Sample records for highly anisotropic systems

  1. Highly Anisotropic Conductors. (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Song, Jianwei; Yang, Zhi; Kirsch, Dylan; Jia, Chao; Xu, Rui; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhu, Mingwei; Xu, Lisha; Chen, Chaoji; Wang, Yanbin; Wang, Yilin; Hitz, Emily; Lacey, Steven D; Li, Yongfeng; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing


    Composite materials with ordered microstructures often lead to enhanced functionalities that a single material can hardly achieve. Many biomaterials with unusual microstructures can be found in nature; among them, many possess anisotropic and even directional physical and chemical properties. With inspiration from nature, artificial composite materials can be rationally designed to achieve this anisotropic behavior with desired properties. Here, a metallic wood with metal continuously filling the wood vessels is developed, which demonstrates excellent anisotropic electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. The well-aligned metal rods are confined and separated by the wood vessels, which deliver directional electron transport parallel to the alignment direction. Thus, the novel metallic wood composite boasts an extraordinary anisotropic electrical conductivity (σ|| /σ⊥ ) in the order of 1011 , and anisotropic thermal conductivity (κ|| /κ⊥ ) of 18. These values exceed the highest reported values in existing anisotropic composite materials. The anisotropic functionality of the metallic wood enables it to be used for thermal management applications, such as thermal insulation and thermal dissipation. The highly anisotropic metallic wood serves as an example for further anisotropic materials design; other composite materials with different biotemplates/hosts and fillers can achieve even higher anisotropic ratios, allowing them to be implemented in a variety of applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Classical Impurity Transport: New Effects in High-Beta, Anisotropic, and Rotating 1D Systems (United States)

    Ochs, Ian; Kolmes, Elijah; Fisch, Nathaniel


    The classical impurity pinch arises from the Braginskii and diamagnetic frictional forces between high-Z impurities and low-Z ions, and leads to the well-known result that peaked temperature profiles can flush impurities that will otherwise accumulate in the plasma core. However, in high-beta systems, or systems with field line curvature, grad-B and curvature drifts will also influence the impurity transport. We analyze the impurity pinch with these drifts added, in the simple context of a screw pinch with constant rotational transform. We find that high plasma beta tends to help flush impurities, while a large rotational transform tends to cause impurities to accumulate in the plasma core. Extensions to anisotropic temperature distributions and the rotating screw pinch are discussed. The results are relevant for tokamaks at large aspect ratio, magnetized liner fusion, and the newly-proposed wave-driven rotating torus (WDRT) fusion concept. This work is supported by DOE Grants DE-SC0016072 and DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  3. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (II) Three-Baryon Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre Walker-Loud, Will Detmold, William Detmold, Aaron Torok, Konstantinos Orginos, Silas Beane, Tom Luu, Martin Savage, Assumpta Parreno


    We present the results of an exploratory Lattice QCD calculation of three-baryon systems through a high-statistics study of one ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations with a pion mass of m_\\pi ~ 390 MeV. Because of the computational cost of the necessary contractions, we focus on correlation functions generated by interpolating-operators with the quantum numbers of the $\\Xi^0\\Xi^0 n$ system, one of the least demanding three baryon systems in terms of the number of contractions. We find that the ground state of this system has an energy of E_{\\Xi^0\\Xi^0n}= 3877.9\\pm 6.9\\pm 9.2\\pm3.3 MeV corresponding to an energy-shift due to interactions of \\delta E_{\\Xi^0\\Xi^0n}=E_{\\Xi^0\\Xi^0n}-2M_{\\Xi^0} -M_n=4.6\\pm 5.0\\pm 7.9\\pm 4.2 MeV. There are a significant number of time-slices in the three-baryon correlation function for which the signal-to-noise ratio is only slowly degrading with time. This is in contrast to the exponential degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio that is observed at larger times, and is due to the suppressed overlap of the source and sink interpolating-operators that are associated with the variance of the three-baryon correlation function onto the lightest eigenstates in the lattice volume (mesonic systems). As one of the motivations for this area of exploration is the calculation of the structure and reactions of light nuclei, we also present initial results for a system with the quantum numbers of the triton (pnn). This present work establishes a path to multi-baryon systems, and shows that Lattice QCD calculations of the properties and interactions of systems containing four and five baryons are now within sight.

  4. Fluctuation relations for anisotropic systems (United States)

    Villavicencio-Sanchez, R.; Harris, R. J.; Touchette, H.


    Currents of particles or energy in driven non-equilibrium steady states are known to satisfy certain symmetries, referred to as fluctuation relations, determining the ratio of the probabilities of positive fluctuations to negative ones. A generalization of these fluctuation relations has been proposed recently for extended non-equilibrium systems of dimension greater than one, assuming, crucially, that they are isotropic (Hurtado P. I., Pérez-Espigares C., del Pozo J. J. and Garrido P. L., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011) 7704). Here we relax this assumption and derive a fluctuation relation for d-dimensional systems having anisotropic bulk driving rates. We test the validity of this anisotropic fluctuation relation by calculating the particle current fluctuations in the 2d anisotropic zero-range process, using both exact and fluctuating hydrodynamic approaches.

  5. Anisotropic layered high-temperature thermoelectric materials based on the two-phase CrSi2-β-FeSi2 system (United States)

    Solomkin, F. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. K.; Novikov, S. V.; Samunin, A. Yu.; Pshenai-Severin, D. A.; Isachenko, G. N.


    The feasibility of synthesizing a wide spectrum of multiphase microstructurally ordered high-temperature thermoelectrics with highly anisotropic thermoelectric parameters is demonstrated with an aluminum-doped CrSi2-β-FeSi2 system the composition of which varies from Cr0.1Fe0.9Si2- x Al x to Cr0.9Fe0.1Si2- x Al x ( x = 0.0-0.4). Doping of either phase (CrSi2 and β-FeSi2) is viewed as a promising way for synthesizing n- and p-type domains inside the same sample.

  6. Highly Anisotropic Dirac Fermions in Square Graphynes. (United States)

    Zhang, L Z; Wang, Z F; Wang, Zhiming M; Du, S X; Gao, H-J; Liu, Feng


    We predict a family of 2D carbon (C) allotropes, square graphynes (S-graphynes) that exhibit highly anisotropic Dirac fermions, using first-principle calculations within density functional theory. They have a square unit-cell containing two sizes of square C rings. The equal-energy contour of their 3D band structure shows a crescent shape, and the Dirac crescent has varying Fermi velocities from 0.6 × 10(5) to 7.2 × 10(5) m/s along different k directions. Near the Fermi level, the Dirac crescent can be nicely expressed by an extended 2D Dirac model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, tight-binding band fitting reveals that the Dirac crescent originates from the next-nearest-neighbor interactions between C atoms. S-graphynes may be used to build new 2D electronic devices taking advantages of their highly directional charge transport.

  7. Highly anisotropic conductivity in organosiloxane liquid crystals (United States)

    Gardiner, D. J.; Coles, H. J.


    In this paper, we present the conductivity and dielectric characterization of three homologous series of smectic A siloxane containing liquid crystals. The materials studied include one monomesogenic series, which consists of a 4-(ω-alkyloxy)-4'-cyanobiphenyl unit terminated by pentamethyldisiloxane, and two bimesogenic series, which consist of twin 4-(ω-alkyloxy)-4'-cyanobiphenyls joined via tetramethyldisiloxane or decamethylpentasiloxane. All of the compounds exhibit wide temperature range enantiotropic smectic A phases; the effect of the siloxane moiety is to suppress nematic morphology even in the short chain homologs. We find that these compounds exhibit a highly anisotropic conductivity: the value perpendicular to the director is to up to 200 times that parallel to the director. For the nonsiloxane analog 4-(ω-octyl)-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB), this value is approximately 2. It is also found that the dielectric anisotropy is reduced significantly; a typical value is ˜1 compared to 8.4 for 8CB. We propose that the origin of these unusual properties is in the smectic structure; the microphase separation of the bulky, globular siloxane moieties into liquidlike regions severely inhibits the mobility parallel to the director and across the smectic layers. Further, the inclusion of this unit acts to increase the antiparallel correlations of molecular dipoles in the aromatic and alkyloxy sublayers, reducing the dielectric anisotropy significantly compared to nonsiloxane analogs. The highly anisotropic conductivity suggests that these materials are particularly suitable for application in electro-optic effects which exploit this property, e.g., the bistable electro-optic effect in smectic A liquid crystals.

  8. Plasma resonance in anisotropic layered high-Tc superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, Shigeki; Pedersen, Niels Falsig


    The plasma resonance is described theoretically by the inductive coupling model for a large stacked Josephson-junction system such as the intrinsic Josephson-junction array in anisotropic high- T-c superconductors. Eigenmodes of the plasma oscillation are analytically described and a numerical...... example for the large stack case N=50 is given. The scaling length characteristic of each mode is discussed. Numerical results for the plasma resonance for N= 50 in the presence of an external rf drive with wave number k are given. For k different from zero possible resonance modes among the eigen...... oscillation modes are shown, and it is further demonstrated that for k=0 the resonance takes place as a collection of N independent resonant Josephson junctions. Some guidelines for possible experiments are shown. It is also shown that, very recent microwave experiments for the plasma resonance can...

  9. Highly Compressible, Anisotropic Aerogel with Aligned Cellulose Nanofibers. (United States)

    Song, Jianwei; Chen, Chaoji; Yang, Zhi; Kuang, Yudi; Li, Tian; Li, Yiju; Huang, Hao; Kierzewski, Iain; Liu, Boyang; He, Shuaiming; Gao, Tingting; Yuruker, Sevket U; Gong, Amy; Yang, Bao; Hu, Liangbing


    Aerogels can be used in a broad range of applications such as bioscaffolds, energy storage devices, sensors, pollutant treatment, and thermal insulating materials due to their excellent properties including large surface area, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high porosity. Here we report a facile and effective top-down approach to fabricate an anisotropic wood aerogel directly from natural wood by a simple chemical treatment. The wood aerogel has a layered structure with anisotropic structural properties due to the destruction of cell walls by the removal of lignin and hemicellulose. The layered structure results in the anisotropic wood aerogel having good mechanical compressibility and fragility resistance, demonstrated by a high reversible compression of 60% and stress retention of ∼90% after 10 000 compression cycles. Moreover, the anisotropic structure of the wood aerogel with curved layers stacking layer-by-layer and aligned cellulose nanofibers inside each individual layer enables the wood aerogel to have an anisotropic thermal conductivity with an anisotropy factor of ∼4.3. An extremely low thermal conductivity of 0.028 W/m·K perpendicular to the cellulose alignment direction and a thermal conductivity of 0.12 W/m·K along the cellulose alignment direction can be achieved. The thermal conductivity is not only much lower than that of the natural wood material (by ∼3.6 times) but also lower than most of the commercial thermal insulation materials. The top-down approach is low-cost, scalable, simple, yet effective, representing a promising direction for the fabrication of high-quality aerogel materials.

  10. Long-range interaction of anisotropic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi


    The first-order electrostatic interaction energy between two far-apart anisotropic atoms depends not only on the distance between them but also on their relative orientation, according to Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. Using the first-order interaction energy and the continuum model, we study the long-range interaction between a pair of parallel pristine graphene sheets at zero temperature. The asymptotic form of the obtained potential density, &epsi:(D) &prop: ?D ?3 ?O(D?4), is consistent with the random phase approximation and Lifshitz theory. Accordingly, neglectance of the anisotropy, especially the nonzero first-order interaction energy, is the reason why the widely used Lennard-Jones potential approach and dispersion corrections in density functional theory give a wrong asymptotic form ε(D) &prop: ?D?4. © EPLA, 2015.

  11. Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.


    The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum

  12. Lifting mean-field degeneracies in anisotropic classical spin systems (United States)

    Sizyuk, Yuriy; Perkins, Natalia B.; Wölfle, Peter


    In this work, we propose a method for calculating the free energy of anisotropic classical spin systems. We use a Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to express the partition function of a generic bilinear superexchange Hamiltonian in terms of a functional integral over classical time-independent fields. As an example, we consider an anisotropic spin-exchange Hamiltonian on the cubic lattice as is found for compounds with strongly correlated electrons in multiorbital bands and subject to strong spin-orbit interaction. We calculate the contribution of Gaussian spin fluctuations to the free energy. While the mean-field solution of ordered states for such systems usually has full rotational symmetry, we show here that the fluctuations lead to a pinning of the spontaneous magnetization along some preferred direction of the lattice.

  13. Self-assembly in the systems of magnetic anisotropic nanoparticles (United States)

    Gudkova, A. V.; Pyanzina, E. S.


    This paper presents the complex investigation of the system of magnetic anisotropic nanoparticles using computer simulations in a wide range of the system's parameters. The cluster analysis was made, various average characteristics of the formed clusters were calculated and the initial magnetic susceptibility and the radial distribution function were computed. It was shown that via changing the nanoparticles characteristics (their shape and the values of the magnetic moments) it's possible to change macroscopic response of the system, that implements the idea of tuning and design new materials with controllable properties.

  14. The Adhesive System and Anisotropic Shear Force of Guizhou Gastromyzontidae (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Wang, Jinrong; Ji, Chen


    The Guizhou gastromyzontidae (Beaufortia kweichowensis) can adhere to slippery and fouled surfaces in torrential streams. A unique adhesive system utilized by the fish was observed by microscope and CLSM as an attachment disc sealed by a round belt of micro bubbles. The system is effective in wet or underwater environments and can resist a normal pulling force up to 1000 times the fish’s weight. Moreover, a mechanism for passive anisotropic shear force was observed. The shear forces of the fish under different conditions were measured, showing that passive shear force plays an important role in wet environments. The adhesive system of the fish was compared with other biological adhesion principles, from which we obtained potential values for the system that refer to the unique micro sealing and enhanced adhesion in a wet environment.

  15. Lifting mean field degeneracies in anisotropic spin systems (United States)

    Sizyuk, Yuriy; Perkins, Natalia; Wolfle, Peter

    We propose a method for calculating the fluctuation contribution to the free energy of anisotropic spin systems with generic bilinear superexchange magnetic Hamiltonian based on the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. We show that this contribution splits the set of mean field degenerate states with rotational symmetry, and chooses states with the order parameter directed along lattice symmetric directions as the true ground states. We consider the simple example of Heisenberg-compass model on cubic lattice to show that depending on the relative strength of the compass and Heisenberg interactions the spontaneous magnetization is pinned to either one of the cubic directions or one of the cubic body diagonals with a intermediate phase in between where the minima and maxima of the free energy interchange. DMR-1005932, DMR-1511768, and NSF PHY11-25915.

  16. Single-crystal study of highly anisotropic CeNiGe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikul, A P; Kaczorowski, D; Bukowski, Z; Plackowski, T; Gofryk, K [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)


    High quality single crystals of CeNiGe{sub 2} have been investigated by means of magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistivity and thermoelectric power measurements, carried out along all three principal crystallographic directions. The compound is an antiferromagnetic Kondo system that orders magnetically at T{sub N} = 3.9 K and undergoes a spin structure rearrangement at T{sub 1} = 3.2 K. The magnetic behaviour is strongly anisotropic with the easy magnetic direction parallel to the crystallographic a-axis. The Kondo temperature and the total crystal field splitting are of the order of 20 and 100 K, respectively.

  17. Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shifts for anisotropic Newtonian and relativistic stars. Anisotropy cannot be neglected in stellar clusters and galaxies, as well as in individual stars, as pointed out by Binney and Tremaine [9], Cuddeford [10], and Michie [11]. Anisotropy may be an ...

  18. Decay of high order optical vortices in anisotropic nonlinear optical media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.


    We present an experimental and theoretical study of the decay of high order optical vortices in media with an anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearity. Vortices with charge n decay into an aligned array of n vortices of unit charge.......We present an experimental and theoretical study of the decay of high order optical vortices in media with an anisotropic nonlocal nonlinearity. Vortices with charge n decay into an aligned array of n vortices of unit charge....

  19. Scalar and Vector 4Q Systems in Anisotropic Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Loan, Mushtaq; Lam, Yu Yiu


    We present a detailed study of some $4q$ hadrons in quenched improved anisotropic lattice QCD. Using the $\\pi\\pi$ and diquark-antidiquark local and smeared operators, we attempt to isolate the signal for $I(J^{P})=0(0^{+}), 2(0^{+})$ and $1(1^{+})$ states in two flavour QCD. In the chiral limit of light-quark mass region, the lowest scalar $4q$ state is found to have a mass, $m^{I=0}_{4q}=927(12)$ MeV, which is slightly lower than the experimentally observed $f_{0}(980)$. The results from our variational analysis do not indicate a signature of a tetraquark resonance in I=1 and I=2 channels. After the chiral extrapolation the lowest $1(1^{+})$ state is found to have a mass, $m^{I=1}_{4q}=1358(28)$ MeV. We analysed the static $4q$ potential extracted form a tetraquark Wilson loop and illustrated the behaviour of the $4q$ state as a bound state, unbinding at some critical diquark separation. From our analysis we conclude that scalar $4q$ system appears as a two-pion scattering state and that there is no spatiall...

  20. Anisotropic Hardening Behaviour and Springback of Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebong Jung


    Full Text Available Advanced high-strength steels (AHSSs exhibit large, and sometimes anisotropic, springback recovery after forming. Accurate description of the anisotropic elasto-plastic behaviour of sheet metals is critical for predicting their anisotropic springback behaviour. For some materials, the initial anisotropy is maintained while hardening progresses. However, for other materials, anisotropy changes with hardening. In this work, to account for the evolution of anisotropy of a dual-phase steel, an elastoplastic material constitutive model is developed. In particular, the combined isotropic–kinematic hardening model was modified. Tensile loading–unloading, uniaxial and biaxial tension, and tension–compression tests were conducted along the rolling, diagonal, and transverse directions to measure the anisotropic properties, and the parameters of the proposed constitutive model were determined. For validation, the proposed model was applied to a U-bending process, and the measured springback angles were compared to the predicted ones.

  1. The Hall effect in the organic conductor TTF–TCNQ: choice of geometry for accurate measurements of a highly anisotropic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafra, E; Čulo, M; Basletić, M


    We have measured the Hall effect on recently synthesized single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF–TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene–tetracyanoquinodimethane), a well known charge transfer complex that has two kinds of conductive stacks: the donor (TTF) and the acceptor (TCNQ...... Hall effect measurements. Our results show, contrary to past belief, that the Hall coefficient does not depend on the geometry of measurements and that the Hall coefficient value is approximately zero in the high temperature region (T > 150 K), implying that there is no dominance of either the TTF...... or the TCNQ chain. At lower temperatures our measurements clearly prove that all three phase transitions of TTF–TCNQ could be identified from Hall effect measurements....

  2. Electrostatic flocking of chitosan fibres leads to highly porous, elastic and fully biodegradable anisotropic scaffolds. (United States)

    Gossla, Elke; Tonndorf, Robert; Bernhardt, Anne; Kirsten, Martin; Hund, Rolf-Dieter; Aibibu, Dilibar; Cherif, Chokri; Gelinsky, Michael


    Electrostatic flocking - a common textile technology which has been applied in industry for decades - is based on the deposition of short polymer fibres in a parallel aligned fashion on flat or curved substrates, covered with a layer of a suitable adhesive. Due to their highly anisotropic properties the resulting velvet-like structures can be utilised as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in which the space between the fibres can be defined as pores. In the present study we have developed a fully resorbable compression elastic flock scaffold from a single material system based on chitosan. The fibres and the resulting scaffolds were analysed concerning their structural and mechanical properties and the biocompatibility was tested in vitro. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of the chitosan fibres were analysed as a function of the applied sterilisation technique (ethanol, supercritical carbon dioxide, γ-irradiation and autoclaving). All sterilisation methods decreased the Young's modulus (from 14GPa to 6-12GPa). The tensile strength was decreased after all treatments - except after the autoclaving of chitosan fibres submerged in water. Compressive strength of the highly porous flock scaffolds was 18±6kPa with a elastic modulus in the range of 50-100kPa. The flocked scaffolds did not show any cytotoxic effect during indirect or direct culture of human mesenchymal stem cells or the sarcoma osteogenic cell line Saos-2. Furthermore cell adhesion and proliferation of both cell types could be observed. This is the first demonstration of a fully biodegradable scaffold manufactured by electrostatic flocking. Most tissues possess anisotropic fibrous structures. In contrast, most of the commonly used scaffolds have an isotropic morphology. By utilising the textile technology of electrostatic flocking, highly porous and clearly anisotropic scaffolds can be manufactured. Flocking leads to parallel aligned short fibres, glued on the surface of a substrate

  3. Deep anisotropic dry etching of silicon microstructures by high-density plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw, M.A.


    This thesis deals with the dry etching of deep anisotropic microstructures in monocrystalline silicon by high-density plasmas. High aspect ratio trenches are necessary in the fabrication of sensitive inertial devices such as accellerometers and gyroscopes. The etching of silicon in fluorine-based


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Yaesh


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine conditions for the bound-edness of the anisotropic norm of discrete-time linear stochastic sys-tems with state dependent noise. It is proved that these conditions canbe expressed in terms of the feasibility of a specific system of matrixinequalities.

  5. Anisotropic bulk SmCo7 nanocrystalline magnets with high energy product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenpeng Song


    Full Text Available Realizing grain alignment along easy magnetization axis in bulk SmCo7 nanocrystalline materials is crucial for their development as high-performance high-temperature magnets, yet it remains challenging. Here, we report the fabrication of anisotropic bulk SmCo7 nanocrystalline magnets with a small grain size of ∼20 nm and a (00l texture using high-pressure thermal compression starting from partially amorphous precursors. The synthesized magnet exhibits a high energy product of 18.4 MGOe, 40% larger than the reported highest value (13 MGOe for bulk nanostructured SmCo7 magnets, and outperforms its anisotropic coarse-grained counterpart. Moreover, our magnet shows a low coercivity temperature coefficient of β = −0.19%/°C. These findings make an important step toward the fabrication of oriented bulk nanostructures for practical applications.

  6. Solution of the inverse Langevin problem for open dissipative systems with anisotropic interparticle interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisin, E. A.; Lisina, I. I.; Vaulina, O. S.; Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 13 bd.2 Izhorskaya St., Moscow 125412, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy Per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region 141700 (Russian Federation)


    Solution of the inverse Langevin problem is presented for open dissipative systems with anisotropic interparticle interaction. Possibility of applying this solution for experimental determining the anisotropic interaction forces between dust particles in complex plasmas with ion flow is considered. For this purpose, we have tested the method on the results of numerical simulation of chain structures of particles with quasidipole-dipole interaction, similar to the one occurring due to effects of ion focusing in gas discharges. Influence of charge spatial inhomogeneity and fluctuations on the results of recovery is also discussed.

  7. Highly Sensitive Local Surface Plasmon Resonance in Anisotropic Au Nanoparticles Deposited on Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Saigusa


    Full Text Available This paper reports the facile and high-throughput fabrication method of anisotropic Au nanoparticles with a highly sensitive local surface plasmon resonance (LPR using cylindrical nanofibers as substrates. The substrates consisting of nanofibers were prepared by the electrospinning of poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF. The Au nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of electrospun nanofibers by vacuum evaporation. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a curved Au island structure on the surface of cylindrical nanofibers. Polarized UV-visible extinction spectroscopy showed anisotropy in their LPR arising from the high surface curvature of the nanofiber. The LPR of the Au nanoparticles on the thinnest nanofiber with a diameter of ~100 nm showed maximum refractive index (RI sensitivity over 500 nm/RI unit (RIU. The close correlation between the fiber diameter dependence of the RI sensitivity and polarization dependence of the LPR suggests that anisotropic Au nanoparticles improve RI sensitivity.

  8. Efficient CAD Model to Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Circular Microstrip Antenna on Anisotropic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bedra


    Full Text Available In this paper, an electromagnetic approach based on cavity model in conjunction with electromagnetic knowledge was developed. The cavity model combined with London’s equations and the Gorter-Casimir two-fluid model has been improved to investigate the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in the case where the patch is printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate materials.  Merits of our extended model include low computational cost and mathematical simplify. The numerical simulation of this modeling shows excellent agreement with experimental results available in the literature. Finally, numerical results for the dielectric anisotropic substrates effects on the operating frequencies for the case of superconducting circular patch are also presented.

