Leal, Lois L.; And Others
Compares the relative effectiveness of cognitive modification and systematic desensitization with test anxious high school students (N=30). The systematic desensitization treatment appeared to be significantly more effective on the performance measure while cognitive modification was more effective on one of the self-report measures. (Author/JAC)
Studer, Regina Katharina; Danuser, Brigitta; Wild, Pascal; Hildebrandt, Horst; Gomez, Patrick
The present study provides a comprehensive view of (a) the time dynamics of the psychophysiological responding in performing music students (n = 66) before, during, and after a private and a public performance and (b) the moderating effect of music performance anxiety (MPA). Heart rate (HR), minute ventilation (VE), and all affective and somatic self-report variables increased in the public session compared to the private session. Furthermore, the activation of all variables was stronger during the performances than before or after. Differences between phases were larger in the public than in the private session for HR, VE, total breath duration, anxiety, and trembling. Furthermore, while higher MPA scores were associated with higher scores and with larger changes between sessions and phases for self-reports, this association was less coherent for physiological variables. Finally, self-reported intra-individual performance improvements or deteriorations were not associated with MPA. This study makes a novel contribution by showing how the presence of an audience influences low- and high-anxious musicians' psychophysiological responding before, during and after performing. Overall, the findings are more consistent with models of anxiety that emphasize the importance of cognitive rather than physiological factors in MPA.
Gomez, Patrick; Nielsen, Carole; Studer, Regina K; Hildebrandt, Horst; Klumb, Petra L; Nater, Urs M; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta
Music performances are social-evaluative situations that can elicit marked short-term neuroendocrine activation and anxious thoughts especially in musicians suffering from music performance anxiety (MPA). The temporal patterns of neuroendocrine activity and concert-related worry and rumination (perseverative cognition, PC) days before and after a concert in low- and high-anxious musicians are unknown. The first goal of the present study was to investigate the prolonged effects of a solo music performance and the effects of trait MPA on salivary cortisol (sC), alpha-amylase (sAA), and concert-related PC. The second goal was to investigate whether concert-related PC is associated with neuroendocrine activity and mediates the effects of measurement day and trait MPA on neuroendocrine responses. Seventy-two university music students collected saliva samples and reported their PC for seven consecutive days. On the fifth day, they performed solo. Measurement day and trait MPA were tested as main predictors of the diurnal area under the curve with respect to ground (sC AUCg, sAA AUCg), awakening responses, and PC. SC AUCg, sAA AUCg, and concert-related PC were highest on concert day. SC AUCg decreased only partially on post-concert days. SAA AUCg remained elevated on the first post-concert day among students with moderate to very high trait MPA. Throughout the assessment period, trait MPA was associated with smaller sC AUCg and higher concert-related PC. Concert-related PC showed significant positive associations with sC AUCg and sAA AUCg but did not mediate the effects of measurement day and trait MPA on these measures. These findings suggest that solo music performances have prolonged neuroendocrine effects and that trait MPA is an important factor having specific effects on university music students' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic nervous system, and cognitive activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ali Wira Rahman
Full Text Available This research is aimed to find out the solution of the anxiousness phenomenon that always attacks the EFL Learners particularly in Indonesia. In the future, this research is expected as main information for all students and lecturer or teachers of English to decrease the students’ anxiety in performing speaking. In long time ago until now, it becomes a big problem for all beginner students of English. The implementation of this research starting by doing observation to all class in the sixth semester students to find out some good EFL Learners. Researchers then consulting with the lecturer in determining the students to be the subject of this research. After finding the subject, interview session will be conducted to find out several information about their anxiousness. The data will be collected until limit of saturation. The last step of this research is doing analysis of the data were taken from observation and interview. The researchers will apply data reduction for the first step, the second is data display and the last will be drawing conclusion and verification of the data. The conclusion that being made will be verify by triangulation to get the validity of the result of this research.
Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen
Background: Prior research has shown that test anxiety is negatively related to academic buoyancy, but it is not known whether test anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of academic buoyancy. Furthermore, it is not known whether academic buoyancy is related to performance on high-stakes examinations. Aims: To test a model specifying reciprocal…
A special section of a public speaking class at the Universtiy of Tennessee was developed in the spring of 1977 for speech anxious students. The course was designed to incorporate the basic spirit of the regular classes and to provide special training in techniques for reducing nervousness about speaking and in methods for coping with the…
Chang, Hyesang; Sprute, Lisa; Maloney, Erin A; Beilock, Sian L; Berman, Marc G
Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals. We implemented a partial least squares analysis, a data-driven, multivariate analysis method to measure distributed patterns of whole-brain activity associated with performance. Despite overall high simple arithmetic performance across high and low math anxious individuals, performance was differentially dependent on the fronto-parietal attentional network as a function of math anxiety. Specifically, low-compared to high-math anxious individuals perform better when they activate this network less-a potential indication of more automatic problem-solving. These findings suggest that low and high math anxious individuals approach even the most fundamental math problems differently. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Kouno, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Daisuke
This study examined the relationship between cognitive factors and social anxiousness. Preliminary survey was administrated to 104 undergraduates to construct the responsibility scale. Twelve items were selected on the basis of item-total correlation analyses, and reliability and validity of the scale were examined. The main survey was conducted to 159 undergraduates using the responsibility scale to find out the correlation between social anxiousness and cognitive variables such as public se...
Hughes, Kathleen; Coplan, Robert J.
The goal of the current study was to examine the complex links among anxious solitude, classroom climate, engagement, achievement, and gender. In particular, drawing upon the differential susceptibility hypothesis (Belsky, 1997), we investigated if children high in anxious solitude were particularly sensitive and responsive to the classroom…
Ward, Richard T; Smith, Shelby L; Kraus, Brian T; Allen, Anna V; Moses, Michael A; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L
Trait anxiety has been shown to cause significant impairments on attentional tasks. Current research has identified alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals. Here, we further investigated the underlying alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals during their resting state and the completion of an inhibition executive functioning task. Using human participants and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings, we measured alpha band frequency in individuals both high and low in trait anxiety during their resting state, and while they completed an Eriksen Flanker Task. Results indicated that high-trait anxious individuals exhibit a desynchronization in alpha band frequency from a resting state to when they complete the Eriksen Flanker Task. This suggests that high-trait anxious individuals maintain fewer attentional resources at rest and must martial resources for task performance as compared with low-trait anxious individuals, who appear to maintain stable cognitive resources between rest and task performance. These findings add to the cognitive neuroscience literature surrounding the role of alpha band frequency in low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals.
Hughes, Kathleen; Coplan, Robert J
The goal of the current study was to examine the complex links among anxious solitude, classroom climate, engagement, achievement, and gender. In particular, drawing upon the differential susceptibility hypothesis (Belsky, 1997), we investigated if children high in anxious solitude were particularly sensitive and responsive to the classroom environment. Participants were N = 712 children in Grade 3, drawn from the National Institute of Child and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development data set. Classroom climate and engagement were assessed using the Classroom Observation Scale (NICHD, 1998). Teachers completed the Teacher Report Form (Achenbach, 1991) as a measure of anxious solitude and the Academic Rating Scale (NICHD, 2010) as a measure of achievement. Hypothesized associations among variables were tested by way of a moderated-mediation model. Among the results, engagement was found to mediate the relation between classroom climate and achievement. In addition, anxious solitude and gender were found to moderate the relation between classroom climate and engagement. Support for the differential susceptibility hypothesis was found, suggesting that children high in anxious solitude may be more reactive (both positively and negatively) to elements of the classroom environment. In addition, gender differences were observed, indicating that boys may be more responsive to the classroom environment as compared with girls. Implications for future research and educational policies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Samelink, E.; Wiers, R.W.
Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term,
Wehr, Sara H.; Kaufman, Melvin E.
Investigated the effects of assertive training on measures of assertiveness, state anxiety, and mathematics performance in highly anxious ninth graders (N=96). Found that assertive training resulted in increased assertiveness and decreased state anxiety, with no significant effect on mathematics performance, and no significant effect due to sex.…
Miers, A.C.; Blöte, A.W.; Sumter, S.R.; Kallen, V.L.; Westenberg, P.M.
Previous research found weak correspondence between subjective and objective arousal measures during social-evaluative tasks, particularly in high socially anxious individuals. This study evaluated subjective-objective correspondence in high versus low socially anxious youth (9-17 years). Sixty-six
Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Tadda, Regina; Andreatta, Marta; Tröger, Christian; Ewald, Heike; Grillon, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas
Trait anxiety, a stable personality trait associated with increased fear responses to threat, is regarded as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Although the effect of trait anxiety has been examined with regard to explicit threat cues, little is known about the effect of trait anxiety on contextual threat learning. To assess this issue, extreme groups of low and high trait anxiety underwent a contextual fear conditioning protocol using virtual reality. Two virtual office rooms served as the conditioned contexts. One virtual office room (CXT+) was paired with unpredictable electrical stimuli. In the other virtual office room, no electrical stimuli were delivered (CXT−). High-anxious participants tended to show faster acquisition of startle potentiation in the CXT+ versus the CXT− than low-anxious participants. This enhanced contextual fear learning might function as a risk factor for anxiety disorders that are characterized by sustained anxiety. PMID:23384512
Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels
Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137
MACARENA eSUÁREZ PELLICIONI
Full Text Available Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA and 20 low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias towards math-related words in HMA individuals.
Ju Ri Joeng
Full Text Available The data presented in this article are from 473 Korean college students׳ responses to an online survey consisting of measures of anxious and avoidant attachment (the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Scale: ECR-R, self-compassion (Neff׳s Self-Compassion Scale: SCS, depression (the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale: CES-D and anxiety (the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-the Trait Anxiety Scale: STAT-T. Each variable was measured by a Korean version of the instrument. Participants were recruited from three universities in South Korea: 288 were men and 185 were women; 199 were undergraduate and 273 were graduate students. The online program used to collect the data prompted for but did not require responses to items; 26 surveys were not completed, and data from these surveys were not included in the dataset. Major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the article “Insecure attachment and emotional distress: Fear of self-compassion and self-compassion as mediators” (Joeng et al., 2017 . The data, an SPSS file, are included as supplementary material.
Baeza-Velasco, Carolina; Bourdon, Caroline; Montalescot, Lucile; de Cazotte, Cécile; Pailhez, Guillem; Bulbena, Antonio; Hamonet, Claude
Despite the frequent co-ocurrence of hypermobile Ehler-Danlos syndrome (hEDS) and pathological anxiety, little is known about the psychosocial and health implications of such comorbidity. Our aim was to explore the association between high levels of anxiety and psychosocial (catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, somatosensory amplification, social support and functioning), health (pain, fatigue, BMI, tobacco/alcohol use, depression, diagnosis delay, general health), and sociodemographic factors in people with hEDS. In this cross-sectional study, 80 hEDS patients were divided into two groups according to self-reported anxiety levels: low and high. Psychosocial, sociodemographic and health variables were compared between the groups. Forty-one participants reported a high level of anxiety (51.2%). No differences were found in the sociodemographic variables between high-anxious and low-anxious patients. The percentage of participants with severe fatigue and high depressive symptomatology was significantly higher in the high-anxious group (80.5 vs 56.4; 26.8 vs 12.8%, respectively). High-anxious hEDS patients also showed significantly higher levels of pain catastrophizing, somatosensory amplification as well as a poorer social functioning and general health. Multivariate analyses showed that somatosensory amplification, pain catastrophizing and poor social functioning are variables that increase the probability of belonging to the high-anxious group. Despite limitations, this first study comparing high-anxious versus low-anxious hEDS patients with respect to health aspects, highlight the importance of considering the psychosocial factors (many susceptible to modification), to improve the adjustment to this chronic condition and provide support to those affected through a biopsychosocial approach.
Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Nesdale, Drew
Rejection sensitivity (RS) is a tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection. Our objective was to examine whether anxious and angry RS have specific associations with negative social reactions, and whether responses are intensified in situations of high rejection ambiguity. In two studies, youth (N = 464 and N = 371) reported their RS and anticipated responses to social scenarios. In Study 1, all scenarios portrayed overt rejection events. In Study 2, participants were randomly assigned to conditions portraying overt or ambiguous rejection. Greater rejection expectation was associated with more negative reactions to rejection. Moreover, as expected, anxiety about rejection was uniquely associated with withdrawal, and anger about rejection was uniquely associated with retribution (i.e., reactive aggression). In the second study, RS persons responded more negatively than others to both overt and high ambiguous rejections, but retribution was intensified among participants high in rejection expectation when rejection was ambiguous, and withdrawal was intensified among participants high in anxious RS in overt rejection situations. Consistent with the revised RS model, there are different patterns of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors in response to high and low ambiguous rejection events, which are heightened in youth sensitive to rejection. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D
Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Pereira, Ana Isabel; Marques, Teresa; Russo, Vanessa; Barros, Luísa; Barrett, P.
The FRIENDS for Life program is a cognitive-behavioral group program that targets anxiety in children. The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of the Portuguese version of the FRIENDS for Life Program, which was implemented in schools to reduce anxiety problems in a group of highly anxious children. The study used a…
Ramírez, Carmenza Ricardo; Álvarez, Matilde; Prieto, Germán Valencia; Otálvaro, Felipe Tirado
This study describes prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms together with family, environmental and personal risk factors in a group of adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age in a private school of Medellín. An analytic observational cross sectional study was performed in 152 adolescents, evaluating sociodemographic aspects and prevalence of depressive and anxious symptomatology, as established through BDI-II and BAI. Average age was 15.4 ± 0.9 years old, with a 25% prevalence of anxiety symptoms and 25.7% of depressive symptoms. From the 38 (25%) students with BAI positive, 26 (68.4%) were BDI positive, and from the 39 (25.6%) students with BDI positive, 26 (66.7%) were BAI positive. the risk factors for anxiety and depressive symptomatology were: being a woman, being a victim of bullying and abuse. Having friends was the protective factors for depressive symptomatology. There was a statistical association between self-report of depressive and anxiety symptomatology; between the anxiety self-report and the depressive symptomatology; as well as between depressive and anxiety symptomatology and parents' perception of such symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
MARIA ISABEL eNÚÑEZ-PEÑA
Full Text Available We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA and low-math anxious (LMA individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. They also took longer and made more errors than their LMA peers. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources towards emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may invest more attentional resources during the arithmetical
Dong, Yunying; De Beuckelaer, Alain; Yu, Liang; Zhou, Renlai
Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high test-anxious (HTA) and 22 low test-anxious (LTA) subjects. To determine whether attentional bias to test-related pictures is due to test-anxiety and not to state-anxiety, we also included a third group of 22 subjects with high state-anxiety but low test-anxiety (HSA). The subjects completed a free viewing task (FVT) in which high threat-neutral (HT-N) and low threat-neutral (LT-N) picture pairs were presented for 3 s. The results demonstrated that: (1) HTA subjects showed initial orienting to LT pictures, early attentional engagement with HT pictures later on and avoidance of HT pictures at the very end; (2) LTA subjects showed initial orienting to HT pictures and maintenance of attention on them later on; while (3) HSA subjects showed an initial orientation towards LT pictures and maintenance of attention on LT and HT pictures later on. These results suggest that, (high) test-anxiety is also prone to attentional bias towards test-related threat stimuli. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Today, commencing university students come from a diversity of backgrounds and have a broad range of abilities and attitudes. It is well known that attitudes towards mathematics, especially mathematics anxiety, can affect students’ performance to the extent that mathematics is often seen as a barrier to success by many. This paper reports on the design, development and evaluation of an interactive multimedia resource designed to explicitly address students’ beliefs and attitudes towards mathematics by following five characters as they progress through the highs and low of studying a preparatory mathematics course. The resource was built within two theoretical frameworks, one related to effective numeracy teaching (Marr and Helme 1991 and the other related to effective educational technology development (Laurillard 2002. Further, it uses a number of multimedia alternatives (video, audio, animations, diarying, interactive examples and self assessment to encourage students to feel part of a group, to reflect on their feelings and beliefs about mathematics, to expose students to authentic problem solving and generally build confidence through practice and self-assessment. Evaluation of the resource indicated that it encouraged students to value their own mathematical ability and helped to build confidence, while developing mathematical problem solving skills. The evaluation clearly demonstrated that it is possible to address the affective domain through multimedia initiatives and that this can complement the current focus on computer mediated communication as the primary method of addressing affective goals within the online environment.
Su?rez-Pellicioni, Macarena; N??ez-Pe?a, Maria Isabel; Colom?, ?ngels
Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present s...
Meyer, Alexandria; Gawlowska, Magda
A previous study suggests that when participants were punished with a loud noise after committing errors, the error-related negativity (ERN) was enhanced in high trait anxious individuals. The current study sought to extend these findings by examining the ERN in conditions when punishment was related and unrelated to error commission as a function of individual differences in trait anxiety symptoms; further, the current study utilized an electric shock as an aversive unconditioned stimulus. Results confirmed that the ERN was increased when errors were punished among high trait anxious individuals compared to low anxious individuals; this effect was not observed when punishment was unrelated to errors. Findings suggest that the threat-value of errors may underlie the association between certain anxious traits and punishment-related increases in the ERN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jungbluth, Chelsy; Macfarlane, Ian M; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Leroy, Bonnie S
Stress is an inevitable part of daily life. Studies of graduate student stress exist, but none include genetic counseling students. The present mixed-methods study investigated 225 genetic counseling students' stress and anxiety levels using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al. 1983), frequency and intensity of stressors associated with their graduate experience, positive and challenging aspects of their experience, and their stress management advice for prospective students. Principal axis factor analysis yielded five conceptual factors underlying the stressors: Professional Uncertainty, Personal Life Events, Interpersonal Demands, Academic Demands, and Isolating Circumstances. Exploratory model fitting using regression yielded four significant predictors accounting for 19% of the variance in state anxiety: (1) trait anxiety, (2) the Interpersonal Demands factor, (3) the Isolating Circumstances factor, and (4) the interaction between the Professional Uncertainty factor and advanced student status. Content analysis of open-ended responses identified several themes. For instance, most students enjoyed what they were learning, interactions with colleagues, and affirmation of their career choice, while certain academic and professional challenges were particularly stressful (e.g., workload, time constraints, clinical rotations). Additional findings, program implications, and research recommendations are provided.
Maimu Alissa Rehbein
Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.
Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Wessing, Ida; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Steinberg, Christian; Eden, Annuschka Salima; Dobel, Christian; Junghöfer, Markus
Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+) were paired with an aversive noise (US), while further 52 faces (CS−) remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating), behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report), and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography) measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80–117 ms) and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140–160 ms) during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory. PMID:26113814
Núñez-Peña, M Isabel; Tubau, Elisabet; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena
The aim of the study was to investigate how high math-anxious (HMA) individuals react to errors in an arithmetic task. Twenty HMA and 19 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with a multi-digit addition verification task and were given response feedback. Post-error adjustment measures (response time and accuracy) were analyzed in order to study differences between groups when faced with errors in an arithmetical task. Results showed that both HMA and LMA individuals were slower to respond following an error than following a correct answer. However, post-error accuracy effects emerged only for the HMA group, showing that they were also less accurate after having committed an error than after giving the right answer. Importantly, these differences were observed only when individuals needed to repeat the same response given in the previous trial. These results suggest that, for HMA individuals, errors caused reactive inhibition of the erroneous response, facilitating performance if the next problem required the alternative response but hampering it if the response was the same. This stronger reaction to errors could be a factor contributing to the difficulties that HMA individuals experience in learning math and doing math tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nam, Suk Kyung; Choi, Seong In; Lee, Sang Min
This study aimed to examine whether stigma-reducing conditions (i.e., random assignment of participants to hypothetical scenarios with varying levels of stigma) effectively increase intention to seek help for Korean college students with anxious-ambivalent attachment style, depending on previous counseling experience. Three hundred thirty Korean college students participated and were randomly assigned to either a low or a high stigma-reducing manipulative condition group. Each group was provided with three possible strategies to reduce stigma: the location of a counseling center, contact with a mental health patient, and the media portrayal of mental illness. In the high-stigma group, the strategies were described in a way that was highly stigmatizing. In the other group, the 3 strategies were created in a way that was not as stigmatizing. In order to examine the effect of stigma-reducing scenarios through the conditions, participants were also instructed to remember a previous or current stressful situation before responding to the questionnaire. The results of multivariate analysis of variance showed a 3-way interaction effect (i.e., level of stigma based on stigma manipulative condition, level of attachment anxiety, and previous counseling experience) on the intentions score when the "contact" and the "media" strategies were applied. The results indicated that individuals who have a higher level of attachment anxiety and a previous experience of counseling were more sensitive to the stigma-reducing manipulative condition. These results highlight the importance of the "contact" and "media" strategies in reducing stigma of seeking counseling for mental health services. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
McEvoy, Peter M; Graville, Rachel; Hayes, Sarra; Kane, Robert T; Foster, Jonathan K
The first aim of this study was to compare attention manipulation techniques deriving from metacognitive therapy (the Attention Training Technique; ATT) and mindfulness-based approaches (Mindfulness-Based Progressive Muscle Relaxation, MB-PMR) to a thought wandering control (TWC) condition, in terms of their impact on anxiety and four mechanisms: distancing, present-focused attention, uncontrollability and dangerousness, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility (Stroop task). The second aim was to test indirect effects of the techniques on anxiety via the mechanism measures. High trait anxious participants (N = 81, M age = 23.60, SD age = 7.66, 80% female) were randomized to receive ATT, MB-PMR, or the TWC condition. Measures of cognitive and somatic anxiety, distancing, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and cognitive flexibility were administered before or after the attention manipulation task. Compared to the TWC group, ATT and MB-PMR were associated with greater changes on cognitive (but not somatic) anxiety, present-focused attention, metacognitive beliefs, and uncorrected errors for threat-related words on the Stroop task. The pattern of means was similar for distancing, but this did not reach statistical significance, and Stroop speed increased equally for all conditions. Indirect effects models revealed significant effects of condition on state anxiety via distancing, metacognitive beliefs, and present-focused attention, but not via Stroop errors. ATT and MB-PMR were associated with changes on anxiety and the mechanism measures, suggesting that the mechanisms of change may be more similar than different across these techniques. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Edison, Shannon C.; Evans, Mary Ann; McHolm, Angela E.; Cunningham, Charles E.; Nowakowski, Matilda E.; Boyle, Michael; Schmidt, Louis A.
The authors examined parent-child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by…
Mullins, Alexandria J.; Gamwell, Kaitlyn L.; Sharkey, Christina M.; Bakula, Dana M.; Tackett, Alayna P.; Suorsa, Kristina I.; Chaney, John M.; Mullins, Larry L.
Objective: To examine predictors of psychological functioning in college students with chronic illnesses. Participants: Participants (N = 1413) included 364 students with self-reported diagnoses of asthma or allergies, 148 students with other chronic illnesses (eg, epilepsy, type 1 diabetes), and 901 healthy students. Data were collected between…
Cao, Jianqin; Yang, Jinwei; Zhou, Yuqiu; Chu, Fuliu; Zhao, Xiwu; Wang, Weiren; Wang, Yunlong; Peng, Tao
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent mental health problems, but there is little research concerning the effective screening instruments in practice. This study was designed to examine the discriminative validity of Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS) for the screening of SAD through the compared and combined analysis. Firstly, 421 Chinese undergraduates were screened by the IAS and BSPS. Secondly, in the follow-up stage, 248 students were interviewed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used, and the related psychometric characters were checked. The results indicated that the ROC in these two scales demonstrated discrimination is in satisfactory level (range: 0.7-0.8). However, the highest agreement (92.17%) was identified when a cut-off point of 50 measured by the IAS and a cut-off point of 34 by the BSPS were combined, also with higher PPV, SENS, SPEC and OA than that reached when BSPS was used individually, as well as PPV, SPEC and OA in IAS. The findings indicate that the combination of these two scales is valid as the general screening instrument for SAD in maximizing the discriminative validity.
Firdaus S Dhabhar
Full Text Available In spite of widespread anecdotal and scientific evidence much remains to be understood about the long-suspected connection between psychological factors and susceptibility to cancer. The skin is the most common site of cancer, accounting for nearly half of all cancers in the US, with approximately 2-3 million cases of non-melanoma cancers occurring each year worldwide. We hypothesized that a high-anxious, stress-prone behavioral phenotype would result in a higher chronic stress burden, lower protective-immunity, and increased progression of the immuno-responsive skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma. SKH1 mice were phenotyped as high- or low-anxious at baseline, and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet-B light (1 minimal erythemal dose (MED, 3 times/week, 10-weeks. The significant strengths of this cancer model are that it uses a normal, immunocompetent, outbred strain, without surgery/injection of exogenous tumor cells/cell lines, and produces lesions that resemble human tumors. Tumors were counted weekly (primary outcome, and tissues collected during early and late phases of tumor development. Chemokine/cytokine gene-expression was quantified by PCR, tumor-infiltrating helper (Th, cytolytic (CTL, and regulatory (Treg T cells by immunohistochemistry, lymph node T and B cells by flow cytometry, adrenal and plasma corticosterone and tissue vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF by ELISA. High-anxious mice showed a higher tumor burden during all phases of tumor development. They also showed: higher corticosterone levels (indicating greater chronic stress burden, increased CCL22 expression and Treg infiltration (increased tumor-recruited immuno-suppression, lower CTACK/CCL27, IL-12, and IFN-γ gene-expression and lower numbers of tumor infiltrating Th and CTLs (suppressed protective immunity, and higher VEGF concentrations (increased tumor angiogenesis/invasion/metastasis. These results suggest that the deleterious effects of high trait anxiety
Eden, Annuschka S; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian
Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at 4-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit) memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.
Annuschka Salima Eden
Full Text Available Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which neutral pseudowords were paired with aversive or neutral pictures, which should lead to a valence change for the negatively paired pseudowords. After learning, pseudowords were tested with fMRI to investigate differential brain activation of the amygdala evoked by the newly acquired valence. Explicit and implicit memory was assessed directly after training and in three follow-ups at four-day intervals. The behavioral results demonstrate that associative word-learning leads to an explicit (but no implicit memory bias for negatively linked pseudowords, relative to neutral ones, which confirms earlier studies. Bilateral amygdala activation underlines the behavioral effect: Higher trait anxiety is correlated with stronger amygdala activation for negatively linked pseudowords than for neutrally linked ones. Most interestingly, this effect is also present for negatively paired pseudowords that participants could not remember well. Moreover, neutrally paired pseudowords evoked higher amygdala reactivity than completely novel ones in highly anxious persons, which can be taken as evidence for generalization. These findings demonstrate that few word-learning trials generate a memory bias for emotional stimuli, indexed both behaviorally and neurophysiologically. Importantly, the typical memory bias for emotional stimuli and the generalization to neutral ones is larger in high anxious persons.
O'Sullivan, Ciaran Anthony Mary
A college education is, for many in America, part and parcel of the American Dream, and is certainly achievable. For countless reasons, students may enroll at community colleges underprepared, unprepared, anxious, and destined for a high risk of failure. Although community colleges are higher education institutions open and accessible to all who…
de Winter, Remco F. P.; Zwinderman, Koos H.; Goekoop, Jaap G.
Anxious-retarded depression is a two-dimensionally defined subcategory of depression based on high scores for both anxiety and retardation. The anxious-retarded subcategory is related to melancholia as defined by DSM-IV. Patients with this diagnosis exhibit elevated plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP)
Dong, Y.; Beuckelaer, A. de; Yu, L.; Zhou, R
Protocols for measuring attentional bias to threat in test-anxiety, a special form of trait-anxiety, are rarely found in the literature. In our eye-tracking study, we introduced a new protocol, and studied the time-course of attention to test-related pictures with varying threat levels in 22 high
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to assess the level of awareness of smoking and non smoking students on harmful impact of nicotine and cigarette smoke on human body. Material and methods: The study was carried out in March 2011 in high schools in Szczecin. Own elaborated questionnaire was used. 288 students from high school, technical college and vocational school were tested. Results: The majority of responders (95,1% claimed that cigarette smoke is harmful both for passive and active smokers. They most often pinpoint the direct cause connected with smoking to pulmonary diseases (264 persons and cancers (240 persons. Almost 90% of students found negative impact of tobacco products on development of fetus of pregnant women. Overwhelming majority of respondents (83,2% feels anxious if it comes to stay in a room filled with smoke. Conclusions: The awareness of high school students on negative influence of smoking on human body is quite satisfactory, but there is still a need for more education in the range of diseases and symptoms connected with smoking.
Papakostas, George I; Stahl, Stephen M; Krishen, Alok; Seifert, Cheryl A; Tucker, Vivian L; Goodale, Elizabeth P; Fava, Maurizio
The goal of this work was to compare the efficacy of the norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder with high levels of anxiety (anxious depression). Ten double-blind, randomized studies from 1991 through 2006 were combined (N = 2122). Anxious depression was defined as a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17) anxiety-somatization factor score >or= 7. Among patients with anxious depression (N = 1275), response rates were greater following SSRI than bupropion treatment according to the HAM-D-17 (65.4% vs. 59.4%, p = .03) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (61.5% vs. 54.5%, p = .03). There was also a greater reduction in HAM-D-17 mean +/- SD scores (-14.1 +/- 7.6 vs. -13.2 +/- 7.9, p = .03) and a trend toward statistical significance for a greater reduction in HAM-A mean +/- SD scores (-10.5 +/- 7.4 vs. -9.6 +/- 7.6, p = .05) in favor of SSRI treatment among patients with anxious depression. There was no statistically significant difference in efficacy between bupropion and the SSRIs among patients with moderate/low levels of anxiety. There appears to be a modest advantage for the SSRIs compared to bupropion in the treatment of anxious depression (6% difference in response rates). Using the number-needed-to-treat (NNT) statistic as 1 indicator of clinical significance, nearly 17 patients would need to be treated with an SSRI than with bupropion in order to obtain 1 additional responder. This difference falls well above the limit of NNT = 10, which was suggested by the United Kingdom's National Institute of Clinical Excellence. Nevertheless, the present work is of theoretical interest because it provides preliminary evidence suggesting a central role for serotonin in the regulation of symptoms of negative affect such as anxiety.
Driscoll, Richard; Holt, Bruce; Hunter, Lori
The study evaluates the test-gain benefits of an accelerated desensitization and adaptive attitudes intervention for test-anxious students. College students were screened for high test anxiety. Twenty anxious students, half of them on academic probation, were assigned to an Intervention or to a minimal treatment Control group. The Intervention was…
Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan
Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826
Tobias, Sheila; Donady, Bonnie
Describes the rationale and mode of operations for a Math Clinic at Wellesley University and Wesleyan College where counselors and math specialists work together to combat "math anxiety," particularly in female students. (HMV)
Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.
With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…
Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Westenberg, P Michiel
Previous studies using adult observers are inconsistent with regard to social skills deficits in nonclinical socially anxious youth. The present study investigated whether same age peers perceive a lack of social skills in the socially anxious. Twenty high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) were recorded giving a 5-min speech. Unfamiliar peer observers (12-17 years old) viewed the speech samples and rated four social skills: speech content, facial expressions, posture and body movement, and way of speaking. Peer observers perceived high socially anxious adolescents as significantly poorer than low socially anxious adolescents on all four social skills. Moreover, for all skills except facial expressions, group differences could not be attributed to adolescents' self-reported level of depression. We suggest that therapists take the perceptions of same age peers into account when assessing the social skills of socially anxious youth.
Sonya Violet Troller-Renfree
Full Text Available Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, highly socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.
Ionescu, Dawn F; Niciu, Mark J; Mathews, Daniel C; Richards, Erica M; Zarate, Carlos A
Anxious depression is a common, distinct clinical subtype of major depressive disorder (MDD). This review summarizes current neurobiological knowledge regarding anxious depression. Peer-reviewed articles, published January 1970 through September 2012, were identified via PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, using the following key words: anxious depression electroencephalography (EEG), anxious depression functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), anxious depression genetics, anxious depression neurobiology, and anxious melancholia neurobiology. Despite a general dearth of neurobiological research, the results suggest that anxious depression-when defined either syndromally or dimensionally-has distinct neurobiological findings that separate it from nonanxious depression. Structural neuroimaging, EEG, genetics, and neuropsychiatric studies revealed differences in subjects with anxious depression compared to other groups. Endocrine differences between individuals with anxious depression and those with nonanxious depression have also been noted, as evidenced by abnormal responses elicited by exogenous stimulation of the system. Despite these findings, heterogeneity in the definition of anxious depression complicates the results. Because exploring the neurobiology of this depressive subtype is important for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, enrichment strategies to decrease heterogeneity within the field should be employed for future research. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Young, Jamaal Rashad; Young, Jemimah Lea
Mathematics anxiety is recognized as a significant performance impediment that affects students across multiple ethnic and economic backgrounds. However, research has yet to fully examine the possible differential effect of mathematics anxiety on underrepresented K-12 students. Specifically, given the long-standing achievement gap between African…
Kepley, Hayden O; Ostrander, Rick
To investigate the family environments of children in a community sample with ADHD and co-occurring anxiety. Family Environment Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Structured Clinical Interview are administered to parents of children with ADHD with and without anxiety. ADHD families are uniformly less cohesive and expressive and possess more conflict than families representing the community sample. In contrast to community or nonanxious ADHD families, anxious ADHD families do not encourage independence and tend to be distinctly less assertive, self-sufficient, and autonomous. Although anxious and nonanxious ADHD children tend to have a uniformly high incidence of maternal ADHD, mothers of anxious ADHD children tend to display a much higher incidence of substance/alcohol abuse than either nonanxious or community participants. Findings are consistent with the notion that an insular, dependent, and somewhat controlling family environment characterizes families of children with ADHD and comorbid childhood anxiety.
