth of (110)-oriented PZT film. With the aid of self-organized growth of PZT, the orientation of the film deposited on random-oriented BPO/Pt(111)/Ru(002) is (111)-preferred. The insertion of Pt layer between BPO and Ru changes the orientation of PZT from (110) to (111) and prevents the oxygen diffusion. These non-(001)-oriented PZT films possess more superior ferroelectric, fatigue, and retention properties than those of (001)-oriented PZT films

  7. Fabrication of highly oriented D03-Fe3Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Muneyuki; Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko; Nakao, Motoi; Sudoh, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe 3 Si with a D0 3 structure are fabricated on SiO 2 using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO 2 layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with D0 3 , B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe 3 Si nanocrystals with a D0 3 single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0 3 -Fe 3 Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0 3 structure after post-deposition annealing

  8. Fabrication of highly oriented reduced graphene oxide microbelts array for massive production of sensitive ammonia gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhang, Rongfu; Wang, Xiaona; Feng, Wei; Hu, PingAn; Wang, Zhenlong; O’Neill, William

    2013-01-01

    Patterning oriented reduced graphene oxide (rGO) into functional structures is significant for its application in electronics and sensors. A large array of highly oriented rGO microbelts are prepared by a soft lithography process. These rGO microbelts have a uniform structure that enables the massive production of graphene electronics using a simple mask shielding process. A high performance NH 3 sensor array which was fabricated from rGO microbelts exhibits a reproducible performance with the relative resistance response (ΔR/R 0 ) reaching 0.35, whilst offering a large concentration range response of 10 ppm ∼38%, showing these sensors to be both highly sensitive and responsive. The impact of working temperature on the response to NH 3 in low and high concentration ranges of NH 3 is also discussed. (paper)

  9. Stacking Orientation Mediation of Pentacene and Derivatives for High Open-Circuit Voltage Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chi-Ta; Lin, Chien-Hung; Tai, Yian; Liu, Chin-Hsin J; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2012-05-03

    In this Letter, we investigated the effect of the molecular stacking orientation on the open circuit voltage (VOC) of pentacene-based organic solar cells. Two functionalized pentacenes, namely, 6,13-diphenyl-pentacene (DP-penta) and 6,13-dibiphenyl-4-yl-pentacene (DB-penta), were utilized. Different molecular stacking orientations of the pentacene derivatives from the pristine pentacene were identified by angle-dependent near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. It is concluded that pentacene molecules stand up on the substrate surface, while both functionalized pentacenes lie down. A significant increase of the VOC from 0.28 to 0.83 V can be achieved upon the utilization of functionalized pentacene, owing to the modulation of molecular stacking orientation, which induced a vacuum-level shift.

  10. 3D highly oriented nanoparticulate and microparticulate array of metal oxide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayssieres, Lionel; Guo, Jinghua; Nordgren, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Advanced nano and micro particulate thin films of 3d transition and post-transition metal oxides consisting of nanorods and microrods with parallel and perpendicular orientation with respect to the substrate normal, have been successfully grown onto various substrates by heteronucleation, without template and/or surfactant, from the aqueous condensation of solution of metal salts or metal complexes (aqueous chemical growth). Three-dimensional arrays of iron oxide nanorods and zinc oxide nanorods with parallel and perpendicular orientation are presented as well as the oxygen K-edge polarization dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) study of anisotropic perpendicularly oriented microrod array of ZnO performed at synchrotron radiation source facility

  11. High-efficiency orange and tandem white organic light-emitting diodes using phosphorescent dyes with horizontally oriented emitting dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghun; Shin, Hyun; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2014-09-03

    Tandem white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) using horizontally oriented phosphorescent dyes in an exciplex-forming co-host are presented, along with an orange OLED. A high external quantum efficiency of 32% is achieved for the orange OLED at 1000 cd m(-2) and the tandem WOLEDs exhibit a high maximum EQE of 54.3% (PE of 63 lm W(-1)). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The effect of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of highly oriented polypropylene tapes and all-polypropylene composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcock, B.; Cabrera, N.O.; Barkoula, N.M.; Reynolds, C.T.; Govaert, L.E.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The creation of highly oriented, co-extruded polypropylene (PP) tapes allows the production of recyclable "all-polypropylene" (all-PP) composites, with a large temperature processing window and a high volume fraction of highly oriented PP (>90%). The wholly thermoplastic nature of these

  13. [100]-Oriented LiFePO4 Nanoflakes toward High Rate Li-Ion Battery Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaojin; Peng, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Tao; Hu, Minmin; Zhu, Kongjun; Wang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-13

    [100] is believed to be a tough diffusion direction for Li(+) in LiFePO4, leading to the belief that the rate performance of [100]-oriented LiFePO4 is poor. Here we report the fabrication of 12 nm-thick [100]-oriented LiFePO4 nanoflakes by a simple one-pot solvothermal method. The nanoflakes exhibit unexpectedly excellent electrochemical performance, in stark contrast to what was previously believed. Such an exceptional result is attributed to a decreased thermodynamic transformation barrier height (Δμb) associated with increased active population.

  14. Highly active engineered-enzyme oriented monolayers: formation, characterization and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patolsky Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in introducing ecologically-clean, and efficient enzymes into modern industry has been growing steadily. However, difficulties associated with controlling their orientation, and maintaining their selectivity and reactivity is still a significant obstacle. We have developed precise immobilization of biomolecules, while retaining their native functionality, and report a new, fast, easy, and reliable procedure of protein immobilization, with the use of Adenylate kinase as a model system. Methods Self-assembled monolayers of hexane-1,6-dithiol were formed on gold surfaces. The monolayers were characterized by contact-angle measurements, Elman-reagent reaction, QCM, and XPS. A specifically designed, mutated Adenylate kinase, where cysteine was inserted at the 75 residue, and the cysteine at residue 77 was replaced by serine, was used for attachment to the SAM surface via spontaneously formed disulfide (S-S bonds. QCM, and XPS were used for characterization of the immobilized protein layer. Curve fitting in XPS measurements used a Gaussian-Lorentzian function. Results and Discussion Water contact angle (65-70°, as well as all characterization techniques used, confirmed the formation of self-assembled monolayer with surface SH groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed clearly the two types of sulfur atom, one attached to the gold (triolate and the other (SH/S-S at the ω-position for the hexane-1,6-dithiol SAMs. The formation of a protein monolayer was confirmed using XPS, and QCM, where the QCM-determined amount of protein on the surface was in agreement with a model that considered the surface area of a single protein molecule. Enzymatic activity tests of the immobilized protein confirmed that there is no change in enzymatic functionality, and reveal activity ~100 times that expected for the same amount of protein in solution. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, immobilization of a protein by the method

  15. Preparation and characterization of Grain-Oriented Barium Titanate Ceramics Using Electrophoresis Deposition Method under A High Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, T; Kondo, S; Takei, T; Kumada, N; Nakashima, K; Fujii, I; Wada, S [Material Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medical and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510 (Japan); Suzuki, T S; Uchikoshi, T; Sakka, Y [National Institute for materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Miwa, Y; Kawada, S; Kimura, M, E-mail: swada@yamanashi.ac.jp [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. 2288 Ooshinohara, Yasu, Shiga 520-2393 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    Barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) grain-oriented ceramics were prepared using electrophoresis deposition (EPD) method under high magnetic field of 12 T. First, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with high c/a ratio of 1.008 and size of 84 nm were prepared by two-step thermal decomposition method with barium titanyl oxalate nanoparticles. Using the BaTiO{sub 3} slurry, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticle accumulations were prepared by EPD method under high magnetic field. After binder burnout, the accumulations were sintered and BaTiO{sub 3} grain-oriented ceramics were prepared. Moreover, dielectric properties of their ceramics were investigated

  16. Results on the Coherent Interaction of High Energy Electrons and Photons in Oriented Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Apyan, A.; Badelek, B.; Ballestrero, S.; Biino, C.; Birol, I.; Cenci, P.; Connell, S.H.; Eichblatt, S.; Fonseca, T.; Freund, A.; Gorini, B.; Groess, R.; Ispirian, K.; Ketel, T.J.; Kononets, Yu.V.; Lopez, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; van Rens, B.; Sellschop, J.P.F.; Shieh, M.; Sona, P.; Strakhovenko, V.; Uggerhoj, E.; Uggerhj, Ulrik Ingerslev; Unel, G.; Velasco, M.; Vilakazi, Z.Z.; Wessely, O.; Kononets, Yu.V.

    2005-01-01

    The CERN-NA-59 experiment examined a wide range of electromagnetic processes for multi-GeV electrons and photons interacting with oriented single crystals. The various types of crystals and their orientations were used for producing photon beams and for converting and measuring their polarisation. The radiation emitted by 178 GeV unpolarised electrons incident on a 1.5 cm thick Si crystal oriented in the Coherent Bremsstrahlung (CB) and the String-of-Strings (SOS) modes was used to obtain multi-GeV linearly polarised photon beams. A new crystal polarimetry technique was established for measuring the linear polarisation of the photon beam. The polarimeter is based on the dependence of the Coherent Pair Production (CPP) cross section in oriented single crystals on the direction of the photon polarisation with respect to the crystal plane. Both a 1 mm thick single crystal of Germanium and a 4 mm thick multi-tile set of synthetic Diamond crystals were used as analyzers of the linear polarisation. A birefringence ...

  17. Fabrication and Molecular Transport Studies of Highly c-Oriented AFI Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Defei; Sheng, Ping; Lai, Zhiping

    2017-01-01

    -packed and c-oriented monolayer of plate-like seeds that is manually assembled on a porous alumina support. The straight channels in the membrane are not only aligned vertically along the membrane depth, but are also continuous without disruption. The transport

  18. Investigations on the growth of a-oriented layers of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodtke, E.

    1992-10-01

    The properties of a-oriented YBaCuO and PrBaCuO layers were investigated. The layers are grown in a modified template method and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. (WL)

  19. Multi-User Domain Object Oriented (MOO) as a High School Procedure for Foreign Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, James A.

    Foreign language students experience added difficulty when they are isolated from native speakers and from the culture of the target language. It has been posited that MOO (Multi-User Domain Object Oriented) may help overcome the geographical isolation of these students. MOOs are Internet-based virtual worlds in which people from all over the real…

  20. Action-Oriented Population Nutrition Research: High Demand but Limited Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Judy; Pelletier, David

    2015-05-27

    The relatively rapid ascendancy of nutrition and health on policy agendas, along with greater emphasis on accountability and results, has stimulated interest in new forms of research to guide the development and implementation of effective policies, programs, and interventions-what we refer to as action-oriented research. To date, action-oriented research in the nutrition field is thought to be the exception rather than the rule, but empirical evidence to support this claim is lacking. We conducted a survey of selected journals in nutrition and public health to assess the extent and nature of population nutrition research published in 2012 that embodied 5 defined characteristics of action-oriented research in relation to: (1) topic(s) of study, (2) processes/influences, (3) actors, (4) methods, and (5) approaches. We identified 762 articles from the 6 selected nutrition journals and 77 nutrition-related articles from the 4 selected public health journals that met our search criteria. Only 7% of the 762 papers in nutrition journals had at least 1 of the 5 action-oriented research characteristics, compared with 36% of the 77 nutrition-related papers in the public health journals. Of all 80 articles that had at least 1 action-oriented research characteristic, only 5 articles (6.25%) embodied all 5 characteristics. Articles with action-oriented research covered a broad range of topics and processes/influences, including policy, workforce development, and schools, as well as actors, such as program staff, store owners, parents, and school staff. In addition, various research methods were used, such as stakeholder analysis, ethnographic narrative, iterative action research, and decision tree modeling, as well as different approaches, including participant-observer and community-based participatory research. Action-oriented research represents a small fraction of articles published in nutrition journals, especially compared with public health journals. This reinforces

  1. Wind-related orientation patterns in diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal high-altitude insect migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao eHu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most insect migrants fly at considerable altitudes (hundreds of meters above the ground where they utilize fast-flowing winds to achieve rapid and comparatively long-distance transport. The nocturnal aerial migrant fauna has been well studied with entomological radars, and many studies have demonstrated that flight orientations are frequently grouped around a common direction in a range of nocturnal insect migrants. Common orientation typically occurs close to the downwind direction (thus ensuring that a large component of the insects’ self-powered speed is directed downstream, and in nocturnal insects at least, the downwind headings are seemingly maintained by direct detection of wind-related turbulent cues. Despite being far more abundant and speciose, the day-flying windborne migrant fauna has been much less studied by radar; thus the frequency of wind-related common orientation patterns and the sensory mechanisms involved in their formation remain to be established. Here we analyze a large dataset of >600,000 radar-detected ‘medium-sized’ windborne insect migrants (body mass from 10 to 70 mg, flying hundreds of meters above southern UK, during the afternoon, in the period around sunset, and in the middle of the night. We found that wind-related common orientation was almost ubiquitous during the day (present in 97% of all ‘migration events’ analyzed, and was also frequent at sunset (85% and at night (81%. Headings were systematically offset to the right of the flow at night-time (as predicted from the use of turbulence cues for flow assessment, but there was no directional bias in the offsets during the day or at sunset. Orientation ‘performance’ significantly increased with increasing flight altitude throughout the day and night. We conclude by discussing sensory mechanisms which most likely play a role in the selection and maintenance of wind-related flight headings.

  2. Oriented thin films of Na {sub 0.6}CoO {sub 2} and Ca {sub 3}Co {sub 4}O {sub 9} deposited by spin-coating method on polycrystalline substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buršík, J., E-mail: bursik@iic.cas.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry ASCR, 250 68 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Soroka, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry ASCR, 250 68 Řež near Prague (Czech Republic); Knížek, K.; Hirschner, J.; Levinský, P.; Hejtmánek, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2016-03-31

    Thin film of two thermoelectric materials, Na {sub x}CoO {sub 2} (x ~ 0.6) and Ca {sub 3}Co {sub 4}O {sub 9}, was deposited using the sol–gel spin-coating method on a polycrystalline yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate. Despite the polycrystalline character of the substrate, the c-axis preferred orientation was obtained, suggesting self-assembly growth mechanism. The deposition procedure used offers several benefits, namely simplicity, high deposition rate, low fabrication cost as well as low price of the substrate, and low thermal conductivity of the substrate suitable for characterization of thermoelectric properties and for applications. The thermoelectric properties of the thin films are comparable with bulk materials. The samples exhibit power factor 0.23 - 0.26 × 10{sup -3} W ⋅ m {sup -1} ⋅ K {sup -2} at 750 K. - Highlights: • Thin film of thermoelectric cobaltates was deposited using the spincoating method. • The c-axis preferred orientation was obtained on polycrystalline YSZ substrate. • Benefits of the chosen procedure are simplicity, low cost, and low thermal conductivity of the substrate.

  3. Contemporary and Traditional : the identity of the Swedish folk high school as expressed in its vocational orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Landström, Inger

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the vocational orientation of the courses offered - as an expression of the folk high school's self-identity- is analysed. The point of departure was that what the folk high school do, is a way to show what it wants to be and, therefore, reflects what it is. Focus is on how the folk high school meets with contemporary tasks and demands in different areas of society. The research objects are, the folk high school as type of school (a total of 147 schools) and a sample of ten ind...

  4. Analysis of dynamic recrystallization of ice from EBSD orientation mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurine eMontagnat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present high resolution observations of microstructure and texture evolution during dynamicrecrystallization (DRX of ice polycrystals deformed in the laboratory at high temperature(≈0.98Tm. Ice possesses a significant viscoplastic anisotropy that induces strong strainheterogeneities, which result in an early occurrence of DRX mechanisms. It is thereforea model material to explore these mechanisms. High resolution c-axis measurements atsample scale by optical techniques and full crystallographic orientation measurements by cryo-Electron Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD provide a solid database for analyzing the relativeimpact of the macroscopic imposed stress versus the local and internal stress field on DRXmechanisms. Analysis of misorientation gradients in the EBSD data highlights a heterogeneousdislocation distribution, which is quantified by the Nye tensor estimation. Joint analyses of thedislocation density maps and microstructural observations highlight spatial correlation betweenhigh dislocation density sites and the onset of nucleation taking place by grain-boundary bulging,subgrain rotation or by the formation of kink-bands.

  5. Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obesity at the Intersections of Gender, Ethnicity, and Sexual Orientation in US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauren A.; Birkett, Michelle A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Everett, Bethany

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined purging for weight control, diet pill use, and obesity across sexual orientation identity and ethnicity groups. Methods. Anonymous survey data were analyzed from 24 591 high school students of diverse ethnicities in the federal Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System Survey in 2005 and 2007. Self-reported data were gathered on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation identity, height, weight, and purging and diet pill use in the past 30 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of purging, diet pill use, and obesity associated with sexual orientation identity in gender-stratified models and examined for the presence of interactions between ethnicity and sexual orientation. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity was associated with substantially elevated odds of purging and diet pill use in both girls and boys (odds ratios [OR] range =  1.9–6.8). Bisexual girls and boys were also at elevated odds of obesity compared to same-gender heterosexuals (OR = 2.3 and 2.1, respectively). Conclusions. Interventions to reduce eating disorders and obesity that are appropriate for LGB youths of diverse ethnicities are urgently needed. PMID:23237207

  6. Analysis of crystallographic preferred orientations of experimentally deformed Black Hills Quartzite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Rüdiger; Heilbronner, Renée

    2017-10-01

    The crystallographic preferred orientations (textures) of three samples of Black Hills Quartzite (BHQ) deformed experimentally in the dislocation creep regimes 1, 2 and 3 (according to Hirth and Tullis, 1992) have been analyzed using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). All samples were deformed to relatively high strain at temperatures of 850 to 915 °C and are almost completely dynamically recrystallized. A texture transition from peripheral [c] axes in regime 1 to a central [c] maximum in regime 3 is observed. Separate pole figures are calculated for different grain sizes, aspect ratios and long-axis trends of grains, and high and low levels of intragranular deformation intensity as measured by the mean grain kernel average misorientation (gKAM). Misorientation relations are analyzed for grains of different texture components (named Y, B, R and σ grains, with reference to previously published prism, basal, rhomb and σ1 grains). Results show that regimes 1 and 3 correspond to clear end-member textures, with regime 2 being transitional. Texture strength and the development of a central [c]-axis maximum from a girdle distribution depend on deformation intensity at the grain scale and on the contribution of dislocation creep, which increases towards regime 3. Adding to this calculations of resolved shear stresses and misorientation analysis, it becomes clear that the peripheral [c]-axis maximum in regime 1 is not due to deformation by basal a slip. Instead, we interpret the texture transition as a result of different texture forming processes, one being more efficient at high stresses (nucleation or growth of grains with peripheral [c] axes), the other depending on strain (dislocation glide involving prism and rhomb a slip systems), and not as a result of temperature-dependent activity of different slip systems.

  7. Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel under deaerated high-temperature water. Influence of cold work and processing orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terachi, Takumi; Yamada, Takuyo; Chiba, Goro; Arioka, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The influence of cold work and processing orientation on the propagation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel under hydrogenated high-temperature water was examined. It was shown that (1) the crack growth rates increased with heaviness of cold work, and (2) processing orientation affected crack growth rate with cracking direction. Crack growth rates showed anisotropy of T-L>>T-S>L-S, with T-S and L-S branches representing high shear stress direction. Geometric deformation of crystal grains due to cold work caused the anisotropy and shear stress also assisted the SCC propagation. (3) The step intervals of slip like patterns observed on intergranular facets increased cold work. (4) Nano-indentation hardness of the crack tip together with EBSD measurement indicated that the change of hardness due to crack propagation was less than 5% cold-work, even though the distance from the crack tip was 10μm. (author)

  8. High-resolution bistable nematic liquid crystal device realized on orientational surface patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The four-fold symmetry of a checkerboard-like surface alignment consisted of square domains arrived at the macroscopic orientational bistability of nematic liquid crystals. Switching between the two orientations took place with an appropriate electric field. Here the threshold field of bistable switching decreased as temperature increased, and the light could heat only the selected region in the cell including a light-absorbing medium. Irradiating the laser concurrently with an electric field, we addressed a selected region in the alignment pattern without the disturbance of neighboring regions. Extending this process, we realized an extremely fine bistable device of nematic liquid crystal with a pixel size down to about 2 μm

  9. An Object-Oriented Classification Method on High Resolution Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-01

    25th ACRS 2004 Chiang Mai , Thailand 347 Data Processing B-4.6 AN OBJECT-ORIENTED CLASSIFICATION METHOD ON...unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Proceedings of the 25th Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Held in Chiang Mai , Thailand on 22-26 November 2004...panchromatic (left) and multispectral (right) 25th ACRS 2004 Chiang Mai , Thailand 349 Data Processing B-4.6 First of all, the

  10. Highly Oriented Growth of Piezoelectric Thin Films on Silicon using Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Growth Template Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Yuan, H.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Dekkers, Jan M.; Koster, Gertjan; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2Nb3O10 (CNOns) and Ti0.87O2 (TiOns) metal oxide nanosheets (ns) are used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth of piezoelectric capacitor stacks on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (Pt/Si) substrates. Highly (001)- and (110)-oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films are achieved by utilizing CNOns and TiOns,

  11. Social Orientation: Problem Behavior and Motivations Toward Interpersonal Problem Solving Among High Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents’ orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380

  12. Development of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Hermanto, Didik

    2017-08-01

    This research is a developmental research of probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools for probability materials at ninth grade students. This study is aimed to produce a good probabilistic thinking-oriented learning tools. The subjects were IX-A students of MTs Model Bangkalan. The stages of this development research used 4-D development model which has been modified into define, design and develop. Teaching learning tools consist of lesson plan, students' worksheet, learning teaching media and students' achievement test. The research instrument used was a sheet of learning tools validation, a sheet of teachers' activities, a sheet of students' activities, students' response questionnaire and students' achievement test. The result of those instruments were analyzed descriptively to answer research objectives. The result was teaching learning tools in which oriented to probabilistic thinking of probability at ninth grade students which has been valid. Since teaching and learning tools have been revised based on validation, and after experiment in class produced that teachers' ability in managing class was effective, students' activities were good, students' responses to the learning tools were positive and the validity, sensitivity and reliability category toward achievement test. In summary, this teaching learning tools can be used by teacher to teach probability for develop students' probabilistic thinking.

  13. Phase changes induced by guest orientational ordering of filled ice Ih methane hydrate under high pressure and low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, H; Tanaka, T; Yagi, T; Matsuoka, T; Ohishi, Y; Ohtake, M; Yamamoto, Y

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature and high-pressure experiments were performed with filled ice Ih structure of methane hydrate under pressure and temperature conditions of 2.0 to 77.0 GPa and 30 to 300 K, respectively, using diamond anvil cells and a helium-refrigeration cryostat. Distinct changes in the axial ratios of the host framework were revealed by In-situ X-ray diffractometry. Splitting in the CH vibration modes of the guest methane molecules, which was previously explained by the orientational ordering of the guest molecules, was observed by Raman spectroscopy. The pressure and temperature conditions at the split of the vibration modes agreed well with those of the axial ratio changes. The results indicated that orientational ordering of the guest methane molecules from orientational disordered-state occurred at high pressures and low temperatures, and that this guest ordering led to the axial ratio changes in the host framework. Existing regions of the guest disordered-phase and the guest ordered-phase were roughly estimated by the X-ray data. In addition, above the pressure of the guest-ordered phase, another high pressure phase was developed at a low-temperature region. The deuterated-water host samples were also examined and isotopic effects on the guest ordering and phase changes were observed.

  14. Service-oriented workflow to efficiently and automatically fulfill products in a highly individualized web and mobile environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu

    2015-03-01

    Service Oriented Architecture1 (SOA) is widely used in building flexible and scalable web sites and services. In most of the web or mobile photo book and gifting business space, the products ordered are highly variable without a standard template that one can substitute texts or images from similar to that of commercial variable data printing. In this paper, the author describes a SOA workflow in a multi-sites, multi-product lines fulfillment system where three major challenges are addressed: utilization of hardware and equipment, highly automation with fault recovery, and highly scalable and flexible with order volume fluctuation.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays: Dependence of morphology and alignment on growth conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzez, Shrook A., E-mail: shurouq44@yahoo.com [Institutes of Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Hassan, Z.; Alimanesh, M.; Rasheed, Hiba S.; Sabah, Fayroz A.; Abdulateef, Sinan A. [Institutes of Nano-Optoelectronic Research and Technology Laboratory (INOR), Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Hassan, J. J. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq)

    2016-07-06

    Highly oriented zinc oxide nanorod were successfully grown on seeded p-type silicon substrate by hydrothermal methode. The morphology and the crystallinty of ZnO c-axis (002) arrays were systematically studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The effect of seed layer pre-annealing on nanorods properties was explained according to the nucleation site of ZnO nanoparticles on silicon substrate. In addition, the variation of the equal molarity of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamine concentrations in the reaction vessel play a crucial role related to the ZnO nanorods.

  16. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCamp, Whitney; Bakken, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects--including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors--significantly differed based on gender and orientation. Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  17. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney DeCamp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Researchhas suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behaviormay help identify troubled students and initiate preventative measures. METHODS: Bivariate probit regression analyses are performed using data from 7,326 high school students collected via the Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. RESULTS: Results indicate that bullying victimization, fighting, substance use, sexual behavior, depression, and unhealthy dieting behaviors were generally associated with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Some effects - including those from sexual activity, substance use, and unhealthy dieting behaviors – significantly differed based on gender and orientation. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for suicide and NSSI vary by gender and orientation. Both prevention/intervention specialists and researchers should consider the intersection of these risk factors with sexual orientation in their efforts.

  18. Impact of High - Performance Work Systems on Export - Oriented SMEs Performance: The Mediating Role of Human Capital Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Hamid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMEs contribute substantially to the economic development, income generation, poverty reduction, and particularly job creation for both developed and developing economies. However, compared with large firms, SMEs face several challenges related to their performance and competitiveness. The role of human capital (HC and human resource practices (HR Practices in enhancing SMEs competitiveness and performance is vital but understudied areas. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of HC development between the relationship of high-performance work systems (HPWS and export-oriented SMEs performance. Quantitative strategy and cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data from 205 managerial staff through a self-administered structured questionnaire. HPWS had a significant positive impact on export-oriented SMEs performance. The findings of the study provide evidence that HC development plays a mediating role between HPWS and enterprises performance.

  19. SIKVAV-modified highly superporous PHEMA scaffolds with oriented pores for spinal cord injury repair

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka; Horák, Daniel; Hejčl, Aleš; Plichta, Zdeněk; Kotek, Jiří; Proks, Vladimír; Forostyak, Serhiy; Syková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11 (2015), s. 1298-1309 ISSN 1932-6254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP304/11/0731; GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/11/P633; GA ČR GAP108/10/1560; GA ČR GAP304/11/0653 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrogel * oriented pores * spinal cord repair Subject RIV: FH - Neurology; FH - Neurology (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.710, year: 2015

  20. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Fabrication and non-covalent modification of highly oriented thin films of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama; Cadiau, Amandine; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the fabrication of the first thin film of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology (rho-ZMOF-1, ([In48(HImDC)96]48-)n) in a highly oriented fashion on a gold-functionalized substrate. The oriented rho-ZMOF-1

  2. Development of Chemistry Triangle Oriented Module on Topic of Reaction Rate for Senior High School Level Grade XI Chemistry Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, D. R.; Hardeli; Bayharti

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to produce chemistry triangle oriented module on topic of reaction rate, and to reveal the validity and practicality level of the generated module. The type of research used is EducationalDesign Research (EDR) with development model is Plompmodel. This model consists of three phases, which are preliminary research, prototyping phase, and assessment phase. The instrument used in this research is questionnaire validity and practicality. The data of the research were analyzed by using Kappa Cohen formula. The chemistry triangle oriented module validation sheet was given to 5 validators consisting of 3 chemistry lecturers and 2 high school chemistry teachers, while the practicality sheet was given to 2 chemistry teachers, 6 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 5 on the small groupevaluation and 25 students of SMAN 10 Padang grade XII MIA 6 on the field test. Based on the questionnaire validity analysis, the validity level of the module is very high with the value of kappa moment 0.87. The level of practicality based on teacher questionnaire response is very high category with a kappa moment value 0.96. Based on the questionnaire of student responses on small group evaluation, the level of practicality is very high category with a kappa moment 0.81, and the practicality is very high category with kappa moment value 0.83 based on questionnaire of student response on field test.

  3. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  4. Growth and physical properties of highly oriented La-doped (K,Na)NbO3 ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendrell, X.; Raymond, O.; Ochoa, D.A.; García, J.E.; Mestres, L.

    2015-01-01

    Lead-free (K,Na)NbO 3 (KNN) and La doped (K,Na)NbO 3 (KNN-La) thin films are grown on SrTiO 3 substrates using the chemical solution deposition method. The effect of adding different amounts of Na and K excess (0–20 mol%) is investigated. The results confirm the necessity of adding 20 mol% excess amounts of Na and K precursor solutions in order to avoid the formation of the secondary phase, K 4 Nb 6 O 17 , as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, when adding a 20 mol% of alkaline metal excess, the thin films are highly textured with out-of-plane preferential orientation in the [100] direction of the [100] orientation of the substrate. Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density at low electric field, and an increase in the dielectric permittivity across the whole temperature range (80–380 K). Although the (100)-oriented KNN and KNN-La films exhibited rounded hysteresis loops, at low temperatures the films show the typical ferroelectric hysteresis loops. - Highlights: • (K 0.5 Na 0.5 )NbO 3 and [(K 0.5 Na 0.5 ) 0.985 La 0.005 ]NbO 3 thin films have been prepared. • The obtained thin films show an excellent (100) preferred orientation. • Doping with lanthanum results in a decrease of the leakage current density. • The dielectric properties are enhanced when doping with lanthanum

  5. High-quality planar high-Tc Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeal, N.; Grison, X.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Aprili, M.; Contour, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Reproducible high-T c Josephson junctions have been made in a rather simple two-step process using ion irradiation. A microbridge (1 to 5 μm wide) is firstly designed by ion irradiating a c-axis-oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ film through a gold mask such as the nonprotected part becomes insulating. A lower T c part is then defined within the bridge by irradiating with a much lower fluence through a narrow slit (20 nm) opened in a standard electronic photoresist. These planar junctions, whose settings can be finely tuned, exhibit reproducible and nearly ideal Josephson characteristics. This process can be used to produce complex Josephson circuits

  6. Relationship between Different Types of Educational, Emotional and Spiritual Intelligence and Second Grade High School Female Students’ Religious Orientation, in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ali Doustdar Toosi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current research, we investigated how significantly the second grade high school female students’ educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence were associated with their religious orientation. This research is descriptive (non- experimental with a correlation design. The research population includes all of the second grade high school girl students, during the 2015-16 educational year in Sari, a city in the north of Iran.  In this research, 260 samples were selected randomly. Research results showed that educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence (independent variables had positive and significant relationship with internal and external religious orientation (dependent variable. As the levels of educational, emotional, and spiritual intelligence increased, so did the level of religious orientation. Also the results of multiple regression analysis showed that educational, emotional, spiritual intelligence were anticipants of religious orientation and its dimensions (internal and external religious orientation.