  9. Characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on uniaxially anisotropic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkouda, Siham; Messai, Abderraouf [Electronics Department, University of Constantine 1, 25000 Constantine (Algeria); Amir, Mounir; Bedra, Sami [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria); Fortaki, Tarek, E-mail: [Electronics Department, University of Batna, 05000 Batna (Algeria)


    Highlights: • We model a microstrip antenna with anisotropic substrate and superconductor patch. • The extended full-wave analysis is used to solve for the antenna characteristics. • The accuracy of the method is checked by comparing our results with published data. • Uniaxial anisotropy affects the resonant characteristics of the antenna. • Patch on uniaxial substrate is more advantageous than the one on isotropic medium. - Abstract: Resonant characteristics of a high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch printed on uniaxially anisotropic substrate are investigated using a full-wave spectral analysis in conjunction with the complex resistive boundary condition. The uniaxial medium shows anisotropy of an electric type as well as anisotropy of a magnetic type. Both permittivity and permeability tensors of the substrate are included in the formulation of the dyadic Green’s function of the problem. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical data of the resonant frequency and bandwidth as a function of electric anisotropy ratio are presented. Variations of the resonant frequency and bandwidth with the magnetic anisotropy ratio are also given. Finally, results showing the influence of the temperature on the resonant frequency and quality factor of the high T{sub c} superconducting rectangular microstrip patch on a uniaxial substrate are also given.

  10. Anisotropic high field superconductinng behavior in MgB_2 (United States)

    Gurevich, Alexander


    I will discuss new effects resulting from the two-gap superconductivity in MgB_2, focusing on: 1. Current-induced interband breakdown and dynamic interband phase textures caused by nonequilibrium charge imbalance [1], 2. Anomalous enhancement of the upper critical field H_c2(T) by nonmagnetic impurities in dirty two-gap superconductors. A theory of H_c2 based on generalized two-gap Usadel equations, which include both intra and interband scattering channels and paramagnetic pairbreaking is presented. Solutions of these equations show that H_c2(T) can exhibit a strong upward curvature and an unusual temperature dependence of the anisotropy parameter H_c2^||/H_c2^⊥, which can both increase and decrease with T depending on the ratio of the intraband electron diffusivities D_π/D_σ [2]. The theory explains recent high-field transport experiments on resistive MgB2 films in which the upper critical field was increased by 3-10 times as compared to single crystals [3], H_c2 exceeding 50 Tesla for H||ab and 35T for H⊥ ab. The results suggest that nonmagnetic impurities due to selective atomic substitution on Mg and B sites can increase H_c2 of MgB2 to a much greater extend than in one-gap superconductors. [1]. A. Gurevich and V.M. Vinokur, PRL 90, 047004 (2003). [2]. A. Gurevich, PRB 67, 1845151 (2003) and unpublished. [3]. A. Gurevich et al. Supercond. Sci. Technol. (2003, to appear). *In collaboration with V.M. Vinokur, V. Braccini, S. Patnaik, X. Song, D.C. Larbalestier, C.B. Eom, X. Pan, X. Xi, V. Ferrando, C. Ferdighini, A. Siri, K.H. Kim and C. Mielke. Work supported by NSF Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces MRSEC at the University of Wisconsin.

  11. Adaptive-Anisotropic Wavelet Collocation Method on general curvilinear coordinate systems (United States)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Vasilyev, Oleg V.


    A new general framework for an Adaptive-Anisotropic Wavelet Collocation Method (A-AWCM) for the solution of partial differential equations is developed. This proposed framework addresses two major shortcomings of existing wavelet-based adaptive numerical methodologies, namely the reliance on a rectangular domain and the ;curse of anisotropy;, i.e. drastic over-resolution of sheet- and filament-like features arising from the inability of the wavelet refinement mechanism to distinguish highly correlated directional information in the solution. The A-AWCM addresses both of these challenges by incorporating coordinate transforms into the Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method for the solution of PDEs. The resulting integrated framework leverages the advantages of both the curvilinear anisotropic meshes and wavelet-based adaptive refinement in a complimentary fashion, resulting in greatly reduced cost of resolution for anisotropic features. The proposed Adaptive-Anisotropic Wavelet Collocation Method retains the a priori error control of the solution and fully automated mesh refinement, while offering new abilities through the flexible mesh geometry, including body-fitting. The new A-AWCM is demonstrated for a variety of cases, including parabolic diffusion, acoustic scattering, and unsteady external flow.

  12. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad


    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anisotropic pseudopotential characterization of quantum Hall systems under a tilted magnetic field (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Chi; Hu, Zi-Xiang


    We analytically derived the effective two-body interaction for a finite thickness quantum Hall system with a harmonic perpendicular confinement and an in-plane magnetic field. The anisotropic effective interaction in the lowest Landau level (LLL) and first Landau level (1LL) are expanded in the basis of the generalized pseudopotentials (PPs), and we analyze how the coefficients of some prominent isotropic and anisotropic PPs depend on the thickness of the sample and the strength of the in-plane magnetic field. We also investigate the stability of the topological quantum Hall states, especially the Laughlin state and its emergent guiding center metric, which we can now compute analytically. An interesting reorientation of the anisotropy direction of the Laughlin state in the 1LL is revealed, and we also discuss various possible experimental ramifications for this quantum Hall system with broken rotational symmetry.

  14. High statistics analysis using anisotropic clover lattices: (III) Baryon-baryon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S; Detmold, W; Lin, H; Luu, T; Orginos, K; Savage, M; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A


    Low-energy baryon-baryon interactions are calculated in a high-statistics lattice QCD study on a single ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations at a pion mass of m{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 MeV, a spatial volume of L{sup 3} {approx} (2.5 fm){sup 3}, and a spatial lattice spacing of b {approx} 0.123 fm. Luescher's method is used to extract nucleon-nucleon, hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon scattering phase shifts at one momentum from the one- and two-baryon ground-state energies in the lattice volume. The isospin-3/2 N{Sigma} interactions are found to be highly spin-dependent, and the interaction in the {sup 3}S{sub 1} channel is found to be strong. In contrast, the N{Lambda} interactions are found to be spin-independent, within the uncertainties of the calculation, consistent with the absence of one-pion-exchange. The only channel for which a negative energy-shift is found is {Lambda}{Lambda}, indicating that the {Lambda}{Lambda} interaction is attractive, as anticipated from model-dependent discussions regarding the H-dibaryon. The NN scattering lengths are found to be small, clearly indicating the absence of any fine-tuning in the NN-sector at this pion mass. This is consistent with our previous Lattice QCD calculation of NN interactions. The behavior of the signal-to-noise ratio in the baryon-baryon correlation functions, and in the ratio of correlation functions that yields the ground-state energy splitting is explored. In particular, focus is placed on the window of time slices for which the signal-to-noise ratio does not degrade exponentially, as this provides the opportunity to extract quantitative information about multi-baryon systems.

  15. Anisotropic ferromagnetic polymer: A first step for their implementation in microfluidic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Le Roy


    Full Text Available Here we report on the influence of anisotropic microstructure on the performances of magnetically soft micro-patterns intended to integrate microfluidic systems. These micro-patterns are made of a composite obtained by mixing carbonyl iron particles with polydimethylsiloxane, which offers practical integration advantages. We investigated a wide range of magnetic particle loadings, from 10wt% to 83wt%, reaching magnetization as high as 630 kA/m. A homogeneous field was applied during the polymer’s cross-linking phase so that to obtain a 1D arrangement of the particles in the solidified polymer, along the field direction. Here we present the results obtained for square-based micro-pillars prepared under a magnetic field applied along one of its diagonal. We assessed the magnetic anisotropy owing to the particles’ spatial arrangement by comparing the magnetization processes along the two diagonals of the micro-pillar’s base. The magnetic susceptibilities along the two directions differ from a factor greater than three. The results can be described in terms of high aspect ratio and porous magnetic agglomerates.

  16. Efficient operation of anisotropic synchronous machines for wind energy systems (United States)

    Eldeeb, Hisham; Hackf, Christoph M.; Kullick, Julian


    This paper presents an analytical solution for the Maximum-Torque-per-Ampere (MTPA) operation of synchronous machines (SM) with anisotropy and magnetic cross-coupling for the application in wind turbine systems and airborne wind energy systems. For a given reference torque, the analytical MTPA solution provides the optimal stator current references which produce the desired torque while minimizing the stator copper losses. From an implementation point of view, the proposed analytical method is appealing in terms of its fast online computation (compared to classical numerical methods) and its efficiency enhancement of the electrical drive system. The efficiency of the analytical MTPA operation, with and without consideration of cross-coupling, is compared to the conventional method with zero direct current.

  17. Anisotropic etching of tungsten-nitride with ICP system

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H G; Moon, H S; Kim, S H; Ahn, J; Sohn, S


    Inductively Coupled Plasma ion streaming etching of WN sub x film is investigated for preparing x-ray mask absorber patterns. SF sub 6 gas plasma provides for effective etching of WN sub x , and the addition of Ar and N sub 2 results in higher dissociation of SF sub 6 and sidewall passivation effect, respectively. Microloading effect observed for high aspect ratio patterns is minimized by multi-step etching and O sub 2 plasma treatment process. As a result, 0.18 mu m WN sub x line and space patterns with vertical sidewall profile are successfully fabricated.

  18. Fabrication of Aligned-Carbon-Nanotube-Composite Paper with High and Anisotropic Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujitsuka


    Full Text Available A functional carbon-nanotube (CNT-composite paper is described in which the CNTs are aligned. This “aligned-CNT composite paper” is a flexible composite material that has CNT functionality (e.g., electrical conductivity despite being a paper. An advanced fabrication method was developed to overcome the problem of previous CNT-composite papers, that is, reduced conductivity due to random CNT alignment. Aligning the CNTs by using an alternating current (AC field was hypothesized to increase the electrical conductivity and give the paper an anisotropic characteristic. Experimental results showed that a nonionic surfactant was not suitable as a CNT dispersant for fabricating aligned-CNT composite paper and that catechin with its six-membered rings and hydrophilic groups was suitable. Observation by scanning electron microscopy of samples prepared using catechin showed that the CNTs were aligned in the direction of the AC field on the paper fibers. Measurement of the electric conductivity showed that the surface resistance was different between the direction of the aligned CNTs (high conductivity and that of verticality (low. The conductivity of the aligned-CNT-composite paper samples was higher than that of nonaligned samples. This unique and functional paper, which has high and anisotropic conductivity, is applicable to a conductive material to control the direction of current.

  19. Stiff, Thermally Stable and Highly Anisotropic Wood-Derived Carbon Composite Monoliths for Electromagnetic Interference Shielding. (United States)

    Yuan, Ye; Sun, Xianxian; Yang, Minglong; Xu, Fan; Lin, Zaishan; Zhao, Xu; Ding, Yujie; Li, Jianjun; Yin, Weilong; Peng, Qingyu; He, Xiaodong; Li, Yibin


    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials for electronic devices in aviation and aerospace not only need lightweight and high shielding effectiveness, but also should withstand harsh environments. Traditional EMI shielding materials often show heavy weight, poor thermal stability, short lifetime, poor tolerance to chemicals, and are hard-to-manufacture. Searching for high-efficiency EMI shielding materials overcoming the above weaknesses is still a great challenge. Herein, inspired by the unique structure of natural wood, lightweight and highly anisotropic wood-derived carbon composite EMI shielding materials have been prepared which possess not only high EMI shielding performance and mechanical stable characteristics, but also possess thermally stable properties, outperforming those metals, conductive polymers, and their composites. The newly developed low-cost materials are promising for specific applications in aerospace electronic devices, especially regarding extreme temperatures.

  20. Anisotropic strain relaxation and high quality AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si (110) substrates (United States)

    Feng, Yuxia; Yang, Xuelin; Cheng, Jianpeng; Zhang, Jie; Ji, Panfeng; Shen, Jianfei; Hu, Anqi; Xu, Fujun; Yu, Tongjun; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo


    We have investigated the growth and relaxation mechanisms of anisotropic lattice misfit strain in AlN and GaN layers on Si (110) substrates. A qualitative model is proposed to explain the relaxation process. It is revealed that the anisotropic misfit strain is quickly relaxed in the low temperature AlN layer by the formation of interface misfit dislocations, small misoriented grains, and lattice distortion. As a result, isotropic properties and atomically smooth surface are observed in the high temperature AlN layer. Based on this isotropic AlN layer, a high quality GaN layer and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures with a high electron mobility of 2160 cm2/(V . s) have been obtained. This work will have important impacts on the understanding of the epitaxy of isotropic semiconductor films on anisotropic substrates.

  1. Decentralized Control of Sound Radiation using a High-Authority/Low-Authority Control Strategy with Anisotropic Actuators (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.; Fuller, Chris R.


    This paper describes a combined control strategy designed to reduce sound radiation from stiffened aircraft-style panels. The control architecture uses robust active damping in addition to high-authority linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control. Active damping is achieved using direct velocity feedback with triangularly shaped anisotropic actuators and point velocity sensors. While active damping is simple and robust, stability is guaranteed at the expense of performance. Therefore the approach is often referred to as low-authority control. In contrast, LQG control strategies can achieve substantial reductions in sound radiation. Unfortunately, the unmodeled interaction between neighboring control units can destabilize decentralized control systems. Numerical simulations show that combining active damping and decentralized LQG control can be beneficial. In particular, augmenting the in-bandwidth damping supplements the performance of the LQG control strategy and reduces the destabilizing interaction between neighboring control units.

  2. Direct Imaging of Highly Anisotropic Photogenerated Charge Separations on Different Facets of a Single BiVO4 Photocatalyst. (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Fan, Fengtao; Chen, Ruotian; An, Hongyu; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can


    Spatially resolved surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SRSPS) was employed to obtain direct evidence for highly anisotropic photogenerated charge separation on different facets of a single BiVO4 photocatalyst. Through the controlled synthesis of a single crystal with preferentially exposed {010} facets, highly anisotropic photogenerated hole transfer to the {011} facet of single BiVO4 crystals was observed. The surface photovoltage signal intensity on the {011} facet was 70 times stronger than that on the {010} facets. The influence of the built-in electric field in the space charge region of different facets on the anisotropic photoinduced charge transfer in a single semiconductor crystal is revealed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. TECATE - a code for anisotropic thermoelasticity in high-average-power laser technology. Phase 1 final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelinas, R.J.; Doss, S.K.; Carlson, N.N.


    This report describes a totally Eulerian code for anisotropic thermoelasticity (code name TECATE) which may be used in evaluations of prospective crystal media for high-average-power lasers. The present TECATE code version computes steady-state distributions of material temperatures, stresses, strains, and displacement fields in 2-D slab geometry. Numerous heat source and coolant boundary condition options are available in the TECATE code for laser design considerations. Anisotropic analogues of plane stress and plane strain evaluations can be executed for any and all crystal symmetry classes. As with all new and/or large physics codes, it is likely that some code imperfections will emerge at some point in time.

  4. Fluid driven fracture mechanics in highly anisotropic shale: a laboratory study with application to hydraulic fracturing (United States)

    Gehne, Stephan; Benson, Philip; Koor, Nick; Enfield, Mark


    The finding of considerable volumes of hydrocarbon resources within tight sedimentary rock formations in the UK led to focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of low permeability rock types and hydraulic fracturing. Despite much research in these fields, there remains a scarcity of available experimental data concerning the fracture mechanics of fluid driven fracturing and the fracture properties of anisotropic, low permeability rock types. In this study, hydraulic fracturing is simulated in a controlled laboratory environment to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time and assess how environmental factors and rock properties influence the fracture process and the developing fracture network. Here we report data on employing fluid overpressure to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in a highly anisotropic shale ( 50% P-wave velocity anisotropy). Experiments are carried out in a triaxial deformation apparatus using cylindrical samples. The bedding planes are orientated either parallel or normal to the major principal stress direction (σ1). A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from the pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic Emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. Indirect tensile strength measurements at atmospheric pressure show a high tensile strength anisotropy ( 60%) of the shale. Depending on the relative bedding orientation within the stress field, we find that fluid induced fractures in the sample propagate in two of the three principal fracture orientations: Divider and Short-Transverse. The fracture progresses parallel to the bedding plane (Short-Transverse orientation) if the bedding plane is aligned (parallel) with the

  5. Anisotropic photoconductivity and current deflection induced in Bi12SiO20 by high contrast interference pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukhtarev, N.V.; Lyuksyutov, S; Buchhave, Preben


    We have predicted and observed an anisotropic photocurrent induced in the cubic crystal Bi/sub 12/SiO/sub 20/ by a high-contrast interference pattern. The transverse current detected when the interference pattern is tilted is caused by deflection of the direct current generated by an external...

  6. Influence of ordered morphology on the anisotropic actuation in uniaxially oriented electroactive polymer systems. (United States)

    Park, Jong Keun; Moore, Robert B


    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive materials that undergo bending motions with the stimulus of a relatively weak electric field. To understand the fundamental role of the nanoscale morphology of the ionomer membrane matrix in affecting the actuation behavior of IPMC systems, we evaluated the actuation performance of IPMC materials subjected to uniaxial orientation. The perfluorinated ionomer nanostructure altered by uniaxial orientation mimicks the fibrillar structure of biological muscle tissue and yields a new anisotropic actuation response. It is evident that IPMCs cut from films oriented perpendicular to the draw direction yield tip-displacement values that are significantly greater than those of unoriented IPMCs. In contrast, IPMCs cut from films oriented parallel to the draw direction appear to resist bending and yield tip-displacement values that are much less than those of unoriented IPMCs. This anisotropic actuation behavior is attributed, in part, to the contribution of the fibrillar morphology to the bulk bending modulus. As an additional contribution, electrically stimulated water swelling perpendicular to the rodlike aggregate axis facilitates bending in the perpendicular direction.

  7. Influence of Ordered Morphology on the Anisotropic Actuation in Uniaxially Oriented Electroactive Polymer Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Keun; Moore, Robert B.; (VPI-SU)


    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive materials that undergo bending motions with the stimulus of a relatively weak electric field. To understand the fundamental role of the nanoscale morphology of the ionomer membrane matrix in affecting the actuation behavior of IPMC systems, we evaluated the actuation performance of IPMC materials subjected to uniaxial orientation. The perfluorinated ionomer nanostructure altered by uniaxial orientation mimicks the fibrillar structure of biological muscle tissue and yields a new anisotropic actuation response. It is evident that IPMCs cut from films oriented perpendicular to the draw direction yield tip-displacement values that are significantly greater than those of unoriented IPMCs. In contrast, IPMCs cut from films oriented parallel to the draw direction appear to resist bending and yield tip-displacement values that are much less than those of unoriented IPMCs. This anisotropic actuation behavior is attributed, in part, to the contribution of the fibrillar morphology to the bulk bending modulus. As an additional contribution, electrically stimulated water swelling perpendicular to the rodlike aggregate axis facilitates bending in the perpendicular direction.

  8. Anisotropic properties of high-temperature polyimide thin films: Dielectric and thermal-expansion behaviors (United States)

    Ree, M.; Chen, K.-J.; Kirby, D. P.; Katzenellenbogen, N.; Grischkowsky, D.


    Multilayer poly(p-phenylene biphenyltetracarboximide) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide films of 172 μm total thickness (11.4 μm per layer) were prepared from the poly(amic acid) precursor solution through repetition of a spin-coat/softbake/cure process. Wide-angle x-ray diffraction results indicate that the polyimide molecules in the multilayer films are highly ordered along the chain axes as well as in the lateral direction and furthermore are highly oriented in the film plane as observed in a single-layer film of 11.4 μm thickness. The multilayer films showed the same dynamic mechanical properties and glass transition behavior (Tg = 330 °C) as a single-layer film. For the multilayer films both the in-plane dielectric constant (ɛ'XY) and out-of-plane thermal-expansion coefficient (αZ) were measured using time-domain spectroscopy and conventional thermal mechanical analysis, respectively. The ɛ'XY at room temperature was 3.69 (±0.08) over a frequency range of 0.35-2.50 THz. A similar ɛ'XY is predicted at frequencies of ≤0.35 THz. In contrast to the ɛ'XY, a relatively lower out-of-plane dielectric constant (ɛ'Z) was observed: ɛ'Z = 2.96-3.03 (±0.02) at 1 MHz, depending on moisture content in the film. The dielectric loss ɛ`Z at 1 MHz was 0.011-0.014 (±0.001), depending on moisture content. The measured αZ was 74 ppm/°C over the temperature range of 25-150 °C, which was much higher than αXY = 2.6-5 ppm/°C. Consequently, large anisotropic ɛ' and α have been observed in the in plane and out of plane of the thermally imidized BPDA-PDA films. The anisotropic ɛ' and α were caused by high in-plane orientation of the polyimide molecules highly ordered along the chain axes in the films.

  9. Bounding box framework for efficient phase field simulation of grain growth in anisotropic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vanherpe, L; Blanpain, B; Vandewalle, S


    A sparse bounding box algorithm is extended to perform efficient phase field simulations of grain growth in anisotropic systems. The extended bounding box framework allows to attribute different properties to different grain boundary types of a polycrystalline microstructure and can be combined with explicit, implicit or semi-implicit time stepping strategies. To illustrate the applicability of the software, the simulation results of a case study are analysed. They indicate the impact of a misorientation dependent boundary energy formulation on the evolution of the misorientation distribution of the grain boundary types and on the individual growth rates of the grains as a function of the number of grain faces. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical diffractometry of highly anisotropic holographic gratings formed by liquid crystal and polymer phase separation. (United States)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Ogiwara, Akifumi


    Optical diffractometry is proposed as a practical method of quantitatively analyzing the microscopic structural origins of a wide range of highly efficient and linearly polarized optical diffraction grating produced from holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. The structure is organized by a spatially periodical distribution of submicrometer-scale liquid crystal (LC) droplets in a polymer matrix. Six independent Bragg diffraction spectra were obtained at two orthogonal polarization states at temperatures below, at, and above the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition point. These spectra were simultaneously analyzed by employing anisotropic diffraction theory under the restraint of a simple and widely useful structural model constructed on the basis of the previously reported microscopic observations. The refractive indices of spatially periodic LC- and polymer-rich phases were analyzed using Cauchy's equation as a function of optical wavelength. The present diffractometry was demonstrated for a variety of holographic structures, and the structural parameters were discussed such as the filling ratio of LC droplets to polymer matrix, the orientational order in the droplets, and the thermo-optic properties in the LC droplets. Furthermore, the higher order Bragg diffractions were measured and discussed. The proposed method was examined in consistency by comparisons with polarizing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Influence of high insertion torque on implant placement: an anisotropic bone stress analysis. (United States)

    Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Freitas-Júnior, Amilcar Chagas; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the high values of insertion torques on the stress and strain distribution in cortical and cancellous bones. Based on tomography imaging, a representative mathematical model of a partial maxilla was built using Mimics 11.11 and Solid Works 2010 softwares. Six models were built and each of them received an implant with one of the following insertion torques: 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 or 80 Ncm on the external hexagon. The cortical and cancellous bones were considered anisotropic. The bone/implant interface was considered perfectly bonded. The numerical analysis was carried out using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The convergence of analysis (6%) drove the mesh refinement. Maximum principal stress (δmax) and maximum principal strain (εmax) were obtained for cortical and cancellous bones around to implant. Pearson's correlation test was used to determine the correlation between insertion torque and stress concentration in the periimplant bone tissue, considering the significance level at 5%. The increase in the insertion torque generated an increase in the δmax and εmax values for cortical and cancellous bone. The δmax was smaller for the cancellous bone, with greater stress variation among the insertion torques. The εmax was higher in the cancellous bone in comparison to the cortical bone. According to the methodology used and the limits of this study, it can be concluded that higher insertion torques increased tensile and compressive stress concentrations in the periimplant bone tissue.

  12. Theory of semiconductor nanoplatelet growth: How an intrinsic growth instability leads to highly anisotropic, quasi-two-dimensional platelets (United States)

    Erwin, Steve; Riedinger, Andreas; Ott, Florian; Mule, Aniket; Mazzotti, Sergio; Knuesel, Philippe; Kress, Stephan; Prins, Ferry; Norris, David

    Colloidal nanoplatelets are atomically flat, quasi-two-dimensional sheets of semiconductor that can exhibit efficient, spectrally pure fluorescence. Despite intense interest in their properties, the mechanism behind their highly anisotropic shape and precise atomic-scale thickness remains unclear, and even counterintuitive for commonly studied nanoplatelets that arise from isotropic crystal structures (e.g. zincblende CdSe and lead-halide perovskites). We show theoretically that an intrinsic instability in growth kinetics leads to such highly anisotropic shapes. By combining experimental results on the synthesis of CdSe nanoplatelets with theory predicting enhanced growth on narrow surface facets, we develop a model that explains nanoplatelet formation as well as observed dependencies on time and temperature. Based on standard concepts of volume, surface, and edge energies, the resulting growth instability criterion can be directly applied to other crystalline materials.