Burdwood, Erin N; Infantolino, Zachary P; Crocker, Laura D; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Banich, Marie T; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy
Brain regions in the default mode network (DMN) display greater functional connectivity at rest or during self-referential processing than during goal-directed tasks. The present study assessed resting-state connectivity as a function of anxious apprehension and anxious arousal, independent of depressive symptoms, in order to understand how these dimensions disrupt cognition. Whole-brain, seed-based analyses indicated differences between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal in DMN functional connectivity. Lower connectivity associated with higher anxious apprehension suggests decreased adaptive, inner-focused thought processes, whereas higher connectivity at higher levels of anxious arousal may reflect elevated monitoring of physiological responses to threat. These findings further the conceptualization of anxious apprehension and anxious arousal as distinct psychological dimensions with distinct neural instantiations. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Papakostas, George I; Clain, Alisabet; Ameral, Victoria E; Baer, Lee; Brintz, Carrie; Smith, Ward T; Londborg, Peter D; Glaudin, Vincent; Painter, John R; Fava, Maurizio
Anxious depression, defined as major depressive disorder (MDD) accompanied by high levels of anxiety, seems to be both common and difficult to treat, with antidepressant monotherapy often yielding modest results. We sought to examine the relative benefits of antidepressant-anxiolytic cotherapy versus antidepressant monotherapy for patients with anxious depression versus without anxious depression. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of an existing dataset (N=80), from a 3-week, randomized, double-blind trial which demonstrated cotherapy with fluoxetine and clonazepam to result in superior efficacy than fluoxetine monotherapy in MDD. The present analysis involved examining whether anxious depression status served as a predictor and moderator of symptom improvement. Anxious depression status was not found to predict symptom improvement, or serve as a moderator of clinical improvement to cotherapy versus monotherapy. However, the advantage in remission rates in favor of cotherapy versus monotherapy was, numerically, much larger for patients with anxious depression (32.2%) than it was for patients without anxious MDD (9.7%). The respective number needed to treat statistic for these two differences in response rates were, approximately, one in three for patients with anxious depression versus one in 10 for patients without anxious depression. The efficacy of fluoxetine-clonazepam cotherapy compared with fluoxetine monotherapy was numerically but not statistically enhanced for patients with anxious depression than those without anxious depression.
Zheng, Mengyi; McClay, Carrie-Anne; Wilson, Sarah; Williams, Christopher
Low mood is a common mental health problem affecting up to 121 million people worldwide and is common in students, particularly international students. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is known to be effective as a treatment for low mood and anxiety when delivered one to one by an expert practitioner, however this can be expensive and many services have waiting lists and delayed access. A range of additional ways of increasing access to services includes the offer of online courses such as computerised CBT as a possible additional pathway for care. This project aims to test the feasibility of a pilot randomised controlled trial of an online CBT-based life skills course with Chinese-speaking international students experiencing low mood and anxiety. Chinese-speaking international students with symptoms of low mood and/or anxiety will be recruited from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. Participants will be remotely randomised to receive either immediate access (IA) or delayed access (DA) to a guided/supported online CBT-based life skills package, the "Living Life" package (Chinese version). Participants will be randomly assigned to IA or DA to the intervention. The primary end point will be at 3 months when the delayed group will be offered the intervention. Levels of depression, anxiety, social functioning and satisfaction will be assessed. This pilot study will test the trial design, ability to recruit, gather completed questionnaires, test drop-out rates and investigate completion and acceptability of the package. The study aims to reduce uncertainties about the delivery of a future substantive study and will also inform a sample size calculation for that subsequent substantive randomised controlled trial (RCT) which will be carried out to determine the effectiveness of the online package in improving low mood and anxiety in the Chinese-speaking student population. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN30816908.
Scott, Brandon G; Pina, Armando A; Parker, Julia H
Guided by social information processing and affective social competence models, the focal objective of this research was to examine the relations among anxious children's cognitive distortions, social skill competence, and reluctance to express emotion. In addition, we explored whether children's attention control played any meaningful role. Using a sample of 111 anxious children (M age = 9.63, SD = 0.73; 75.7% girls; 56% Hispanic/Latino), we found that cognitive distortions were negatively related to social competence. In addition, tests of moderated mediation showed that the negative association between cognitive distortions and social skill competence was indirect via reluctance to express emotion, but this only was the case for anxious children with high attention control and for distortions in the academic domain. The findings of this study may set the stage for new ways to conceptualize the role of higher attention control among anxious youth. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Cognitive errors are prevalent in anxious youth Anxious children show socio-emotion deficits What does this study add? Cognitive errors are related to socio-emotion deficits in anxious youth Relations depend on attention control. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Barbaro, Nicole; Parkhill, Michele R; Nguyen, David
Attachment theory has increasingly been utilized to understand the etiology of sexual violence, and anxious attachment appears to be especially informative in this domain. We investigate the influence of general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment on hostile masculine attitudes to predict male-perpetrated sexual assault. We hypothesize that hostile masculinity will mediate the relationship between general anxious attachment style and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 1) and the relationship between specific anxious attachment to the assaulted woman and sexual assault perpetration (Hypothesis 2). Men ( N = 193) completed the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) to determine sexual assault history and completed measures of general attachment style, specific attachment to the woman involved in the sexual activity, and measures of hostile masculine attitudes. Results support the hypothesized mediation models, such that general anxious attachment and specific anxious attachment are significantly associated with hostile masculinity, which in turn, predicts the likelihood of male-perpetrated sexual assault. The findings suggest that the unique characteristics of anxious attachment may escalate into hostile masculinity, which then increases the likelihood of sexual assault perpetration. This research is the first to investigate attachment bonds to the woman involved in the sexual activity and likelihood of sexual assault perpetration against the same woman.
Nursel TÜRKMEN, Delia; Halis DOKGÖZ, Mihai; Semra AKGÖZ, Suzana; Bülent EREN, Bogdan Nicolae; Pınar VURAL, Horatiu; Oğuz POLAT, Horatiu
ABSTRACT Objective: The main aim of this research is to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour, its victims and the types of bullying and places of bullying among 14-17 year-old adolescents in a sample of school children in Bursa, Turkey. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was conducted among class 1 and class 2 high school students for identification bullying. Results: Majority (96.7%) of the students were involved in bullying behaviours as aggressors or victims. For a male student, the likelihood of being involved in violent behaviours was detected to be nearly 8.4 times higher when compared with a female student. Conclusion: a multidisciplinary approach involving affected children, their parents, school personnel, media, non-govermental organizations, and security units is required to achieve an effective approach for the prevention of violence targeting children in schools as victims and/or perpetrators. PMID:24371478
Russo, Riccardo; Whittuck, Dora; Roberson, Debi; Dutton, Kevin; Georgiou, George; Fox, Elaine
The status of mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals was evaluated following incidental encoding of target words. Individuals with high and low levels of trait anxiety completed a modified Stroop task, which revealed an attentional bias for threat-related stimuli in anxious individuals. This group was significantly slower in naming the colour in which threat-related words were displayed compared to neutral words. In a subsequent free recall test for the words used in the modif...
Nauta, M.H.; Festen, H.; Reichart, C.G.; Nolen, W.A.; Stant, A.D.; Bockting, C.L.H.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Hartman, C.A.; de Jong, P.J.; de Vries, S.O.
Background: Anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent and pose a huge burden on patients. Their offspring is at increased risk of developing these disorders as well, indicating a clear need for prevention of psychopathology in this group. Given high comorbidity and non-specificity of
Todd, Andrew R; Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal; Brooks, Alison Wood; Galinsky, Adam D
People frequently feel anxious. Although prior research has extensively studied how feeling anxious shapes intrapsychic aspects of cognition, much less is known about how anxiety affects interpersonal aspects of cognition. Here, we examine the influence of incidental experiences of anxiety on perceptual and conceptual forms of perspective taking. Compared with participants experiencing other negative, high-arousal emotions (i.e., anger or disgust) or neutral feelings, anxious participants displayed greater egocentrism in their mental-state reasoning: They were more likely to describe an object using their own spatial perspective, had more difficulty resisting egocentric interference when identifying an object from others' spatial perspectives, and relied more heavily on privileged knowledge when inferring others' beliefs. Using both experimental-causal-chain and measurement-of-mediation approaches, we found that these effects were explained, in part, by uncertainty appraisal tendencies. Further supporting the role of uncertainty, a positive emotion associated with uncertainty (i.e., surprise) produced increases in egocentrism that were similar to anxiety. Collectively, the results suggest that incidentally experiencing emotions associated with uncertainty increase reliance on one's own egocentric perspective when reasoning about the mental states of others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
van Steensel, F.J.A.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.
The study’s aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs
Steensel, Francisca J.; Dirksen, Carmen D.; Bögels, Susan M.
The study's aim was to estimate the societal costs of children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder(s) (ASD + AD-group; n = 73), and to compare these costs to children with anxiety disorders (AD-group; n = 34), and typically developing children (controls; n = 87). Mean total costs for the ASD + AD-group amounted €17,380 per…
Annuschka Salima Eden; Annuschka Salima Eden; Vera eDehmelt; Vera eDehmelt; Matthias eBischoff; Pienie eZwitserlood; Harald eKugel; Kati eKeuper; Peter eZwanzger; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel; Christian eDobel
Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...
Eden, Annuschka S.; Dehmelt, Vera; Bischoff, Matthias; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Kugel, Harald; Keuper, Kati; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian
Persons suffering from anxiety disorders display facilitated processing of arousing and negative stimuli, such as negative words. This memory bias is reflected in better recall and increased amygdala activity in response to such stimuli. However, individual learning histories were not considered in most studies, a concern that we meet here. Thirty-four female persons (half with high-, half with low trait anxiety) participated in a criterion-based associative word-learning paradigm, in which n...
Nauta Maaike H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety and mood disorders are highly prevalent and pose a huge burden on patients. Their offspring is at increased risk of developing these disorders as well, indicating a clear need for prevention of psychopathology in this group. Given high comorbidity and non-specificity of intergenerational transmission of disorders, prevention programs should target both anxiety and depression. Further, while the indication for preventive interventions is often elevated symptoms, offspring with other high risk profiles may also benefit from resilience-based prevention programs. Method/design The current STERK-study (Screening and Training: Enhancing Resilience in Kids is a randomized controlled clinical trial combining selected and indicated prevention: it is targeted at both high risk individuals without symptoms and at those with subsyndromal symptoms. Individuals without symptoms meet two of three criteria of the High Risk Index (HRI; female gender, both parents affected, history of a parental suicide (attempt. This index was developed in an earlier study and corresponds with elevated risk in offspring of depressed patients. Children aged 8–17 years (n = 204 with subthreshold symptoms or meeting the criteria on the HRI are randomised to one of two treatment conditions, namely (a 10 weekly individual child CBT sessions and 2 parent sessions or (b minimal information. Assessments are held at pre-test, post-test and at 12 and 24 months follow-up. Primary outcome is the time to onset of a mood or anxiety disorder in the offspring. Secondary outcome measures include number of days with depression or anxiety, child and parent symptom levels, quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Based on models of aetiology of mood and anxiety disorders as well as mechanisms of change during interventions, we selected potential mediators and moderators of treatment outcome, namely coping, parent–child interaction, self-associations, optimism
Raknes, Solfrid; Pallesen, Ståle; Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Wergeland, Gro Janne; Hoffart, Asle; Dyregrov, Kari; Håland, Åshild Tellefsen; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt
Purpose To examine the prevalence and correlates of anxiety in a community sample of adolescents. Knowing the prevalence and characteristics of anxious adolescents is valuable to improve anxiety prevention strategies and interventions. Design Cross-sectional data about anxiety were collected via a school survey from a community sample of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-17 ( N = 1719). Methods Based on scores from the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, the adolescents were categorized as not anxious or anxious. Logistic regression analysis was performed to access the impact of each factor on the likelihood that participants would report an elevated level of anxiety. Results A total of 22% of the adolescents were categorized as anxious. Female gender, experienced negative life events, low social support, and low self-efficacy were associated with elevated level of anxiety. Conclusions The high prevalence of anxiety in adolescents demonstrates the importance of improved prevention interventions targeting anxious adolescents. We argue that addressing is the responsibility of not only the individual adolescents and their families but also schools, school health services, and policy makers. School-based interventions that increase social support and self-efficacy would probably be particularly beneficial for anxious adolescents.
Russo, Riccardo; Whittuck, Dora; Roberson, Debi; Dutton, Kevin; Georgiou, George; Fox, Elaine
The status of mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals was evaluated following incidental encoding of target words. Individuals with high and low levels of trait anxiety completed a modified Stroop task, which revealed an attentional bias for threat-related stimuli in anxious individuals. This group was significantly slower in naming the colour in which threat-related words were displayed compared to neutral words. In a subsequent free recall test for the words used in the modified Stroop task, anxious individuals recalled more threat-related words compared to low-anxious people. This difference was significant even when controlling for the false recall of items that had not been presented during study. These results support the view put forward by Russo, Fox, Bellinger, and Nguyen-Van-Tam (2001) that mood-congruent free recall bias in anxious individuals can be observed if the target material is encoded at a relatively shallow level. Moreover, contrary to Dowens and Calvo (2003), the current results show that the memory advantage for threat-related information in anxious individuals is not a consequence of response bias.
Honig, Alice Sterling; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth
This article explains the causes of children's fears and anxieties in the following age brackets: (1) 0-2 years old; (2) 3-4 years old; and (3) 5-6 years old. It presents situations wherein children develop fears and anxious feelings. It also discusses how to deal and manage these fears and anxieties and enumerates what can be done to make…
Strassberg, Donald S; Cann, Deanna; Velarde, Valerie
In the last 8 years, several studies have documented that many adolescents acknowledge having exchanged sexually explicit cell phone pictures of themselves, a behavior termed sexting. Differences across studies in how sexting was defined, recruitment strategies, and cohort have resulted in sometimes significant differences in as basic a metric as what percentage of adolescents have sent, received, or forwarded such sexts. The psychosocial and even legal risks associated with sexting by minors are significantly serious that accurate estimates of its prevalence, including over time, are important to ascertain. In the present study, students (N = 656) from a single private high school were surveyed regarding their participation in sexting. Students at this same school were similarly surveyed four years earlier. In this second survey, reported rates of sending (males 15.8%; females 13.6%) and receiving (males 40.5%; females 30.6%) sexually explicit cell phone pictures (revealing genitals or buttocks of either sex or female breasts) were generally similar to those reported at the same school 4 years earlier. Rates of forwarding sexts (males 12.2%; females 7.6%) were much lower than those previously acknowledged at this school. Correlates of sexting in this study were similar to those reported previously. Overall, our findings suggest that sexting by adolescents (with the exception of forwarding) remains a fairly common behavior, despite its risks.
Moriya, Jun; Sugiura, Yoshinori
Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attention to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attention to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli), low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.
Full Text Available Socially anxious individuals are interfered by distractors. Recent work has suggested that low working memory capacity and inappropriate temporary goal induce attentional capture to distractors. We investigated the effects of working memory capacity and temporary goal on attentional capture to distractors in social anxiety. Participants viewed a rapid serial visual presentation, in which participants reported the identity of a single target letter drawn in red. Distractors appeared before the target was presented. When the color of distractors was red (i.e., goal-relevant stimuli, low-capacity individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors compared to high-capacity individuals regardless of social anxiety. When the color of distractors was goal-irrelevant, low-capacity and high socially anxious individuals were strongly interfered by the distractors. These results suggest that socially anxious individuals with low working memory capacity could not inhibit the goal-irrelevant information and direct attention to distractors.
Rozenman, Michelle; Vreeland, Allison; Piacentini, John
Cognitive bias and physiological arousal are two putative markers that may underlie youth anxiety. However, data on relationships between cognitive bias and arousal are limited, and typically do not include behavioral measurement of these constructs in order to tap real-time processes. We aimed to examine the relationship between performance-based cognitive bias and sympathetic arousal during stress in clinically anxious and typically-developing youth. The sample included children and adolescents ages 9 to 17 (Mean age=13.18, SD=2.60) who either met diagnostic criteria for primary generalized anxiety, social phobia, or separation anxiety (N=24) or healthy controls who had no history of psychopathology (N=22). Youth completed performance-based measures of attention and interpretation bias. Electrodermal activity was assessed while youth participated in the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C; Buske-Kirschbaum, Jobst, & Wustmans, 1997). A mixed models analysis indicated significant linear and non-linear changes in skin conductance, with similar slopes for both groups. Interpretation bias, but not attention bias, moderated the relationship between group status and sympathetic arousal during the TSST-C. Arousal trajectories did not differ for anxious and healthy control youth who exhibited high levels of threat interpretation bias. However, for youth who exhibited moderate and low levels of interpretation bias, the anxious group demonstrated greater arousal slopes than healthy control youth. Results provide initial evidence that the relationship between anxiety status and physiological arousal during stress may be moderated by level of interpretation bias for threat. These findings may implicate interpretation bias as a marker of sympathetic reactivity in youth. Implications for future research and limitations are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Tillfors, Maria; Andersson, Gerhard; Ekselius, Lisa; Furmark, Tomas; Lewenhaupt, Susanne; Karlsson, Anders; Carlbring, Per
Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown effective for university students with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and public speaking fears. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the promising results can be transferred to high school students suffering from this condition. A total of 19 speech-anxious high school students with SAD were randomized either into 9 weeks of Internet-delivered CBT or to a wait-list control group. Significant improvements were found on measures of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Effects were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The average within- and between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the primary social anxiety scales at posttest were 0.98 and 1.38, respectively. However, the average number of completed modules in the CBT program was low. Although compliance can be improved, the results suggest that Internet-based guided self-help is effective in the treatment of high school students with SAD.
Larger distance effects in high math-anxious individuals (HMA) performing comparison tasks have previously been interpreted as indicating less precise magnitude representation in this population. A recent study by Dietrich, Huber, Moeller, and Klein limited the effects of math anxiety to symbolic comparison, in which they found larger distance effects for HMA, despite equivalent size effects. However, the question of whether distance effects in symbolic comparison reflect the properties of the magnitude representation or decisional processes is currently under debate. This study was designed to further explore the relation between math anxiety and magnitude representation through three different tasks. HMA and low math-anxious individuals (LMA) performed a non-symbolic comparison, in which no group differences were found. Furthermore, we did not replicate previous findings in an Arabic digit comparison, in which HMA individuals showed equivalent distance effects to their LMA peers. Lastly, there were no group differences in a counting Stroop task. Altogether, an explanation of math anxiety differences in terms of less precise magnitude representation is not supported.
Gilmour, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others
The college selection process used by high school students was studied and a paradigm that describes the process was developed, based on marketing theory concerning consumer behavior. Primarily college freshmen and high school seniors were interviewed, and a few high school juniors and upper-level college students were surveyed to determine…
Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Shiner, Rebecca L
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 they reported on lower order child personality facets and on their parenting. By means of growth mixture modeling, three developmental trajectories were identified for anxious symptoms: steady low (82%), moderate increasing-decreasing (5.9%), and high declining groups (12.1%). For depressive symptoms, two developmental trajectories were found: steady low (94.1%) and moderate increasing groups (5.9%). Higher shyness, irritability, and altruism predicted membership in more problematic anxious and depressive groups. The personality facets energy, optimism, compliance, and anxiety were unique predictors for class membership for anxious symptoms, and the effects of shyness, irritability, and compliance were moderated by overreactive parenting. Shyness and irritability increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing anxiety trajectory, but only in the context of high or average levels of overreactive parenting. Compliance increased the probability of following the moderate increasing-decreasing and high decreasing trajectories in the context of high overreactive parenting. Our results indicate that childhood personality facets differentiate trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms in theoretically compelling ways.
Bender, Patrick Karl; Pons, Francisco; Harris, Paul L.
Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim of the pr....... Finally, there were interrelations among emotion understanding, attachment security, and emotion dysregulation. The present results provide the first comprehensive evidence for a socio-emotional framework and its relevance to childhood anxiety.......Children’s understanding of the nature, origins and consequences of emotions has been intensively investigated over the last 30-40 years. However, few empirical studies have looked at the relation between emotion understanding and anxiety in children and their results are mixed. The aim...... of the present study was to perform a preliminary investigation of the relationships between emotion understanding, anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and attachment security in clinically anxious children. A sample of 16 clinically anxious children (age 8-12, 8 girls/boys) was assessed for emotion understanding...
Brezo, Jelena; Barker, Edward D; Paris, Joel; Hébert, Martine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Turecki, Gustavo
To investigate the association of childhood trajectories of anxiousness and disruptiveness with suicide attempts in early adulthood. Prospective cohort study. Public francophone schools in Quebec, Canada, from the 1986 to 1988 school years. Of 4,488 French Canadian children attending kindergarten, a representative group of 1,001 boys and 999 girls was chosen for follow-up. Of these, 1,144 individuals participated in the study during early adulthood. Suicide attempt histories by early adulthood, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) associated with membership in high- vs low-risk trajectories of anxiousness and disruptiveness, moderation (by sex), and mediation (by adolescent Axis I disorders). We observed 4 distinct developmental profiles of anxiousness and disruptiveness and a frequent co-occurrence of similar levels of these traits. In contrast to anxiousness trajectories (OR = 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.65), disruptiveness (OR = 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.13) and joint (OR = 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-3.37) trajectories made statistically significant contributions to suicide attempts. We found no support for mediation by adolescent anxiety/mood or disruptive disorders. Sex, however, moderated the effect of joint trajectories, increasing the risk of suicide attempts in women (OR = 3.60; Wald chi(2) = 10.93; P anxious and disruptive traits as children. Anxious-disruptive girls and disruptive boys appear to be more likely than their peers to attempt suicide by early adulthood. Preventive efforts will require more research into the possible mechanisms behind this early sex difference, ie, gene-environment interplays and nonpsychiatric mediators.
Gorlin, Eugenia I; Teachman, Bethany A
The current study brings together two typically distinct lines of research. First, social anxiety is inconsistently associated with behavioral deficits in social performance, and the factors accounting for these deficits remain poorly understood. Second, research on selective processing of threat cues, termed cognitive biases, suggests these biases typically predict negative outcomes, but may sometimes be adaptive, depending on the context. Integrating these research areas, the current study examined whether conscious and/or unconscious threat interference biases (indexed by the unmasked and masked emotional Stroop) can explain unique variance, beyond self-reported anxiety measures, in behavioral avoidance and observer-rated anxious behavior during a public speaking task. Minute of speech and general inhibitory control (indexed by the color-word Stroop) were examined as within-subject and between-subject moderators, respectively. Highly socially anxious participants (N=135) completed the emotional and color-word Stroop blocks prior to completing a 4-minute videotaped speech task, which was later coded for anxious behaviors (e.g., speech dysfluency). Mixed-effects regression analyses revealed that general inhibitory control moderated the relationship between both conscious and unconscious threat interference bias and anxious behavior (though not avoidance), such that lower threat interference predicted higher levels of anxious behavior, but only among those with relatively weaker (versus stronger) inhibitory control. Minute of speech further moderated this relationship for unconscious (but not conscious) social-threat interference, such that lower social-threat interference predicted a steeper increase in anxious behaviors over the course of the speech (but only among those with weaker inhibitory control). Thus, both trait and state differences in inhibitory control resources may influence the behavioral impact of threat biases in social anxiety. Copyright © 2015
Wanner, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G
Suicidal behavior is frequently associated with a history of childhood abuse yet it remains unclear precisely how early life adversity may increase suicide risk later in life. As such, our aim was to examine whether lifetime trajectories of disruptiveness and anxiousness trait dysregulation explain the association between childhood adversity and suicidal behavior; and moreover, to test the potential modifying effects of mental disorders on these associations. A sample of 1776 individuals from a prospective school-based cohort followed longitudinally for over 22 years was investigated. We tested the influence of disruptiveness and anxiousness trajectories from age 6 to 12 years on the association between childhood adversity (i.e. sexual and physical abuse) and history of suicide attempts (SA) using logistic regression models. Both adolescent externalizing and internalizing Axis I disorders and gender were tested as potential modifiers of these associations. Four distinct longitudinal trajectories were identified for both disruptiveness and anxiousness. The high disruptiveness trajectory accounted for the association between childhood adversity and SA, but only for females. The high anxiousness trajectory also explained the association between adversity and SA; however, in this case it was not sex but mental disorders that influenced the potency of the mediating effect. More specifically, anxiousness fully explained the effect of adversity on SA in the presence of externalizing disorders, whereas in the absence of these disorders, this effect was significantly attenuated. This study provides evidence that both disruptiveness and anxiousness play an important role in explaining the relationship between childhood adversity and SA.
Yapici, Ibrahim Umit; Akbayin, Hasan
In this study, it is aimed to determine the high school students' views on blended learning. The study was carried out in biology course for the lesson unit of "Classification of Living Things and Biodiversity" with 47 9[superscript th] grade students attending Nevzat Ayaz Anatolian High School in the second term of the academic year of…
Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.
This research used "The Comprehensive Career Needs Survey" to assess the career counselling needs of 3,562 junior high students in Southern Alberta. This article examines junior high students' responses regarding their perceptions of (a) the relevance of career planning, (b) who they would approach for help with career planning, and (c)…
Edwards, Linsey; Hughes, Katherine
Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses and potentially earn college credit. The term concurrent enrollment is sometimes used interchangeably with dual enrollment, and sometimes to refer to a particular model of dual enrollment. In some programs, students earn high school and college credit simultaneously;…
Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard
The Danish government has an ambition to recruit more high school students into STEM edu-cations (science, technology, engineering and/or mathematics). The students’ choice of further education is based on the people and jobs they have knowledge of. Therefore, to recruit more students into STEM....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it...
van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Dirksen, Carmen D.
Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid anxiety disorders (referred to as the ASD…
van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; Dirksen, C.D.
Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, studies comparing children with ASD to clinically anxious children are rare. This study investigated anxiety problems and health-related quality of life in children with high-functioning ASD and comorbid
Rosbrook, Ainslie; Whittingham, Koa
The high prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression within the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) population is widely recognised. This study examined the role of three potential mediating variables in the relationship between autistic traits and depressive/anxious symptomatology in the general population. Participants included 231 university…
Silvia Casale, Silvia Casale; Giulia Fioravanti, Giulia Fioravanti
Introduction: Following the theoretical frameworks of the dual-factor model of Facebook use and the Self Determination Theory, the present study hypothesizes that the satisfaction of unmet needs through Social Networking Sites (SNSs) may represent a pathway towards problematic use of Internet communicative services (GPIU) for socially anxious people. Methods: Four hundred undergraduate students (females = 51.8%; mean age = 22.45 + 2.09) completed three brief scales measuring the satisfacti...
Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Campbell, Kelly; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Burgess, Kim B.
Previous research suggests that anxiously withdrawn preadolescents demonstrate success in forming friendships, yet these friendships tend to be of lesser quality. Drawing on Selman's (1980) theory of interpersonal understanding, we compared levels of friendship understanding between anxiously withdrawn preadolescents and a sample of non-withdrawn…
Richards, C. Steven; Cohen, Lee M.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Watson, Noreen L.; Low, Blakely E.
Objective: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. In addition, smoking rates among depressed and anxious smokers are higher than in the population at large. Furthermore, treating depressed and anxious smokers effectively is particularly challenging because of their significant negative affect,…
Martin, Leisa A.
In the United States, the main mission of social studies education is to prepare students for citizenship. With this in mind, the following study examined 191 high school students’ views on how they demonstrated citizenship. Traditionally with this age group, personally responsible citizenship has been a common form of self-reported citizenship engagement. However, in this study, the students seemed to conceptualize citizenship differently. With the Akwesasne Mohawk students, the European Ame...
Defries, Z; Grothe, L
The authors studied 21 schizophrenic and borderline college students who achieved B+ or higher grade averages and underwent psychotherapy while in college. High academic achievement was found to provide relief from feelings of worthlessness and ineffectuality resulting from poor relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Psychotherapy and the permissive yet supportive college atmosphere reinforced the students' self-esteem.
Lucas, Keith B.; Tulip, David F.
This investigation was undertaken in order to establish the status of scientific literacy among three groups of secondary school students in four Brisbane, Australia high schools, and to reduce the apparent reticence of science teachers to evaluate students' achievement in the various dimensions of scientific literacy by demonstrating appropriate…
Kameoka, Velma; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
The S-R Inventory of Anxiousness was developed as an experimental design to demonstrate the relative contributions of persons, situations, modes of response, and their interactions to individual differences in anxiety. College students in three studies were asked to rate a total of 154 items, involving 14 modes of response (physiological or overt…
Baker-Smith, E. Christine
Evidence is clear that discipline in high school is associated with negative outcomes across the life course. Not only are suspensions related to declining academic trajectories during high school in the form of attendance and academic achievement, students suspended once are also more likely to be suspended again and also substantially increase…
Poulsen, Eva Lykkegaard
’ potential identities. It shows that the students preferred STEM representatives resembled themselves in some aspects (primarily social and health aspects) and fit their perceptions of a typical person working in STEM in other aspects (knowledge seeking, hard-working etc.). At least two different...... studies, it is important to introduce high school students to good STEM representatives to make possible the development of potential STEM identities. A potential identity within a specific subject area relies on at least a situation bound relation-ship to the subject area or the person representing it....... Some representatives transmit infor-mation and are thereby definers, whereas other representatives illustrates as personal examples and are thereby models. This study focuses on high school students’ views on STEM representatives and the impact these representatives have on the high school students...
Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C
Research has revealed significant heterogeneity in the group-level peer outcomes associated with anxious-withdrawal, but little is known about possible sources of this heterogeneity during early adolescence. This study of 271 young adolescents (49 % female; M age = 11.54 years) examined whether the concurrent and short-term longitudinal (3 month period) associations between peer-nominated anxious-withdrawn behaviors and three group-level peer outcomes (overt victimization, peer acceptance, popularity) varied as a function of peer-valued characteristics (humor, prosocial behavior, physical attractiveness, athletic ability) and gender, after accounting for the effects of involvement in mutual friendships. Regression analyses revealed that the associations between anxious-withdrawal and peer outcomes were moderated by peer-valued characteristics and, in many cases, gender. For example, anxious-withdrawal was related positively to overt victimization for all adolescents who were high in prosocial behavior. But, anxious-withdrawal was related negatively to popularity for adolescent boys who were high in prosocial behavior and adolescent girls who were low in prosocial behavior. Anxious-withdrawal also predicted increases in acceptance for adolescent girls who were high in humor, but decreases in acceptance for adolescent boys who were high in humor. Several additional moderator effects were found for boys only. The findings highlight the importance of considering the unique constellation of characteristics displayed by anxious-withdrawn young adolescents in studies on peer experiences at the group-level of social complexity.
Pass, Susan; Willingham, Wendy
Working with two teachers and thirty-four high school seniors, the authors developed procedures and assessments to teach ethics in an American high school civics class. This approach requires high school students to discover an agreement or convergence between Kantian ethics and virtue ethics. The authors also created an instrument to measure…
Ishizuka, Ryo; Tan, Nobuaki; Sato, Shoma; Zeze, Syoji
The result and outcome of the cloud chamber project, which aims to develop a cloud chamber useful for science education is reported in detail. A project includes both three high school students and a teacher as a part of Super Science High School (SSH) program in our school. We develop a dry-ice-free cloud chamber using salt and ice (or snow). Technical details of the chamber are described. We also argue how the project have affected student's cognition, motivation, academic skills and behavior. The research project has taken steps of professional researchers, i.e., in planning research, applying fund, writing a paper and giving a talk in conferences. From interviews with students, we have learnt that such style of scientific activity is very effective in promoting student's motivation for learning science.
Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.
Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used
Full Text Available In this research, attitudes of high school students towards geometry were investigated in terms of gender, grade, types of the field and school. Population of research includes students who were studying at high school in five distincs of Mersin in 2013-2014 academical year. Sample of research includes 935 students from twelve high schools. Attitude scale which was developed by Su-Özenir (2008 was used for data collection. For data analysis, mean, standart deviation, t test and ANOVA were used. A meaningful difference between students’ attitudes towards geometry and variance of gender and grade level wasn’t observed, on the other hand a meaningful difference according to field and school type is observed.Key Words: Attitudes towards geometry, high school geometry lesson, attitude scale
McMenamin, Brenton W.; Langeslag, Sandra J.E.; Sirbu, Mihai; Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz
Entering a state of anxious anticipation triggers widespread changes across large-scale networks in the brain. The temporal aspects of this transition into an anxious state are poorly understood. To address this question, an instructed threat of shock paradigm was used while recording functional MRI in humans to measure how activation and functional connectivity change over time across the salience, executive, and task-negative networks and how they interact with key regions implicated in emo...
Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert
The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…
Garn, Alex C.; Jolly, Jennifer L.
This study used a self-determination theory lens to investigate high ability learners' motivational experiences. Participants were 15 high ability youth involved in a summer learning camp for gifted students. Two major themes emerged from qualitative data analysis: (a) "The Fun Factor of Learning" and (b) "The Rewards and Pressures…
Heck, A.; van Dongen, C.
Human walking is a complicated motion. Movement scientists have developed various research methods to study gait. This article describes how a high school student collected and analysed high quality gait data in much the same way that movement scientists do, via the recording and measurement of
Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia
Following the theoretical frameworks of the dual-factor model of Facebook use and the Self Determination Theory, the present study hypothesizes that the satisfaction of unmet needs through Social Networking Sites (SNSs) may represent a pathway towards problematic use of Internet communicative services (GPIU) for socially anxious people. Four hundred undergraduate students (females = 51.8%; mean age = 22.45 + 2.09) completed three brief scales measuring the satisfaction via SNSs of the need to belong, the need for self-presentation and the need for assertiveness, the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Structural equation modeling was performed separately for males and females. A direct effect of social anxiety on GPIU was found among both genders. Socially anxious males and females tend to use SNSs for self-presentation purposes, as well as for the opportunity to be more assertive. The association between social anxiety and GPIU was partially mediated by the need for self-presentation only among males. The present results extend our understanding of the development of problematic use of Internet communicative services, based on the framework of the dual factor model of Facebook use and the Self Determination Theory. The fulfillment of an unmet need for self-presentation (i.e. the desire to create a positive impression of one's self in others) through SNSs could be one of the possible pathways to GPIU for socially anxious males.
Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
Anxious and non-anxious mothers were compared on theoretically derived parenting and family environment variables (i.e., over-control, warmth, criticism, anxious modeling) using multiple informants and methods. Mother-child dyads completed questionnaires about parenting and were observed during an interactional task. Findings revealed that, after controlling for race and child anxiety, maternal anxiety was associated with less warmth and more anxious modeling based on maternal-report. However, maternal anxiety was not related to any parenting domain based on child-report or independent observer (IO) ratings. Findings are discussed in the context of the impact of maternal anxiety on parenting and suggest that child, rather than maternal, anxiety may have a greater influence on parental behavior. PMID:22639487
The High-School Students Internship Programme (HSSIP is a programme developed by the ECO group’s Teacher and Student Programmes section to engage students from a young age with scientific research and innovation. Norway was selected as one out of five countries for the pilot programmes run in 2017. Out of some 150 applications, 10 boys and 14 girls, from Longyearbyen (Svalbard) in the North to Flekkefjord in the South, were invited to participate in the Norwegian programme that took place from 15 October - 28 October. The youngsters were offered an intense two-week internship at CERN, during which they took part in many diverse activities. Accompanied by mentors, the students got a deeper insight into how CERN supports particle physics by working on their own projects and through a variety of visits.