  7. A Study on Field Emission Characteristics of Planar Graphene Layers Obtained from a Highly Oriented Pyrolyzed Graphite Block.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Seung S; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study on field emission characteristics of individual graphene layers for vacuum nanoelectronics. Graphene layers were prepared by mechanical exfoliation from a highly oriented pyrolyzed graphite block and placed on an insulating substrate, with the resulting field emission behavior investigated using a nanomanipulator operating inside a scanning electron microscope. A pair of tungsten tips controlled by the nanomanipulator enabled electric connection with the graphene layers without postfabrication. The maximum emitted current from the graphene layers was 170 nA and the turn-on voltage was 12.1 V.

  8. A Study on Field Emission Characteristics of Planar Graphene Layers Obtained from a Highly Oriented Pyrolyzed Graphite Block.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Seok Woo

    2009-07-12

    This paper describes an experimental study on field emission characteristics of individual graphene layers for vacuum nanoelectronics. Graphene layers were prepared by mechanical exfoliation from a highly oriented pyrolyzed graphite block and placed on an insulating substrate, with the resulting field emission behavior investigated using a nanomanipulator operating inside a scanning electron microscope. A pair of tungsten tips controlled by the nanomanipulator enabled electric connection with the graphene layers without postfabrication. The maximum emitted current from the graphene layers was 170 nA and the turn-on voltage was 12.1 V.

  9. Anisotropic ferromagnetic behaviors in highly orientated epitaxial NiO-based thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiferromagnetic materials attract a great amount of attention recently for promising antiferromagnet-based spintronics applications. NiO is a conventional antiferromagnetic semiconductor material and can show ferromagnetism by doping other magnetic elements. In this work, we synthesized epitaxial Fe-doped NiO thin films on SrTiO3 substrates with various crystal orientations by pulsed laser deposition. The room-temperature ferromagnetism of these films is anisotropic, including the saturated magnetization and the coercive field. The anisotropic magnetic behaviors of Fe-doped NiO diluted magnetic oxide system should be closely correlated to the magnetic structure of antiferromagnetic NiO base. Within the easy plane of NiO, the coercive field of the films becomes smaller, and larger coercive field while tested out of the easy plane of NiO. The saturated magnetization anisotropy is due to different strain applied by different substrates. These results lead us to more abundant knowledge of the exchange interactions in this conventional antiferromagnetic system.

  10. Flux motion and dissipation in high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.E.; Kim, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The effects on flux motion and dissipation of interlayer coupling of the Cu-O planes along the c-axis are considered for the high-temperature superconductors (HTS). It is argued that for the highly-anisotropic HTS, the weak interlayer coupling plays a dominant role that can be described by incoherent Josephson tunneling between superconducting Cu-O bi- or tri-layers. In YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , the layers are strongly coupled, presumably because the conducting Cu-O chains short circuit the Josephson tunneling, so that these effects are weak or missing. Recently, the effects of anisotropy and fluctuations on critical current densities, J c (T,H) and the field-induced broadening of resistivity transitions, ρ(T,H), have been studied in high-temperature superconductors (HTS). Although the broadening looks similar for the applied field, H, oriented either parallel to the superconducting Cu-O layers (H parallel ab) or parallel to the c-axis (H parallel c), its width and the detailed shape of ρ(T,H) are different. The explanations given in this paper for the highly anisotropic HTS differ in detail for the two cases, but have a crucial feature in common: they result from fluctuations affecting the Josephson coupling across the interlayer junctions

  11. DeVelopment of the high-intensity polarized H- source with proton charge exchange on sodium optically oriented atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, A.N.; Kokhanovskij, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experimental study on the source of polarized H - ions at polarized electron capture by proton from optically oriented sodium atoms are presented. Circular-polarized dye laser radiation with lamp pumping is used for polarization of highly dense sodium vapors in the pulsed mode. A facility for polarization measurement in the ion source is described. Dependence of the counting rate of metastables for the right and left circular radiation polarization in respect to wave length is presented. The results of measuring the degree of polarization under change of sodium density are revealed. The measurements have disclosed that obtaining of high polarization degree at 20-30% charge exchange effectiveness is possible but large radiation power is required. Use of a dense charge exchange target provides high effectiveness of hte whole polarization process. Yield of polarized H - ions can approach 10 μA/1 mA of the initial proton current

  12. Highly efficient hybrid energy generator: coupled organic photovoltaic device and randomly oriented electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boongik; Lee, Kihwan; Park, Jongjin; Kim, Jongmin; Kim, Ohyun

    2013-03-01

    A hybrid architecture consisting of an inverted organic photovoltaic device and a randomly-oriented electrospun PVDF piezoelectric device was fabricated as a highly-efficient energy generator. It uses the inverted photovoltaic device with coupled electrospun PVDF nanofibers as tandem structure to convert solar and mechanical vibrations energy to electricity simultaneously or individually. The power conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic device was also significantly improved up to 4.72% by optimized processes such as intrinsic ZnO, MoO3 and active layer. A simple electrospinning method with the two electrode technique was adopted to achieve a high voltage of - 300 mV in PVDF piezoelectric fibers. Highly-efficient HEG using voltage adder circuit provides the conceptual possibility of realizing multi-functional energy generator whenever and wherever various energy sources are available.

  13. Using process-oriented interfaces for solving the automation paradox in highly automated navy vessels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diggelen, J. van; Post, W.; Rakhorst, M.; Plasmeijer, R.; Staal, W. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a coherent engineering method for developing high level human machine interaction within a highly automated environment consisting of sensors, actuators, automatic situation assessors and planning devices. Our approach combines ideas from cognitive work analysis, cognitive

  14. Growth of high quality AlN films on CVD diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-xian; Liu, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Li, Cheng-ming; Wang, Yi-chao; An, Kang; Hua, Chen-yi; Liu, Jin-long; Wei, Jun-jun; Hei, Li-fu; Lv, Fan-xiu

    2018-02-01

    A highly oriented AlN layer has been successfully grown along the c-axis on a polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond by RF reactive magnetron sputtering. Structural, morphological and mechanical properties of the heterostructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nano-indentation and Four-probe meter. A compact AlN film was demonstrated on the diamond layer, showing columnar grains and a low surface roughness of 1.4 nm. TEM results revealed a sharp AlN/diamond interface, which was characterized by the presence of a distinct 10 nm thick buffer layer resulting from the initial AlN growth stage. The FWHM of AlN (002) diffraction peak and its rocking curve are as low as 0.41° and 3.35° respectively, indicating a highly preferred orientation along the c-axis. AlN sputtered films deposited on glass substrates show a higher bulk resistivity (up to 3 × 1012 Ω cm), compared to AlN films deposited on diamond (∼1010 Ω cm). Finally, the film hardness and Young's modulus of AlN films on diamond are 25.8 GPa and 489.5 GPa, respectively.

  15. Realization of highly crystallographic three-dimensional nanosheets by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharooni, M.; Hosseini, M.; Mohajerzadeh, S., E-mail: mohajer@ut.ac.ir; Taghinejad, M.; Taghinejad, H. [Thin Film and Nanoelectronics Lab, Nanoelectronics Center of Excellence, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 143957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, Y. [Nano-Physics Research Lab, Department of Physics, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439955961 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Morphologically controlled nanostructures have been increasingly important because of their strongly shape dependent physical and chemical properties. Formation of nanoscale silicon based structures that employ high levels of strain, intentional, and unintentional twins or grain boundaries can be dramatically different from the commonly conceived bulk processes. We report, realization of highly crystallographic 3D nanosheets with unique morphology and ultra-thin thickness by a stress-induced oriented-diffusion method, based on plasma processing of metal layer deposited on Si substrate and its post deep reactive ion etching. Annealing in plasma ambient creates rod-like metal alloy precursors which induce stress at its interface with Si substrate due to the mismatch of lattice constants. This stress opens facilitated gateways for orientated-diffusion of metal atoms in 〈110〉 directions and leads to formation of NSs (nanosheets) with [111] crystalline essence. Nanosheets are mainly triangular, hexagonal, or pseudo hexagonal in shape and their thicknesses are well controlled from several to tens of nanometers. The structural and morphological evolution of features were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope and possible mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the thermodynamically unfavorable morphology of nanosheets. Significant photoemission capability of NSs was also demonstrated by photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  16. Electrochemical growth of highly oriented organic-inorganic superlattices using solid-supported multilamellar membranes as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Li-Li; Li, Da-Peng; Hu, Shu-Xin; Jing, Huai-Yu; Fu, Honglan; Mai, Zhen-Hong; Li, Ming

    2006-02-08

    Controllable depositing of relatively thick inorganic sublayers into organic templates to fabricate organic-inorganic superlattices is of great importance. We report a novel approach to fabricating phospholipid/Ni(OH)(2) superlattices by electrochemical deposition of the inorganic component into solid-supported multilamellar templates. The well-ordered and highly oriented multilamellar templates are produced by spreading small drops of lipid solution on silicon surfaces and letting the solvent evaporate slowly. The templates which are used as working electrodes preserve the lamellar structure in the electrolyte solution. The resulting superlattices are highly oriented. The thickness of the nickel hydroxide is controlled by the concentration of nickel ions in the electrolyte bath. The electron density profiles derived from the X-ray diffraction data reveal that the thickness of the nickel hydroxide sublayers increases from 15 to 27 A as the concentration of nickel nitrate increases from 0.005 mol/L to 0.08 mol/L. We expect that the new method can be extended to depositing a variety of inorganic components including metals, oxides, and semiconductors.

  17. Grain-orientation-dependent of γ–ε–α′ transformation and twinning in a super-high-strength, high ductility austenitic Mn-steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandari, M., E-mail: m.eskandari@scu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarei-Hanzaki, A. [Hot Deformation & Thermo-mechanical Processing of High Performance Engineering Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohtadi-Bonab, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bonab, Velayat Highway (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Onuki, Y. [Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University (Japan); Basu, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ITM University, Gurgaon (India); Asghari, A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas (United States); Szpunar, J.A. [Advanced Materials for Clean Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-09-30

    A newly developed, austenitic lightweight steel, containing a low-density element, Al, exhibits tensile elongation up to 50% as well as high ultimate-tensile stress (tensile fracture at 1800 MPa) without necking behavior. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis is carried out to investigate the orientation dependence of the martensitic transformation in tensile testing to 30% strain at 323 K (25 °C). A pronounced γ→ε→α′ transformation is observed in <111> and <110>∥TD (TD: tensile direction) γ-grains. The α′-transformation textures is analyzed. Large misorientation spreads is seen in the <100>∥TD γ-grains. Interestingly, twin-assisted martensitic transformation is detected in the <111>∥TD followed by the twin boundary directly moving to a γ/α′ phase boundary. These phenomena are related to a change of Schmid factor for different orientations of grains.

  18. Measurements of the superconducting fluctuations in optimally doped BaFe2−xNixAs2 under high magnetic fields: probing the 3D-anisotropic Ginzburg–Landau approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, R I; Ramos-Álvarez, A; Carballeira, C; Mosqueira, J; Vidal, F; Salem-Sugui, S Jr.; Alvarenga, A D; Zhang, Rui; Luo, Huiqian

    2014-01-01

    The superconducting fluctuations well inside the normal state of Fe-based superconductors were experimentally studied through the in-plane paraconductivity in several high-quality, optimally doped BaFe 2−x Ni x As 2 crystals. These measurements were performed in magnetic fields with amplitudes up to 14 T, and different orientations relative to the c-axis of the crystals (θ=0 ∘ , 53 ∘ , and 90 ∘ ). The results allowed a stringent check of the applicability of a recently proposed Ginzburg–Landau approach for the fluctuating electrical conductivity of three-dimensional (3D) anisotropic materials in the presence of finite applied magnetic fields. (papers)

  19. Achieving a Collapsible, Strong, and Highly Thermally Conductive Film Based on Oriented Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanosheets and Cellulose Nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Fang, Jinchao; Ma, Jinrui; Huang, Rui; Chai, Songgang; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2017-09-06

    Boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS) films receive wide attention in both academia and industry because of their high thermal conductivity (TC) and good electrical insulation capability. However, the brittleness and low strength of the BNNS film largely limit its application. Herein, functionalized BNNSs (f-BNNSs) with a well-maintained in-plane crystalline structure were first prepared utilizing urea in the aqueous solution via ball-milling for the purpose of improving their stability in water and enhancing the interaction with the polymer matrix. Then, a biodegradable and highly thermally conductive film with an orderly oriented structure based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) and f-BNNSs was prepared just by simple vacuum-assisted filtration. The modification of the BNNS and the introduction of the CNF result in a better orientation of the f-BNNS, sufficient connection between f-BNNS themselves, and strong interaction between f-BNNS and CNF, which not only make the prepared composite film strong and tough but also possess higher in-plane TC. An increase of 70% in-plane TC, 63.2% tensile strength, and 77.8% elongation could be achieved for CNF/f-BNNS films, compared with that for CNF/BNNS films at the filler content of 70%. Although at such a high f-BNNS content, this composite film can be bended and folded. It is even more interesting to find that the in-plane TC could be greatly enhanced with the decrease of the thickness of the film, and a value of 30.25 W/m K can be achieved at the thickness of ∼30 μm for the film containing 70 wt % f-BNNS. We believe that this highly thermally conductive film with good strength and toughness could have potential applications in next-generation highly powerful and collapsible electronic devices.

  20. TEM Study of the Orientation Relationship Between Cementite and Ferrite in a Bainitic Low Carbon High Strength Low Alloy Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Illescas Fernandez, Silvia; Brown, A.P.; He, K.; Fernández, Javier; Guilemany Casadamon, Josep Maria

    2005-01-01

    Two different bainitic structures are observed in a steel depending on the sample heat treatment. The different types of bainitic structures exhibit different orientation relationships between cementite and the ferrite matrix. Upper bainite presents a Pitsch orientation relationship and lower bainite presents a Bagaryatski orientation relationship. Different heat treatments of low carbon HSLA steel samples have been studied using TEM in order to find the orientation relationshi...

  1. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Brian N; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2017-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field. (paper)

  2. Random oriented hexagonal nickel hydroxide nanoplates grown on graphene as binder free anode for lithium ion battery with high capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingjie; Ma, Hu; Guo, Mingxuan; Gao, Tie; Li, Haibo

    2018-05-01

    In this work, two-step method has been employed to prepare random oriented hexagonal hydroxide nanoplates on graphene (Ni(OH)2@G) as binder free anode for lithium ion battery (LIB) with high capacity. The morphology, microstructure, crystal phase and elemental bonding have been characterized. When evaluated as anode for LIB, the Ni(OH)2@G exhibited high initial discharge capacity of 1318 mAh/g at the current density of 50 mA/g. After 80 cycles, the capacity was maintained at 834 mAh/g, implying 63.3% remaining. Even the charge rate was increased to 2000 mA/g, an impressive capacity of 141 mAh/g can be obtained, indicating good rate capability. The superior LIB behavior of Ni(OH)2@G is ascribed to the excellent combination between Ni(OH)2 nanoplates and graphene via both covalent chemical bonding and van der Waals interactions.

  3. Multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films and nanodots grown on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2017-12-01

    Multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films and nanodots are deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) substrates via a pulsed laser deposition technique, where the HOPG surface has a honeycomb lattice structure made of carbon atoms, similar to graphene. A graphene/BFO/HOPG capacitor exhibited multiferroic properties, namely ferroelectricity (a residual polarization of 26.8 μC/cm2) and ferromagnetism (a residual magnetization of 1.1 × 10-5 emu). The BFO thin film had high domain wall energies and demonstrated switching time of approximately 82 ns. An 8-nm BFO nanodot showed a typical piezoelectric hysteresis loop with an effective residual piezoelectric constant of approximately 110 pm/V and exhibited two clearly separated current curves depending on the ferroelectric polarization direction.

  4. Implementing an Affordable High-Performance Computing for Teaching-Oriented Computer Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzaghleh, Omar; Goldschmidt, Kathleen; Elleithy, Yasser; Lee, Jeongkyu

    2013-01-01

    With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However,…

  5. Synthesis and characterization of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO thin films under high working pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezam, M.; Tabet, N.; Mekki, A.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates using direct current (dc) magnetron sputtering under high working pressures. A pure zinc target was used, and sputtering was carried out in an oxygen atmosphere. The working pressure was varied between 50 and 800 mTorr. XRD characterization showed that for a window of working pressures between 300 and 500 mTorr, the deposited films were polycrystalline, with strong preferential orientation of grains along the c-axis. The film deposited at 400 mTorr had the highest (002) peak with the largest estimated grain size. Outside this window, the crystallinity and c-orientation of grains are lost. The microstructure of the films was investigated by Atomic Force microscopy (AFM). Optical transparency of the films was about 85%. The films produced were highly resistive, which might provide new alternatives for the synthesis of ZnO thin films aimed for SAW devices.

  6. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankapal, B.R., E-mail: brsankapal@rediffmail.com [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K. [Thin Film and Nano Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001 (MS) (India); Gupta, V.; Chand, S. [Organic and Hybrid Solar Cell, Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2011-10-13

    Highlights: > Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. > Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH){sub 2} nanowires through lead hydroxination. > The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. > Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. > The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd{sup 2+} with Pb{sup 2+} ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  7. Room temperature chemical synthesis of highly oriented PbSe nanotubes based on negative free energy of formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankapal, B.R.; Ladhe, R.D.; Salunkhe, D.B.; Baviskar, P.K.; Gupta, V.; Chand, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Simple, inexpensive and room temperature chemical synthesis route. → Highly oriented PbSe nanotubes from Cd(OH) 2 nanowires through lead hydroxination. → The process was template free without the use of any capping agent. → Reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation. → The ion exchange mechanism due to difference in the solubility products. - Abstract: The sacrificial template free chemical synthesis of PbSe nanotubes at room temperature has been performed by lead hydroxination from cadmium hydroxide nanowires. This process was based on the ion exchange reaction to replace Cd 2+ with Pb 2+ ions from hydroxyl group followed by replacement of hydroxyl group with selenium ions. The reaction kinetics was accomplished due to more negative free energy of formation and thus the difference in the solubility products. The formed nanotubes were inclusive of Pb and Se with proper inter-chemical bonds with preferred orientations having diameter in tens of nanometer. These nanotubes can have future applications in electronic, optoelectronics and photovoltaic's as well.

  8. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Course orientation Les courses d’orientation comptant pour la coupe genevoise de printemps s’enchainent dans la région franco-suisse. Samedi dernier, une bonne centaine de coureurs se sont retrouvés au Mont Mourex où le club du CERN avait préparé la sixième épreuve. A l’issue de la course, les participants confirmaient l’exigence des circuits, à savoir la condition physique et le côté technique du traçage. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Darrell High du Care Vevey en 1:22:38 devançant Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 1:25:25 et Alison High également du Care Vevey en 1:28:51. Le circuit technique moyen a été remporté par Christophe Vuitton du CO CERN et le circuit technique court par Claire-Lise Rouiller, CO CERN. Les trois pr...

  9. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. An Object-Oriented Classification Method on High Resolution Satellite Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiaoxia, Sun; Jixian, Zhang; Zhengjun, Liu

    2004-01-01

    .... Thereby only the spectral information is used for the classification. High spatial resolution sensors involves a general increase of spatial information and the accuracy of results may decrease on a per-pixel basis...

  11. Structural and magnetic properties of Co films on highly textured and randomly oriented C_6_0 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Ok; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Dong Ryeol

    2016-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co/C_6_0/pentacene and Co/C_6_0 thin film structures were investigated. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity analysis show that the presence or absence of a pentacene buffer layer leads to a highly textured or randomly oriented C_6_0 layer, respectively. A Co film deposited on a randomly oriented C_6_0 layer penetrates into the C_6_0 layer when it is deposited at a slow deposition rate. The Co penetration can be minimized, regardless of the Co deposition rate, by growth on a highly textured and nanostructured C_6_0/pentacene layer. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements show that the saturation magnetization of Co/C_6_0/pentacene is significantly reduced compared to that of Co/C_6_0. On the other hand, the Co penetration does not seem to have an effect on the magnetic properties, suggesting that the structural properties of the Co and C_6_0 layer, rather than the Co penetration into the organic C_6_0 layer, are critical to the magnetic properties of the Co/C_6_0. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of metal(Co)-organic(C_6_0) interface is studied. • Highly textured C_6_0 layer was grown on a pentacene buffer layer (C_6_0/pentacene). • Co penetration into the C_6_0 is significantly suppressed in Co/C_6_0/pentacene. • The Co magnetization in Co/C_6_0/pentacene is reduced than that in Co/C_6_0.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of Co films on highly textured and randomly oriented C{sub 60} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Ok [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jun Woo, E-mail: junwoo@kist.re.kr [Center for Spintronics Research, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ryeol, E-mail: drlee@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co/C{sub 60}/pentacene and Co/C{sub 60} thin film structures were investigated. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity analysis show that the presence or absence of a pentacene buffer layer leads to a highly textured or randomly oriented C{sub 60} layer, respectively. A Co film deposited on a randomly oriented C{sub 60} layer penetrates into the C{sub 60} layer when it is deposited at a slow deposition rate. The Co penetration can be minimized, regardless of the Co deposition rate, by growth on a highly textured and nanostructured C{sub 60}/pentacene layer. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements show that the saturation magnetization of Co/C{sub 60}/pentacene is significantly reduced compared to that of Co/C{sub 60}. On the other hand, the Co penetration does not seem to have an effect on the magnetic properties, suggesting that the structural properties of the Co and C{sub 60} layer, rather than the Co penetration into the organic C{sub 60} layer, are critical to the magnetic properties of the Co/C{sub 60}. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of metal(Co)-organic(C{sub 60}) interface is studied. • Highly textured C{sub 60} layer was grown on a pentacene buffer layer (C{sub 60}/pentacene). • Co penetration into the C{sub 60} is significantly suppressed in Co/C{sub 60}/pentacene. • The Co magnetization in Co/C{sub 60}/pentacene is reduced than that in Co/C{sub 60}.

  13. [Women with high fertility in Mexico: orientations for a population policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, E

    1989-01-01

    The characteristics and correlates of high fertility women in Mexico were assessed for different age and residential groups with data from the National Demographic Survey of 1982. This survey included information on rural, urban and metropolitan Mexican women aged 15-49 years who had ever been in union. Rural areas were defined as those with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. Metropolitan areas were Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Mexico City. High fertility was defined for the purpose of this study as at least 2 live births for women 15-19, 3 for women 20-24, 4 for those 25-29, 5 for those 30-34, 6 for those 35-39, and 7 for those 40-49. According to this definition about 40% of Mexican women are high fertility, with proportions ranging from about 1/3 of those 20-29 to half of those 35-49 years old. High fertility is about twice as common in women 15-19 in rural areas as in urban and metropolitan areas of Mexico. 10% of rural women aged 20-24 already have 5 children, compared to less than 1% of metropolitan women and under 3% of women in other urban areas. By age 45-49, 31% of rural women, 20% of other urban women, and 15% of metropolitan women have 10 or more children. 13% in all areas have 2 or 3. Large proportions of rural women in all age groups are high fertility, with the difference especially marked at young ages. The data on contraceptive usage indicate that high fertility women are among the increasing numbers of Mexican women attempting to control their family size. 10% of high fertility women in rural areas are sterilized and another 10% use oral contraceptives. Injectables and traditional methods share 3rd place. IUDs are almost nonexistent in rural areas. In urban and metropolitan zones about 1/4 of high fertility women have been sterilized. About 10% use pills. Traditional methods and IUDs are in 3rd place for urban women while injectables occupy 3rd place for metropolitan women. Except among women 30-34, about 70% of sterilizations in rural areas are in

  14. Component-oriented approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelin, N.S.; Komogorov, M.Eh.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the main concepts of a component approach to the development and use of numerical models in high energy physics. This approach is realized as the NiMax software system. The discussed concepts are illustrated by numerous examples of the system user session. In appendix chapter we describe physics and numerical algorithms of the model components to perform simulation of hadronic and nuclear collisions at high energies. These components are members of hadronic application modules that have been developed with the help of the NiMax system. Given report is served as an early release of the NiMax manual mainly for model component users

  15. Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a High Level of Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Abigail; Jones, Myles; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced low-level perception, although present in individuals with autism, is not seen in individuals with high, but non-clinical, levels of autistic traits (Brock et al.in "Percept Lond" 40(6):739. doi:10.1068/p6953, 2011). This is surprising, as many of the higher-level visual differences found in autism have been shown to correlate…

  16. Erythrocyte orientation and lung conductivity analysis with a high temporal resolution FEM model for bioimpedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulbrich, M.; Paluchowski, P.; Muehlsteff, J.; Leonhardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a simple and cheap method to acquirehemodynamic parameters. In this work, the influence of three dynamic physiological sources has been analyzed using a model of the humanthorax with a high temporal resolution. Therefore, simulations havebeen conducted using the

  17. Configurable e-commerce-oriented distributed seckill system with high availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liye

    2018-04-01

    The rapid development of e-commerce prompted the birth of seckill activity. Seckill activity greatly stimulated public shopping desire because of its significant attraction to customers. In a seckill activity, a limited number of products will be sold at varying degrees of discount, which brings a huge temptation for customers. The discounted products are usually sold out in seconds, which can be a huge challenge for e-commerce systems. In this case, a seckill system with high concurrency and high availability has very practical significance. This research cooperates with Huijin Department Store to design and implement a seckill system of e-commerce platform. The seckill system supports high concurrency network conditions and is highly available in unexpected situation. In addition, due to the short life cycle of seckill activity, the system has the flexibility to be configured and scalable, which means that it is able to add or re-move system resources on demand. Finally, this paper carried out the function test and the performance test of the whole system. The test results show that the system meets the functional requirements and performance requirements of suppliers, administrators as well as users.

  18. Preferred orientation in Cr- and Co-based thin films and its effects on the read/write performance of the media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-chu; Lal, Brij B.; Eltoukhy, Atef

    1992-04-01

    This work investigates the formation of preferred crystallographic orientation (PO) in Cr underlayer as well as CoCrTa and CoCrPtTa thin films and its effects on the recording performance of longitudinal media. The results show that the thin-film media with comparable coercivity but different crystalline PO as measured by x-ray diffraction exhibit significant difference in high-frequency signal amplitude, pulse width, and signal-to-noise ratio. To illustrate the effect of PO on parametric performance, CoCrTa/Cr and CoCrPtTa/Cr media were sputtered on different substrates and/or using special sputtering processes to achieve comparable coercivity but different PO in the films. A PO of Cr(200), which normally occurs on the NiP/Al substrates under adequate sputtering conditions, is found to be the key to obtaining a PO of Co(11.0) in Co-alloy media. The consequence of preferred in-plane c-axis orientation is a higher coercivity and better parametric performance of the medium. The formation of PO in the Cr underlayer is found to be related to the substrate material and the oxygen content in the sputtered films. The nonmetallic canasite substrates tend to promote PO of more stable Cr(110) rather than Cr(200). Consequently, this leads to a PO of out-of-plane c axis on the following Co films. The PO of magnetic layer appears to be an important factor in determining the parametric performance of the media.

  19. C-axis correlated pinning mechanism in vortex liquid and solid phases for Sm123 film with well-aligned BaHfO3 nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaji, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Miura, Shun; Ichino, Yusuke; Yoshida, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kaname

    2017-11-01

    Nanorods, which are nano-scaled columnar-shape precipitates, have recently been used to improve critical current density J c in magnetic fields for REBa2Cu3O y (RE123, RE: rare earth element) high temperature superconducting tapes/films. However, the flux pinning mechanism of the nanorod is not clear yet. We investigated the J c and resistivity ρ properties in detail and discussed the flux pinning properties on the basis of the flux pinning state diagram for high-quality Sm123 films with well-aligned 5.6 vol% BaHfO3 nanorods. Plateaus were observed in the field dependence of J c and ρ at high temperatures above the delocalization temperature. This suggests that nanorod pinning becomes effective in the vortex liquid phase and it grows up when the temperature decreases toward the delocalization temperature. In the ‘many-nanorod’ state in the high temperature region above the delocalization temperature, double peaks in the F p curves appear due to the coexistence of nanorod pinning and random pinning. At low temperatures below 70 K, however, the well-scaled F p curves at low fields and temperature dependent (non-scaled) normalized F p curves are observed. From detailed analysis using the cooperation model of the random and the correlated pinning centers, we found that nanorod pinning is dominant below the matching field and the cooperation between nanorod pinning and random pinning determines the high field J c properties above the matching field.

  20. Women's Representation in 60 Occupations from 1972 to 2010: More Women in High-Status Jobs, Few Women in Things-Oriented Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Lippa, Richard A.; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-orien...

  1. High spatial resolution grain orientation and strain mapping in thin films using polychromatic submicron x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Valek, B.; Bravman, J. C.; Spolenak, R.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of high brilliance synchrotron sources, coupled with recent progress in achromatic focusing optics and large area two-dimensional detector technology, has allowed us to develop an x-ray synchrotron technique that is capable of mapping orientation and strain/stress in polycrystalline thin films with submicron spatial resolution. To demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument, we have employed it to study the microstructure of aluminum thin film structures at the granular and subgranular levels. Due to the relatively low absorption of x-rays in materials, this technique can be used to study passivated samples, an important advantage over most electron probes given the very different mechanical behavior of buried and unpassivated materials.