  13. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (III) Baryon-Baryon Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, Silas [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States); Detmold, William [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Lin, Huey-Wen [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Luu, Thomas C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Orginos, Kostas [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Savage, Martin [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Torok, Aaron M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics; Walker-Loud, Andre [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)


    Low-energy baryon-baryon interactions are calculated in a high-statistics lattice QCD study on a single ensemble of anisotropic clover gauge-field configurations at a pion mass of m_pi ~ 390 MeV, a spatial volume of L^3 ~ (2.5 fm)^3, and a spatial lattice spacing of b ~ 0.123 fm. Luscher’s method is used to extract nucleon-nucleon, hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon scattering phase shifts at one momentum from the one- and two-baryon ground-state energies in the lattice volume. The N-Sigma interactions are found to be highly spin-dependent, and the interaction in the ^3 S _1 channel is found to be strong. In contrast, the N-Lambda interactions are found to be spin-independent, within the uncertainties of the calculation, consistent with the absence of one-pion-exchange. The only channel for which a negative energy-shift is found is Lambda-Lambda, indicating that the Lambda-Lambda interaction is attractive, as anticipated from model-dependent discussions regarding the H-dibaryon. The NN scattering lengths are found to be small, clearly indicating the absence of any fine-tuning in the NN-sector at this pion mass. This is consistent with our previous Lattice QCD calculation of the NN interactions. The behavior of the signal-to-noise ratio in the baryon-baryon correlation functions, and in the ratio of correlation functions that yields the ground-state energy splitting

  14. Analysis of High Tc Superconducting Rectangular Microstrip Patches over Ground Planes with Rectangular Apertures in Substrates Containing Anisotropic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderraouf Messai


    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.

  15. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (I) Single Hadron Correlation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will Detmold,Konstantinos Orginos,Silas R. Beane,Will Detmold,William Detmold,Thomas C. Luu,Konstantinos Orginos,Assumpta Parreno,Martin J. Savage,Aaron Torok,Andre Walker-Loud


    We present the results of high-statistics calculations of correlation functions generated with single-baryon interpolating operators on an ensemble of dynamical anisotropic gauge-field configurations generated by the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using a tadpole-improved clover fermion action and Symanzik-improved gauge action. A total of 292,500 sets of measurements are made using 1194 gauge configurations of size 20^3 x 128 with an anisotropy parameter \\xi= b_s/b_t = 3.5, a spatial lattice spacing of b_s=0.1227\\pm 0.0008 fm, and pion mass of m_\\pi ~ 390 MeV. Ground state baryon masses are extracted with fully quantified uncertainties that are at or below the ~0.2%-level in lattice units. The lowest-lying negative-parity states are also extracted albeit with a somewhat lower level of precision. In the case of the nucleon, this negative-parity state is above the N\\pi threshold and, therefore, the isospin-1/2 \\pi N s-wave scattering phase-shift can be extracted using Luescher's method. The disconnected contributions to this process are included indirectly in the gauge-field configurations and do not require additional calculations. The signal-to-noise ratio in the various correlation functions is explored and is found to degrade exponentially faster than naive expectations on many time-slices. This is due to backward propagating states arising from the anti-periodic boundary conditions imposed on the quark-propagators in the time-direction. We explore how best to distribute computational resources between configuration generation and propagator measurements in order to optimize the extraction of single baryon observables.

  16. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (I) Single Hadron Correlation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S; Detmold, W; Luu, T; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A


    We present the results of high-statistics calculations of correlation functions generated with single-baryon interpolating operators on an ensemble of dynamical anisotropic gauge-field configurations generated by the Hadron Spectrum Collaboration using a tadpole-improved clover fermion action and Symanzik-improved gauge action. A total of 292, 500 sets of measurements are made using 1194 gauge configurations of size 20{sup 3} x 128 with an anisotropy parameter {zeta} = b{sub s}/b{sub t} = 3.5, a spatial lattice spacing of b{sub s} = 0.1227 {+-} 0.0008 fm, and pion mass of M{sub {pi}} {approx} 390 MeV. Ground state baryons masses are extracted with fully quantified uncertainties that are at or below the {approx} 0.2%-level in lattice units. The lowest-lying negative-parity states are also extracted albeit with a somewhat lower level of precision. In the case of the nucleon, this negative-parity state is above the N{pi} threshold and, therefore, the isospin-1/2 {pi}N s-wave scattering phase-shift can be extracted using Luescher's method. The disconnected contributions to this process are included indirectly in the gauge-field configurations and do not require additional calculations. The signal-to-noise ratio in the various correlation functions is explored and is found to degrade exponentially faster than naive expectations on many time-slices. This is due to backward propagating states arising from the anti-periodic boundary conditions imposed on the quark-propagators in the time-direction. We explore how best to distribute computational resources between configuration generation and propagator measurements in order to optimize the extraction of single baryon observables.

  17. Correction: Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions. (United States)

    Parapat, Riny Y; Wijaya, Muliany; Schwarze, Michael; Selve, Sören; Willinger, Marc; Schomäcker, Reinhard


    Correction for 'Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions' by Riny Y. Parapat et al., Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 796-805.

  18. Dose prediction accuracy of anisotropic analytical algorithm and pencil beam convolution algorithm beyond high density heterogeneity interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh B Rana


    Full Text Available Purpose: It is well known that photon beam radiation therapy requires dose calculation algorithms. The objective of this study was to measure and assess the ability of pencil beam convolution (PBC and anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA to predict doses beyond high density heterogeneity. Materials and Methods: An inhomogeneous phantom of five layers was created in Eclipse planning system (version 8.6.15. Each layer of phantom was assigned in terms of water (first or top, air (second, water (third, bone (fourth, and water (fifth or bottom medium. Depth doses in water (bottom medium were calculated for 100 monitor units (MUs with 6 Megavoltage (MV photon beam for different field sizes using AAA and PBC with heterogeneity correction. Combinations of solid water, Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC, and Styrofoam were then manufactured to mimic phantoms and doses for 100 MUs were acquired with cylindrical ionization chamber at selected depths beyond high density heterogeneity interface. The measured and calculated depth doses were then compared. Results: AAA′s values had better agreement with measurements at all measured depths. Dose overestimation by AAA (up to 5.3% and by PBC (up to 6.7% was found to be higher in proximity to the high-density heterogeneity interface, and the dose discrepancies were more pronounced for larger field sizes. The errors in dose estimation by AAA and PBC may be due to improper beam modeling of primary beam attenuation or lateral scatter contributions or combination of both in heterogeneous media that include low and high density materials. Conclusions: AAA is more accurate than PBC for dose calculations in treating deep-seated tumor beyond high-density heterogeneity interface.

  19. Carter constant induced mechanism for generation of anisotropic kinetic equilibria in collisionless N-body systems (United States)

    Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    A new intrinsically-relativistic kinetic mechanism for generation of nonisotropic relativistic kinetic equilibria in collisionless N-body systems is pointed out. The theory is developed in the framework of the covariant Vlasov statistical description. The new effect is based on the constraints placed by the conservation laws of neutral single-particle dynamics in prescribed background curved-spacetimes demonstrating existence of Killing tensors. As an illustration, the particular case of the Kerr spacetime admitting the so-called Carter constant for the particle geodesic motion is considered. The general functional form of the equilibrium kinetic distribution function (KDF) is determined and an explicit realization in terms of Gaussian-like distributions is provided. It is shown that, due to the Carter constant, these equilibrium KDFs exhibit an anisotropic phase-space functional dependence in terms of the single-particle 4-velocity components, giving rise to corresponding nonisotropic continuum fluid fields. The qualitative properties of the equilibrium stress-energy tensor associated with these systems are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the related occurrence of temperature anisotropy effects. The theory is susceptible of astrophysical applications, including in particular the statistical properties of dark matter (DM) halos around stellar-mass or galactic-center black holes.

  20. Anisotropic yielding of rocks at high temperatures and pressures; Annual Progress Report, 1988-1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, A.K.; Russell, J.E.; Carter, N.L.


    The experimental results we have obtained on Four-Mile gneiss have demonstrated that the yield behavior of quartzo-feldspathic rocks containing only a small percentage (10%) of mica can be markedly anisotropic, provided the mica minerals exhibit a strong crystallographic preferred orientation. Samples of gneiss oriented such that resolved shear stresses on the foliation plane are large are considerably weaker than granites of similar grain size and composition, and this weakness is attributed to enhanced nucleation of microcracks in quartz and feldspar adjacent to mica grains that are suitably oriented for slip. We expect the yield behavior of rocks containing a higher proportion of phyllosilicates to be influenced by the strongly anisotropic nature of these minerals as well, although the strengths, temperature and pressure dependencies, and flow-controlling mechanisms in such rocks may be significantly different.

  1. Development of an anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades in multibody system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Taeseong; Hansen, Anders Melchior; Branner, Kim


    In this paper a new anisotropic beam finite element for composite wind turbine blades is developed and implemented into the aeroelastic nonlinear multibody code, HAWC2, intended to be used to investigate if use of anisotropic material layups in wind turbine blades can be tailored for improved...... performance such as reduction of loads and/or increased power capture. The element stiffness and mass matrices are first derived based on pre-calculated anisotropic beam properties, and the beam element is subsequently put into a floating frame of reference to enable full rigid body displacement and rotation...... of the beam. This derivation provides the mass and stiffness properties and the fictitious forces needed for implementation into HAWC2. The implementation is subsequently validated by running three validation cases which all show good agreement with results obtained by other authors. Further, a parametric...

  2. Structure and performance of anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets fabricated by high-velocity compaction followed by deformation (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Deng, X. X.; Yu, H. Y.; Guan, H. J.; Li, X. Q.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. W.; Greneche, J. M.


    High-velocity compaction (HVC) has been proposed as an effective approach for the fabrication of nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets. In this work, the effect of powder size on the density of HVCed magnets has been studied and the anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets were prepared by HVC followed by hot deformation (HD). It is found that a proper particle size range is beneficial to high density. The investigations on the microstructure, magnetic domain structure, and hyperfine structure, indicate that the deformed grain structure and the magnetic domain structure with uniform paramagnetic grain boundary phase give good magnetic properties of HVC + HDed magnets. These magnets also have good mechanical and anti-corrosion properties. The results indicate that HVC is not only a near-net-shape, room temperature and binder-free process but is also able to maintain uniform nanostructure and to achieve good magnetic properties in both isotropic and anisotropic magnets. As a result, HVC can be employed as an ideal alternative process for bonding or hot pressing for the conventional MQI, MQII and MQIII magnets.

  3. Highly Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Layer-by-Layer Assembled Nanofibrillated Cellulose/Graphene Nanosheets Hybrid Films for Thermal Management. (United States)

    Song, Na; Jiao, Dejin; Cui, Siqi; Hou, Xingshuang; Ding, Peng; Shi, Liyi


    An anisotropic thermally conductive film with tailorable microstructures and macroproperties is fabricated using a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of graphene oxide (GO) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on a flexible NFC substrate driven by hydrogen bonding interactions, followed by chemical reduction process. The resulting NFC/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) hybrid film reveals an orderly hierarchical structure in which the RGO nanosheets exhibit a high degree of orientation along the in-plane direction. The assembly cycles dramatically increase the in-plane thermal conductivity (λX) of the hybrid film to 12.6 W·m(-1)·K(-1), while the cross-plane thermal conductivity (λZ) shows a lower value of 0.042 W·m(-1)·K(-1) in the hybrid film with 40 assembly cycles. The thermal conductivity anisotropy reaches up to λX/λZ = 279, which is substantially larger than that of similar polymeric nanocomposites, indicating that the LbL assembly on a flexible NFC substrate is an efficient technique for the preparation of polymeric nanocomposites with improved heat conducting property. Moreover, the layered hybrid film composed of 1D NFC and 2D RGO exhibits synergetic mechnical properties with outstanding flexibility and a high tensile strength (107 MPa). The combination of anisotropic thermal conductivity and superior mechanical performance may facilitate the applications in thermal management.

  4. Superstrate loading effects on the resonant characteristics of high Tc superconducting circular patch printed on anisotropic materials (United States)

    Bedra, Sami; Bedra, Randa; Benkouda, Siham; Fortaki, Tarek


    In this paper, the effects of both anisotropies in the substrate and superstrate loading on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of high-Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. A rigorous analysis is performed using a dyadic Galerkin's method in the vector Hankel transform domain. Galerkin's procedure is employed in the spectral domain where the TM and TE modes of the cylindrical cavity with magnetic side walls are used in the expansion of the disk current. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. London's equations and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir are used in the calculation of the complex surface impedance of the superconducting circular disc. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate-superstrate materials. Good agreement is found among all sets of results. The numerical results obtained show that important errors can be made in the computation of the resonant frequencies and bandwidths of the superconducting resonators when substrate dielectric anisotropy, and/or superstrate anisotropy are ignored. Other theoretical results obtained show that the superconducting circular microstrip patch on anisotropic substrate-superstrate with properly selected permittivity values along the optical and the non-optical axes combined with optimally chosen structural parameters is more advantageous than the one on isotropic substrate-superstrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth characteristic.

  5. Maslov shear-waveforms in highly anisotropic shales and implications for shear-wave splitting analyses; Formes d`onde transversales de Maslov dans les argiles fortement anisotropes et implications dans les analyses de birefringence des ondes transversales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caddick, J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Kendall, J.M.; Raymer, D.G. [Western Geophysical, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    Shales are the most common sedimentary rocks in hydrocarbon environments often forming the source rock and trapping rock for a reservoir. Due to the platy nature of the constituent grains, shales are commonly anisotropic. In this paper we calculate seismic waveforms for highly anisotropic shales using Maslow asymptotic theory (MAT). This theory is an extension of classical ray theory which provides valid waveforms in regions of caustics (wavefront folding) where ray theory amplitudes are unstable. Asymptotic ray theory (ART) is based on the Fermat or geometrical ray which connects the source and receiver. In contrast, the Maslov solution integrates the contributions from neighbouring non-Fermat rays. Ray-paths, travel-times, amplitudes and synthetic seismograms are presented for three highly anisotropic shales using a very simple 1D model comprised of an anisotropic shale overlying an isotropic shale. The ART waveforms fail to account for complex waveform effects due to triplications. In comparison, the MAT waveforms predict nonsingular amplitudes at wavefront cusps and it predicts the diffracted signals from these cusps. A Maslov solution which integrates ray contributions over a single slowness component will break down when rays focus in 3D (at a point rather than along a line). One of the tested shales shows such a point caustic and integration over 2 slowness components is required to remove the amplitude singularity. Finally, we examine the effects of wavefront triplications on Alford rotations which are used to estimate shear-wave splitting. In such cases, the rotation successfully finds the fast shear-wave polarization, but it can be unreliable in its estimate of the time separation. (authors) 21 refs.

  6. Plasma-assisted synthesis and high-resolution characterization of anisotropic elemental and bimetallic core–shell magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hennes


    Full Text Available Magnetically anisotropic as well as magnetic core–shell nanoparticles (CS-NPs with controllable properties are highly desirable in a broad range of applications. With this background, a setup for the synthesis of heterostructured magnetic core–shell nanoparticles, which relies on (optionally pulsed DC plasma gas condensation has been developed. We demonstrate the synthesis of elemental nickel nanoparticles with highly tunable sizes and shapes and Ni@Cu CS-NPs with an average shell thickness of 10 nm as determined with scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. An analytical model that relies on classical kinetic gas theory is used to describe the deposition of Cu shell atoms on top of existing Ni cores. Its predictive power and possible implications for the growth of heterostructured NP in gas condensation processes are discussed.

  7. Anisotropic branes (United States)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Bhowmick, Samrat; Mukherji, Sudipta


    We present a class of anisotropic brane configurations which shows BKL oscillations near their cosmological singularities. Near horizon limits of these solutions represent Kasner space embedded in AdS background. Dynamical probe branes in these geometries inherit anisotropies from the background. Amusingly, for a probe M5 brane, we find that there exists a parameter region where three of its world-volume directions expand while the rest contract.

  8. From the Bay of Biscay to the High Atlas: completing the anisotropic characterization of the westernmost Mediterranean region. (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep


    The knowledge of the anisotropic properties beneath the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Morocco has been dramatically changed since late 2007 with the analysis of the data provided by the dense TopoIberia-Iberarray broad-band seismic network, the increasing number of permanent stations operating in Morocco, Portugal and Spain and the contribution of smaller scale/higher resolution experiments. The first TopoIberia deployment in the Betics-Alboran zone has evidenced a spectacular rotation of the fast polarization direction (FPD) along the Gibraltar arc following the curvature of the Rif-Betic chain, from roughly N65E beneath the Betics to close to N65W beneath the Rif chain. (Díaz et al, 2010). This result, confirmed latter on by the analysis of the PICASSO experiment data (Miller et al., 2013), has been interpreted as an evidence of mantle flow deflected around the high velocity slab identified by tomographic methods beneath the Gibraltar Arc. Data from the second TopoIberia deployment and from additional deployments in the Moroccan Meseta and the western High Atlas, allowed expanding the investigated area and obtaining a larger scale image of the mantle flow around the region. Diaz et al. (2014) have shown that SW Portugal and the western High Atlas regions have a small degree of anisotropy and a large number of "null" measurements, which suggest the presence of vertical flow in the mantle associated to small-scale edge-driven convective cells. The rather uniform N100ºE FPD retrieved beneath the Variscan Central Iberian Massif is consistent with global mantle flow models taking into account contributions of surface plate motion, density variations and net lithosphere rotation. The last Iberarray deployment covers the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula and has been coeval with the deployment of a similar seismic network in southern France in the framework of the Pyrope project. Even if data from short term experiments in the Pyrenees and northern Iberia have

  9. Simultaneous generation of high-efficiency broadband asymmetric anomalous refraction and reflection waves with few-layer anisotropic metasurface (United States)

    Li, Zhancheng; Liu, Wenwei; Cheng, Hua; Liu, Jieying; Chen, Shuqi; Tian, Jianguo


    Optical metasurfaces consisting of single-layer nanostructures have immensely promising applications in wavefront control because they can be used to arbitrarily manipulate wave phase, and polarization. However, anomalous refraction and reflection waves have not yet been simultaneously and asymmetrically generated, and the limited efficiency and bandwidth of pre-existing single-layer metasurfaces hinder their practical applications. Here, a few-layer anisotropic metasurface is presented for simultaneously generating high-efficiency broadband asymmetric anomalous refraction and reflection waves. Moreover, the normal transmission and reflection waves are low and the anomalous waves are the predominant ones, which is quite beneficial for practical applications such as beam deflectors. Our work provides an effective method of enhancing the performance of anomalous wave generation, and the asymmetric performance of the proposed metasurface shows endless possibilities in wavefront control for nanophotonics device design and optical communication applications. PMID:27762286

  10. Fabrication and characterization of anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds for advanced drug delivery systems (United States)

    Jalani, Ghulam; Jung, Chan Woo; Lee, Jae Sang; Lim, Dong Woo


    Stimuli-responsive, polymer-based nanostructures with anisotropic compartments are of great interest as advanced materials because they are capable of switching their shape via environmentally-triggered conformational changes, while maintaining discrete compartments. In this study, a new class of stimuli-responsive, anisotropic nanofiber scaffolds with physically and chemically distinct compartments was prepared via electrohydrodynamic cojetting with side-by-side needle geometry. These nanofibers have a thermally responsive, physically-crosslinked compartment, and a chemically-crosslinked compartment at the nanoscale. The thermally responsive compartment is composed of physically crosslinkable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) poly(NIPAM) copolymers, and poly(NIPAM-co-stearyl acrylate) poly(NIPAM-co-SA), while the thermally-unresponsive compartment is composed of polyethylene glycol dimethacrylates. The two distinct compartments were physically crosslinked by the hydrophobic interaction of the stearyl chains of poly(NIPAM-co-SA) or chemically stabilized via ultraviolet irradiation, and were swollen in physiologically relevant buffers due to their hydrophilic polymer networks. Bicompartmental nanofibers with the physically-crosslinked network of the poly(NIPAM-co-SA) compartment showed a thermally-triggered shape change due to thermally-induced aggregation of poly(NIPAM-co-SA). Furthermore, when bovine serum albumin and dexamethasone phosphate were separately loaded into each compartment, the bicompartmental nanofibers with anisotropic actuation exhibited decoupled, controlled release profiles of both drugs in response to a temperature. A new class of multicompartmental nanofibers could be useful for advanced nanofiber scaffolds with two or more drugs released with different kinetics in response to environmental stimuli. PMID:24872702

  11. High Statistics Analysis using Anisotropic Clover Lattices: (IV) The Volume Dependence of the Light Hadron Masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A


    The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is

  12. A New Sparse Representation Framework for Reconstruction of an Isotropic High Spatial Resolution MR Volume From Orthogonal Anisotropic Resolution Scans. (United States)

    Jia, Yuanyuan; Gholipour, Ali; He, Zhongshi; Warfield, Simon K


    In magnetic resonance (MR), hardware limitations, scan time constraints, and patient movement often result in the acquisition of anisotropic 3-D MR images with limited spatial resolution in the out-of-plane views. Our goal is to construct an isotropic high-resolution (HR) 3-D MR image through upsampling and fusion of orthogonal anisotropic input scans. We propose a multiframe super-resolution (SR) reconstruction technique based on sparse representation of MR images. Our proposed algorithm exploits the correspondence between the HR slices and the low-resolution (LR) sections of the orthogonal input scans as well as the self-similarity of each input scan to train pairs of overcomplete dictionaries that are used in a sparse-land local model to upsample the input scans. The upsampled images are then combined using wavelet fusion and error backprojection to reconstruct an image. Features are learned from the data and no extra training set is needed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm using simulated and clinical MR scans. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves promising results in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity image index, intensity profiles, and visualization of small structures obscured in the LR imaging process due to partial volume effects. Our novel SR algorithm outperforms the nonlocal means (NLM) method using self-similarity, NLM method using self-similarity and image prior, self-training dictionary learning-based SR method, averaging of upsampled scans, and the wavelet fusion method. Our SR algorithm can reduce through-plane partial volume artifact by combining multiple orthogonal MR scans, and thus can potentially improve medical image analysis, research, and clinical diagnosis.

  13. Simple High-order Galerkin Finite Element Scheme for the Investigation of Both Guided and Leaky Modes in Anisotropic Planar Waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uranus, H.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    A simple high-order Galerkin finite element scheme is formulated to compute both the guided and leaky modes of anisotropic planar waveguides with a diagonal permitivity tensor. Transparent boundary conditions derived from the Sommerfeld radiation conditions are used to model the fields at the

  14. Influence of f(R) models on the existence of anisotropic self-gravitating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousaf, Z.; Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M.Z. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Ilyas, M. [University of the Punjab, Centre for High Energy Physics, Lahore (Pakistan)


    This paper aims to explore some realistic configurations of anisotropic spherical structures in the background of metric f(R) gravity, where R is the Ricci scalar. The solutions obtained by Krori and Barua are used to examine the nature of particular compact stars with three different modified gravity models. The behavior of material variables is analyzed through plots and the physical viability of compact stars is investigated through energy conditions. We also discuss the behavior of different forces, equation of state parameter, measure of anisotropy and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation in the modeling of stellar structures. The comparison from our graphical representations may provide evidence for the realistic and viable f(R) gravity models at both theoretical and the astrophysical scale. (orig.)

  15. Grid dependent noise and entropy growth in anisotropic 3d particle-in-cell simulation of high intensity beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hofmann


    Full Text Available The numerical noise inherent to particle-in-cell (PIC simulation of 3d anisotropic high intensity bunched beams in periodic focusing is compared with the analytical model by Struckmeier [Part. Accel. 45, 229 (1994]. The latter assumes that entropy growth can be related to Markov type stochastic processes due to temperature anisotropy and the artificial “collisions” caused by using macro-particles and calculating the space charge effect. The PIC simulations are carried out with the tracewin code widely used for high intensity beam simulation. The resulting noise can lead to growth of the six-dimensional rms emittance. The logarithm of the latter is shown to qualify as rms-based entropy. We confirm the dependence of this growth on the bunch temperature anisotropy as predicted by Struckmeier. However, we also find a grid and focusing dependent component of noise not predicted by Struckmeier. Although commonalities exist with well-established models for collision effects in PIC-simulation of extended plasmas, a distinctive feature is the presence of a periodic focusing potential, wherein the beam one-component plasma extends only over relatively few Debye lengths. Our findings are applied in particular to noise in high current linac beam simulation, where they help for optimization of the balance between the number of simulation particles and the grid resolution.