Lee, Kimberly E.
The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the self-esteem of junior high and high school students. The independent variables investigated were quality of family life, birth order, family size, maternal employment, grade level and family structure. The dependent variables were the self-esteem scores from the following sub-scales of the Texas…
Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.
The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)
Hudson, Jennifer L; Gradisar, Michael; Gamble, Amanda; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rebelo, Ivone
Childhood sleep problems have been associated with a range of adverse cognitive and academic outcomes, as well as increased impulsivity and emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression. The aim of the study was to examine subjective reports of sleep-related problems in children with anxiety disorders during school and weekend nights. Thirty-seven children with clinically-diagnosed anxiety disorders and 26 non-clinical children aged 7-12 years completed an on-line sleep diary to track sleep patterns across school nights and weekend nights. Anxious children reported going to bed significantly later (p=0.03) and had significantly less sleep (p=0.006) on school nights compared to non-anxious children. No significant differences in sleep onset latency, number of awakenings or time awake during the night, daytime sleepiness, or fatigue were found between the two groups. On the weekends, anxious children fell asleep quicker and were less awake during the night than on weeknights. School-aged anxiety disordered children showed a sleep pattern that differs from their non-anxious peers. Although the mean 30 min less sleep experienced by anxious children may initially seem small, the potential consequences on daytime performance from an accumulation of such a sleep deficit may be significant, and further investigation is warranted.
Kessler, R.C.; Sampson, N.A.; Berglund, P.; Gruber, M.J.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Andrade, L.; Bunting, B.; Demyttenaere, K.; Florescu, S.; de Girolamo, G.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Karam, E.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S; Levinson, D.; Mora, M.E. Medina; Moskalewicz, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Navarro-Mateu, F.; Oakley Browne, Mark A.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Slade, T.; ten Have, M.; Torres, Y.; Vilagut, G.; Xavier, M.; Zarkov, Z.; Shahly, V.; Wilcox, M.A.
AIMS To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74,045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). RESULTS 45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range [IQR] across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier age-of-onset of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same age-of-onset of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4% vs. 46.0%; χ21=187.0, pdepression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high income countries (68.8% vs. 45.4%; χ21=108.8, p<.001) than low/middle income countries (30.3% vs. 20.6%; χ21=11.7, p<.001). CONCLUSIONS Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with DSM-IV MDD are similar across WMH countries. The narrow IQR of the proportion of respondents with temporally prior AOO of anxiety disorders than comorbid MDD (69
Benoit Allen, Kristy; Silk, Jennifer S; Meller, Suzanne; Tan, Patricia Z; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sheeber, Lisa B; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Siegle, Greg J; McMakin, Dana L; Ryan, Neal D
Childhood anxiety is associated with low levels of parental autonomy granting and child perceived control, elevated child emotional reactivity and deficits in child emotion regulation. In early childhood, low levels of parental autonomy granting are thought to decrease child perceived control, which in turn leads to increases in child negative emotion. Later in development, perceived control may become a more stable, trait-like characteristic that amplifies the relationship between parental autonomy granting and child negative emotion. The purpose of this study was to test mediation and moderation models linking parental autonomy granting and child perceived control with child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation in anxious youth. Clinically anxious youth (N = 106) and their primary caregivers were assessed prior to beginning treatment. Children were administered a structured diagnostic interview and participated in a parent-child interaction task that was behaviorally coded for parental autonomy granting. Children completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol during which they reported on perceived control, emotional reactivity (anxiety and physiological arousal) and emotion regulation strategy use in response to daily negative life events. The relationship between parental autonomy granting and both child emotional reactivity and emotion regulation strategy use was moderated by child perceived control: the highest levels of self-reported physiological responding and the lowest levels of acceptance in response to negative events occurred in children low in perceived control with parents high in autonomy granting. Evidence for a mediational model was not found. In addition, child perceived control over negative life events was related to less anxious reactivity and greater use of both problem solving and cognitive restructuring as emotion regulation strategies. Both parental autonomy granting and child perceived control play important roles in the
Schillani, Giulia; Era, Daniel; Cristante, Tania; Mustacchi, Giorgio; Richiardi, Martina; Grassi, Luigi; Giraldi, Tullio
Difficulties in coping with cancer, and the accompanying anxious and depressive symptoms, have been shown to affect the mood and the quality of life in breast cancer patients. 5-Hydroxytryptamine Transporter Gene-linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) functional polymorphism of serotonin transporter has been shown to influence the adaptation to stressful life events. The aim of this prospective study was therefore to examine the association of 5-HTTLPR with the mental adaptation to cancer diagnosis and treatment. Forty eight consecutive patients with early mammary carcinoma were evaluated at enrolment and at follow up after one and three months. The patients were characterized psychometrically using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (Mini-MAC); 5-HTTLPR allelic variants were determined using PCR-based techniques. In women with early breast cancer, the mental adaptation to the disease was associated with high scores of avoidance and anxious preoccupation of Mini-MAC, which decreased with time at follow up. Anxious preoccupation decreased with time less in patients with the S/S and S/L genetic variant of 5-HTTLPR as compared with the L/L carriers (p=0.023), indicating gene - environment interactions. These results indicate that the characterization of 5-HTTLPR allows the identification of breast cancer patients in greater risk of mental suffering, for which specific intervention may be focused; in case of drug therapy, they provide indications for the choice of most appropriate agent in a pharmacogenetic perspective
Full Text Available Nattapong Buddhabunyakan, Srinaree Kaewrudee, Chompilas Chongsomchai, Sukree Soontrapa, Woraluk Somboonporn, Jen Sothornwit Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common health problem among adolescents.Objective: To assess the prevalence of PMS in Thai high school students.Materials and methods: This was a prospective study conducted among menstruating high school students in Khon Kaen, Thailand, from September to December, 2015. Participants were asked to prospectively complete an anonymous questionnaire, which included information about demographic data, menstrual patterns, and symptoms to be recorded on a daily calendar of premenstrual experiences according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. All of the data were prospectively recorded for 90 consecutive days.Results: Of the 399 participants, 289 (72.4% completed the self-report questionnaire. Eighty-six participants (29.8%; 95% CI, 24.5%–35.4% reported having PMS. The most common somatic and affective symptoms among participants with PMS were breast tenderness (74.4% and angry outbursts (97.7%. There were significant differences between the PMS and non-PMS groups, and PMS was associated with various problems related to educational activities, including lack of concentration and motivation, poor individual work performance, poor collaborative work performance, and low scores. However, there were no significant differences regarding interpersonal relationships between the PMS and non-PMS groups.Conclusions: PMS is a common menstrual disorder among Thai high school students. The most common symptoms reported in this study were angry outbursts and breast tenderness. Keywords: premenstrual symptoms, prevalence, association, high school students
Bettina M Pause
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.
Ding, Jinlan; Han, Fang; Wen, Lili; Xiao, Bing; Shi, Yuxiu
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be categorised as a disorder of dysregulated fear processing. In the formation and development of PTSD, whether fear/anxious-related memory is regulated by β-arrestin-2, and happened along the signal transduction pathways remains unknown. We used single prolonged stress (SPS) as the animal model of PTSD. Next, elevated plus maze tests (EPM) was performed to examine fear/anxious memory- related behaviors. Then, we detected β-arrestin-2, PDE-4, and signal transduction pathways with immunoﬂuorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, Elisa, western blot, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. Our data indicated that SPS caused fear/anxious memory-related behaviors enhancement. The low expression of β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and their complex on SPS 7d, and high expression of signal transduction pathways on SPS7d in basolateral amygdala (BLA). That indicating that β-arrestin-2 is critical for the formation of abnormal fear/anxious memory in PTSD; and fear/anxious memory occured through signal transduction pathways. Finally, these results suggest that β-arrestin-2, PDE-4 and signal transduction pathways may be by influencing the fear/anxious memory thereby involved in the formation and development of PTSD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.
Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…
Bookhagen, Britta; Buchwaldt, Robert; McLean, Noah; Rioux, Matthew; Bowring, Samuel
The authors taught an educational module developed as part of the EARTHTIME (www.earth-time.org) outreach initiative to 215 high school students from a Massachusetts (USA) High School as part of an "out-of-school" field trip. The workshop focuses on uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating of zircons and its application to solving a geological problem. The theme of our 2.5-hour module is the timing of the K-T boundary and a discussion of how geochronology can be used to evaluate the two main hypotheses for the cause of the concurrent extinction—the Chicxlub impact and the massive eruption of the Deccan Traps. Activities are divided into three parts: In the first part, the instructors lead hands-on activities demonstrating how rock samples are processed to isolate minerals by their physical properties. Students use different techniques, such as magnetic separation, density separation using non-toxic heavy liquids, and mineral identification with a microscope. We cover all the steps from sampling an outcrop to determining a final age. Students also discuss geologic features relevant to the K-T boundary problem and get the chance to examine basalts, impact melts and meteorites. In the second part, we use a curriculum developed for and available on the EARTHTIME website (http://www.earth-time.org/Lesson_Plan.pdf). The curriculum teaches the science behind uranium-lead dating using tables, graphs, and a geochronology kit. In this module, the students start by exploring the concepts of half-life and exponential decay and graphically solving the isotopic decay equation. Manipulating groups of double-sided chips labeled with U and Pb isotopes reinforces the concept that an age determination depends on the Pb/U ratio, not the absolute number of atoms present. Next, the technique's accuracy despite loss of parent and daughter atoms during analysis, as well as the use of isotopic ratios rather than absolute abundances, is explained with an activity on isotope dilution. Here the students
Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.
Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; Kendall, Philip C.
Objective Examined the effect of perceived child anxiety status on parental latency to intervene with anxious and non-anxious youth. Method Parents (68) of anxiety-disordered (PAD) and non-anxiety-disordered (56: PNAD) children participated. Participants listened and responded to an audio vignette of a parent-child interaction: half were told the child was anxious and half were given a neutral description. Participants completed measures of anxiety and emotional responding before and after the audio vignette, and signaled when the mother on the vignette should accommodate the child. Results Whereas PNAD responded significantly faster when provided with neutral information about the child than when told the child was anxious, PAD did not differ in response latency. However, PAD exhibited a significant increase in state anxiety and negative affect and a decrease in positive affect after the vignette, whereas PNAD did not. Conclusions Results suggest that PNAD are more flexible and adaptable in their parenting behavior than PAD and that the greater anxiety and emotional lability of PAD may influence their parenting. Suggestions for research are discussed. PMID:22309473
Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael
Given that many urban students exclude Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics careers from their career choices, the present study focuses on urban high school students and adopts the social-cultural approach to understand the following questions: how do students envision their careers? What are the experiences that shape students'…
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Background Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. Methods A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. Results The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95%CI: 2.93–4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Conclusion Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. PMID:21497217
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A
Although shopping behavior among adolescents is normal, for some, the shopping becomes problematic. An assessment of adolescent shopping behavior along a continuum of severity and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, shopping behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of problem shopping was 3.5% (95% CI, 2.93-4.07). Regular smoking, marijuana and other drug use, sadness and hopelessness, and antisocial behaviors (e.g., fighting, carrying weapons) were associated with problem shopping behavior in both boys and girls. Heavy alcohol use was significantly associated with problem shopping only in girls. Problem shopping appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with symptoms of depression and a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and diminished behavioral control suggest that excessive shopping may often have significant associated morbidity. Additional research is needed to develop specific prevention and treatment strategies for adolescents who report problems with shopping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay
This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…
Abdullah Faruk Kılıç; Cem Oktay Güzeller
This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school at...
This study examines high school students' attitudes toward mathematics and analyzes whether there were differences in attitude and its source that could be attributed to gender, class level, type of school, mathematics success, whether the students received preschool education, families' income level, and high school student's place of living.…
Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Bárbara M.
This study investigates the representations and understandings of electric fields expressed by Chinese high school students 15 to 16 years old who have not received high school level physics instruction. The physics education research literature has reported students' conceptions of electric fields post-instruction as indicated by students'…
Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde
The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…
Camelo-Lavadores, Ana Karen; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Pinto-Sosa, Jesus
The purpose of this study was to explore for differences in the academic self-efficacy of Mexican high school students. A gird questionnaire was administered to 1,460 students form private and public schools. As expected, high achieving students showed significantly higher academic self-efficacy that their peers. However, interesting gender…
Lagares, Christopher; Connor, David J.
Anxiety! Stress! Fear! Everyone lives in a time of escalating accountability in terms of state, district, and city-wide examinations that measure student growth in the acquisition of skills and content area knowledge. All students feel increased pressure to constantly demonstrate improved levels of academic performance. For students with cognitive…
Pearcey, Samantha; Alkozei, Anna; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Dodd, Helen; Murayama, Kou; Stuijfzand, Suzannah; Creswell, Cathy
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for childhood anxiety disorders, yet a significant proportion of children do not benefit from it. CBT for child anxiety disorders typically includes a range of strategies that may not all be applicable for all affected children. This study explored whether there are distinct subgroups of children with anxiety disorders who are characterized by their responses to measures of the key mechanisms that are targeted in CBT (i.e. interpretation bias, perceived control, avoidance, physiological arousal, and social communication). 379 clinically anxious children (7-12 years) provided indices of threat interpretation, perceived control, expected negative emotions and avoidance and measures of heart rate recovery following a speech task. Parents also reported on their children's social communication difficulties using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Latent profile analysis identified three groups, reflecting (i) 'Typically anxious' (the majority of the sample and more likely to have Generalized anxiety disorder); (ii) 'social difficulties' (characterized by high SCQ and more likely to have social anxiety disorder and be male); (iii) 'Avoidant' (characterized by low threat interpretation but high avoidance and low perceived control). Some measures may have been influenced by confounding variables (e.g. physical variability in heart rate recovery). Sample characteristics of the group may limit the generalizability of the results. Clinically anxious children appear to fall in to subgroups that might benefit from more targeted treatments that focus on specific maintenance factors. Treatment studies are now required to establish whether this approach would lead to more effective and efficient treatments. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tyrer, P; Lee, I; Alexander, J
Awareness of pulse rate was tested in 60 psychiatric out-patients with anxiety, phobic or hypochondriacal neuroses by asking them to record how fast their hearts were beating during exposure to short film sequences. Correlations between subjective and objective heart rate (ECG) were significantly higher in anxious and hypochondriacal patients than in phobic ones. The results suggest that somatic symptoms in hypochondriacal and anxiety neurosis reflect increased awareness of bodily function.
Fua, Karl C; Teachman, Bethany A
Past research has shown that an individual's feelings at any given moment reflect currently experienced stimuli as well as internal representations of similar past experiences. However, anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of interrelated valenced information (vs. reactions to static stimuli that are arguably less ecologically valid) are rarely tracked. The present study provided a first examination of the newly developed Tracking Affect Ratings Over Time (TAROT) task to continuously assess anxious individuals' affective reactions to streams of information that systematically change valence. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) completed the TAROT task in which they listened to narratives containing positive, negative, and neutral physically- or socially-relevant events, and indicated how positive or negative they felt about the information they heard as each narrative unfolded. The present study provided preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of the task. Within scenarios, participants higher (vs. lower) in anxiety showed many expected negative biases, reporting more negative mean ratings and overall summary ratings, changing their pattern of responding more quickly to negative events, and responding more negatively to neutral events. Furthermore, individuals higher (vs. lower) in anxiety tended to report more negative minimums during and after positive events, and less positive maximums after negative events. Together, findings indicate that positive events were less impactful for anxious individuals, whereas negative experiences had a particularly lasting impact on future affective responses. The TAROT task is able to efficiently capture a number of different cognitive biases, and may help clarify the mechanisms that underlie anxious individuals' biased negative processing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Burgess, Christiana J.
Over the last several decades, forensic science---the application of science to civil and criminal legal matters---has become of increasing popularity with the public. The range of disciplines within the field is immense, offering individuals the potential for a unique career, regardless of their specific interests or expertise. In response to this growth, many organizations, both public and private, have recognized the need to create forensic science programs that strive to maintain and enhance the quality of forensic science education. Unfortunately, most of the emphasis placed on developing these materials relates to post-secondary education, and creates a significant lack of forensic science educational materials available in the U.S., especially in Oklahoma. The purpose of this project was to create a high school curriculum that provides the foundation for building a broad, yet comprehensive, overview of the field of forensic science and its associated disciplines. The overall goal was to create and provide course materials to high school teachers in order to increase their knowledge of forensic science such that they are able to teach its disciplines effectively and with accuracy. The Forensic Science Curriculum for High School Students includes sample lesson plans, PowerPoint presentations, and lab activities with step-by-step instructions.
Gürbüz Ocak; İjlal Ocak; Emine A. Baysal
The purpose of this study is to find out the causes of high school students’ absenteeism. Survey method was used. The population was comprised of 531 students in the public high schools. The data was collected with "The Scale of Absenteeism Causes" developed by the researchers. Cronbach Alpha was calculated as α=0.936. Findings show the causes of students' absenteeism aren't related to school, students themselves and their parent, however, student absenteeism causes partly psychological reaso...
Novakovic, Alexandra; Ross, Denise E.
High school students with disabilities can benefit from early exposure to campus-based accommodations and supports as they transition to college. College Student for a Day (CSFAD) is an on-campus activity-based program that introduces high school students with disabilities to supports and accommodations on a college campus. This Practice Brief…
Colman, Ian; Kingsbury, Mila; Sucha, Ewa; Horton, Nicholas J; Murphy, Jane M; Gilman, Stephen E
Depression and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid, and share significant symptom overlap. Whereas depression has been consistently associated with excess mortality, the association between anxiety and mortality is less clear. Our aim was to identify constellations of anxious and depressive symptoms and examine their associations with mortality. This study considers respondents from the 1970 (n = 1203) and 1992 (n = 1402) cohorts of the Stirling County study. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed using structured at-home interviews. Vital status of participants through 2011 was determined using probabilistic linkages to the Canadian Mortality Database. Exploratory factor analysis yielded three correlated factors in each cohort. Items loading on each factor varied slightly between cohorts, but roughly corresponded to (1) depressive symptoms, (2) anxious symptoms, and (3) somatic symptoms. The depressive factor was associated with increased risk of mortality in both the 1970 (HR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.62) and 1992 (HR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.48) cohorts. Anxious symptoms were associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the 1992 sample (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.90). Somatic symptoms were associated with a reduced risk of mortality in the 1970 sample (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.99), but an elevated risk of mortality in the 1992 sample (HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.51). This study provides evidence that symptoms of depression and anxiety may have differential associations with early mortality. Somatic symptoms such as upset stomach and loss of appetite may be protective against mortality, perhaps through increased use of health care services. Conversely, symptoms such as weakness and cold sweats may be indicative of failing health. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abdullah Faruk Kılıç
Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The sample was chosen through the stratified and cluster sampling procedure. The students were chosen randomly depending on the regions of their school attendance. The sample for this research numbered 3170 students. The research was conducted in the second term of the 2014-2015 academic year. The data were obtained through online forms and the bases of participation are honesty, sincerity, and volunteerism. The data collection tool is a questionnaire and a demographic information form prepared by the researchers. Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID analysis was conducted through SPSS in order to determine the demographic factors affecting the purposes of internet usage among high school students. The results of this research show that 9th grade students in Turkey mostly use the Internet to do homework while students from other grades mostly use the Internet for social networking. The male students use the Internet for playing video games more frequently in comparison with female students. Also, socioeconomic status affects the purpose of Internet usage. Hence it is suggested that teachers talking to male students might use the examples of computers and games and with female students they might relate the topics to social media.
Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Jarcho, Johanna M; Dahl, Ronald E; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique; Nelson, Eric E
Adolescence is the time of peak onset for many anxiety disorders, particularly Social Anxiety Disorder. Research using simulated social interactions consistently finds differential activation in several brain regions in anxious (vs non-anxious) youth, including amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. However, few studies examined the anticipation of peer interactions, a key component in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Youth completed the Chatroom Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patterns of neural activation were assessed in anxious and non-anxious youth as they were cued to anticipate social feedback from peers. Anxious participants evidenced greater amygdala activation and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC)↔amygdala coupling than non-anxious participants during anticipation of feedback from peers they had previously rejected; anxious participants also evidenced less nucleus accumbens activation during anticipation of feedback from selected peers. Finally, anxiety interacted with age in rACC: in anxious participants, age was positively associated with activation to anticipated feedback from rejected peers and negatively for selected peers, whereas the opposite pattern emerged for non-anxious youth. Overall, anxious youth showed greater reactivity in anticipation of feedback from rejected peers and thus may ascribe greater salience to these potential interactions and increase the likelihood of avoidance behavior. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
林, 光緒; 堀, 忠雄
A survey was performed on 466 high school students and 403 university students. 86% of high school students and 89% of university students estimated their customary sleep time to be 6-8 hours. Although there was no significant difference between high school students and university students with awake time, bed time was later for university students than high school students. So that sleep time was shorter for university students. Also there was more regular sleepers for high school students a...
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine cross-sectionally to what extent persons with higher symptom levels or a current or past emotional disorder report to be less happy than controls and to assess prospectively whether time-lagged measurements of extraversion and neuroticism predict future happiness independent of time-lagged measurements of emotional disorders or symptom severity. A sample of 2142 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls and persons with current or past emotional disorder according to DSM-IV criteria completed self-ratings for happiness and emotional well-being and symptom severity. Lagged measurements of personality, symptom severity and presence of anxiety and depressive disorder at T0 (year 0, T2 (year 2 and T4 (year 4 were used to predict happiness and emotional well-being at T6 (year 6 controlling for demographics. In particular persons with more depressive symptoms, major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder and comorbid emotional disorders reported lower levels of happiness and emotional well-being. Depression symptom severity and to a lesser extent depressive disorder predicted future happiness and emotional well-being at T6. Extraversion and to a lesser extent neuroticism also consistently forecasted future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrent lagged measurements of emotional disorders and symptoms. A study limitation is that we only measured happiness and emotional well-being at T6 and our measures were confined to hedonistic well-being and did not include psychological and social well-being. In sum, consistent with the two continua model of emotional well-being and mental illness, a 'happy' personality characterized by high extraversion and to a lesser extent low neuroticism forecasts future happiness and emotional well-being independent of concurrently measured emotional disorders or symptom severity levels. Boosting positive emotionality may be an important treatment goal for persons
The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…
Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam
Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…
Mentzer, Nathan; Huffman, Tanner; Thayer, Hilde
A diverse group of 20 high school students from four states in the US were individually provided with an engineering design challenge. Students chosen were in capstone engineering courses and had taken multiple engineering courses. As students considered the problem and developed a solution, observational data were recorded and artifacts…
Kloss, Thomas E.
Teacher turnover remains an important issue in education. The least researched perspectives, though, are those of the students who experience teacher turnover. The purpose of this study was to examine how high school band students experience teacher turnover. A total of twelve students were interviewed, representing three schools that experienced…
Full Text Available Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study--High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n = 32. We replicated earlier findings that a transfer of conditioned inhibition for startle responses requires contingency awareness. However, contrary to the fear inhibition hypothesis, our data suggest that high trait anxious individuals show a normal fear inhibition of conditioned startle responding. Only at the cognitive level the high trait anxious individuals showed evidence for impaired inhibitory learning of the threat cue. Together with other findings where impaired fear inhibition was only observed in those PTSD patients who were either high on hyperarousal symptoms or with current anxiety symptoms, we question whether impaired fear inhibition is a biomarker for the development of anxiety disorders.
Tomaso, Cara C.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Haas, Amie L.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Borsari, Brian
Drinking games and prepartying (i.e., drinking before going to a social gathering/event) have emerged as high-risk drinking behaviors in high school students. The present study examines the current prepartying behaviors of high school students who report current participation in extreme-consumption games (e.g., chugging) with those who do not.…
Jelicic, Katarina; Planinic, Maja; Planinsic, Gorazd
Electromagnetic induction is an important, yet complex, physics topic that is a part of Croatian high school curriculum. Nine Croatian high school students of different abilities in physics were interviewed using six demonstration experiments from electromagnetism (three of them concerned the topic of electromagnetic induction). Students were asked to observe, describe, and explain the experiments. The analysis of students' explanations indicated the existence of many conceptual and reasoning difficulties with the basic concepts of electromagnetism, and especially with recognizing and explaining the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. Three student mental models of electromagnetic induction, formed during the interviews, which reoccurred among students, are described and analyzed within the knowledge-in-pieces framework.
Silton, Rebecca Levin; Heller, Wendy; Engels, Anna S; Towers, David N; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Edgar, J Christopher; Sass, Sarah M; Stewart, Jennifer L; Sutton, Bradley P; Banich, Marie T; Miller, Gregory A
A network consisting of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been implicated in top-down attentional control. Few studies have systematically investigated how this network is altered in psychopathology, despite evidence that depression and anxiety are associated with attentional control impairments. Functional MRI and dense-array event-related brain potential (ERP) data were collected in separate sessions from 100 participants during a color-word Stroop task. Functional MRI results guided ERP source modeling to characterize the time course of activity in LDLPFC (300-440 ms) and dACC (520-680 ms). At low levels of depression, LDLPFC activity was indirectly related to Stroop interference and only via dACC activity. In contrast, at high levels of depression, dACC did not play an intervening role, and increased LDLPFC activity was directly related to decreased Stroop interference. Specific to high levels of anxious apprehension, higher dACC activity was related to more Stroop interference. Results indicate that depression and anxious apprehension modulate temporally and functionally distinct aspects of the frontocingulate network involved in top-down attention control.
Teetsel, Rebekah N; Ginsburg, Golda S; Drake, Kelly L
The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers' parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6-12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children's dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers' parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety.
Teetsel, Rebekah N.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Drake, Kelly L.
The majority of research identifying anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors has been conducted with mothers, leaving a gap in current knowledge about the role of fathers’ parenting behaviors. In an attempt to fill this gap, this study compared anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors of anxious mothers and fathers. Parents completed self-report measures of parenting behavior and independent coders rated parenting behaviors (i.e., overcontrol, granting of autonomy, warmth, hostility, anxious behavior) of mothers (n = 34) and fathers (n = 21) during a challenging parent-child interaction task (children were ages 6–12). Results indicated that anxious fathers were observed to be more controlling than anxious mothers; while anxious mothers reported using more punishment and reinforcement of children’s dependence in anxiety provoking situations compared to fathers. Findings extend our knowledge about anxious fathers, and highlight the need for additional research on the impact of fathers’ parenting with respect to the development of child anxiety. PMID:23677528
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on deaf students' interests in spending their leisure times. We design a questionnaire and distribute among all deaf students who are enrolled in high schools in two provinces of Iran. The questionnaire consists of three parts, in the first part, we ask female and male deaf students about their interests in various entertainment activities in Likert scale. In terms of gender, we find out that walking inside or outside house is number one favorite exercise for female students while male students mostly prefer to walk on the streets. Although male students prefer to go biking or running activities, female students prefer to go for picnic or similar activities. This could be due to limitations on female for running or biking inside cities. While going to picnic with members of family or friends is the third popular activity for male students, stretching exercises is third most popular activity among female students. Breathing exercise is the fourth most popular activity among both male and female students. The second part of the survey is associated with the barriers for having no exercise among deaf students. According to our survey, while lack of good attention from public and ordinary people on exercising deaf students is believed to be number one barrier among male students, female students blame lack of transportation facilities as the most important barrier. However, both female and male students believe these two items are the most important factors preventing them to exercise. Lack of awareness for exercising deaf students and lack of good recreational facilities are the third most important barriers among male and female students. The last part of the survey attempted to detect important entertainment activities. Watching TV, entertaining with mobile devices, chatting with friends and watching DVD or movies were the most important items influencing deaf students' free times.DOI: 10.5267/j.msl.2012
Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it
Balanga, Roselle A.; Fidel, Irish Van B.; Gumapac, Mone Virma Ginry P.; Ho, Howell T.; Tullo, Riza Mae C.; Villaraza, Patricia Monette L.; Vizconde, Camilla J.
The study identified the beliefs of high school students toward Written Corrective Feedback (WCF), based on the framework of Anderson (2010). It also investigated the most common errors that students commit in writing stories and the type of WCF students receive from teachers. Data in the form of stories which were checked by teachers were…
Davis, Ashley N.
This dissertation was designed as a phenomenological qualitative study grounded in Contact Theory to investigate Early College high school students' perceptions of a multi-year mentoring program. The Early College students were paired with elementary students with varying special needs in a self-contained classroom throughout 3 years in various…
Utami, Wiwik Sri; Sumarmi; Ruja, I. Nyoman; Utaya, Sugeng
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of geography student worksheet in developing high school students' learning experiences. The student worksheet was planned to gain opportunity to develop creative and geography skills. The effectiveness is assessed from the contribution of the worksheets in improving the skills of…
In this article I explore high school students' perspectives on working together in a mathematics class in which they spent a significant amount of time solving problems in small groups. The data included viewing session interviews with eight students in the class, where each student watched video clips of their own participation, explaining and…
Zimmerman, Mark; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Dalrymple, Kristy; Walsh, Emily; Rosenstein, Lia
To acknowledge the clinical significance of anxiety in depressed patients, DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we modified our previously published depression scale to include a subscale assessing the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier. From December 1995 to August 2013, 773 psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder completed the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale (CUDOS) supplemented with questions for the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier (CUDOS-A). To examine discriminant and convergent validity, the patients were rated on clinician severity indices of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Discriminant and convergent validity was further examined in a subset of patients who completed other self-report symptom severity scales. Test-retest reliability was examined in a subset who completed the CUDOS-A twice. We compared patients who did and did not meet the DSM-5 anxious distress specifier on indices of psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The CUDOS-A subscale had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability; was more highly correlated with other self-report measures of anxiety than with measures of depression, substance use problems, eating disorders, and anger; and was more highly correlated with clinician severity ratings of anxiety than depression and irritability. CUDOS-A scores were significantly higher in depressed outpatients with a current anxiety disorder than in depressed patients without a comorbid anxiety disorder (P depressive disorder. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.
Carlton Parsons, Eileen; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high school students' implicit theories of what facilitates their learning of science?; (2) With respect to students' self-classifications as African American or European American and female or male, do differences exist in the students' implicit theories? Sample, design and methods: Students in an urban high school located in south-eastern United States were surveyed in 2006 about their thoughts on what helps them learn science. To confirm or disconfirm any differences, data from two different samples were analyzed. Responses of 112 African American and 118 European American students and responses from 297 European American students comprised the data for sample one and two, respectively. Results: Seven categories emerged from the deductive and inductive analyses of data: personal responsibility, learning arrangements, interest and knowledge, communication, student mastery, environmental responsiveness, and instructional strategies. Instructional strategies captured 82% and 80% of the data from sample one and two, respectively; consequently, this category was further subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis at p ethnic differences. Significant differences did not exist for ethnicity but differences between females and males in sample one and sample two emerged. Conclusions: African American and European American students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that facilitated their science learning did not significantly differ but female and male students' implicit theories about instructional strategies that helped them learn science significantly differed. Because students attend and respond to what they think
A binary logit model is used to investigate the determinants of students' performance in the final high school examination. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year students (614 boys and 515 girls) in ten senior high schools (SHSs) during the 2008/2009 academic year. Respondents were requested ...
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…
In this article we present the prototype of a workshop on naive set theory designed for high school students in or around the seventh year of primary education. Our concept is based on two events which the author organized in 2006 and 2010 for students of elementary school and high school, respectively. The article also includes a practice report…
Akgul, Merve Beyza
High school students who do not have leisure skills are more likely to be bored during leisure time. The aim of the study is to examine leisure boredom of high school students based on some variables (gender and income), and to investigate the relationship between leisure boredom, the presence/absence of anti-social behavior and the frequency at…
Objective: To determine the attitude of high school students majoring in Physics, Chemistry and Biology (PCB) towards Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry, Veterinary Medicine and Nursing as professions at university. Design: A cross sectional study of a representative sample of high school students using a pretested attitudinal ...
In the present study, the internet addiction status of high school senior students in Yesilyurt county of Malatya was analyzed and examined in terms of gender variable. The study population consisted of 3442 senior students who were studying at 37 high schools in state schools in Yesilyurt County of the city of Malatya in 2016-2017 academic year.…
This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…
Orozco, Steven R.
Aggressive students often struggle in multiple domains of their school functioning and are at increased risk for high school dropout. Research has identified a variety of warning flags which are strong predictors of high school dropout. While it is known that aggressive students exhibit many of these warning flags, there is little research which…
Within this work in which it has been aimed to indicate the attitudes of High School Students to environment, indication of the attitudes of high school students in Nigde has been regarded as the problem matter. This analysis has the qualification of survey model and techniques of questionnaire and observation have been used. The investigation has…
Cimen, Osman; Yilmaz, Mehmet
This study aims to determine the variables that predict high school students' recycling behaviors. The study was designed as survey model. The study's sample consists of 203 students at a high school in Ankara. A recycling behavior scale developed by the researchers was used as a data collection tool. The scale has 3 dimensions: recycling…
The aim of this research was to determine the interests of high school students in Physics and variable of how the influential factors on their interests depending on gender. The research sample included 154 (F:78 M:76) high school students. A structured interview form was used as the data collection tool in the study. The research data were…
Jelicic, Katarina; Planinic, Maja; Planinsic, Gorazd
Electromagnetic induction is an important, yet complex, physics topic that is a part of Croatian high school curriculum. Nine Croatian high school students of different abilities in physics were interviewed using six demonstration experiments from electromagnetism (three of them concerned the topic of electromagnetic induction). Students were…
Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Scrimgeour, Andrew; Chen, Toni
This paper investigates the intertextual practices developed for writing in Chinese of high school students in Taiwan. On the basis of texts written by Chinese high school students, we investigate these practices within their own cultural context to develop an understanding of intertextual practices into which Chinese learners are socialised. We…
Karakose, Turgut; Yirci, Ramazan; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz
This study was conducted in order to analyze the relation between high school students' Facebook addiction and loneliness levels. The study was conducted with the relational screening model. The sample of the study consists of 712 randomly selected high school students. The data was collected using the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (BFAS) to…
Hastuti, T. D.; Sari S, D. R.; Riyadi
Lately a lot of research conducted to determine the effect of Adversity Quotient students on learning achievement. This is done because many students with excellent IQ and EQ, but often have problems when they are in the workforce. This study will analyze the profile of High School students with high Adversity Quotient (AQ) in learning mathematics. The test is done using a questionnaire to know the AQ level of the students, and the interview is done to get the data about the student profile. Based on the results of tests and interviews obtained data that students with high AQ able to face the learning of mathematics in various materials and with different models of learning.