  2. Through process texture evolution of new thin-gauge non-oriented electrical steels with high permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Ping, E-mail: yangp@mater.ustb.edu.cn; Mao, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrated new methods for producing high permeability thin-gauge non-oriented electrical steels with columnar-grained 3.05% Si cast slabs containing carbon and MnS precipitates, and the texture evolution was investigated. The magnetic properties of 0.2 mm final sheets were greatly improved by the optimized texture comprising {100}〈0vw〉 and strong {hk0}〈001〉 components, and the best combination of B{sub 50} and P{sub 1.5} was exhibited as 1.764 T and 2.45 W/kg respectively. The texture evolution depended on both the moderate inhibiting effect of coarse MnS precipitates and rolling methods. {100}〈0vw〉 texture could be retained from columnar grains, and strong {hk0}〈001〉 texture was obtained by two-stage rolling in distinct ways: On one hand, for the sample corresponding to low second-stage rolling reduction of 60%, based on the large grain size prior to cold rolling, the higher strain of first-stage cold rolling promoted {hk0}〈001〉 nucleation during intermediate annealing. {hk0}〈001〉 grains were further increased after moderate second-stage cold rolling and decarburization annealing, consequently leading to the final strong {100}–{110}〈001〉 texture and uniform microstructure by quantity and size priorities, and the optimum magnetic properties were achieved; on the other hand, secondary recrystallization occurred on fine-grained decarburized matrix at higher second-stage rolling strains and greatly improved the magnetic induction in RD. The level of abnormal Goss grains growth was decreased in the sample corresponding to 80% second-stage rolling reduction, and normal growth of other beneficial grains lowered the magnetic anisotropy, suggesting another potential way for non-oriented electrical steel production. In addition, the effect of carbon was discussed. - Highlights: • New thin-gauge non-oriented electrical steels with high permeability were fabricated. • The magnetic properties were improved by {100}〈0vw〉 and

  3. Effect of Fiber Orientation on Dynamic Compressive Properties of an Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    transient stress wave (Chen and Song 2011). A schematic of a modern SHPB is shown in Figure 2.3. On this SHPB, a compressed gas cannon is used to launch...1991. Compressive behaviour of concrete at high strain rates. Materials and Structures 24(6):425-450. Buzug, T. M. 2008. Computed tomography: From...SFRC. Journal of Materials Science 48(10):3745-3759. Empelmann, M., M. Teutsch, and G. Steven. 2008. Improvement of the post fracture behaviour of

  4. High strength films from oriented, hydrogen-bonded "graphamid" 2D polymer molecular ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz-Rosado, Emil; Beaudet, Todd D; Andzelm, Jan W; Wetzel, Eric D

    2018-02-27

    The linear polymer poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide), better known by its tradename Kevlar, is an icon of modern materials science due to its remarkable strength, stiffness, and environmental resistance. Here, we propose a new two-dimensional (2D) polymer, "graphamid", that closely resembles Kevlar in chemical structure, but is mechanically advantaged by virtue of its 2D structure. Using atomistic calculations, we show that graphamid comprises covalently-bonded sheets bridged by a high population of strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Molecular and micromechanical calculations predict that these strong intermolecular interactions allow stiff, high strength (6-8 GPa), and tough films from ensembles of finite graphamid molecules. In contrast, traditional 2D materials like graphene have weak intermolecular interactions, leading to ensembles of low strength (0.1-0.5 GPa) and brittle fracture behavior. These results suggest that hydrogen-bonded 2D polymers like graphamid would be transformative in enabling scalable, lightweight, high performance polymer films of unprecedented mechanical performance.

  5. The Role of Grain Orientation and Grain Boundary Characteristics in the Mechanical Twinning Formation in a High Manganese Twinning-Induced Plasticity Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shterner, Vadim; Timokhina, Ilana B.; Rollett, Anthony D.; Beladi, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, the dependence of mechanical twinning on grain orientation and grain boundary characteristics was investigated using quasi in-situ tensile testing. The grains of three main orientations (i.e., , , and parallel to the tensile axis (TA)) and certain characteristics of grain boundaries (i.e., the misorientation angle and the inclination angle between the grain boundary plane normal and the TA) were examined. Among the different orientations, and were the most and the least favored orientations for the formation of mechanical twins, respectively. The orientation was intermediate for twinning. The annealing twin boundaries appeared to be the most favorable grain boundaries for the nucleation of mechanical twinning. No dependence was found for the inclination angle of annealing twin boundaries, but the orientation of grains on either side of the annealing twin boundary exhibited a pronounced effect on the propensity for mechanical twinning. Annealing twin boundaries adjacent to high Taylor factor grains exhibited a pronounced tendency for twinning regardless of their inclination angle. In general, grain orientation has a significant influence on twinning on a specific grain boundary.

  6. Image-guided spinal injection procedures in open high-field MRI with vertical field orientation: feasibility and technical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, F.; Walter, T.; Wonneberger, U.; Wagner, M.; Hermann, K.G.; Hamm, B.; Teichgraeber, U. [Charite, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Chopra, S. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral, and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Wichlas, F. [Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We prospectively evaluated the feasibility and technical features of MR-guided lumbosacral injection procedures in open high-field MRI at 1.0 T. In a CuSO{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O phantom and five human cadaveric spines, fluoroscopy sequences (proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE), T1w TSE, T2w TSE; balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), T1w gradient echo (GE), T2w GE) were evaluated using two MRI-compatible 20-G Chiba-type needles. Artefacts were analysed by varying needle orientation to B{sub 0}, frequency-encoding direction and slice orientation. Image quality was described using the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Subsequently, a total of 183 MR-guided nerve root (107), facet (53) and sacroiliac joint (23) injections were performed in 53 patients. In vitro, PDw TSE sequence yielded the best needle-tissue contrasts (CNR = 45, 18, 15, 9, and 8 for needle vs. fat, muscle, root, bone and sclerosis, respectively) and optimal artefact sizes (width and tip shift less than 5 mm). In vivo, PDw TSE sequence was sufficient in all cases. The acquisition time of 2 s facilitated near-real-time MRI guidance. Drug delivery was technically successful in 100% (107/107), 87% (46/53) and 87% (20/23) of nerve root, facet and sacroiliac joint injections, respectively. No major complications occurred. The mean procedure time was 29 min (range 19-67 min). MR-guided spinal injections in open high-field MRI are feasible and accurate using fast TSE sequence designs. (orig.)

  7. MGI-oriented High-throughput Measurement of Interdiffusion Coefficient Matrices in Ni-based Superalloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the research hotspots in the field of high-temperature alloys was to search the substitutional elements for Re in order to prepare the single-crystal Ni-based superalloys with less or even no Re addition. To find the elements with similar or even lower diffusion coefficients in comparison with that of Re was one of the effective strategies. In multicomponent alloys, the interdiffusivity matrix were used to comprehensively characterize the diffusion ability of any alloying elements. Therefore, accurate determination of the composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivities matrices of different elements in γ and γ' phases of Ni-based superalloys was high priority. The paper briefly introduces of the status of the interdiffusivity matrices determination in Ni-based superalloys, and the methods for determining the interdiffusivities in multicomponent alloys, including the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method and recently proposed numerical inverse method. Because the traditional Matano-Kirkaldy method is of low efficiency, the experimental reports on interdiffusivity matrices in ternary and higher order sub-systems of the Ni-based superalloys were very scarce in the literature. While the numerical inverse method newly proposed in our research group based on Fick's second law can be utilized for high-throughput measurement of accurate interdiffusivity matrices in alloys with any number of components. After that, the successful application of the numerical inverse method in the high-throughput measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in alloys is demonstrated in fcc (γ phase of the ternary Ni-Al-Ta system. Moreover, the validation of the resulting composition-dependant and temperature-dependent interdiffusivity matrices is also comprehensively made. Then, this paper summarizes the recent progress in the measurement of interdiffusivity matrices in γ and γ' phases of a series of core ternary Ni-based superalloys achieved in

  8. High performance devices enabled by epitaxial, preferentially oriented, nanodots and/or nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-10-11

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic, superconducting and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.

  9. Characterizing Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel Sheet Using Automated High-Resolution Laue X-ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Barnett, Matthew; Stevenson, Andrew; Hutchinson, Bevis

    2017-11-01

    Controlling texture in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel sheet is critical for optimization of its magnetization performance. A new automated laboratory system, based on X-ray Laue diffraction, is introduced as a rapid method for large scale grain orientation mapping and texture measurement in these materials. Wide area grain orientation maps are demonstrated for both macroetched and coated GO steel sheets. The large secondary grains contain uniform lattice rotations, the origins of which are discussed.

  10. Numerical investigation of thermal and residual stress of sapphire during c-axis vertical Bridgman growth process considering the solidification history effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Young Cheol; Lee, Wook Jin

    2018-01-01

    Sapphire single crystals have been highlighted for epitaxial of gallium nitride films in high-power laser and light emitting diode industries. In this study, the evolution of thermally induced stress in sapphire during the vertical Bridgman crystal growth process was investigated using a finite element model that simplified the real Bridgman process. A vertical Bridgman process of cylindrical sapphire crystal with a diameter of 50 mm was considered for the model. The solidification history effect during the growth was modeled by the quite element technique. The effects of temperature gradient, seeding interface shape and seeding position on the thermal stress during the process were discussed based on the finite element analysis results.

  11. Developing collective customer knowledge and service climate: The interaction between service-oriented high-performance work systems and service leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kaifeng; Chuang, Chih-Hsun; Chiao, Yu-Ching

    2015-07-01

    This study theorized and examined the influence of the interaction between Service-Oriented high-performance work systems (HPWSs) and service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate. Using a sample of 569 employees and 142 managers in footwear retail stores, we found that Service-Oriented HPWSs and service leadership reduced the influences of one another on collective customer knowledge and service climate, such that the positive influence of service leadership on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when Service-Oriented HPWSs were lower than when they were higher or the positive influence of Service-Oriented HPWSs on collective customer knowledge and service climate was stronger when service leadership was lower than when it was higher. We further proposed and found that collective customer knowledge and service climate were positively related to objective financial outcomes through service performance. Implications for the literature and managerial practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A hardware-oriented concurrent TZ search algorithm for High-Efficiency Video Coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Nghia; Kim, Tae Sung; Rhee, Chae Eun; Lee, Hyuk-Jae

    2017-12-01

    High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is the latest video coding standard, in which the compression performance is double that of its predecessor, the H.264/AVC standard, while the video quality remains unchanged. In HEVC, the test zone (TZ) search algorithm is widely used for integer motion estimation because it effectively searches the good-quality motion vector with a relatively small amount of computation. However, the complex computation structure of the TZ search algorithm makes it difficult to implement it in the hardware. This paper proposes a new integer motion estimation algorithm which is designed for hardware execution by modifying the conventional TZ search to allow parallel motion estimations of all prediction unit (PU) partitions. The algorithm consists of the three phases of zonal, raster, and refinement searches. At the beginning of each phase, the algorithm obtains the search points required by the original TZ search for all PU partitions in a coding unit (CU). Then, all redundant search points are removed prior to the estimation of the motion costs, and the best search points are then selected for all PUs. Compared to the conventional TZ search algorithm, experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly decreases the Bjøntegaard Delta bitrate (BD-BR) by 0.84%, and it also reduces the computational complexity by 54.54%.

  13. Non-equiatomic high entropy alloys: Approach towards rapid alloy screening and property-oriented design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, K.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr.10, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Tasan, C.C., E-mail: c.tasan@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Yao, M.J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Deng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Department of Engineering Design and Materials, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, No-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Springer, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Raabe, D., E-mail: d.raabe@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-11-11

    The high entropy alloy (HEA) concept has triggered a renewed interest in alloy design, even though some aspects of the underlying thermodynamic concepts are still under debate. This study addresses the short-comings of this alloy design strategy with the aim to open up new directions of HEA research targeting specifically non-equiatomic yet massively alloyed compositions. We propose that a wide range of massive single phase solid solutions could be designed by including non-equiatomic variants. It is demonstrated by introducing a set of novel non-equiatomic multi-component CoCrFeMnNi alloys produced by metallurgical rapid alloy prototyping. Despite the reduced configurational entropy, detailed characterization of these materials reveals a strong resemblance to the well-studied equiatomic single phase HEA: The microstructure of these novel alloys exhibits a random distribution of alloying elements (confirmed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy and Atom Probe Tomography) in a single face-centered-cubic phase (confirmed by X-ray Diffraction and Electron Backscatter Diffraction), which deforms through planar slip (confirmed by Electron-Channeling Contrast Imaging) and leads to excellent ductility (confirmed by uniaxial tensile tests). This approach widens the field of HEAs to non-equiatomic multi-component alloys since the concept enables to tailor the stacking fault energy and associated transformation phenomena which act as main mechanisms to design useful strain hardening behavior.

  14. The optical constants and spectral specular reflectivity of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havstad, M.A.; Schildbach, M.A.; McLean, W. II.

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of the specular reflectivity and the optical constants of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) have been made using two independent optical systems. The first measures reflectance (at 1.06 μm and 293 K) by comparing the intensity of a laser beam before and after reflecting off the sample. The second determines the complex index of raft-action (from 0.55 to 8.45 μm, with sample temperatures of 293, 480, 900 and 1300 K) by ellipsometry. Agreement between the two methods is good. Moderate reflectivities are observed over the full spectral range of measurement: the spectral directional-hemispherical reflectivity at normal incidence varies from 0.41 at 0.55 μm to 0.74 at 8.45 μm. The components of the complex index of refraction increase smoothly with wavelength. The index of refraction increases from 3.10 at 0.55 μm to 7.84 at 8.45 μm. The extinction coefficient varies from 2.01 to 6.66 over the same range

  15. Non-equiatomic high entropy alloys: Approach towards rapid alloy screening and property-oriented design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, K.G.; Tasan, C.C.; Yao, M.J.; Deng, Y.; Springer, H.; Raabe, D.

    2015-01-01

    The high entropy alloy (HEA) concept has triggered a renewed interest in alloy design, even though some aspects of the underlying thermodynamic concepts are still under debate. This study addresses the short-comings of this alloy design strategy with the aim to open up new directions of HEA research targeting specifically non-equiatomic yet massively alloyed compositions. We propose that a wide range of massive single phase solid solutions could be designed by including non-equiatomic variants. It is demonstrated by introducing a set of novel non-equiatomic multi-component CoCrFeMnNi alloys produced by metallurgical rapid alloy prototyping. Despite the reduced configurational entropy, detailed characterization of these materials reveals a strong resemblance to the well-studied equiatomic single phase HEA: The microstructure of these novel alloys exhibits a random distribution of alloying elements (confirmed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy and Atom Probe Tomography) in a single face-centered-cubic phase (confirmed by X-ray Diffraction and Electron Backscatter Diffraction), which deforms through planar slip (confirmed by Electron-Channeling Contrast Imaging) and leads to excellent ductility (confirmed by uniaxial tensile tests). This approach widens the field of HEAs to non-equiatomic multi-component alloys since the concept enables to tailor the stacking fault energy and associated transformation phenomena which act as main mechanisms to design useful strain hardening behavior.

  16. Immobilization of immunoglobulin G in a highly oriented manner on a protein-A terminated multilayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, Adem [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Gazi University, 06500 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Caykara, Tuncer, E-mail: caykara@gazi.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Gazi University, 06500 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated a multilayer system consisting of 3-glycidoxypropyldimethylmethoxysilane (GPDS), poly(dimethylsiloxane) bis 3-aminopropyl terminated (PDMS) and protein-A on a silicon wafer surface for oriented immobilization of immunoglobilin G (IgG). The multilayer system with a different component in each layer was characterized by ellipsometry, contact-angle goniometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy. The epoxy-terminated monolayer was formed by the chemisorption of GPDS molecules on the hydroxylated silicon surface. The PDMS film about 4.5 nm thick was produced on the GPDS-monolayer by the chemical reaction between the amine groups at the end of PDMS chain and the epoxy groups of GPDS molecules. By introducing the PDMS chains, the hydrophilic character of GPDS-monolayer decreased. Study of the time dependence of polymer grafting showed that the chemisorption of GPDS is fast, whereas at least 16 h is needed to generate the homogeneous PDMS layer. For immobilization of IgG molecules in a highly oriented manner, protein-A molecules were first chemically bound to an ultrathin ({approx}4.5 nm) PDMS reactive polymer layer and later used to capture IgG. It was shown that the existence of protein-A in the multilayer system has a strong influence on the binding properties of IgG not only in the efficiency of binding, but also in its specificity. In conclusion, the multilayer system with protein-A has the potential to be further developed into an efficient immunoassay protein chip.

  17. Change in Acetabular Cup Orientation From Supine to Standing Position and Its Effect on Wear of Highly Crosslinked Polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Matthew G; Goyal, Prateek; Yuan, Xunhua; Howard, James L; Lanting, Brent A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure acetabular cup position and wear of the highly crosslinked polyethylene liner in the supine and standing position for patients at a minimum of 10 years after the operation. A total of 38 patients were recruited at a mean of 12.5 years after the operation. All patients received a single acetabular cup design with a highly crosslinked liner and a 28-mm cobalt-chromium femoral head. Patients underwent supine and standing radiostereometric examinations in which the X-ray sources and detectors were positioned to obtain an anterior-posterior and cross-table lateral radiograph. Acetabular cup position and the three-dimensional wear rate were measured from the radiographs, and outcome scores were recorded for each patient. Anteversion significantly increased (P cup orientation and wear rate in either position. Highly crosslinked polyethylene is a forgiving bearing material. Although adherence to the traditional acetabular position target zone is recommended, ensuring hip stability and consideration of the patient's functional position are also important objectives to consider for the acetabular position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FEATURES OF THE PROJECT-ORIENTED MANAGEMENT OF HIGH-TECHNOLOGY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Dobrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is explored the concept of "project portfolio", defined the role and place of project portfolio management in the overall enterprise management structure, the formation of the project portfolio and its limitations. The aim of the article is to study the role and place of project management in the overall enterprise management system, and the relationship of the management processes at diff erent organizational levels.The formation of the strategic projects portfolio of the company – it is an urgent task which is associated with the strengthening of innovation and investment activity of the operating in Russia enterprises. Nowadays, transfer of enterprises activities to an innovative way of development is going on in the face of the deteriorating international situation, Russia's isolation from European countries and the United States, and the implementation of the sanctions policy, changes in the domestic economic and political course. These circumstances, of course, could not aff ect the adjustment of activities and strategic goals of the development of enterprises, at the level of their financial and economic stability. At the same time, the growth of innovation activity in a number of sectors, particularly in high-technology industries, it creates the need for the formation of the project portfolio, which allows to achieve the strategic objectives of enterprises and enhance their competitiveness.During the preparation of the article there were identified a core set of problems faced by the enterprises during the transition to a model of the project management, which is due, primarily, poor project management technologies in Russia, and it is complicated by the lack of a clear definition of objectives and vision benefits for enterprises. In addition, the reasons for the backlog are caused by the low level of project management maturity of the enterprise, which is caused by a lack of personnel with expertise in this field of

  19. The Impact of Personality, Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy on Participation of High School Teachers in Learning Activities in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daal, Tine; Donche, Vincent; De Maeyer, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of personality traits, goal orientation and self-efficacy on high school teachers' participation in learning activities in the workplace (i.e. experimentation, informal interaction with colleagues, self-regulation and avoidance behaviour). A convenience sample of 95 teachers from six high schools in Flanders…

  20. German Orientalism

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Olin

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Suzanne L. Marchand, German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship, Cambridge and Washington, D.C.: Cambridge University Press, 2009. This analysis of Suzanne L. Marchand’s German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race and Scholarship reads her contribution in part against the background of Edward Said’s path breaking book Orientalism. Differences lie in her more expansive understanding of the term ‘Oriental’ to include the Far East and her conce...

  1. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  2. Highly Oriented Growth of Piezoelectric Thin Films on Silicon Using Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Growth Template Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Yuan, Huiyu; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Koster, Gertjan; Ten Elshof, Johan E; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-11-16

    Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 (CNOns) and Ti 0.87 O 2 (TiOns) metal oxide nanosheets (ns) are used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth of piezoelectric capacitor stacks on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (Pt/Si) substrates. Highly (001)- and (110)-oriented Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) films are achieved by utilizing CNOns and TiOns, respectively. The piezoelectric capacitors are characterized by polarization and piezoelectric hysteresis loops and by fatigue measurements. The devices fabricated with SrRuO 3 top and bottom electrodes directly on nanosheets/Si have ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties well comparable with devices that use more conventional oxide buffer layers (stacks) such as YSZ, CeO 2 /YSZ, or SrTiO 3 on Si. The devices grown on nanosheets/Pt/Si with Pt top electrodes show significantly improved polarization fatigue properties over those of similar devices grown directly on Pt/Si. The differences in properties are ascribed to differences in the crystalline structures and the density of the films. These results show a route toward the fabrication of single crystal piezoelectric thin films and devices with high quality, long-lifetime piezoelectric capacitor structures on nonperovskite and even noncrystalline substrates such as glass or polished metal surfaces.

  3. Domain-orientation dependence of levitation force in seeded melt grown single-domain YBa2Cu3Ox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, D.; Qu, D.; Sagar, S.; Lahiri, K.

    1997-01-01

    Domain-orientation dependence of levitation force has been determined for single-domain YBa 2 Cu 3 O x . The single-domain material is obtained from a seeded melt growth process. The levitation force has been found to reach a maximum as the c axis of the domain is parallel to the direction of the force. The levitation force decreases in a cosine law fashion as the angle θ (the angle between the direction of the force and the c axis) increases from 0 degree to 60 degree. A maximum anisotropy of levitation force of 2.29 has been found. A physical model is proposed to explain the observed orientation dependence. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  5. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried

    2008-11-01

    radiation. The major results of the systematic work on optical orientation, both experimental and theoretical, at the Ioffe Institute and the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris are documented in the book Optical Orientation, edited by F Meier and B P Zakharchenya in the series Modern Problems in Condensed Matter Sciences [4], in which the foundations of optical orientation are comprehensively presented by renowned authors. This book is still the unsurpassed standard work in the field. If one asks what has become new since that publication in 1984 it is obviously the arrival of low-dimensional structures, two-dimensional heterostructures and zero-dimensional quantum dots. It has turned out that the quantum confinement can significantly modify the spin lifetime and the spin relaxation. The experimental work on spin alignment was done by a relative small number of researchers. However, the situation has substantially changed during the last decade. Research on spin-related phenomena has become very popular and the word 'spintronics' was coined. Spin research is no longer considered to be somewhat esoteric, since the replacement of silicon microelectronics based on the electron charge by spin-based electronics is being discussed. Whether these proposals can be realized remains to be seen. But one consequence has been a worldwide increase of high level basic research in spin phenomena. Another line of current research which has contributed to the popularity of spin-related research is quantum computing, based on spin-qubits. To be useful, solid state systems require long spin relaxation times and weak interaction with the environment. This is indispensable for low error rates. The difficulties in achieving these goals have been extensively discussed in the literature. Nowadays, because of the volume and diversity of spin-related work worldwide, a book on optical orientation like that edited by Meyer and Zakharchenya does not seem possible, so in this special issue of

  6. Transverse and longitudinal electrooptic properties of highly (100) oriented Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} films grown on glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-Jin [Department of Future Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 66 Sang-Nam Dong, Chang-Won, Gyeong-Nam, 641-010 (Korea, Republic of) and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: finaljin@kmail.kimm.re.kr; Park, Gun-Tae [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoun-Ee [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dal-Young [Department of Visual Optics, Seoul National University of Technology, 172 Gongreung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-05

    The Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} [PZT] films with a preferred orientation generally have columnar texture. Because the properties of a PZT film are strongly dependent on its crystallographic direction, the electrooptic properties along the longitudinal and transverse direction are expected to be anisotropic. In this study, highly (100) oriented PZT films were grown on glass and ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) coated glass substrates using the sol-gel multi-coating method with lanthanum nitrate and lanthanum nickel nitrate as buffer layers. The longitudinal and transverse electrooptic properties of the textured films were characterized by transmission-mode measuring equipment with a Senarmont compensator using a sample tilting method. The calculated longitudinal and transverse electrooptic coefficients of the highly (100) oriented PZT films were 147 and 250 pm/V, respectively.

  7. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Lippa

    Full Text Available To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  8. Women's representation in 60 occupations from 1972 to 2010: more women in high-status jobs, few women in things-oriented jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippa, Richard A; Preston, Kathleen; Penner, John

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with occupational sex segregation in the United States over the past four decades, we analyzed U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data for the percent of women employed in 60 varied occupations from 1972 to 2010. Occupations were assessed on status, people-things orientation, and data-ideas orientation. Multilevel linear modeling (MLM) analyses showed that women increasingly entered high-status occupations from 1972 to 2010, but women's participation in things-oriented occupations (e.g., STEM fields and mechanical and construction trades) remained low and relatively stable. Occupations' data-ideas orientation was not consistently related to sex segregation. Because of women's increased participation in high-status occupations, occupational status became an increasingly weak predictor of women's participation rates in occupations, whereas occupations' people-things orientation became an increasingly strong predictor over time. These findings are discussed in relation to theories of occupational sex segregation and social policies to reduce occupational sex segregation.

  9. Incidence and Outcomes of Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Youth: The Role of Gender and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Katie M

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.

  10. Quick synthesis of highly aligned or randomly oriented nanofibrous structures composed of C60 molecules via self-assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosu, Shunji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Maekawa, Toru

    2013-01-01

    Assemblies, which are composed of nanoparticles such as nanofibres, have been intensively studied in recent years. This has particularly been the case in the field of biomedicine, where the aim is to develop efficient methodologies for capturing and separating target biomolecules and cells and/or encouraging bio-chemical reactions, utilizing the extremely high surface area to volume ratio of assemblies. There is an urgent need for the development of a quick synthesis method of forming nanofibrous structures on the surface of biomedical microchips and devices for the investigation of the interactions between biomolecules/cells and the nanostructures. Here, we produce nanofibrous structures composed of C 60 molecules, which are aligned in one direction or randomly oriented, by dissolving C 60 molecules and sulphur in benzene and evaporating a droplet of the solution on a glass substrate under appropriate conditions. The synthesis time is as short as 30 s. Sulphur is extracted and nanofibres are crystallized by leaving them in supercritical carbon dioxide. (paper)

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Highly Oriented N-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Selective Area Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality nitrogen-doped ZnO nanorods have been selectively grown on patterned and bare ZnO templates by the combination of nanoimprint lithography and chemical vapor transport methods. The grown nanorods exhibited uniformity in size and orientation as well as controllable density and surface-to-volume ratio. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods and the behaviour of N dopants have been investigated by means of the scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence (PL spectra, and Raman scattering spectra. The additional vibration modes observed in Raman spectra of N-doped ZnO nanorods provided solid evidence of N incorporation in ZnO nanorods. The difference of excitonic emissions from ZnO nanorods with varied density and surface-to-volume ratio suggested the different spatial distribution of intrinsic defects. It was found that the defects giving rise to acceptor-bound exciton (A0X emission were most likely to distribute in the sidewall surface with nonpolar characteristics, while the donor bound exciton (D0X emission related defects distributed uniformly in the near top polar surface.

  12. Growth and characterization of stoichiometric BCN films on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannan, Md. Abdul, E-mail: amannan75@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Synchrotron Radiation Research Unit, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Noguchi, Hideyuki; Kida, Tetsuya; Nagano, Masamitsu [Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, 1 Honjo, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Hirao, Norie; Baba, Yuji [Synchrotron Radiation Research Unit, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2010-05-31

    Hexagonal boron carbonitride (h-BCN) hybrid films have been synthesized on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using tris-(dimethylamino)borane as a single-source molecular precursor. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and Raman spectroscopic measurements. XPS measurement showed that the B atoms were bonded to C and N atoms to form the sp{sup 2}-B-C-N atomic hybrid chemical environment. The atomic composition estimated from the XPS of the typical sample was found to be almost B{sub 1}C{sub 1}N{sub 1}. NEXAFS spectra of the B K-edge and the N K-edge had the peaks due to the {pi}* and {sigma}* resonances of sp{sup 2} hybrid orbitals implying the existence of the sp{sup 2} hybrid configurations of h-BCN around the B atoms. The G band at 1592 and D band at 1352 cm{sup -1} in the Raman spectra also suggested the presence of the graphite-like sp{sup 2}-B-C-N atomic hybrid bonds. The films consisted of micrometer scale crystalline structure of around 10 {mu}m thick has been confirmed by the field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Developing mathematics learning set for special-needs junior high school student oriented to learning interest and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Sadidah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce a mathematics learning set for special-needs students (mathematical learning disability and mathematically gifted of Junior High School Grade VIII Second Semester oriented to learning interests and achievement which is valid, practical, and effective. This study was a research and development study using the Four-D development model consisting of four stages: (1 define, (2 design, (3 develop, and (4 disseminate. The quality of learning set consisting of the following three criterions: (1 validity, (2 practicality, and (3 effectiveness.  The data analysis technique used in this study is a descriptive quantitative analysis. The research produced learning set consisting of lesson plans and student worksheets. The result of the research shows that: (1 the learning set fulfill the valid criteria base on experts’ appraisal; (2 the learning set fulfill the practical criterion base on teacher’s and students’ questionnaire, and observation of learning implementation; (3 the learning set fulfill the effectiveness criterion base on learning interest and achievement.

  14. Seasonal variations of rotifers from a high altitude urban shallow water body, La Cantera Oriente (Mexico City, Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sergio González; Sarma, S. S. S.; Nandini, S.

    2017-11-01

    La Cantera Oriente is a shallow freshwater volcanic water body located at an altitude of 2 270 m above sea level in the Ecological Reserve of San Angel Pedregal of Mexico City (Mexico). In order to ensure the conservation of its biological heritage including zooplankton, the present work was undertaken to quantify the seasonal changes in the diversity and density of rotifers and the selected physico-chemical variables during 2013-2014. Qualitative analysis of the zooplankton samples yielded 68 rotifer species which represented 24 genera in 15 families. B rachionus calyciflorus Pallas, 1766, B. quadridentatus Hermann, 1783, Polyarthra vulgaris Carlin, 1943, Lecane closterocerca (Schmarda, 1859) and Keratella cochlearis (Gosse, 1851) were the most common species. Preston plots of species frequency-density revealed that as many as 30% of the rotifer taxa were dominant throughout the year. The species with high population densities were Brachionus quadridentatus, Lecane closterocerca, Keratella cochlearis, and Lepadella patella; their peak densities were 2 000, 1 000, 180 and 90 ind./L, all occurring in summer. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Platyias quadricornis was related to the concentration of phosphates available in the environment and the conductivity, while B. quadridentatus was positively correlated with chlorophyll- a. The trophic status of the lake was eutrophic based on Chl- a content but oligotrophic with relation to the Brachionus: Trichocerca ratio.

  15. Object-oriented Method of Hierarchical Urban Building Extraction from High-resolution Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Chao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An automatic urban building extraction method for high-resolution remote-sensing imagery,which combines building segmentation based on neighbor total variations with object-oriented analysis,is presented in this paper. Aimed at different extraction complexity from various buildings in the segmented image,a hierarchical building extraction strategy with multi-feature fusion is adopted. Firstly,we extract some rectangle buildings which remain intact after segmentation through shape analysis. Secondly,in order to ensure each candidate building target to be independent,multidirectional morphological road-filtering algorithm is designed which can separate buildings from the neighboring roads with similar spectrum. Finally,we take the extracted buildings and the excluded non-buildings as samples to establish probability model respectively,and Bayesian discriminating classifier is used for making judgment of the other candidate building objects to get the ultimate extraction result. The experimental results have shown that the approach is able to detect buildings with different structure and spectral features in the same image. The results of performance evaluation also support the robustness and precision of the approach developed.