  16. Theory of Anisotropic Circular Dichroism of Excitonically Coupled Systems: Application to the Baseplate of Green Sulfur Bacteria. (United States)

    Lindorfer, Dominik; Renger, Thomas


    A simple exciton theory for the description of anisotropic circular dichroism (ACD) spectra of multichromophoric systems is presented that is expected to be of general use for the analysis of structure-function relationships of molecular aggregates such as photosynthetic light-harvesting antennae. The theory is applied to the baseplate of green sulfur bacteria. It is demonstrated that only the combined analysis of ACD and circular dichroism (CD) spectra for the present baseplate bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a dimer allows for an unambiguous determination of the parameters of the exciton Hamiltonian from experimental data. The analysis of experimental absorption and linear dichroism spectra suggests that either the NMR structure has to be refined or in addition to the dimers seen in the NMR structure and in the CD and ACD spectra, BChl a monomers are present in the baseplate carotenosome sample. A refined dimer structure is presented, explaining all four optical spectra.

  17. Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.


    An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.

  18. A homeotropic main-chain tolane-type liquid crystal elastomer film exhibiting high anisotropic thermal conductivity. (United States)

    Ge, Si-Jia; Zhao, Ti-Peng; Wang, Meng; Deng, Lin-Lin; Lin, Bao-Ping; Zhang, Xue-Qin; Sun, Ying; Yang, Hong; Chen, Er-Qiang


    The development of pure polymeric films with anisotropic thermal conductivities for electronic device packaging applications has attracted intense scientific attention. In order to enhance the polymeric film's normal-direction thermal conductivity, homeotropic alignment of macromolecular chains is the primary concern. One of the promising preparation strategies is to perform in situ photopolymerization of homeotropic-oriented liquid crystal monomers. In this work, we design and synthesize a novel tolane-core thiol-ene-tailed liquid crystal monomer. Benefitting from the conjugated and extended tolane π-system of the mesogenic core and length extension of the terminal aliphatic tails, the normal-to-plane thermal conductivity value and the thermal conductivity anisotropy value of the corresponding cross-linked main-chain end-on liquid crystal polymer (xMELCP) film reach 3.56 W m-1 K-1 and 15.0, respectively. Compared with the data of a previously reported ester-type thiol-ene xMELCP film, the two primary values of this novel tolane-type thiol-ene xMELCP material are increased dramatically by 46% and 29%, respectively.

  19. Highly anisotropic magneto-transport and field orientation dependent oscillations in aligned carbon nanotube/epoxy composites (United States)

    Wells, Brian; Kumar, Raj; Reynolds, C. Lewis; Peters, Kara; Bradford, Philip D.


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been widely investigated as additive materials for composites with potential applications in electronic devices due to their extremely large electrical conductivity and current density. Here, highly aligned CNT composite films were created using a sequential layering fabrication technique. The degree of CNT alignment leads to anisotropic resistance values which varies >400× in orthogonal directions. Similarly, the magnetoresistance (MR) of the CNT composite differs depending upon the relative direction of current and the applied magnetic field. A suppression of negative to positive MR crossover was also observed. More importantly, an overall positive magnetoresistance behavior with localized +/- oscillations was discovered at low fields which persists up to room temperature when the current (I) and in-plane magnetic field (B) were parallel to the axis of CNT (B∥I∥CNT), which is consistent with Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in our CNT/epoxy composites. When the current, applied magnetic field, and nanotube axis are aligned, the in-plane MR is positive instead of negative as observed for all other field, current, and tube orientations. Here, we provide in-depth analysis of the conduction mechanism and anisotropy in the magneto-transport properties of these aligned CNT-epoxy composites.

  20. Single-layer nanosheets with exceptionally high and anisotropic hydroxyl ion conductivity. (United States)

    Sun, Pengzhan; Ma, Renzhi; Bai, Xueyin; Wang, Kunlin; Zhu, Hongwei; Sasaki, Takayoshi


    When the dimensionality of layered materials is reduced to the physical limit, an ultimate two-dimensional (2D) anisotropy and/or confinement effect may bring about extraordinary physical and chemical properties. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), bearing abundant hydroxyl groups covalently bonded within 2D host layers, have been proposed as inorganic anion conductors. However, typical hydroxyl ion conductivities for bulk or lamellar LDHs, generally up to 10 -3 S cm -1 , are considered not high enough for practical applications. We show that single-layer LDH nanosheets exhibited exceptionally high in-plane conductivities approaching 10 -1 S cm -1 , which were the highest among anion conductors and comparable to proton conductivities in commercial proton exchange membranes (for example, Nafion). The in-plane conductivities were four to five orders of magnitude higher than the cross-plane or cross-membrane values of restacked LDH nanosheets. This 2D superionic transport characteristic might have great promises in a variety of applications including alkaline fuel cells and water electrolysis.

  1. Highly anisotropic conductivity of tablets pressed from polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarský, Jonáš, E-mail: [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Kulhánková, Lenka [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Neuwirthová, Lucie; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Vallová, Silvie [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Stýskala, Vítězslav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Čapková, Pavla [Faculty of Science, University of J.E. Purkyně, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)


    Highlights: • Montmorillonite (MMT) can be intercalated with polyaniline (PANI) chains. • Tablets pressed from PANI/MMT exhibit high anisotropy in electrical conductivity. • Pressure 28MPa is sufficient to reach the anisotropy. • Tablets pressed from pure PANI also exhibit anisotropy in electrical conductivity. - Abstract: Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared from anilinium sulfate (precursor) and ammonium peroxodisulfate (oxidizing agent) using simple one-step method. The resulting nanocomposite obtained in powder form has been pressed into tablets using various compression pressures (28–400 MPa). Electrical conductivities of tablets in two perpendicular directions, i.e. direction parallel with the main surface of tablet (σ=) and in orthogonal direction (σ⊥), and corresponding anisotropy factors (i.e., the ratio σ=/σ⊥) have been studied in dependence on compression pressure used during the preparation. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular modeling which led to the understanding of the internal structure. Measurement of hardness performed on pressed tablets has been also involved. Taking into account the highest value of anisotropy factor reached (σ=/σ⊥ = 490), present study shows a chance to design conductors with nearly two-dimensional conductivity.

  2. Waveguide structures in anisotropic nonlinear crystals (United States)

    Li, Da; Hong, Pengda; Meissner, Helmuth E.


    We report on the design and manufacturing parameters of waveguiding structures of anisotropic nonlinear crystals that are employed for harmonic conversions, using Adhesive-Free Bonding (AFB®). This technology enables a full range of predetermined refractive index differences that are essential for the design of single mode or low-mode propagation with high efficiency in anisotropic nonlinear crystals which in turn results in compact frequency conversion systems. Examples of nonlinear optical waveguides include periodically bonded walk-off corrected nonlinear optical waveguides and periodically poled waveguide components, such as lithium triborate (LBO), beta barium borate (β-BBO), lithium niobate (LN), potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP), zinc germanium phosphide (ZGP) and silver selenogallate (AGSE). Simulation of planar LN waveguide shows that when the electric field vector E lies in the k-c plane, the power flow is directed precisely along the propagation direction, demonstrating waveguiding effect in the planar waveguide. Employment of anisotropic nonlinear optical waveguides, for example in combination with AFB® crystalline fiber waveguides (CFW), provides access to the design of a number of novel high power and high efficiency light sources spanning the range of wavelengths from deep ultraviolet (as short as 200 nm) to mid-infrared (as long as about 18 μm). To our knowledge, the technique is the only generally applicable one because most often there are no compatible cladding crystals available to nonlinear optical cores, especially not with an engineer-able refractive index difference and large mode area.

  3. Existence of a Thermodynamic Spin-Glass Phase in the Zero-Concentration Limit of Anisotropic Dipolar Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Andresen


    Full Text Available The nature of ordering in dilute dipolar interacting systems dates back to the work of Debye and is one of the most basic, oldest and as-of-yet unsettled problems in magnetism. While spin-glass order is readily observed in several RKKY-interacting systems, dipolar spin glasses are the subject of controversy and ongoing scrutiny, e.g., in LiHo_{x}Y_{1−x}F_{4}, a rare-earth randomly diluted uniaxial (Ising dipolar system. In particular, it is unclear if the spin-glass phase in these paradigmatic materials persists in the limit of zero concentration or not. We study an effective model of LiHo_{x}Y_{1−x}F_{4} using large-scale Monte Carlo simulations that combine parallel tempering with a special cluster algorithm tailored to overcome the numerical difficulties that occur at extreme dilutions. We find a paramagnetic to spin-glass phase transition for all Ho^{+} ion concentrations down to the smallest concentration numerically accessible, 0.1%, and including Ho^{+} ion concentrations that coincide with those studied experimentally up to 16.7%. Our results suggest that randomly diluted dipolar Ising systems have a spin-glass phase in the limit of vanishing dipole concentration, with a critical temperature vanishing linearly with concentration. The agreement of our results with mean-field theory testifies to the irrelevance of fluctuations in interactions strengths, albeit being strong at small concentrations, to the nature of the low-temperature phase and the functional form of the critical temperature of dilute anisotropic dipolar systems. Deviations from linearity in experimental results at the lowest concentrations are discussed.

  4. A novel double‐image Fizeau system for accurate investigation of anisotropic polymer fibres

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    This paper introduces a double‐image multiple‐beam Fizeau fringes system. The introduced system can dynamically determine the variations of the refractive indices for both parallel and perpendicular polarization simultaneously...

  5. Local anisotropic features method and its application (United States)

    Gibin, Igor S.; Popov, Pavel G.


    The local anisotropic features method is based on the analysis of anisotropy direction of energy Fourier spectrum of image points local neighborhood. Numbers of discrete anisotropic directions are chosen as features. In the features space the measure of images nearness is set. Thanks to its properties local anisotropic features (LAF) are invariant to a wide class of input images bright transformations. This allows to identify images got by different observing channels, in different spectral ranges, within different external observation conditions. LAF method allows to perform multifunctional images processing: recognition, tracking, compression of data. LAF method may be adapted practically to any image receiver and used for multichannel information processing: channels complexing and scene integral image synthesis. The advantage of LAF method is that all kinds of processing may be realized in one computing device. Another advantage of this method is its high obstacles stability. Using the dynamic nearness measure as a constituent and integral part of the method allows to select dynamic objects and to mark them out against the underlying background. It is convenient to use LAF method in hierarchical and neuro-like structures, this makes it winning to use this method in automatic recognition system. The report considers apparatus realization and gives experimental results of images processing in multichannel optoelectronic systems in real time.

  6. Orbital control of effective dimensionality: from spin-orbital fractionalization to confinement in the anisotropic ladder system CaCu(2)O(3). (United States)

    Bisogni, Valentina; Wohlfeld, Krzysztof; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Monney, Claude; Trinckauf, Jan; Zhou, Kejin; Kraus, Roberto; Koepernik, Klaus; Sekar, Chinnathambi; Strocov, Vladimir; Büchner, Bernd; Schmitt, Thorsten; van den Brink, Jeroen; Geck, Jochen


    Fractionalization of an electronic quasiparticle into spin, charge, and orbital parts is a fundamental and characteristic property of interacting electrons in one dimension. However, real materials are never strictly one dimensional and the fractionalization phenomena are hard to observe. Here we studied the spin and orbital excitations of the anisotropic ladder material CaCu_{2}O_{3}, whose electronic structure is not one dimensional. Combining high-resolution resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments with theoretical model calculations, we show that (i) spin-orbital fractionalization occurs in CaCu_{2}O_{3} along the leg direction x through the xz orbital channel as in a 1D system, and (ii) no fractionalization is observed for the xy orbital, which extends in both leg and rung direction, contrary to a 1D system. We conclude that the directional character of the orbital hopping can select different degrees of dimensionality. Using additional model calculations, we show that spin-orbital separation is generally far more robust than the spin-charge separation. This is not only due to the already mentioned selection realized by the orbital hopping, but also due to the fact that spinons are faster than the orbitons.

  7. Highly anisotropic etching of phase-shift masks using ICP of CF4-SF6-CHF3 gas mixtures (United States)

    Choi, Se-Jong; Cha, Han-Sun; Yoon, Si-Yeul; Kim, Yong-Dae; Lee, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Jin-Min; Kim, Jin-Su; Min, Dong-Soo; Jang, Pil-Jin; Chang, Byung-Soo; Kwon, Hyuk-Joo; Choi, Boo-Yeon; Choi, Sang-Soo; Jeong, Soo Hong


    There is considerable interest in phase shift masks as a route to extending the resolution, contrast, and depth of focus of lithographic tools beyond what is achievable with the normal chrome mask technology. A problem that has so far hindered the introduction of phase shift masks has been the difficulty of phase and transmittance control when a phase shift mask is applied to practical use. Also, to apply phase shift layer (MoSiON), it remains that effects several critical mask parameters including sidewall slope, surface roughness, and critical dimension. For these reasons, this process requires a high degree of control of the etch process of shift layer. So in this paper, we described a technique for the fabrication of phase shift masks by etch rate of a MoSiON layer. Etching experiments of MoSiON were performed using different fluorinated gas mixtures. Four of them, CF4/O2/He, SF6/O2/He, CHF3/O2/He and Cl2/CF4/O2/He were chosen for high etch rate, sidewall slope, and surface morphology. Each added gases had a unique property on the etch rate, anisotropy, surface roughness and sidewall morphology. Result indicates that vertical slope and smooth surface are obtained using the Cl2/ CF4/O2/He and SF6/O2/He mixture. With increasing O2 flow rate to the SF6/O2/He Plasma and added Cl2 gas to the CF4/O2/He Plasma, the MoSiON etching profile becomes anisotropic without undercutting and trench profile. It is probably due to both increasing etch rate and sidewall passivation of Cl2 ion flux. When Cl2 gas was added to the CF4/O2/He Plasma, the small addition of chlorine was enough to protect the exposed sidewall of the undercutting, therefore, higher flow rate of chlorine had to be added to protect the sidewall of the undercutting by forming a sidewall passivation layer. These results show that both increasing O2 flow rate to the SF6/O2/He Plasma and the addition of Cl2 to the CF4/O2/He plasma are necessary in order to achieve a vertical profile and a smooth surface

  8. Anisotropic hydrodynamics: Motivation and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael


    In this proceedings contribution I review recent progress in our understanding of the bulk dynamics of relativistic systems that possess potentially large local rest frame momentum-space anisotropies. In order to deal with these momentum-space anisotropies, a reorganization of relativistic viscous hydrodynamics can be made around an anisotropic background, and the resulting dynamical framework has been dubbed “anisotropic hydrodynamics”. I also discuss expectations for the degree of momentum-space anisotropy of the quark–gluon plasma generated in relativistic heavy ion collisions at RHIC and LHC from second-order viscous hydrodynamics, strong-coupling approaches, and weak-coupling approaches.

  9. Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation In Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq


    Various examples are provided for wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. In one example, among others, a method includes determining an effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolating an equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. The effective isotropic velocity model can be based upon a kinematic geometrical representation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. Extrapolating the equivalent propagation can use isotopic, acoustic or elastic operators based upon the determined effective isotropic velocity model. In another example, non-transitory computer readable medium stores an application that, when executed by processing circuitry, causes the processing circuitry to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield. In another example, a system includes processing circuitry and an application configured to cause the system to determine the effective isotropic velocity model and extrapolate the equivalent propagation of an anisotropic, poroelastic or viscoelastic wavefield.

  10. ARTc: Anisotropic reflectivity and transmissivity calculator (United States)

    Malehmir, Reza; Schmitt, Douglas R.


    While seismic anisotropy is known to exist within the Earth's crust and even deeper, isotropic or even highly symmetric elastic anisotropic assumptions for seismic imaging is an over-simplification which may create artifacts in the image, target mis-positioning and hence flawed interpretation. In this paper, we have developed the ARTc algorithm to solve reflectivity, transmissivity as well as velocity and particle polarization in the most general case of elastic anisotropy. This algorithm is able to provide reflectivity solution from the boundary between two anisotropic slabs with arbitrary symmetry and orientation up to triclinic. To achieve this, the algorithm solves full elastic wave equation to find polarization, slowness and amplitude of all six wave-modes generated from the incident plane-wave and welded interface. In the first step to calculate the reflectivity, the algorithm solves properties of the incident wave such as particle polarization and slowness. After calculation of the direction of generated waves, the algorithm solves their respective slowness and particle polarization. With this information, the algorithm then solves a system of equations incorporating the imposed boundary conditions to arrive at the scattered wave amplitudes, and thus reflectivity and transmissivity. Reflectivity results as well as slowness and polarization are then tested in complex computational anisotropic models to ensure their accuracy and reliability. ARTc is coded in MATLAB ® and bundled with an interactive GUI and bash script to run on single or multi-processor computers.

  11. Single crystal growth and anisotropic crystal-fluid interface tension in soft colloidal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, V.D.; Hu, Z.; Schall, P.


    We measure the anisotropy of the crystal-fluid interfacial free energy in soft colloidal systems. A temperature gradient is used to direct crystal nucleation and control the growth of large single crystals in order to achieve well-equilibrated crystal-fluid interfaces. Confocal microscopy is used to

  12. Complex and strongly anisotropic magnetism in the pure spin system EuRh2Si2. (United States)

    Seiro, Silvia; Geibel, Christoph


    In divalent Eu systems, the 4f local moment has a pure spin state J = S = 7/2. Although the absence of orbital moment precludes crystal electric field effects, we report a sizable magnetic anisotropy in single crystals of EuRh2Si2. We observed a surprisingly complex magnetic behavior with three successive phase transitions. The Eu(2+) moments order in a probably amplitude-modulated structure below 24.5 K, undergoing a further transition to a structure that is possibly of the equal-moment type, and a first order transition at lower temperatures, presumably into a spin spiral structure. The sharp metamagnetic transition observed at low fields applied perpendicular to the hard axis is consistent with a change from a spiral to a fan structure. These magnetic structures are presumably formed by ferromagnetic planes perpendicular to the c axis, stacked antiferromagnetically along c but not of type I, at least just below the ordering temperature. Since EuRh2Si2 is isoelectronic and isostructural to EuFe2As2 at room temperature, our results are also relevant for the complex Eu-magnetism observed there, especially for the transition from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic state observed in EuFe2P2 upon substituting As by P.

  13. A modified phase coherence model for the non-linear c-axis V-I characteristics of highly anisotropic, high temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Luo Sheng; Huang Sai Jun; He Yu Sheng; Li Chun Guang; Zhang Xue Qiang


    A modified Ambegaokar-Halperin thermal-fluctuation model has been developed to describe the c-axis V-I characteristics and low-current ohmic resistance of highly anisotropic superconductors in a magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. The model assumes loss of phase coherence across the CuO-planes associated with the correlated motion of pancake vortices in the liquid state. The predicted V-I characteristics in the current-induced transition from the superconducting to the resistive state are in good agreement with measurements on a 2212-BSCCO single crystal as a function of temperature and field, provided the effect of the interlayer capacitance is taken into account. The measurements are consistent with a flux pancake correlation length within the CuO-planes varying as xi sub 0 /(T/T sub 0 - 1) supnu, where xi sub 0 = 1.57 +- 0.08 mu m and nu = 0.50 +- 0.01. Our measurements imply a current-dependent interlayer resistance above and below T sub c.

  14. Anisotropic Rabi model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Tao Xie


    Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.

  15. Magnetic phase diagram of the anisotropic double-exchange model a Monte Carlo study

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, H S; Hur, N H


    The magnetic phase diagram of highly anisotropic double-exchange model systems is investigated as a function of the ratio of the anisotropic hopping integrals, i.e., t sub c /t sub a sub b , on a three-dimensional lattice by using Monte Carlo calculations. The magnetic domain structure at low temperature is found to be a generic property of the strong anisotropy region. Moreover, the t sub c /t sub a sub b ratio is crucial in determining the anisotropic charge transport due to the relative spin orientation of the magnetic domains. As a result, we show the anisotropic hopping integral is the most likely cause of the magnetic domain structure. It is noted that the competition between the reduced interlayer double-exchange coupling and the thermal frustration of the ordered two-dimensional ferromagnetic layer seems to be crucial in understanding the properties of layered manganites.

  16. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.


    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction followed by a one dimensional filter in a non-orthogonal direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a

  17. Fast Anisotropic Gauss Filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geusebroek, J.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; van de Weijer, J.


    We derive the decomposition of the anisotropic Gaussian in a one dimensional Gauss filter in the x-direction phi. So also the anisotropic Gaussian can be decomposed by dimension. This appears to be extremely efficient from a computing perspective. An implementation scheme for normal covolution and

  18. Highly Autonomous Systems Workshop (United States)

    Doyle, R.; Rasmussen, R.; Man, G.; Patel, K.


    It is our aim by launching a series of workshops on the topic of highly autonomous systems to reach out to the larger community interested in technology development for remotely deployed systems, particularly those for exploration.

  19. Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic CoPd–CaF{sub 2} nanogranular soft magnetic films prepared by tandem-sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoe, Masayuki, E-mail: [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Kobayashi, Nobukiyo [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Ohnuma, Shigehiro [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Masumoto, Hiroshi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)


    Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF{sub 2} matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co{sub 0.69}Pd{sub 0.31}){sub 52}–(Ca{sub 0.31}F{sub 0.69}){sub 48} exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF{sub 2}-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • We fabricated high-resistive and anisotropic granular films by tandem-sputtering. • CaF{sub 2}-based films exhibit a hundredfold higher resistivity than conventional films. • Uniaxial field annealing improved the magnetic properties dramatically. • High uniaxial anisotropy extended ferromagnetic resonance frequency to 4 GHz. • Annealed samples can be regarded as a ferromagnetic homogenized material.

  20. Anisotropic magnetoresistance and piezoelectric effect in GaAs Hall samples (United States)

    Ciftja, Orion


    Application of a strong magnetic field perpendicular to a two-dimensional electron system leads to a variety of quantum phases ranging from incompressible quantum Hall liquid to Wigner solid, charge density wave, and exotic non-Abelian states. A few quantum phases seen in past experiments on GaAs Hall samples of electrons show pronounced anisotropic magnetoresistance values at certain weak magnetic fields. We argue that this might be due to the piezoelectric effect that is inherent in a semiconductor host such as GaAs. Such an effect has the potential to create a sufficient in-plane internal strain that will be felt by electrons and will determine the direction of high and low resistance. When Wigner solid, charge density wave, and isotropic liquid phases are very close in energy, the overall stability of the system is very sensitive to local order and, thus, can be strongly influenced even by a weak perturbation such as the piezoelectric-induced effective electron-electron interaction, which is anisotropic. In this work, we argue that an anisotropic interaction potential may stabilize anisotropic liquid phases of electrons even in a strong magnetic field regime where normally one expects to see only isotropic quantum Hall or isotropic Fermi liquid states. We use this approach to support a theoretical framework that envisions the possibility of an anisotropic liquid crystalline state of electrons in the lowest Landau level. In particular, we argue that an anisotropic liquid state of electrons may stabilize in the lowest Landau level close to the liquid-solid transition region at filling factor ν =1 /6 for a given anisotropic Coulomb interaction potential. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for a liquid crystalline state with broken rotational symmetry indicate stability of liquid crystalline order consistent with the existence of an anisotropic liquid state of electrons stabilized by anisotropy at filling factor ν =1 /6 of the lowest Landau level.

  1. High performance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, M.B. [comp.


    This document provides a written compilation of the presentations and viewgraphs from the 1994 Conference on High Speed Computing given at the High Speed Computing Conference, {open_quotes}High Performance Systems,{close_quotes} held at Gleneden Beach, Oregon, on April 18 through 21, 1994.