A case study of a high school student concerned with weight problems illustrates multimodal behavior therapy and its use in a high school setting. Multimodal therapy allows the school counselor to maximize referral sources while emphasizing growth and actualization. (JAC)
Miraj, Y. Z.; Rohendi, D.; Yannuar; Nurhabibah; Wendi, H. F.
The development of information and communication technology (ICT) has brought about change in education in Indonesia. With ICT students can easily access a variety of information in supporting the learning process. But there was a problem where ICT infrastructure across Indonesia including in the uneven Siak Regency, this can lead to gaps in technology and also weak ICT literacy. This research aims to know the ICT literacy of the students of SMK in Siak Regency. The research method used was survey with the quantitative approach. The results of this study showed that the use of ICT (computers, Internet) has been used by students of SMK, but usability of ICT has not been fullest support the learning process.
This study administered the Academic Volitional Strategy Inventory to investigate volitional strategies amongst socially anxious college students. Volitional strategies regulate motivation and emotion to aid in the achievement of academic tasks. It was important to examine this phenomenon based upon the premise that socially anxious students have…
Klein, Anke M; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Kangas, Maria; Lyneham, Heidi J; Souren, Pierre M; Rinck, Mike
The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…
Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin
Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…
Banks, Thomas J.
At one Pennsylvania school, building a model airplane is a learning experience used to assess the abilities of students with reading difficulties. Specific model-building behaviors that can be observed are gathering information, employing prior knowledge, summarizing, visualizing, predicting, self-monitoring, evaluating, measuring, calculating,…
Fox, Doug; Nelson, Jim
Describes how the Ontario Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers started a "Grade Eleven Prize Physics Contest" to generate interest in physics and recognize outstanding students. Also describes outcomes of contests, adaptation of the contest by Southeastern Pennsylvania Section, and suggestions for others wanting to…
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
This report discusses the continuing concerns of the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) in regard to the Department of Education's management and oversight of postsecondary student financial aid programs, especially the Federal Family Education Loan, the Ford Direct Loan, and the Federal Pell Grant Programs. GAO commends the department for its…
Fernando AT; Samaranayake CB; Blank CJ; Roberts G; Arroll B
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. METHODS: The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of househol...
Kaess, A. B.; Horton, R. A., Jr.; Andrews, G. D.
The southern San Joaquin basin is one of the United States' most prolific oil producing regions but also one facing numerous problems including low high school graduation rates, low college enrollments, high college dropout rates, low wages, and higher than average unemployment. Investment in STEM education experiences for high school students has been emphasized by California State University Bakersfield as a means to improving these metrics with programs such as the Research Experience Vitalizing Science-University Program (REVS-UP). Now in its seventh year, the REVS-UP (funded by Chevron) forms teams of high school students, a high school teacher, a CSUB graduate student, and a CSUB professor to work for four weeks on a research project. For the past two summers student-teacher teams investigated the diagenesis and mineralogy of the Temblor Formation sandstones in the subsurface of the San Joaquin basin oil fields that are potential CO2 sequestration sites. With a graduate student leading the teams in sample preparation and analysis by scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and cathode luminescence system (SEM-CL) data was gathered on diagenetic processes, detrital framework grains, and authigenic cements. Typically students are introduced to the project in a series of brief seminars by faculty and are then introduced to the techniques and samples. During the second week the students are usually capable of preparing samples and collecting data independently. The final week is focused on developing student-authored research posters which are independently presented by the students on the final day. This gives high school students the opportunity to learn advanced geologic topics and analytical techniques that they would otherwise not be exposed to as well as to gain research and presentation skills. These types of projects are equally important for the graduate students involved as it allows them the
Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.
Muggeo, Michela A.; Stewart, Catherine E.; Drake, Kelly L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
Anxiety disorders are common in children and severely impair their functioning. Because a hallmark symptom of anxiety is somatic complaints, anxious youth often seek help from their school nurse. Thus, school nurses are in an ideal position to identify anxious children and intervene early. This study assessed the feasibility of a brief…
Blote, Anke W.; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel
Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class…
Murray, Lynne; Lau, Pui Yi; Arteche, Adriane; Creswell, Cathy; Russ, Stephanie; Zoppa, Letizia Della; Muggeo, Michela; Stein, Alan; Cooper, Peter
Background: There has been increasing research interest in parenting by anxious adults; however, little is known about anxiety-subtype effects, or effects of the context in which parenting is assessed. Methods: Two groups of anxious mothers, social phobia (N = 50), generalised anxiety disorder (N = 38), and nonanxious controls (N = 62) were…
Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Tone, Erin B.; Jenness, Jessica; Parrish, Jessica M.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.
Peer rejection powerfully predicts adolescent anxiety. While cognitive differences influence anxious responses to social feedback, little is known about neural contributions. Twelve anxious and twelve age-, gender- and IQ-matched, psychiatrically healthy adolescents received "not interested" and "interested" feedback from unknown peers during a…
Chen, Charles P.; Keats, Amanda
There is a dearth of research concerning the career development and counselling issues that are relevant for high school students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ). As such, little is known to understand LGBTQ students when it comes to their career-related struggles and needs. This article attempts to examine…
Spillane, Nancy K.; Lynch, Sharon J.; Ford, Michael R.
The authors report on a study of eight inclusive STEM high schools that are designed to increase the numbers of students in demographic groups underrepresented in STEM. As STEM schools, they have had broader and deeper STEM coursework (taken by all students) than required by their respective states and school districts; they also had outcome…
Cumming, John M.; Gloeckner, Gene W.
After interviewing homeless high school students, the research team in a Colorado school district discovered that many students had not revealed their true living conditions (homelessness) to anyone in the school district. This research team developed an anonymous survey written around the homeless categories identified in the McKinney-Vento…
A metropolitan school district wanted to understand blended learning as it existed in one of their high schools. Blended learning had been school-wide for four years, and district administrators wanted to know how students, teachers, and school administrators perceived blended learning and its impact on student engagement. This was a…
Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sirard, John; Story, Mary; Arcan, Chrisa
Objective: To determine prevalence and correlates of overweight among adolescents attending alternative high schools (AHS). Methods: AHS students (n=145) from 6 schools completed surveys and anthropometric measures. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using mixed model multivariate logistic regression. Results: Among students, 42% were…
Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.
All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…
Clinger, Alicia Farr
In response to an increased emphasis on disciplinary literacy in the secondary science classroom, an investigation of the literacy processes utilized by high school students while reading scientific text was undertaken. A think-aloud protocol was implemented to collect data on the processes students used when not prompted while reading a magazine…
Ozel, Murat; Erdogan, Mehmet; Usak, Muhammet; Prokop, Pavol
The purpose of this study was to investigate high school students' knowledge and attitudes regarding biotechnology and its various applications. In addition, whether students' knowledge and attitudes differed according to age and gender were also explored. The Biotechnology Knowledge Questionnaire (BKQ) with 16 items and the Biotechnology Attitude…
This paper investigates the academic performance of students from less endowed senior high schools in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Questionnaires were administered to 152 (123 males and 29 females) fourth year students who enrolled for various programmes at KNUST in 2007 ...
Music teacher socialisation (MTS) has received increased attention in music education research, but few researchers have explored MTS with students during their primary socialisation, or pre-college, years. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to examine the perspectives of high school music students who plan to pursue a music…
Sinflorio, D. A.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.; Santos, A. C. F.
In this article we describe two simple experiments using an ion accelerator as an aid to the teaching of electromagnetism to high-school students. This is part of a programme developed by a Brazilian State funding agency (FAPERJ) which aims to help scientifically minded students take their first steps in research.
Jean-Grant, Deborah S.
Proposes an assertiveness training program suitable for adolescents in a high school group setting. After role-playing examples, students should begin formulating their own responses. Early work in this area indicates that students eagerly participate in assertiveness training groups, and are quick to pick up the skills required for assertive…
Hartsfield, John W.; Hartsfield, Kendra J.
Since its beginning, space science has created high interest and continues to prod the imagination of students. This activity packet, which has been designed to enhance the curriculum and challenge gifted students, contains background information on spaceflight as well as 24 interdisciplinary classroom activities, 3 crossword puzzles, and 3 word…
Loflin, Jerry W.
The Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) was introduced in 2002. Since 2002, limited data, especially student physical activity data, have been published pertaining to the ECHSI. The purpose of this study was to examine the aerobic capacities of early college students and compare them to state and national averages. Early college students…
This paper reports a qualitative research that identifies the characteristics of good mathematics teaching from the perspective of Mexican high school students. For this purpose, the social representations of a good mathematics teacher and a good mathematics class were identified in a group of 67 students. In order to obtain information, a…
This action research study examined the effects of student voice in one high school and the self-reflection of the researcher-administrator involved in the effort. Using three cycles of action research, the researcher-administrator completed a pilot study, implemented a student voice project in one class, and developed a professional development…
Boyce-Prather, Margaret; Shainline, Michael
This document presents data from the second year of the Student Assistance Program, a counseling program to help students who may be abusing drugs or alcohol, implemented at Sandia High School in the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public School system. Data are included from the program's monthly records sheets, from parent involvement questionnaires,…
Preus, Betty; Payne, Rachel; Wick, Carly; Glomski, Emily
This study examines why a group of students representing two high schools became involved in an activist organization, the benefits they gained as a result, the impact they had on their school and community, and their recommendations for how school personnel can foster civic engagement in young people. The student-led group campaigned for a school…
Lu, Chow-Chin; Sung, Chia-Chi
In this research, we cooperate with senior high school teachers to understand current nanotechnology model of senior high school nanotechnology curriculum in Taiwan. Then design senior high school nanotechnology (nano-tech) curriculum to teach 503 senior high school students. After teaching the nano-tech curriculum we use the "Nanotechnology…
Corby, Joanna; Dirienzo, W. J.; Beaton, R.; Pennucci, T.; Zasowski, G.
Graduate students at the University of Virginia (UVa) are volunteering as research advisors on astronomy projects for Virginia's science and technology high schools. In previous years, we have worked with more than a dozen students through a research class at Central Virginia Governor's School in Lynchburg to develop an astronomy research curriculum that teaches background concepts and terminology, guides students in data analysis, and prepares them to present material in poster and oral forums. In our fourth year of operation, we are continuing to work with Central Virginia Governor's School and adapting the research curriculum to an independent course at Roanoke Valley Governor's School in Roanoke. Because both schools are far from UVa in Charlottesville, the program operates remotely; graduate advisors and high school students interact through "virtual" means, establishing a successful framework for meaningful remote mentoring. In the current year, six students will complete projects on astrophysical topics including megamasers, astrochemistry, and pulsars using data taken by the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Students at Roanoke Valley were directly trained on the GBT as part of a separate outreach program called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory, and all six students will receive hands-on experience in handling GBT data. The current projects are components of larger research efforts by graduate student and professional level researchers, so that the projects contribute to high-level projects only possible with the GBT. This stands as a rare outreach program that uses the principle of “deliberative practice” to train high school students in the development of skills that are crucial to success in science. Furthermore, it provides graduate students with an opportunity to plan and advise research projects, developing a skill set that is required in more advanced academic positions. Our poster discusses the implementation of our online curriculum in two distinct
54% of the students believed that parents inattention to their children and 46.3% believed that physical punishment by parents or school staff could effect on occurrence of psychiatric disorders . 90% of the students interested in receiving education by psychiatrist or psychologist in their schools . Conclusion: Results of this study show that high school students, attitude in Khorramabad city to psychiatric disorders is negative . It seems that with exact perception of this problem and proper planning we can develop a positive change in students, attitude to psychiatric disorders and take effective steps to improve mental health of the adolescents .
Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos
Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.
Gilles, Donna M; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M
Burke and Stephens (1999) [Burke, R.S., Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (1999) 513-530.] proposed a social cognitive theory of heavy drinking in college students. According to this theory, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and self-efficacy for refusing heavy drinking in anxiety-producing social situations moderate the relationship between social anxiety and drinking. In the current study, a significant three-way interaction was observed among social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy when amount and frequency of drinking was the dependent variable. As predicted by the model, socially anxious college students with low self-efficacy for avoiding heavy drinking in social situations and high positive expectancies for social facilitation reported more alcohol consumption than other socially anxious individuals.
This study was performed to identify the influencing factors on alienation among high school students. Data was collected by questionnaires from 550 students of academic and vocational high schools in G city. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression. The scores of alienation among students in financially lower middle class and lower class were higher than those of the upper middle class students, resulting in significant differences(F=6.87, p=.00). A sense of alienation showed a significantly negative correlation with the scores of responding parenting style(r=-.32), family cohesion(r=-.33), school attachment(r=-.51), academic performance(r=-.34), peer relationships(r=-.38), self-control (r=-.43), and social skills(r=-.33). The most powerful predictor of alienation among high school students was school attachment and the variance explained was 26%. A combination of school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance account for 40% of the variance in alienation among high school students. This study suggests that school attachment, self control, peer relationships, family cohesion, demanding parenting style, and academic performance are significant influencing factors on alienation in high school students. Therefore, nursing strategy is needed to manage these revealed factors.
Full Text Available Marie-France Leblanc,1 Sophie Desjardins,1 Alain Desgagné2 1Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, 2Department of Mathematics, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the sleep problems most often encountered by the elderly according to the presence or absence of anxiety and mood disorders. The aim was also to determine whether groups of anxious, depressive, and asymptomatic individuals differ in relation to sleep onset latency; awakenings at night or early in the morning; subjective quality of sleep; taking of sleep medication; and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Structured interviews based on the DSM-IV-TR were administered to a sample of 2,759 seniors aged 65 years and older at the participants’ home by health professionals. Results: Awakening was found to be the most common disturbance. Increased sleep onset latency was the second most frequent sleep difficulty. Taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep was associated with the likelihood of meeting the diagnostic criteria for an anxiety disorder, and even reduced the risk of meeting the diagnostic criteria for a mood disorder rather than an anxiety disorder. Awakenings were associated with the probability of suffering from an anxiety disorder or a mood disorder. Quality of sleep, as perceived by the elderly, was not found to be associated with the probability of suffering from a mental disorder. Conclusion: These findings should help to facilitate the practitioner’s diagnosis and add further nuances to be considered when encountering symptoms of an anxious or depressive appearance. All of these data also add fuel to the ongoing debate about whether anxiety and depression are one or two distinct categories of disorders. Keywords: anxiety, awakenings, daytime sleepiness, depression, elderly, quality of sleep, sleep medication, sleep onset latency
Sadler, Philip Michael
This study of 1,414 high school earth science and astronomy students characterizes the prevalence of their astronomical misconceptions. The multiple-choice instrument was prepared by scouring the literature on scientific misconceptions for evidence of preconceptions and from the author's interviews with students. Views that were incorrect, but espoused by a large fraction of students, were included as distractors. Results have been analyzed using classical test theory. A linear multiple regression model has helped to show the relative contributions of demographic and school factors to the number of misconceptions held by students. The instrument was found to be a reliable and valid test of students' misconceptions. The mean student score was 34 percent. Fifty-one student misconceptions were revealed by this test, nineteen of which were preferred by students to the correct answer. Several misconceptions appeared more frequently among the higher-performing students. Significant differences in student performance were found in several subgroups based upon schooling and demographic factors. Twenty -five percent out of a total of 30 percent of the variance in total test score could be accounted for by gender, race, and math level courses taken. Grade level and previous enrollment in an earth science course were not found to be predictive of total score. Mother's education proved to be of small import; level of father's education was not significant. This test is a useful addition to instruments that measure student misconceptions. It could find application in tests of effective intervention for conceptual learning. Significantly shortened versions of this instrument that account for 75 and 90 percent of the variance in the forty-seven-item instrument are recommended. Such tests of misconceptions may be somewhat disheartening to teachers and their students. A test made up of only misconception questions will probably have average total scores less than 40 percent. If
Barbosa, Jose Isnaldo de Lima; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon
Astronomy issues are not always adequately handled in the formal education system, as well as, their dissemination in the media is often loaded with sensationalism. However, in this context the students are forming their explanations about it. Therefore, this work has the objective of identifying the possible social representations of students from the Integrated High School on the inductor term Astronomy. It is basically a descriptive research, therefore, a quali-qualitative approach was adopted. The procedures for obtaining the data occurred in the form of a survey, and they involved 653 subjects students from the Integrated High School. The results indicate that the surveyed students have social representations of the object Astronomy, which are based on elements from the formal education space, and also disclosed in the media. In addition, they demonstrate that the students have information about Astronomy, and a value judgment in relation to this science.
girls) who obtained the basic requirements for courses that they ... Academic performance of students from less endowed senior high ... 106 ... only pay academic facility user fees. The second ..... certificate education, Pro is senior executive.
School of Public Health, University of the Limpopo. Sovenga, South Africa ... KEY WORDS: substance use, rural high school students, South Africa ... increased into the 1990s, these behaviours ..... Canada's Mental Health Supplement, 68,. 12.
Rosenblatt, Howard S.; And Others
Compared to a peer group of average abilities, gifted and talented junior high school students appeared more outgoing, participating, insightful, fast-learning, intellectually adaptable, conscientious, persistent, and moralistic, thus indicating significant between-group differences. (SB)
Alejandrino, Mara Philia R; Catipay, Jerico D; Concepcion, Prince Vincent Ace T; Flores, Sally Mae C; Palicte, Cherry Mae D; Seguiro, Arlene C
This research was conducted to determine the significant influence of social media addiction on the study habits of the senior high students in selected school of Agusan del Sur. The researchers used a descriptive correlation method of research which involved the survey of a total of 150 senior high students. Questionnaires were the research instrument used in the gathering of data and was presented to the research adviser for approval and content validity. Mean, Pearson Product Moment Correl...
Reza Vaseghi; Hamed Barjesteh; Sedigheh Shakib
The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual) Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Pref...
Utami, WS; Zain, IM
Spatial intelligence is deeply related to success in the STEM disciplines (science,technology, engineering, and math). spatial intelligence as a transversal capacity which is useful for everyday life but which cannot be characterized in any specific and distinctive way, as are, for example, linguistic or mathematical ability. The ability of geographical literacy relates to spatial intelligence. test results prove that the ability of high-liter geography of high school students found in students who have a good spatial intelligence score
Harding, R. Fredrick
This descriptive study compared the science and mathematics aptitudes and achievement test scores for the final school year students in rural White County and Van Buren County, Tennessee with rural county students in Germany. In accordance with the previous research literature (Stevenson, 2002), German students outperformed U.S. students on The International Trends in Math and Science test (TIMSS). As reform in the U.S. education system has been underway, this study intended to compare German county student final school year performance with White County and Van Buren County (Grade 12) performance in science and mathematics. The entire populations of 176 White and Van Buren Counties senior high final school year students were compared with 120 school final year students from two rural German county high schools. The student responses to identical test and questionnaire items were compared using the t-test statistical analysis. In conclusion after t-test analyses, there was no significant difference (p>.05 level) in student attitudes on the 27 problem achievement and the 35 TIMSS questionnaire items between the sampled population of 120 German students compared with the population of 176 White and Van Buren students. Also, there was no statistically significant difference (p>.05 level) between the German, White, and Van Buren County rural science and math achievement in the TIMSS problem section of the final year test. Based on the research, recommendations to improve U.S. student scores to number one in the world include making changes in teaching methodology in mathematics and science; incorporating pamphlet lessons rather than heavily reliance on textbooks; focusing on problem solving; establishing an online clearinghouse for effective lessons; creating national standards in mathematics and science; matching students' course choices to job aspirations; tracking misbehaving students rather than mainstreaming them into the regular classroom; and designing
Cilesiz, Sebnem; Drotos, Stephanie M.
This qualitative study investigates high-poverty urban high school students' views of and plans regarding higher education, using Bourdieu's theory of reproduction in education as theoretical framework. Interview data from 76 students from six high-poverty urban schools in a metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States were analyzed using…
Balfanz, Robert; McPartland, James; Shaw, Alta
The push for higher academic standards has resulted in an increase in the numbers of high school students needing extra help. The need for extra help is most pervasive in high-poverty areas and most high school students need extra help not in traditional basic elementary skills but in reading, mathematics, and advanced reasoning skills. Most…
Bread for the World Educational Fund, Washington, DC.
This student packet contains readings and exercises for examining the problem of world hunger. Materials, which are suitable for use by high school students, are presented from a Christian perspective. Twelve chapters cover justice and the right to food; causes of hunger (poverty, land use, the international economy, the arms race, resource abuse,…
McFarland, Daniel; Starmanns, Carlos E.
Background/Context: Student governments are the first direct experience that youth have of representative government. However, very little research has been done on student councils in spite of their ubiquity in American high schools and consistent references to their positive effects on the political socialization of youth.…
Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji
To investigate the perception and actual use of mobile phones among Japanese high school students while riding their bicycles, and their experience of bicycle crash/near-crash. A questionnaire survey was carried out at high schools that were, at the time of the survey, commissioned by the National Agency for the Advancement of Sports and Health to conduct school safety research. In the survey, we found that mobile phone use while riding a bicycle was quite common among the students during their commute, but those who have a higher perception of danger in this practice, and those who perceived that this practice is prohibited, were less likely to engage in this practice. Male students and students commuting to school by bicycle only were more likely to have used phones while riding. There was a significant relationship between phone usage while riding a bicycle and the experience of bicycle crash/near-crash, although its causality was not established. Bicycle crash/near-crash experienced while using a phone was less prevalent among the students who had a higher perception of danger in phone usage while riding, students who perceived that this practice is prohibited, and students with a shorter travel time by bicycle during the commute. Since mobile phone use while riding a bicycle potentially increases crash risk among cyclists, student bicycle commuters should be made aware of this risk. Moreover, they should be informed that cyclists' phone usage while riding is prohibited according to the road traffic law.
Teenoi, Kultida; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Like others, Thailand education strongly focused on STEM education. This paper aimed to examine existing Thai high school students' integrated knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in their developing science project. The participants included 49 high school students were studying the subject of individual study (IS) in Khon Kaen wittayayon school, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The IS was provided to gradually enhance students to know how to do science project starting from getting start to do science projects, They enrolled to study the individual study of science project for three year in roll. Methodology was qualitative research. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM were interpreted through participant observation, interview, and students' science projects. The first author as participant observation has taught this group of students for 3 years. It found that 16 science projects were developed. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM could be categorized into three categories. These included (1) completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, (2) partial indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and (3) no integration. The findings revealed that majority of science projects could be categorized as completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The paper suggested some ideas of enhancing students to applying STEM for developing science projects.
Smith, W. R.; Grannas, A. M.
Today's K-12 students will be the scientists and engineers who bring currently emerging technologies to fruition. Existing research endeavors will be continued and expanded upon in the future only if these students are adequately prepared. High school-university collaborations provide an effective means of recruiting and training the next generation of scientists and engineers. Here, we describe our successful high school-university collaboration in the context of other models. We have developed an authentic inquiry-oriented environmental chemistry research program involving high school students as researchers. The impetus behind the development of this project was twofold. First, participation in authentic research may give some of our students the experience and drive to enter technical studies after high school. One specific goal was to develop a program to recruit underrepresented minorities into university STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs. Second, inquiry-oriented lessons have been shown to be highly effective in developing scientific literacy among the general population of students. This collaboration involves the use of local resources and equipment available to most high schools and could serve as a model for developing high school- university partnerships.
Ruth A. ORTEGA-DELA CRUZ
Full Text Available Learning second language considers a number of factors that influence the manner in which the language is taught. Understanding of the learners’ goals and motivation for learning is one. Using descriptive-correlational research design, this study determined the influence of student English utility and teacher efficacy on the students’ English proficiency. A total of 101 students from first year to fourth year level served as the respondents of the study. The study quantified the students’ perception towards English utility and their evaluation of English teacher efficacy which employed a researcher-made survey questionnaire. Results revealed high positive perceptions of students towards English utility. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the perceptions of high school students on the efficacy of their English teachers. Correlation coefficients indicated a positive linear relationship among the given variables. The p-value revealed significant relationship of teacher efficacy (r = .691, p-value = .000 and English utility (r = .467, p-value = .000 to students’ English proficiency. Results of regression statistics revealed that English utility has no significant influence on the student English proficiency. Therefore, the main factor that must still be considered then should be the teacher. Finally, there is an explicit indication that high level of teachers’ efficacy performing in teaching has much powerful influence on the English proficiency of high school students. Thus improving the methods of teaching English provides a better way of motivating students to achieve higher levels of proficiency in the future.
Full Text Available The analysis of attitudes and value orientations of high school students comes as the result of research based on data collected during April-June 2011 in six towns in Serbia. The main objective of this research was to detect the dominant attitudes and value orientations of high school students on a scale of traditionalism, homophobia, anti-Romism, ethnic stereotypes and attitudes toward abortion. The research was conducted in the following cities: Belgrade, Krusevac, Novi Sad, Zrenjanin, Nis and Novi Pazar. The results showed that high school students in Serbia in regards to their beliefs do not differ much from the general social climate in which they grew up and were educated in. Traditional respondents are represented at the level of 33.9%; 27.9% of them are moderately traditional and 25% of them are non-traditional. On the one side there are extremely radical position of high school students especially in relation to Roma and LGBT people. On the other side, certain number of respondents howed high affinity and positive individual interprets of the lifestyles of those groups (such as the rights of marriage for homosexual population. Attitudes towards women's rights are also bipolar - high school students have a patriarchal attitude towards marriage, family and abortion, but they show sensitivity to the issue of domestic violence. The obtained data should be interpreted in accordance with the changes in Serbian society - economic crisis, privatization, increase of violence in society and family, redefining of gender roles, etc.
Milanović-Dobrota Biljana Z.
Full Text Available The current interest in introducing the dual education system into Serbian secondary education has drawn our attention to the question of students' self-perception in the process of practical teaching. The idea that underpins this paper is the supposition that students are affectively engaged with the work activities they perform. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES (Schaufeli et al., 2002 has been used for assessing students' work engagement in practical teaching. A study was conducted to examine the differences between high school students with mild intellectual disabilities and those with typical development with regard to aspects of work engagement defined as Energy, Commitment and Absorption. The sample was comprised of 248 students of vocational high schools in Serbia of both genders, of whom 111 with intellectual disabilities and 137 with typical development. The findings indicate that students with mild intellectual disabilities tend to rate their engagement in practical teaching more positively (t=7,457; p=0,001 than students with typical development. The paper provides a detailed analysis of the pedagogical implications of these findings and also outlines the limitations of the study, thus pointing the way for future research on this or related issues.
Full Text Available The level of social and moral maturity of high-school students was examined. There were almost no significant differences between the students of two different educational programs. In general, the students' level of social and moral maturity is satisfyingly high, but their social skills are not quite appropriately developed. The results of behaviour in school situations reveal a quite unpleasant picture of interpersonal relations, which is probably a reflection of social relations in society. The absence of correlations between both components of maturity and social skills shows the gap between human's reasoning and behaviour. Students know, which behaviour is moral and socially adapted, but they do not always act in congruence with that, because existing social relations often encourage different behaviour.
Anisa, A.; Widodo, A.; Riandi, R.
Argumentation is one factor that can help improve critical thinking skills. Arguing means to defend statements with the various data, denials, evidence, and reinforcement that support the statement. The research aimed to capture the quality of argument skills by students in grade 12 high school students and in postgraduate student on social-scientific issues of cancer. Both group subjects are not in the same school or institution, chosen purposively with the subject of 39 high school students of grade 12 in one district of West Java and 13 students of Biology education postgraduate in one of University in West Java - Indonesia. The results of the quality structure of arguments in both subject groups show the same pattern, which is claim - warrant - and ground, with the quality of counterclaim aspects on the postgraduate students look better than grade 12 students. This provides an illustration that the ability in argumentation between students and teachers in the socio-scientific issue of cancer should be evaluate so that the learning process would be more refined in schools.
Kanayama, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiko; Ohashi, Tsutomu; Tsujimoto, Yuichi; Oi, Shizuyo; Matsui, Kayoko; Tsujimoto, Ikuhiro; Yoshida, Hatsuko
The purposes of this study were to examine the relationship between social skills and loneliness, and to contribute to prevention and intervention of loneliness in junior high school students. Questionnaires were administered to 83 students (45 males and 38 females). Correlation analysis showed that loneliness score was negatively related to the scores of peer reinforcement, social initiation, conflict resolution and assertion skills, and also positively related to the score of withdrawal beh...
Measuring the quality of the ‘product’ is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size etc. But there is little evidence of learner perceptions. 553 students from two different universities, who graduated from 3 high school types, were asked to respond to two fundamental questions to reflect on schoo...
Célia R.S. Rocha; Sueli Rossini; Rubens Reimão
Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. Objective: To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288) from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-univer...
Foster, D.E.; Stone, C.A.
We have developed a two-week summer lecture and laboratory course that introduces hihg school students to concepts in nuclear science. The program has operated at the San Jose State University Nuclear Science Facility for two years. Experienced high school science teachers run the summer scholl, assisted by other science teachers. Students consider the program to be effective. Its popularity is shown by numerous requests for reservations and the necessity to offer multiple sections in 1997. (author)
Inglés, Cándido J.; Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche; Martínez-González, Agustin E.; Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche; Valle, Antonio; Universidad de A Coruña; García-Fernández, José M.; Universidad de Alicante; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; Universidad de Murcia
This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behaviour and academic goals in a sample of 2,022 Spanish compulsory secondary education students. The prosocial behaviour was measured with the Prosocial Behaviour scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS) and academic goals were measured with the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ). The results revealed that students with high prosocial behaviour presented higher significantly scores in learning and performance...
Steele, Marcee M.
This article reviews characteristics of high school students with learning disabilities and presents instructional modifications and study skills to help them succeed in algebra and geometry courses and on high stakes mathematics assessments.
Ohnuki, Mari; Shinada, Kayoko; Ueno, Masayuki; Zaitsu, Takashi; Wright, Fredrick Allan Clive; Kawaguchi, Yoko
The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of taste hyposensitivity and the relationships between sex, oral health status, and eating habits with taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Oral examinations, sweet and salt whole-mouth taste tests, and a questionnaire about eating habits were conducted on 234 senior high school students. Factors affecting taste hyposensitivity were investigated using a multivariate analysis. Sweet-taste hyposensitivity was observed in 7.3% of the students, and salt-taste hyposensitivity in 22.2%. Approximately 3% of the students had both sweet- and salt-taste hyposensitivity, and 22.6% had either sweet- or salt-taste hyposensitivity. In total, 26% had a taste hyposensitivity. There were significant relationships between the intake of instant noodles with sweet-taste hyposensitivity, and the intake of vegetables or isotonic drinks with salt-taste hyposensitivity. There was a significant association between eating habits and taste hyposensitivity in Japanese senior high school students. Taste tests would be a helpful adjunct for students to recognize variations in taste sensitivity, and a questionnaire about their eating habits might provide an effective self-review of their eating habits, and therefore, provide motivation to change. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Fernando, Antonio T; Samaranayake, Chinthaka B; Blank, Christopher J; Roberts, Gareth; Arroll, Bruce
Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ) was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of households in the school catchment area. A total of 1388 students completed the ASQ. The median age was 17 years (range 14-23) and females represented 43.5% (n=604) of the total group. A total of 37.2% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than one month. Depression and anxiety were present in 51.7% and 44.8% of students reporting a sleep problem, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between sleep problems and depression (r=0.34, psleep problems and anxiety (r=0.31, pstudents with sleep symptoms (12.2% and 5.5% respectively). No difference was found in the rate of sleep problems reported by different ethnic groups. A considerable proportion of students surveyed reported significant sleep symptoms. This study has the potential to aid physicians within New Zealand in better appreciating the burden of sleep disorders faced by young people and in effectively assessing and managing different causes of sleep symptoms in this demographic.
Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances
Chinese students from different high school settings face unique academic and emotional challenges. They are in a very vulnerable position due to high parent and teacher expectations and pressure to succeed in college entrance examinations and honour the family and the school. They are also vulnerable due to possible inappropriate parenting…
Çelebi, Evrim; Gündogdu, Cemal; Kizilkaya, Aysel
Healthy lifestyle behaviors can be defined as all the behaviors believed and applied by individuals to be healthy, maintain health and be protected from diseases. This study aims to determine the healthy lifestyle behaviors of high school students studying at the high schools in the Province of Elazig, Turkey. The study population of this…
Altan, Bilge Aslan; Altintas, Havva Ozge
Vocational high schools are one of the controversial topics, and also the hardly touched fields in educational field. Students' profiles of vocational schools, their visions, and professional identity developments are not frequently reflected in the literature. Therefore, the main aim of the study is to research whether vocational high school…
Erner, Carsten; Goedde-Menke, Michael; Oberste, Michael
After graduating high school, underage individuals soon face ever more complex and important financial decisions. Pivotal to the development of improved financial literacy programs is a comprehensive examination of financial literacy levels and potentially related factors. The authors conducted a survey among German high school students and found…
Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.
Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…
Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.
Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…
Marcela Cristina de Lemos
Full Text Available Objectives: To know the opinion of senior high school students in publicand private schools on the process of donating and transplanting organsand tissues, and their desire to be donors. Methods: A descriptive crosssectionalstudy, conducted from 2004 to 2005, on the opinion/knowledgeof senior high school students in public and private schools in the VilaMariana region of the city of São Paulo, on the process of organ and tissuedonation and transplantation. The convenience sample was made up of140 (81% students from two private schools and 167 (51% studentsfrom a public school. The project was approved by the Research EthicsCommittee of the UNIFESP. Results: Data showed that 163 (53.1%students believe that donation is by presumed consent and 147 (47.9%that consider that it occurs by informed consent. Of the public schoolstudents, 120 (71.9% believe that transplants are public and free ofcharge in Brazil versus 94 (67.1% of the students from private schools.Students know that donations may be made by living or dead donors(121 - 86.4% private schools versus 113 – 67.7% public school. Wehighlight that 22 (15.7% of the private school students and 16 (9.6%of those from the public school believe that the commerce of organs isallowed in Brazil. As to intentions of being a donor, 108 (77.1% of theprivate school students declared themselves organ and tissue donorsversus 106 (63.5% from the public school, and 63 (59.4% from thepublic versus 61 (56.5% from the private schools have already informedtheir families. Conclusion: There was no difference in knowledge andopinion among the students from the public and private schools as toaspects regarding donation and transplantation.