  16. The Erosion of Diamond and Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2018-01-01

    Polymers and other oxidizable materials on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment can be eroded due to reaction with atomic oxygen (AO). Therefore, in order to design durable spacecraft, it is important to know the LEO AO erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of materials susceptible to AO reaction. The Polymers Experiment was developed to determine the AO Ey of various polymers and other materials flown in ram and wake orientations in LEO. The experiment was flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7) mission for 1.5 years on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). As part of the experiment, a sample containing Class 2A diamond (100 plane) and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG, basal and edge planes) was exposed to ram AO and characterized for erosion. The materials were salt-sprayed prior to flight to provide isolated sites of AO protection. The Ey of the samples was determined through post-flight electron microscopy recession depth measurements. The experiment also included a Kapton H witness sample for AO fluence determination. This paper provides an overview of the MISSE 7 mission, a description of the flight experiment, the characterization techniques used, the mission AO fluence, and the LEO Ey results for diamond and HOPG (basal and edge planes). The data is compared to the Ey of pyrolytic graphite exposed to four years of space exposure as part of the MISSE 2 mission. The results indicate that diamond erodes, but with a very low Ey of 1.58 +/- 0.04 x 10(exp -26) cm(exp 3)/atom. The different HOPG planes displayed significantly different amounts of erosion from each other. The HOPG basal plane had an Ey of 1.05 +/- 0.08 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp 3)/atom while the edge plane had a lower Ey of only 5.38 +/- 0.90 x 10(exp -25) -cm(exp 3)/atom. The Ey data from this ISS spaceflight experiment provides valuable information for understanding of chemistry

  17. Effect of task-oriented training and high-variability practice on gross motor performance and activities of daily living in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Ahn, So-Yoon

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates how a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program can affect the gross motor performance and activities of daily living for children with spastic diplegia and provides an effective and reliable clinical database for future improvement of motor performances skills. [Subjects and Methods] This study randomly assigned seven children with spastic diplegia to each intervention group including that of a control group, task-oriented training group, and a high-variability practice group. The control group only received neurodevelopmental treatment for 40 minutes, while the other two intervention groups additionally implemented a task-oriented training and high-variability practice program for 8 weeks (twice a week, 60 min per session). To compare intra and inter-relationships of the three intervention groups, this study measured gross motor performance measure (GMPM) and functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) before and after 8 weeks of training. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in the amount of change before and after the training among the three intervention groups for the gross motor performance measure and functional independence measure. [Conclusion] Applying high-variability practice in a task-oriented training course may be considered an efficient intervention method to improve motor performance skills that can tune to movement necessary for daily livelihood through motor experience and learning of new skills as well as change of tasks learned in a complex environment or similar situations to high-variability practice.

  18. Influence of aluminum nitride interlayers on crystal orientation and piezoelectric property of aluminum nitride thin films prepared on titanium electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamohara, Toshihiro; Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Kuwano, Noriyuki

    2007-01-01

    Highly c-axis-oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films have been prepared on titanium (Ti) bottom electrodes by using AlN interlayers. The AlN interlayers were deposited between Ti electrodes and silicon (Si) substrates, such as AlN/Ti/AlN/Si. The crystallinity and crystal orientation of the AlN films and Ti electrodes strongly depended on the thickness of the AlN interlayers. Although the sputtering conditions were the same, the X-ray diffraction intensity of AlN (0002) and Ti (0002) planes drastically increased, and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the X-ray rocking curves decreased from 5.1 o to 2.6 o and from 3.3 o to 2.0 o , respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric constant d 33 of the AlN films was significantly improved from - 0.2 to - 4.5 pC/N

  19. School Engagement, Risky Peers, and Student-Teacher Relationships as Mediators of School Violence in Taiwanese Vocational versus Academically Oriented High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-01-01

    Educational tracking based on academic ability accounts for different school dynamics between vocational versus academically-oriented high schools in Taiwan. Many educational practitioners predict that the settings of vocational schools and academic schools mediate school violence in different ways. Alternatively, some researchers argue the actual…

  20. In situ synthesis of oriented NiS nanotube arrays on FTO as high-performance counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan, E-mail: liyan-nwnu@163.com [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Chang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China); Zhao, Yun [Laboratory of Clean Energy Chemistry and Materials, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Wang, Jian; Wang, Cheng-wei [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics & Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Oriented nickel sulfide (NiS) nanotube arrays were successfully in-situ fabricated on conductive glass substrate and used directly as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells without any post-processing. Compared with Pt counter electrode, for the beneficial effect of electronic transport along the axial direction through the arrays to the substrate, oriented NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher electrocatalytic activity for I{sub 3}{sup −} reduction and better electrochemical stability, resulting in a significantly improved power conversion efficiency of 9.8%. Such in-situ grown oriented sulfide semiconductor nanotube arrays is expected to lead a new class structure of composites for highly efficient cathode materials. - Highlights: • In-situ synthesis strategy was proposed to construct oriented NiS nanotube arrays. • Such oriented tube nanostructure benefits the electronic transport along the axial direction of the arrays. • As CE of DSSCs, NiS nanotube arrays exhibit both higher efficiency (9.8%) and electrochemical stability than Pt.

  1. Fabrication of highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals by solid-state dewetting of Si ultrathin layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Muneyuki, E-mail: naito22@center.konan-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tatsuhiko; Machida, Nobuya; Shigematsu, Toshihiko [Department of Chemistry, Konan University, Okamoto, Higashinada, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); Nakao, Motoi [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); Sudoh, Koichi [The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2013-07-31

    In this paper, highly oriented nanocrystals of Fe{sub 3}Si with a D0{sub 3} structure are fabricated on SiO{sub 2} using ultrathin Si on insulator substrate. First, (001) oriented Si nanocrystals are formed on the SiO{sub 2} layer by solid state dewetting of the top Si layer. Then, Fe addition to the Si nanocrystals is performed by reactive deposition epitaxy and post-deposition annealing at 500 °C. The structures of the Fe–Si nanocrystals are analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and nanobeam electron diffraction. We observe that Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with D0{sub 3}, B2, and A2 structures coexist on the 1-h post-annealed samples. Prolonged annealing at 500 °C is effective in obtaining Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals with a D0{sub 3} single phase, thereby promoting structural ordering in the nanocrystals. We discuss the formation process of the highly oriented D0{sub 3}-Fe{sub 3}Si nanocrystals on the basis of the atomistic structural information. - Highlights: • Highly oriented Fe–Si nanocrystals (NCs) are fabricated by reactive deposition. • Si NCs formed by solid state dewetting of Si thin layers are used as seed crystals. • The structures of Fe–Si NCs are analyzed by nanobeam electron diffraction. • Most of Fe–Si NCs possess the D0{sub 3} structure after post-deposition annealing.

  2. Analysis of the mechanical response of biomimetic materials with highly oriented microstructures through 3D printing, mechanical testing and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Obaldia, Enrique Escobar; Jeong, Chanhue; Grunenfelder, Lessa Kay; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo

    2015-08-01

    Many biomineralized organisms have evolved highly oriented nanostructures to perform specific functions. One key example is the abrasion-resistant rod-like microstructure found in the radular teeth of Chitons (Cryptochiton stelleri), a large mollusk. The teeth consist of a soft core and a hard shell that is abrasion resistant under extreme mechanical loads with which they are subjected during the scraping process. Such remarkable mechanical properties are achieved through a hierarchical arrangement of nanostructured magnetite rods surrounded with α-chitin. We present a combined biomimetic approach in which designs were analyzed with additive manufacturing, experiments, analytical and computational models to gain insights into the abrasion resistance and toughness of rod-like microstructures. Staggered configurations of hard hexagonal rods surrounded by thin weak interfacial material were printed, and mechanically characterized with a cube-corner indenter. Experimental results demonstrate a higher contact resistance and stiffness for the staggered alignments compared to randomly distributed fibrous materials. Moreover, we reveal an optimal rod aspect ratio that lead to an increase in the site-specific properties measured by indentation. Anisotropy has a significant effect (up to 50%) on the Young's modulus in directions parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rods, and 30% on hardness and fracture toughness. Optical microscopy suggests that energy is dissipated in the form of median cracks when the load is parallel to the rods and lateral cracks when the load is perpendicular to the rods. Computational models suggest that inelastic deformation of the rods at early stages of indentation can vary the resistance to penetration. As such, we found that the mechanical behavior of the system is influenced by interfacial shear strain which influences the lateral load transfer and therefore the spread of damage. This new methodology can help to elucidate

  3. Owlready: Ontology-oriented programming in Python with automatic classification and high level constructs for biomedical ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-07-01

    Ontologies are widely used in the biomedical domain. While many tools exist for the edition, alignment or evaluation of ontologies, few solutions have been proposed for ontology programming interface, i.e. for accessing and modifying an ontology within a programming language. Existing query languages (such as SPARQL) and APIs (such as OWLAPI) are not as easy-to-use as object programming languages are. Moreover, they provide few solutions to difficulties encountered with biomedical ontologies. Our objective was to design a tool for accessing easily the entities of an OWL ontology, with high-level constructs helping with biomedical ontologies. From our experience on medical ontologies, we identified two difficulties: (1) many entities are represented by classes (rather than individuals), but the existing tools do not permit manipulating classes as easily as individuals, (2) ontologies rely on the open-world assumption, whereas the medical reasoning must consider only evidence-based medical knowledge as true. We designed a Python module for ontology-oriented programming. It allows access to the entities of an OWL ontology as if they were objects in the programming language. We propose a simple high-level syntax for managing classes and the associated "role-filler" constraints. We also propose an algorithm for performing local closed world reasoning in simple situations. We developed Owlready, a Python module for a high-level access to OWL ontologies. The paper describes the architecture and the syntax of the module version 2. It details how we integrated the OWL ontology model with the Python object model. The paper provides examples based on Gene Ontology (GO). We also demonstrate the interest of Owlready in a use case focused on the automatic comparison of the contraindications of several drugs. This use case illustrates the use of the specific syntax proposed for manipulating classes and for performing local closed world reasoning. Owlready has been successfully

  4. Development Biology Worksheet Oriented Accelerated Learning on Plantae and Ecosystems for 10th-Grade Senior High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipuja, D. A.; Lufri, L.; Ahda, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The problem that found are learning outcomes student is low on the plantae and ecosystems. Students less motivated and passive learning because learning is teacher center and teaching materials not facilitate student. Therefore, it is necessary to design a worksheet oriented accelerated learning. Accelerated learning approach that can improve motivation and learning activities. The purpose of the research was to produce worksheet oriented accelerated learning on plantae and ecosystems. This research is designed as a research and development by using Plomp model, consists of the preliminary, prototyping, and assessment phase. Data was collected through questionnaires, observation sheet, test, and documentation. The results of the research was worksheet oriented accelerated learning on plantae and ecosystems is very valid.

  5. Anisotropic effects in a powder oriented YBCO sample using a three axes magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudissa, M. [Universite Ferhat Abbas, Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Setif (Algeria); Halimi, R. [Universite Mentouri, Unite de Recherche de Physique des Materiaux, Constantine (Algeria); Senoussi, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Orsay (France)

    2006-09-15

    To measure the components of the magnetization vector along the XYZ directions of a reference frame, in the superconducting materials, we have conceived a three axes magnetometer, with a detection system equipped with three series of pick-up coils with axes parallel to the three directions X,Y, and Z. We describe in this paper the details of the design and the method of measurement, with some results obtained by magnetic measurements on samples of oriented YBCO powder, with size of the grains between 20 {mu}m and 40 {mu}m, for values of the angle {theta} between the magnetic field H and the c-axis, between 0 and 90 and for values of fields up to 12 T. The direct measurement of the Z and the XY components of the irreversible magnetization vector, M{sub irr}, allowed us to observe the twin effect (channeling) on the vortex pinning observed by many authors, the evolution of the magnetization vector and to measure with a high accuracy the anisotropy factor of our samples. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Anisotropic effects in a powder oriented YBCO sample using a three axes magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudissa, M.; Halimi, R.; Senoussi, S.

    2006-01-01

    To measure the components of the magnetization vector along the XYZ directions of a reference frame, in the superconducting materials, we have conceived a three axes magnetometer, with a detection system equipped with three series of pick-up coils with axes parallel to the three directions X,Y, and Z. We describe in this paper the details of the design and the method of measurement, with some results obtained by magnetic measurements on samples of oriented YBCO powder, with size of the grains between 20 μm and 40 μm, for values of the angle θ between the magnetic field H and the c-axis, between 0 and 90 and for values of fields up to 12 T. The direct measurement of the Z and the XY components of the irreversible magnetization vector, M irr , allowed us to observe the twin effect (channeling) on the vortex pinning observed by many authors, the evolution of the magnetization vector and to measure with a high accuracy the anisotropy factor of our samples. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Understanding the Merits and Demerits of High and Low Context Oriented Communication Cultures in Intercultural Business Conflict : the case of Fukushima and Japanese communication schema

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shall highlight the merits and demerits of both high and low context oriented communication cultures - particularly in cross-cultural business contexts. Intercultural Communication (IC) theories such as high . low context, universalism . particularism and monochromic . polychromic time are meant to serve as guideposts for the international sojourner to communicate effectively in the host country. We shall also briefly discuss the idea that the English language serves as a low conte...

  8. Moving Virtual Research Environments from high maintenance Stovepipes to Multi-purpose Sustainable Service-oriented Science Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Fraser, Ryan; Wyborn, Lesley; Friedrich, Carsten; Squire, Geoffrey; Barker, Michelle; Moloney, Glenn

    2017-04-01

    The researcher of today is likely to be part of a team distributed over multiple sites that will access data from an external repository and then process the data on a public or private cloud or even on a large centralised supercomputer. They are increasingly likely to use a mixture of their own code, third party software and libraries, or even access global community codes. These components will be connected into a Virtual Research Environments (VREs) that will enable members of the research team who are not co-located to actively work together at various scales to share data, models, tools, software, workflows, best practices, infrastructures, etc. Many VRE's are built in isolation: designed to meet a specific research program with components tightly coupled and not capable of being repurposed for other use cases - they are becoming 'stovepipes'. The limited number of users of some VREs also means that the cost of maintenance per researcher can be unacceptably high. The alternative is to develop service-oriented Science Platforms that enable multiple communities to develop specialised solutions for specific research programs. The platforms can offer access to data, software tools and processing infrastructures (cloud, supercomputers) through globally distributed, interconnected modules. In Australia, the Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) was initially built to enable a specific set of researchers in government agencies access to specific data sets and a limited number of tools, that is now rapidly evolving into a multi-purpose Earth science platform with access to an increased variety of data, a broader range of tools, users from more sectors and a diversity of computational infrastructures. The expansion has been relatively easy, because of the architecture whereby data, tools and compute resources are loosely coupled via interfaces that are built on international standards and accessed as services wherever possible. In recent years, investments in

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and morphologic studies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavand, R.; Yelon, A.; Sacher, E.

    2015-11-01

    Ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) function as effective catalysts in specific reactions, such as methanation and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses. It is our purpose to physicochemically characterize their surfaces, at which catalysis occurs, by surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), using the symmetric peak component anaylsis technique developed in our laboratory to reveal previously hidden components. Ru NPs were deposited by evaporation (0.25-1.5 nm nominal deposition range) onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). In addition to their surfaces being characterized by XPS, an indication of morphology was obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our use of symmetric peak component XPS analysis has revealed detailed information on a previously unidentified surface oxide initially formed, as well as on the valence electronic structure and its variation with NP size, information that is of potential importance in the use of these NPs in catalysis. Each of the several Ru core XPS spectra characterized (3d, 3p and 3s) was found to be composed of three symmetric components. Together with two metal oxide O1s components, these give evidence of a rather complex, previously unidentified oxide that is initially formed. The Ru valence band (4d and 5s) spectra clearly demonstrate a loss of metallicity, a simultaneous increase of the Kubo gap, and an abrupt transfer in valence electron density from the 4d to the 5s orbitals (known as electron spill-over), as the NP size decreases below 0.5 nm. TEM photomicrographs, as a function of deposition rate, show that, at a rate that gives insufficient time for the NP condensation energy to dissipate, the initially well-separated NPs are capable of diffusing laterally and aggregating. This indicates weak NP bonding to the HOPG substrate. Carbide is formed, at both high and low deposition rates, at Ru deposition thicknesses greater than 0.25 nm, its formation explained by Ru NPs reacting with residual

  10. Nanocompositional Electron Microscopic Analysis and Role of Grain Boundary Phase of Isotropically Oriented Nd-Fe-B Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor A. Zickler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoanalytical TEM characterization in combination with finite element micromagnetic modelling clarifies the impact of the grain misalignment and grain boundary nanocomposition on the coercive field and gives guidelines how to improve coercivity in Nd-Fe-B based magnets. The nanoprobe electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements obtained an asymmetric composition profile of the Fe-content across the grain boundary phase in isotropically oriented melt-spun magnets and showed an enrichment of iron up to 60 at% in the Nd-containing grain boundaries close to Nd2Fe14B grain surfaces parallel to the c-axis and a reduced iron content up to 35% close to grain surfaces perpendicular to the c-axis. The numerical micromagnetic simulations on isotropically oriented magnets using realistic model structures from the TEM results reveal a complex magnetization reversal starting at the grain boundary phase and show that the coercive field increases compared to directly coupled grains with no grain boundary phase independently of the grain boundary thickness. This behaviour is contrary to the one in aligned anisotropic magnets, where the coercive field decreases compared to directly coupled grains with an increasing grain boundary thickness, if Js value is > 0.2 T, and the magnetization reversal and expansion of reversed magnetic domains primarily start as Bloch domain wall at grain boundaries at the prismatic planes parallel to the c-axis and secondly as Néel domain wall at the basal planes perpendicular to the c-axis. In summary our study shows an increase of coercive field in isotropically oriented Nd-Fe-B magnets for GB layer thickness > 5 nm and an average Js value of the GB layer < 0.8 T compared to the magnet with perfectly aligned grains.

  11. Influence of Perceived Parenting Styles: Goal Orientations and Career Aspirations of High School Science Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…

  12. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the

  13. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and morphologic studies of Ru nanoparticles deposited onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavand, R.; Yelon, A.; Sacher, E., E-mail: edward.sacher@polymtl.ca

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Ru nanoparticle 3d, 3p, and 3s core XPS spectra were found to be composed of three symmetric components. The first component, Ru1, is due to zerovalent R, while components Ru2 and Ru3 are attributed to surface oxide species. • The nanoparticle surface additionally possesses a carbon-rich surface, from residual gas hydrocarbons present in the vacuum. • TEM photomicrographs show the aggregation and partial coalescence of nanoparticles deposited at high deposition rates, provoked by the high rate of release of the heat of condensation, indicating weak bonding to the HOPG substrate. • The analysis of the valence band indicates an increase of the Kubo gap with decreasing NP size, accompanied by an abrupt electron spill-over from the 4d to the 5s orbital. - Abstract: Ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) function as effective catalysts in specific reactions, such as methanation and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses. It is our purpose to physicochemically characterize their surfaces, at which catalysis occurs, by surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), using the symmetric peak component anaylsis technique developed in our laboratory to reveal previously hidden components. Ru NPs were deposited by evaporation (0.25–1.5 nm nominal deposition range) onto highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). In addition to their surfaces being characterized by XPS, an indication of morphology was obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our use of symmetric peak component XPS analysis has revealed detailed information on a previously unidentified surface oxide initially formed, as well as on the valence electronic structure and its variation with NP size, information that is of potential importance in the use of these NPs in catalysis. Each of the several Ru core XPS spectra characterized (3d, 3p and 3s) was found to be composed of three symmetric components. Together with two metal oxide O1s components, these give evidence of a rather complex

  14. Role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging in acute optic neuritis: a comparison with axial orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping [Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institution of Medical Imaging, Shanghai (China); Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Sha, Yan; Wan, Hailin; Wang, Feng [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Tian, Guohong [Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai (China)

    2017-08-15

    Through a comparison with the axial orientation, we aimed to evaluate the role of coronal high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in acute optic neuritis based on diagnostic accuracy and the reproducibility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. Orbital DWI, using readout-segmented, parallel imaging, and 2D navigator-based reacquisition (RESOLVE-DWI), was performed on 49 patients with acute vision loss. The coronal (thickness = 3 mm) and axial (thickness = 2 mm) diffusion images were evaluated by two neuroradiologists retrospectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated through diagnostic test; the inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were assessed with a weighted Cohen's kappa test. In addition, the agreement of ADC measurement among observers was evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), and Bland-Altman plots. Comparison of ADC values was also performed by unpaired t test. Among the 49 patients, 47 clinically positive optic nerves and 51 clinically negative optic nerves were found. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 85.1/87.2%, 90.2/94.12%, and 87.8/90.8%, respectively, for coronal RESOLVE-DWI and 83.0/85.1%, 66.7/76.5%, and 75.5/79.6%, respectively, for axial RESOLVE-DWI. The inter-observer kappa values were 0.710 and 0.806 for axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, respectively, and the intra-observer kappa values were 0.822 and 0.909, respectively (each P < 0.0001). Regarding the reproducibility of ADC measurements on axial and coronal RESOLVE-DWI, the ICCs among observers were 0.846 and 0.941, respectively, and the CV values were 7.046 and 4.810%, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed smaller inter-observer variability on coronal RESOLVE-DWI. ADC values were significantly lower in positive group (each P < 0.0001). Higher specificity and better reproducibility of ADC measurements were found for coronal RESOLVE-DWI, which demonstrated the

  15. Influence of the magnetic field orientation on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconductors: an ac shielding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, B.

    1999-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of the orientation of an applied static magnetic field on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconducting cuprates. The mixed state is characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux). Their properties have been tested via the dynamic approach of the shielding of an ac magnetic field. In pristine Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 crystals the first order transition of the vortex system from an ordered to a disordered state has been studied. It has been found that in the material the transition is mainly determined by the component of the field perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide layers. However, the value of this component at the transition diminishes with the increase of the field component parallel to the layers. This is explained by the decrease of the Josephson coupling between 2D vortices in neighbouring planes in the presence of a parallel component. In heavy ion irradiated Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 the subject under investigation has been the pinning of the vortices by the irradiation tracks. These defects push the irreversibility line towards higher fields. In the field range that has become irreversible after irradiation pinning by columnar defects is anisotropic. This anisotropy in pinning indicates that a coupling exists between the 2D vortices that form a vortex line, in contrast to the behaviour in the pristine material in the same field range. HgBa 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 8 with columnar defects shows essentially the same behaviour as Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , the differences being well explained by the lower anisotropy of HgBa 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 8 which leads to a more linear character of the vortices. Finally, it has been shown that in pristine Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 the concentration of the vortices in the center of the sample is explained by the surface barrier alone. (author)

  16. Influence of the magnetic field orientation on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconductors: an ac shielding study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, B

    1999-07-01

    This work deals with the influence of the orientation of an applied static magnetic field on the mixed state properties of high temperature superconducting cuprates. The mixed state is characterized by the presence of vortices (quanta of magnetic flux). Their properties have been tested via the dynamic approach of the shielding of an ac magnetic field. In pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} crystals the first order transition of the vortex system from an ordered to a disordered state has been studied. It has been found that in the material the transition is mainly determined by the component of the field perpendicular to the superconducting copper oxide layers. However, the value of this component at the transition diminishes with the increase of the field component parallel to the layers. This is explained by the decrease of the Josephson coupling between 2D vortices in neighbouring planes in the presence of a parallel component. In heavy ion irradiated Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the subject under investigation has been the pinning of the vortices by the irradiation tracks. These defects push the irreversibility line towards higher fields. In the field range that has become irreversible after irradiation pinning by columnar defects is anisotropic. This anisotropy in pinning indicates that a coupling exists between the 2D vortices that form a vortex line, in contrast to the behaviour in the pristine material in the same field range. HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} with columnar defects shows essentially the same behaviour as Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, the differences being well explained by the lower anisotropy of HgBa{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 8} which leads to a more linear character of the vortices. Finally, it has been shown that in pristine Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} the concentration of the vortices in the center of the sample is explained by the surface barrier alone. (author)

  17. COBRA, an Arabidopsis extracellular glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol-anchored protein, specifically controls highly anisotropic expansion through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, François; Fernandez, Anita G; Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Borner, Georg H H; Schindelman, Gary; Song, Shuang; Baskin, Tobias I; Dupree, Paul; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Benfey, Philip N

    2005-06-01

    The orientation of cell expansion is a process at the heart of plant morphogenesis. Cellulose microfibrils are the primary anisotropic material in the cell wall and thus are likely to be the main determinant of the orientation of cell expansion. COBRA (COB) has been identified previously as a potential regulator of cellulose biogenesis. In this study, characterization of a null allele, cob-4, establishes the key role of COB in controlling anisotropic expansion in most developing organs. Quantitative polarized-light and field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveal that loss of anisotropic expansion in cob mutants is accompanied by disorganization of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils and subsequent reduction of crystalline cellulose. Analyses of the conditional cob-1 allele suggested that COB is primarily implicated in microfibril deposition during rapid elongation. Immunodetection analysis in elongating root cells revealed that, in agreement with its substitution by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, COB was polarly targeted to both the plasma membrane and the longitudinal cell walls and was distributed in a banding pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. Our observations suggest that COB, through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation, is an essential factor in highly anisotropic expansion during plant morphogenesis.

  18. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-10-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10-3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  19. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10 −3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  20. Effects of seed orientation on the growth behavior of single grain REBCO bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Gyoun [Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study presents a simple method to control the seed orientation which leads to the various growth characteristics of a single grain REBCO (RE: rare-earth elements) bulk superconductors. Seed orientation was varied systematically from c-axis to a-axis with every 30 degree rotation around b-axis. Orientations of a REBCO single grain was successfully controlled by placing the seed with various angles on the prismatic indent prepared on the surface of REBCO powder compacts. Growth pattern was changed from cubic to rectangular when the seed orientation normal to compact surface was varied from c-axis to a-axis. Macroscopic shape change has been explained by the variation of the wetting angle of un-reacted melt depending on the interface energy between YBa2Cu3O7-y (Y123) grain and melt. Higher magnetic levitation force was obtained for the specimen prepared using tilted seed with an angle of 30 degree rotation around b-axis.

  1. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course d'orientation La reprise des courses d’orientation était attendue dans la région puisque près de 150 coureurs ont participé à la première épreuve automnale organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN sur le site de La Faucille. Les circuits ont été remportés par Yann Locatelli du club d’Orientation Coeur de Savoie avec 56 secondes d’avance sur Damien Berguerre du club SOS Sallanches pour le parcours technique long, Marie Vuitton du club CO CERN (membre également de l’Equipe de France Jeune) pour le parcours technique moyen avec presque 4 minutes d’avance sur Jeremy Wichoud du club Lausanne-Jorat, Victor Dannecker pour le circuit technique court devant Alina Niggli, Elliot Dannecker pour le facile moyen et Alice Merat sur le facile court, tous membres du club O’Jura. Les résultats comp...

  2. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1981-01-01

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized. (orig.)

  3. Oriental cholangiohepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheible, F.W.; Davis, G.B.

    1981-07-15

    The recent influx of immigrants from Southeast Asia into the United States has increased the likelihood of encountering unusual diseases heretofore rarely seen in this country. Among these disorders is Oriental cholangiohepatitis, a potentially life-threatening process whose early diagnosis is facilitated by roentgenographic findings. Ultrasonography can also provide useful information, although potential pitfalls in diagnosis should be recognized.

  4. The Formation of High-Coercivity, Oriented, Nanophase Cobalt Precipitates in Al2O3 single cyrstals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, S.; Modine, F.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Meldrum, A.; Budai, J.D.; SOng, K.J.; Thompson, J.R.; Boatner, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    Ion-implantation and thermal-processing methods have been used to form nanophase magnetic precipitates of metallic cobalt that are embedded in the near-surface region of single crystals of Al 2 O 3 . The Co precipitates are isolated, single-crystal particles that are crystallographically oriented with respect to the host Al 2 O 3 lattice. Embedded nanophase Co precipitates were formed by the implantation of Co+ at an energy of 140 keV and a dose of 8 x l0 16 ions/cm 2 followed by annealing in a reducing atmosphere. The implanted/annealed Co depth profile, particle size distributions and shapes, and the orientational relationship between the nanophase precipitates and the host crystal lattice were determined using RBS/channeling, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction

  5. Real-time observation of growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases on a Sm-211 whisker substrate by high-temperature optical microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sun, J.L.; Huang, Y.B.; Cheng, L.; Yao, X.; Lai, Y.J.; Jirsa, Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2009), 898-902 ISSN 1528-7483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0722 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : high-temperature optical microscopy * growth and orientation of Sm-Ba-Cu-O phases * Sm-211 whisker substrate Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2009

  6. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: the effects of body orientation and language on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David W; Abney, Drew H; Dale, Rick; Matlock, Teenie

    2014-01-01

    Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person's body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings are in line with previous work on spatial displacement that uses a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  7. High-level context effects on spatial displacement: The effects of body orientation and language on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Vinson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of research suggests that cognitive simulation of motion is involved in the comprehension of object location, bodily configuration, and linguistic meaning. For example, the remembered location of an object associated with actual or implied motion is typically displaced in the direction of motion. In this paper, two experiments explore context effects in spatial displacement. They provide a novel approach to estimating the remembered location of an implied motion image by employing a cursor-positioning task. Both experiments examine how the remembered spatial location of a person is influenced by subtle differences in implied motion, specifically, by shifting the orientation of the person’s body to face upward or downward, and by pairing the image with motion language that differed on intentionality, fell versus jumped. The results of Experiment 1, a survey-based experiment, suggest that language and body orientation influenced vertical spatial displacement. Results of Experiment 2, a task that used Adobe Flash and Amazon Mechanical Turk, showed consistent effects of body orientation on vertical spatial displacement but no effect of language. Our findings replicate are in line with previous work on spatial displacement task that used a cursor-positioning task with implied motion stimuli. We discuss how different ways of simulating motion can influence spatial memory.