  2. High T{sub g} and fast curing epoxy-based anisotropic conductive paste for electronic packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keeratitham, Waralee, E-mail:; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)


    Herein, our main objective is to prepare the fast curing epoxy system with high glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) by incorporating the multifunctional epoxy resin into the mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a major epoxy component and aromatic diamine as a hardener. Furthermore, the curing behavior as well as thermal and thermomechanical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It was found that T{sub g} obtained from tan δ of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system increased from 100 °C to 205 °C with the presence of 30 percentage by weight of multifunctional epoxy resin. Additionally, the isothermal DSC results showed that the multifunctional epoxy resin can accelerate the curing reaction of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system. Namely, a high degree of curing (∼90%) was achieved after a few minutes of curing at low temperature of 130 °C, owing to a large number of epoxy ring of multifunctional epoxy resin towards the active hydrogen atoms of aromatic diamine.

  3. An anisotropic elastoplasticity model implemented in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechler, Miles Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Many metals, including Tantalum and Zirconium, exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior at the single crystal level, and if components are manufactured from these metals through forming processes the polycrystal (component) may also exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior. This is because the forming can induce a preferential orientation of the crystals in the polycrystal. One example is a rolled plate of Uranium where the sti /strong orientation of the crystal (c-axis) tends to align itself perpendicular to the rolling direction. If loads are applied to this plate in di erent orientations the sti ness as well as the ow strength of the material will be greater in the through thickness direction than in other directions. To better accommodate simulations of such materials, an anisotropic elastoplasticity model has been implemented in FLAG. The model includes an anisotropic elastic stress model as well as an anisotropic plasticity model. The model could represent single crystals of any symmetry, though it should not be confused with a high- delity crystal plasticity model with multiple slip planes and evolutions. The model is most appropriate for homogenized polycrystalline materials. Elastic rotation of the material due to deformation is captured, so the anisotropic models are appropriate for arbitrary large rotations, but currently they do not account for signi cant change in material texture beyond the elastic rotation of the entire polycrystal.

  4. Propagation in Diagonal Anisotropic Chirowaveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aib


    Full Text Available A theoretical study of electromagnetic wave propagation in parallel plate chirowaveguide is presented. The waveguide is filled with a chiral material having diagonal anisotropic constitutive parameters. The propagation characterization in this medium is based on algebraic formulation of Maxwell’s equations combined with the constitutive relations. Three propagation regions are identified: the fast-fast-wave region, the fast-slow-wave region, and the slow-slow-wave region. This paper focuses completely on the propagation in the first region, where the dispersion modal equations are obtained and solved. The cut-off frequencies calculation leads to three cases of the plane wave propagation in anisotropic chiral medium. The particularity of these results is the possibility of controlling the appropriate cut-off frequencies by choosing the adequate physical parameters values. The specificity of this study lies in the bifurcation modes confirmation and the possible contribution to the design of optical devices such as high-pass filters, as well as positive and negative propagation constants. This negative constant is an important feature of metamaterials which shows the phenomena of backward waves. Original results of the biaxial anisotropic chiral metamaterial are obtained and discussed.

  5. Tailoring Anisotropic Li-Ion Transport Tunnels on Orthogonally Arranged Li-Rich Layered Oxide Nanoplates Toward High-Performance Li-Ion Batteries. (United States)

    Xu, Ming; Fei, Linfeng; Zhang, Weibing; Li, Tao; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Nian; Lai, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhian; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Kai; Li, Jie; Huang, Haitao


    High-performance Li-rich layered oxide (LRLO) cathode material is appealing for next-generation Li-ion batteries owing to its high specific capacity (>300 mAh g -1 ). Despite intense studies in the past decade, the low initial Coulombic efficiency and unsatisfactory cycling stability of LRLO still remain as great challenges for its practical applications. Here, we report a rational design of the orthogonally arranged {010}-oriented LRLO nanoplates with built-in anisotropic Li + ion transport tunnels. Such a novel structure enables fast Li + ion intercalation and deintercalation kinetics and enhances structural stability of LRLO. Theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations demonstrate the successful synthesis of target cathode material that delivers an initial discharge capacity as high as 303 mAh g -1 with an initial Coulombic efficiency of 93%. After 200 cycles at 1.0 C rate, an excellent capacity retention of 92% can be attained. Our method reported here opens a door to the development of high-performance Ni-Co-Mn-based cathode materials for high-energy density Li-ion batteries.

  6. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion. (United States)

    Yu, Yongjian; Acton, Scott T


    This paper provides the derivation of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), a diffusion method tailored to ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. SRAD is the edge-sensitive diffusion for speckled images, in the same way that conventional anisotropic diffusion is the edge-sensitive diffusion for images corrupted with additive noise. We first show that the Lee and Frost filters can be cast as partial differential equations, and then we derive SRAD by allowing edge-sensitive anisotropic diffusion within this context. Just as the Lee and Frost filters utilize the coefficient of variation in adaptive filtering, SRAD exploits the instantaneous coefficient of variation, which is shown to be a function of the local gradient magnitude and Laplacian operators. We validate the new algorithm using both synthetic and real linear scan ultrasonic imagery of the carotid artery. We also demonstrate the algorithm performance with real SAR data. The performance measures obtained by means of computer simulation of carotid artery images are compared with three existing speckle reduction schemes. In the presence of speckle noise, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion excels over the traditional speckle removal filters and over the conventional anisotropic diffusion method in terms of mean preservation, variance reduction, and edge localization.

  7. Anisotropic Flow Measurements in ALICE at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilandzic, A.


    Anisotropic flow is one of the observables which is sensitive to the properties of the created hot and dense system in heavy-ion collisions. In noncentral heavy-ion collisions the initial volume of the interacting system is anisotropic in coordinate space. Due to multiple interactions this anisotropy

  8. The use of isotropic and anisotropic concepts of damage to the calculation of the long-term strength of steam turbine rotor under conditions of high temperature creep


    Гораш, Є. М.


    Within the framework of the research work two typical material models describing isotropic and anisotropic creep-damage processes in metals and alloys are applied to the simulation of the mechanical behaviour of a steam turbine rotor in its service conditions. Numerical solutions of the initial-boundary value problems have been obtained by FEM using solid axisymmetrical type finite elements. For the purpose of adequate long-term strength analysis both isotropic and anisotropic creep-damage mo...

  9. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin


    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  10. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope. (United States)

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M


    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  11. Anisotropic Weyl invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)

  12. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.

  13. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  14. Anisotropic flow and flow fluctuations at the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You

    One of the fundamental questions in the phenomenology of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is what the properties of matter are at the extreme densities and temperatures where quarks and gluons are in a new state of matter, the so-called Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP). Collisions of high-energy heavy-ions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), allow us to create and study the properties of such a system in the laboratory. Anisotropic flow (vn) is strong evidence for the existence of QGP, and has been described as one of the most important observations measured in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, the anisotropic flow of not only charged particles but also identified particles are presented. In addition, the investigations of correlations and fluctuations of both flow angle (symmetry plane) and magnitude were discussed. The main goal of this thesis is to understand the nature of anisotropic flow and its response to the initial geometry of the created system as well as its fluctuations.

  15. Anisotropic nanomaterials: structure, growth, assembly, and functions (United States)

    Sajanlal, Panikkanvalappil R.; Sreeprasad, Theruvakkattil S.; Samal, Akshaya K.; Pradeep, Thalappil


    Comprehensive knowledge over the shape of nanomaterials is a critical factor in designing devices with desired functions. Due to this reason, systematic efforts have been made to synthesize materials of diverse shape in the nanoscale regime. Anisotropic nanomaterials are a class of materials in which their properties are direction-dependent and more than one structural parameter is needed to describe them. Their unique and fine-tuned physical and chemical properties make them ideal candidates for devising new applications. In addition, the assembly of ordered one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) arrays of anisotropic nanoparticles brings novel properties into the resulting system, which would be entirely different from the properties of individual nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of current research in the area of anisotropic nanomaterials in general and noble metal nanoparticles in particular. We begin with an introduction to the advancements in this area followed by general aspects of the growth of anisotropic nanoparticles. Then we describe several important synthetic protocols for making anisotropic nanomaterials, followed by a summary of their assemblies, and conclude with major applications. PMID:22110867

  16. Novel high-viscosity polyacrylamidated chitosan for neural tissue engineering: fabrication of anisotropic neurodurable scaffold via molecular disposition of persulfate-mediated polymer slicing and complexation. (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Choonara, Yahya E; du Toit, Lisa C; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh; Pillay, Viness


    Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS) mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%), grafting ratio (GR = 263%), intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g) and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da) compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers-"polymer slicing"-thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT)-"polymer complexation". Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness, superior hydrophilicity as well as

  17. Novel High-Viscosity Polyacrylamidated Chitosan for Neural Tissue Engineering: Fabrication of Anisotropic Neurodurable Scaffold via Molecular Disposition of Persulfate-Mediated Polymer Slicing and Complexation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viness Pillay


    Full Text Available Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%, grafting ratio (GR = 263%, intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers—“polymer slicing”—thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT—“polymer complexation”. Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness

  18. Enabling High-Areal-Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Designing Anisotropic and Low-Tortuosity Porous Architectures. (United States)

    Li, Yiju; Fu, Kun Kelvin; Chen, Chaoji; Luo, Wei; Gao, Tingting; Xu, Shaomao; Dai, Jiaqi; Pastel, Glenn; Wang, Yanbin; Liu, Boyang; Song, Jianwei; Chen, Yanan; Yang, Chunpeng; Hu, Liangbing


    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries have attracted much attention due to their high theoretical energy density in comparison to conventional state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries. However, low sulfur mass loading in the cathode results in low areal capacity and impedes the practical use of Li-S cells. Inspired by wood, a cathode architecture with natural, three-dimensionally (3D) aligned microchannels filled with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) were developed as an ideal structure for high sulfur mass loading. Compared with other carbon materials, the 3D porous carbon matrix has several advantages including low tortuosity, high electrical conductivity, and good structural stability, which make it an excellent 3D lightweight current collector. The Li-S battery assembled with the wood-based sulfur electrode can deliver a high areal capacity of 15.2 mAh cm(-2) with a sulfur mass loading of 21.3 mg cm(-2). This work provides a facile but effective strategy to develop 3D porous electrodes for Li-S batteries, which can also be applied to other cathode materials to achieve a high areal capacity with uncompromised rate and cycling performance.

  19. Extension of Hybrid Scintillation Propagation Model to the case of field propagation in the ionosphere with highly anisotropic irregularities (United States)

    Gherm, Vadim E.; Zernov, Nikolay N.


    The detailed effects of the high-frequency radio wave propagation in a stochastic transionospheric propagation channel are discussed. This is a special case of propagation along or almost along the lines of the Earth's magnetic field. In this case, the ionospheric random irregularities of the electron density of the ionosphere may have very high values of the aspect ratio, which stands beyond the range of validity of the traditional analytical approaches utilized to treat the appropriate transionospheric propagation problems. In the consideration presented here, new analytical results are obtained for treating the problem under consideration. Based on the analytical results obtained, the previously developed Hybrid Scintillation Propagation Model is further extended, which also includes the software simulator of the signals propagating on the transionospheric paths with the random electron density irregularities highly elongated in the direction of the Earth's magnetic field.

  20. Anisotropic vector Preisach particle

    CERN Document Server

    Fuezi, J


    The static 2D vector magnetic behaviour of an anisotropic silicon iron sheet is modelled by a particle which depicts its space-averaged behaviour. The magnitude of magnetization is governed by a classical Preisach operator with the projection of field strength on the magnetization direction as input. Its orientation is determined by the equilibrium between the field strength orientation and the anisotropy of the sheet.

  1. Anisotropic Charge Distribution and Anisotropic van der Waals Radius Leading to Intriguing Anisotropic Noncovalent Interactions (United States)

    Kim, Hahn; Van Dung Doan; Cho, Woo Jong; Madhav, Miriyala Vijay; Kim, Kwang S.


    Although group (IV–VII) nonmetallic elements do not favor interacting with anionic species, there are counterexamples including the halogen bond. Such binding is known to be related to the charge deficiency because of the adjacent atom's electron withdrawing effect, which creates σ/π-holes at the bond-ends. However, a completely opposite behavior is exhibited by N2 and O2, which have electrostatically positive/negative character around cylindrical-bond-surface/bond-ends. Inspired by this, here we elucidate the unusual features and origin of the anisotropic noncovalent interactions in the ground and excited states of the 2nd and 3rd row elements belonging to groups IV–VII. The anisotropy in charge distributions and van der Waals radii of atoms in such molecular systems are scrutinized. This provides an understanding of their unusual molecular configuration, binding and recognition modes involved in new types of molecular assembling and engineering. This work would lead to the design of intriguing molecular systems exploiting anisotropic noncovalent interactions. PMID:25059645

  2. Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments a...

  3. Cryogenic microwave anisotropic artificial materials (United States)

    Trang, Frank

    This thesis addresses analysis and design of a cryogenic microwave anisotropic wave guiding structure that isolates an antenna from external incident fields from specific directions. The focus of this research is to design and optimize the radome's constituent material parameters for maximizing the isolation between an interior receiver antenna and an exterior transmitter without significantly disturbing the transmitter antenna far field characteristics. The design, characterization, and optimization of high-temperature superconducting metamaterials constitutive parameters are developed in this work at X-band frequencies. A calibrated characterization method for testing arrays of split-ring resonators at cryogenic temperature inside a TE10 waveguide was developed and used to back-out anisotropic equivalent material parameters. The artificial material elements (YBCO split-ring resonators on MgO substrate) are optimized to improve the narrowband performance of the metamaterial radome with respect to maximizing isolation and minimizing shadowing, defined as a reduction of the transmitted power external to the radome. The optimized radome is fabricated and characterized in a parallel plate waveguide in a cryogenic environment to demonstrate the degree of isolation and shadowing resulting from its presence. At 11.12 GHz, measurements show that the HTS metamaterial radome achieved an isolation of 10.5 dB and the external power at 100 mm behind the radome is reduced by 1.9 dB. This work demonstrates the feasibility of fabricating a structure that provides good isolation between two antennas and low disturbance of the transmitter's fields.

  4. The two-dimensional vibrating reed technique. A study of anisotropic pinning in high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karelina, Anna


    In this work the anisotropy of the pinning forces of vortices in a-b plane of high temperature-supraconductors was examined. For this purpose vibrating reed with two degrees of freedom of the oscillation was constructed. The pinning forces were examined in single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The experiments with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} show that at temperatures lower than 78 K the vortices are in a nonequilibrium state. This leads to a flux creep and to a drift of the resonance frequency with time. This prevents the comparison of resonance curves in different directions of oscillations. In Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals the vortices are in more stable state, but the measurements of the resonance curves in different directions show no indication of the four-fold symmetry. At temperatures below 60 K a strong hysteresis of the resonance frequency and the resonance-oscillation amplitude was found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystals as a function of the magnetic field. (orig.)

  5. Thouless length and valley degeneracy factor of ZnMnO thin films with anisotropic, highly conductive surface layers (United States)

    Vegesna, Sahitya V.; Bürger, Danilo; Patra, Rajkumar; Abendroth, Barbara; Skorupa, Ilona; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Schmidt, Heidemarie


    Isothermal magnetoresistance (MR) of n-type conducting Zn1-xMnxO thin films on a sapphire substrate with a Mn content of 5 at. % has been studied in in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields up to 6 T in the temperature range of 5 K to 300 K. During pulsed laser deposition of the ZnMnO thin films, we controlled the thickness and roughness of a highly conductive ZnMnO surface layer. The measured MR has been modeled with constant s-d exchange (0.2 eV in ZnMnO) and electron spin (S = 5/2 for Mn2+) for samples with a single two dimensional (2D) ZnMnO layer, a single three dimensional (3D) ZnMnO layer, or a 2D and 3D (2D + 3D) ZnMnO layer in parallel. The temperature dependence of modeled Thouless length LTh (LTh ˜ T-0.5) is in good agreement with the theory [Andrearczyk et al., Phys. Rev. B 72, 121309(R) (2005)]. The superimposed positive and negative MR model for ZnCoO thin films [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 134417 (2007)] has been extended in order to account for the increase in the density of states close to the Fermi level of n-ZnMnO due to substitutional Mn2+ ions and their effect on the negative MR in ZnMnO.

  6. On the Relativistic anisotropic configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Shojai, F; Stepanian, A


    In this paper we study anisotropic spherical polytropes within the framework of general relativity. Using the anisotropic Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations, we explore the relativistic anisotropic Lane-Emden equations. We find how the anisotropic pressure affects the boundary conditions of these equations. Also we argue that the behaviour of physical quantities near the center of star changes in the presence of anisotropy. For constant density, a class of exact solution is derived with the aid of a new ansatz and its physical properties are discussed.

  7. Development and characterization of biocompatible isotropic and anisotropic oil-in-water colloidal dispersions as a new delivery system for methyl dihydrojasmonate antitumor drug (United States)

    da Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira; Scarpa, Maria Virginia; Rossanezi, Gustavo; do Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes


    Microemulsions (MEs) are colloidal systems that can be used for drug-delivery and drug-targeting purposes. These systems are able to incorporate drugs modifying bioavailability and stability and reducing toxic effects. The jasmonate compounds belong to a group of plant stress hormones, and the jasmonic acid and its methyl ester derivative have been described as having anticancer activity. However, these compounds are very poorly water-soluble, not allowing administration by an intravenous route without an efficient nanostructured carrier system. In this work, biocompatible MEs of appropriate diameter size for intravenous route administration, loaded and unloaded with methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ), were developed and described in a pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The compositions of the MEs were carefully selected from their own regions in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. The formulations were analyzed by light scattering, polarized light microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Also, a study on rheological profile was performed. The results showed that the droplet size decreased with both MJ incorporation and oil phase/surfactant ratio. All compositions of the studied MEs showed rheological behavior of pseudoplastic fluid and amorphous structures. In the absence of MJ, most of the studied MEs had thixotropic characteristics, which became antithixotropic in the presence of the drug. Almost all MJ-unloaded MEs presented anisotropic characteristics, but some formulations became isotropic, especially in the presence of MJ. The results of this study support the conclusion that the studied system represents a promising vehicle for in vivo administration of the MJ antitumor drug. PMID:24596463

  8. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar


    Anisotropic glasses are obtained from uniaxial compressing and pulling of glass forming liquids above the transition temperature range. To freeze-in, at least partly the structural state of the flowing melt, cylindrical samples were subjected to a controlled cooling process under constant load...... differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dilatometry. The energy release and expansion-shrinkage behaviour of the glasses are investigated as a function of the applied deformation stress. Structural origins of the frozen-in birefringence induced by viscous flow are discussed and correlation between...

  9. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao


    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...... correlation to the curing time. The experiments show no correlation between the anisotropy and the curing time and a small strength difference between the two drilling directions. The literature shows variations on which drilling direction that is strongest. Based on a Monto Carlo simulation of the expected...

  10. Stability of anisotropic stellar filaments (United States)

    Bhatti, M. Zaeem-ul-Haq; Yousaf, Z.


    The study of perturbation of self-gravitating celestial cylindrical object have been carried out in this paper. We have designed a framework to construct the collapse equation by formulating the modified field equations with the background of f(R , T) theory as well as dynamical equations from the contracted form of Bianchi identities with anisotropic matter configuration. We have encapsulated the radial perturbations on metric and material variables of the geometry with some known static profile at Newtonian and post-Newtonian regimes. We examined a strong dependence of unstable regions on stiffness parameter which measures the rigidity of the fluid. Also, the static profile and matter variables with f(R , T) dark source terms control the instability of compact cylindrical system.

  11. Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)


    In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.

  12. Energy transfer in anisotropic systems: A. Excitation migration in substitutionally disordered one-dimensional solids. B. The spectroscopy of molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwemer, D.A.


    The energy and dynamics of excited states in a variety of anisotropic environments, including isotopically and chemically mixed crystals and molecular overlayers adsorbed on a nickel (111) surface, are investigated. The relationship between local and long-range structure and spectroscopic properties is explored. A theory for energy transfer in substitutionally disordered solids is presented. Explicit expressions for the ''diffusion'' coefficients and the energy partitioning ratios in binary systems are derived. Energy transfer between localized states is found to be facilitated by concurrent tunnelling and thermal promotion. Experimental results for triplet energy partitioning between mobile and stationary trap states as a function of mobile trap concentration in the ternary d/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene--h/sub 2/-1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene--pyrazine system are analyzed. It is shown that both tunnelling and thermal detrapping contribute to triplet exciton mobility below 4.2 K. Singlet exciton migration makes an important contribution to trap equilibration before intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold. Spin coherence experiments are used to determine the energy level structure, physical geometry, and exciton dynamics of a series of impurity-induced traps in 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The uv spectra of pyrazine, pyridine, and naphthalene adsorbed on a nickel single crystal (111) surface are measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry at low temperatures. The excited electronic and vibronic energy levels measured are similar to bulk molecular crystal values, but pyrazine and pyridine show small, but significant deviations. The ordering of molecular overlays is observed spectroscopically and information about overlayer crystal structure is deduced. 148 references, 48 figures, 5 tables.

  13. High-Performance Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin


    Notes prepared for the DTU course 49421 "High Performance Operating Systems". The notes deal with quantitative and qualitative techniques for use in the design and evaluation of operating systems in computer systems for which performance is an important parameter, such as real-time applications......, communication systems and multimedia systems....

  14. Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail:


    The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.

  15. High speed preprocessing system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: Keywords. Image processing; preprocessing; hardware design. ... This paper discusses the implementation of a suitable preprocessing technique, emphasis being given to develop a system both in hardware and software to reduce processing time.

  16. High power lasers & systems


    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip


    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  17. Phase Transitions of Isotropic to Anisotropic Biocompatible Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems Overcoming Insoluble Benznidazole Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Streck


    Full Text Available Previous studies reported low benznidazole (BNZ loading in conventional emulsions due to the weak interaction of the drug with the most common oils used to produce foods or pharmaceuticals. In this study, we focused on how the type of surfactant, surfactant-to-oil ratio w/w (SOR and oil-to-water ratio w/w (OWR change the phase behavior of different lipid-based drug delivery systems (LBDDS produced by emulsion phase inversion. The surfactant mixture composed of soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium oleate (1:7, w/w, hydrophilic lipophilic balance = 16 stabilized medium chain triglyceride in water. Ten formulations with the clear aspect or less turbid dispersions (five with the SOR ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 and five with the OWR from 0.06 to 0.4 were selected from the phase behavior diagram to assess structural features and drug-loading capacity. The rise in the SOR induced the formation of distinct lipid-based drug delivery systems (nanoemulsions and liquid crystal lamellar type that were identified using rheological measurements and cross-polarized light microscopy images. Clear dispersions of small and narrow droplet-sized liquid-like nanoemulsions, Newtonian flow-type, were produced at SOR from 0.5 to 1.5 and OWR from 0.12 to 0.4, while clear liquid or gel-like liquid crystals were produced at SOR from 1.5 to 2.5. The BNZ loading was improved according to the composition and type of LBDDS produced, suggesting possible drug location among surfactant layers. The cell viability assays proved the biocompatibility for all of the prepared nanoemulsions at SOR less than 1.5 and liquid crystals at SOR less than 2.5, demonstrating their promising features for the oral or parenteral colloidal delivery systems containing benznidazole for Chagas disease treatment.

  18. Applying distributions of hydraulic conductivity for anisotropic systems and applications to Tc Transport at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen G Hunt


    43Tc99 is spreading mostly laterally through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site sediments. At higher tensions in the unsaturated zone, the hydraulic conductivity may be strongly anisotropic as a consequence of finer soils to retain more water than coarser ones, and for these soils to have been deposited primarily in horizontal structures. We have tried to develop a consistent modeling procedure that could predict the behavior of Tc plumes. Our procedure consists of: (1) Adapting existing numerical recipes based on critical path analysis to calculate the hydraulic conductivity, K, as a function of tension, h, (2) Statistically correlating the predicted K at various values of the tension with fine content, (3) Seeking a tension value, for which the anisotropy and the horizontal K values are both sufficiently large to accommodate multi-kilometer spreading, (4) Predicting the distribution of K values for vertical flow as a function of system support volume, (5) Comparing the largest likely K value in the vertical direction with the expected K in the horizontal direction, (6) Finding the length scale at which the two K values are roughly equal, (7) Comparing that length scale with the horizontal spreading of the plume. We find that our predictions of the value of the tension at which the principle spreading is likely occurring compares very well with experiment. However, we seem to underestimate the physical length scale at which the predominantly horizontal spreading begins to take on significant vertical characteristics. Our data and predictions would seem to indicate that this should happen after horizontal transport of somewhat over a km, but the chiefly horizontal transport appears to continue out to scales of 10km or so.