Kordić, Boris; Babić, Lepa
Facebook is currently the most popular friend-networking site in the world. The concept of friends on social networking site does not coincide with the notion of friends in real life. Nevertheless, Facebook is a social network that is based on real friends with the possibility of accepting strangers. In a study on a sample of 150 pupils from High School of Economics, we found that all have a profile on Facebook, the majority spends two hours a day on Facebook and has over a hundred Facebook f...
Sikes, Suzanne S; Schwartz-Bloom, Rochelle D
Launch into education about pharmacology (LEAP) is an inquiry-based science enrichment program designed to enhance competence in biology and chemistry and foster interest in science careers especially among under-represented minorities. The study of how drugs work, how they enter cells, alter body chemistry, and exit the body engages students to conceptualize fundamental precepts in biology, chemistry, and math. Students complete an intensive three-week course in the fundamentals of pharmacology during the summer followed by a mentored research component during the school year. Following a 5E learning paradigm, the summer course captures student interest by introducing controversial topics in pharmacology and provides a framework that guides them to explore topics in greater detail. The 5E learning cycle is recapitulated as students extend their knowledge to design and to test an original research question in pharmacology. LEAP students demonstrated significant gains in biology and chemistry knowledge and interests in pursuing science. Several students earned honors for the presentation of their research in regional and state science fairs. Success of the LEAP model in its initial 2 years argues that coupling college-level coursework of interest to teens with an authentic research experience enhances high school student success in and enthusiasm for science. Copyright © 2009 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Lüders, Débora; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Adriana Bender de Moreira; Ribas, Ângela; Conto, Juliana de
Research has shown that hearing loss in musicians may cause difficulty in timbre recognition and tuning of instruments. To analyze the hearing thresholds from 250 Hz to 16,000 Hz in a group of music students and compare them to a non-musician group in order to determine whether high-frequency audiometry is a useful tool in the early detection of hearing impairment. Study design was a retrospective observational cohort. Conventional and high-frequency audiometry was performed in 42 music students (Madsen Itera II audiometer and TDH39P headphones for conventional audiometry, and HDA 200 headphones for high-frequency audiometry). Of the 42 students, 38.1% were female students and 61.9% were male students, with a mean age of 26 years. At conventional audiometry, 92.85% had hearing thresholds within normal limits; but even within the normal limits, the worst results were observed in the left ear for all frequencies, except for 4000 Hz; compared to the non-musician group, the worst results occurred at 500 Hz in the left ear, and at 250 Hz, 6000 Hz, 9000 Hz, 10,000 Hz, and 11,200 Hz in both the ears. The periodic evaluation of high-frequency thresholds may be useful in the early detection of hearing loss in musicians. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that hearing loss in musicians may cause difficulty in timbre recognition and tuning of instruments. AIM: To analyze the hearing thresholds from 250 Hz to 16,000 Hz in a group of music students and compare them to a non-musician group in order to determine whether high-frequency audiometry is a useful tool in the early detection of hearing impairment. METHODS: Study design was a retrospective observational cohort. Conventional and high-frequency audiometry was performed in 42 music students (Madsen Itera II audiometer and TDH39P headphones for conventional audiometry, and HDA 200 headphones for high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: Of the 42 students, 38.1% were female students and 61.9% were male students, with a mean age of 26 years. At conventional audiometry, 92.85% had hearing thresholds within normal limits; but even within the normal limits, the worst results were observed in the left ear for all frequencies, except for 4000 Hz; compared to the non-musician group, the worst results occurred at 500 Hz in the left ear, and at 250 Hz, 6000 Hz, 9000 Hz, 10,000 Hz, and 11,200 Hz in both the ears. CONCLUSION: The periodic evaluation of high-frequency thresholds may be useful in the early detection of hearing loss in musicians.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional study with non-probability sampling method, was conducted in a junior high school Jatinangor during the month of July 2013. Ninety six participants were included in this study. All the participants underwent an interview about the food intake for breakfast in seven days using eating pattern recall guidelines. Results: Overall, 37% of the respondents skipped breakfast. The mean of total calories among the adolescents who consumed breakfast was 286.06 (187.89 kcal. The amount of carbohydrate, fat and protein consumed was 29.23 (19.93 gram, 13.93 (13.29 gram and 8.78 (6.11 gram accordingly. The main reason for adolescent to skip breakfast was lack of time. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents have their breakfast before they go to school. Overall, the total calories comsumed is sufficient however the amount of protein consumed is low.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES. We describe a school program based on a student manual for promoting mental health and preventing mental illness. METHODS. A preliminary version of the manual was assessed for face validity by two focus groups. The final version was evaluated for acceptability among 253 students in 10 high schools and 1 middle school in Italy. RESULTS. The manual included 18 chapters (or "units" which address skills for enabling students to cope with their daily lives: communication skills, problem-solving, assertive skills, negotiation, stress management, anger management and conflict resolution. The manual was found to have been acceptable by high school students. CONCLUSIONS. The effectiveness of the manual in actually promoting mental health and preventing mental illness is currently being evaluated.
Gigantesco, Antonella; Del Re, Debora; Cascavilla, Isabella
We describe a school program based on a student manual for promoting mental health and preventing mental illness. A preliminary version of the manual was assessed for face validity by two focus groups. The final version was evaluated for acceptability among 253 students in 10 high schools and 1 middle school in Italy. The manual included 18 chapters (or "units") which address skills for enabling students to cope with their daily lives: communication skills, problem-solving, assertive skills, negotiation, stress management, anger management and conflict resolution. The manual was found to have been acceptable by high school students. The effectiveness of the manual in actually promoting mental health and preventing mental illness is currently being evaluated.
Ginsburg, Golda S.; Grover, Rachel L.; Cord, Jennalee J.; Ialongo, Nick
This study examined the relation between type of parent–child interaction task and parenting behaviors among a predominantly African American community-based sample. Twenty-five anxious and matched nonanxious (N = 50) mothers were videotaped with their children (Mage = 5.8 years) engaging in both a structured and unstructured task. Blind raters coded 3 parent behaviors hypothesized to play a role in the development of child anxiety: overcontrol, anxious behavior, and criticism. Results indicated that higher levels of overcontrol, anxious behavior, and criticism were found in the structured compared to unstructured task. Levels of criticism, among anxious mothers only, were significantly correlated across tasks. Results suggest that situation specific aspects of parent–child interaction tasks may influence parenting behaviors. These findings help explain variations in observational research in the anxiety literature and highlight the need for careful selection ofparent–child tasks in future research. PMID:16597228
Aguilar, C.; Swartz, D.
Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) is a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center focused on improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models. The Center is divided into three sections including Knowledge Transfer, Research, and Education and Diversity. The Science Education and Diversity mission is to educate and train people with diverse backgrounds in Climate and Earth System Science by enhancing teaching and learning and disseminating science results through multiple media. CMMAP is partnering with two local school districts to host an annual global climate conferences for high school students. The 2008 Colorado Global Climate Conference seeks "To educate students on global and local climate issues and empower them to se their knowledge." The conference is sponsored by CMMAP, The Governor's Energy Office, Poudre School District, Thompson School District, Clif Bar, and Ben and Jerry's Scoop Shop of Fort Collins. The conference seeks to inspire students to pursue future education and careers in science fields. Following an opening welcome from the Governor's Energy Office, Keynote Piers Sellers will discuss his experiences as an atmospheric scientist and NASA astronaut. Students will then attend 3 out of 16 breakout sessions including such sessions as "Hot poems, Cool Paintings, and the treasures of Antiquity of Climate Change", "Mitigation vs Adaptation", "Bigfoot Walks(What Size is our carbon footprint?)" "The Wedges: Reduc ing Carbon Emissions", and "We the People: Climate and Culture of Climate Change" to name a few. Using The Governor's High School Conference on the Environment sponsored by the Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education as a model we are developing statewide partnerships to bring high school students together to look at global climate issues that will impact their future and of which they can be part of the solution through their education and career paths. In addition to
Morgan, JK; Lee, GE; Wright, AGC; Gilchrist, DE; Forbes, EE; McMakin, DL; Dahl, RE; Ladouceur, CD; Ryan, ND; Silk, JS
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Anxious youth may experience altered positive affect (PA) relative to healthy youth, perhaps because of greater sensitivity to social experiences. Altered PA may be especially evident during the transition to adolescence, a period in which positive social events increase in salience and value. The current study evaluated whether anxious youth show differences in baseline PA, rate of return to baseline, and variability around baseline PA and te...
Presenting science is an authentic activity of practicing scientists. Thus, effective communication of science is an important skill to nurture in high school students who are learning science. This study examines strategies employed by high school students as they make science presentations; it assesses students' conceptual understandings of particular science topics through their presentations and investigates gender differences. Data are derived from science presentation given by eight high school students, three females and five males who attended a summer science program. Data sources included videotaped presentations, ethnographic fieldnotes, interviews with presenters and members of the audience, and presenter notes and overheads. Presentations were transcribed and submitted to discourse analysis from an interactional sociolinguistic perspective. This article focuses on the methodology employed and how it helps inform the above research questions. The author argues that use of this methodology leads to findings that inform important social-communicative issues in the learning of science. Practical advice for teaching students to present science, implications for use of presentations to assess conceptual learning, and indications of some possible gender differences are discussed.Received: 14 April 1993; Revised: 15 February 1994;
Donna P. Mann
Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Student role performance for academic success in secondary education is under represented in the occupational therapy literature, despite the persistently high dropout rate in the United States (Stillwell & Sable, 2013. Executive dysfunction is one of many possible contributors to difficulties in the classroom (Dirette & Kolak, 2004 and is a better indicator of school performance than IQ (Diamond, 2012. This research examined executive functioning of both alternative and traditional high school students to determine if there is a relationship between executive function and academic success as measured by cumulative grade point average. METHOD. 132 high school students from three different school settings were given the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self Report (BRIEF-SR. The Global Executive Composite (GEC and individual subscale scores were compared to GPA. RESULTS. No significant difference in GEC scores was found among settings. Subscale scores for “inhibition” and “task completion” were significantly different in the alternative school setting. A weak negative correlation was seen between the GEC and GPA. However, academically unsuccessful students scored statistically lower on the GEC. CONCLUSION. Global executive dysfunction was not predicted by setting but was seen in academically unsuccessful students.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Adolescents are known to have high risk factors for sleep disorders, yet the youth rates of sleep disturbances are unknown. AIM: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among New Zealand high school students. METHODS: The Auckland Sleep Questionnaire (ASQ was administered to high school students at six schools in the North Island. Schools were chosen to reflect a range of ethnicities and school deciles, which identify the socioeconomic status of households in the school catchment area. RESULTS: A total of 1388 students completed the ASQ. The median age was 17 years (range 14-23 and females represented 43.5% (n=604 of the total group. A total of 37.2% of the students surveyed reported having significant sleep symptoms lasting longer than one month. Depression and anxiety were present in 51.7% and 44.8% of students reporting a sleep problem, respectively. A moderate correlation was observed between sleep problems and depression (r=0.34, p<0.01, and sleep problems and anxiety (r=0.31, p<0.01. Problem alcohol use and other substance use were more common in students with sleep symptoms (12.2% and 5.5% respectively. No difference was found in the rate of sleep problems reported by different ethnic groups. DISCUSSION: A considerable proportion of students surveyed reported significant sleep symptoms. This study has the potential to aid physicians within New Zealand in better appreciating the burden of sleep disorders faced by young people and in effectively assessing and managing different causes of sleep symptoms in this demographic.
Lee, K Y
This study aims to investigate smoking patterns in high school student and to give student smoker effective information. The sample of 250 male high school students out of two different schools in Tae-Jŏn was questioned from July 10th to 15th, 1995. In analyzing these date, the statistics shows the realities by means of number of students. The results are summarized into 17 items as follows. Regarding the level of smoking, 140 students out of 250 admit that they have ever smoked, 52.1% of smoking students say that the motivation of beginning smoking is mainly curiosity. The survey shows that 22.9% of smoking students feel very good when smoking. It also shows that 30.0% of smoking students began smoking in the first grade of high school. With regard to the volume of smoking per day, 41.4% of smoking students smoke variably, 42.1% drink when smoking, 15.0% spend more than W 70,000 a month. About the question who knows the fact of their smoking, 51.5% answer that their friends know the fact of their smoking. In regard to the reslationship between smoking and school performance, 18.2% of non smoking students make poor grades as compared with 40% of smoking students, 9.3% of smoking students say that they are satisfied with the school life, but 35.7% of them are not satisfied. Regarding the attitude to smoking teachers, 35% of smoking students state that they are affected by them. 69.3% of smoking students say that they will stop smoking, while the remaining 30.7% say that they will keep smoking. The reason of 63.9% to stop smoking is that smoking is bad for the health. The reason of 46.5% to keep smoking is the acquired habit of smoking. 97.2% know the fact that the major element of cigarettes is nicotine and it is very harmful to the health. 40.8% recognize the harmful effect of smoking by TV and radio programs. 97.2% know that smoking could cause lung cancer. From the above results. I propose as follows We should make specific plan to keep smoking by simple
Peixoto, Denis Eduardo; Kleinke, Maurício Urban
Current literature reports that the astronomy education is motivating and interesting for basic education, but the content suggested by the national curriculum guidelines do not seem to attract students and teachers in order to transcend the discipline of Science in the elementary School or Physics in High School. By applying a questionnaire to 80 students of High School and participants of Brazilian Olympiad of Astronomy and Astronautics of two schools of São Paulo state, we obtained results that indicate that astronomy topics that really motivate students are topics linked to science fiction and current research, which are the subject of extensive media release and have a strong interdisciplinary character. At the end of the work we suggest a new context for astronomy education, by inserting topics combined with other areas of knowledge to what we call “interdisciplinary astrophysics teaching”.
Between 2 and 7 April eighteen American high school students were let loose at CERN armed with video cameras. Their mission? To take on the role of broadcast journalists and inspire their peers across the US with short documentaries and blogs illuminating the work happening at the world’s most powerful particle accelerator. Members of the teams of budding physicists and broadcast journalists pose in front of the ATLAS detector.Following in the footsteps of professional journalists around the world, six teams of American high school students recently travelled to CERN to experience the increasing excitement in the run-up to the switch-on of the LHC. The six teams are from five states across the US and were the winners of a competition sponsored and funded by the US Department of Energy’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation. Each team consists of three students plus a teacher, who combine their knowledge of ph...
Chen, Junwen; McLean, Jordan E; Kemps, Eva
This study investigated the effects of combined audience feedback with video feedback plus cognitive preparation, and cognitive review (enabling deeper processing of feedback) on state anxiety and self-perceptions including perception of performance and perceived probability of negative evaluation in socially anxious individuals during a speech performance. One hundred and forty socially anxious students were randomly assigned to four conditions: Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Audience Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+AF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback + Cognitive Review (CP+VF+CR), Cognitive Preparation + Video Feedback only (CP+VF), and Control. They were asked to deliver two impromptu speeches that were evaluated by confederates. Participants' levels of anxiety and self-perceptions pertaining to the speech task were assessed before and after feedback, and after the second speech. Compared to participants in the other conditions, participants in the CP+VF+AF+CR condition reported a significant decrease in their state anxiety and perceived probability of negative evaluation scores, and a significant increase in their positive perception of speech performance from before to after the feedback. These effects generalized to the second speech. Our results suggest that adding audience feedback to video feedback plus cognitive preparation and cognitive review may improve the effects of existing video feedback procedures in reducing anxiety symptoms and distorted self-representations in socially anxious individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Boice, Daniel C.; Asbell, E.; Reiff, P. H.
Young Engineers and Scientists (YES) is a community partnership between Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and local high schools in San Antonio, Texas (USA) during the past 16 years. The YES program provides talented high school juniors and seniors a bridge between classroom instruction and real world, research experiences in physical sciences (including space science) and engineering. YES consists of two parts: 1) an intensive three-week summer workshop held at SwRI where students experience the research environment first-hand; develop skills and acquire tools for solving scientific problems, attend mini-courses and seminars on electronics, computers and the Internet, careers, science ethics, and other topics; and select individual research projects to be completed during the academic year; and 2) a collegial mentorship where students complete individual research projects under the guidance of their mentors during the academic year and earn honors credit. At the end of the school year, students publicly present and display their work, acknowledging their accomplishments and spreading career awareness to other students and teachers. During these years, YES has developed a website for topics in space science from the perspective of high school students, including NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) (http://yesserver.space.swri.edu). High school science teachers participate in the workshop and develop space-related lessons for classroom presentation in the academic year. Student evaluations indicate the effectiveness of YES on their academic preparation and choice of college majors. Over the past 16 years, all YES graduates have entered college, several have worked for SwRI, one business has started, and three scientific publications have resulted. Acknowledgements. We acknowledge funding and support from the NASA MMS Mission, Texas Space Grant Consortium, Northside Independent School District, SwRI, and several local charitable foundations.
Hamit Sirri Keten
Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study and was performed in January 2014. The study sample included eight out of 42 high schools in the city of Kahramanmaras, Turkey. The students were informed about the study and 473 who gave written informed consent were included in the study. Data were collected with a questionnaire developed by the researchers in the light of the literature about hepatitis B infection. The questionnaire was composed of 23 questions to test knowledge of hepatitis B infection. Each correct answer was assigned 1point. Obtained data were analysed with SPSS 20.0. Results: Of 473 students, 277 (58.6% were female and 196 (41.4% were male. The mean age of the students was 15.59+/-0.99 years (min=14, max=20. The mean score for knowledge of hepatitis B infection was 8.33+/-4.19 (min=0, max=21 without a significant difference between the males and the females (p=0.563. The twelfth year students got higher knowledge scores than the rest of the students (p<0.0001. The question which the highest rate of the students answered correctly (n=333; 70.4% was and ldquo;Is hepatitis B infection transmitted through blood? and rdquo;. Conclusion: The study revealed that the high school students got low scores for knowledge of hepatitis B infection. The Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education should cooperate to create preventive health policies directed towards this infection. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(3.000: 138-142
Presented are a variety of surface run-off experiments for high school students. The experiments are analogies to basic concepts about water intake, as related to water delivery, soil properties and management, floods, and conservation measures. The materials needed to perform the experiments are easily obtainable. The experiments are followed by…
This article describes how the physical educators at Tahoma High School, in a community in Washington state's Cascade Mountains, surveyed their students, reached out to the community, integrated physical education and academics, and established a school-wide focus on wellness. Tracy Krause writes that the three "Rs"--relationships,…
Five hundred and sixty high school students from five secondary schools in Calabar, Nigeria were studied for antibiotic usage. Questionnaires where administered to determine the following parameters: Knowledge of antibiotics, types of infections for which antibiotics were taken, sources of prescription and procurement of ...
Akyol, Betül; Sögüt, Kayhan
The aim of our study is to examine the cardiovascular endurance systems of sedentary high school students. The 112 sedentary individual was taken to the 1600 meter walking test run, and the 120 sedentary individual Harward step test. While both individuals were participating in the same test, weight, height, oxygen saturation, and heart rate of…
The curriculum guide describes an exemplary project designed to provide junior high school students with an opportunity to explore careers related to the world of music. The units present objectives, activities, and resources related to the following occupations: pop music artist, professional musician (union), instrumental and vocal music…
Developing solutions to engineering design problems requires access to information. Research has shown that appropriately accessing and using information in the design process improves solution quality. This quasi-experimental study provides two groups of high school students with a design problem in a three hour design experience. One group has…
Bagley, Sylvia S.
This study focuses on data collected at "Progressive Secondary School" in Southern California, a high school which uses narrative evaluations and other forms of alternative summative assessment on a school wide basis. Through a survey and personal interviews, students were asked to describe what they liked most and least about the use of…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; Rajeswari, K.
The primary purpose of this study was to determine the influence of self-esteem on academic achievement among high school students in Miandoab City of Iran. The methodology of the research is descriptive and correlation that descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Statistical Society includes male and female high…
Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit
In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…
Zhou, Zongkui; Tang, Hanying; Tian, Yuan; Wei, Hua; Zhang, Fengjuan; Morrison, Chelsey M.
Cyberbullying has become a common occurrence among adolescents worldwide; however, it has yet to receive adequate scholarly attention in China, especially in the mainland. The present study investigated the epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of cyberbullying, utilizing a sample of 1,438 high school students from central China.…
Timmermans, W.; Cilliers, J.; Garcia, A.; Koolen, A.; Woudstra, A.; Dijk, van T.
Two international and interdisciplinary high pressure student ateliers have been done and evaluated, one to explore possible future scenario’s for Strofylia (Greece) as requested by local and regional authorities and stakeholders, the other to put urban agriculture on the Lugo (Galicia, Spain)
Garza, Rubén; Soto Huerta, Mary Esther
This mixed methods investigation specifically examined Latino high school adolescents' perceptions of teacher behaviors that demonstrate caring. A chi-square test was conducted to analyze the frequency of responses, and focus group interviews were conducted to expand on the results. The data indicated that although Latino male students were as…
Bhat, Christine Suniti; Ragan, Moira A.; Selvaraj, Priscilla R.; Shultz, Benjamin J.
Six hundred and forty high-school students (Grades 7-12) from a large central government school in South India participated in this exploratory study of online bullying (cyberbullying) in India. Participants responded to the Survey on Social Use of Information and Communications Technology (SSUICT; Bhat and Ragan 2013). Findings indicated that…
Brandes, Louis Grant
Optical illusions are assumed to be of interest to high school mathematics students. The article indicates how a topic can be both educational and entertaining. Readers are invited to try to construct some illusions on their own, and to see if they can classify them. (MP)
Babin, Ron; Grant, Kenneth A.; Sawal, Lea
This paper examines the role of influencers in Canadian high school student decisions to pursue Information and Communications Technology (ICT) careers and education. With growing rates of retirements of ICT workers expected over the next 10-15 years, industry representatives are concerned that the shortfall in replacement workers will have a…
Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…
Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Goelzer, S.; Levergood, R.; Lugaz, N.; Moebius, E.
Every summer for the past 26 years the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has run a month-long, residential outreach program for high school students considering careers in mathematics, science, or engineering. Space science is one of the modules. Students work directly with UNH faculty performing original work with real spacecraft data and hardware and present the results of that effort at the end of the program. This year the student research projects used data from the Messenger, STEREO, and Triana missions. In addition, the students build and fly a high-altitude balloon payload with instruments of their own construction. Students learn circuit design and construction, microcontroller programming, and core atmospheric and space science along with fundamental concepts in space physics and engineering. Our payload design has evolved significantly since the first flight of a simple rectangular box and now involves a stable descent vehicle that does not require a parachute. Our flight hardware includes an on-board flight control computer, in-flight autonomous control and data acquisition of multiple student-built instruments, and real-time camera images sent to ground. This year we developed, built and flew a successful line cutter based on GPS location information that prevents our payload from falling into the ocean while also separating the payload from the balloon remains for a cleaner descent. We will describe that new line cutter design and implementation along with the shielded Geiger counters that we flew as part of our cosmic ray air shower experiment. This is a program that can be used as a model for other schools to follow and that high schools can initiate. More information can be found at .
This listing of physicists and students associated with the US high energy physics program has been compiled in the Division of High Energy Physics of the Office of Energy Research of the US Department of Energy. This listing has been obtained by asking the research groups, laboratories, and other agencies involved to update previous information. This volume is in two parts. The first part is an alphabetical listing and includes only the name, rank, and institution of high energy physicists and graduate students. The second part of the volume is arranged by institution. Within each institution, the faculty (or permanent staff) and the graduate students are presented in separate alphabetical lists. For each person the entry indicates their birthdate, the year and institution of their highest degree, their rank and institutional affiliation with starting dates, up to three items selected from a list of research specialties, and their sources of federal support. For the graduate students, there is also indicated an estimated date for their degree. Where appropriate, a person is listed at more than one institution. Except as noted in the headings, the information is intended to indicate the situation as of January 1, 1981
McConnell, Mark L.
The goal of this project was to provide an opportunity for high school students to participate in university-level research projects. In this case, students from Pinkerton Academy (Derry, New Hampshire) were invited to participate in efforts to catalog data from the COMPTEL experiment on NASA's Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO). These activities were part of a senior level honors course at Pinkerton. Although the success of this particular program was rather limited, we feel that the general concept is a sound one. In principle, the concept of partnerships between local schools and university researchers is one that could be especially attractive to soft money researchers. Programs can be carefully designed to benefit both the students and the research program.
Voelzke, M. R.; Barbosa, J. I. L.
Astronomy-related contents exist in almost all levels of basic education in Brazil and are also frequently disseminated through mass media. Thus, students form their own explanations about the phenomena studied by this science. Therefore, this work has the objective of identifying the possible social background of the Integrated High School students on the term Astronomy. It is a research of a basic nature, descriptive, and for that reason a quali-quantitative approach was adopted; the procedures to obtain the data were effected in the form of a survey. The results show that the tested students have a social background about the object Astronomy, which is on the one hand fortified by elements they have made or which is part of the experience lived by the respondents within the formal space of education, and on the other hand based on elements possibly disseminated through the mass media.
Kirkman, Tera R
Members of nursing faculty are utilizing interactive teaching tools to improve nursing student's clinical judgment; one method that has been found to be potentially effective is high fidelity simulation (HFS). The purpose of this time series design study was to determine whether undergraduate nursing students were able to transfer knowledge and skills learned from classroom lecture and a HFS clinical to the traditional clinical setting. Students (n=42) were observed and rated on their ability to perform a respiratory assessment. The observations and ratings took place at the bedside, prior to a respiratory lecture, following the respiratory lecture, and following simulation clinical. The findings indicated that there was a significant difference (p=0.000) in transfer of learning demonstrated over time. Transfer of learning was demonstrated and the use of HFS was found to be an effective learning and teaching method. Implications of results are discussed.
An alphabetical listing is given of high energy physicists and graduate students, providing the person's name, rank, and institution. Another listing gives the faculty (or permanent staff) and graduate students for each institution, listing for each person the date of birth, year and institution of highest degree, the rank and institutional affiliation with starting dates, up to three items selected from a list of research specialties, and their sources of federal support. For the graduate students, there is also indicated an estimated date for their degree. Where appropriate, a person may be listed at more than one institution. Except as noted, the information is intended to indicate the situation as of January 1, 1985
Chen, Wei; Shen, Yue-di; Chen, Rong; Ding, Guo-xian
To investigate the sleep status of college and high schools students. Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) and self-manufactured questionnaires about siesta habits were used as tools. Three groups of students from medical college (MC), senior high school (SS) and junior high school (JS) were surveyed. In the group MC, SS and JS, the occurrence rates of sleep disorders were 27%, 62% and 54%, respectively, and in which the appearance rates of insomnia were 17%, 19% and 19%, longing for sleep were 10%, 43% and 35% respectively. And there were no significant difference between schoolboy and schoolgirl. The occurrence rates of slack breathing were different (5/155, 1/154) significantly between group SS and JS. The distinct differences also were found in group JS and MC, in which students felt hot (10/155, 1/122) and in all the three groups, in which students felt sleepy (55/155, 62/154, 13/122) whereas the difference of sleepy between group SS and JS was comparatively distinct (55/155, 62/154). Significant differences were also found between group JS and SS, MC in average sleep time of (7.65 +/- 0.87) hours, (7.16 +/- 0.83) hours, and (7.10 +/- 0.57) hours. The time of falling asleep (median 15 min, 10 min, 20 min) and siesta habit (8/155, 19/154, 75/122) among group MC and SS, JS were different respectively and markedly, whereas siesta habit differences between group SS and JS were comparatively distinct (8/155, 19/154). Students in high school showed higher rate of longing for sleep, and this implicated they fall short of sleep time greatly and siesta could improve their sleepy signs.
Chan, Shiau Wei; Ismail, Zaleha; Sumintono, Bambang
Based on a synthesis of literature, earlier studies, analyses and observations on high school students, this study developed an initial framework for assessing students' statistical reasoning about descriptive statistics. Framework descriptors were established across five levels of statistical reasoning and four key constructs. The former consisted of idiosyncratic reasoning, verbal reasoning, transitional reasoning, procedural reasoning, and integrated process reasoning. The latter include describing data, organizing and reducing data, representing data, and analyzing and interpreting data. In contrast to earlier studies, this initial framework formulated a complete and coherent statistical reasoning framework. A statistical reasoning assessment tool was then constructed from this initial framework. The tool was administered to 10 tenth-grade students in a task-based interview. The initial framework was refined, and the statistical reasoning assessment tool was revised. The ten students then participated in the second task-based interview, and the data obtained were used to validate the framework. The findings showed that the students' statistical reasoning levels were consistent across the four constructs, and this result confirmed the framework's cohesion. Developed to contribute to statistics education, this newly developed statistical reasoning framework provides a guide for planning learning goals and designing instruction and assessments.
Full Text Available Writing in English is one of the language skills that are taught in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Indonesian senior high schools. According to previous studies, most of the students consider writing is the most difficult of the four skills. This research was aimed at finding out the main difficulties in writing faced by the grade XI students at SMA Negeri 10 Fajar Harapan, Banda Aceh, and the efforts made by their teacher to overcome those problems. The design of this study was a descriptive qualitative study. To obtain the data, the writers used document collection and interviews. The results from the document collection showed that the highest percentages of problems faced by the students were in the aspect of language use and the least problems were in the aspect of content. The results from the interviews showed that the most common correcting efforts made by the teacher were giving written feedback for all aspects of writing i.e. language use, mechanics, vocabulary, organization, and content. Likewise, teachers need to develop systemized forms of feedback and make it clear to students what the feedback means and what they are to do with them to assist students in improving their writing skills.
Alexandra da Costa Souza Martins
Full Text Available This study investigated the desirable educational background for a teacher to work with high ability/gifted students, desirable characteristics these teachers should present and conceptions on high ability/giftedness. The participants were 20 public school teachers from a city surrounding Brasilia. Of this group, ten were elementary school teachers working with initial grades and ten were undergraduate Pedagogy teachers. A qualitative approach was used and data were collected by means of a semi-structured interview. A content analysis was then conducted. In relation to the desirable educational background for a teach of high ability/gifted students, participants indicated the need of continuous training, under graduation curriculum adapted to the theme and graduation courses in the area. The desirable features for teachers of high ability/gifted students were related to personological attributes (personality traits and intellectual ability, as well as professional characteristics. The conceptions on high ability/giftedness presented by the participants were, in general, close to those found in the literature and used as reference for this study. However, there was lack of information on how to apply the theory into real practice, as well as several wrong ideas on the topic.
Full Text Available Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men.The scenario was a party with five virtual characters, four sitting at a distance from the participant and talking amongst themselves and one lone woman standing closer. The woman approached the participant, introduced herself and initiated a conversation that was first about mundane matters and then became more personal and intimate. Participants were men who were either relatively socially confident (18 or socially anxious in their relationships with women (18. A second experimental factor was whether or not the other four characters occasionally looked towards the participant. There was a post-trial questionnaire about social anxiety in relation to the experience, and skin conductance and ECG physiological measures were recorded. Our expectation was that the socially anxious participants would show greater anxiety throughout.Compared to baseline readings both socially confident and socially anxious groups on average showed signs of significantly increased stress at the initial approach of the virtual woman. The stress then diminished once the conversation entered into the mundane phase and then did not significantly change. Comparing pre- and post-questionnaire anxiety scores there was no change for the more confident participants but a significant decrease in average score amongst the anxious group. The methodology of placing socially anxious participants in a virtual reality where they can gain experience of how to act in a stressful situation promises a novel way
Pan, Xueni; Gillies, Marco; Barker, Chris; Clark, David M.; Slater, Mel
Background Male volunteers entered an immersive virtual reality that depicted a party, where they were approached by a lone virtual woman who initiated a conversation. The goal was to study how socially anxious and socially confident men would react to this event. Interest focused on whether the socially anxious participants would exhibit sustained anxiety during the conversation or whether this would diminish over time, and differ from the responses of the more socially confident men. Methodology The scenario was a party with five virtual characters, four sitting at a distance from the participant and talking amongst themselves and one lone woman standing closer. The woman approached the participant, introduced herself and initiated a conversation that was first about mundane matters and then became more personal and intimate. Participants were men who were either relatively socially confident (18) or socially anxious in their relationships with women (18). A second experimental factor was whether or not the other four characters occasionally looked towards the participant. There was a post-trial questionnaire about social anxiety in relation to the experience, and skin conductance and ECG physiological measures were recorded. Our expectation was that the socially anxious participants would show greater anxiety throughout. Conclusions Compared to baseline readings both socially confident and socially anxious groups on average showed signs of significantly increased stress at the initial approach of the virtual woman. The stress then diminished once the conversation entered into the mundane phase and then did not significantly change. Comparing pre- and post-questionnaire anxiety scores there was no change for the more confident participants but a significant decrease in average score amongst the anxious group. The methodology of placing socially anxious participants in a virtual reality where they can gain experience of how to act in a stressful situation promises
Isshiki, Yuriko; Morimoto, Kanehisa
To examine the relationship between lifestyles and psychosomatic symptoms in children, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey of elementary school students and junior high school students in Japan. We designed an original questionnaire to investigate the lifestyles and psychosomatic symptoms of children. In 1997, responses to the questionnaires were elicited from public elementary school fourth grade students (then aged 9-10) and public junior high school seventh grade students (then aged 12-13). The survey was repeated annually for three years as the students advanced through school. For both boys and girls, each cross-sectional analysis revealed a strong relationship between lifestyle behaviors and psychosomatic symptoms. Psychosomatic, symptoms scores varied according to daily hours of sleep, eating of breakfast, having strong likes and dislikes of food, bowel habits, and daily hours of television watching. Both boys and girls with "good" lifestyle, behaviors evaluated by the HPI (Health Practice Index) showed lower scores for psychosomatic symptoms. These findings show that the lifestyle behaviors of children are significantly associated with psychosomatic symptoms and suggest that poor lifestyle behaviors are likely to increase physical and psychological health risks.
O'Sullivan, Edwin Duncan, Jr.