  8. Fabrication of high permeability non-oriented electrical steels by increasing 〈0 0 1〉 recrystallization texture using compacted strip casting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, PO Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Schneider, J. [Institut für Metallformung, Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg, Bernhard-von-Cotta-Str. 4, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Li, Hua-Long [Institute of Research of Iron and Steel, Shasteel, Zhangjiagang 215625, Jiangsu (China); Sun, Yu; Gao, Fei; Lu, Hui-Hu; Song, Hong-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, PO Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Lei; Geng, Dian-Qiao [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, Northeastern University, PO Box 105, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-01-15

    In this paper we will report on the application of the twin-roll casting technique to get a 2 mm thick material of Fe-3.2%Si alloy, which was finally hot rolled, cold rolled and annealed. After a mild hot rolling to a thickness of 1 mm and a mild cold rolling to a thickness of 0.35 mm, we obtained a high intensity of λ-fiber (〈0 0 1〉|| ND) and η-fiber (〈0 0 1〉|| RD) texture concentrated on cube ({0 0 1}〈0 1 0〉) component and a diminishing intensity of the γ-fiber (〈1 1 1〉|| ND) texture, and a large average grain size in the final processed material. The experimental results for the evolution of the microstructure and texture along the used processing routes were described within the paper in detail. The formation mechanism for the desired recrystallization textures were explained in terms of oriented nucleation, micro-growth selection, accumulated deformation stored energy, geometric softening and orientation pinning. It will be demonstrated that this new processing route using the compact strip casting offers the possibility to fabricate high permeability non-oriented electrical steels without additional fabrication steps like hot band annealing or two step cold rolling with intermediate annealing as in the case of conventional processing route. - Highlights: • High permeability non-oriented electrical steel was fabricated by strip casting processes. • Hot band annealing or two step cold rolling with intermediate annealing was eliminated. • Prevailing of 〈0 0 1〉|| ND and 〈0 0 1〉|| RD textures over diminishing 〈1 1 1〉|| ND texture was realized. • Evolution of microstructure and texture along the used processing routes were described.

  9. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T; Fujitani, W; Ishimoto, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Umakoshi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0471 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-K{alpha} radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  10. Strain, magnetic anisotropy, and anisotropic magnetoresistance in (Ga,Mn)As on high-index substrates: Application to (113)A -oriented layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, L.; Donhauser, D.; Daeubler, J.; Glunk, M.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.

    2010-06-01

    Based on a detailed theoretical examination of the lattice distortion in high-index epilayers in terms of continuum mechanics, expressions are deduced that allow the calculation and experimental determination of the strain tensor for (hhl) -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers. Analytical expressions are derived for the strain-dependent free-energy density and for the resistivity tensor for monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal symmetries, phenomenologically describing the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance by appropriate anisotropy and resistivity parameters, respectively. Applying the results to (113)A orientation with monoclinic crystal symmetry, the expressions are used to determine the strain tensor and the shear angle of a series of (113)A -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and to probe the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance at 4.2 K by means of angle-dependent magnetotransport. Whereas the transverse-resistivity parameters are nearly unaffected by the magnetic field, the parameters describing the longitudinal resistivity are strongly field dependent.

  11. Impact of a high magnetic field on the orientation of gravitactic unicellular organisms--a critical consideration about the application of magnetic fields to mimic functional weightlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmersbach, Ruth; Simon, Anja; Waßer, Kai; Hauslage, Jens; Christianen, Peter C M; Albers, Peter W; Lebert, Michael; Richter, Peter; Alt, Wolfgang; Anken, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    The gravity-dependent behavior of Paramecium biaurelia and Euglena gracilis have previously been studied on ground and in real microgravity. To validate whether high magnetic field exposure indeed provides a ground-based facility to mimic functional weightlessness, as has been suggested earlier, both cell types were observed during exposure in a strong homogeneous magnetic field (up to 30 T) and a strong magnetic field gradient. While swimming, Paramecium cells were aligned along the magnetic field lines; orientation of Euglena was perpendicular, demonstrating that the magnetic field determines the orientation and thus prevents the organisms from the random swimming known to occur in real microgravity. Exposing Astasia longa, a flagellate that is closely related to Euglena but lacks chloroplasts and the photoreceptor, as well as the chloroplast-free mutant E. gracilis 1F, to a high magnetic field revealed no reorientation to the perpendicular direction as in the case of wild-type E. gracilis, indicating the existence of an anisotropic structure (chloroplasts) that determines the direction of passive orientation. Immobilized Euglena and Paramecium cells could not be levitated even in the highest available magnetic field gradient as sedimentation persisted with little impact of the field on the sedimentation velocities. We conclude that magnetic fields are not suited as a microgravity simulation for gravitactic unicellular organisms due to the strong effect of the magnetic field itself, which masks the effects known from experiments in real microgravity.

  12. Highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films on glass substrates with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hongyu; Sannomiya, Takumi; Muraishi, Shinji; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji, E-mail: shi.j.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Xie, Qian; Zhang, Zhengjun [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jian [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    To obtain strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) based on L1{sub 0} structure for magnetic storage devices, costly single crystalline substrates are generally required to achieve (001) texture. Recently, various studies also have focused on depositing different kinds of seed layers on glass or other amorphous substrates to promote (001) preferred orientation of L1{sub 0} CoPt and FePt. TiN is a very promising seed layer material because of its cubic crystalline structure (similar to MgO) and excellent diffusion barring property even at high temperatures. In the present work, highly (001) oriented L1{sub 0}-CoPt/TiN multilayer films have been successfully deposited on glass substrates. After annealing at 700 °C, the film exhibits PMA, and a strong (001) peak is detected from the x-ray diffraction profiles, indicating the ordering transformation of CoPt layers from fcc (A1) to L1{sub 0} structure. It also is found that alternate deposition of cubic TiN and CoPt effectively improves the crystallinity and (001) preferred orientation of CoPt layers. This effect is verified by the substantial enhancement of (001) reflection and PMA with increasing the period number of the multilayer films.

  13. Evidence for impairments in using static line drawings of eye gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention in children with high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Melissa C; Mostow, Allison J; Vecera, Shaun P; Larson, Jennifer C Gidley; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Mahone, E Mark; Denckla, Martha B

    2008-09-01

    We examined the ability to use static line drawings of eye gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention in children with high functioning autism (HFA) compared to typically developing children (TD). The task was organized such that on valid trials, gaze cues were directed toward the same spatial location as the appearance of an upcoming target, while on invalid trials gaze cues were directed to an opposite location. Unlike TD children, children with HFA showed no advantage in reaction time (RT) on valid trials compared to invalid trials (i.e., no significant validity effect). The two stimulus onset asynchronies (200 ms, 700 ms) did not differentially affect these findings. The results suggest that children with HFA show impairments in utilizing static line drawings of gaze cues to orient visual-spatial attention.

  14. A Study on the Effects on Low Cycle Fatigue Life of a High Pressure Turbine Nozzle due to the Perturbation of Crystal Orientation of Grain of DS Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Jae Sung; Kang, Young Seok; Rhee, Dong Ho [Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    High pressure components of a gas turbine engine are generally made of nickel-base superalloys, using precision casting process due to complicated geometries with intricate channels and cooling holes. Turbine components manufactured from directionally solidified and single crystal materials have columnar grains; however, it is found that the crystals do not grow in its preferred direction, although the orientation can be controlled. This anisotropy can lead to the variations of elastic and Hill's parameters in constitutive equations, and they alter stress distributions and the low cycle fatigue life. We aims to evaluate the effects of perturbed crystal orientations on the structural integrity of a directionally solidified nozzle using low cycle fatigue life. We also attempt to show the necessity for the control of allowed manufacturing errors and stochastic analysis. Our approaches included conjugate heat transfer and structural analysis, along with low cycle fatigue life assessment.

  15. Fabrication and non-covalent modification of highly oriented thin films of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the fabrication of the first thin film of a zeolite-like metal-organic framework (ZMOF) with rho topology (rho-ZMOF-1, ([In48(HImDC)96]48-)n) in a highly oriented fashion on a gold-functionalized substrate. The oriented rho-ZMOF-1 film was functionalized by non-covalent modification via post-synthetic exchange of different probe molecules, such as acridine yellow, methylene blue, and Nile red. In addition, encapsulation of a porphyrin moiety was achieved via in situ synthesis and construction of the rho-ZMOF. Adsorption kinetics of volatile organic compounds on rho-ZMOF-1 thin films was also investigated. This study suggests that rho-ZMOF-1 thin films can be regarded as a promising platform for various applications such as sensing and catalysis. This journal is

  16. Orientation Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Résultats de samedi 10 mai    C’est sur une carte entièrement réactualisée dans les bois de Versoix, que plus de 100 coureurs sont venus participer à la course d’orientation, type longue distance, préparée par des membres du club du CERN. Le terrain plutôt plat nécessitait une orientation à grande vitesse, ce qui a donné les podiums suivants :  Technique long avec 17 postes : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura en 52:48, 2e Beat Muller, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat en 58:02, 3e Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN en 58:19 Technique moyen avec 13 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:05 ; 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon, en 55:11 ; 3e Laurent Merat, O'Jura, en 55:13 Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN en 40:59, 2e Marc Baumgartner, CO CERN en 43:18, 3e Yaelle Mathieu en 51:42 Su...

  17. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation ce printemps Le Club d’orientation du CERN vous invite à venir découvrir la course d’orientation et vous propose, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, une dizaine de courses populaires. Celles-ci ont lieu les samedis après-midi, elles sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Si vous êtes débutant vous pouvez profiter d’une petite initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Divers types de parcours sont à votre choix lors de chaque épreuve : facile court (2-3 km), facile moyen (3-5 km), technique court (3-4 km), technique moyen (4-5 km) et technique long (5-7 km). Les dates à retenir sont les suivantes : Samedi 23 mars: Pully (Vd) Samedi 13 avril: Pougny...

  18. High pressure Raman and single crystal X-ray diffraction of the alkali/calcium carbonate, shortite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Q. C.; Vennari, C.; O'Bannon, E. F., III

    2015-12-01

    Raman and synchrotron-based single crystal x-ray diffraction data have been collected on shortite (Na2Ca2(CO3)3) up to 10 GPa at 300 K. Shortite is of geological importance due to its presence in the ground-mass of kimberlites, and the alkaline-/carbon-rich character of kimberlitic eruptions. This investigation focuses on shortite's high pressure behavior and is relevant to the behavior of alkali-carbonate systems within Earth's upper mantle. X-ray data demonstrate that shortite's symmetry remains stable at high pressures—retaining orthorhombic C crystal system (Amm2) up to 10 GPa; diffraction data show a 12% volume decrease from room pressure, and a bulk modulus of 71.0(3) GPa. These also demonstrate that the c-axis is twice as compressible as the a- and b-axes. This anisotropic compression is likely due to the orientation of the relatively stiff carbonate groups, a third of which are oriented close to the plane of the a- and b-axes, c axis compression primarily involves the compaction of the 9-fold coordinate sodium and calcium polyhedral. The two distinct carbonate sites within the unit cell give rise to two Raman symmetric stretching modes of the symmetric stretch; the carbonate group stretching vibration which is close to in plane with the a- and b-axes shifts at 3.75 cm-1/GPa as opposed to the carbonate groups which is closer to in plane with the b- and c-axes which shift at 4.25 cm-1/GPa. This furthers evidence for anisotropic compression observed using x-ray diffraction--as the carbonate in plane with the a- and b-axes is compressed, the strength of oxygen bonds along the c-axis with the cations increases, thus decreasing the pressure shift of the mode. The out of plane bending vibration shifts at -0.48 cm-1/GPa, indicating an enhanced interaction of the oxygens with the cations. The multiple in plane bending modes all shift positively, as do at the low frequency lattice modes, indicating that major changes in bonding do not occur up to 10 GPa. The data

  19. Magnetic and transport properties of Zn0.4Fe2.6O4 thin films with highly preferential orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Z.L.; Zou, W.Q.; Liu, X.C.; Lin, Y.B.; Lu, Z.H.; Wang, J.F.; Xu, J.P.; Lv, L.Y.; Zhang, F.M.; Du, Y.W.

    2007-01-01

    Highly preferentially oriented Zn 0.4 Fe 2.6 O 4 thin films have been fabricated on Si, SrTiO 3 and ZrO 2 substrates, respectively, using RF magnetron sputtering. All the films show a large saturation magnetization of about 4.2μ B and low coercive field at 300 K and a spin (cluster) glass transition at about 60 K due to the non-magnetic Zn 2+ ions substitution. Moreover, the fairly high spin polarization of the carrier at 300 K has been confirmed by both the giant magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall coefficient measurements

  20. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  1. Cognitive diffusion model with user-oriented context-to-text recognition for learning to promote high level cognitive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of studies on how to promote students’ cognitive processes and learning achievements through various learning activities supported by advanced learning technologies. However, not many of them focus on applying the knowledge that students learn in school to solve authentic daily life problems. This study aims to propose a cognitive diffusion model called User-oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL to facilitate and improve students’ learning and cognitive processes from lower levels (i.e., Remember and Understand to higher levels (i.e., Apply and above through an innovative approach, called User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL. With U-CTRL, students participate in learning activities in which they capture the learning context that can be scanned and recognized by a computer application as text. Furthermore, this study proposes the use of an innovative model, called Cognitive Diffusion Model, to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning stages including pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and higher cognitive processing. Finally, two cases are presented to demonstrate how the U-CTRL approach can be used to facilitate student cognition in their learning of English and Natural science.

  2. A new highly adaptable design of shear-flow device for orientation of macromolecules for Linear Dichroism (LD) measurement

    KAUST Repository

    Lundahl, P. Johan; Kitts, Catherine C.; Nordé n, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a new design of flow-orientation device for the study of bio-macromolecules, including DNA and protein complexes, as well as aggregates such as amyloid fibrils and liposome membranes, using Linear Dichroism (LD) spectroscopy. The design provides a number of technical advantages that should make the device inexpensive to manufacture, easier to use and more reliable than existing techniques. The degree of orientation achieved is of the same order of magnitude as that of the commonly used concentric cylinders Couette flow cell, however, since the device exploits a set of flat strain-free quartz plates, a number of problems associated with refraction and birefringence of light are eliminated, increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of measurement. The device provides similar shear rates to those of the Couette cell but is superior in that the shear rate is constant across the gap. Other major advantages of the design is the possibility to change parts and vary sample volume and path length easily and at a low cost. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Response of Seven Crystallographic Orientations of Sapphire Crystals to Shock Stresses of 16 to 86 GPa

    OpenAIRE

    Kanel, G. I.; Nellis, W. J.; Savinykh, A. S.; Razorenov, S. V.; Rajendran, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Shock-wave profiles of sapphire (single-crystal Al2O3) with seven crystallographic orientations were measured with time-resolved VISAR interferometry at shock stresses in the range 16 to 86 GPa. Shock propagation was normal to the surface of each cut. The angle between the c-axis of the hexagonal crystal structure and the direction of shock propagation varied from 0 for c-cut up to 90 degrees for m-cut in the basal plane. Based on published shock-induced transparencies, shock-induced optical ...

  4. Epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 on biaxially textured (001) Ni: An approach to high critical current density superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, D.P.; Goyal, A.; Budai, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    In-plane aligned, c-axis oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) films with superconducting critical current densities, J c , as high as 700,000 amperes per square centimeter at 77 kelvin have been grown on thermo-mechanically, rolled-textured (001) Ni tapes using pulsed-laser deposition. Epitaxial growth of oxide buffer layers directly on biaxially textured Ni, formed by recrystallization of cold-rolled pure Ni, enables the growth of 1.5 micrometer-thick YBCO films with superconducting properties that are comparable to those observed for epitaxial films on single crystal oxide substrates. This result represents a viable approach for producing long-length superconducting tapes for high current, high field applications at 77 kelvin

  5. Structural fluctuations and orientational glass of levoglucosan--High stability against ordering and absence of structural glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombari, Elpidio; Johari, G P

    2015-03-14

    To investigate whether a non-exponential relaxation always indicates 2-4 nm-size regions of dynamic heterogeneity, we studied the kinetic freezing and unfreezing of structural fluctuations involving the rotational modes in orientationally disordered crystal (ODIC) of levoglucosan by calorimetry. The heat capacity, Cp, of levoglucosan measured over the 203 K-463 K range shows that its low-temperature, orientationally ordered crystal (ORC) transforms to ODIC phase on heating, which then melts to a low viscosity liquid. On cooling, the melt transforms to the ODIC which then does not transform to the ORC. Instead, the ODIC supercools. Fluctuations resulting from hindered (random) rotations of levoglucosan molecules confined to the lattice sites and from their conformational changes become progressively slower on cooling and an orientational glass (O-G) forms showing the sigmoid shape decrease in Cp characteristic of structural arrest like that of a glass. On heating the O-G state, rotational fluctuations begin to contribute to Cp at To-g of 247.8 K and there is an overshoot in Cp and thermal hysteresis (characteristic of physical ageing) in the temperature range of 230-260 K. The non-exponential relaxation parameter, β(cal), determined by fitting the Cp data to a non-exponential, nonlinear model for relaxation of a glass is 0.60, which is similar to β(cal) found for polymers, molecular liquids, and metal-alloy melts in which Brownian diffusion occurs. Such β(cal) glass formation, but its value of 0.60 for ODIC levoglucosan, in which Brownian diffusion does not occur, would not indicate such domains. Despite the lack of Brownian diffusion, we discuss these findings in the potential energy landscape paradigm. Levoglucosan melt, which is believed to vitrify and to stabilize a protein's disordered structure, did not supercool even at 200 K/min cooling rate. The findings have consequences for reports on the dielectric relaxation studies that indicated that levoglucosan

  6. High temperature oxidation behavior of aluminide on a Ni-based single crystal superalloy in different surface orientations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahamsyah H.Latief; Koji Kakehi; El-Sayed M.Sherif

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on oxidation behavior of coated Ni-based single crystal superalloy in different surface orientations has been carried out at 1100 1C. It has been found that the {100} surface shows a better oxidation resistance than the {110} one, which is attributed that the {110}surface had a slightly higher oxidation rate when compared to the {100} surface. The experimental results also indicated that the anisotropic oxidation behavior took place even with a very small difference in the oxidation rates that was found between the two surfaces. The differences of the topologically close packed phase amount and its penetration depth between the two surfaces, including the ratio of α-Al2O3 after 500 h oxidation, were responsible for the oxidation anisotropy.

  7. Data Rods: High Speed, Time-Series Analysis of Massive Cryospheric Data Sets Using Object-Oriented Database Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Gallaher, D. W.; Grant, G.; Lv, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Change over time, is the central driver of climate change detection. The goal is to diagnose the underlying causes, and make projections into the future. In an effort to optimize this process we have developed the Data Rod model, an object-oriented approach that provides the ability to query grid cell changes and their relationships to neighboring grid cells through time. The time series data is organized in time-centric structures called "data rods." A single data rod can be pictured as the multi-spectral data history at one grid cell: a vertical column of data through time. This resolves the long-standing problem of managing time-series data and opens new possibilities for temporal data analysis. This structure enables rapid time- centric analysis at any grid cell across multiple sensors and satellite platforms. Collections of data rods can be spatially and temporally filtered, statistically analyzed, and aggregated for use with pattern matching algorithms. Likewise, individual image pixels can be extracted to generate multi-spectral imagery at any spatial and temporal location. The Data Rods project has created a series of prototype databases to store and analyze massive datasets containing multi-modality remote sensing data. Using object-oriented technology, this method overcomes the operational limitations of traditional relational databases. To demonstrate the speed and efficiency of time-centric analysis using the Data Rods model, we have developed a sea ice detection algorithm. This application determines the concentration of sea ice in a small spatial region across a long temporal window. If performed using traditional analytical techniques, this task would typically require extensive data downloads and spatial filtering. Using Data Rods databases, the exact spatio-temporal data set is immediately available No extraneous data is downloaded, and all selected data querying occurs transparently on the server side. Moreover, fundamental statistical

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Le soleil enfin de retour a incité nombre de sportifs et promeneurs à nous rejoindre dans la belle forêt de Challex /Pougny pour la deuxième étape de notre coupe de printemps 2013. Certains sont revenus crottés et fourbus alors que d’autres avaient les joues bien roses après un grand bol d’air frais. Mais tous avaient passé un agréable moment dans la nature. Nous rappelons que nos activités sont ouvertes à tous, jeunes, moins jeunes, sportifs, familles, du CERN ou d’ailleurs, et que le seul inconvénient est que si vous goûtez à la course d’orientation, il vous sera difficile de ne pas y revenir ! Samedi 20 avril 2013, nous serons sur le Mont Mourex (entre Gex et Divonne) pour notre prochaine épreuve et vous y serez les bienvenus. Les inscriptions et les départ...

  9. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d’Orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Nouvelle saison nouveau programme Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une dizaine de courses populaires comptant pour la coupe Genevoise de printemps: samedi 28 mars: Vernand Dessus samedi 18 avril: Pougny/Challex samedi 25 avril: Chancy/Valleiry samedi 2 mai: Mauvernay samedi 9 mai: Longchaumois samedi 16 mai: Genolier samedi 30 mai: Prevondavaux samedi 6 juin: Biere-Ballens samedi 13 juin: Haut-Jura samedi 20 juin: Bonmont - Finale Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel, en promenade ou en course. Les inscriptions se font sur place le jour de l’épreuve. Si vous êtes débutant, vous pouvez profiter d’une initiation offerte par l’organisateur avant de vous lancer sur un parcours. Le club propose aussi...

  10. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Orienteering Club

    2016-01-01

    Course d'orientation Calendrier des courses d’orientation Coupe genevoise d’automne 2016 Samedi 3 septembre : La Faucille (01) Samedi 10 septembre : Prémanon (39) Samedi 17 septembre : Saint-Cergue (VD) Samedi 24 septembre : Jorat / Corcelles (VD) Samedi 1 octobre: Bière - Ballens (VD) -relais Vendredi 14 octobre : Parc Mon Repos (GE) - nocturne Samedi 15 octobre : Terrasse de Genève (74) Samedi 29 octobre : Bonmont (VD) Samedi 5 novembre : Pomier (74) – one-man-relay - Finale   Courses ouvertes à toutes et à tous, sportifs, familles, débutants ou confirmés, du CERN ou d’ailleurs. Cinq circuits disponibles, ceci va du facile court (2 km) adapté aux débutants et aux enfants jusqu’au parcours technique long de 6 km pour les chevronnés en passant par les parcours facile moyen (4&am...

  11. COURSE ORIENTATION

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation du CERN

    2015-01-01

      Les coureurs d’orientation de la région se sont donné rendez-vous samedi dernier dans les bois de Pougny/Challex lors de l’épreuve organisée par le club d’orientation du CERN. La carte proposée pour les 5 circuits offrait aussi bien un coté très technique avec un relief pentu qu’un coté avec de grandes zones plates à forêt claire. Le parcours technique long comportant 20 postes a été remporté par Beat Muller du COLJ Lausanne en 56:26 devançant Denis Komarov, CO CERN en 57:30 et Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 57:46. Pour les autres circuits les résultats sont les suivants: Technique moyen (13 postes): 1er Joël Mathieu en 52:32 à une seconde du 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausanne-Jorat, 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 54:01 Technique court (12 postes): 1er Lennart Jirden, ...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d’orientation Face aux Championnats de France des Clubs à Poitiers, et à une météo hivernale (vent glaciale et pluie), il ne restait qu’une cinquantaine d’orienteurs pour participer à l’épreuve organisée le samedi 25 mai à Grange-Malval. Les participants ont tout de même bien apprécié les 5 circuits proposés par le Satus Genève. Les résultats sont disponibles sur notre site http://cern.ch/club-orientation. En plus des résultats, vous pourrez noter des informations sur la nouvelle école de CO encadrée par B. Barge, Prof. EPS à Ferney-Voltaire pour les jeunes à partir de 6 ans. La prochaine étape de la coupe genevoise se déroulera samedi 1er juin à Morez (39). Epreuve organisée par le club O’Jura&nb...

  13. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge ...

  14. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    COURSE ORIENTATION Finale de la coupe d’automne Le club d’orientation du CERN (COC Genève) a organisé sa dernière course populaire de la saison samedi 4 novembre au lieu-dit Les Terrasses de Genève (74). Cette 9e épreuve qui se courait sous la forme d’un One-Man-Relay, clôturait ainsi la coupe genevoise d’automne dont les lauréats sont : Circuit technique long : 1. Julien Vuitton (COC Genève), 2. Berni Wehrle (COC Genève), 3. Christophe Vuitton (COC Genève). Circuit technique moyen : 1. Vladimir Kuznetsov (Lausanne-Jorat), 2. J.-Bernard Zosso (COC Genève), 3. Laurent Merat (O’Jura). Circuit technique court : 1. Thibault Rouiller (COC Genève), 2. exæquo Lennart Jirden (COC Genève) et Katya Kuznetsova (Lausanne-Jorat). Circuit facile moyen : 1. Tituan Barge...

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation C’est au pied du Salève, proche du Golf de Bosset, que le club d’orientation du CERN (CO CERN) a organisé samedi 19 septembre une nouvelle épreuve comptant pour la Coupe Genevoise d’automne. La zone « des Terrasses de Genève » avait été cartographiée et mise en service l’année dernière. Les participants ont pu apprécier un terrain ludique avec beaucoup de microreliefs, de points d’eau et de gros rochers, le tout au milieu d’une forêt assez claire et agréable à courir. Sur le parcours technique long, le résultat a été très serré puisque Pierrick Merino du club d’Annecy a gagné avec seulement 9 secondes d’avance sur Gaëtan Vuitton (CO CERN) qui confiait avoir perdu beaucoup du te...

  16. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION La finale de la coupe de printemps Après avoir remporté le challenge club, samedi 29 juin lors du relais inter-club à Lausanne, le Club d’orientation du CERN organisait la dernière étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps samedi 5 juin à Saint-Cergue dans les bois de Monteret (Canton de Vaud). Plus de 100 participants se sont déplacés pour venir participer à la finale et découvrir une toute nouvelle carte dans une forêt vallonnée. Les résultats pour chaque circuit de cette étape sont : Technique long : 1. Jurg Niggli du club O’Jura, 2. Clément Poncet, 3. Oystein Midttun. Technique moyen : 1. Zoltan Trocsanyi CO CERN, 2. Christophe Ingold, 3. Christina Falga. Technique court : 1. Pierre-Andre Baum, CARE Vevey, 2. Emese Szunyog, 3. Solène Balay. Facile moyen : 1. Elisa P...

  17. Club Orientation

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

      COURSE ORIENTATION   Pas moins de 100 concurrents sont venus s’affronter sur les parcours proposés par le club d’orientation du CERN ce samedi 26 avril lors de la 4e étape de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les podiums ont été attribués à :  Technique long avec 19 postes : 1er Yvan Balliot, ASO Annecy en 1:01:39 ; 2e Dominique Fleurent, ASO Annecy, en 1:05:12 ; 3e Rémi Fournier, SOS Sallanches, en 1:05:40. Technique moyen avec 14 postes : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN, en 46:42 ; 2e Céline Zosso, CO CERN, en 50:51 ; 3e Clément Poncet, O’Jura Prémanon, en 51:27. Technique court avec 13 postes : 1er Jaakko Murtomaki, YKV Seinaejoki, en 36:04 ; 2e Marc Baumgartner en 41:27 ; 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura Prémanon, en 52:43. Sur les parcours facile moyen et facile court, victoire respectivement de Stéphanie...

  18. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Le Club d’orientation du CERN

    2017-01-01

    Calendrier des courses de la Coupe Genevoise – printemps 2017 Club d'orientation - Julien,  jeune membre du club. Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose une série de courses populaires, qui se dérouleront des deux côtés de la frontière franco-suisse, à savoir : Samedi 1 avril : Pougny/Challex (01) Samedi 8 avril: Ballens (VD) Samedi 22 avril: Apples (VD) Samedi 29 avril: Mont Mussy (01) Samedi 6 mai: Prémanon (39) Samedi 13 mai: Mont Mourex (01) Samedi 20 mai: Prévondavaux (VD) Samedi 10 juin: Chancy/Valleiry (74) Samedi 17 juin: Trélex - Finale (VD) Ces courses sont ouvertes à tous, quel que soit le niveau, du débutant au sportif confirmé, en famille ou en individuel. Les inscriptions sur un des 5 parcours proposés se font sur place le jour de l...

  19. A Software Module for High-Accuracy Calibration of Rings and Cylinders on CMM using Multi-Orientation Techniques (Multi-Step and Reversal methods)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    . The Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark takes care of free form measurements, in collaboration with DIMEG, University of Padova, Italy. The present report describes a software module, ROUNDCAL, to be used for high-accuracy calibration of rings and cylinders....... The purpose of the software is to calculate the form error and the least square circle of rings and cylinders by mean of average of pontwise measuring results becoming from so-called multi-orientation techniques (both reversal and multi-step methods) in order to eliminate systematic errors of CMM ....

  20. High (1 1 1) orientation poly-Ge film fabricated by Al induced crystallization without the introduction of AlOx interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xin; Liu, Hanhui; Lai, Shumei; Chen, Yuye; Xu, Yihong; Chen, Songyan; Li, Cheng; Huang, Wei; Tang, Dingliang

    2015-01-01

    High (1 1 1) orientation poly-Ge film was fabricated by Al induced crystallization (AIC), where Al and amorphous Ge (a-Ge) layers were continuously deposited by magnetron sputtering, avoiding the deliberate introduction of an AlO x interlayer. To improve the quality of poly-Ge film, the ratio of thicknesses of Al and a-Ge was adjusted. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) results revealed that the (1 1 1) fraction of poly-Ge film reached 97% and the average crystal grain size surpassed 100 μm.

  1. Orienting hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Anna E; Sugarman, Laurence I

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new frame for understanding hypnosis and its clinical applications. Despite great potential to transform health and care, hypnosis research and clinical integration is impaired in part by centuries of misrepresentation and ignorance about its demonstrated efficacy. The authors contend that advances in the field are primarily encumbered by the lack of distinct boundaries and definitions. Here, hypnosis, trance, and mind are all redefined and grounded in biological, neurological, and psychological phenomena. Solutions are proposed for boundary and language problems associated with hypnosis. The biological role of novelty stimulating an orienting response that, in turn, potentiates systemic plasticity forms the basis for trance. Hypnosis is merely the skill set that perpetuates and influences trance. This formulation meshes with many aspects of Milton Erickson's legacy and Ernest Rossi's recent theory of mind and health. Implications of this hypothesis for clinical skills, professional training, and research are discussed.