  19. Thermodynamics of anisotropic branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Daniel [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik,Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Patiño, Leonardo [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-542, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Trancanelli, Diego [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo,05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil)


    We study the thermodynamics of flavor D7-branes embedded in an anisotropic black brane solution of type IIB supergravity. The flavor branes undergo a phase transition between a ‘Minkowski embedding’, in which they lie outside of the horizon, and a ‘black hole embedding’, in which they fall into the horizon. This transition depends on the black hole temperature, its degree of anisotropy, and the mass of the flavor degrees of freedom. It happens either at a critical temperature or at a critical anisotropy. A general lesson we learn from this analysis is that the anisotropy, in this particular realization, induces similar effects as the temperature. In particular, increasing the anisotropy bends the branes more and more into the horizon. Moreover, we observe that the transition becomes smoother for higher anisotropies.

  20. Acoustical vector solitons in anisotropic media (United States)

    Adamashvili, G. T.; Peikrishvili, M. D.; Koplatadze, R. R.


    A theory of acoustical vector solitons of self-induced transparency in anisotropic media is developed. It is shown that, in these systems, a two-component vector soliton oscillating with the difference and sum of the frequencies in the vicinity of the frequency of a carrying acoustic wave may arise. Explicit analytical expressions for the form and parameters of a nonlinear wave depending on the direction of pulse propagation are given.

  1. Kinetic model of GMSW in an anisotropic plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ignatyev, Yu G


    A kinetic model of gravimagnetic shock waves (GMSW) in a locally anisotropic plasma is investigated. The equations of a drift approximation are written, and the moments of the distribution function are calculated. Solutions of the drift equations for a highly anisotropic ultrarelativistic plasma are found. It is shown that in this case the GMSW essentially affect the angular characteristics and the intensity of the magneto - bremsstrahlung of the magnetoactive plasma.

  2. Anisotropic contraction of hydrogel reinforced by aligned fibers (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Liu, Shuangping

    Hydrogel reinforced by aligned fibers can have strong anisotropic contraction or swelling behavior triggered by external stimuli, which has been largely employed in realizing soft actuators for artificial muscles as well as many biological systems. In this work, we investigate how this anisotropic behavior is controlled by the dimension of the embedded fibers and their reinforcement to the surrounding hydrogel. We describe the anisotropic contraction of hydrogels with rigid fibers using the Flory-Rehner thermodynamic model under periodic boundary conditions. It is found that a hydrogel reinforced by aligned fibers exhibits larger anisotropy when it is pre-stretched before contraction. Using finite element method, we further observe that the anisotropic contraction is dampened by reducing the fiber-fiber distance due to the finite size of the fibers.

  3. Acoustic frequency filter based on anisotropic topological phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zeguo


    We present a design of acoustic frequency filter based on a two-dimensional anisotropic phononic crystal. The anisotropic band structure exhibits either a directional or a combined (global + directional) bandgap at certain frequency regions, depending on the geometry. When the time-reversal symmetry is broken, it may introduce a topologically nontrivial bandgap. The induced nontrivial bandgap and the original directional bandgap result in various interesting wave propagation behaviors, such as frequency filter. We develop a tight-binding model to characterize the effective Hamiltonian of the system, from which the contribution of anisotropy is explicitly shown. Different from the isotropic cases, the Zeeman-type splitting is not linear and the anisotropic bandgap makes it possible to achieve anisotropic propagation characteristics along different directions and at different frequencies.

  4. Performance, Performance System, and High Performance System (United States)

    Jang, Hwan Young


    This article proposes needed transitions in the field of human performance technology. The following three transitions are discussed: transitioning from training to performance, transitioning from performance to performance system, and transitioning from learning organization to high performance system. A proposed framework that comprises…

  5. Photon states in anisotropic media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Quantum aspects of optical polarization are discussed for waves traveling in anisotropic dielectric media with a view to relate the dynamics of polarization with that of photon spin and its manipulation by classical polarizers.

  6. Modeling anisotropic magnetoresistance in layered antiferromagnets (United States)

    Santos, D. L. R.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Velev, J.; Chshiev, M.; Castro, J. d.'Albuquerque e.; Lacroix, C.


    We have investigated the electronic transport and the anisotropic magnetoresistance in systems consisting of pairs of antiferromagnetically aligned layers separated by a non-magnetic layer, across which an antiferromagnetic coupling between the double layers is established. Calculations have been performed within the framework of the tight-binding model, taking into account the exchange coupling within the ferromagnetic layers and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. Conductivities have been evaluated in the ballistic regime, based on Kubo formula. We have systematically studied the dependence of the conductivity and of the anisotropic magnetoresistance on several material and structural parameters, such as the orientation of the magnetic moments relative to the crystalline axis, band filling, out-of-plane hopping and spin-orbit parameter.

  7. Anisotropic hydrodynamics for conformal Gubser flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, Michael; Nopoush, Mohammad [Kent State University, Kent OH 44242 (United States); Ryblewski, Radoslaw [The H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, PL-31342 Kraków (Poland)


    In this proceedings contribution, we review the exact solution of the anisotropic hydrodynamics equations for a system subject to Gubser flow. For this purpose, we use the leading-order anisotropic hydrodynamics equations which assume that the distribution function is ellipsoidally symmetric in local-rest-frame momentum. We then prove that the SO(3){sub q} symmetry in de Sitter space constrains the anisotropy tensor to be of spheroidal form with only one independent anisotropy parameter remaining. As a consequence, the exact solution reduces to the problem of solving two coupled non-linear differential equations. We show that, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to zero, one obtains Gubser's ideal hydrodynamic solution and, in the limit that the relaxation time goes to infinity, one obtains the exact free streaming solution obtained originally by Denicol et al. For finite relaxation time, we solve the equations numerically and compare to the exact solution of the relaxation-time-approximation Boltzmann equation subject to Gubser flow. Using this as our standard, we find that anisotropic hydrodynamics describes the spatio-temporal evolution of the system better than all currently known dissipative hydrodynamics approaches.

  8. Anisotropic permeability in deterministic lateral displacement arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Vernekar, Rohan; Loutherback, Kevin; Morton, Keith; Inglis, David


    We investigate anisotropic permeability of microfluidic deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) arrays. A DLD array can achieve high-resolution bimodal size-based separation of micro-particles, including bioparticles such as cells. Correct operation requires that the fluid flow remains at a fixed angle with respect to the periodic obstacle array. We show via experiments and lattice-Boltzmann simulations that subtle array design features cause anisotropic permeability. The anisotropy, which indicates the array's intrinsic tendency to induce an undesired lateral pressure gradient, can lead to off-axis flows and therefore local changes in the critical separation size. Thus, particle trajectories can become unpredictable and the device useless for the desired separation duty. We show that for circular posts the rotated-square layout, unlike the parallelogram layout, does not suffer from anisotropy and is the preferred geometry. Furthermore, anisotropy becomes severe for arrays with unequal axial and lateral gaps...

  9. Anisotropic hydrodynamic function of dense confined colloids (United States)

    Nygârd, Kim; Buitenhuis, Johan; Kagias, Matias; Jefimovs, Konstantins; Zontone, Federico; Chushkin, Yuriy


    Dense colloidal dispersions exhibit complex wave-vector-dependent diffusion, which is controlled by both direct particle interactions and indirect nonadditive hydrodynamic interactions mediated by the solvent. In bulk the hydrodynamic interactions are probed routinely, but in confined geometries their studies have been hitherto hindered by additional complications due to confining walls. Here we solve this issue by combining high-energy x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and small-angle x-ray-scattering experiments on colloid-filled microfluidic channels to yield the confined fluid's hydrodynamic function in the short-time limit. Most importantly, we find the confined fluid to exhibit a strongly anisotropic hydrodynamic function, similar to its anisotropic structure factor. This observation is important in order to guide future theoretical research.

  10. Dynamic wetting on anisotropic patterned surfaces (United States)

    Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Nita, Satoshi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Amberg, Gustav; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team


    Dynamic wetting, as occurs when a droplet of a wetting liquid is brought in contact with a dry solid, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. We have recently quantified the hindering effect of fairly isotropic micron-sized patterns on the substrate. Here we will study highly anisotropic surfaces, such as parallel grooves, either perpendicular or parallel to an advancing contact line. This is done by detailed phase field simulations and experiments on structured silicon surfaces. The dynamic wetting behavior of drops on the grooved surfaces is governed by the combined interplay of the wetting line friction and the internal viscous dissipation. Influence of roughness is quantified in terms of the energy dissipation rate at the contact line using the experiment-simulation combined analysis. The energy dissipation of the contact line at the different part of the groove will be discussed. The performance of the model is assessed by comparing its predictions with the experimental data. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W., S.N., and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).

  11. On higher order and anisotropic hydrodynamics for Bjorken and Gubser flows

    CERN Document Server


    We study the evolution of hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic moments of the distribution function using anisotropic and third-order Chapman-Enskog hydrodynamics for systems undergoing Bjorken and Gubser flows. The hydrodynamic results are compared with the exact solution of the Boltzmann equation with a collision term in relaxation time approximation. While the evolution of the hydrodynamic moments of the distribution function (i.e. of the energy momentum tensor) can be described with high accuracy by both hydrodynamic approximation schemes, their description of the evolution of the entropy of the system is much less precise. We attribute this to large contributions from non-hydrodynamic modes coupling into the entropy evolution which are not well captured by the hydrodynamic approximations. The differences between the exact solution and the hydrodynamic approximations are larger for the third-order Chapman-Enskog hydrodynamics than for anisotropic hydrodynamics, which effectively resums some of the dissipati...

  12. Anisotropic impedance surfaces for enhanced antenna isolation (United States)

    Miragliotta, Joseph A.; Shrekenhamer, David; Sievenpiper, Daniel F.


    Anisotropic impedance surfaces, which include metasurfaces and high impedance surfaces (HIS), can be designed to control the amplitude and propagation direction of surface electromagnetic waves and are an effective means to enhance the isolation between antennas that share a common ground plane. To date, the majority of metastructures that have been designed for antenna isolation have relied on an isotropic distribution of unit cells that possess a stop band that inhibits the propagation of surface waves between neighboring antennas. A less common approach to isolation has been through the design of a metasurface that enables the re-direction of surface waves away from the location of the antenna structure, which effectively limits the coupling. In this paper, we discuss results from our computational investigation associated with improving antenna isolation through the use of an anisotropic metastructure. Simulated results associated with the isolation performance of two simple, but similar, anisotropic structures are compared to the corresponding results from a broadband magnetic radar absorbing materials (magRAM).

  13. Temperature dependence of anisotropic diffraction in holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal memory. (United States)

    Ogiwara, Akifumi; Watanabe, Minoru; Moriwaki, Retsu


    Grating devices using photosensitive organic materials play an important role in the development of optical and optoelectronic systems. High diffraction efficiency and polarization dependence achieved in a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating are expected to provide polarization-controllable optical devices, such as a holographic memory for optically reconfigurable gate arrays (ORGAs). However, the optical property is affected by the thermal modulation around the transition temperature (T(ni)) where the liquid crystal (LC) changes from nematic to isotropic phases. The temperature dependence of the diffraction efficiency in HPDLC grating is investigated using four types of LC composites comprised of LCs and monomers having different physical properties such as T(ni) and anisotropic refractive indices. The holographic memory formed by the LC with low anisotropic refractive index and LC diacrylate monomer implements optical reconfiguration for ORGAs at a high temperature beyond T(ni) of LC.

  14. High definition systems in Japan (United States)

    Elkus, Richard J., Jr.; Cohen, Robert B.; Dayton, Birney D.; Messerschmitt, David G.; Schreiber, William F.; Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Shelton, Duane


    The successful implementation of a strategy to produce high-definition systems within the Japanese economy will favorably affect the fundamental competitiveness of Japan relative to the rest of the world. The development of an infrastructure necessary to support high-definition products and systems in that country involves major commitments of engineering resources, plants and equipment, educational programs and funding. The results of these efforts appear to affect virtually every aspect of the Japanese industrial complex. The results of assessments of the current progress of Japan toward the development of high-definition products and systems are presented. The assessments are based on the findings of a panel of U.S. experts made up of individuals from U.S. academia and industry, and derived from a study of the Japanese literature combined with visits to the primary relevant industrial laboratories and development agencies in Japan. Specific coverage includes an evaluation of progress in R&D for high-definition television (HDTV) displays that are evolving in Japan; high-definition standards and equipment development; Japanese intentions for the use of HDTV; economic evaluation of Japan's public policy initiatives in support of high-definition systems; management analysis of Japan's strategy of leverage with respect to high-definition products and systems.

  15. Anisotropic Etching Using Reactive Cluster Beams (United States)

    Koike, Kunihiko; Yoshino, Yu; Senoo, Takehiko; Seki, Toshio; Ninomiya, Satoshi; Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuo, Jiro


    The characteristics of Si etching using nonionic cluster beams with highly reactive chlorine-trifluoride (ClF3) gas were examined. An etching rate of 40 µm/min or higher was obtained even at room temperature when a ClF3 molecular cluster was formed and irradiated on a single-crystal Si substrate in high vacuum. The etching selectivity of Si with respect to a photoresist and SiO2 was at least 1:1000. We also succeeded in highly anisotropic etching with an aspect ratio of 10 or higher. Moreover, this etching method has a great advantage of low damage, compared with the conventional plasma process.

  16. High speed high dynamic range high accuracy measurement system (United States)

    Deibele, Craig E.; Curry, Douglas E.; Dickson, Richard W.; Xie, Zaipeng


    A measuring system includes an input that emulates a bandpass filter with no signal reflections. A directional coupler connected to the input passes the filtered input to electrically isolated measuring circuits. Each of the measuring circuits includes an amplifier that amplifies the signal through logarithmic functions. The output of the measuring system is an accurate high dynamic range measurement.

  17. PHENIX results on identified particles spectra and anisotropic flow in p/d/3He+Au collisions at 200 GeV (United States)

    Peng, Weizhuang; Phenix Collaboration


    Recent results from small collision systems at RHIC and LHC indicate that many of the signatures of collective behavior observed in AA collisions are also present in small systems in high-multiplicity events. The PHENIX experiment has performed comprehensive studies of long-range particle correlations and anisotropic flow in collisions. Mass ordering has been observed in the pt distributions of the anisotropic flow coefficients vn. Such mass ordering is a key feature in the hydrodynamics description of the system evolution and arises from radial flow, where all particles move with a common flow velocity. However, the mass ordering is also seen in microscopic transport models such as AMPT. Information about the radial flow can be gained more directly from measurements of the transverse momentum distributions of identified hadrons. Identified particle spectra and anisotropic flow in p/d/3He+Au collisions will be presented and compared to theoretical predictions.

  18. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.


    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  19. Continuum mechanics of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, Stephen C


    Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials(CMAM) presents an entirely new and unique development of material anisotropy in the context of an appropriate selection and organization of continuum mechanics topics. These features will distinguish this continuum mechanics book from other books on this subject. Textbooks on continuum mechanics are widely employed in engineering education, however, none of them deal specifically with anisotropy in materials. For the audience of Biomedical, Chemical and Civil Engineering students, these materials will be dealt with more frequently and greater accuracy in their analysis will be desired. Continuum Mechanics of Anisotropic Materials' author has been a leader in the field of developing new approaches for the understanding of anisotropic materials.

  20. Homotopy Method in Applied Problems of the Anisotropic Control Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Yurchenkov


    Full Text Available The work describes a numerical method of solving the specific systems of matrix equations emerging in the tasks of the modern theory of control. Since the standard tasks of the control theory demand making a number of assumptions about input effect, at the slightest non-compliance the synthesized laws of control become either extremely inefficient or too much power consumable. As opposed to these assumptions, while setting the problem of anisotropic theory of control, it is necessary to know only the average anisotropy level of the input sequence. Consequently, anisotropic regulators are always found to be no worse than standard ones. In synthesis of anisotropic regulator a rather complex algorithm of its construction is the only difficulty. When considering a problem of ensuring robust quality of the control object in case of the structured uncertainty there is a need to solve a system of four connected Riccati equations, equation of a special form, and Lyapunov equation. To solve it by standard methods of convex optimization is impossible. The work shows how the standard mean square Gaussian regulator allows us to obtain as anisotropic regulator to meet requirements of robust quality when there is an imperfect knowledge of mathematical model of object of control, a lack of exact stochastic characteristics of the input control, parametrical uncertainty, etc. The article offers an algorithm based on the homotopy method with the Newtonian iterations to solve a problem of anisotropic optimization. It presents a computing procedure to reach the objective. Using a task of searching the anisotropic regulator to minimize the maximum value of anisotropic norm of transfer function of the control object, the article describes required matrix derivatives of stabilizing solutions of Riccati equations, equation of a special form, and Lyapunov equation. Properties of Kronecker product and matrix differentiation with respect to matrix are given.

  1. Anomalously large anisotropic magnetoresistance in a perovskite manganite (United States)

    Li, Run-Wei; Wang, Huabing; Wang, Xuewen; Yu, X. Z.; Matsui, Y.; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Shen, Bao-Gen; Plummer, E. Ward; Zhang, Jiandi


    The signature of correlated electron materials (CEMs) is the coupling between spin, charge, orbital and lattice resulting in exotic functionality. This complexity is directly responsible for their tunability. We demonstrate here that the broken symmetry, through cubic to orthorhombic distortion in the lattice structure in a prototype manganite single crystal, La0.69Ca0.31MnO3, leads to an anisotropic magneto-elastic response to an external field, and consequently to remarkable magneto-transport behavior. An anomalous anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) effect occurs close to the metal-insulator transition (MIT) in the system, showing a direct correlation with the anisotropic field-tuned MIT in the system and can be understood by means of a simple phenomenological model. A small crystalline anisotropy stimulates a “colossal” AMR near the MIT phase boundary of the system, thus revealing the intimate interplay between magneto- and electronic-crystalline couplings. PMID:19706504

  2. Experimental evidence for anisotropic double exchange interaction driven anisotropic transport in manganite heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, Zhaoliang; Koster, Gertjan; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.


    An anisotropic double exchange interaction driven giant transport anisotropy is demonstrated in a canonic double exchange system of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 ultrathin films epitaxially grown on NdGaO3 (110) substrates. The oxygen octahedral coupling at the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3/NdGaO3 interface induces a planar

  3. Polarization-Tailored Fano Interference in Plasmonic Crystals: A Mueller Matrix Model of Anisotropic Fano Resonance. (United States)

    Ray, Subir K; Chandel, Shubham; Singh, Ankit K; Kumar, Abhishek; Mandal, Arpita; Misra, Subhradeep; Mitra, Partha; Ghosh, Nirmalya


    Fano resonance is observed in a wide range of micro- and nano-optical systems and has been a subject of intensive investigations due to its numerous potential applications. Methods that can control or modulate Fano resonance by tuning some experimentally accessible parameters are highly desirable for realistic applications. Here we present a simple yet elegant approach using the Mueller matrix formalism for controlling the Fano interference effect and engineering the resulting asymmetric spectral line shape in an anisotropic optical system. The approach is founded on a generalized model of anisotropic Fano resonance, which relates the spectral asymmetry to physically meaningful and experimentally accessible parameters of interference, namely, the Fano phase shift and the relative amplitudes of the interfering modes. The differences in these parameters between orthogonal linear polarizations in an anisotropic system are exploited to desirably tune the Fano spectral asymmetry using pre- and postselection of optimized polarization states. The concept is demonstrated on waveguided plasmonic crystals using Mueller matrix-based polarization analysis. The approach enabled tailoring of several exotic regimes of Fano resonance in a single device, including the complete reversal of the spectral asymmetry, and shows potential for applications involving control and manipulation of electromagnetic waves at the nanoscale.

  4. Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Bugaiev, Kyrylo; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chiavassa, Emilio; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fearick, Roger Worsley; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonschior, Alexey; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacholkowski, Adam Wlodzimierz; Jacobs, Peter; Jangal, Swensy Gwladys; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jirden, Lennart; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kakoyan, Vanik; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Korneev, Andrey; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenhardt, Matthieu Laurent; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loenne, Per-Ivar; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastromarco, Mario; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayani, Daniel; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Naumov, Nikolay; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, S; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piuz, Francois; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puchagin, Sergey; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Pujol Teixido, Jordi; Pulvirenti, Alberto; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Radomski, Sylwester; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, Bartolomeu; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sano, Satoshi; Santo, Rainer; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schreiner, Steffen; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Siciliano, Melinda; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stefanini, Giorgio; Steinbeck, Timm Morten; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strabykin, Kirill; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sukhorukov, Mikhail; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Tosello, Flavio; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; van der Kolk, Naomi; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vikhlyantsev, Oleg; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vranic, Danilo; Øvrebekk, Gaute; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Dong; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Shiming; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym


    The elliptic, $v_2$, triangular, $v_3$, and quadrangular, $v_4$, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions, and (anti-)protons in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range |$\\eta$|8 GeV/c. The small $p_T$ dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to $p_T$ =8 GeV/c. The magnitude of the (anti-)proton elliptic and triangular flow is larger than that of pions out to at least $p_T$ =8 GeV/c indicating that the particle type dependence persists out to high $p_T$.

  5. Enabling Droplet Functionality on Anisotropic Ratchet Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal R. Holmes


    Full Text Available Anisotropic ratchet conveyors (ARCs are a recently developed microfluidic platform that transports liquid droplets through a passive, microfabricated surface pattern and applied orthogonal vibrations. In this work, three new functionalities are presented for controlling droplet transport on the ARC system. These devices can pause droplet transport (ARC gate, decide between two pathways of droplet transport (ARC switch, and pass droplets between transport tracks (ARC delivery junction. All devices function solely through the modification of pinning forces acting on the transported droplet and are the first reported devices that can selectively control droplet timing and directionality without active (e.g., thermal, electrical, or magnetic surface components.

  6. Failure in imperfect anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang


    The fundamental cause of crack growth, namely nucleation and growth of voids, is investigated numerically for a two phase imperfect anisotropic material. A unit cell approach is adopted from which the overall stress strain is evaluated. Failure is observed as a sudden stress drop and depending on...

  7. Magnetic relaxation in anisotropic magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    The line shape and the kinematic and thermodynamic slowing down of the critical and paramagnetic relaxation in axially anisotropic materials are discussed. Kinematic slowing down occurs only in the longitudinal relaxation function. The thermodynamic slowing down occurs in either the transverse...

  8. Exact anisotropic sphere with polytropic equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study static spherically symmetric spacetime to describe compact objects with anisotropic matter ... equations as a new system of differential equations using a coordinate transformation, and then write the system in another ... reported with non-linear equation of state by Varela et al [27] and Feroze and Siddiqui.

  9. Holographic Photon Production and Anisotropic Flow (United States)

    Iatrakis, Ioannis; Kiritsis, Elias; Shen, Chun; Yang, Di-Lun


    The thermal-photon emission from strongly coupled gauge theories at finite temperature via the bottom-up models in holographic QCD in the deconfined phase is studied. The models are constructed to approximately reproduce the electric conductivity obtained from lattice simulations for the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The emission rates are then embedded in hydrodynamic simulations combined with prompt photons and hadronic contributions to analyze the spectra and anisotropic flow of direct photons in RHIC and LHC. In general, the holographic models enhance the yield and improve the agreement in spectra, while they reduce the flow in low pT and increase it in high pT.

  10. Discovery of 2D Anisotropic Dirac Cones. (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Ito, Suguru; Arita, Masashi; Cheng, Cai; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Komori, Fumio; Sugino, Osamu; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Meng, Sheng; Matsuda, Iwao


    2D anisotropic Dirac cones are observed in χ3 borophene, a monolayer boron sheet, using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The Dirac cones are centered at the X and X' points. The data also reveal that the hybridization between borophene and Ag(111) is very weak, which explains the preservation of the Dirac cones. As χ3 borophene has been predicated to be a superconductor, the results may stimulate further research interest in the novel physics of borophene, such as the interplay between Cooper pairs and the massless Dirac fermions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Anisotropic large magnetoresistance in TaTe4 single crystals (United States)

    Gao, Yuxia; Xu, Longmeng; Qiu, Yang; Tian, Zhaoming; Yuan, Songliu; Wang, Junfeng


    Strong anisotropic magnetotransport is reported in high-quality TaTe4 single crystals synthesized by flux methods. Large positive magnetoresistance (MR) and field-induced metal-semiconductor-like transition are observed at low temperatures with B perpendicular to c axis. The MR value reaches 3200% in 9 T at 2 K with B parallel to a axis, contrast to 79% for B along c axis. Angle dependent magnetoresistance with B rotated within ab plane displays eightfold symmetry and pronounced Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations at low temperatures. The analysis of angle dependent resistivity, Hall effect and observed SdH oscillations suggest the high mobile electron and anisotropic Fermi surface responsible for the large anisotropic MR in TaTe4.