The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate if wiki collaboration among Latino high school chemistry students can help reduce the science achievement gap between Latino and White students. The study was a quasi-experimental pre/post control group mixed-methods design. It used three intact sections of a high school chemistry course. The first research question asked if there is a difference in academic achievement between a treatment and control group on selected concepts from the topics of bonding, physical changes, and chemical changes, when Latino high school chemistry students collaborate on a quasi-natural wiki project. Overall results for all three activities (Bonding, Physical Changes, and Chemical Changes) indicated no significant difference between the wiki and control group. However, students performing the chemical changes activity did significantly better than their respective control group. Furthermore, there was a significant association, with large effect size, between group membership and ability to overcome the misconception that aqueous ionic reactants in precipitation reactions exist as molecular pairs of ions. Qualitative analysis of classroom and computer lab dialogue, discussion board communication, student focus groups, teacher interviews, and wiki content attributes the better performance of the chemical changes wiki group to favorable differences in intersubjectivity and calibrated assistance, as well as learning about submicroscopic representations of precipitation reactions in multiple contexts. Furthermore, the nonsignificant result overall points to an aversion to peer editing as a possible cause. Drawing considerably on Vygotsky and Piaget, the results are discussed within the context of how distributed scaffolding facilitated medium levels of cognitive conflict. The second research question asked what the characteristics of distributed metacognitive scaffolding are when Latino high school chemistry students collaborate on a quasi
Schnabel, Konrad; Banse, Rainer; Asendorpf, Jens B
This study explored the psychometric properties of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) when it is employed for the assessment of two personality traits within one sample. The sequence of an anxiousness and an angriness IAT was counterbalanced across 100 participants and the IATs' predictive validity for anxious versus angry behaviour after emotion inductions was examined and compared to direct self-report measures. The anxiousness IAT added incremental validity over direct measures for the prediction of anxious behaviour. The angriness IAT was affected by an order effect. When the angriness IAT was completed after the anxiousness IAT both tests correlated with r=.46 whereas they were not significantly correlated when the angriness IAT was completed first. Direct anxiousness and angriness measures were uncorrelated. Implications for the assessment of multiple implicit personality self-concept dimensions are discussed.
Bauman, Sheri; Toomey, Russell B; Walker, Jenny L
This study examined associations among depression, suicidal behaviors, and bullying and victimization experiences in 1491 high school students using data from the 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Results demonstrated that depression mediated the association between bullying/victimization and suicide attempts, but differently for males and females. Specifically, depression mediated the link between traditional victimization and suicide attempts similarly across gender, whereas depression mediated the link between cyber victimization and suicide attempts only for females. Similarly, depression mediated the link between traditional bullying and suicide attempts for females only. Depression did not mediate the link between cyberbullying and suicide attempts for either gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, including the importance of greater detection of depression among students involved in bullying, and the need for a suicide prevention and intervention component in anti-bullying programs. Findings suggest that bullying prevention efforts be extended from middle school students to include high school students. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This listing of physicists and students associated with the U.S. high-energy physics program was obtained by asking the research groups, laboratories, and other agencies involved to update previous information. The first part of this volume is an alphabetical listing and includes only the name, rank, and institution of high-energy physicists and graduate students. The second part of the volume is arranged by institution. Within each institution, the faculty (or permanent staff) and the graduate students are presented in separate alphabetical lists. For each person the entry indicates the year and institution of highest degree, rank and institutional affiliation with starting dates, up to three items selected from a list of research specialties, and sources of federal support. For the graduate students, there is also indicated an estimated date for their degree. Where appropriate, a person is listed at more than one institution. Except as noted in the headings, the information is intended to indicate the situation as of January 1, 1978. (RWR)
This listing of physicists and students associated with the U.S. high-energy physics program was obtained by asking the research groups, laboratories, and other agencies involved to update previous information. The first part of this volume is an alphabetical listing and includes only the name, rank, and institution of high-energy physicists and graduate students. The second part of the volume is arranged by institution. Within each institution, the faculty (or permanent staff) and the graduate students are presented in separate alphabetical lists. For each person the entry indicates birthdate, the year and institution of highest degree, rank and institutional affiliation with starting dates, up to three items selected from a list of research specialties, and sources of federal support. For the graduate students, there is also indicated an estimated date for their degree. Where appropriate, a person is listed at more than one institution. Except as noted in the headings, the information is intended to indicate the situation as of January 1, 1978
Diana Valerievna Zhuina
Full Text Available Purpose of conduct theoretical and methodological analysis of the problem of creative thinking subjects of the educational environment; generalization of the results of an empirical study of creative thinking of students of pedagogical high school; formulation of conclusions and recommendations based on the results of empirical research.Methodology of work in the article used the following me-thods of psycho-pedagogical studies: theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature on research; empirical methods, «Torrance Test of creativity»; quantitative method of data processing (percent.Results for Beginning Students (1st and 2nd pedagogical university have a level of creativity lower than normal. Du-ring training, under the influence of modern psychological and pedagogical technologies, through participation in research and training activities of a creative nature (competitions, contests and so on. Level of creativity senior students increases. However, you need a specially organized system of work aimed at improving the efficiency of the learning process at the university, to develop the necessary professional competencies of students (including the development of creative thinking, contributing to the formation of highly qualified professionals in demand in the labor market.Practical implications of the study results have both theoretical and practical focus is to enhance the knowledge about the features of creative thinking of students about the factors and conditions of development of creative thinking techniques in the teaching process at the university. In addition, the results of empirical research, you can use a high school teacher, se-condary vocational institutions in order to organize educatio-nal activities aimed at improving the creative (creative thin-king subjects of education.
Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hisakazu; Inoue, Fumio; Kosaka, Kitaro; Asano, Hiroaki; Yoshii, Kengo
Early atherosclerotic change is found even in childhood, and there is an urgent need to clarify the factors causing childhood atherosclerosis and take preventive measures. Early detection of the contributing risk factors is crucial to facilitate preventive measures. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a widely used technique for the assessment of atherosclerosis in children. Lifestyle questionnaire, brachio-ankle PWV (baPWV) and anthropometric data were obtained from junior high school students in an urban area of Japan between 2006 and 2008, from seventh to ninth grades. Mean baPWV increased from 867.4 ± 99.5 m/s to 944.5 ± 117.5 m/s in boys, and from 864.0 ± 99.5 m/s to 923.0 ± 101.3 m/s in girls. Obese students had higher baPWV than non-obese students in both genders across each grade. On logistic regression analysis of ninth grade student data, high baPWV was dependent on systolic blood pressure (SBP), time watching television (TV) and symptoms of depression and anxiety, whereas low baPWV was dependent on time playing video games, light exercise, sleep and indoor play, as well as good friendship and motivation. Systolic blood pressure, time watching TV, and symptoms of depression and anxiety may contribute to arterial stiffness and be related to obesity in junior high school students. © 2017 The Authors Pediatrics International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Pediatric Society.
Bucarelli, Bianca; Purdon, Christine
A growing body of research suggests that the repetition of an action degrades memory for that action, as well as confidence that is has been done correctly. This has important implications for understanding the compulsive repetition of actions characteristic of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). At this time, though, much of the research has been conducted on analogue or nonclinical OCD samples in comparison to healthy controls and often using virtual, as opposed to actual, threat stimuli. Furthermore, although it has been argued that people with OCD are overly attentive to threat stimuli, the research on actual attention to threat is scant. People with a principal diagnosis of OCD (n = 30) and people with a clinically significant diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, but no OCD (n = 18) completed measures of memory confidence and responsibility and then underwent a stove-checking task in a functioning kitchen while wearing a portable eye tracking device. Pre- and post-task ratings of harm and responsibility were taken, along with post-task ratings of memory and certainty. People with OCD did not exhibit poorer memory confidence than the anxious control (AC) group, but did report greater trait and state responsibility for harm. The OCD group checked longer than did the AC group and check duration predicted post-task ratings of harm, but to the same extent in both groups. People with OCD attended to threat items less than did the AC group. Greater visual attention to the stove during the checking period was associated with greater post-task ratings of responsibility and harm and with less certainty in and memory for the check - but only for the AC group. The sample size was modest, women were over-represented and problems with the eye tracking device reduced the amount of reliable data available for analysis. Compulsions are complex actions that are mediated by many trait, state and contextual factors. People with OCD may be able to circumvent self
High stress levels in nursing students may affect memory, concentration, and problem-solving ability, and may lead to decreased learning, coping, academic performance, and retention. College students with higher levels of learned resourcefulness develop greater self-confidence, motivation, and academic persistence, and are less likely to become anxious, depressed, and frustrated, but no studies specifically involve nursing students. This explanatory correlational study used Gadzella's Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) and Rosenbaum's Self Control Scale (SCS) to explore learned resourcefulness, stressors, and academic performance in 53 baccalaureate nursing students. High levels of personal and academic stressors were evident, but not significant predictors of academic performance (p = .90). Age was a significant predictor of academic performance (p = learned resourcefulness scores than females and Caucasians. Studies in larger, more diverse samples are necessary to validate these findings.
Gouin, J P; Zhou, Q Q; Booij, L; Boivin, M; Côté, S M; Hébert, M; Ouellet-Morin, I; Szyf, M; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G; Vitaro, F
Recent models propose deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of key neuro-regulatory genes as a molecular mechanism underlying the increased risk of mental disorder associated with early life adversity (ELA). The goal of this study was to examine the association of ELA with oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) methylation among young adults. Drawing from a 21-year longitudinal cohort, we compared adulthood OXTR methylation frequency of 46 adults (23 males and 23 females) selected for high or low ELA exposure based on childhood socioeconomic status and exposure to physical and sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence. Associations between OXTR methylation and teacher-rated childhood trajectories of anxiousness were also assessed. ELA exposure was associated with one significant CpG site in the first intron among females, but not among males. Similarly, childhood trajectories of anxiousness were related to one significant CpG site within the promoter region among females, but not among males. This study suggests that females might be more sensitive to the impact of ELA on OXTR methylation than males.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children′s response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. Study Design: This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Conclusion: Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.
Kaur, Rajwinder; Jindal, Ritu; Dua, Rohini; Mahajan, Sandeep; Sethi, Kunal; Garg, Sunny
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare audio and audiovisual distraction aids in management of anxious pediatric dental patients of different age groups and to study children's response to sequential dental visits with the use of distraction aids. This study was conducted on two age groups, that is, 4-6 years and 6-8 years with 30 patients in each age group on their first dental visit. The children of both the age groups were divided into 3 subgroups, the control group, audio distraction group, audiovisual distraction group with 10 patients in each subgroup. Each child in all the subgroups had gone through three dental visits. Child anxiety level at each visit was assessed by using a combination of anxiety measuring parameters. The data collected was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis. Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc test at 0.05% level of significance revealed audiovisual group showed statistically highly significant difference from audio and control group, whereas audio group showed the statistically significant difference from the control group. Audiovisual distraction was found to be a more effective mode of distraction in the management of anxious children in both the age groups when compared to audio distraction. In both the age groups, a significant effect of the visit type was also observed.
Nurullah Emir Ekinci
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate self-confidence levels of high school students, who do sport, in the extent of their gender, sport branch (individual/team sports and aim for participating in sport (professional/amateur. 185 active high school students from Kutahya voluntarily participated for the study. In the study as data gathering tool self-confidence scale was used. In the evaluation of the data as a hypothesis test Mann Whitney U non parametric test was used. As a result self-confidence levels of participants showed significant differences according to their gender and sport branch but there was no significant difference according to aim for participating in sport.
Full Text Available The current study examined the learning style preferences of 75 Iranian students at Marefat high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 41 are females and 34 are males. As there are very few researches in which the learning style preferences of Iranian high school students investigated, this study attempts to fulfil this gap. To this end, in order to identify the students’ preferred learning styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic, Tactile, Group, and Individual Reid’s Perceptual Learning Style Preferences Questionnaire was used. Results indicated that the six learning style preferences considered in the questionnaire were positively preferred. Overall, kinesthetic and tactile learning were major learning styles. Auditory, group, visual, and individual were minor.
Brandi E. JOHNSON
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Brandi E. Johnson
Full Text Available Throughout the United States, many middle and high school students struggle to comprehend science texts for a variety of reasons. Science texts are frequently boring, focused on isolated facts, present too many new concepts at once, and lack the clarity and organization known to improve comprehension. Compounding the problem is that many adolescent readers do not possess effective comprehension strategies, particularly for difficult expository science texts. Some researchers have suggested changing the characteristics of science texts to better assist adolescent readers with understanding, while others have focused on changing the strategies of adolescent readers. In the current paper, we review the literature on selected strategy instruction programs used to improve science text comprehension in middle and high school students and suggest avenues for future research.
Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S
This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available This study aims to present the development and validation process of a scale to explore the learning barriers of high school students in Turkey. For this purpose, a scale was developed and administered to 316 high school students studying in the different counties of Ankara in the spring term of 2014-2015 academic year. Gathering the data, an exploratory factor analysis was run through SPSS Package program to see the structure of the interrelationships among the variables under six tests. Furthermore, a reliability analysis was conducted to the items under each test in the scale. As a result, one factor appeared under each test when the eigenvalues and variance percentages were examined, making six factors in total. The Cronbach’s Alpha Reliability Coefficient was calculated as to be significant for each test, which showed that the tests were reliable. Finally, some items were excluded from the scale.
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety about doctors among children is very common. White coat phobia which is a classical conditioning phenomenon is said to be prevalent among children. Objectives: To analyze the association between anxious states of children about dentists and their preference of dentist attire and gender in the dental office. Materials and Methods: The 9-12-year-old middle school children were selected for the study. Children were asked to fill a questionnaire containing children′s fear survey schedule-dental subscale (CFSS-DS and asked to prefer dental attire from four different pictures displaying the single anonymous dentist in four different attires in the same operator. The CFSS-DS gave the anxiety scale, and age, gender, and experience were also plotted against children preference in an apron, protective wear, and gender preference. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: About 718 (62% were scored as anxious children. Of all anxious children, 502 (69.9% had preference of colored attires of the dentist, and 408 (66.8% anxious children preferred dentist with protective wear. Female dentists were preferred by 452 (66% anxious children. Same gender preference was also prevalent.
Plano Clark, Vicki L; Miller, Dana L; Creswell, John W; McVea, Kristine; McEntarffer, Rob; Harter, Lynn M; Mickelson, William T
The purpose of this multi-site qualitative study is to explore how adolescents talk about tobacco use. Sixty-six students in four high schools became co-researchers and led focus group interviews with 205 fellow students. From the interviews, the authors develop a story line that reports how adolescents begin smoking, how smoking becomes a pervasive influence, how attitudes form about smoking, what it means to be a smoker, and, ultimately, student suggestions for tobacco use prevention. Embedded within this story line are complex questions and contradictions. We explore whether peers really are influential, if the media is important, whether smoking is a matter of personal choice, if schools actually promote tobacco use, and whether adolescents can quit smoking.
Ataeiasl, Maryam; Sarbakhsh, Parvin; Dadashzadeh, Hossein; Augner, Christoph; Anbarlouei, Masoumeh; Mohammadpoorasl, Asghar
Recent research has described negative relationship between happiness and habitual smoking among adolescents. No study of this relationship has been conducted among Iranian adolescents. The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between happiness and cigarette or hookah smoking among a sample of high school students. A sample of 1,161 10th-grade students in Tabriz (northwest Iran) was selected by multi-stage proportional cluster sampling. Participants completed a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire including information on cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, happiness score, substance abuse, self-injury, general risk-taking behavior, attitudes towards smoking, socioeconomic information, and demographic characteristics. An ordinal logistic regression model was used for data analysis. It was found that 5.9 and 5.0% of students were regular cigarette smokers and regular hookah smokers, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, higher happiness scores were found to protect students against more advanced stages of cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99; p=0.013). However, no significant relationship was found between happiness scores and hookah smoking status (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.02; p=0.523). Happiness scores were associated with less advanced stages of habitual cigarette smoking among high school students. Our findings underscore the necessity of conducting longitudinal or interventional studies aiming to determine the effects of enhancing happiness on preventing the transition through the stages of cigarette and hookah smoking.
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of steal...
Landry, Melinda; Smith, Cynthia; Greene, Joy
Prince William County Public Schools and George Mason University in Virginia, USA, partnered to provide Meaningful Watershed Educational Experiences (MWEEs) for over 25,000 middle and high school students (11-18 year olds) across 34 schools. This school district, situated in a rapidly growing region 55 km southwest of Washington DC, has over 82,000 K-12 students. As native forest cover has been replaced with farming and urbanization, water quality has significantly degraded in the 166,534 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. This project was designed to increase student awareness of their impact on the land and waters of the largest estuary in the United States. MWEE is a long-term comprehensive project that incorporates a classroom preparation phase, a hands-on outdoor field investigation, and a reflection and data-sharing component. Training and technical assistance enhances the capacity of teachers of 6th grade, high school Earth Science and Environmental Science to deliver MWEEs which includes schoolyard stewardship, inquiry driven field study, use of hand-held technology and computer based mapping and analysis, project sharing and outreach. George Mason University researchers worked closely with K-12 science educators to create a comprehensive watershed-focused curriculum. Graduate and undergraduate students with strong interests in environmental science and education were trained to deliver the field investigation component of the MWEE. Representative teachers from each school were provided 3 days of professional development and were responsible for the training of their school's science education team. A comprehensive curriculum provided teachers with activities and tools designed to enhance students' mastery of state science objectives. Watershed concepts were used as the unifying theme to support student understanding of curriculum and STEM objectives including: scientific investigation, data collection and communication, chemistry, energy, erosion, human
Full Text Available Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs: Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007. The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs’ automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation. We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: It led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia.
Rinck, Mike; Telli, Sibel; Kampmann, Isabel L.; Woud, Marcella L.; Kerstholt, Merel; te Velthuis, Sarai; Wittkowski, Matthias; Becker, Eni S.
Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer et al., 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to avoid them. We examined whether such an AAT training could change HSAs' automatic avoidance tendencies, and if yes, whether AAT effects would generalize to a new approach task with new facial stimuli, and to mood and anxiety in a social threat situation (a video-recorded self-presentation). We found that HSAs trained to approach smiling faces did indeed approach female faces faster after the training than HSAs trained to avoid smiling faces. Moreover, approach-faces training reduced emotional vulnerability: it led to more positive mood and lower anxiety after the self-presentation than avoid-faces training. These results suggest that automatic approach-avoidance tendencies have a causal role in social anxiety, and that they can be modified by a simple computerized training. This may open new avenues in the therapy of social phobia. PMID:23970862
Zvielli, Ariel; Bernstein, Amit; Koster, Ernst H W
The aim of the present study was to question untested assumptions about the nature of the expression of Attentional Bias (AB) towards and away from threat stimuli. We tested the idea that high trait anxious individuals (N = 106; M(SD)age = 23.9(3.2) years; 68% women) show a stable AB towards multiple categories of threatening information using the emotional visual dot probe task. AB with respect to five categories of threat stimuli (i.e., angry faces, attacking dogs, attacking snakes, pointed weapons, violent scenes) was evaluated. In contrast with current theories, we found that 34% of participants expressed AB towards threat stimuli, 20.8% AB away from threat stimuli, and 34% AB towards some categories of threat stimuli and away from others. The multiple observed expressions of AB were not an artifact of a specific criterion AB score cut-off; not specific to certain categories of threat stimuli; not an artifact of differences in within-subject variability in reaction time; nor accounted for by individual differences in anxiety-related variables. Findings are conceptualized as reflecting the understudied dynamics of AB expression, with implications for AB measurement and quantification, etiology, relations, and intervention research.
van der Veen, Date C; van Dijk, Silvia D M; Comijs, Hannie C; van Zelst, Willeke H; Schoevers, Robert A; Oude Voshaar, Richard C
Anxious depression is associated with severe impairment and bad prognoses. We hypothesize that recent life-events are associated with more anxiety in late-life depression and that this is conditional upon the level of certain personality traits. Baseline data of the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used. In 333 patients (≥60 years) suffering from a major depressive disorder, anxiety was assessed with the BAI, personality traits with the NEO-FFI and the Mastery Scale, and life-events with the Brugha questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied with anxiety severity as dependent and life-events and personality traits as independent variables. 147 patients (44.1%) had recently experienced one or more life-events. The presence of a life-event is not associated with anxiety (p = .161) or depression severity (p = .440). However, certain personality traits interacted with life-events in explaining anxiety severity. Stratified analyses showed that life-events were associated with higher anxiety levels in case of high levels of neuroticism and openness and low levels of conscientiousness or mastery. In the face of a life-event, personality traits may play a central role in increased anxiety levels in late-life depression.
The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…
Song, MinKyoung; Carroll, Dianna D; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E
Our study is the first to describe the prevalence and correlates (demographics, body mass index [BMI], sedentary behaviors, and physical activity) of high school youth who report active videogame playing (active gaming) in a U.S. representative sample. The National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study of 2010 provided data for this study. Active gaming was assessed as the number of days in the 7 days prior to the survey that students in grades 9-12 (14-18 years of age) reported participating in active videogames (e.g., "Wii™ Fit" [Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan], "Dance Dance Revolution" [Konami, Osaka, Japan]). Students reporting ≥1 days were classified as active gamers. Logistic regression was used to examine the association among active gaming and demographic characteristics, BMI, sedentary behaviors, and physical activity. Among 9125 U.S. high school students in grades 9-12 surveyed, 39.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval=37.9 percent, 42.0 percent) reported active gaming. Adjusting for covariates, the following characteristics were positively associated (Pblack, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity; being overweight or obese; watching DVDs >0 hours/day; watching TV >0 hours/day; and meeting guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity. Four out of 10 U.S. high school students report participating in active gaming. Active gamers tend to spend more time watching DVDs or TV, meet guidelines for physical activity, and/or be overweight or obese compared with nonactive gamers. These findings may serve to provide a baseline to track active gaming in U.S. youth and inform interventions that target sedentary behaviors and/or physical activity.
Full Text Available Background Sleep disorders are prevalent in adolescents and may influence their academic achievement. To date, no study has been done in Indonesia on academic achievement in students with sleep disorders and its related factors. Objective To assess for relationships between academic achievement and related factors, including gender, motivation and learning strategies, IQ level, maternal educational level, socioeconomic status, family structure, after-hours education program, presence of TV/computer in the bedroom, sleep duration during school days, as well as bedtime and wakeup time difference in junior high school students with sleep disorders. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from January to March 2013. Subjects were students from five junior high schools in Jakarta who fulfilled the criteria for sleep disorders based on the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children questionnaire. Results There were 111 study subjects. The prevalence of sleep disorders was 39.7%, mostly in difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (70.2%. Below-average academic achievement was seen in 47.6% of subjects. Factors significantly related to below-average academic achievement were after-hours education program (prevalence ratio 5.6; 95%CI 1.36 to 23.18; P = 0.017, average IQ level (prevalence ratio 3.26; 95%CI 1.38 to 7.71; P = 0.007, and male gender (prevalence ratio 2.68; 95%CI 1.06 to 6.78; P = 0.037. Conclusion Among junior high school students with sleep disorders, factors related to below-average academic achievement are afterhours education program (more than 2 types, the average IQ level, and male gender.
Berg, Rolf Henrik
. A key challenge faced by entrepreneurs aiming at starting their “own” high-tech company is the high costs and, thereby, the difficulty of accessing appropriate amount of financing without quickly losing ownership and hence incentive in their business. One possible solution is customer-based financing...... something with a culture, something that permeates the way one thinks of. Educating students in an innovative research environment is key to inspiring them to think commercially. It is in this light, among others, that one should view the advantages of close collaboration between academia and industry...
Markin, Alexey V.
This report devoted to presenting results of development and implementation of a short course (4 hours) entitled "Introduction to Nanotechnology" that was specially designed for familiarizing high school students with nanomaterials and nanotechnology. The course contains introduction to nanotechnology, essential definitions, short overview of history, descriptions for various examples of nanomaterials and their classifications, performing demonstration experiments. All these parts of the course are briefly analyzed from pedagogical effectiveness point of view. Finally, results of course testing, problems and perspectives of nano-oriented education at high school are also discussed shortly.
Full Text Available Depressive and anxious symptoms have a clear impact on the functioning of people. Their appearance seems to be related to the presence of deficits in metacognitive capacities. Mindfulness interventions increase metacognitive awareness through their effect in the decentering capacity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between mindfulness and decentering with anxious and depressive symptomatology respectively. The sample consisted of 465 participants contacted through universities and social networks. Results revealed that both mindfulness and the ability to decenter explain the presence of depressive symptoms while only mindfulness explains the presence of anxiety symptoms. These results are encouraging for intervention in mindfulness with anxious and depressive symptoms and stress the importance of metacognitive processes such as decentering in their development.
Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah
This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…
Ali Reza Zolfaghari
Full Text Available Objective: Behavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence represent a range of problems and Its prevalence varies in different parts of Iran and the world. Knowledge of them is essential to the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of patients. The aim of this survey is assessment of behavior disorders prevalence in high school students in Hamedan province. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and cross sectional study, 500 boy and girl students were selected from Hamedan high schools by multistep cluster sampling, based on region and gender. Data were gathered by Achenbach experience questionnaire (YSR form and analyzed by Friedman and independent T tests. Results: The findings showed that prevalence of behavioral problems among students in the province is 10 percent and it was higher in girls than boys. Most disorders were withdrawal disorder / anxiety and attention problems and somatization disorder was the least problem. Conclusion: Prevalence of behavior disorders in Hamedan province compared to other studies is moderate, but the behavior disorders prevalence of boys and girls are different from other researchs.
Sabila Tasyakur Nikmah
Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractive error is one of the avoidable causes of vision impairment in children and adults. Vision problem in children has been shown to affect their psychological and academic performance. This study aims at identifying and gaining more insights on the characteristic of the refractive errors in state junior high school students in Bandung to avoid uncorrected refractive errors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in September–November 2015 in state junior high schools in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Sample was selected using multistage random sampling technique. Children were examined using tumbling E examination; then students with visual acuity worse than 6/12 underwent Snellen Chart test, refractometry without pupil dilatation, correction with trial lens, then was followed by direct ophthalmoscopy. Results: From a total of 435 children who completed all the examination, 80 children (18.39% had refractive errors; consisted of 151 eyes (94.38% with myopia and 9 eyes (5.62% with astigmatism. Refractive errors were found to be more common in female children (73.7% than male children (26.3%. Among those with refractive errors, 45 children (56.3% did not use any corrective glasses before the examination. Conclusions: Routine refractive error test in vision screening examination is needed for students. It is equally important to raise more awareness toward eye disease in community.
Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A.; Desai, Rani A.
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health issues is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n=3999) was examined using a self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2% (95%CI: 14.8–17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p<.05) associated with any stealing behavior. Stealing appears fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggests that stealing often has significant associated morbidity. PMID:21389165
Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana A; Desai, Rani A
Although stealing among adolescents appears to be fairly common, an assessment of adolescent stealing and its relationship to other behaviors and health problems is incompletely understood. A large sample of high school students (n = 3,999) was examined by self-report survey with 153 questions concerning demographic characteristics, stealing behaviors, other health behaviors including substance use, and functioning variables, such as grades and violent behavior. The overall prevalence of stealing was 15.2 percent (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.8-17.0). Twenty-nine (0.72%) students endorsed symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of DSM-IV-TR kleptomania. Poor grades, alcohol and drug use, regular smoking, sadness and hopelessness, and other antisocial behaviors were all significantly (p stealing behavior. Stealing appears to be fairly common among high school students and is associated with a range of potentially addictive and antisocial behaviors. Significant distress and loss of control over this behavior suggest that stealing often has significant associated morbidity.
Kõljalg, Siiri; Mändar, Rando; Sõber, Tiina; Rööp, Tiiu; Mändar, Reet
While contamination of mobile phones in the hospital has been found to be common in several studies, little information about bacterial abundance on phones used in the community is available. Our aim was to quantitatively determine the bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones. Altogether 27 mobile phones were studied. The contact plate method and microbial identification using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer were used for culture studies. Quantitative PCR reaction for detection of universal 16S rRNA, Enterococcus faecalis 16S rRNA and Escherichia coli allantoin permease were performed, and the presence of tetracycline ( tet A, tet B, tet M), erythromycin ( erm B) and sulphonamide ( sul 1) resistance genes was assessed. We found a high median bacterial count on secondary school students' mobile phones (10.5 CFU/cm 2 ) and a median of 17,032 bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies per phone. Potentially pathogenic microbes ( Staphylococcus aureus , Acinetobacter spp. , Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus cereus and Neisseria flavescens ) were found among dominant microbes more often on phones with higher percentage of E. faecalis in total bacterial 16S rRNA. No differences in contamination level or dominating bacterial species between phone owner's gender and between phone types (touch screen/keypad) were found. No antibiotic resistance genes were detected on mobile phone surfaces. Quantitative study methods revealed high level bacterial contamination of secondary school students' mobile phones.
Koster, Ernst H W; Verschuere, Bruno; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan
Cognitive studies about anxiety suggest that the interplay between automatic and strategic biases in attention to threat is related to the persistence of fear. In the present study, the time-course of attention to pictures with varying threat levels was investigated in high trait anxious (HTA, n=21) and low trait anxious (LTA, n=22) students. In a visual probe detection task, high and mild threat pictures were presented at three durations: 100, 500, and 1250 ms. Results indicated that all individuals attended to the high threat pictures for the 100 ms condition. Differential responding between HTA and LTA individuals was found for the 500 ms condition: only HTA individuals showed an attentional bias for mild threatening stimuli. For the 1250 ms condition, the HTA individuals attended away from high and mild threat pictures. The observed pattern of differential attention to threatening pictures may explain the persistence of fear in HTA individuals.
Angélica Caetano da Silva
Full Text Available This research is the result of a completed dissertation held in the Physical Education Post Graduate Program at UFSC, in which goal was to reflect on the media discourse about health and physical activity among young high school students, in Physical Education, from a education intervention. The study was based on methodological elements of action research and was attended by 22 students. The intervention was carried out on the basis of school mediation strategies, along with the teacher who is responsible for the class. As a conclusion, the study indicates that media education can be associated to any knowledge of school culture, in a longitudinal basis, starting from students’ knowledge about the content transmitted by the media and the effort of a media education cannot be overlooked.
Wendi, H. F.; Kusumah, I. H.
The purpose of the research is to explore the influence of internship and vocational skill to student’s entrepreneurship competencies. The research used ex post facto approach. Population in this research is all students of Vocational High School in Bandung, Indonesia. The sample of 40 respondents was determined by proportional random sampling technique. The data were collected by instrument questionnaire and test. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. The results show that almost half students have a low the competencies of an entrepreneur. The hypothesis testing shows many the influence of factory teaching has a positive and significant effect on the competencies of an entrepreneur. Similarly, vocational skills have positive influence and significant on the competencies of an entrepreneur. Respectively, the influence of factory teaching and vocational skills expertise collectively have the effect on the competencies of an entrepreneur. Therefore, the influence of factory teaching and vocational skills are effective to student’s entrepreneurship cap competencies.
Archambault, Isabelle; Janosz, Michel; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien; Pagani, Linda S
Although the concept of school engagement figures prominently in most school dropout theories, there has been little empirical research conducted on its nature and course and, more importantly, the association with dropout. Information on the natural development of school engagement would greatly benefit those interested in preventing student alienation during adolescence. Using a longitudinal sample of 11,827 French-Canadian high school students, we tested behavioral, affective, cognitive indices of engagement both separately and as a global construct. We then assessed their contribution as prospective predictors of school dropout using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Global engagement reliably predicted school dropout. Among its three specific dimensions, only behavioral engagement made a significant contribution in the prediction equation. Our findings confirm the robustness of the overall multidimensional construct of school engagement, which reflects both cognitive and psychosocial characteristics, and underscore the importance attributed to basic participation and compliance issues in reliably estimating risk of not completing basic schooling during adolescence.
Cándido J. Inglés
Full Text Available This study analyzed the relationship between prosocial behaviour and academic goals in a sample of 2,022 Spanish compulsory secondary education students. The prosocial behaviour was measured with the Prosocial Behaviour scale of the Teenage Inventory of Social Skills (TISS and academic goals were measured with the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire (AGTQ. The results revealed that students with high prosocial behaviour presented higher significantly scores in learning and performance goals. The prosocial behaviour was a positive and statistically significant predictor of learning and performance goals. Furthermore, learning and performance goals were positive and statistically significant predictors of the prosocial behaviour, whereas social reinforcement goals were a negative and statisticallysignificant predictor of prosocial behaviour.
Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.
Cunningham, Glennis Edge
The primary goal of schools is to promote the highest degree of learning possible. Yet teachers spend the majority of their time engaged in lecturing while students spend the majority of their time passively present (Cawelti, 1997, Grinder, 1991; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Jenkins, 1996). Helping students develop proficiency in learning, which translates into using that expertise to construct knowledge in subject domains, is a crucial goal of education. Students need exposure to teaching and learning practices that prepare them for both the classroom and their places in the future workforce (Ettinger, 1998; Longley, Goodchild, Maguire, & Rhind, 2001; NRC, 1996; Texley & Wild, 1996). The purpose of this study was to determine if achievement in high school science courses could be enhanced utilizing mindmapping. The subjects were primarily 9th and 10th graders (n = 147) at a suburban South Texas high school. A pretest-posttest control group design was selected to determine the effects of mindmapping on student achievement as measured by a teacher-developed, panel-validated instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with the teacher and a purposive sample of students (n = 7) to determine their perceptions of mindmapping and its effects on teaching and learning. Mindmapping is a strategy for visually displaying large amounts of conceptual, hierarchical information in a concise, organized, and accessible format. Mindmaps arrange information similar to that found on the traditional topic outline into colorful spatial displays that offer the user a view of the "forest" as well as the "trees" (Hyerle, 1996; Wandersee, 1990b). An independent samples t-test and a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) determined no significant difference in achievement between the groups. The experimental group improved in achievement at least as much as the control group. Several factors may have played a role in the lack of statistically significant results. These factors include the
Moon, Sidney M.
One rationale for failure to address the needs of high-ability students in schools is that high-ability students do not need special services because they do not face any special problems or challenges. A more extreme corollary of this attitude is the notion that high ability is so protective that students with high ability do not face problems or…
Black, David V.; Herring, Julie; Hintz, Eric G.