  2. Oriented Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Moghimi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Promoting productivity is one of the goals of usinginformation technology in organizations. The purpose of this research isexamining the impact of IT on organizational productivity andrecognizing its mechanisms based on process-oriented approach. For thisend, by reviewing the literature of the subject a number of impacts of ITon organizational processes were identified. Then, through interviewswith IT experts, seven main factors were selected and presented in aconceptual model. This model was tested through a questionnaire in 148industrial companies. Data analysis shows that impact of IT onproductivity can be included in the eight major categories: Increasing ofthe Automation, Tracking, Communication, Improvement, Flexibility,Analytic, Coordination and Monitoring in organizational processes.Finally, to improve the impact of information technology onorganizational productivity, some suggestions are presented.

  3. Applying DTI white matter orientations to finite element head models to examine diffuse TBI under high rotational accelerations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colgan, Niall C

    2010-12-01

    The in-vivo mechanical response of neural tissue during impact loading of the head is simulated using geometrically accurate finite element (FE) head models. However, current FE models do not account for the anisotropic elastic material behaviour of brain tissue. In soft biological tissue, there is a correlation between internal microscopic structure and macroscopic mechanical properties. Therefore, constitutive equations are important for the numerical analysis of the soft biological tissues. By exploiting diffusion tensor techniques the anisotropic orientation of neural tissue is incorporated into a non-linear viscoelastic material model for brain tissue and implemented in an explicit FE analysis. The viscoelastic material parameters are derived from published data and the viscoelastic model is used to describe the mechanical response of brain tissue. The model is formulated in terms of a large strain viscoelastic framework and considers non-linear viscous deformations in combination with non-linear elastic behaviour. The constitutive model was applied in the University College Dublin brain trauma model (UCDBTM) (i.e. three-dimensional finite element head model) to predict the mechanical response of the intra-cranial contents due to rotational injury.

  4. Highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented, direct-gap GeSn crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haofeng; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng, E-mail: Jifeng.Liu@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, 14 Engineering Drive, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate highly effective strain-induced band-engineering of (111) oriented direct-gap Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} thin films (0.074 < x < 0.085) crystallized on amorphous SiO{sub 2} towards 3D photonic integration. Due to a much smaller Poisson's ratio for (111) vs. (100) orientation, 0.44% thermally induced biaxial tensile strain reduces the direct-gap by 0.125 eV towards enhanced direct-gap semiconductor properties, twice as effective as the tensile strain in Ge(100) films. Correspondingly, the optical response is extended to λ = 2.8 μm. A dilatational deformation potential of a = −12.8 ± 0.8 eV is derived. These GeSn films also demonstrate high thermal stability, offering both excellent direct-gap optoelectronic properties and fabrication/operation robustness for integrated photonics.

  5. Low-field vortex dynamics in various high-Tc thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present a novel ac susceptibility technique for the study of vortex creep in supercon- ducting thin films. With this technique we study the dynamics of dilute vortices in c-axis oriented. Y-123, Hg-1212, and Tl-1212 thin films, as well as a-axis oriented Hg-1212 thin films. Results on the Hg-1212 and Tl-1212 thin ...

  6. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Le coup d’envoi de la coupe genevoise a été donné samedi 31 août dans les bois de Combe Froide à Prémanon. Plus de 150 coureurs avaient fait le déplacement. Les parcours facile court, facile moyen et technique court ont été remportés par des coureurs du club O’Jura - Ulysse Dannecker, Léo Lonchampt, Franck Lonchampt, le technique moyen par Pekka Marti du club Ol Biel Seeland et le technique long par Térence Risse du CA Rosé – également membre de l’équipe nationale suisse des moins de 20 ans. Pour le club du CERN, les meilleures résultats ont été obtenus pas Emese Szunyog sur technique court et Marie Vuitton sur technique moyen avec une 4e place. La prochaine course aura lieu samedi 14 septembre à La Faucille. Le club propose aussi...

  7. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe d’automne La dernière épreuve de la coupe d’automne organisée par le club s’est déroulée ce samedi 1er novembre avec une course type «one-man-relay» dans la forêt de Trelex (Vd). Les concurrents des circuits techniques devaient parcourir trois boucles et ceux des circuits «faciles» deux boucles, avec changements de carte. Le parcours technique long a été remporté par un membre du club, Berni Wehrle. A l’issue de cette course, le Président du club, L. Jirden annonçait le classement général de la coupe d’automne, basé sur les 6 meilleurs résultats de la saison : Circuit technique long : 1er Juerg Niggli (O’Jura), 2e Berni Wehrle, 3e Beat Mueller. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Laurent Merat (O&r...

  8. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Course d'orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise Rapide et méthodique, voilà les qualités dont il fallait faire preuve pour remporter la dernière étape de la coupe organisée par le club du CERN dans les bois de Monteret. Il s’agissait d’une course au score où chaque concurrent disposait d’un temps imparti pour poinçonner le maximum de balises. Le parcours technique a été remporté par Tomas Shellman et le parcours facile par Victor Dannecker. Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps. Les résultats officiels étaient donnés par le président du club, L. Jirden : Circuit Technique Long : Berni Wehrle, Bruno Barge, Edvins Reisons Circuit Technique Moyen : J.-Bernard Zosso, ...

  9. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2011-01-01

    Course d'orientation Avec la CO en nocturne organisée par le club du CERN vendredi 14 octobre au stade des Eveaux (Ge), et la CO à Savigny (Vd) proposée par le club de Lausanne-Jorat le lendemain, les étapes de la coupe genevoise d’automne s’enchainent rapidement. Il ne reste plus que 3 rendez-vous pour boucler la saison. Les premières places devraient certainement se jouer entre des membres du club du CERN, du O’Jura ou de Lausanne-Jorat. La prochaine course du club est programmée pour samedi 22 octobre à Pomier, près de Cruseilles. L’accueil se fera à partir de 12h30 et les départs s’échelonneront de 13h à 15h. * * * * * * * Nouvelle belle victoire samedi 8 octobre à Saint Cergue du jeune finlandais Ville Keskisaari (COLJ) en 50:56 devant Jürg Niggli (O’Jura) en 1:03:32, et Alexandre...

  10. Orienteering Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    De jour comme de nuit Les amateurs de course d’orientation ont pu s’en donner à cœur joie ce week-end puisqu’ils avaient la possibilité de courir sur deux épreuves en moins de 24 heures. En effet, le club du CERN organisait une course de nuit aux Evaux et la 7e étape de la coupe genevoise se tenait samedi après-midi dans les bois du Grand Jorat à Savigny. Les vainqueurs pour chaque course sont : Technique long CO de nuit: Julien Charlemagne, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Philipp Khlebnikov, ANCO   Technique moyen CO de nuit: Céline Zosso, CO CERN CO samedi: Pavel Khlebnikov, ANCO Technique court CO de nuit: Colas Ginztburger, SOS Sallanches CO samedi: Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ Lausannne Facile moyen CO de nuit: Gaëtan Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Tamas Szoke   Facile court CO de nuit:Oriane Rickenbacher, CO CERN CO samedi: Katya Kuznetsov...

  11. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2015-01-01

    Course orientation Finale de la coupe genevoise La série des courses de printemps s’est achevée samedi dernier dans les bois de Bonmont (Vaud) avec une épreuve «one-man-relay» organisée par le club. Le vainqueur du parcours technique  long, Yann Locatelli (Club de Chambéry Savoie) a réalisé les deux boucles comportant 24 balises avec presque 6 minutes d’avance sur le second concurrent Domenico Lepori (Club CARE Vevey). Cette dernière étape était aussi décisive pour la désignation des lauréats de la coupe genevoise de printemps, en comptabilisant les 6 meilleurs résultats sur les 10 épreuves. Le podium officiel était donné par le président du club, L. Jirden, qui profitait de l’occasion pour remercier tous les participants et également tous les...

  12. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CLUB D'ORIENTATION

    2013-01-01

    Calendrier de la coupe d’automne Le Club d’orientation du CERN, en partenariat avec d’autres clubs de la région, vous propose, pour cette nouvelle coupe d’automne genevoise, une série de 10 courses. Le club du O’Jura donnera le coup d’envoi le samedi 31 août. Les courses s’enchaîneront selon le calendrier suivant : Samedi 31 août : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 14 septembre : La Faucille (01) - longue distance Samedi 21 septembre : Saint Cergue (VD) - longue distance Samedi 28 septembre : Ballens (VD) - relais Samedi 5 octobre : La Pile (VD) - longue distance Vendredi 11 octobre : Les Evaux (GE) - nocturne Samedi 12 octobre : Grand Jorat, Savigny (VD) - longue distance Samedi 19 octobre : Terrasses de Genève (74) - longue distance Samedi 26 octobre : Prémanon (39) - longue distance Samedi 2 novembre : Bois Tollot (GE) - score - Finale Les &a...

  13. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2014-01-01

    Course d'orientation C’est sous un beau soleil samedi 4 octobre que s’est déroulée la 6e étape de la Coupe genevoise d’automne organisée par le club. Plus d’une centaine de concurrents provenant de 7 clubs de CO avaient fait le déplacement pour courir sur un des cinq parcours proposés dans les bois de Trélex-Génolier (VD). Le podium est le suivant : Technique long (5,9 km, 19 postes) : 1er Jurg Niggli, O’Jura (1:00:02); 2e Berni Wehrle, CO CERN (1:06:44); 3e Konrad Ehrbar, COLJ (1:07:08) Technique moyen (4,8 km, 18 postes) : 1er Christophe Vuitton, CO CERN (54:25); 2e J.B. Zosso, CO CERN (1:01:19); 3e Jeremy Wichoud, COLJ (1:06:21) Technique court (3,8 km, 14 postes) : 1er Julien Vuitton, CO CERN (36:19); 2e Vladimir Kuznetsov, COLJ (48:47); 3e Natalia Niggli, O’Jura (50:38) Facile moyen (3,2 km, 11 postes) : 1ère Alina Niggli, O&...

  14. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

    Relais inter-club/Challenge Carlo Milan Samedi dernier, lors de l’épreuve de course d’orientation organisée par le club du O’Jura, le moteur de la discipline était l’esprit d’équipe, puisqu’il était question d’un relais inter-club avec le Challenge Carlo Milan. Les clubs avaient aligné leurs coureurs soit sur le relais technique (trois participants) soit sur le relais facile (deux participants). Côté O’Jura, il fallait noter la participation de François Gonon, champion du monde 2011, côté club du CERN, Marie et Gaëtan Vuitton, jeunes espoirs du club, devaient préparer la piste pour lancer le dernier relayeur. Côté Lausanne-Jorat, il fallait compter sur le très jeune Viktor Kuznetsov. Les 31 équipes engagées n’ont pas m&ea...

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'Orientation

    2012-01-01

     Finale de la coupe de printemps   La dernière course d’orientation comptant pour la Coupe de printemps a eu lieu samedi dernier dans le village des Rousses et vers le Fort. Il s’agissait d’un sprint organisé par le club O’Jura. Les temps de course ont avoisiné les 20 minutes que ce soit pour le parcours technique moyen ou technique long. Tous les habitués étaient au rendez-vous pour venir consolider ou améliorer leur place au classement. A l’issue de cette course, le classement général de la Coupe de printemps prenant en compte les 6 meilleurs résultats des 9 courses était établi et les lauréats de chaque catégorie sont les suivants: Circuit technique long : 1er Berni Wehrle, 2e Bruno Barge, 3e Edvins Reisons. Circuit technique moyen : 1er Jean-Bernard Zosso, 2e Cédric Wehrl&...

  16. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2010-01-01

    COURSE D’ORIENTATION  De La Rippe à Sauvabellin, la coupe genevoise continue ! Le rendez-vous était donné samedi 8 mai aux amateurs de course d’orientation dans les bois de La Rippe (Canton de Vaud). Cette 6e épreuve était organisée par le Club Satus Grutli de Genève. Il est dommage que les participants n’aient pas été aussi nombreux que lors des dernières courses, les Championnats de France des clubs à Dijon ayant certainement retenus plus d’un compétiteur. La première place est revenue à : – Technique long : Berni Wehrle – Technique moyen : Jean-Bernard Zosso – Technique court : Berni Wehrle – Facile moyen : Peter Troscanyi – Facile court : Claire Droz. Il ne restera plus que deux épreuves ...

  17. Orienteering club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Samedi 20 avril, les organisateurs du Club de CO du CERN ont accueilli au Mont Mourex 70 participants qui n’ont pas hésité à venir malgré la forte bise. Berni Wehrle du CO CERN s’est octroyé la première place en 1:04:49 sur le parcours technique long devant Pyry Kettunen du Saynso Juankoski en 1:06:52, la 3e place revenant à Bruno Barge, CO CERN, à 7 secondes. Les autres parcours ont été remportés par : Technique moyen : 1er Jacques Moisset, Chamonix (47:44), 2e Yves Rousselot, Balise 25 Besançon (57:16), 3e Jean-Bernard Zosso, CO CERN (59:28). Technique court : 1er Victor Kuznetsov, COLJ (51:53), 2e Pierrick Collet, CO CERN (1:12:52), 3e Dominique Balay, CO CERN (1:16:04). Pour les parcours facile moyen et facile court, Ralf Nardini et Léa Nicolas, tous deux du CO CERN, terminaient respectivement premier. Voi...

  18. A flexible, high-performance magnetoelectric heterostructure of (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 film grown on Ni foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palneedi, Haribabu; Yeo, Hong Goo; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Annapureddy, Venkateswarlu; Kim, Jong-Woo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Ryu, Jungho

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a flexible magnetoelectric (ME) heterostructure of PZT/Ni was fabricated by depositing a (001) oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) film on a thin, flexible Ni foil buffered with LaNiO3/HfO2. Excellent ferroelectric properties and large ME voltage coefficient of 3.2 V/cmṡOe were realized from the PZT/Ni heterostructure. The PZT/Ni composite's high performance was attributed to strong texturing of the PZT film, coupled with the compressive stress in the piezoelectric film. Besides, reduced substrate clamping in the PZT film due to the film on the foil structure and strong interfacial bonding in the PZT/LaNiO3/HfO2/Ni heterostructure could also have contributed to the high ME performance of PZT/Ni.

  19. Nanostructuration of self-assembled poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin films in a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalakain, Inaki; Ramos, Jose Angel; Fernandez, Raquel; Etxeberria, Haritz; Mondragon, Inaki, E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.e

    2011-01-03

    Highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) is a useful substrate to visualize epitaxial formation due to its crystallographic structure. The morphology of a poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin film on a HOPG substrate was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Block copolymer domains generated a morphology with triangular regularity. This arrangement was induced by the HOPG substrate structure due to van der Waals attraction between the HOPG {pi}-conjugated system and aromatic ring of polystyrene domains. However, increasing the film thickness, the substrate effect on the surface morphology decreased. As a consequence, film surfaces showed the coexistence of different structures such as highly aligned cylinders and perforated lamellae. When film thickness exceeded a threshold value, the substrate did not have effect in the surface arrangements and the surface showed a similar morphology to that existing in bulk.

  20. Characteristics of leadership-oriented women

    OpenAIRE

    Htun, Tin Tin; Yamamoto, Mariko

    2001-01-01

    The present study explores within-gender differences between high leadership-oriented women and low leadership-oriented women regarding their characteristics and attitudes. One hundred and ninety-two Japanese ...

  1. EX6AFS: A data acquisition system for high-speed dispersive EXAFS measurements implemented using object-oriented programming techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, G.; Lee, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design and implementation of a computerized data-acquisition system for high-speed energy-dispersive EXAFS experiments on the X6A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The acquisition system drives the stepper motors used to move the components of the experimental setup and controls the readout of the EXAFS spectra. The system runs on a Macintosh IIfx computer and is written entirely in the object-oriented language C++. Large segments of the system are implemented by means of commercial class libraries, specifically the MacApp application framework from Apple, the Rogue Wave class library, and the Hierarchical Data Format datafile format library from the National Center for Supercomputing Applications. This reduces the amount of code that must be written and enhances reliability. The system makes use of several advanced features of C++: Multiple inheritance allows the code to be decomposed into independent software components and the use of exception handling allows the system to be much more reliable in the event of unexpected errors. Object-oriented techniques allow the program to be extended easily as new requirements develop. All sections of the program related to a particular concept are located in a small set of source files. The program will also be used as a prototype for future software development plans for the Basic Energy Science Synchrotron Radiation Center Collaborative Access Team beamlines being designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source

  2. Iso-Oriented NaTi2(PO4)3 Mesocrystals as Anode Material for High-Energy and Long-Durability Sodium-Ion Capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tongye; Yang, Gongzheng; Wang, Chengxin

    2017-09-20

    Sodium-ion capacitors (SIC) combine the merits of both high-energy batteries and high-power electrochemical capacitors as well as the low cost and high safety. However, they are also known to suffer from the severe deficiency of suitable electrode materials with high initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) and kinetic balance between both electrodes. Herein, we report a facile solvothermal synthesis of NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 nanocages constructed by iso-oriented tiny nanocrystals with a mesoporous architecture. It is notable that the NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 mesocrystals exhibit a large ICE of 94%, outstanding rate capability (98 mA h g -1 at 10 C), and long cycling life (over 77% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) in half cells, all of which are in favor to be utilized into a full cell. When assembled with commercial activated carbon to an SIC, the system delivers an energy density of 56 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 39 W kg -1 . Even at a high current rate of 5 A g -1 (corresponds to finish a full charge/discharge process in 2 min), the SIC still works well after 20 000 cycles without obvious capacity degradation. With the merits of impressive energy/power densities and longevity, the obtained hybrid capacitor should be a promising device for highly efficient energy storage systems.

  3. Exceptionally High Piezoelectric Coefficient and Low Strain Hysteresis in Grain-Oriented (Ba, Ca)(Ti, Zr)O3 through Integrating Crystallographic Texture and Domain Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingchun; Chang, Yunfei; Li, Fei; Yang, Bin; Sun, Yuan; Wu, Jie; Zhang, Shantao; Wang, Ruixue; Cao, Wenwu

    2017-09-06

    Both low strain hysteresis and high piezoelectric performance are required for practical applications in precisely controlled piezoelectric devices and systems. Unfortunately, enhanced piezoelectric properties were usually obtained with the presence of a large strain hysteresis in BaTiO 3 (BT)-based piezoceramics. In this work, we propose to integrate crystallographic texturing and domain engineering strategies into BT-based ceramics to resolve this challenge. [001] c grain-oriented (Ba 0.94 Ca 0.06 )(Ti 0.95 Zr 0.05 )O 3 (BCTZ) ceramics with a texture degree as high as 98.6% were synthesized by templated grain growth. A very high piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ) of 755 pC/N, and an extremely large piezoelectric strain coefficient (d 33 * = 2027 pm/V) along with an ultralow strain hysteresis (H s ) of 4.1% were simultaneously achieved in BT-based systems for the first time, which are among the best values ever reported on both lead-free and lead-based piezoceramics. The exceptionally high piezoelectric response is mainly from the reversible contribution, and can be ascribed to the piezoelectric anisotropy, the favorable domain configuration, and the formation of smaller sized domains in the BCTZ textured ceramics. This study paves a new pathway to develop lead-free piezoelectrics with both low strain hysteresis and high piezoelectric coefficient. More importantly, it represents a very exciting discovery with potential application of BT-based ceramics in high-precision piezoelectric actuators.

  4. Out-of-substrate plane orientation control of thin YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O {sub x} films on NdGaO{sub 3} tilted-axes substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozhaev, Peter B. [Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation) and Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark)]. E-mail: pbmozh@nm.ru; Mozhaeva, Julia E. [Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Bdikin, Igor K. [Institute of Solid State Physics RAS, Chernogolovka, Moscow distr., 142432 (Russian Federation); CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Kotelyanskii, Iosif M. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Lusanov, Valery A. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Hansen, Jorn Bindslev [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Jacobsen, Claus S. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, DK-2800 (Denmark); Kholkin, Andrey L. [CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal)

    2006-02-01

    Epitaxial heterostructures YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O {sub x}(YBCO)/CeO{sub 2}/NdGaO{sub 3} were prepared on tilted-axes NdGaO{sub 3} substrates using laser ablation technique. Morphology, crystal structure and electrical properties of the obtained films were characterized. The seeding mechanisms are affected by the tilt angle, resulting in superior YBCO films on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates in an intermediate range of tilt angles of 6-14{sup o}. The introduction of CeO{sub 2} layer leads to change of the YBCO film orientation: at low deposition rate c-oriented films are formed, while at high deposition rates the film grows with c-axis tilted along the [1 1 0] NdGaO{sub 3} direction. Bi-epitaxial films and structures were prepared by removal of part of the CeO{sub 2} layer using ion-beam milling.

  5. Comparison of four machine learning methods for object-oriented change detection in high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ting; Sun, Kaimin; Deng, Shiquan; Chen, Yan

    2018-03-01

    High resolution image change detection is one of the key technologies of remote sensing application, which is of great significance for resource survey, environmental monitoring, fine agriculture, military mapping and battlefield environment detection. In this paper, for high-resolution satellite imagery, Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Deep belief network (DBN), and Adaboost models were established to verify the possibility of different machine learning applications in change detection. In order to compare detection accuracy of four machine learning Method, we applied these four machine learning methods for two high-resolution images. The results shows that SVM has higher overall accuracy at small samples compared to RF, Adaboost, and DBN for binary and from-to change detection. With the increase in the number of samples, RF has higher overall accuracy compared to Adaboost, SVM and DBN.

  6. Physical characterization and study of the electrical magnetic and thermal properties of the ceramic high Tc superconductor Y1Ba2Cu3O7-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeredo Orlando, M.T. de.

    1991-01-01

    It was built four systems for physical characterization of high Tc superconductors, with data acquisition by computer, and recent results on AC susceptibility, AC resistivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (x ≅ 0.15) compound, in a ceramic form, could be reproduced. Our study pointed that those ceramics exhibit a preferential orientation of the grains, being the c axis of the compound parallel to the compression direction. The study of this material in the four different technics, for samples with same density and oxygen stoichiometry, has pointed also that its magnetic behavior is strongly influenced by the intergrain region. This influence can be described by the clem model for the intergrain region and by the Malozemoff proposition for the fluxoids collective behavior. (author)

  7. CAD/CAM Helps Build Better Bots: High-Tech Design and Manufacture Draws Engineering-Oriented Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Name, Barry

    2012-01-01

    There is a battlefield where no quarter is given, no mercy shown, but not a single drop of blood is spilled. It is an arena that witnesses the bringing together of high-tech design and manufacture with the outpouring of brute force, under the remotely accessed command of some of today's brightest students. This is the world of battling robots, or…

  8. A Crafts-Oriented Approach to Computing in High School: Introducing Computational Concepts, Practices, and Perspectives with Electronic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Lee, Eunkyoung; Searle, Kristin; Fields, Deborah; Kaplan, Eliot; Lui, Debora

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine the use of electronic textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational concepts and practices while broadening perceptions about computing. The starting point of our work was the design and implementation of a curriculum module using the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer science class. To…

  9. High-Performance Na-O2 Batteries Enabled by Oriented NaO2 Nanowires as Discharge Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajehbashi, S Mohammad B; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Guobin; Tan, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Lai-Sen; Li, Jiantao; Luo, Wen; Peng, Dong-Liang; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-06-13

    Na-O 2 batteries are emerging rechargeable batteries due to their high theoretical energy density and abundant resources, but they suffer from sluggish kinetics due to the formation of large-size discharge products with cubic or irregular particle shapes. Here, we report the unique growth of discharge products of NaO 2 nanowires inside Na-O 2 batteries that significantly boosts the performance of Na-O 2 batteries. For this purpose, a high-spin Co 3 O 4 electrocatalyst was synthesized via the high-temperature oxidation of pure cobalt nanoparticles in an external magnetic field. The discharge products of NaO 2 nanowires are 10-20 nm in diameter and ∼10 μm in length, characteristics that provide facile pathways for electron and ion transfer. With these nanowires, Na-O 2 batteries have surpassed 400 cycles with a fixed capacity of 1000 mA h g -1 , an ultra-low over-potential of ∼60 mV during charging, and near-zero over-potential during discharging. This strategy not only provides a unique way to control the morphology of discharge products to achieve high-performance Na-O 2 batteries but also opens up the opportunity to explore growing nanowires in novel conditions.

  10. Sexual Orientation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...

  11. Subcortical orientation biases explain orientation selectivity of visual cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyasagar, Trichur R; Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Lloyd, Errol; Levichkina, Ekaterina V

    2015-04-01

    The primary visual cortex of carnivores and primates shows an orderly progression of domains of neurons that are selective to a particular orientation of visual stimuli such as bars and gratings. We recorded from single-thalamic afferent fibers that terminate in these domains to address the issue whether the orientation sensitivity of these fibers could form the basis of the remarkable orientation selectivity exhibited by most cortical cells. We first performed optical imaging of intrinsic signals to obtain a map of orientation domains on the dorsal aspect of the anaesthetized cat's area 17. After confirming using electrophysiological recordings the orientation preferences of single neurons within one or two domains in each animal, we pharmacologically silenced the cortex to leave only the afferent terminals active. The inactivation of cortical neurons was achieved by the superfusion of either kainic acid or muscimol. Responses of single geniculate afferents were then recorded by the use of high impedance electrodes. We found that the orientation preferences of the afferents matched closely with those of the cells in the orientation domains that they terminated in (Pearson's r = 0.633, n = 22, P = 0.002). This suggests a possible subcortical origin for cortical orientation selectivity. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  12. Evaluation of Thermal Creep and Hydride Re-orientation Properties of High Burnup Spent Fuel Cladding under Long Term Dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, K [JNES (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    In Japan, spent fuels will be reprocessed as recyclable energy source at a reprocessing plant. The first commercial plant is under-constructing and will start operation in 2008. It is necessary that spent fuels should be stored in the independent interim storage facilities (ISF) until reprocessing. Utilities plan the operation of the first ISF in 2010. JNES has a mission to support the safety body by researching the data of technical standard and regulation. Investigating of spent fuel integrity during long term dry storage is one of them. The objectives are: 1) Evaluation of the effects of material design changes on creep properties of high burnup spent fuel cladding; 2) Evaluation of the effects of alloy elements and texture of irradiated Zircaloy on hydride re-orientation properties and the effects of radial hydrides on cladding mechanical properties; 3) Evaluation of the effects of temperature on irradiation hardening recovery.

  13. Online time-differential perturbed angular correlation study with an 19O beam - Residence sites of oxygen atoms in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, W.; Ueno, H.; Watanabe, H.; Miyoshi, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Kameda, D.; Ito, T.; Shimada, K.; Kaihara, J.; Suda, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shinohara, A.; Ohkubo, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    The online time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method was applied to a study of the physical states of a probe 19 F, the β - decay product of 19 O (t 1/2 = 26.9 s), implanted in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The observed magnitude of the electric field gradient at the probe nucleus, |V zz | = 2.91(17) x 10 22 V m -2 , suggests that the incident 19 O atoms are stabilized at an interlayer position with point group C 3v . Exhibiting observed TDPAC spectra having a clear sample-to-detector configuration dependence, we demonstrate the applicability of the present online method with a short-lived radioactive 19 O beam

  14. Online time-differential perturbed angular correlation study with an 19O beam - Residence sites of oxygen atoms in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W.; Ueno, H.; Watanabe, H.; Miyoshi, H.; Yoshimi, A.; Kameda, D.; Ito, T.; Shimada, K.; Kaihara, J.; Suda, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Shinohara, A.; Ohkubo, Y.; Asahi, K.

    2008-01-01

    The online time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method was applied to a study of the physical states of a probe 19F, the β- decay product of 19O (t1/2 = 26.9 s), implanted in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. The observed magnitude of the electric field gradient at the probe nucleus, ∣Vzz∣ = 2.91(17) × 1022 V m-2, suggests that the incident 19O atoms are stabilized at an interlayer position with point group C3v. Exhibiting observed TDPAC spectra having a clear sample-to-detector configuration dependence, we demonstrate the applicability of the present online method with a short-lived radioactive 19O beam.

  15. Growth of highly oriented La{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}MnO{sub 3} perovskite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B.W.; Brosha, E.L.; Garzon, F.H.; Raistrick, I.D.; Houlton, R.J.; Hawley, M.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We have grown thin films of La{sub 0.84}Sr{sub 0.16}MnO{sub 3} on SrTiO{sub 3} (100), MgO (100), CeO{sub 2} (100)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and (100) oriented yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates by using a 90{degree} off-axis RF magnetron sputtering deposition. X-ray diffraction analysis and ion beam channeling experiments reveal that the deposited films grow epitaxially on SrTiO{sub 3}, biaxially textured on MgO, and highly textured on YSZ. Scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that the thin films possess extremely smooth surfaces. {copyright} 1995 Materials Research Society

  16. Development of advanced NI alloy substrates with high percentage of cube texture for biaxially oriented YBCO coated tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HongLi Suo; Yue Zhao; MangMang Gao; Min Liu; YongHua Zhu; PeiKuo Gao; JianHong Wang; Lin Ma; RuiFen Fan; Yuan Ji; MeiLing Zhou

    2009-01-01

    The improvement of mechanical and magnetic properties of textured NiW alloy tapes is considered as a main challenge for RABiTS substrates in coated conductors. The present paper summaries the successful development of several textured NiW substrate tapes with high W contents as well as advanced NiW composite substrates with high strength and reduced magnetization in our previous works. The fabrication process of these tapes and their characterizations are presented in detail. The results on the texture quality and mechanical properties as well as on the magnetic behaviour of these tapes are promising in view of the future application in coated conductor and constitute an alternative to the well known Ni5W alloy substrates. (au)

  17. Epitaxial growth of high quality SrFeO 3 films on (001) oriented (LaAlO 3 ) 0.3 (Sr 2 TaAlO 6 ) 0.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Deshun [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Liu, Changjiang [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Pearson, John [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Bhattacharya, Anand [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2017-12-04

    Growth of strontium ferrite SrFeO3 films with stoichiometry of (1:1:3) is challenging as the unstable Fe4+ oxidation state favors the formation of O vacancies. Here, we report layer by layer growth of SrFeO3 on (001) oriented (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2TaAlO6)0.7 using ozone assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Upon cooling from room temperature, the film’s resistivity decreased from 750 Ω ∙ to 150 Ω ∙ , as low as the best single crystals, with two identifiable transition points near 110 K and 60 K in resistivity measurements, being hysteretic between cooling and warming through the 60 K transition. During various annealing steps, the low temperature resistivity changes by orders of magnitude, accompanied by an increase in the c-axis lattice parameter. The hysteresis near 60 K persists for a wide range of annealing conditions. We have identified conditions under which changes due to annealing can be reversed. We attribute changes in resistivity and out of plane lattice parameter to the reversible movement of oxygen ions in the lattice. SrFeO3 may be a promising material for resistive memory applications based upon the control of oxygen vacancies.