  12. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.


    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  13. 2D seismic reflection tomography in strongly anisotropic media (United States)

    Huang, Guangnan; Zhou, Bing; Li, Hongxi; Zhang, Hua; Li, Zelin


    Seismic traveltime tomography is an effective method to reconstruct underground anisotropic parameters. Currently, most anisotropic tomographic methods were developed under the assumption of weak anisotropy. The tomographic method proposed here can be implemented for imaging subsurface targets in strongly anisotropic media with a known tilted symmetry axis, since the adopted ray tracing method is suitable for anisotropic media with arbitrary degree. There are three kinds of reflection waves (qP, qSV and qSH waves) that were separately used to invert the blocky abnormal body model. The reflection traveltime tomographiy is developed here because a surface observation system is the most economical and practical way compared with crosswell and VSP. The numerical examples show that the traveltimes of qP reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}13},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully. Traveltimes of qSV reflection wave have inverted parameters {{c}11},{{c}33} \\text{and} {{c}44} successfully, with the exception of the {{c}13}, since it is less sensitive than other parameters. Traveltimes of qSH reflection wave also have inverted parameters {{c}44} \\text{and} {{c}66} successfully. In addition, we find that the velocity sensitivity functions (derivatives of phase velocity with respect to elastic moduli parameters) and raypath illuminating angles have a great influence on the qualities of tomograms according to the inversion of theoretical models. Finally, the numerical examples confirm that the reflection traveltime tomography can be applied to invert strongly anisotropic models.

  14. Anisotropic diffusion in mesh-free numerical magnetohydrodynamics (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.


    We extend recently developed mesh-free Lagrangian methods for numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) to arbitrary anisotropic diffusion equations, including: passive scalar diffusion, Spitzer-Braginskii conduction and viscosity, cosmic ray diffusion/streaming, anisotropic radiation transport, non-ideal MHD (Ohmic resistivity, ambipolar diffusion, the Hall effect) and turbulent 'eddy diffusion'. We study these as implemented in the code GIZMO for both new meshless finite-volume Godunov schemes (MFM/MFV). We show that the MFM/MFV methods are accurate and stable even with noisy fields and irregular particle arrangements, and recover the correct behaviour even in arbitrarily anisotropic cases. They are competitive with state-of-the-art AMR/moving-mesh methods, and can correctly treat anisotropic diffusion-driven instabilities (e.g. the MTI and HBI, Hall MRI). We also develop a new scheme for stabilizing anisotropic tensor-valued fluxes with high-order gradient estimators and non-linear flux limiters, which is trivially generalized to AMR/moving-mesh codes. We also present applications of some of these improvements for SPH, in the form of a new integral-Godunov SPH formulation that adopts a moving-least squares gradient estimator and introduces a flux-limited Riemann problem between particles.

  15. Crystal growth: an anisotropic mass transfer process at the interface. (United States)

    Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng


    Crystal growth is a dynamic physicochemical process, which depends on the multi-parameter synergetic control and directly determines the crystal features such as geometry and size. In this study, both thermodynamic and kinetic factors that determine inorganic single crystal growth are integrated by focusing on the mass transfer process at an interface. For the specific growth system, the integrated parameter is then classified to extract the critical control factors in anisotropic growth. The driving force of mass transfer essentially depends on the anisotropic chemical bonding architectures, leading to different concentration gradients along various [uvw] directions. Exquisitely controlling the chemical bonding architecture can therefore be used to regulate the mass transfer process of a compound in a straightforward manner, encompassing the origin of anisotropic growth as well as a variety of geometries in the formation of a multicomponent crystal.

  16. Analytical solutions of transport problems in anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenta, G.; Ravetto, P.; Rostagno, M.M.


    Recently, the problem of neutron transport in anisotropic media has received new attention in connection with safety studies of water reactors and design of gas-cooled systems. In situations presenting large voided regions, as the axial streaming is dominating with respect to the transverse one, the average properties of the homogenized material should physically account for such macroscopic anisotropy. Hence, it is suggested that cell calculations produce anisotropic average cross sections, e.g., axial ({sigma}{sub A}) and transverse ({sigma}{sub T}) values. Since material anisotropy is due to leakage, as a first-step approximation, the medium can be considered isotropic with respect to scattering phenomena. Transport codes are currently being adapted to include anisotropic cross sections. An important aspect of code development is the validation of algorithms by analytical benchmarks. For that purpose, the present work is devoted to the fully analytical solution of transport problems in slab geometry.

  17. Understanding nanoparticle-mediated nucleation pathways of anisotropic nanoparticles (United States)

    Laramy, Christine R.; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jones, Matthew R.; O'Brien, Matthew N.; Schatz, George C.; Mirkin, Chad A.


    Several seed-mediated syntheses of low symmetry anisotropic nanoparticles yield broad product distributions with multiple defect structures. This observation challenges the role of the nanoparticle precursor as a seed for certain syntheses and suggests the possibility of alternate nucleation pathways. Herein, we report a method to probe the role of the nanoparticle precursor in anisotropic nanoparticle nucleation with compositional and structural 'labels' to track their fate. We use the synthesis of gold triangular nanoprisms (Au TPs) as a model system. We propose a mechanism in which, rather than acting as a template, the nanoparticle precursor catalyzes homogenous nucleation of Au TPs.

  18. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, A. J.; Zhou, X. -F.; Kiraly, B.; Wood, J. D.; Alducin, D.; Myers, B. D.; Liu, X.; Fisher, B. L.; Santiago, U.; Guest, J. R.; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A.; Oganov, A. R.; Hersam, M. C.; Guisinger, N. P.


    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  19. Anisotropic models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K.; Dayanandan, Baiju [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)


    In the present paper we obtain an anisotropic analog of the Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) perfect fluid solution. The methodology consists of contraction of the anisotropic factor Δ with the help of both metric potentials e{sup ν} and e{sup λ}. Here we consider e{sup λ} the same as Durgapal and Fuloria (Gen Relativ Gravit 17:671, 1985) did, whereas e{sup ν} is as given by Lake (Phys Rev D 67:104015, 2003). The field equations are solved by the change of dependent variable method. The solutions set mathematically thus obtained are compared with the physical properties of some of the compact stars, strange star as well as white dwarf. It is observed that all the expected physical features are available related to the stellar fluid distribution, which clearly indicates the validity of the model. (orig.)

  20. Domainal cleavage as an Anisotropic Reaction-diffusion Process (United States)

    Mulchrone, Kieran; Meere, Patrick


    Domainal cleavage comprises zones dominated by quartz and feldspar (QF-domains) and zones dominated by Mica (M-domains) which form at low metamorphic grades. The protolith is typically fairly homogeneous mudstone, siltstone, sandstone or limestone. Wet diffusion or pressure solution along grain boundaries is a key mechanism in the development of domanial cleavage. However, this does not explain why M-domains become sub-regularly spaced, visually evident in coarser-grained rocks, and take on an anastomising morphology. The ratio of M to QF-domains by volume can range from 1 to 0.1 and lower i.e. in extreme cases M-domains are intermittent but regularly spaced. It is suggested here that an anisotropic reaction-diffusion process model can explain these features. The imposed stress field instantaneously leads to anisotropy of diffusion by narrowing intergranular channels perpendicular to the principal stress. This leads to a preferred diffusion of chemicals parallel to the principal stress direction and lower diffusion rates in the normal direction. Combining this with the chemical reaction of pressure solution produces an anisotropic reaction-diffusion system. Both isotropic and anistropic reaction diffusion systems lead to pattern formation as discovered by Alan Turing on the 1950's as an explanation for patterns found in animal skins such as spots and stripes. Thus domanial cleavage is a striped pattern induced by diffusion anisotropy combined with a chemical reaction. Furthermore, rates of chemical reaction in intergranular fluids is likely to be many orders of magnitude greater that rates of deformation. Therefore we expect domanial cleavage to form relatively rapidly. As deformation progresses the M-domains behave less competently and may be the site of enhanced shearing. An example from Co. Cork, Ireland demonstrates shear folding in low-grade metasedimentary rocks with reverse shear along M-domains at a high angle to the maximum compressive stress.

  1. Space Based Infrared System High (SBIRS High) (United States)


    SBIRS and Defense Support Program ( DSP ) operations at the Mission Control Station (MCS-2) at Buckley Air Force Base using a single software and hardware...2015. A formal test on December 10-18, 2015 proved the Block 10.3 system has the ability to control the full constellation (GEO/HEO and DSP ) of... processor , satellite data interface system, and contractor logistics support. Notes Block Buy (GEO 5-6) None Nuclear Costs Baseline (GEO 1-4, HEO 1-2, and

  2. Cracking of anisotropic cylindrical polytropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardan, S.A. [University of the Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Azam, M. [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan)


    We study the appearance of cracking in charged anisotropic cylindrical polytropes with generalized polytropic equation. We investigate the existence of cracking in two different kinds of polytropes existing in the literature through two different assumptions: (a) local density perturbation with conformally flat condition, and (b) perturbing polytropic index, charge and anisotropy parameters. We conclude that cracking appears in both kinds of polytropes for a specific range of density and model parameters. (orig.)

  3. Charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time is reported by choosing a particular form of radial pressure and electric field intensity. The non-singular solution of Einstein–Maxwell system of equation has been derived and it is shown that the model satisfies all the physical plausibility conditions. It is observed that ...

  4. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.


    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  5. Anisotropic Lyra cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B B Bhowmik and A Rajput treatment. According to Halford [6] the scalar–tensor treatment based on Lyra's geometry predicts the same effects, within observational limits, as far as the classical solar system tests are concerned, as well as tests based on the linearised form of field equations. In papers [7–12], the study of ...

  6. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking


    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  7. Ventilation systems for high halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodec, F.; Veldboer, W.


    A ventilation system for high halls is described which meets the demands of steady air flow in spite of inverse thermal currents, intensive ventilation of working areas during heating and cooling and ventilation free of draught. The main element of the ventilation system is the air outlet in the ceiling, with variable beam direction. The horizontal, rotated beams are superimposed by a vertical beam whose strength may be varied. This way, the beam direction can be adapted to the thermal load of the hall and the height of blowout. The blowout angle is large for heating and small for cooling. Studies have shown that halls are ventilated thoroughly and free of draught by this system. The variable, rotary outlet presented in the article is best suited for heights of 4.00 to 12.00 m. The outlet, with a rated diameter of 400 mm, has been in use for two years now in fields as varied as diecasting works, halls at fairs, sports halls, etc. The air volume flow rate is 1000 to 3000 m/sup 3//h per outlet. A bigger version is now being developed; it will have a rated diameter of 710 mm and an air volume flow rate of 3000 to 9000 m/sup 3//h.

  8. Anisotropic Bianchi-I universe with phantom field and cosmological ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the cosmological solutions. Keywords. Anisotropic cosmology; phantom field; accelerating universe. PACS Nos 04.20.Jb; 98.80.Cq. 1. Introduction. Recent astrophysical data obtained from high redshift surveys of Supernovae,. COBE to WMAP predict that the present universe is passing through an accel- erating phase of ...

  9. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)


    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  10. Electrically Anisotropic Layered Perovskite Single Crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ting-You


    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (OIHPs), which are promising materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications (1-10), have made into layered organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites (LOIHPs). These LOIHPs have been applied to thin-film transistors, solar cells and tunable wavelength phosphors (11-18). It is known that devices fabricated with single crystal exhibit the superior performance, which makes the growth of large-sized single crystals critical for future device applications (19-23). However, the difficulty in growing large-sized LOIHPs single crystal with superior electrical properties limits their practical applications. Here, we report a method to grow the centimeter-scaled LOIHP single crystal of [(HOC2H4NH3)2PbI4], demonstrating the potentials in mass production. After that, we reveal anisotropic electrical and optoelectronic properties which proved the carrier propagating along inorganic framework. The carrier mobility of in-inorganic-plane (in-plane) devices shows the average value of 45 cm2 V–1 s–1 which is about 100 times greater than the record of LOIHP devices (15), showing the importance of single crystal in device application. Moreover, the LOIHP single crystals show its ultra-short carrier lifetime of 42.7 ps and photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of 25.4 %. We expect this report to be a start of LOIHPs for advanced applications in which the anisotropic properties are needed (24-25), and meets the demand of high-speed applications and fast-response applications.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William S. McPhee


    construct a pre-prototype of the nozzle, blast head with wind curtain, sensors, and dust separator and test this system to assess the performance of the new design under controlled conditions at the contractor's facility. In phase III, the Contractor shall design and construct a prototype of the High Productivity Vacuum Blasting System, based on the results of the pre-prototype design and testing performed. This unit will be a full-scale prototype and will be tested at a designated Department of Energy (DOE) facility. Based on the results, the system performance, the productivity, and the economy of the improved vacuum blasting system will be evaluated.

  12. 3-D direct current resistivity anisotropic modelling by goal-oriented adaptive finite element methods (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Qiu, Lewen; Tang, Jingtian; Wu, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiao; Zhou, Zilong


    Although accurate numerical solvers for 3-D direct current (DC) isotropic resistivity models are current available even for complicated models with topography, reliable numerical solvers for the anisotropic case are still an open question. This study aims to develop a novel and optimal numerical solver for accurately calculating the DC potentials for complicated models with arbitrary anisotropic conductivity structures in the Earth. First, a secondary potential boundary value problem is derived by considering the topography and the anisotropic conductivity. Then, two a posteriori error estimators with one using the gradient-recovery technique and one measuring the discontinuity of the normal component of current density are developed for the anisotropic cases. Combing the goal-oriented and non-goal-oriented mesh refinements and these two error estimators, four different solving strategies are developed for complicated DC anisotropic forward modelling problems. A synthetic anisotropic two-layer model with analytic solutions verified the accuracy of our algorithms. A half-space model with a buried anisotropic cube and a mountain-valley model are adopted to test the convergence rates of these four solving strategies. We found that the error estimator based on the discontinuity of current density shows better performance than the gradient-recovery based a posteriori error estimator for anisotropic models with conductivity contrasts. Both error estimators working together with goal-oriented concepts can offer optimal mesh density distributions and highly accurate solutions.

  13. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System (United States)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.


    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  14. Anisotropic hydrogen etching of chemical vapor deposited graphene. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhen; Kim, Pyojae; Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Chongwu


    We report a simple, clean, and highly anisotropic hydrogen etching method for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene catalyzed by the copper substrate. By exposing CVD graphene on copper foil to hydrogen flow around 800 °C, we observed that the initially continuous graphene can be etched to have many hexagonal openings. In addition, we found that the etching is temperature dependent. Compared to other temperatures (700, 900, and 1000 °C), etching of graphene at 800 °C is most efficient and anisotropic. Of the angles of graphene edges after etching, 80% are 120°, indicating the etching is highly anisotropic. No increase of the D band along the etched edges indicates that the crystallographic orientation of etching is in the zigzag direction. Furthermore, we observed that copper played an important role in catalyzing the etching reaction, as no etching was observed for graphene transferred to Si/SiO(2) under similar conditions. This highly anisotropic hydrogen etching technology may work as a simple and convenient way to determine graphene crystal orientation and grain size and may enable the etching of graphene into nanoribbons for electronic applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. Anisotropic Unruh temperatures (United States)

    Arias, Raúl E.; Casini, Horacio; Huerta, Marina; Pontello, Diego


    The relative entropy between very high-energy localized excitations and the vacuum, where both states are reduced to a spatial region, gives place to a precise definition of a local temperature produced by vacuum entanglement across the boundary. This generalizes the Unruh temperature of the Rindler wedge to arbitrary regions. The local temperatures can be read off from the short distance leading have a universal geometric expression that follows by solving a particular eikonal type equation in Euclidean space. This equation generalizes to any dimension the holomorphic property that holds in two dimensions. For regions of arbitrary shapes the local temperatures at a point are direction dependent. We compute their explicit expression for the geometry of a wall or strip.

  16. Anisotropic opinion dynamics (United States)

    Neirotti, Juan


    We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B ) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged.

  17. Shear viscosity in an anisotropic unitary Fermi gas (United States)

    Samanta, Rickmoy; Sharma, Rishi; Trivedi, Sandip P.


    We consider a system consisting of a strongly interacting, ultracold unitary Fermi gas under harmonic confinement. Our analysis suggests the possibility of experimentally studying, in this system, an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor driven by the anisotropy in the trapping potential. In particular, we suggest that this experimental setup could mimic some features of anisotropic geometries that have recently been studied for strongly coupled field theories which have a dual gravitational description. Results using the AdS/CFT (anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence) in these theories show that in systems with a background linear potential, certain viscosity components can be made much smaller than the entropy density, parametrically violating the bound proposed by Kovtun, Son, and Starinets (KSS). This intuition, along with results from a Boltzmann analysis that we perform, suggests that a violation of the KSS bound can perhaps occur in the unitary Fermi gas system when it is subjected to a suitable anisotropic trapping potential which may be approximated to be linear in a suitable range of parameters. We give a concrete proposal for an experimental setup where an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor may arise. In such situations, it may also be possible to observe a reduction in the spin-1 component of the shear viscosity from its lowest value observed so far in ultracold Fermi gases. In extreme anisotropic situations, the reduction may be enough to reduce the shear viscosity to entropy ratio below the proposed KSS bound, although this regime is difficult to analyze in a theoretically controlled manner.

  18. Resistivity inversion in 2-D anisotropic media: numerical experiments (United States)

    Wiese, Timothy; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Mark; Marescot, Laurent


    Many rocks and layered/fractured sequences have a clearly expressed electrical anisotropy although it is rare in practice to incorporate anisotropy into resistivity inversion. In this contribution, we present a series of 2.5-D synthetic inversion experiments for various electrode configurations and 2-D anisotropic models. We examine and compare the image reconstructions obtained using the correct anisotropic inversion code with those obtained using the false but widely used isotropic assumption. Superior reconstruction in terms of reduced data misfit, true anomaly shape and position, and anisotropic background parameters were obtained when the correct anisotropic assumption was employed for medium to high coefficients of anisotropy. However, for low coefficient values the isotropic assumption produced better-quality results. When an erroneous isotropic inversion is performed on medium to high level anisotropic data, the images are dominated by patterns of banded artefacts and high data misfits. Various pole-pole, pole-dipole and dipole-dipole data sets were investigated and evaluated for the accuracy of the inversion result. The eigenvalue spectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix and the formal resolution matrix were also computed to determine the information content and goodness of the results. We also present a data selection strategy based on high sensitivity measurements which drastically reduces the number of data to be inverted but still produces comparable results to that of the comprehensive data set. Inversion was carried out using transversely isotropic model parameters described in two different co-ordinate frames for the conductivity tensor, namely Cartesian versus natural or eigenframe. The Cartesian frame provided a more stable inversion product. This can be simply explained from inspection of the eigenspectra of the pseudo-Hessian matrix for the two model descriptions.

  19. Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abelev, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Adam, J. [Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Adamová, D. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Řež u Prahy (Czech Republic); Adare, A.M. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Aggarwal, M.M. [Physics Department, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Aglieri Rinella, G. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Agocs, A.G. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Agostinelli, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università and Sezione INFN, Bologna (Italy); Aguilar Salazar, S. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Ahammed, Z. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahmad, N. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India); Ahn, S.U. [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Akindinov, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, D. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Alessandro, B. [Sezione INFN, Turin (Italy); Alfaro Molina, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Alici, A. [Centro Fermi – Centro Studi e Ricerche e Museo Storico della Fisica “Enrico Fermi”, Rome (Italy); Alkin, A. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); and others


    The elliptic, v{sub 2}, triangular, v{sub 3}, and quadrangular, v{sub 4}, azimuthal anisotropic flow coefficients are measured for unidentified charged particles, pions, and (anti-)protons in Pb–Pb collisions at √(s{sub NN})=2.76 TeV with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Results obtained with the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods are reported for the pseudo-rapidity range |η|<0.8 at different collision centralities and as a function of transverse momentum, p{sub T}, out to p{sub T}=20 GeV/c. The observed non-zero elliptic and triangular flow depends only weakly on transverse momentum for p{sub T}>8 GeV/c. The small p{sub T} dependence of the difference between elliptic flow results obtained from the event plane and four-particle cumulant methods suggests a common origin of flow fluctuations up to p{sub T}=8 GeV/c. The magnitude of the (anti-)proton elliptic and triangular flow is larger than that of pions out to at least p{sub T}=8 GeV/c indicating that the particle type dependence persists out to high p{sub T}.

  20. Viscosity for anisotropic Reissner-Nordström black branes (United States)

    Chakraborty, Soumangsu; Samanta, Rickmoy


    We investigate the behavior of shear viscosity in the presence of small anisotropy and a finite chemical potential. First, we construct an anisotropic Reissner Nordström black brane in five dimensions in a simple Einstein-Maxwell theory with a small linear dilaton. This solution is characterized by three mass scales: anisotropy ρ , temperature T , and chemical potential μ . We find this solution up to second order in the dilaton anisotropy parameter ρ . This black brane solution corresponds to an anisotropic phase where the anisotropy is small compared to the temperature and chemical potential. We find that in this anisotropic phase, some components of the anisotropic shear viscosity tensor, which are spin one with respect to the residual symmetry after breaking rotational invariance, violates the KSS bound (η/s ≥1/4 π ) proposed by Kovtun, Son, and Starinets. We identify the regions of the parameter space where these violations are significant. We carry out a similar analysis in four dimensions and find a similar violation of the KSS bound for the spin one components to demonstrate the generality of the result. Our results are particularly relevant in the context of strongly coupled systems found in nature. We also provide an intuitive understanding of the results using dimensional reduction and a Boltzmann calculation in a weakly coupled version of a similar system. The Boltzmann analysis performed in a system of weakly interacting particles in a linear potential also shows that components of the viscosity tensor may be reduced. It is intriguing that the Boltzmann analysis also predicts the corrections to be negative and that too in a manner similar to the anisotropic strongly coupled theories with smooth gravity duals.

  1. Anisotropic and nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Someda, CG


    Dielectric optical waveguides have been investigated for more than two decades. In the last ten years they have had the unique position of being simultaneously the backbone of a very practical and fully developed technology, as well as an extremely exciting area of basic, forefront research. Existing waveguides can be divided into two sets: one consisting of waveguides which are already in practical use, and the second of those which are still at the laboratory stage of their evolution. This book is divided into two separate parts: the first dealing with anisotropic waveguides, an

  2. Spin precession in anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenshchik, A.Yu. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We consider the precession of a Dirac particle spin in some anisotropic Bianchi universes. This effect is present already in the Bianchi-I universe. We discuss in some detail the geodesics and the spin precession for both the Kasner and the Heckmann-Schucking solutions. In the Bianchi-IX universe the spin precession acquires the chaotic character due to the stochasticity of the oscillatory approach to the cosmological singularity. The related helicity flip of fermions in the very early universe may produce the sterile particles contributing to dark matter. (orig.)

  3. Documentation and verification of VST2D; a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heat-solute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.


    This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water

  4. Bending, splitting, compressing and expanding of electromagnetic waves in infinitely anisotropic media (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile


    High-efficiency diffraction-free manipulations of electromagnetic (EM) waves are fundamentally difficult to realize, though reflectionless wave bending or sub-diffraction-limited imaging has been realized separately in previous demonstrations. Recent advances in epsilon-near-zero and anisotropic epsilon-near-infinity metamaterials have provided unique possibilities to achieve reflectionless diffraction-free EM wave manipulations. Here, we propose bending, splitting, compressing and expanding of EM waves with infinitely anisotropic media that can be achieved without diffraction or reflection. The results are verified by numerical simulations. This work furthers the study of infinitely anisotropic media, and might find applications in high-efficiency interconnection of subwavelength photonic information.

  5. High energy chemical laser system (United States)

    Gregg, D.W.; Pearson, R.K.