A major barrier to becoming an astronomer is learning how to analyze astronomical data, such as using photometry to compare the brightness of stars. Most fledgling astronomers learn observation, data reduction, and analysis skills through an upper division college class. If the same skills could be taught in an introductory high school astronomy class, then more students would have an opportunity to do authentic science earlier, with implications for how many choose to become astronomers. Several software tools have been developed that can analyze astronomical data ranging from fairly straightforward (AstroImageJ and DS9) to very complex (IRAF and DAOphot). During the summer of 2014, a study was undertaken at Brigham Young University through a Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program to evaluate the effectiveness and ease-of-use of these four software packages. Standard tasks tested included creating a false-color IR image using WISE data in DS9, Adobe Photoshop, and The Gimp; a multi-aperture analyses of variable stars over time using AstroImageJ; creating Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of stars using photometry at multiple wavelengths in AstroImageJ and DS9; and color-magnitude and hydrogen alpha index diagrams for open star clusters using IRAF and DAOphot. Tutorials were then written and combined with screen captures to teach high school astronomy students at Walden School of Liberal Arts in Provo, UT how to perform these same tasks. They analyzed image data using the four software packages, imported it into Microsoft Excel, and created charts using images from BYU's 36-inch telescope at their West Mountain Observatory. The students' attempts to complete these tasks were observed, mentoring was provided, and the students then reported on their experience through a self-reflection essay and concept test. Results indicate that high school astronomy students can successfully complete professional-level astronomy data analyses when given detailed
Novak, D; Doubova, S V; Kawachi, I
To examine factors associated with regular physical activity in Croatian adolescents. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013/14 school year. A survey was conducted among 33 high schools in Zagreb City, Croatia. Participants were students aged 17-18 years. The dependent variables were regular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overall physical activity measured by the short version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire and defined as 60 min or more of daily physical activity. The independent variables included family, neighborhood, and high school social capital. Other study covariates included: socio-economic status, self-rated health, psychological distress and nutritional status. The associations between physical activity and social capital variables were assessed separately for boys and girls through multiple logistic regression and inverse probability weighting in order to correct for missing data bias. A total of 1689 boys and 1739 girls responded to the survey. A higher percentage of boys reported performing regular vigorous and moderate physical activity (59.4%) and overall physical activity (83.4%), comparing with the girls (35.4% and 70%, respectively). For boys, high family social capital and high informal social control were associated with increased odds of regular MVPA (1.49, 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90 and 1.26, 95%CI: 1.02 - 1.56, respectively), compared to those with low social capital. For girls, high informal social control was associated with regular overall physical activity (OR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.09 - 1.76). High social capital is associated with regular MVPA in boys and regular overall activity in girls. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for promotion of physical activity in youth. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mathematics education is considered as the basic right that all students have to .... Descriptive Statistics on the Total Score of Students. ( ). Minimum. Score .... where Ghanaian students' worst performances were recorded in applying. Also, the ...
Tsurugi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Mieko; Matsuda, Shinya
The purpose of this study was to clarify the actual sexual behavior and attitudes of high school students in Kitakyushu city, Fukuoka and then to develop effective sex education methods for high school students in this region. This study investigated the sexual behavior and attitudes of 1,297 high school students in Kitakyushu by self-administered questionnaire. The differences in their answers by sex, prevalence of sexual intercourse and change in sexual behavior and attitude before and after the sex education lecture were examined. 39.3% of the students had had sexual intercourse and 74.1% answered that they might have sex, if it were with a partner whom they loved. However, they did not have enough knowledge about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. This result shows that they did not recognize the risks accompanying sexual intercourse. There are significant differences between male and female students in their sexual attitudes. Male students tend to permit premarital sexual intercourse, unfaithfulness, prostitution, hiring a prostitute and abortion. Male students tend to give more approval to the following opinions: both men and women should agree to sexual contact if the partner wants it; men should take the initiative in sexual contact; women should not talk about sex. Many female students answered that women should make their own decisions to have or not to have sex, however a considerable number of female students answered that for their first intercourse, they just agreed with their partner even though they really did not want to do so. After the sex education lecture, the students have more knowledge about contraception and STDs. However, there is no significant difference in their sexual attitudes before and after the lecture. In order to facilitate more desirable and safer sexual behavior among the younger generation, it is not enough to simply give them knowledge about contraception or STDs, etc. To organize more comprehensive sex
... Information Act Office Public Health Image Library (PHIL) E-cigarette use triples among middle and high school students ... ET Contact: Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Current e-cigarette use among middle and high school students tripled ...
Waller, Samara Susan
This study addressed a prevalence of low achievement in science courses in an urban school district in Georgia. National leaders and educators have identified the improvement of science proficiency as critical to the future of American industry. The purpose of this study was to examine parent involvement in this school district and its contribution to the academic achievement of successful science students. Social capital theory guided this study by suggesting that students achieve best when investments are made into their academic and social development. A collective case study qualitative research design was used to interview 9 parent participants at 2 elementary schools whose children scored in the exceeds category on the Science CRCT. The research questions focused on what these parents did at home to support their children's academic achievement. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview protocol and analyzed through the categorical aggregation of transcribed interviews. Key findings revealed that the parents invested time and resources in 3 practices: communicating high expectations, supporting and developing key skills, and communicating with teachers. These findings contribute to social change at both the local and community level by creating a starting point for teachers, principals, and district leaders to reexamine the value of parent input in the educational process, and by providing data to support the revision of current parent involvement policies. Possibilities for further study building upon the findings of this study may focus on student perceptions of their parents' parenting as it relates to their science achievement.
Full Text Available AIM: 12-18 years of age reported that risky for internet addiction. To determine the relationship between internet addiction and hopelessness was aimed in this study. METHOD: This study was carried out in a high school which the maximum number of students in a city center and has a profile of student who from every region of this city. It was sampling taken 350 students from 1596 in this high school by using simple random numbers table. It was used adolescent information form, Internet Addiction Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale to data collection. In the analysis process, Chi-square, correlation, logistic regression analysis were used. RESULTS: It was found internet addiction between hopelessness in adolescents, bi-directional, moderate and positive relationship. Hopelessness scores of adolescents showing symptoms of internet addiction and who use the internet to surf on the web are high. Adolescents 3.6% of internet addiction profile showed 21.8% per cent were found to be the border of internet addiction. Some of the characteristics of the adolescents at home to the computer, internet usage time and a friend on the relationship between Internet addiction was found to be a significant effect. CONCLUSION: As a result, at home with a computer, internet usage control themselves and dependency profile of adolescents with poor peer relations and adolescents showed that level of hopelessness was found to increase the levels of dependence on the internet. Adolescents in schools, such as feelings of hopelessness, stimulate research and advisory programs offered configuration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 7-14
Prinzie, P.; van Harten, L.V.; Deković, M.; van den Akker, A.L.; Shiner, R.L.
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1
Avant, Tamara Spangler; Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard
This study tests the ability of classroom emotional climate to moderate anxious solitary children's risk for peer exclusion over a 3-year period from 3rd through 5th grade. Six hundred eighty-eight children completed peer nominations for anxious solitude and peer exclusion in the fall and spring semesters of each grade, and observations of…
Prinzie, P.; Harten, L. van; Deković, M.; Akker, A.L. van den; Shiner, R.L.
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9–15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1
Prinzie, Peter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/26906110X; van Harten, Leanthe V.; Dekovic, Maja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/088030563; van den Akker, Alithe L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315028424; Shiner, Rebecca L.
This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1
Ojanen, Tiina; Findley-Van Nostrand, Danielle; Bowker, Julie C.; Markovic, Andrea
This study examined the distinctiveness of and the correlates associated with anxious-withdrawal and unsociability during early adolescence in Finland (N = 384; 12-14 years; 53% girls). As expected, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that anxious-withdrawal and unsociability were distinct and moderately positively correlated constructs. Only…
de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Schneider, Silvia
Perceived intrafamilial "emotional connectedness" and "autonomy" were investigated within families with and without an anxious family member using a multiple informant approach. The sample consisted of 32 mothers with a current anxiety disorder and 56 controls, their partners, and their anxious and nonanxious teenage children. No differences were…
Wendt, Amy; Boffard, John
Exposure to plasma science among future scientists and engineers is haphazard. In the U.S., plasma science is rare (or absent) in mainstream high school and introductory college physics curricula. As a result, talented students may be drawn to other careers simply due to a lack of awareness of the stimulating science and wide array of fulfilling career opportunities involving plasmas. In the interest of enabling informed decisions about career options, we have initiated an outreach collaboration with the Madison West High School Rocket Club. Rocket Club members regularly exhibit their activities at public venues, including large-scale expos that draw large audiences of all ages. Building on their historical emphasis on small scale rockets with chemical motors, we worked with the group to add a new feature to their exhibit that highlights plasma-based spacecraft propulsion for interplanetary probes. This new exhibit includes a model satellite with a working (low power) plasma thruster. The participating high school students led the development process, to be described, and enthusiastically learned to articulate concepts related to plasma thruster operation and to compare the relative advantages of chemical vs. plasma/electrical propulsion systems for different scenarios. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1617602.
Gofin, Rosa; Avitzour, Malka
To examine the prevalence of traditional and Internet bullying and the personal, family, and school environment characteristics of perpetrators and victims. Students (12-14 years old) in 35 junior high schools were randomly selected from the Jerusalem Hebrew (secular and religious) and Arab educational system (n = 2,610). Students answered an anonymous questionnaire, addressing personal, family, and school characteristics. Traditional bullying and Internet bullying for perpetrators and victims were categorized as either occurring at least sometimes during the school year or not occurring. Twenty-eight percent and 8.9 % of students were perpetrators of traditional and Internet bullying, respectively. The respective proportions of victims were 44.9 and 14.4 %. Traditional bullies presented higher Odds Ratios (ORs) for boys, for students with poor social skills (those who had difficulty in making friends, were influenced by peers in their behavior, or were bored), and for those who had poor communication with their parents. Boys and girls were equally likely to be Internet bullies and to use the Internet for communication and making friends. The OR for Internet bullying victims to be Internet bullying perpetrators was 3.70 (95 % confidence interval 2.47-5.55). Victims of traditional bullying felt helpless, and victims of traditional and Internet bullying find school to be a frightening place. There was a higher OR of Internet victimization with reports of loneliness. Traditional bully perpetrators present distinctive characteristics, while Internet perpetrators do not. Victims of traditional and Internet bullying feel fear in school. Tailored interventions are needed to address both types of bullying.
Milgram, N; Toubiana, Y
The study investigated the relationship between academic anxiety and procrastination in children and parents, and parents' direct involvement in their children's schoolwork. Children reported their current anxiety and procrastination and parents reported their anxiety and procrastination when they were children (a measure of indirect influence on their children's schoolwork habits), and on their current involvement in their children's schoolwork (a measure of direct influence). Self-report measures were administered to 354 Israeli adolescents (ages 13, 14, and 16) and their parents. Students were less anxious about homework than the other academic assignments. Older adolescents were less anxious about their schoolwork overall and procrastinated more than younger on homework. Parents of late adolescents were less involved in their children's schoolwork than parents of younger adolescents. Parents participated equally in school-related interactions that demanded high investment of time and effort, but mothers engaged more than fathers in low investment activities. These direct and indirect parental influences on their children's procrastination were of low magnitude overall, but appeared relatively stronger for mothers. The more students were anxious about preparing for examinations and writing papers, the more they procrastinated on these assignments, confirming the appraisal-anxiety avoidance (AAA) model. The inverse relationship of anxiety and procrastination with regard to homework led to our making a post hoc distinction between task-centred and consequence-centred anxiety.
Chiado, Wendy S.
Too many of our nation's youth have failed to complete high school. Determining why so many of our nation's students fail to graduate is a complex, multi-faceted problem and beyond the scope of any one study. The study presented herein utilized a thirteen-step mixed methods model developed by Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007) to demonstrate within a…
Hill, Laura; Ugo, Iwunze
Intended to accompany "Implementing California's School Funding Formula: Will High-Need Students Benefit?," this appendix examines the extent to which school shares of high-need students vary relative to their district concentrations by grouping approximately 950 school districts by their share of high-need students, arraying them into…
Burrus, Jeremy; Jackson, Teresa; Holtzman, Steven; Roberts, Richard D.
This article reports the results of a quasi-experimental study conducted to examine the efficacy of a new time management intervention designed for high school students. Participants were 149 students from a highly selective private high school in the northeastern United States who were in the ninth grade. Half of the students participated in a…
Miele, Anthony M.
The purpose of this study was to determine how the study of number theory might affect high school students' metacognitive functioning, mathematical curiosity, and/or attitudes towards mathematics. The study utilized questionnaire and/or interview responses of seven high school students from New York City and 33 high school students from Dalian,…
Webb, Noreen M.; Nemer, Kariane Mari; Zuniga, Stephen
Studied the effects of group ability composition (homogeneous versus heterogeneous) on group processes and outcomes for high-ability students completing science assessments. Results for 83 high ability students show the quality of group functioning serves as the strongest predictor of high-ability students' performance and explained much of the…
Toenders, F.G.C.; de Putter - Smits, L.G.A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; den Brok, P.J.
Although visually impaired students attend regular high school, their enrolment in advanced science classes is dramatically low. In our research we evaluated the physics learning environment of a blind high school student in a regular Dutch high school. For visually impaired students to grasp
Sesen, Burcin Acar; Tarhan, Leman
This study aimed to investigate the effects of inquiry-based laboratory activities on high school students' understanding of electrochemistry and attitudes towards chemistry and laboratory work. The participants were 62 high school students (average age 17 years) in an urban public high school in Turkey. Students were assigned to experimental (N =…
Thomas, Courtney L.
The effect of hands-on laboratory activities on secondary student learning was examined. Assessment was conducted over a two-year period, with 262 students participating the first year and 264 students the second year. Students took a prequiz, performed a laboratory activity (gas chromatography of alcohols, or photosynthesis and respiration), and…
Jeffrey L Krichmar
Full Text Available The vertebrate neuromodulatory systems are critical for appropriate value-laden responses to environmental challenges. Whereas changes in the overall level of dopamine have an effect on the organism’s reward or curiosity seeking behavior, changes in the level of serotonin can affect its level of anxiety or harm aversion. Moreover, top-down signals from frontal cortex can exert cognitive control on these neuromodulatory systems. The cholinergic and noradrenergic systems affect the ability to filter out noise and irrelevant events. We introduce a neural network for action selection that is based on these principles of neuromodulatory systems. The algorithm tested the hypothesis that high levels of serotonin lead to withdrawn behavior by suppressing dopaminergic action and that high levels of dopamine or low levels of serotonin lead to curious, exploratory behavior. Furthermore, the algorithm tested the idea that top-down signals from the frontal cortex to neuromodulatory areas are critical for an organism to cope with both stressful and novel events. The neural network was implemented on an autonomous robot and tested in an open field paradigm. The open field test is often used to test for models anxiety or exploratory behavior in the rodent and allows for qualitative comparisons with the neurorobot’s behavior. The present neurorobotic experiments can lead to a better understanding of how neuromodulatory signaling affects the balance between anxious and curious behavior. Therefore, this experimental paradigm may also be informative in exploring a wide range of neurological diseases such as anxiety, autism, attention deficit disorders, and obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Menzer, Melissa M.; McDonald, Kristina L.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Schulz, Annie
We evaluated whether gossip between best friends moderated the relation between anxious withdrawal and friendship quality in early adolescence, using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model ("APIM," Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) approach. Participants (n = 256) were 5th and 6th grade young adolescents (actors) and their best friends…
Bodden, D.H.M.; Dirksen, C.D.; Bögels, S.M.; Nauta, M.H.; de Haan, E.; Ringrose, J.; Appelboom, C.; Brinkman, A.G.; Appelboom-Geerts, K.C.M.M.J.
The objective of this study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of family cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) compared with individual CBT in children with anxiety disorders. Clinically anxious children (aged 8—18 years) referred for treatment were randomly assigned to family or individual CBT
van der Sluis, C.M.; van der Bruggen, C.O.; Brechman-Toussaint, M.L.; Thissen, M.A.P.; Bögels, S.M.
Anxiety in children age 8 years and above has been successfully treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, the efficacy of CBT for anxious children ages 4-7 years has not, to date, been fully investigated. This paper piloted a CBT intervention targeting child anxiety that was
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise
Esbjørn, B. H., Breinholst, S., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., & Leth, I. (2011). The effect of parental involvement in CBT of anxious children: Preliminary results from a RCT study. Poster accepted for the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, Toronto, Canada....
Rodriguez, Lindsey M; DiBello, Angelo M; Øverup, Camilla S; Neighbors, Clayton
Trust is essential to the development of healthy, secure, and satisfying relationships (Simpson, 2007a). Attachment styles provide a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals respond to partner behaviors that either confirm or violate trust (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). The current research aimed to identify how trust and attachment anxiety might interact to predict different types of jealousy and physical and psychological abuse. We expected that when experiencing lower levels of trust, anxiously attached individuals would report higher levels of both cognitive and behavioral jealousy as well as partner abuse perpetration. Participants in committed romantic relationships ( N = 261) completed measures of trust, attachment anxiety and avoidance, jealousy, and physical and psychological partner abuse in a cross-sectional study. Moderation results largely supported the hypotheses: Attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and jealousy, such that anxious individuals experienced much higher levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy when reporting lower levels of trust. Moreover, attachment anxiety moderated the association between trust and nonphysical violence. These results suggest that upon experiencing distrust in one's partner, anxiously attached individuals are more likely to become jealous, snoop through a partner's belongings, and become psychologically abusive. The present research illustrates that particularly for anxiously attached individuals, distrust has cascading effects on relationship cognitions and behavior, and this should be a key area of discussion during therapy.
Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.
While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…
Endler, Norman S.; Okada, Marilyn
The S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness was administered to samples of normal youth, normal adult, neurotic, and psychotic subjects. The practical and theoretical uses of the inventory are discussed, and it is specifically indicated how the inventory could be used to extend the Speilberger state-trait anxiety theory. (Author)
Strand, Paul S.; Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D.; Cerna, Sandra
The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to model the relationship between shyness-anxiousness and receptive language skills. Hypotheses regarding the direction of the causal relationship, mediation, and moderation were evaluated. Subjects included 340 Head Start attendees from primarily English- and Spanish-speaking…
Birenbaum, Menucha; And Others
The Endler S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness was analyzed employing Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) and factor analysis. The SSA yielded a two-dimensional lattice partitioning the space into regions corresponding to the situations specified in the inventory. The factor-analytic results were similar but not as informative. (Author/JAZ)
Kuijsters, A.; Redi, J.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Heynderickx, I.
The persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 minutes with the Self-Assessment Manikin (every 2 minutes) and with recordings of skin
A. Kuijsters (Andre); J.A. Redi (Judith); B. de Ruyter (Boris); I. Heynderickx (Ingrid)
textabstractThe persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 min with the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; every 2 min) and with recordings of
Pearsall-Jones, Jillian G.; Piek, Jan P.; Rigoli, Daniela; Martin, Neilson C.; Levy, Florence
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between poor motor ability and anxious and depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent monozygotic twins. The co-twin control design was used to explore these mental health issues in MZ twins concordant and discordant for a motor disorder, and controls. This methodology offers the…
Paul B. Sharp
Full Text Available Etiological explanations of clinical anxiety can be advanced through understanding the neural mechanisms associated with anxiety in youth prior to the emergence of psychopathology. In this vein, the present study sought to investigate how trait anxiety is related to features of the structural connectome in early adolescence. 40 adolescents (21 female, mean age = 13.49 years underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging scan. We hypothesized that the strength of several a priori defined structural connections would vary with anxious arousal based on previous work in human clinical neuroscience and adult rodent optogenetics. First, connection strength of caudate to rostral middle frontal gyrus was predicted to be anticorrelated with anxious arousal, predicated on extant work in clinically-diagnosed adolescents. Second, connection strength of amygdala to rostral anterior cingulate and to medial orbital frontal cortex would be positively and negatively correlated with anxious arousal, respectively, predicated on rodent optogenetics showing the former pathway is anxiogenic and the latter is anxiolytic. We also predicted that levels of anxiety would not vary with measures of global network topology, based on reported null findings. Results support that anxiety in early adolescence is associated with (1 the clinical biomarker connecting caudate to frontal cortex, and (2 the anxiogenic pathway connecting amygdala to rostral anterior cingulate, both in left but not right hemisphere. Findings support that in early adolescence, anxious arousal may be related to mechanisms that increase anxiogenesis, and not in a deficit in regulatory mechanisms that support anxiolysis.
Beidas, Rinad S.; Mychailyszyn, Matthew P.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.
We provide a detailed description of the clinical application of brief cognitive-behavioral therapy (BCBT) for anxious youth. A rationale for the development of BCBT is presented, followed by a description and discussion of the 8 sessions of the treatment. Mike, a 7-year-old youth with anxiety disorders, is used to illustrate the inner workings of…
van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to
WESSEL, Ineke; MERSCH, PPA
Test anxiety is referring to distress experienced in formal test-taking and social-evaluative situations. Worrisome cognitions appear to be a key factor in test anxiety, and cognitive interference plays a major role in impairing academic performance in test-anxious persons. In the present study the
Burkhouse, Katie L.; Siegle, Greg J.; Gibb, Brandon E.
Background: The primary aim of this study was to examine differences in physiological reactivity (measured via pupillometry) to emotional stimuli between children of depressed versus nondepressed mothers. A second goal was to examine differences in pupil dilation to emotional stimuli between children of anxious versus nonanxious mothers. Method:…
Mulder, Saskia F.; van Aken, Marcel A G
This study examines whether Big Five personality traits affect the extent to which a socially anxious child will be victimized. A total of 1814 children participated in the study (mean age = 11.99 years). Children completed self-reports and peer reports of victimization, which were aggregated, and
Kersten, Andrea; van der Vennet, Renee
The purpose of this single-subject experiment was to test whether a link exists between emotional state and color usage in a common art therapy technique. The researchers hypothesized that when coloring a pre-drawn mandala, participants would choose warm colors when they were anxious and cool colors when they were calm. The non-random sample…
Globalization has greatly promoted student mobility around the world. Being a developing economy, China witnessed significant growth of students studying internationally, especially with the number of students study at undergraduate programs. However, empirical research on high school students' choice and the decision-making process of pursuing…
Shodavaram, Mary P.; Jones, Lisa A.; Weaver, Laurie R.; Marquez, Judith A.; Ensle, Anne L.
The purpose of this study was to examine suburban high school teachers' beliefs about non-European ancestry immigrant students; more specifically, suburban teachers' beliefs regarding the impact of students' cultural backgrounds on academic performance were examined. Non-European ancestry immigrant students are those students whose ancestral…
Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B
We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Toohey, Kelleen; Derwing, Tracey M.
Data from ESL students' records in Vancouver are examined in the light of the BC Ministry of Education's claim that ESL high school students are more successful than students whose first language is English. We argue that the academic achievement of well-to-do students whose parents are skilled workers or entrepreneurs may mask the completion…
Bennett, Kelly Ann
I investigated fifteen junior high counselors' understandings about student dropout, particularly about identification of and interventions for students at risk for dropping out of school. As an educator, I desired to research the phenomenon of student dropout to understand how to better reach these types of students. Research is available…
Chi, Shaohui; Liu, Xiufeng; Gardella, Joseph A.
Service learning typically involves university students in teaching and learning activities for middle and high school students, however, measurement of university students' self-efficacy in science communication is still lacking. In this study, an instrument to measure university students' perceived self-efficacy in communicating science to…
Eales, Jonathan; Laksana, Sangob
Student learning in science is improved by authentic personal experience of research projects and the publication of findings. Graduate students do this, but it is uncommon to find student research and publishing in high school science programs. We describe here the Student Research and Publishing Program (SRPP) established at International School…
G A Shurukhina
Full Text Available In modern society, patriotism is manifested in all spheres of human life and it is understood as a love for the motherland and its people, as a sense of duty and pride for the country, a sense of honor and personal dignity, personal responsibility for occurring events, devotion to the country and its people. Patriotism is a complex concept including patriotic feelings of an individual. In the article, the peculiarities of the manifestation of patriotic feelings in high school students are analyzed on the basis of the system-functional approach. The study involved a group of senior students of secondary comprehensive school, a group of the representatives of the Ministry of Emergency Situations and cadets of a Cadet Corps. Statistically significant differences in sixteen variables characterizing manifestation of patriotic feelings were obtained in the group of cadets, the differences were observed in degrees of manifestation of both harmonic and inharmonic variables. High values were obtained for the variables of the reflective-evaluative component. The personal difficulties have got higher values which indicates a serious and responsible approach of cadets to the manifestation of patriotic feelings. These results were used to formulate correction programs aimed at the harmonization and development of patriotism among representatives of different age groups
Kowitt, Sarah D.; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M.; Huang, Li-Ling; Sutfin, Erin L.; Goldstein, Adam O.
Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Among all high school students in NC in 2013, 29.7% reported current any tobacco use, with 19.1% reporting current poly-tobacco use, and 10.6% reporting current use of only one product. Among poly-tobacco users, 59.3% reported that one of the products they currently used was cigarettes. Positive tobacco product beliefs were found to be significantly associated with poly-tobacco use. Communication campaigns, policy efforts, and future research are needed for prevention, regulation, and control of poly-tobacco use among adolescents, which represents a significant public health problem. PMID:26580636
Strassberg, Donald S; McKinnon, Ryan K; Sustaíta, Michael A; Rullo, Jordan
Recently, a phenomenon known as sexting, defined here as the transfer of sexually explicit photos via cell phone, has received substantial attention in the U.S. national media. To determine the current and potential future impact of sexting, more information about the behavior and the attitudes and beliefs surrounding it must be gathered, particularly as it relates to sexting by minors. The present study was designed to provide preliminary information about this phenomenon. Participants were 606 high school students (representing 98 % of the available student body) recruited from a single private high school in the southwestern U.S. Nearly 20 % of all participants reported they had ever sent a sexually explicit image of themselves via cell phone while almost twice as many reported that they had ever received a sexually explicit picture via cell phone and, of these, over 25 % indicated that they had forwarded such a picture to others. Of those reporting having sent a sexually explicit cell phone picture, over a third did so despite believing that there could be serious legal and other consequences attached to the behavior. Given the potential legal and psychological risks associated with sexting, it is important for adolescents, parents, school administrators, and even legislators and law enforcement to understand this behavior.
Full Text Available Teaching language is an attractive activity both for the teacher and for the acceptor. They can interact together in this act. Teaching English is a challenge for the teachers to make the students interest in English because as we know English is not the first language for some countries in this world including Indonesia. There are various ways and ideas to teach English so that it can be fun and interest to be taught and to be learnt. But those ways and ideas also should be an up date method and also use a modern technology to be implemented. Along with the development of modern technology, the teachers should involve with it and make it as a part of English teaching tools. Two of the famous and sophisticated tools are computer and the internet. These things have a close relation to be urgent equipment for people. In this article, the writer wants to purpose the use of online games as a way to teach English for junior high school. Te article aims to give another teaching alternative in attracting the junior high school students to learn English in funny and enjoyable way. Through online games they do not only can play the various games but also indirectly they do the exercises of English skills.
Full Text Available This study is one of the first to estimate the impact of “inclusive“ science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM high schools using student-level data. We use multiple statistical strategies to estimate the effect on student achievement from 2 years of attendance at six such high schools in Ohio. The results indicate that two schools had positive effects on science achievement that appear to come at the expense of achievement in social studies. The other schools had negligible or, often, negative effects across both STEM and, particularly, non-STEM subjects. These results are consistent with studies indicating that inclusive STEM schools typically focus on problem-based, personalized learning rather than science and mathematics content. The analysis also reveals the importance of accounting for students’ prior test scores in science, in addition to math and reading, when estimating models that use only 1 year of prior test score data—something that existing studies fail to do.
Dennis, Tracy A; O'Toole, Laura
Interest in the use of mobile technology to deliver mental health services has grown in light of the economic and practical barriers to treatment. Yet, research on alternative delivery strategies that are more affordable, accessible, and engaging is in its infancy. Attention bias modification training (ABMT), has potential to reduce treatment barriers as a mobile intervention for stress and anxiety, but the degree to which ABMT can be embedded in a mobile gaming format and its potential for transfer of benefits is unknown. The present study examined effects of a gamified ABMT mobile application in highly trait anxious participants ( N = 78). A single session of the active compared to placebo training reduced subjective anxiety and observed stress reactivity. Critically, the long (45 minutes) but not short (25 minutes) active training condition reduced the core cognitive process implicated in ABMT (threat bias) as measured by an untrained, gold-standard protocol.
Castle, Megan; Cleveland, Charlotte; Gordon, Diana; Jones, Lynda; Zelinski, Mary; Winter, Patricia; Chang, Jeffrey; Senegar-Mitchell, Ericka; Coutifaris, Christos; Shuda, Jamie; Mainigi, Monica; Bartolomei, Marisa; Woodruff, Teresa K
The lack of a national reproductive biology curriculum leads to critical knowledge gaps in today's high school students' comprehensive understanding of human biology. The Oncofertility Consortium developed curricula that address the basic and clinical aspects of reproductive biology. Launching this academy and creating easy-to-disseminate learning modules allowed other universities to implement similar programs across the country. The expansion of this informal, extracurricular academy on reproductive health from Northwestern University to the University of California, San Diego, Oregon Health & Science University, and the University of Pennsylvania magnifies the scope of scientific learning to students who might not otherwise be exposed to this important information. To assess the experience gained from this curriculum, we polled alumni from the four centers. Data were collected anonymously from de-identified users who elected to self-report on their experiences in their respective reproductive science academy. The alumni survey asked participants to report on their current academic standing, past experiences in the academy, and future academic and career goals. The results of this national survey suggest the national oncofertility academies had a lasting impact on participants and may have contributed to student persistence in scientific learning. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Toenders, Frank G. C.; de Putter-Smits, Lesley G. A.; Sanders, Wendy T. M.; den Brok, Perry
Although visually impaired students attend regular high school, their enrolment in advanced science classes is dramatically low. In our research we evaluated the physics learning environment of a blind high school student in a regular Dutch high school. For visually impaired students to grasp physics concepts, time and additional materials to support the learning process are key. Time for teachers to develop teaching methods for such students is scarce. Suggestions for changes to the learning environment and of materials used are given.
Chiaffarino, Francesca; Baldini, Maria P; Scarduelli, Claudia; Bommarito, Francesca; Ambrosio, Stefania; D'Orsi, Cristiana; Torretta, Rossella; Bonizzoni, Micol; Ragni, Guido
We have conducted a longitudinal observational study in order to evaluate the prevalence and the incidence of depressive and anxious symptoms in women and men seeking infertility treatment and to analyze associated factors or risk factors for these kinds of disorders. A total of 1000 consecutive couples that visited our center for the first time were asked to join this study. Depressive and anxious symptoms were assessed with self-rating Zung Depression Scale (ZDS) and Zung Anxiety Scale (ZAS) questionnaires. A second assessment was planned at the time of β HCG dosage (or at the moment of cycle suspension). A standard questionnaire was used to investigate socio-demographic information and the psychological aspects of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The fertility history and outcome of IVF treatment were collected from patients' medical records. 14.7% of women had anxious symptoms and 17.9% depressive symptoms, whereas 4.5% of men had anxious symptoms and 6.9% depressive symptoms. Women with depressive and anxious symptoms were younger, more often had an anxious partner and had a longer history of infertility. Men with depressive and anxious symptoms more frequently had a temporary job, they had an anxious partner and they were more frequently at the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. The incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms was 18.5% in women and 7.4% in men. Age and previous IVF treatments seem not to be associated with incidence of depressive or anxious symptoms. Both the prevalence and incidence of depressive and/or anxious symptoms in couples undergoing IVF treatment were worthy of note and should not be underestimated. More attention must be paid to psychological aspects in young women and in couples with a long history of infertility or previous failure treatments. Having an anxious partner was associated with anxious and depressive symptoms. For this reason, both males and females might benefit from psychological
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep patterns and habits in high school students in Iran have not been well studied to date. This paper aims to re-address this balance and analyse sleep patterns and habits in Iranian children of high school age. Methods The subjects were 1,420 high school students randomly selected by stratified cluster sampling. This was a self-report study using a questionnaire which included items about usual sleep/wake behaviours over the previous month, such as sleep schedule, falling asleep in class, difficulty falling asleep, tiredness or sleepiness during the day, difficulty getting up in the morning, nightmares, and taking sleeping pills. Results The mean duration of night sleep was 7.7 h, with no difference between girls, boys, and school year (grade. The mean time of waking in the morning was not different between genders. About 9.9% of the girls and 4.6% of the boys perceived their quality of sleep as being bad, and 58% of them reported sleepiness during the day. About 4.2% of the subjects had used medication to enhance sleep. The time of going to bed was associated with grade level and gender. Sleep latency was not associated with gender and grade leve, l and 1.4% experienced bruxism more than four times a week. Conclusion Our results are in contrast with that of previous studies that concluded sleep duration is shorter in Asia than in Europe, that boys woke-up significantly later than girls, and that the frequency of sleep latency category was associated with gender and grade level. The magnitude of the daytime sleepiness, daytime sleepiness during classes, sleep latency, and incidences of waking up at night represent major public health concerns for Iran.
Drotos, Stephanie M.; Cilesiz, Sebnem
Facilitating economically disadvantaged students' access to higher education is an important goal of educational policy. However, some practices toward this goal are based on theories and assumptions not informed by the students' conditions or needs. The purpose of this study was to understand the challenges faced by students from high poverty,…
Mishna, Faye; Cook, Charlene; Gadalla, Tahany; Daciuk, Joanne; Solomon, Steven
Little research has been conducted that comprehensively examines cyber bullying with a large and diverse sample. The present study examines the prevalence, impact, and differential experience of cyber bullying among a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students (N = 2,186) from a large urban center. The survey examined technology use, cyber bullying behaviors, and the psychosocial impact of bullying and being bullied. About half (49.5%) of students indicated they had been bullied online and 33.7% indicated they had bullied others online. Most bullying was perpetrated by and to friends and participants generally did not tell anyone about the bullying. Participants reported feeling angry, sad, and depressed after being bullied online. Participants bullied others online because it made them feel as though they were funny, popular, and powerful, although many indicated feeling guilty afterward. Greater attention is required to understand and reduce cyber bullying within children's social worlds and with the support of educators and parents.
Célia R.S. Rocha
Full Text Available Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. OBJECTIVE: To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. METHOD: This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288 from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-university courses - a middle-class neighborhood in the city of São Paulo - aged between 16 and 19 years old. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI - a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The participants (52.9% took about 30 minutes to fall asleep, with an average of 306.4 minutes asleep, moderate daytime sleepiness (n=243, 45.9% and indisposition (n=402, 75.9% to develop the activities. The scores (M and F were similar regarding problems that affect sleep. CONCLUSION: The investigated population showed sleep disorders and poor sleep quality.
Rocha, Célia R S; Rossini, Sueli; Reimão, Rubens
Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288) from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-university courses - a middle-class neighborhood in the city of São Paulo - aged between 16 and 19 years old. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) - a standardized questionnaire. The participants (52.9%) took about 30 minutes to fall asleep, with an average of 306.4 minutes asleep, moderate daytime sleepiness (n=243, 45.9%) and indisposition (n=402, 75.9%) to develop the activities. The scores (M and F) were similar regarding problems that affect sleep. The investigated population showed sleep disorders and poor sleep quality.
Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani; Meysam Dehgahi; Hanie Hashemi
This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred ki...
Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan; Eksi, Cigdem
Students often have difficulties understanding abstract physics concepts, such as solid friction. This study examines high school students' mental models of solid friction through a case study of 215 high school students in the ninth through twelfth grades. An achievement test with three open-ended questions was created, with questions limited to…
Toenders, Frank G.C.; De Putter-Smits, Lesley G.A.; Sanders, Wendy T.M.; Den Brok, Perry
When visually impaired students attend regular high school, additional materials are necessary to help them understand physics concepts. The time for teachers to develop teaching materials for such students is scarce. Visually impaired students in regular high school physics classes often use a
This study aims to identify high school students' perception of war and peace. Therefore, the students were asked to draw pictures depicting war and peace. The study was conducted at a Fine Arts High School. This study is a qualitative research. According to the assessments made on the results of the study, the students drew pictures containing…
Across the United States, students are entering college with a need for improvement in basic mathematics and communication skills. In 2008, the Florida Legislature passed Senate Bill 1908 which changed the expectations for the senior year of high school for many students. Students who score within certain levels on the mandatory high school…
Thuo, Mary; Edda, Medhanit
The purpose of this study was to get an insight about how high school female students perceive the transition to university life, and to understand the transition experience of university female students in the first semester. An exploratory study design was used where 166 high school female students and 88 first year university female students…
This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…
Callahan, Colleen A.
Nearly one third of U.S. students will fail to graduate from high school this year and another one-third will graduate without the skills needed to be successful after high school. These statistics are even more alarming for minority and low income students, with fewer than 10% of low income minority students going on to earn bachelors' degrees…
Koutsoulis, Michalis K.; Campbell, James Reed
Studied the influence of home environment on male and female high school students' motivation and achievement. Results for 737 Cypriot high school students and their parents show the importance of student self-concept and negative effects for parental pressure. Results suggest the need for closer lines of communication between home and school.…
Gül, Özgür; Çaglayan, Hakan Salim; Akandere, Mehibe
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of sports education on psychological well-being levels of high school students in terms of individual, environmental and self-determination. This study group consists of totally 187 high school students, in other words 97 students (n[subscript male] = 48, n[subscript female] = 49) receive education in…
Venegas, Kristan M.
This article focuses on the Web-based resources available to low-income students as they build their perceptions, make their decisions, and engage in financial aid activities. Data are gathered from the results of six focus groups with low-income high school students attending urban high schools. Findings suggest that low-income students do have…
Schatt, Matthew D.
The purpose of this study was to explore high school band students' perspectives of instrumental music practice from within the attribution theory paradigm and to attempt to elucidate the secondary student's attitudes toward practice. High school band students from three Midwestern school districts (N = 218) completed a survey that was used to…
Vytal, Katherine E.; Overstreet, Cassie; Charney, Danielle R.; Robinson, Oliver J.; Grillon, Christian
Background Neuroimaging research has traditionally explored fear and anxiety in response to discrete threat cues (e.g., during fear conditioning). However, anxiety is a sustained aversive state that can persist in the absence of discrete threats. Little is known about mechanisms that maintain anxiety states over a prolonged period. Here, we used a robust translational paradigm (threat of shock) to induce sustained anxiety. Recent translational work has implicated an amygdala–prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuit in the maintenance of anxiety in rodents. To explore the functional homologues of this circuitry in humans, we used a novel paradigm to examine the impact of sustained anticipatory anxiety on amygdala–PFC intrinsic connectivity. Methods Task-independent fMRI data were collected in healthy participants during long-duration periods of shock anticipation and safety. We examined intrinsic functional connectivity. Results Our study involved 20 healthy participants. During sustained anxiety, amygdala activity was positively coupled with dorsomedial PFC (DMPFC) activity. High trait anxiety was associated with increased amygdala–DMPFC coupling. In addition, induced anxiety was associated with positive coupling between regions involved in defensive responding, and decreased coupling between regions involved in emotional control and the default mode network. Limitations Inferences regarding anxious pathology should be made with caution because this study was conducted in healthy participants. Conclusion Findings suggest that anticipatory anxiety increases intrinsic amygdala–DMPFC coupling and that the DMPFC may serve as a functional homologue for the rodent prefrontal regions by sustaining anxiety. Future research may use this defensive neural context to identify bio-markers of risk for anxious pathology and target these circuits for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24886788
Full Text Available he research was carried out on 89 female students at first-year who regularly attended the course sport and sport activities. The aim was to see whether there are differences between the grades gained during the teaching and assessments received during the survey. As indicators in the evaluation of assessment during the research into account were taken techniques of performance of several sport disciplines: athletics (high start and gymnastics (rolling forward, from the sport games , basketball (leading the ball with a jump shot towards the basket and test - polygon for checking of the motor skills and habits of the female pupils. The determination of the significance of the differences was performed by t-test. After receiving the survey results, were identified statistically significant differences in the assessment of pupils.
Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W
Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Today, changing lifestyles, social relations and the advancement of technology causes fear, threats and concerns of different groups in society, especially students. Adverse impact of Anxiety on the efficacy and talents, personality and social identity formation of students, threat to achieve the goals of academic achievement and mental health. The present study was conducted to determine level of anxiety and some of their demographic correlates in the Alborz University of Medical Sciences in 1390. Methods: This study is a descriptive cross sectional study. The study population included all students of the Alborz university. 305 students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The data collection instrument was a demographic questionnaire and standardized Spielberger Anxiety Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Based on our results, 64 percent of students were anxious. Anxiety levels were significantly higher in men than women (p=0.049. The level of anxiety and interesting in medical course (p<0.001, non-academic study (p=0.007 and a major physical illness (p=0.009 had significant correlations with together. Conclusion: Results showed a high percentage of students anxious. Regarding the relation between anxiety and other problems such as depression and other disorders including failure in educational function, social relationships and lifestyle, Training courses on coping skills for anxiety and stress as well as consulting services and further guidance is recommended for them.
Whitten, Leah Suzanne
This study examines the use of student learning polls as indicators of student perceptions and influences on career exploration. No Child Left Behind requires schools that fail to make adequate yearly progress for two consecutive years to develop continuous improvement plans. The concept of career preparation for students is included in these…
Fonseca, Maria Joao; Costa, Patricio; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando
Concerns about public understanding of biotechnology have motivated educational initiatives to improve students' competency to make scientifically sustained decisions regarding controversial issues. Understanding students' perceptions about biotechnology is essential to determine the effectiveness of these programmes. To assess how students'…
Full Text Available BackgroundThe American Heart Association (AHA has implemented several programs to educate the public about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. A common issue in bystander CPR is the fear of hurting the victim. As a result, the victim may not receive CPR in time. The purpose of this study was to measure the emotional impact of CPR training on high school students using two approved AHA courses.MethodsA total of 60 students participated in this study. These students had a mean age of 15.4 ± 1.2 years old and were selected from a high school in Southern California. Subjects were divided into two groups, Basic Life Support (BLS (n1 = 31 and Hands-Only™ CPR (n2 = 29. Emotional impacts were assessed by having each subject answer a questionnaire based on given scenarios before and after their training session.ResultsThere was a significant difference in both groups when comparing positive-emotion scores before and after the training (BLS: 30.3 ± 6.0 vs. 34.5 ± 6.7, p < 0.001; Hands-Only 27.9 ± 5.0 vs. 32.1 ± 6.5, p < 0.001. In addition, both groups showed significant reductions in negative-emotion scores (BLS: 29.2 ± 6.7 vs. 23.7 ± 6.5, p < 0.001 and Hands-Only: 26.8 ± 6.1vs. 24.8 ± 7.7, p = 0.05.ConclusionOur results indicate that the AHA programs have positive effects on students’ emotional response. We recommend that future studies include an in-depth study design that probes the complexity of students’ emotions after completing an AHA session.
Freed, Lindsey R.; Howell, Leanne L.
The following article describes the planning and implementation of a university student recruitment event that produced a high (new) student yield. Detailed descriptions of how staff and faculty worked together to plan and implement this event are described.
Ritchotte, Jennifer A.; Suhr, Diana; Alfurayh, Naif F.; Graefe, Amy K.
High achieving students or "bright children" are often denied access to gifted services because they do not meet "gifted" criteria. Although psychosocial factors play an integral role in academic success, and can be useful in providing a clearer picture of student need, they are seldom considered in the decision to identify a…
Palinussa, Anderson L.
This paper presents the findings of a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design and control group that aims to assess students' critical mathematical thinking skills and character through realistic mathematics education (RME) culture-based. Subjects of this study were 106 junior high school students from two low and medium schools level in…
Everhart, Brett; Everhart, Kim; Everhart, Tyler
The educational experiences of students engaged in different contexts of learning, particularly curriculum delivered and international travel and residence experiences may be related to problem-solving skills and game decisions and efficiency of high school students engaged in modified game play during physical education class. This study explores…
Hattori, Isao; Fujii, Chiyo; Fukuzawa, Ayako
We administered a self-reporting questionnaire survey regarding the mental health conditions of high school students and attitudes of students and their teachers toward students' mental health issues. In addition, we discussed the requirements for high school students' mental health support system. The subjects were 3,312 students and 208 teachers in four Shizuoka prefectural public high schools in 2009. University Personality Inventory (UPI) is usually conducted to assess university students' mental state and is a questionnaire that high school students can answer easily. Therefore, we adopted UPI for this survey. UPI was composed of 56 unhealthy and 4 healthy condition items. High school students completed the UPI and determined the sum of unhealthy condition items; a higher score indicated a poorer mental health status. The average UPI score of all students (n = 3,312) was 12.7 points, and that of females (n = 1,217)was 15.2 points, which was significantly higher than the 11.3 points of males (n = 2,095). Those with scores > or = 30 points (7.5%), which was more than half of the maximum score, were designated as the High Score (HS) group and considered to have poor mental health. Those with scores of > or = 40 (1.4%) seemed to have very poor mental health, and there was concern that they may be suffering from psychosis. Our observations indicated that HS students were likely to avoid seeking help regarding mental health issues, which was especially true for male HS students. The majority of students chose their friends and parents as advisers, but HS students were significantly more likely to choose advisers who were engaged in jobs related to medical work. Students in both the HS and non-HS groups who did not wish to consult anyone else about their mental conditions wanted to be approached by those around them. High school teachers hesitated to intervene with mentally disturbed students and attempted to resolve problems within the school. Thus, it appears
Han, D H; Kim, S M; Zaichkowsky, L
The main purpose of our research was to examine attachment type and competition anxiety in high school student athletes and general high school students. We recruited 465 student athletes and 543 general students to participate in our study. The Revised Korean version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (K-ECRS) and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) were given to all students. In χ2 tests, athletes showed attachment types in the following order of prevalence: fearful, dismissive, and preoccupied, compared to the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive order observed in general students. In parametric, independent t-tests, athletes reported significantly higher cognitive anxiety scores, relative to general students. Further, athletes with insecure attachment compared to those with secure attachment reported higher cognitive anxiety scores and self-confidence scores. In both the athletes with insecure attachment and general students with insecure attachment groups, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was significantly correlated with CSAI-2 total score. In post hoc analysis in the athletes with insecure attachment group, the K-ECRS anxiety subscale was also significantly correlated with the CSAI-2 cognitive anxiety subscale. These results suggest that anxious athletes with an insecure attachment style tend to exaggerate threats from both external and internal sources, which negatively affect their performances.
Alpaslan, Muhammet Mustafa; Yalvac, Bugrahan; Loving, Cathleen
This case study explores students' physics-related personal epistemologies in school science practices. The school science practices of nine eleventh grade students in a physics class were audio-taped over 6 weeks. The students were also interviewed to find out their ideas on the nature of scientific knowledge after each activity. Analysis of transcripts yielded several epistemological resources that students activated in their school science practice. The findings show that there is inconsistency between students' definitions of scientific theories and their epistemological judgments. Analysis revealed that students used several epistemological resources to decide on the accuracy of their data including accuracy via following the right procedure and accuracy via what the others find. Traditional, formulation-based, physics instruction might have led students to activate naive epistemological resources that prevent them to participate in the practice of science in ways that are more meaningful. Implications for future studies are presented.
Park, Julie J.; Chang, Stephanie H.
Few qualitative studies consider how high school experiences affect readiness for diversity engagement in college. Using data from an ethnographic case study, three central trends (student experiences within homogeneous high schools, racial divisions within diverse high schools, and students who attended diverse high schools but had little…
J Alberto Molina
Full Text Available The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences.
Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh; Hashemian, Ataollah
Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students' educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. In a cross-sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind's parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students' age were 14±1.08. The students' school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students' average score for studying. The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students' educational performance.
Adams, April Dean
In this study, the relationships between student beliefs about the nature of science, student attitudes, and conceptual change about the nature of forces were investigated within a traditional and within a constructivistic high school physics classroom. Students in both classrooms were honors students taking a first year high school physics course and were primarily white and middle to upper SES. Students in the traditional classroom were all high ability juniors, and physics instruction was integrated with pre-calculus. Students in the constructivistic classroom were a mixture of juniors and seniors. Due to the interrelated nature of these factors and the complexity of their interactions, a naturalistic inquiry design was chosen. The data sources included videotape of 7-9 weeks of instruction; analysis of the videotapes using the Secondary Teacher Analysis Matrix (Gallagher & Parker, 1995); field notes; pretest/posttest assessment with the Force Concept Inventory (Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhammer, 1992); student responses from the Views on Science-Technology-Society questionnaire (Aikenhead & Ryan, 1992), the Questionnaire for the Assessment of a Science Course (Chiappetta, 1995), and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (Taylor, Fraser, & White, 1994); student interviews; and teacher interviews. In the traditional classroom, (a) students did not think that physics was relevant to everyday experiences; (b) high conceptual change students were more likely to have an angular world view (Cobern, 1993) and have views more similar to the teacher's about the nature of science; and (c) high conceptual change students were able to develop an internally consistent understanding of the content; however, that content appeared to be isolated knowledge in some students. In the constructivistic classroom, (a) students saw physics as relevant and useful; (b) there was no difference in world view or agreement with the teacher's views on the nature of science between high
According to the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, in 2020, depression will become the second cause of disability worldwide. In Chile, anxiety and depressive disorders account for almost 28% of the total years of healthy life lost due to illness. This research seeks to explore a profile of social problem solving and coping present in people who suffer from anxious and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1179 analogous Chilean participants (55.9% women), with a mean of 22.23 years (range between 18-48 years). The results suggest statistically significant differences for all social problem solving and coping strategies evaluated. Thus, if anxious or depressive symptoms increase, social problem solving or coping strategies become less adaptive.
León, Jaime; Medina-Garrido, Elena; Ortega, Miriam
How teachers manage class learning and interact with students affects students’ motivation and engagement. However, it could be that the effect of students’ representation of teaching quality on the students’ motivation varies between classes. Students from 90 classes participated in the study. We used multilevel random structural equation modeling to analyze whether the relationship of the students’ perception of teaching quality (as an indicator of the students’ mental representation) and students’ motivation varies between classes, and if this variability depends on the class assessment of teaching quality (as an indicator of teaching quality). The effect of teachers’ structure on the regression slope of student perception of student competence was .127. The effect of teachers’ autonomy support on the regression slope of student perception of student autonomy was .066. With this study we contribute a more detailed description of the relationship between teaching quality, competence and autonomy.
Milanović-Dobrota Biljana Z.; Radić-Šestić Marina N.
The current interest in introducing the dual education system into Serbian secondary education has drawn our attention to the question of students' self-perception in the process of practical teaching. The idea that underpins this paper is the supposition that students are affectively engaged with the work activities they perform. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) (Schaufeli et al., 2002) has been used for assessing students' work engagement in practical teaching. A study was conducted...
Romia Hari Susanti
Full Text Available One of important aspects of personality in human life, especially teenagers is confidence. Counseling teachers can increase student confidence through assertive training. Through the training, students are expected to understand that everyone has the right to express their feelings, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes to do a thing without a doubt, but do not hurt other people's feelings, so that confidence can be increased. This study aims to improve students' confidence through assertive training using classroom action research. Subjects in this study were students of SMP Brawijaya Smart School Malang who have low-confidence criteria
Costa, Rui M; Brody, Stuart
Disturbances in intimate relationships are among the risk factors for female sexual dysfunction. Insecure styles of anxious attachment (preoccupations about abandonment) and avoidant attachment (avoidance of closeness in relationships) are robustly associated with sexual problems, relationship difficulties, and several indices of poorer physical and mental health. Similar indices of poorer sexual, relationship, and health functioning are associated with impairment of orgasm triggered by penile-vaginal stimulation (vaginal orgasm), but unrelated or related to greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. However, research examining the differential association of sexual activities with insecure attachment styles has been lacking. The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that insecure attachment styles are associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency, and are unrelated or directly related to greater frequency of other sexual behaviors. Seventy coitally experienced women recruited at a Scottish university completed the Revised Experience in Close Relationships scale, and reported their frequency of various sexual behaviors (and corresponding orgasms) in a recent representative month. The main outcome measures for this study are multivariate correlations of various sexual activities with insecure attachment styles, age, and social desirability response bias. Anxious attachment was associated with lesser vaginal orgasm consistency, but with higher frequency of vibrator and anal sex orgasms. Avoidant attachment was associated with higher frequency of vibrator orgasms. Neither anxious nor avoidant attachment was associated with lifetime number of penile-vaginal intercourse partners. The results provide evidence that inability to attain a vaginal orgasm is associated with anxious attachment, among other indices of poorer mental health and relatedness. Vaginal orgasm might be the relevant sexual activity for the maintenance of a secure attachment style with a
Kuijsters, Andre; Redi, Judith; de Ruyter, Boris; Heynderickx, Ingrid
textabstractThe persistence of negative moods (sadness and anxiousness) induced by three visual Mood Induction Procedures (MIP) was investigated. The evolution of the mood after the MIP was monitored for a period of 8 min with the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM; every 2 min) and with recordings of skin conductance level (SCL) and electrocardiography (ECG). The SAM pleasure ratings showed that short and longer film fragments were effective in inducing a longer lasting negative mood, whereas the ...
Conclusions: The present results extend our understanding of the development of problematic use of Internet communicative services, based on the framework of the dual factor model of Facebook use and the Self Determination Theory. The fulfillment of an unmet need for self-presentation (i.e. the desire to create a positive impression of one's self in others through SNSs could be one of the possible pathways to GPIU for socially anxious males.
The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA; 2000) requires an Internet filtering and public awareness strategy to protect children under 17 from harmful visual Internet depictions. This study compared high school students who went online with the CIPA restriction and college students who went online without the restriction in order to…
Martin-Morris, Linda E; Buckland, Helen T; Popa, Simina M; Cunningham, Susanna L
Our university course for non-majors (Biology 100) on the neurobiology of drug addiction was recently retooled for delivery at high schools around the state of Washington in order to engage younger students in the study of psychoactive drugs. Many of these students are earning both high school and university credits (dual-enrollment). This paper outlines the course design principles we used to ensure that high school students are earning valid college credits. We present an analysis of learning gains experienced by both university and high school students as measured by before and after course knowledge surveys. We also describe how assessment strategies used for on-campus students have been transferred to our high school partner teachers and how generous interchange and observation ensure that the high school students are engaging deeply in their study of neuroscience. Indeed, many have had a transformative experience that inspires them to contemplate the field of neuroscience as they transition into university study.
Anxiety is an essential emotion that is highly conserved during evolution and is present in animals and humans. Although anxiety is a biological adaptive response, anxiety disorders in humans are common and affect about 10-17% of the world population. To gain more insight in the underlying
van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stout, Daniel M; Shackman, Alexander J; Pedersen, Walker S; Miskovich, Tara A; Larson, Christine L
Dispositional anxiety is a trait-like phenotype that confers increased risk for a range of debilitating neuropsychiatric disorders. Like many patients with anxiety disorders, individuals with elevated levels of dispositional anxiety are prone to intrusive and distressing thoughts in the absence of immediate threat. Recent electrophysiological research suggests that these symptoms are rooted in the mis-allocation of working memory (WM) resources to threat-related information. Here, functional MRI was used to identify the network of brain regions that support WM for faces and to quantify the allocation of neural resources to threat-related distracters in 81 young adults. Results revealed widespread evidence of mis-allocation. This was evident in both face-selective regions of the fusiform cortex and domain-general regions of the prefrontal and parietal cortices. This bias was exaggerated among individuals with a more anxious disposition. Mediation analyses provided compelling evidence that anxious individuals' tendency to mis-allocate WM resources to threat-related distracters is statistically explained by heightened amygdala reactivity. Collectively, these results provide a neurocognitive framework for understanding the pathways linking anxious phenotypes to the development of internalizing psychopathology and set the stage for developing improved intervention strategies.
Saggers, Beth; Hwang, Yoon-Suk; Mercer, K. Louise
Supporting students with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in inclusive settings presents both opportunities and significant challenges to school communities. This study, which explored the lived experience of nine students with ASD in an inclusive high school in Australia, is based on the belief that by listening to the voices of students, school…
Thomas, Kevin; Muñoz, Marco A.
This study examined the survey responses of 628 high school students in a large urban school district to determine their perceptions of mobile phone use in the classroom. Findings indicated that the majority of students (90.7%) were using a variety of mobile phone features for school-related work. Student support for instructional uses of phones,…
Vanderschmidt, Hannelore Falk
An adaptation of the standard American Heart Association training program was utilized to teach secondary school students cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) procedures. Students, at both junior and senior high levels, were randomly assigned to practice and no-practice groups, of ten students each. All were taught CPR procedures didactically, but…
Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar
While many factors play into college student success, interaction with faculty has been identified as a key component. In highly challenging and anxiety-provoking courses, the student-faculty relationship may be all the more important. This study uses organic chemistry as a case example to investigate the role of the student-faculty relationship…
Koutrouba, Konstantina; Baxevanou, Eleni; Koutroumpas, Athanasios
The present study examines Greek High School students' perceptions of and attitudes towards their teachers' power, from findings produced during a questionnaire-based study conducted in the period 2010-2011, with the participation of 1076 students attending 68 schools across Greece. Greek students provided information on how their teachers exert…
Putra, Mulia; Novita, Rita
This study aimed to describe the profile of secondary school students with high mathematics ability in solving shape and space problem in PISA (Program for International Student Assessment). It is a descriptive research with a qualitative approach, in which the subjects in this study were students of class VIII SMP N 1 Banda Aceh. The results show…
To succeed in an increasing technological and global society, students need to develop strong mathematical and problem-solving skills. This qualitative grounded theory study examined student perceptions of the ways in which teaching strategies in high school mathematics classes affect student motivation to learn the subject. Study participants…
Pittman, Jason M.; Pike, Ronald E.
This paper reports on the design and implementation of a cybersecurity camp offered as a cybersecurity learning experience to a group of female and male high school students. Students ranged in grade level from freshmen to senior. Student demographics, including any existing pre-requisite knowledge, were unknown to camp designers prior to the…
Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Suldo, Shannon M.; Roth, Rachel A.; Fefer, Sarah A.
In this qualitative study, we investigated 15 successful and 15 struggling high school students, perceived stressors, coping strategies, and intrapersonal and environmental factors that students perceive to influence their success in college-level courses. We found that students' primary sources of stress involved meeting numerous academic demands…
Lewis, S.; Whiteside, A.; Garrett Dikkers, A.
In this three-year, mixed methods case study, the benefits and challenges of online learning for at-risk high school students were examined. A key finding was that at-risk students identify the benefits and challenges of online learning to be the same. While students appreciate the opportunity to work ahead and study at their own pace, they see it…
Hart, Brenda; McAnulty, Kate
For more than thirty years, personnel from the University of Louisville J.B. Speed School of Engineering have presented a summer program targeting high school students historically underrepresented in engineering fields. INSPIRE provides these students with an introduction to careers in engineering and assists the students in planning their…
Elemen, Jennifer E.
The purpose of this quantitative study was to analyze high school leadership praxis for its inclusion of students in organizational leadership dialogue and decision-making and the influences of these factors on student achievement and civic participation. Survey questionnaire data were provided by 215 full-time enrolled undergraduate students from…
Laroche, Helena H.; Hradek, Christine; Hansen, Kate; Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian
Background: A previous sales data analysis demonstrated success in selling healthier items at a concession stand. Questions remained regarding student satisfaction and whether the intervention reached non-health-conscious students. Methods: Cross-sectional anonymous samples of students at a large midwestern high school were surveyed before and…
Padilla, Alejandro; Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.
A qualitative research study was conducted with 15 school counselors to identify the strategies they used to empower Chicana/o and Latina/o high school students. The findings of this study revealed that participants facilitated student empowerment by developing personal relationships with students, involving alumni, building sociocultural…
Lim, Woong; Son, Ji-Won; Gregson, Susan; Kim, Jihye
This article examines high school students' engagement in a set of trigonometry problems. Students completed this task independently in an online environment with access to Internet search engines, online textbooks, and YouTube videos. The findings imply that students have the resourcefulness to solve procedure-based mathematics problems in an…
This study examined the teacher characteristics that students considered important in defining teacher effectiveness, focusing on human characteristics, communication skills, and teaching and production characteristics. Students from 25 high schools in Cyprus completed the Classroom Culture Description Questionnaire. Overall, students listed 94…
Shernoff, David J.; Schmidt, Jennifer A.
Achievement, engagement, and students' quality of experience were compared by racial and ethnic group in a sample of students (N = 586) drawn from 13 high schools with diverse ethnic and socioeconomic student populations. Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 3,529 samples of classroom experiences were analyzed along with self-reported…
Bowers, Alex J.; Urick, Angela
The purpose of this study is to isolate the independent effects of high school facility quality on student achievement using a large, nationally representative U.S. database of student achievement and school facility quality. Prior research on linking school facility quality to student achievement has been mixed. Studies that relate overall…
Differences between reporting and classificatory functions in writing were examined in the responses of grade 10 and grade 12 students: 60 who were successful English students, and 60 on the borderline of passing in each of the grades. The reporting tasks required students to write compositions describing their first day in a high school or some…
Fisher, Ronald J.
Describes a small group discussion project involving students and teachers in two large white suburban high schools. The project's intention was to focus discussion on the social quality of the relationship between students and teachers, and to assess the impact of the discussions on student perceptions. (Author/RK)
The article gives an account of an experiment in which sixty-eight high school students of age 16 - 19 developed spreadsheet applications that simulated fall and projectile motion in the air. The students applied the Euler method to solve the governing differential equations. The aim was to promote STEM to the students and motivate them to study…
The concept of the atom is one of the building blocks of science education. Although the concept is a foundation for students' subsequent learning experiences, it is difficult for students to comprehend because of common misconceptions and its abstractness. The purpose of this study is to examine junior high school students' (ages 12-13) ideas…
Koruoglu, Nergiz; Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin
Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of high school students in terms of some variables. The sample of the…
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.
In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or the…
Benny, Naama; Blonder, Ron
Regular high-school chemistry teachers view gifted students as one of several types of students in a regular (mixed-ability) classroom. Gifted students have a range of unique abilities that characterize their learning process: mostly they differ in three key learning aspects: their faster learning pace, increased depth of understanding, and…
Waters, Allison M; Kershaw, Rachel
Anxious children show attention biases towards and away from threat stimuli. Moreover, threat avoidance compared to vigilance predicts a poorer outcome from exposure-based treatments, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), yet the mechanisms underlying this differential response are unclear. Pavlovian fear conditioning is a widely accepted theory to explain the acquisition and extinction of fear, including exposure-based treatments, such as CBT. In typical fear conditioning experiments, anxious children have shown larger physiological responses to an aversive unconditional stimulus (i.e., US on CS+ trials) and to non-reinforced stimuli (CS-) during fear acquisition and to both CSs during fear extinction compared to non-anxious peers. This study examined whether threat avoidance compared to threat vigilance was related to differences in fear acquisition and extinction in anxious children. Thirty-four clinically-anxious children completed a visual probe task including angry-neutral face pairs to determine the direction of threat attention bias as well as a discriminant conditioning and extinction task in which a geometric shape CS+ was paired with an aversive tone US, while the CS- geometric shape was always presented alone during acquisition trials. Both CSs were presented alone during extinction trials. Fear acquisition and extinction were indexed by skin conductance responses (SCR) and subjective measures. Children were classified as threat vigilant (N = 18) and threat avoidant (n = 16) based on the direction of threat attention bias on the visual probe task. During acquisition, threat avoidant relative to threat vigilant anxious children displayed larger orienting SCRs to both CSs during the first block of trials and larger third interval SCRs to the US on CS+ trials as well as on CS- trials. During extinction, threat avoidant anxious children showed delayed extinction of SCRs to both the CS+ and CS- and reported higher subjective anxiety ratings after
Hsieh, ChengTu; Knudson, Duane
The purpose of the present study was to document crucial factors associated with students' learning of biomechanical concepts, particularly between high- and-low achieving students. Students (N = 113) from three introductory biomechanics classes at two public universities volunteered for the study. Two measures of students' learning were obtained, final course grade and improvement on the Biomechanics Concept Inventory version 3 administered before and after the course. Participants also completed a 15-item questionnaire documenting student learning characteristics, effort, and confidence. Partial correlations controlling for all other variables in the study, confirmed previous studies that students' grade point average (p biomechanics, (p biomechanics concepts. Students' confidence when encountering difficult biomechanics concepts was also significantly (p biomechanics and confidence in solving relevant professional problems in order to improve learning for both low- and high-ability students.
Afsaneh Effatdokht Ramezani
Full Text Available This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students were different according to their gender. Female students preferred auditory learning as their major learning style, while male students preferred kinesthetic more. Moreover, the findings revealed that Kinesthetic learning was the least preferred learning style of the most female students, whereas the least preferred learning style of male students was tactile learning. Keywords: Learning Style Preferences, High School Students, Gender, EFL
The skills gap--the gap between postsecondary education's production of educated graduates and what employers say they need--has become a top economic priority. Surveys report increasing dissatisfaction among students and employers. Students are upset because fewer than 20 percent of graduating seniors have job offers before graduation. And…
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
Murr, Kathleen A.
Studies the role that math anxiety played in the poor performance of students, what promoted such feelings, and what teachers can do to lessen this anxiety. Students and adults sense the urgency to understand the mathematical material, and that urgency often leads to anxiety when they cannot arrive at a solution. (ASK)
Jones, Shelly M.; Pearson, Dunn, Jr.
A musician and a mathematics educator create and implement a set of elementary school lessons integrating music and math. Students learn the basics of music theory including identifying notes and learning their fractional values. They learn about time signatures and how to determine correct note values per measure. Students are motivated by…
Assaraf, Orit Ben-Zvi; Dodick, Jeff; Tripto, Jaklin
In this study, 120 tenth-grade students from 8 schools were examined to determine the extent of their ability to perceive the human body as a system after completing the first stage in their biology curriculum--"The human body, emphasizing homeostasis". The students' systems thinking was analyzed according to the STH thinking model, which roughly…
Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato
This study reports on the attitudes towards biotechnology of 905, 15-16 year-old students from 11 Western Australian schools. Students were asked to read 15 statements about biotechnology processes and to draw a line to separate what they considered "acceptable" statements from those they considered "unacceptable". Overall, the…
Fiangga, S.; Azizah, M. A. N.; Rini, R. N. K.; Hidayanti, A. N.
The concept of circles is an ancient concept that has appeared since Ancient Egypt from which this concept gives many significant contributions in mathematics’ development until now. Nevertheless, the concept of circles hides many uncover mysterious features that are of applications in mathematics. One of the mysterious features is the Nine-Point Circle. This Nine-point circle is also known as Euler’s circle, six-point circle, Feuerbach’s circle, the twelve-point circle, and many others. Because of these different names, there have been misunderstand among mathematicians about the Nine-Point Circle’s history. Besides, the discussion of Nine-Point Circle can be used to be an initial material to explain elementary geometry topic in junior high school’s level curriculum of 2013. Therefore, this concept needs to be delivered to the students as a geometry introduction. A possible form of the integration historical aspect of Nine-point circle is suggested in this paper as well as its importance in the curriculum of 2013.
Saragih, Sahat; Napitupulu, Elvis
The purpose of this research was to develop student-centered learning model aiming to improve high order mathematical thinking ability of junior high school students of based on curriculum 2013 in North Sumatera, Indonesia. The special purpose of this research was to analyze and to formulate the purpose of mathematics lesson in high order…
The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish high school students' attitude and anxiety levels towards mathematics. For this purpose, the methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The participants of the study consisted of 361 high school students from three different high school types from a province in Turkey during…
US Department of Education, 2017
Student graduation from high school with a regular high school diploma is an important indicator of school success and one of the most significant indicators of student college and career readiness. In addition, there are substantial economic benefits to high school completion. For example, according to the U.S. Department of Education's National…
Anderson, Stephen A.; MacDonald, Lawrence; Frost, Frederica C.
In January 2003 the High School Late Start Committee of the Northville Public Schools sent surveys to all families, faculty, and middle and high school students. The descriptive results of this survey can be found at www.northville.k12.mi.us/hr/late_start_committee_surveysummary.htm. This study focuses on the responses of the high school students,…
Ramnarain, U.; Molefe, P.
A high failure rate at first year physics is often attributed to the lack of readiness of high school students to pursue such studies. This research explores this issue and reports on the perceptions of five physics lecturers at a South African university on the preparedness of high school students for first year physics. Qualitative data was…
Bolden, Marsha Gail
Some schools fall short of the high demand to increase science scores on state exams because low-performing students enter high school unprepared for high school science. Low-performing students are not successful in high school for many reasons. However, using inquiry methods have improved students' understanding of science concepts. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the teachers' lived experiences with using inquiry methods to motivate low-performing high school science students in an inquiry-based program called Xtreem Science. Fifteen teachers were selected from the Xtreem Science program, a program designed to assist teachers in motivating struggling science students. The research questions involved understanding (a) teachers' experiences in using inquiry methods, (b) challenges teachers face in using inquiry methods, and (c) how teachers describe student's response to inquiry methods. Strategy of data collection and analysis included capturing and understanding the teachers' feelings, perceptions, and attitudes in their lived experience of teaching using inquiry method and their experience in motivating struggling students. Analysis of interview responses revealed teachers had some good experiences with inquiry and expressed that inquiry impacted their teaching style and approach to topics, and students felt that using inquiry methods impacted student learning for the better. Inquiry gave low-performing students opportunities to catch up and learn information that moved them to the next level of science courses. Implications for positive social change include providing teachers and school district leaders with information to help improve performance of the low performing science students.