  18. Influence of initial heating during final high temperature annealing on the offset of primary and secondary recrystallization in Cu-bearing grain oriented electrical steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Calvillo, P.; Leunis, E.; Van De Putte, T.; Jacobs, S.; Zacek, O.; Saikaly, W.

    2018-04-01

    The industrial production route of Grain Oriented Electrical Steels (GOES) is complex and fine-tuned for each grade. Its metallurgical process requires in all cases the abnormal grain growth (AGG) of the Goss orientation during the final high temperature annealing (HTA). The exact mechanism of AGG is not yet fully understood, but is controlled by the different inhibition systems, namely MnS, AlN and CuxS, their size and distribution, and the initial primary recrystallized grain size. Therefore, among other parameters, the initial heating stage during the HTA is crucial for the proper development of primary and secondary recrystallized microstructures. Cold rolled 0.3 mm Cu-bearing Grain Oriented Electrical Steel has been submitted to interrupted annealing experiments in a lab tubular furnace. Two different annealing cycles were applied:• Constant heating at 30°C/h up to 1000°C. Two step cycle with initial heating at 100°C/h up to 600°C, followed by 18 h soaking at 600°C and then heating at 30°C/h up to 1050°C. The materials are analyzed in terms of their magnetic properties, grain size, texture and precipitates. The characteristic magnetic properties are analyzed for the different extraction temperatures and Cycles. As the annealing was progressing, the coercivity values (Hc 1.7T [A/m]) decreased, showing two abrupt drops, which can be associated to the on-set of primary and secondary recrystallization. The primary recrystallized grain sizes and recrystallized fractions are fitted to a model using a non-isothermal approach. This analysis shows that, although the resulting grain sizes were similar, the kinetics for the two step annealing were faster due to the lower recovery. The on-set of secondary recrystallization was also shifted to higher temperatures in the case of the continuous heating cycle, which might end in different final grain sizes and final magnetic properties. In both samples, nearly all the observed precipitates are Al-Si-Mn nitrides

  19. Influence of initial heating during final high temperature annealing on the offset of primary and secondary recrystallization in Cu-bearing grain oriented electrical steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodriguez-Calvillo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The industrial production route of Grain Oriented Electrical Steels (GOES is complex and fine-tuned for each grade. Its metallurgical process requires in all cases the abnormal grain growth (AGG of the Goss orientation during the final high temperature annealing (HTA. The exact mechanism of AGG is not yet fully understood, but is controlled by the different inhibition systems, namely MnS, AlN and CuxS, their size and distribution, and the initial primary recrystallized grain size. Therefore, among other parameters, the initial heating stage during the HTA is crucial for the proper development of primary and secondary recrystallized microstructures. Cold rolled 0.3 mm Cu-bearing Grain Oriented Electrical Steel has been submitted to interrupted annealing experiments in a lab tubular furnace. Two different annealing cycles were applied:• Constant heating at 30°C/h up to 1000°C. Two step cycle with initial heating at 100°C/h up to 600°C, followed by 18 h soaking at 600°C and then heating at 30°C/h up to 1050°C. The materials are analyzed in terms of their magnetic properties, grain size, texture and precipitates. The characteristic magnetic properties are analyzed for the different extraction temperatures and Cycles. As the annealing was progressing, the coercivity values (Hc 1.7T [A/m] decreased, showing two abrupt drops, which can be associated to the on-set of primary and secondary recrystallization. The primary recrystallized grain sizes and recrystallized fractions are fitted to a model using a non-isothermal approach. This analysis shows that, although the resulting grain sizes were similar, the kinetics for the two step annealing were faster due to the lower recovery. The on-set of secondary recrystallization was also shifted to higher temperatures in the case of the continuous heating cycle, which might end in different final grain sizes and final magnetic properties. In both samples, nearly all the observed precipitates are Al

  20. Effects of deposition temperature and in-situ annealing time on structure and magnetic properties of (001) orientation FePt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yongsheng; George, T.A.; Li, Haibo; Sun, Daqian; Ren, Zhenan; Sellmyer, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    FePt films were prepared on (100) oriented single crystal MgO substrates at high temperature ranging from 620 until 800 °C and in-situ annealed for different times ranging from 0 to 60 min to obtain ordered FePt films. The structural analysis indicates that FePt films grow epitaxially on MgO (100) substrates. Both increasing deposition temperature and in-situ annealing time enhance the (001) texture and ordering of FePt films. The magnetic analysis shows that these L1 0 FePt films have perpendicular anisotropy and the easy magnetization c-axis is perpendicular to the film plane. Magnetization reversal is controlled by a rotational mechanism. The hard magnetic properties of the films are improved with increasing deposition temperature or in-situ annealing time. - Highlights: ► The paper reports the texture and magnetic evolution of FePt films deposited on MgO substrates. ► Increasing deposition temperature or annealing time enhanced the texture and ordering. ► The magnetic analysis shows L1 0 FePt films have perpendicular anisotropy.

  1. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of supergene Cu-Pb-Zn-V ores in the Oriental High Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Michèle; Bernard, Alain; Dekoninck, Augustin; Lafforgue, Ludovic; Saddiqi, Omar; Yans, Johan

    2017-10-01

    In the Moroccan High Atlas, two sulfide deposits hosted by Jurassic dolostones underwent significant weathering. In the Cu deposit of Jbel Klakh, several stages of supergene mineralization are distinguished: (1) the replacement of hypogene sulfides in the protolith (chalcopyrite) by secondary sulfides in the cementation zone (bornite, digenite, chalcocite, covellite), (2) the formation of oxidized minerals in the saprolite (malachite, azurite, brochantite) where the environment becomes more oxidizing and neutral, and (3) the precipitation of late carbonates (calcite) and iron (hydr-)oxides in the laterite. The precipitation of carbonates is related to the dissolution of dolomitic host rocks, which buffers the fluid acidity due to the oxidation of sulfides. In the Jbel Haouanit Pb-Zn deposit, the mineral assemblage is dominated by typical calamine minerals, Cu minerals (chalcocite, covellite, malachite), and a Cu-Pb-Zn vanadate (mottramite). Galena is successively weathered in anglesite and cerussite. Sphalerite is weathered in smithsonite, which is rapidly replaced by hydrozincite. Late iron (hydr-)oxides are mainly found at the top of both deposits (laterite). Both deposits are thus characterized by specific mineral zoning, from laterite to protolith, related to variations in the mineralogy and ore grades and probably caused by varying Eh-pH conditions.

  2. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  3. Characterization of microstructure, texture and magnetic properties in twin-roll casting high silicon non-oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao-Ze; Liu, Hai-Tao, E-mail: liuht@ral.neu.edu.cn; Liu, Zhen-Yu, E-mail: zyliu@mail.neu.edu.cn; Lu, Hui-Hu; Song, Hong-Yu; Wang, Guo-Dong

    2014-02-15

    An Fe-6.5 wt.% Si-0.3 wt.% Al as-cast sheet was produced by twin-roll strip casting process, then treated with hot rolling, warm rolling and annealing. A detailed study of the microstructure and texture evolution at different processing stages was carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron backscattered diffraction analysis. The initial as-cast strip showed strong columnar grains and pronounced < 001 >//ND texture. The hot rolled and warm rolled sheets were characterized by large amounts of shear bands distributed through the thickness together with strong < 110 >//RD texture and weak < 111 >//ND texture. After annealing, detrimental < 111 >//ND texture almost disappeared while beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (115)<5 − 10 1 > and (410) < 001 > recrystallization textures were formed, thus the magnetic induction of the annealed sheet was significantly improved. The recrystallization texture in the present study could be explained by preferred nucleation and grain growth mechanism. - Highlights: • A high silicon as-cast strip with columnar structure was produced. • A thin warm rolled sheet without large edge cracks was obtained. • Microstructure and texture evolution at each stage were investigated. • Beneficial (001)<210 >, (001)<010 >, (410)<001 > recrystallization textures were formed. • The magnetic induction of annealed sheet was significantly improved.

  4. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  5. Temperature dependent optical properties of (002) oriented ZnO thin film using surface plasmon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Shibu; Mehan, Navina; Sreenivas, K.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-08-01

    Temperature dependent optical properties of c-axis oriented ZnO thin film were investigated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique. SPR data for double layer (prism-Au-ZnO-air) and single layer (prism-Au-air) systems were taken over a temperature range (300-525 K). Dielectric constant at optical frequency and real part of refractive index of the ZnO film shows an increase with temperature. The bandgap of the oriented ZnO film was found to decrease with rise in temperature. The work indicates a promising application of the system as a temperature sensor and highlights an efficient scientific tool to study optical properties of thin film under varying ambient conditions.

  6. Distribution of MCA-coated grits in maize fields after high wheel tractor application for disrupting orientation of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennemann, Ludger; Hummel, Hans E

    2002-01-01

    High wheel tractor applications of 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (MCA)-coated corn granules ('grits') were conducted in Ruski Krstur (Serbia) in summer 2001 in a 5 ha corn field. Grits are a by-product after corn is harvested and separated from the cob and used as a carrier medium to disseminate MCA into the corn field. MCA is a kairomone mimic derived form Cucurbita maxima (Duchesne) used to disrupt orientation of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte towards different MCA and pheromone baited traps. The ultimate goal is to investigate the use of MCA as a mating disruptant. MCA was dissolved in an organic solvent and mixed in a cement machine with the grits. Grits were applied at rates of 17.39, 17.1 and 12.45 kg/ha on July 4th, July 19th and August 3rd. Before the impact of MCA as a disruptant can be addressed, the distribution patterns of MCA coated grits have to be thoroughly investigated. They were evaluated by counting girts deposited in 16 or 20 plastic dishes of 30-cm diameter positioned along 2 rows through the field directly after the grit application by tractor. Additionally, grits deposited on corn plant surface such as leaves, leaf axils and corn cobs were counted. Total number of grits collected in plastic dishes revealed even application rates at the first and second application but not on the third application date. Number of grits collected on plant surfaces were significantly different from each other regarding each application date. Altogether, grit distribution in the dishes as well as on the plant surface was variable. However, distribution patterns achieved so far hold promise to disseminate MCA coated grits into corn fields for orientation disruption or mating disruption of D. virgifera virgifera.

  7. High Performance Human Resource Practices, Identification with Organizational Values and Goals, and Service-Oriented Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Review of Literature and Proposed Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasurdin Aizzat Mohd.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing competition within the hospitality industry has recognized the importance of service quality as a key business differentiation strategy. Proactive involvement of employees is a vital component of the service delivery, which in turn, enhances customer satisfaction and loyalty. Hence, hospitality organizations, particularly hotels, need to encourage their employees to perform voluntary behaviors that go “beyond their call of duty”. These behaviors are referred to as service-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (hereafter labeled as SO-OCBs. A review of the literature indicates that an organization’s human resource management (henceforth labeled as HRM practices are instrumental in establishing the tone of the employee-employer relationship, which subsequently affects employees’ display of discretionary functional service-related behaviors. Specifically, high-performance HRM practices can nurture a relational employment relationship, leading to internalization of organizational values and goals. This, in turn, would induce employees to engage in greater SO-OCBs. However, conceptual and empirical work explaining the mechanism by which high-performance HRM practices relate to SO-OCBs remains scarce. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a model linking a set of high-performance HRM practices (selective hiring, communication, appraisal, and reward and SO-OCBs. Identification with organizational values and goals is posited as a mediator in the proposed relationship. A discussion of the literature to support the proposed framework is furnished.

  8. Microstructural Analysis of Orientation-Dependent Recovery and Recrystallization in a Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel Deformed by Compression at a High Strain Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhenbo; Zhang, Yubin; Mishin, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    energies in 〈111〉- and 〈100〉-oriented regions in deformed and annealed samples, as well as investigations of the growth of recrystallizing grains, are used to analyze the annealing behavior. It is concluded that recrystallization in the given material occurs by a combination of oriented nucleation...

  9. Hydroxyapatite coatings with oriented nanoplate and nanorod arrays: Fabrication, morphology, cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Tian, Bo [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Lei, Yong; Ke, Qin-Fei [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China); Zhu, Zhen-An, E-mail: zhuzhenan2006@126.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Guo, Ya-Ping, E-mail: ypguo@shnu.edu.cn [The Education Ministry Key Lab of Resource Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Functional Materials, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals exhibit rod-like shape with c-axis orientation and plate-like shape with a(b)-axis orientation in vertebrate bones and tooth enamel surfaces, respectively. Herein, we report the synthesis of HA coatings with the oriented nanorod arrays (RHACs) and HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays (PHACs) by using bioglass coatings as sacrificial templates. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 120 °C, the bioglass coatings are hydrothermally converted into the HA coatings via a dissolution-precipitation reaction. If the Ca/P ratios in SBF are 2.50 and 1.25, the HA crystals on the coatings are oriented nanorod arrays and oriented nanoplate arrays, respectively. Moreover, the bioglass coatings are treated with SBF at 37 °C, plate-like HA coatings with a low crystallinity (SHACs) are prepared. As compared with the Ti6Al4V and SHACs, the human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the RHACs and PHACs have better cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation because of their moderately hydrophilic surfaces and similar chemical composition, morphology and crystal orientation to human hard tissues. Notably, the morphologies of HA crystals have no obvious effects on cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Hence, the HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays or oriented nanorod arrays have a great potential for orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • We prepare hydroxyapatite coatings with oriented nanoplate and nanorod arrays. • Hydroxyapatite coatings are in situ converted from bioglass coatings. • Hydroxyapatite coatings have good cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. • Oriented hydroxyapatite coatings are used for orthopedic implants.

  10. Hydroxyapatite coatings with oriented nanoplate and nanorod arrays: Fabrication, morphology, cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei; Tian, Bo; Lei, Yong; Ke, Qin-Fei; Zhu, Zhen-An; Guo, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals exhibit rod-like shape with c-axis orientation and plate-like shape with a(b)-axis orientation in vertebrate bones and tooth enamel surfaces, respectively. Herein, we report the synthesis of HA coatings with the oriented nanorod arrays (RHACs) and HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays (PHACs) by using bioglass coatings as sacrificial templates. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 120 °C, the bioglass coatings are hydrothermally converted into the HA coatings via a dissolution-precipitation reaction. If the Ca/P ratios in SBF are 2.50 and 1.25, the HA crystals on the coatings are oriented nanorod arrays and oriented nanoplate arrays, respectively. Moreover, the bioglass coatings are treated with SBF at 37 °C, plate-like HA coatings with a low crystallinity (SHACs) are prepared. As compared with the Ti6Al4V and SHACs, the human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the RHACs and PHACs have better cell adhesion, spreading, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation because of their moderately hydrophilic surfaces and similar chemical composition, morphology and crystal orientation to human hard tissues. Notably, the morphologies of HA crystals have no obvious effects on cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Hence, the HA coatings with oriented nanoplate arrays or oriented nanorod arrays have a great potential for orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • We prepare hydroxyapatite coatings with oriented nanoplate and nanorod arrays. • Hydroxyapatite coatings are in situ converted from bioglass coatings. • Hydroxyapatite coatings have good cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. • Oriented hydroxyapatite coatings are used for orthopedic implants.

  11. Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, and competitive environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Eibe; Cadogan, John W.

    This study sheds light on the role that the competitive environment plays in determining how elements of market orientation and elements of entrepreneurial orientation interact to influence business success. We develop a model in which we postulate that market orientation, entrepreneurial...... orientation, and competitive environment shape business performance via a three-way interaction. We test the model using primary data from the CEOs of 270 CEO of manufacturing firms, together with secondary data on these firms' profit performance. An assessment of the results indicates that customer...... orientation moderates the positive relationships between the competitiveness element of entrepreneurial orientation and market share and return on assets (ROA): the positive relationships between competitiveness and market share and competitiveness and ROA become stronger the greater the firms' customer...

  12. High Resolution Orientation Distribution Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Søren; Gade-Nielsen, Nicolai Fog; Høstergaard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    from the deformed material. The underlying mathematical formalism supports all crystallographic space groups and reduces the problem to solving a (large) set of linear equations. An implementation on multi-core CPUs and Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) is discussed along with an example on simulated...

  13. Arthroscopically assisted stabilization of acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint separations in a coracoclavicular Double-TightRope technique: V-shaped versus parallel drill hole orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Natascha; Haas, Norbert P; Scheibel, Markus; Gerhardt, Christian

    2013-10-01

    The arthroscopically assisted Double-TightRope technique has recently been reported to yield good to excellent clinical results in the treatment of acute, high-grade acromioclavicular dislocation. However, the orientation of the transclavicular-transcoracoidal drill holes remains a matter of debate. A V-shaped drill hole orientation leads to better clinical and radiologic results and provides a higher vertical and horizontal stability compared to parallel drill hole placement. This was a cohort study; level of evidence, 2b. Two groups of patients with acute high-grade acromioclavicular joint instability (Rockwood type V) were included in this prospective, non-randomized cohort study. 15 patients (1 female/14 male) with a mean age of 37.7 (18-66) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique using a V-shaped orientation of the drill holes (group 1). 13 patients (1 female/12 male) with a mean age of 40.9 (21-59) years were treated with a Double-TightRope technique with a parallel drill hole placement (group 2). After 2 years, the final evaluation consisted of a complete physical examination of both shoulders, evaluation of the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV), Constant Score (CS), Taft Score (TF) and Acromioclavicular Joint Instability Score (ACJI) as well as a radiologic examination including bilateral anteroposterior stress views and bilateral Alexander views. After a mean follow-up of 2 years, all patients were free of shoulder pain at rest and during daily activities. Range of motion did not differ significantly between both groups (p > 0.05). Patients in group 1 reached on average 92.4 points in the CS, 96.2 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 75.9 points in the ACJI. Patients in group 2 scored 90.5 points in the CS, 93.9 % in the SSV, 10.5 points in the TF and 84.5 points in the ACJI (p > 0.05). Radiographically, the coracoclavicular distance was found to be 13.9 mm (group 1) and 13.4 mm (group 2) on the affected side and 9.3 mm (group 1

  14. Laser Controlled Molecular Orientation Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atabek, O.

    2004-01-01

    Molecular orientation is a challenging control issue covering a wide range of applications from reactive collisions, high order harmonic generation, surface processing and catalysis, to nanotechnologies. The laser control scenario rests on the following three steps: (i) depict some basic mechanisms producing dynamical orientation; (ii) use them both as computational and interpretative tools in optimal control schemes involving genetic algorithms; (iii) apply what is learnt from optimal control to improve the basic mechanisms. The existence of a target molecular rotational state combining the advantages of efficient and post-pulse long duration orientation is shown. A strategy is developed for reaching such a target in terms of a train of successive short laser pulses applied at predicted time intervals. Each individual pulse imparts a kick to the molecule which orients. Transposition of such strategies to generic systems is now under investigation

  15. Noise measurements of YBa2Cu3O7 thin film high-temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of thin-film YBa2Cu3O7 superconductors were studied from the superconducting region through the transition region and into the normal region. The properties studied included the resistance-temperature, current-voltage, and electrical noise with concentration of measurements in the transition region. The resistance vs. temperature measurements show a zero resistance followed by a small rise in magnitude at the onset of resistance followed by a sharp increase until the resistance tapers off in the fully normal region. The a-axis films had a larger normal resistivity, a lower critical temperature, and a broader transition than the similar c-axis films. The current(I) - voltage(V) measurements were concentrated in the transition region. A power relation between I and V was found to be V varies as I a(T) where a(T) is temperature dependent starting high the onset of vortex formation, approaches 3 at the vortex unbinding temperature, and goes to 1 when fully normal. This behavior was predicted by the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory and was found experimentally in all four films measured. The current-induced electrical noise characteristics were measured for four samples varying in thickness and axis orientation. Each film exhibited a widely varying magnitude of the noise voltage spectral density (S V ) in the transition region with a leveling off when fully normal. The normalized noise (S V /V squared) showed a sharp decrease in magnitude from the onset of measurable noise continually decreasing until flattening out when fully normal. The a-axis films exhibited S V /V squared over 3 order of magnitude larger than the c-axis films in the transition and normal regions. The normalized temperature coefficient of resistance (beta) was plotted against S V /V squared on a log-log scale to see if the noise generated was due to temperature fluctuations (slope = 2)

  16. Effect of pretreatment and membrane orientation on fluxes for concentration of whey with high foulants by using NH3/CO2 in forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, M; Buyuksari, E; Topcu, S; Babaoglu, D S; Celebi, D; Keskinler, B; Aydiner, C

    2017-11-01

    Usage of forward osmosis membrane in FO mode, in which active and support layers of the membrane were in contact with the feed and the draw solutions respectively, provided higher initial water flux (12L/m 2 h) than the usage of membrane in PRO mode (6L/m 2 h) having opposite orientation but fluxes approached to each other after 4h during concentration of whey with NH 3 /CO 2 as draw salt. High organic and inorganic foulants of whey was considered as reason for observed result in addition to lower solute resistivity. Initial water flux (8,5L/m 2 h) was lower when pre-treatment was applied before forward osmosis process but final flux (4L/m 2 h) was equal flux of non pre-treatment. Reduction of solute resistivity or absence of hydraulic pressure can be reasons for lower initial flux. Detection of organic carbon but absence of lactose in draw solution showed passage of molecules being different than lactose into draw solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Distinct crystallinity and orientations of hydroxyapatite thin films deposited on C- and A-plane sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Housei; Ueno, Yuko

    2014-10-01

    We report how the crystallinity and orientation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) films deposited on sapphire substrates depend on the crystallographic planes. Both solid-phase crystallization of amorphous HAp films and crystallization during sputter deposition at elevated temperatures were examined. The low-temperature epitaxial phase on C-plane sapphire substrates has c-axis orientated HAp crystals regardless of the crystallization route, whereas the preferred orientation switches to the (310) direction at higher temperatures. Only the symmetric stretching mode (ν1) of PO43- units appears in the Raman scattering spectra, confirming well-ordered crystalline domains. In contrast, HAp crystals grown on A-plane sapphire substrates are always oriented toward random orientations. Exhibiting all vibrational modes (ν1, ν3, and ν4) of PO43- units in the Raman scattering spectra reflects random orientation, violating the Raman selection rule. If we assume that Raman intensities of PO43- units represent the crystallinity of HAp films, crystallization terminating the surface with the C-plane is hindered by the presence of excess H2O and OH species in the film, whereas crystallization at random orientations on the A-plane sapphire is rather promoted by these species. Such contrasting behaviors between C-plane and A-plane substrates will reflect surface-plane dependent creation of crystalline seeds and eventually determine the orientation of resulting HAp films.

  18. On the influence of the aliphatic linker on fabrication of highly ordered and orientated self-assembled monolayers of aromatic selenols on AU(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Azzam, Waleed; Al-Rawashdeh, Nathir A F; Al-Refaie, Najd; Shekhah, Osama; Bashir, Asif

    2014-01-01

    their adlayer SAM structure and surface morphology. The molecular adlayer structure and orientation of PMSe and BSe species were found to vary significantly with the immersion time (IT). The resulting PMSe films were poorly organized, and the structure

  19. Role of orientation of nucleus of crystal during the process of synthesis of fine crystalline oxides at high temperatures and pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasyuk, G P; Belan, V N; Voroshilov, I L; Shabalin, D G [IGIC RAS, N. S. Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Panasyuk@igic.ras.ru

    2008-07-15

    The structural transformations of hydrargillite Al(OH){sub 3} and boehmite AlOOH were studied on thermovaporous autoclaving and on heat treatment. A special attention was paid to the morphology of initial flocculated and loose hydrargillite crystals, of the again segregating flocculi boehmite intermediate phase, and to the morphology of the end product - corundum single - or polycrystals. It is shown that on thermovaporous autoclaving the intraflocculi orientation of the boehmite crystals is decisive in the corundum single crystals formation. The degree of identity of the boehmite crystals orientation qualifies the sizes of the growing corundum crystals. It is shown, that after heat treatment in air at <1200 deg. C alpha-alumina forms, the habitus of the initial crystals remains unchanged, but at 1400-1500 deg. C in vacuum it alters, and equally oriented alumina grains sinter. Influence of the mutual crystals orientation at different stages of structural transformations is explored. Keywords: autoclaving, hydrargillite, boehmite, corundum.

  20. Comparison of lattice preferred orientation and magnetic fabric of a chloritoid-bearing slate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerinck, Tom; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Debacker, Timothy N.; Sintubin, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    A regional analysis of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on chloritoid-bearing slates of the Paleozoic Plougastel Formation in the low-grade metamorphic conditions (epizonal) of the Monts d'Arrée slate belt in Central Armorica (Brittany, France) reveals very high values for the degree of anisotropy (PJ), up to 1.43 (Haerinck et al. 2013a). In contrast, stratigraphically equivalent slates free of chloritoid, in the very low-grade metamorphic conditions (anchizonal) of the Crozon fold-and-thrust belt, show a lower degree of anisotropy, with PJ values up to 1.27. Classically, very strong magnetic fabrics (i.e. those with PJ above 1.35) are attributed to a contribution of ferromagnetic (s.l.) minerals. Nonetheless, high-field torque magnetometry indicates that the magnetic fabric of the chloritoid-bearing slates is dominantly paramagnetic. The ferromagnetic (sensu lato) contribution to the AMS is less than 10%. Based on these observations, it would seem that chloritoid has an intrinsic magnetic anisotropy that is significantly higher than that of most paramagnetic silicates and the frequently used upper limit for the paramagnetic contribution to the AMS. Using two independent approaches, i.e. (a) directional magnetic hysteresis measurements, and (b) torque magnetometry, on a collection of single chloritoid crystals, collected from different tectonometamorphic settings worldwide, the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of monoclinic chloritoid has been determined (Haerinck et al. 2013b). The determined paramagnetic high-field AMS ellipsoids have a highly oblate shape with the minimum susceptibility direction subparallel to the crystallographic c-axis of chloritoid and the degree of anisotropy of chloritoid is found to be 1.47 ± 0.06. The obtained very high magnetocrystalline degree of anisotropy suggests that chloritoid-bearing slates with a pronounced mineral alignment can have a high degree of anisotropy (PJ) without the need of invoking a significant

  1. The association between sexual orientation identity and behavior across race/ethnicity, sex, and age in a probability sample of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G

    2014-02-01

    We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.

  2. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  3. Mass defect filtering-oriented classification and precursor ions list-triggered high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis for the discovery of indole alkaloids from Uncaria sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiqin; Yang, Wenzhi; Yao, Changliang; Shen, Yao; Zhang, Yibei; Shi, Xiaojian; Yao, Shuai; Wu, Wanying; Guo, Dean

    2017-09-22

    Discovery of new natural compounds is becoming increasingly challenging because of the interference from those known and abundant components. The aim of this study is to report a dereplication strategy, by integrating mass defect filtering (MDF)-oriented novelty classification and precursor ions list (PIL)-triggered high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, and to validate it by discovering new indole alkaloids from the medicinal herb Uncaria sinensis. Rapid chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kinetex ® EVO C18 column (<16min). An in-house MDF algorithm, developed based on the informed phytochemistry information and molecular design, could more exactly screen the target alkaloids and divide them into three novelty levels: Known (KN), Unknown-but-Predicted (UP), and Unexpected (UN). A hybrid data acquisition method, namely PIL-triggered collision-induced dissociation-MS 2 and high-energy C-trap dissociation-MS 3 with dynamic exclusion on a linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer, facilitated the acquisition of diverse product ions sufficient for the structural elucidation of both indole alkaloids and the N-oxides. Ultimately, 158 potentially new alkaloids, including 10 UP and 108 UN, were rapidly characterized from the stem, leaf, and flower of U. sinensis. Two new alkaloid compounds thereof were successfully isolated and identified by 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The varied ring E and novel alkaloid-acylquinic acid conjugates were first reported from the whole Uncaria genus. Conclusively, it is a practical chemical dereplication strategy that can enhance the efficiency and has the potential to be a routine approach for the discovery of new natural compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding.

  5. Effects of multiple electronic shells on strong-field multiphoton ionization and high-order harmonic generation of diatomic molecules with arbitrary orientation: An all-electron time-dependent density-functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, S.-I

    2009-01-01

    We present a time-dependent density-functional theory approach with proper long-range potential for an ab initio study of the effect of correlated multielectron responses on the multiphoton ionization (MPI) and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of diatomic molecules N 2 and F 2 in intense short laser pulse fields with arbitrary molecular orientation. We show that the contributions of inner molecular orbitals to the total MPI probability can be sufficiently large or even dominant over the highest-occupied molecular orbital, depending on detailed electronic structure and symmetry, laser field intensity, and orientation angle. The multielectron effects in HHG are also very important. They are responsible for enhanced HHG at some orientations of the molecular axis. Even strongly bound electrons may have a significant influence on the HHG process.

  6. OFF, Open source Finite volume Fluid dynamics code: A free, high-order solver based on parallel, modular, object-oriented Fortran API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, S.

    2014-07-01

    OFF, an open source (free software) code for performing fluid dynamics simulations, is presented. The aim of OFF is to solve, numerically, the unsteady (and steady) compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics by means of finite volume techniques: the research background is mainly focused on high-order (WENO) schemes for multi-fluids, multi-phase flows over complex geometries. To this purpose a highly modular, object-oriented application program interface (API) has been developed. In particular, the concepts of data encapsulation and inheritance available within Fortran language (from standard 2003) have been stressed in order to represent each fluid dynamics "entity" (e.g. the conservative variables of a finite volume, its geometry, etc…) by a single object so that a large variety of computational libraries can be easily (and efficiently) developed upon these objects. The main features of OFF can be summarized as follows: Programming LanguageOFF is written in standard (compliant) Fortran 2003; its design is highly modular in order to enhance simplicity of use and maintenance without compromising the efficiency; Parallel Frameworks Supported the development of OFF has been also targeted to maximize the computational efficiency: the code is designed to run on shared-memory multi-cores workstations and distributed-memory clusters of shared-memory nodes (supercomputers); the code's parallelization is based on Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigms; Usability, Maintenance and Enhancement in order to improve the usability, maintenance and enhancement of the code also the documentation has been carefully taken into account; the documentation is built upon comprehensive comments placed directly into the source files (no external documentation files needed): these comments are parsed by means of doxygen free software producing high quality html and latex documentation pages; the distributed versioning system referred as git

  7. Fabrication of Bi2223 bulks with high critical current properties sintered in Ag tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Yasuaki, E-mail: ytakeda@g.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Motoki, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Kishio, Kohji [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakashima, Takayoshi; Kagiyama, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Shin-ichi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. 1-1-3 Shimaya, Konohana-ku, Osaka 554-0024 (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication conditions of Bi2223 bulks was reconsidered in terms of high J{sub c}. • Pressure of uniaxial pressing and heat treatment conditions were investigated. • The best sample showed higher J{sub c} than that of practically used Bi2223 bulks. - Abstract: Randomly grain oriented Bi2223 sintered bulks are one of the representative superconducting materials having weak-link problem due to very short coherence length particularly along the c-axis, resulting in poor intergrain J{sub c} properties. In our previous studies, sintering and/or post-annealing under moderately reducing atmospheres were found to be effective for improving grain coupling in Bi2223 sintered bulks. Further optimizations of the synthesis process for Bi2223 sintered bulks were attempted in the present study to enhance their intergrain J{sub c}. Effects of applied pressure of uniaxial pressing and sintering conditions on microstructure and superconducting properties have been systematically investigated. The best sample showed intergrain J{sub c} of 2.0 kA cm{sup −2} at 77 K and 8.2 kA cm{sup −2} at 20 K, while its relative density was low ∼65%. These values are quite high as for a randomly oriented sintered bulk of cuprate superconductors.

  8. Theories of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Michael D.

    1980-01-01

    Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)

  9. Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, L; Janhonen, S

    2000-05-01

    Factors associated with students' orientations to nursing This paper presents the results of a study focusing on the factors associated with orientations to nursing. Students' orientations to nursing have not as yet been a focus of nursing research. In some other professions, however, professional orientation has been associated with learning motivation and study performance, and has been seen as a predictor of work satisfaction. In this study, students' orientations to nursing were defined in terms of caring, nursing expertise and life orientation. The hypothesis of whether students' pre-educational experiences of nursing, gender, choice of nursing specialty, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing were associated with different orientations was tested. The extent to which students were orientated to caring, nursing expertise and their own life was also examined. The orientation to nursing measurement tool, which has been developed on the basis of a qualitative study, was used to collect the data. Nurse teachers collected the data from nursing students (n=184) who were studying in three different nursing programmes in Finland. Non-parametric assessments (Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis test) of the differences between the students' orientations were carried out. A majority of the students were highly life-orientated, and two-thirds had average nursing expertise or caring orientation scores. The results supported the study hypothesis of an association between students' orientations and their gender, choice of nursing speciality, problems with nursing studies and intention to stay in nursing. However, the hypothesis of an association between students' pre-educational nursing experiences and orientation to nursing was not supported. The contradictions between students' orientation to nursing and the philosophy of nursing underlying the study programme may be a source of motivational problems and dissatisfaction with nursing education

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: a green route for large-scale production of porous graphene and graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paola; Hu, Anming; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Duley, Walter W.; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2014-01-01

    Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the solution. The sheets consist of one to six stacked layers of spongy graphene, which form an irregular 3D porous structure that displays pores with an average size of 15-20 nm. Several characterization techniques have confirmed the porous nature of the collected layers. The analyses of the aqueous solution confirmed the presence of GQDs with dimensions of about 2-5 nm. It is found that the formation of both PG and GQDs depends on the fs-laser ablation energy. At laser fluences less than 12 J cm-2, no evidence of either PG or GQDs is detected. However, polyynes with six and eight carbon atoms per chain are found in the solution. For laser energies in the 20-30 J cm-2 range, these polyynes disappeared, while PG and GQDs were found at the water-air interface and in the solution, respectively. The origin of these materials can be explained based on the mechanisms for water breakdown and coal gasification. The absence of PG and GQDs, after the laser ablation of HOPG in liquid nitrogen, confirms the proposed mechanisms.Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the

  11. High-Throughput Investigation of a Lead-Free AlN-Based Piezoelectric Material, (Mg,Hf)xAl1-xN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hung H; Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Van Minh, Le; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2017-06-12

    We conducted a high-throughput investigation of the fundamental properties of (Mg,Hf) x Al 1-x N thin films (0 piezoelectric materials. For the high-throughput investigation, we prepared composition-gradient (Mg,Hf) x Al 1-x N films grown on a Si(100) substrate at 600 °C by cosputtering AlN and MgHf targets. To measure the properties of the various compositions at different positions within a single sample, we used characterization techniques with spatial resolution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) with a beam spot diameter of 1.0 mm verified that Mg and Hf had substituted into the Al sites and caused an elongation of the c-axis of AlN from 5.00 Å for x = 0 to 5.11 Å for x = 0.24. In addition, the uniaxial crystal orientation and high crystallinity required for piezoelectric materials to be used as application devices were confirmed. The piezoelectric response microscope indicated that this c-axis elongation increased the piezoelectric coefficient almost linearly from 1.48 pm/V for x = 0 to 5.19 pm/V for x = 0.24. The dielectric constants of (Mg,Hf) x Al 1-x N were investigated using parallel plate capacitor structures with ∼0.07 mm 2 electrodes and showed a slight increase by substitution. These results verified that (Mg,Hf) x Al 1-x N is a promising material for piezoelectric-based application devices, especially for vibrational energy harvesters.

  12. Femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite: a green route for large-scale production of porous graphene and graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paola; Hu, Anming; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Duley, Walter W; Zhou, Norman Y

    2014-02-21

    Porous graphene (PG) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are attracting attention due to their potential applications in photovoltaics, catalysis, and bio-related fields. We present a novel way for mass production of these promising materials. The femtosecond laser ablation of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) is employed for their synthesis. Porous graphene (PG) layers were found to float at the water-air interface, while graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were dispersed in the solution. The sheets consist of one to six stacked layers of spongy graphene, which form an irregular 3D porous structure that displays pores with an average size of 15-20 nm. Several characterization techniques have confirmed the porous nature of the collected layers. The analyses of the aqueous solution confirmed the presence of GQDs with dimensions of about 2-5 nm. It is found that the formation of both PG and GQDs depends on the fs-laser ablation energy. At laser fluences less than 12 J cm(-2), no evidence of either PG or GQDs is detected. However, polyynes with six and eight carbon atoms per chain are found in the solution. For laser energies in the 20-30 J cm(-2) range, these polyynes disappeared, while PG and GQDs were found at the water-air interface and in the solution, respectively. The origin of these materials can be explained based on the mechanisms for water breakdown and coal gasification. The absence of PG and GQDs, after the laser ablation of HOPG in liquid nitrogen, confirms the proposed mechanisms.

  13. Contribution of nuclear microanalysis and of 18O tracer technique to study the oxygen sublattice in high Tc superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siejka, J.

    1994-01-01

    At first a short review of IBA contribution to the determination of composition and structure, including phonon properties of high T c superconducting oxides is presented. In the second part, IBA contribution to the elucidation of the mechanisms of thin film growth is presented. The emphasis is on the complementarity of IBA, Raman spectroscopy and XRD techniques to characterize thin films of high T c superconducting oxides. In the third part, some recent results related mainly to YBaCuO films grown on (100) oriented single crystalline bulk materials (MgO, LaAlO 3 , SrTiO 3 ) is discussed. In these experiments, IBA, XRD and Raman spectroscopies were used to study the oxygen content in a series of YBaCuO films prepared in different conditions of pressure and temperature. In the case of c-axis oriented films a good agreement between these three methods was found for the films cooled down at high oxygen pressure and a significant disagreement for the films cooled down at low oxygen pressure, showing structures with anomalous c-axis parameter. In the case of a-axis oriented films grown on SrTiO 3 substrates it was found that the low T c values (∼ 70-80 K) are not correlated with the oxygen content but rather with a disorder in the oxygen sublattice. The disorder in the oxygen sublattice was studied using the 16 O(α, α) 16 O resonance in random and channeling geometry. These results are correlated with the data provided by Raman spectroscopy. The 18 O tracer technique was used to estimate the diffusion coefficient in the a-axis oriented YBaCuO films showing a huge anisotropy of the 18 O labelling. Combining Raman and IBA techniques, the selective 18 O labelling of the CuO chain-planes was evidenced. The defects in the 18 O enriched CuO chain-planes were studied using the 18 O(p, α) 15 N nuclear resonant reaction in random and channeling geometries. Some preliminary results related to roughness of YBaCuO films are also discussed. The physical implications of these

  14. Fabrication and orientation control of highly cation-ordered epitaxial PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} thin films on Si (100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, Anuj, E-mail: anujchopraiitm@gmail.com [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Faculty of Science and Technology, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Alexe, Marin [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Hesse, Dietrich [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2015-01-28

    Highly cation-ordered (100) and (110)-oriented PbSc{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (PST) films were deposited on buffered Si (100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Switching of crystal orientation from (100) to (110) was achieved by replacing the Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (100)/CeO2 (100)/LaNiO3 (100)/PST (100) heterostructure with Si (100)/ZrO2:Y2O3 (YSZ) (100)/SrRuO3 (110)/PST (110). The out-of-plane and in-plane crystal orientation and internal microstructure of (001) and (110) PST films were analyzed in detail by X-ray diffraction, pole figure measurements, and transmission electron microscopy. XRD superstructure reflections indicate that both (100) and (110) PST films are highly cation-ordered and transmission electron microscopy measurements show nano-domains of 15 nm size. The electrical measurements show that the PST films are ferroelectric and that the ferroelectric properties are linked to the microstructure. We have demonstrated the successful integration of PST films on Si substrates with control on growth orientation; this approach can be extended to other oxides to be integrated on silicon substrates for future device applications.

  15. New insights into microstructural evolution of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films on MgO (1 0 0) substrate by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and orientation imaging investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Mohan, Sangeneni; Suwas, Satyam

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a detailed investigation has been performed on hetero-epitaxial growth and microstructural evolution in highly oriented Ni-Mn-Ga (1 0 0) films grown on MgO (1 0 0) substrate using high-resolution X-ray diffraction and orientation imaging microscopy. Mosaicity of the films has been analysed in terms of tilt angle, twist angle, lateral and vertical coherence length and threading dislocation densities by performing rocking curve measurements and reciprocal space mapping. Density of edge dislocations is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the density of screw dislocations, irrespective of film thickness. X-ray pole figure measurements have revealed an orientation relationship of ? || (1 0 0)MgO; ? || [0 0 1]MgO between the film and substrate. Microstructure predicted by X-ray diffraction is in agreement with that obtained from electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The evolution of microstructure in the film with increasing thickness has been explained vis-à-vis dislocation generation and growth mechanisms. Orientation imaging microscopy observations indicate evolutionary growth of film by overgrowth mechanism. Decrease in coercivity with film thickness has been explained as an interplay between stress field developed due to crystal defects and magnetic domain pinning due to surface roughness.

  16. Understanding political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    influences of such behavior. The study includes structural equation modeling to investigate several propositions. While the results show that political parties need to focus on several different aspects of market-oriented behavior, especially using an internal and external orientation as cultural antecedents......This article develops a conceptual framework and measurement model of political market orientation that consists of attitudinal and behavioural constructs. The article reports on perceived relationships among different behavioral aspects of political market orientation and the attitudinal......, a more surprising result is the inconclusive effect of a voter orientation on market-oriented behaviours. The article discusses the findings in the context of the existing literature in political marketing and commercial market orientation....

  17. Thickness and Nb-doping effects on ferro- and piezoelectric properties of highly a-axis-oriented Nb-doped Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Xiang; Ruangchalermwong, C.; Li, Jing-Feng

    2008-09-01

    Tetragonal Nb-doped Pb(Zr0.3Ti0.7)O3 (PNZT) films with a lead oxide seeding layer were deposited on the Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates by sol-gel processing. The as-grown PNZT films with thicknesses ranging from about 0.08 to 0.78 μm show highly a-axis preferential orientation, and their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties improved with increasing film thickness. Due to the combined effects of Nb doping and a-axis texturing as well as reduced substrate constraint, a high d33 constant up to 196 pm/V was obtained for PNZT film at 0.78 μm in addition to a large remnant polarization of 69 μC/cm2. This well a-axis-oriented PNZT films on platinized Si with a high piezoresponse are suitable for the fabrication of microelectromechanical devices.

  18. Learning Model of Unggah-Ungguh Basa Oriented to Noble Behavior in SMP (Junior High School) Jawa Timur (East Java) Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudikan, Setya Yuwana

    2017-01-01

    Learning problem of "unggah-ungguh basa", is very complicated. It is needed reorientation and re-setting the approaches, strategies, methods, techniques, and learning contents that can give rise to a new model of learning of "unggah-ungguh basa" oriented to the character formation of children, especially in Jawa Timur. In…

  19. Do blood plasma levels of oxytocin moderate the effect of nasally administered oxytocin on social orienting in high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, Monika; Groen, Yvonne; Wijers, Albertus A.; Noltes, Henriette; Tucha, Oliver; Sweep, Fred C.; Calcagnoli, Federica; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    The study investigated whether baseline plasma oxytocin (OXT) concentrations might moderate the effects of nasally administered OXT on social orienting. Thirty-one males with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and thirty healthy males participated in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial.

  20. Effects of annealing schedule on orientation of Bi3.2Nd0.8Ti3O12 ferroelectric film prepared by chemical solution deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, H.Y.; Huang, J.F.; Cao, L.Y.; Wang, L.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fatigue-free Bi 3.2 Nd 0.8 Ti 3 O 12 ferroelectric thin films were successfully prepared on p-Si(1 1 1) substrate using chemical solution deposition process. The orientation and formation of thin film under different annealing schedules were studied. XRD analysis indicated that (2 0 0)-oriented films with degree of orientation of I (200) /I (117) = 2.097 and 0.466 were obtained by preannealing for 10 min at 400 deg. C followed by rapid thermal annealing for 3, 10 and 20 min at 700 deg. C, respectively (0 0 8)-oriented films with degree of orientation of I (008) /I (117) = 1.706 were obtained by rapid thermal annealing for 3 min at 700 deg. C without preannealing, and (0 0 8)-oriented films with degree of orientation of I (008) /I (117) = 0.719 were obtained by preheating the film from room temperature at 20 deg. C/min followed by annealing for 10 min at 700 deg. C. The a-axis and c-axis orientation decreased as increase of annealing time due to effects of (1 1 1)-oriented substrate. AFM analysis further indicated that preannealing at 400 deg. C for 10 min followed by rapid thermal annealing for 3 min at 700 deg. C resulted in formation of platelike crystallite parallel to substrate surface, however rapid thermal annealing for 3 min at 700 deg. C without preannealing resulted in columnar crystallite perpendicular to substrate surface

  1. Analysis of the texture of zircaloy-4 sheet by crystallite orientation distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryoo, Hwei Soo; Hwang Sun Keum

    1990-01-01

    In order to analyze the texture variation of Zircaloy-4 sheet the Roe's method of calculating the crystallite orientation distribution function(CODF) for hcp system was computer programmed. The coefficients W lmn of CODF were calculated from plane-normal distribution pole figures obtained by X-ray diffraction, and the CODF was computed from a series expansion of spherical harmonics. The Legendre function, which is the basis of the harmonics, was computed up to l=16 to account for the symmetry systems of specimen and hcp crystal. A cross-rolling followed by beta-phase heat treatment and furnace cooling increased the density of basal poles along the sheet normal direction and rotated prism poles around the c axis. (Author)

  2. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...... development: Grounding We develop an empirically based conceptualization of modelling and use of models in system development projects characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in requirements and point to implications for tools and techniques for modelling in such a setting. Techniques We introduce......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...

  3. Gender Role Conflict and Coping Strategies of Leadership-Oriented Women

    OpenAIRE

    Htun, Tin Tin; Yamamoto, Mariko

    2003-01-01

    The present study examines whether high leadership-oriented females have more gender role conflict than low leadership-oriented females. It also addresses what coping strategies high leadership-oriented females use to cop ...

  4. Morphology and orientation of β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals patterned by laser in the inside of samarium barium borate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishii, Akihito; Shinozaki, Kenji; Honma, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp

    2015-01-15

    Nonlinear optical β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines (β-BBO) were patterned in the inside of 8Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}–42BaO–50B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass by irradiations of continuous-wave Yb:YVO{sub 4} lasers with a wavelength of 1080 nm (power: P=0.8–1.0 W, scanning speed: S=0.2–2.5 μm/s), in which the laser focal position was moved gradually from the surface to the inside. The morphology, size, and orientation of β-BBO crystals were examined from polarization optical microscope and birefringence imaging observations. It was demonstrated that c-axis oriented β-BBO crystals with long lengths (e.g., 20 mm) were patterned in the inside of the glass. The morphology of β-BBO in the cross-section of lines was a rectangular shape with rounded corners, and the volume of β-BBO formed increased with increasing laser power and with decreasing laser scanning speed. The maximum depth in the inside from the surface for β-BBO patterning increased with increasing laser power, e.g., D{sub max}∼100 μm at P=0.8 W, D{sub max}∼170 μm at P=0.9 W, and D{sub max}∼200 μm at P=1 W. The present study proposes that the laser-induced crystallization opens a new door for applied engineering in glassy solids. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the POM photographs for β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines patterned by cw Yb:YVO{sub 4} fiber laser irradiations with a laser power of P=0.8 W and a laser scanning speed S=2 μm/s in the glass. The laser focal point was moved gradually from the surface into the inside. The results shown in Fig. 1 demonstrate that it is possible to pattern highly oriented β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystals even in the inside of glasses. - Highlights: • β-BaB{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystal lines were patterned in the inside of a glass by lasers. • Laser focal position was moved gradually from the surface to the inside. • Birefringence imaging was observed. • Morphology, size, and orientation of crystals were clarified. • Crystal lines with long lengths

  5. Well-oriented ZZ–PS-tag with high Fc-binding onto polystyrene surface for controlled immobilization of capture antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jin-Bao; Sun, Xi-Feng; Yang, Hong-Ming; Zhang, Bao-Gang; Li, Zhi-Jian; Lin, Zhi-Juan; Gao, Zhi-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A versatile platform for immobilizing functionally intact IgG is proposed. •The mechanism relies on properly oriented ZZ–PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS surface. •The oriented ZZ–PS-tag presents ∼fivefold higher IgG-binding activity. •The platform shows tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range in ELISA. -- Abstract: The site specificity and bioactivity retention of antibodies immobilized on a solid substrate are crucial requirements for solid phase immunoassays. A fusion protein between an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding protein (ZZ protein) and a polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag) was constructed, and then used to develop a simple method for the oriented immobilization of the ZZ protein onto a PS support by the specific attachment of the PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS. The orientation of intact IgG was achieved via the interaction of the ZZ protein and the constant fragment (Fc), thereby displayed the Fab fragment for binding antigen. The interaction between rabbit IgG anti-horseradish peroxidase (anti-HRP) and its binding partner HRP was analyzed. Results showed that the oriented ZZ–PS-tag yielded an IgG-binding activity that is fivefold higher than that produced by the passive immobilization of the ZZ protein. The advantage of the proposed immunoassay strategy was demonstrated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which monoclonal mouse anti-goat IgG and HRP-conjugated rabbit F(ab′) 2 anti-goat IgG were used to detect goat IgG. The ZZ–PS-tag presented a tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range than did the passively immobilized ZZ protein. The proposed approach may be an attractive strategy for a broad range of applications involving the oriented immobilization of intact IgGs onto PS supports, in which only one type of phi-PS (ZZ–PS-tag) surface is used

  6. Well-oriented ZZ–PS-tag with high Fc-binding onto polystyrene surface for controlled immobilization of capture antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jin-Bao, E-mail: tangjinbao@yahoo.com.cn [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Sun, Xi-Feng [Clinical Laboratory, Weifang People' s Hospital, Weifang 261041 (China); Yang, Hong-Ming [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Zhang, Bao-Gang [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Li, Zhi-Jian [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Lin, Zhi-Juan [School of Basic Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China); Gao, Zhi-Qin, E-mail: zhiqingao@yahoo.cn [School of Pharmacy and Biology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053 (China)

    2013-05-07

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A versatile platform for immobilizing functionally intact IgG is proposed. •The mechanism relies on properly oriented ZZ–PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS surface. •The oriented ZZ–PS-tag presents ∼fivefold higher IgG-binding activity. •The platform shows tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range in ELISA. -- Abstract: The site specificity and bioactivity retention of antibodies immobilized on a solid substrate are crucial requirements for solid phase immunoassays. A fusion protein between an immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding protein (ZZ protein) and a polystyrene-binding peptide (PS-tag) was constructed, and then used to develop a simple method for the oriented immobilization of the ZZ protein onto a PS support by the specific attachment of the PS-tag onto a hydrophilic PS. The orientation of intact IgG was achieved via the interaction of the ZZ protein and the constant fragment (Fc), thereby displayed the Fab fragment for binding antigen. The interaction between rabbit IgG anti-horseradish peroxidase (anti-HRP) and its binding partner HRP was analyzed. Results showed that the oriented ZZ–PS-tag yielded an IgG-binding activity that is fivefold higher than that produced by the passive immobilization of the ZZ protein. The advantage of the proposed immunoassay strategy was demonstrated through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in which monoclonal mouse anti-goat IgG and HRP-conjugated rabbit F(ab′){sub 2} anti-goat IgG were used to detect goat IgG. The ZZ–PS-tag presented a tenfold higher sensitivity and a wider linear range than did the passively immobilized ZZ protein. The proposed approach may be an attractive strategy for a broad range of applications involving the oriented immobilization of intact IgGs onto PS supports, in which only one type of phi-PS (ZZ–PS-tag) surface is used.

  7. Access control and service-oriented architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leune, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Access Control and Service-Oriented Architectures" investigates in which way logical access control can be achieved effectively, in particular in highly dynamic environments such as service-oriented architectures (SOA's). The author combines state-of-the-art best-practice and projects these onto the

  8. Employee Orientation: A Process, Not a Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Ron

    1989-01-01

    No or poor orientation can reduce new employees' effectiveness and contribute to dissatisfaction and turnover, costing the company money. The orientation programs of large companies such as Disney, Texas Instruments, and Corning Glass are successful due to high expectations, supervisor and senior management involvement, anxiety reduction, and…

  9. Entrepreneurial Orientation and Internationalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decker, Arnim; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa; Servais, Per

    Entrepreneurial orientation is a multidimensional construct that determines the strategic posture of a firm. In this study we investigate a sample of six manufacturing firms which are located both in a remote area and in a transition economy. Through interpreting the construct of entrepreneurial...... orientation as an attitude held by principals we investigate how entrepreneurial orientation affected the behaviour of these firms, specifically in terms of their internationalisation. Despite the fact that all firms have identical roots we find that entrepreneurial orientation held by their principals affect...

  10. The local free volume and its correlation with the structural, chemical and dynamic properties of branched polymers, polymer electrolytes, highly oriented polyethylene fibres and other polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, David

    2002-01-01

    frequently observed levelling off of the expansion of the hole volume at high temperatures is proposed in terms of increased thermal motions of the polymer chain segments on a time scale comparable to the o-Ps lifetime. The ionic conductivity of all the samples was found to follow both the Cohen-Turnbull and Vogel Tamman Fulcher theories over changes in the conductivity of several orders of magnitude demonstrating a direct link between the average free volume hole size and the ionic conductivity. Surprisingly, no clear differences were observed between the single ion and mixed ion conductors, showing the conduction mechanism to be independent of the specific interactions between the ions and the polymer chains. At temperatures near or below the glass transition, a change in the ion transport mechanism from a random redistribution of free volume in the rubbery phase to a thermally activated hopping in the glassy phase is observed. The anisotropic 'free volume hole' shape in highly oriented polyethylene fibres is studied using 2-Dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation spectroscopy and a new method of analysing the data is proposed. The average shape of these holes is determined and bears a remarkable similarity to the expected shape of chain fold defects in the crystalline phase. Finally, the potential use of Doppler Broadening of Annihilation Radiation DBAR spectroscopy as a probe of the chemical surroundings of free volume holes in polymers is assessed. Several series of fluorinated polymers are studied using PALS and DBAR spectroscopy and a linear decrease in the S-parameter of the annihilation peak is observed with increasing fluorine content. Using a new coincidence DBAR spectrometer it was found that the presence of oxygen, fluorine or chlorine in polymers could be identified from subtle but characteristic changes in the shape of the annihilation peak. (author)

  11. Soil process-oriented modelling of within-field variability based on high-resolution 3D soil type distribution maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönecke, Eric; Lück, Erika; Gründling, Ralf; Rühlmann, Jörg; Franko, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Today, the knowledge of within-field variability is essential for numerous purposes, including practical issues, such as precision and sustainable soil management. Therefore, process-oriented soil models have been applied for a considerable time to answer question of spatial soil nutrient and water dynamics, although, they can only be as consistent as their variation and resolution of soil input data. Traditional approaches, describe distribution of soil types, soil texture or other soil properties for greater soil units through generalised point information, e.g. from classical soil survey maps. Those simplifications are known to be afflicted with large uncertainties. Varying soil, crop or yield conditions are detected even within such homogenised soil units. However, recent advances of non-invasive soil survey and on-the-go monitoring techniques, made it possible to obtain vertical and horizontal dense information (3D) about various soil properties, particularly soil texture distribution which serves as an essential soil key variable affecting various other soil properties. Thus, in this study we based our simulations on detailed 3D soil type distribution (STD) maps (4x4 m) to adjacently built-up sufficient informative soil profiles including various soil physical and chemical properties. Our estimates of spatial STD are based on high-resolution lateral and vertical changes of electrical resistivity (ER), detected by a relatively new multi-sensor on-the-go ER monitoring device. We performed an algorithm including fuzzy-c-mean (FCM) logic and traditional soil classification to estimate STD from those inverted and layer-wise available ER data. STD is then used as key input parameter for our carbon, nitrogen and water transport model. We identified Pedological horizon depths and inferred hydrological soil variables (field capacity, permanent wilting point) from pedotransferfunctions (PTF) for each horizon. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon

  12. Orientation and magnetic properties of FePt and CoPt films grown on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrate by electron-beam coevaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Minghui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Advanced Materials Research Institute, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States)], E-mail: myu1@uno.edu; Ohguchi, H.; Zambano, A.; Takeuchi, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Liu, J.P. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Josell, D.; Bendersky, L.A. [Metallurgy Division, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2007-09-25

    We have studied the orientation and magnetic properties of FePt and CoPt films deposited by electron-beam co-evaporation on MgO(1 1 0) single-crystal substrates at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700 deg. C. We observed that long-range chemical ordering of the L1{sub 0} structure occurred over the entire range of substrate temperatures in FePt films and at 600 deg. C and up in CoPt films. Growth of FePt and CoPt yielded epitaxial films with cube-on-cube orientation of the pseudo-cubic L1{sub 0} lattice with respect to the cubic MgO. X-ray diffraction patterns and magnetization loops of the FePt and CoPt films revealed the existence of L1{sub 0} domains with the tetragonal c axis inclined at 45 deg. to the film plane, orientations (0 h h) and (h 0 h), as well as L1{sub 0} domains with the tetragonal c axis in the plane of the film, orientation (h h 0). The FePt and CoPt films for which X-ray diffraction indicated tetragonal phase was present all exhibited hard magnetic properties with easy axis along the [0 0 1] substrate direction as well as large in-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  13. Read/write properties of oriented longitudinal recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Y.; Nakatani, Y.; Hayashi, N.; Fukushima, H.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of orientation on the maximum recording density including the thermal stability effect was investigated using computer simulation. The necessary head current for a highly oriented medium is at most 10% larger than that for a 2D random medium. A recording density larger than 300 Gb/in 2 can be achieved with highly oriented media with 30 nm flying height

  14. Avoidance orientation moderates the effect of threatening messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, van 't J.P.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Vries, de H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in people's dispositional avoidance orientation on the persuasive effects of low- and high-threat messages promoting moderate drinking. First, participents (N = 99) individual differences in avoidance orientation were assessed, after

  15. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  16. Edward Said and "Orientalism"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In the nearly 30 years since Edward Said published the hugely influential Orientalism, his indictment of racism and imperialism in Western scholarship on the Orient has had its share of plaudits and condemnations. Now Robert Irwin, the Middle East editor of The Times Literary Supplement, has reignited the controversy with his broadside against the…

  17. Orientalism/Occidentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.; Ong, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Orientalism and Occidentalism are interrelated concepts. Orientalism is defined in three keys ways: (i) as a study of “the Orient”; (ii) as a cultural and aesthetic concern with “the Orient”; and (iii) as a critical approach to understanding the construction of “the Orient” by European and American

  18. Aspect-Oriented Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk; Videira Lopes, Cristina; Moreira, Ana; Demeyer, Serge

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming is a promising idea that can improve the quality of software by reduce the problem of code tangling and improving the separation of concerns. At ECOOP'97, the first AOP workshop brought together a number of researchers interested in aspect-orientation. At ECOOP'98, during

  19. Synthesis of uniform CdS nanowires in high yield and its single nanowire electrical property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shancheng; Sun Litao; Qu Peng; Huang Ninping; Song Yinchen; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-01-01

    Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. Field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the CdS nanowires have diameter of about 26 nm and length up to several micrometres. High resolution TEM (HRTEM) study indicates the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The optical properties of the products were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence spectra and Raman spectra. The resistivity, electron concentration and electron mobility of single NW are calculated by fitting the symmetric I-V curves measured on single NW by the metal-semiconductor-metal model based on thermionic field emission theory. - Graphical abstract: Large-scale high quality CdS nanowires (NWs) with uniform diameter were synthesized by using a rapid and simple solvothermal route. The reaction time is reduced to 2 h, comparing to other synthesis which needed long reaction time up to 12 h. In addition, the as-prepared CdS nanowires have more uniform diameter and high yield. More importantly, the I-V curve of present single CdS nanowire has a good symmetric characteristic as expected by the theory.

  20. Controlling BaZrO3 nanostructure orientation in YBa2Cu3O{}_{7-\\delta } films for a three-dimensional pinning landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. Z.; Shi, J. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R.; Wilt, J.; Haugan, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    The orientation phase diagram of self-assembled BaZrO3 (BZO) nanostructures in c-oriented YBa2Cu3O{}7-δ (YBCO) films on flat and vicinal SrTiO3 substrates was studied experimentally with different dopant concentrations and vicinal angles and theoretically using a micromechanical model based on the theory of elasticity. The organized BZO nanostructure configuration was found to be tunable, between c-axis to ab-plane alignment, by the dopant concentration in the YBCO film matrix strained via lattice mismatched substrates. The correlation between the local strain caused by the BZO doping and the global strain on the matrix provides a unique approach for controllable growth of dopant nanostructure landscapes. In particular, a mixed phase of the c-axis-aligned nanorods and the ab-plane-aligned planar nanostructures can be obtained, leading to a three-dimensional pinning landscape with single impurity doping and much improved J c in almost all directions of applied magnetic field.