    A high energy chemical laser system is described wherein explosive gaseous mixtures of a reducing agent providing hydrogen isotopes and interhalogen compounds are uniformly ignited by means of an electrical discharge, flash- photolysis or an electron beam. The resulting chemical explosion pumps a lasing chemical species, hydrogen fluoride or deuterium fluoride which is formed in the chemical reaction. The generated lasing pulse has light frequencies in the 3- micron range. Suitable interhalogen compounds include bromine trifluoride (BrF$sub 3$), bromine pentafluoride (BrF$sub 5$), chlorine monofluoride (ClF), chlorine trifluoride (ClF$sub 3$), chlorine pentafluoride (ClF$sub 5$), iodine pentafluoride (IF$sub 5$), and iodine heptafluoride (IF$sub 7$); and suitable reducing agents include hydrogen (H$sub 2$), hydrocarbons such as methane (CH$sub 4$), deuterium (D$sub 2$), and diborane (B$sub 2$H$sub 6$), as well as combinations of the gaseous compound and/or molecular mixtures of the reducing agent.

  6. Adaptation of generalized Hill inequalities to anisotropic elastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hill inequalities. From different type of anisotropic elastic symmetries, numerical examples are given. Constructing bounds on effective eigenvalues provides a deeper understanding about mechanical behavior of anisotropic materials. Generalized Hill inequalities are adapted to all anisotropic elastic symmetries.

  7. Transient motion of thick anisotropic plates (United States)

    Nayfeh, Adnan H.; Taylor, Timothy W.


    Analyses are developed for the response of anisotropic plate strips to a transient load. The load is taken in the form of a line load of normal stress on the surface or within the body of the strip. The characteristic free vibrational modes of the strip are derived and used to derive the secular equation for this case in closed form and to isolate the mathematical conditions for symmetric and antisymmetric wave mode propagation in completely separate terms. The applied loads are expanded in terms of these normal modes and the response of the plate is obtained by superposition of the appropriate components. Material systems of higher symmetry are contained implicitly in the analysis.

  8. Anisotropic thermal expansion in flexible materials (United States)

    Romao, Carl P.


    A definition of the Grüneisen parameters for anisotropic materials is derived based on the response of phonon frequencies to uniaxial stress perturbations. This Grüneisen model relates the thermal expansion in a given direction (αi i) to one element of the elastic compliance tensor, which corresponds to the Young's modulus in that direction (Yi i). The model is tested through ab initio prediction of thermal expansion in zinc, graphite, and calcite using density functional perturbation theory, indicating that it could lead to increased accuracy for structurally complex systems. The direct dependence of αi i on Yi i suggests that materials which are flexible along their principal axes but rigid in other directions will generally display both positive and negative thermal expansion.

  9. Anisotropic diffusion tensor applied to temporal mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, Sami; Sporring, Jon


     Breast density is considered a structural property of  a  mammogram  that  can  change  in  various  ways  explaining different effects of medicinal treatments. The aim of the present work  is  to  provide  a  framework  for  obtaining  more  accurate and sensitive measurements of breast density...... changes related to  specific  effects  like  Hormonal  Replacement  Therapy  (HRT) and aging. Given effect-grouped patient data, we demonstrated how  anisotropic  diffusion  tensor  and  its  coherence  features computed in an anatomically oriented breast coordinate system followed by statistical learning...

  10. Theory of Random Anisotropic Magnetic Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A mean-field-crystal-field theory is developed for random, multicomponent, anisotropic magnetic alloys. It is specially applicable to rare-earth alloys. A discussion is given of multicritical points and phase transitions between various states characterized by order parameters with different...... spatial directions or different ordering wave vectors. Theoretical predictions based on known parameters for the phase diagrams and magnetic moments for the binary rare-earth alloys of Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, Tb-Tm, Nd-Pr, and pure double-hcp Nd agree qualitatively with the experimental observations....... Quantitative agreement can be obtained by increasing the interaction between different alloy elements, in particular for alloys with very different axial anisotropy, e.g., Tb-Tm. A model system consisting of a singlet-singlet and singlet-doublet alloy is discussed in detail. A simple procedure to include...

  11. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee


    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  12. Anisotropic Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Shear Layers (United States)

    Boettcher, Markus; Liang, Edison P.; Fu, Wen


    We present results of Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic shear layers as relevant to the relativistic jets of acive galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. We study the self-generation of electro-magnetic fields and particle acceleration for various different plasma compositions (electron-ion vs. electron-positron pair vs. hybrid). Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution of accelerated particles. We find that electron-ion shear layers lead to highly anisotropic particle distributions in the frame of the fast-moving inner spine. The beaming pattern of the highest-energy particles is much narrower than the characteristic beaming angle of 1/Gamma resulting from relativistic aberration of a co-moving isotropic distribution. This may pose a possible solution to the Lorentz-Factor crisis in blazars and explain very hard X-ray / soft gamma-ray spectra of some gamma-ray bursts.

  13. Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying


    By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Nonconformal Fluctuations in Radiation Dominated Anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    the non-conformal quantum fluctuations (of expansion and shear) and axisymmetric singularity case in radiation dominated anisotropic cosmology. We show that near the classical singularity the quantum fluctuations tend to diverge. Key words. Quantum Cosmology—Anisotropic universes. 1. Introduction. It has been ...

  15. Anisotropic flow from RHIC to the LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, R.J.M.


    Anisotropic flow is recognized as one of the main observables providing information on the early stage of a heavy-ion collision. At RHIC the large observed anisotropic flow and its successful description by ideal hydrodynamics is considered evidence for an early onset of thermalization and almost

  16. Anisotropic mixed-norm Hardy spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleanthous, G.; Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten


    We introduce and explore Hardy spaces defined by mixed Lebesgue norms and anisotropic dilations. We prove that the definitions of these spaces in terms of smooth, non-tangential, auxiliary, grand, and Poisson maximal operators coincide. We also study the relation between anisotropic mixed...

  17. Dyadic Green's functions for layered anisotropic medium (United States)

    Lee, J. K.; Kong, J. A.


    The dyadic Green's functions (DGF) for unbounded and layered anisotropic media have been obtained. The anisotropic medium is assumed to be tilted uniaxial. With the availability of the DGF's, many problems involving radiation and scattering of electromagnetic waves can readily be solved.

  18. High-Altitude Hydration System (United States)

    Parazynski, Scott E.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Bue, Grant C.; Schaefbauer, Mark E.; Urban, Kase


    Three methods are being developed for keeping water from freezing during high-altitude climbs so that mountaineers can remain hydrated. Three strategies have been developed. At the time of this reporting two needed to be tested in the field and one was conceptual. The first method is Passive Thermal Control Using Aerogels. This involves mounting the fluid reservoir of the climber s canteen to an inner layer of clothing for better heat retention. For the field test, bottles were mounted to the inner fleece layer of clothing, and then aerogel insulation was placed on the outside of the bottle, and circumferentially around the drink straw. When climbers need to drink, they can pull up the insulated straw from underneath the down suit, take a sip, and then put it back into the relative warmth of the suit. For the field test, a data logger assessed the temperatures of the water reservoir, as well as near the tip of the drink straw. The second method is Passive Thermal Control with Copper-Shielded Drink Straw and Aerogels, also mounted to inner layers of clothing for better heat retention. Braided wire emanates from the inside of the fleece jacket layer, and continues up and around the drink straw in order to use body heat to keep the system-critical drink straw warm enough to keep water in the liquid state. For the field test, a data logger will be used to compare this with the above concept. The third, and still conceptual, method is Active Thermal Control with Microcontroller. If the above methods do not work, microcontrollers and tape heaters have been identified that could keep the drink straw warm even under extremely cold conditions. Power requirements are not yet determined because the thermal environment inside the down suit relative to the external environment has not been established. A data logger will be used to track both the external and internal temperatures of the suit on a summit day.

  19. Effective wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media: Accounting for resolvable anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Spectral methods provide artefact-free and generally dispersion-free wavefield extrapolation in anisotropic media. Their apparent weakness is in accessing the medium-inhomogeneity information in an efficient manner. This is usually handled through a velocity-weighted summation (interpolation) of representative constant-velocity extrapolated wavefields, with the number of these extrapolations controlled by the effective rank of the original mixed-domain operator or, more specifically, by the complexity of the velocity model. Conversely, with pseudo-spectral methods, because only the space derivatives are handled in the wavenumber domain, we obtain relatively efficient access to the inhomogeneity in isotropic media, but we often resort to weak approximations to handle the anisotropy efficiently. Utilizing perturbation theory, I isolate the contribution of anisotropy to the wavefield extrapolation process. This allows us to factorize as much of the inhomogeneity in the anisotropic parameters as possible out of the spectral implementation, yielding effectively a pseudo-spectral formulation. This is particularly true if the inhomogeneity of the dimensionless anisotropic parameters are mild compared with the velocity (i.e., factorized anisotropic media). I improve on the accuracy by using the Shanks transformation to incorporate a denominator in the expansion that predicts the higher-order omitted terms; thus, we deal with fewer terms for a high level of accuracy. In fact, when we use this new separation-based implementation, the anisotropy correction to the extrapolation can be applied separately as a residual operation, which provides a tool for anisotropic parameter sensitivity analysis. The accuracy of the approximation is high, as demonstrated in a complex tilted transversely isotropic model. © 2014 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  20. High Confidence Software and Systems Research Needs (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This White Paper presents a survey of high confidence software and systems research needs. It has been prepared by the High Confidence Software and Systems...

  1. Longitudinal Hierarchy Co3O4 Mesocrystals with High-dense Exposure Facets and Anisotropic Interfaces for Direct-Ethanol Fuel Cells. (United States)

    Hassen, Diab; El-Safty, Sherif A; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Sakai, Masaru


    Novel electrodes are needed for direct ethanol fuel cells with improved quality. Hierarchical engineering can produce catalysts composed of mesocrystals with many exposed active planes and multi-diffused voids. Here we report a simple, one-pot, hydrothermal method for fabricating Co3O4/carbon/substrate electrodes that provides control over the catalyst mesocrystal morphology (i.e., corn tubercle pellets or banana clusters oriented along nanotube domains, or layered lamina or multiple cantilevered sheets). These morphologies afforded catalysts with a high density of exposed active facets, a diverse range of mesopores in the cage interior, a window architecture, and vertical alignment to the substrate, which improved efficiency in an ethanol electrooxidation reaction compared with a conventional platinum/carbon electrode. On the atomic scale, the longitudinally aligned architecture of the Co3O4 mesocrystals resulted in exposed low- and high-index single and interface surfaces that had improved electron transport and diffusion compared with currently used electrodes.

  2. Anisotropic to Isotropic Phase Transitions in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaib M. A.


    Full Text Available We attempt to develop a minimal formalism to describe an anisotropic to isotropic tran- sition in the early Universe. Assuming an underlying theory that violates Lorentz in- variance, we start with a Dirac like equation, involving four massless fields, and which does not exhibit Lorentz invariance. We then perform transformations that restore it to its covariant form along with a mass term for the fermion field. It is proposed that these transformations can be visualized as waves traveling in an anisotropic media. The trans- formation it = ℏ ! is then utilized to transit to a statistical thermodynamics system and the partition function then gives a better insight into the character of this transition. The statistical system hence realized is a two level system with each state doubly degenerate. We propose that modeling the transition this way can help explain the matter antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.

  3. Influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on graphene anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Kamal P. [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Mahyavanshi, Rakesh D. [Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Department of Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)


    Graphical abstract: Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. - Highlights: • Reveal the influence of copper polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching of graphene. • Hexagonal hole formation with etching is observed to be independent of stripes and wrinkles in graphene. • Variation in etched pattern of graphene depending on the base Cu grain is confirmed. • This finding will help to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern in graphene. - Abstract: Anisotropic etching of graphene and other two dimensional materials is an important tool to understand the growth process as well as enabling fabrication of various well-defined structures. Here, we reveal the influence of copper foil polycrystalline structure on anisotropic etching process of as-synthesized graphene. Graphene crystals were synthesized on the polycrystalline Cu foil by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. Microscopic analysis shows difference in shape, size and stripes alignment of graphene crystals with dissimilar nucleation within closure vicinity of neighboring Cu grains. Post-growth etching of such graphene crystals also significantly affected by the crystallographic nature of Cu grains as observed by the field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Hexagonal hole formation with anisotropic etching is observed to be independent of the stripes and wrinkles in the synthesized graphene. We also observed variation in etched pattern of the graphene depending on the base Cu grain orientations, attributing to difference in nucleation and growth process. The findings can facilitate to understand the nature of microscopic etched pattern depending on metal

  4. Spray-assisted alignment of Layer-by-Layer assembled silver nanowires: a general approach for the preparation of highly anisotropic nano-composite films. (United States)

    Hu, H; Pauly, M; Felix, O; Decher, G


    The present article focuses on the build-up and the properties of oriented silver nanowire monolayer films and Layer-by-Layer assembled multilayer films. We describe the template-free oriented spray-assisted assembly of silver nanowires at solid/air-interfaces using Grazing Incidence Spraying, a simple and versatile approach that allows the formation of highly oriented thin films with a tunable density and in-plane orientation. Depending on the spraying conditions the nematic order parameter, which describes the angular spread of misaligned nanowires, can be as high as 0.98 (a value of 1.00 corresponding to a perfectly parallel alignment). The combination with the Layer-by-Layer assembly allows building multilayer thin films possessing in-plane anisotropy. In order to demonstrate that the local alignment does not cancel out on the macroscopic scale but leads to direction-dependent properties, we use linearly polarized UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy to probe the selective excitation of the transverse and longitudinal localized plasmon resonances of the nanowires. The polarization efficiency of the thin films increases strongly with the in-plane density, the degree of orientation, and the number of silver nanowire layers. Multilayer films containing 4 layers of nanowires oriented in the same direction reach a polarization efficiency of up to 97% in the near-infrared region.

  5. Three-dimensional forward modeling and inversion of marine CSEM data in anisotropic conductivity structures (United States)

    Han, B.; Li, Y.


    We present a three-dimensional (3D) forward and inverse modeling code for marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys in anisotropic media. The forward solution is based on a primary/secondary field approach, in which secondary fields are solved using a staggered finite-volume (FV) method and primary fields are solved for 1D isotropic background models analytically. It is shown that it is rather straightforward to extend the isotopic 3D FV algorithm to a triaxial anisotropic one, while additional coefficients are required to account for full tensor conductivity. To solve the linear system resulting from FV discretization of Maxwell' s equations, both iterative Krylov solvers (e.g. BiCGSTAB) and direct solvers (e.g. MUMPS) have been implemented, makes the code flexible for different computing platforms and different problems. For iterative soloutions, the linear system in terms of electromagnetic potentials (A-Phi) is used to precondition the original linear system, transforming the discretized Curl-Curl equations to discretized Laplace-like equations, thus much more favorable numerical properties can be obtained. Numerical experiments suggest that this A-Phi preconditioner can dramatically improve the convergence rate of an iterative solver and high accuracy can be achieved without divergence correction even for low frequencies. To efficiently calculate the sensitivities, i.e. the derivatives of CSEM data with respect to tensor conductivity, the adjoint method is employed. For inverse modeling, triaxial anisotropy is taken into account. Since the number of model parameters to be resolved of triaxial anisotropic medias is twice or thrice that of isotropic medias, the data-space version of the Gauss-Newton (GN) minimization method is preferred due to its lower computational cost compared with the traditional model-space GN method. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the code with synthetic examples.

  6. 3D time-domain airborne EM modeling for an arbitrarily anisotropic earth (United States)

    Yin, Changchun; Qi, Yanfu; Liu, Yunhe


    Time-domain airborne EM data is currently interpreted based on an isotropic model. Sometimes, it can be problematic when working in the region with distinct dipping stratifications. In this paper, we simulate the 3D time-domain airborne EM responses over an arbitrarily anisotropic earth with topography by edge-based finite-element method. Tetrahedral meshes are used to describe the abnormal bodies with complicated shapes. We further adopt the Backward Euler scheme to discretize the time-domain diffusion equation for electric field, obtaining an unconditionally stable linear equations system. We verify the accuracy of our 3D algorithm by comparing with 1D solutions for an anisotropic half-space. Then, we switch attentions to effects of anisotropic media on the strengths and the diffusion patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses. For numerical experiments, we adopt three typical anisotropic models: 1) an anisotropic anomalous body embedded in an isotropic half-space; 2) an isotropic anomalous body embedded in an anisotropic half-space; 3) an anisotropic half-space with topography. The modeling results show that the electric anisotropy of the subsurface media has big effects on both the strengths and the distribution patterns of time-domain airborne EM responses; this effect needs to be taken into account when interpreting ATEM data in areas with distinct anisotropy.

  7. Detailed characterization of the anisotropic parameters beneath Iberia and Northern Morocco. (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Morais, Iolanda; Silveira, Graça; Pedreira, David; Pulgar, Javier A.; Dias, Nuno A.; Ruiz, Mario; Gonzalez-Cortina, Juan-Manuel


    The knowledge of the anisotropic properties beneath the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Morocco has been dramatically improved since late 2007 with the analysis of the data provided by the dense IberArray broad-band seismic network deployed in the Topo-Iberia project, the increasing number of permanent stations operating in Morocco, Portugal and Spain, and the contribution of smaller scale/higher resolution experiments. The first Topo-Iberia deployment in the Betics-Alboran zone has evidenced a spectacular rotation of the fast polarization direction (FPD) along the Gibraltar arc following the curvature of the Rif-Betic chain. This result has been interpreted as an evidence of mantle flow deflected around the high velocity slab beneath the Alboran Sea Arc. Data from the second Topo-Iberia deployment and from additional deployments in the Moroccan Meseta and the western High Atlas have shown a rather uniform N100°E FPD beneath the Variscan Central Iberian Massif, consistent with global mantle flow models taking into account contributions of surface plate motion, density variations and net lithosphere rotation. The results from the last deployment of the IberArray network presented here cover the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula and also show a rather uniform FPD orientation close to N100°E, confirming the previous interpretation. However, the degree of anisotropy changes significantly, from delay times values around 0.5 s beneath NW Iberia to values reaching 2.0s in its NE corner. The anisotropic parameters retrieved from single events providing high quality data also show significant differences for stations located in the Variscan units of NW Iberia, suggesting that the region includes multiple anisotropic layers or complex anisotropy systems.

  8. Anisotropic charged core envelope star (United States)

    Mafa Takisa, P.; Maharaj, S. D.


    We study a charged compact object with anisotropic pressures in a core envelope setting. The equation of state is quadratic in the core and linear in the envelope. There is smooth matching between the three regions: the core, envelope and the Reissner-Nordström exterior. We show that the presence of the electric field affects the masses, radii and compactification factors of stellar objects with values which are in agreement with previous studies. We investigate in particular the effect of electric field on the physical features of the pulsar PSR J1614-2230 in the core envelope model. The gravitational potentials and the matter variables are well behaved within the stellar object. We demonstrate that the radius of the core and the envelope can vary by changing the parameters in the speed of sound.

  9. A single-electron picture based on the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree–Fock method: application to the anisotropic ionization and subsequent high-harmonic generation of the CO molecule (United States)

    Ohmura, S.; Kato, T.; Oyamada, T.; Koseki, S.; Ohmura, H.; Kono, H.


    The mechanisms of anisotropic near-IR tunnel ionization and high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a CO molecule are theoretically investigated by using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree–Fock (MCTDHF) method developed for the simulation of multielectron dynamics of molecules. The multielectron dynamics obtained by numerically solving the equations of motion (EOMs) in the MCTDHF method is converted to a single orbital picture in the natural orbital representation where the first-order reduced density matrix is diagonalized. The ionization through each natural orbital is examined and the process of HHG is classified into different optical paths designated by a combinations of initial, intermediate and final natural orbitals. The EOMs for natural spin-orbitals are also derived within the framework of the MCTDHF, which maintains the first-order reduced density matrix to be a diagonal one throughout the time propagation of a many-electron wave function. The orbital dependent, time-dependent effective potentials that govern the dynamics of respective time-dependent natural orbitals are deduced from the derived EOMs, of which the temporal variation can be used to interpret the motion of the electron density associated with each natural spin-orbital. The roles of the orbital shape, multiorbital ionization, linear Stark effect and multielectron interaction in the ionization and HHG of a CO molecule are revealed by the effective potentials obtained. When the laser electric field points to the nucleus O from C, tunnel ionization from the C atom side is enhanced; a hump structure originating from multielectron interaction is then formed on the top of the field-induced distorted barrier of the HOMO effective potential. This hump formation, responsible for the directional anisotropy of tunnel ionization, restrains the influence of the linear Stark effect on the energy shifts of bound states.

  10. Validity of the Néel-Arrhenius model for highly anisotropic Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, T. E.; Ibarra, M. R. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Lima, E. [División Resonancias Magnéticas, Centro Atómico Bariloche/CONICET, S. C. Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Mayoral, A.; Ibarra, A. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Marquina, C. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC—Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Goya, G. F., E-mail: [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)


    We report a systematic study on the structural and magnetic properties of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles with sizes between 5 and 25 nm, prepared by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac){sub 3} and Co(acac){sub 2}. The large magneto-crystalline anisotropy of the synthesized particles resulted in high blocking temperatures (42 K < T{sub B} < 345 K for 5 < d < 13 nm) and large coercive fields (H{sub C} ≈ 1600 kA/m for T = 5 K). The smallest particles (〈d〉=5 nm) revealed the existence of a magnetically hard, spin-disordered surface. The thermal dependence of static and dynamic magnetic properties of the whole series of samples could be explained within the Neel–Arrhenius relaxation framework by including the thermal dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K{sub 1}(T), without the need of ad-hoc corrections. This approach, using the empirical Brükhatov-Kirensky relation, provided K{sub 1}(0) values very similar to the bulk material from either static or dynamic magnetic measurements, as well as realistic values for the response times (τ{sub 0} ≈ 10{sup −10}s). Deviations from the bulk anisotropy values found for the smallest particles could be qualitatively explained based on Zener's relation between K{sub 1}(T) and M(T)

  11. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjoldan, Peter Fisker

    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies...... frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions...... and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases...

  12. Existence of Nonsteady Planar Ideal Flows in Anisotropic Plasticity (United States)

    Alexandrov, S.; Pirumov, A.; Date, P. P.


    Ideal plastic flows are those for which all material elements follow minimum work paths. The general equations for steady and nonsteady planar ideal flows in Tresca solids have been given elsewhere. The present paper focuses on nonsteady planar ideal flows in anisotropic plasticity. In particular, the existence of such flows is proven under a certain assumption concerning the orientation of principal stress trajectories at the initial instant. It is also shown that the system of kinematic equations is hyperbolic. This system can be treated separately from the stress equations. The original ideal flow theory is widely used as the basis for inverse methods for the preliminary design of metal forming processes driven by minimum plastic work. The new theory extends this area of application to anisotropic materials.

  13. Efficient Modeling and Migration in Anisotropic Media Based on Prestack Exploding Reflector Model and Effective Anisotropy

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hui


    This thesis addresses the efficiency improvement of seismic wave modeling and migration in anisotropic media. This improvement becomes crucial in practice as the process of imaging complex geological structures of the Earth\\'s subsurface requires modeling and migration as building blocks. The challenge comes from two aspects. First, the underlying governing equations for seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media are far more complicated than that in isotropic media which demand higher computational costs to solve. Second, the usage of whole prestack seismic data still remains a burden considering its storage volume and the existing wave equation solvers. In this thesis, I develop two approaches to tackle the challenges. In the first part, I adopt the concept of prestack exploding reflector model to handle the whole prestack data and bridge the data space directly to image space in a single kernel. I formulate the extrapolation operator in a two-way fashion to remove he restriction on directions that waves propagate. I also develop a generic method for phase velocity evaluation within anisotropic media used in this extrapolation kernel. The proposed method provides a tool for generating prestack images without wavefield cross correlations. In the second part of this thesis, I approximate the anisotropic models using effective isotropic models. The wave phenomena in these effective models match that in anisotropic models both kinematically and dynamically. I obtain the effective models through equating eikonal equations and transport equations of anisotropic and isotropic models, thereby in the high frequency asymptotic approximation sense. The wavefields extrapolation costs are thus reduced using isotropic wave equation solvers while the anisotropic effects are maintained through this approach. I benchmark the two proposed methods using synthetic datasets. Tests on anisotropic Marmousi model and anisotropic BP2007 model demonstrate the applicability of my

  14. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)


    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  15. Anisotropic inflation in Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Sayantani [ZARM, University of Bremen,Am Falltrum, 28359 Bremen (Germany)


    We study anisotropic inflation with Gauss-Bonnet correction in presence of a massless vector field. In this scenario, exact anisotropic power-law inflation is realized when the inflaton potential, gauge coupling function and the Gauss-Bonnet coupling are exponential functions. We show that anisotropy becomes proportional to two slow-roll parameters of the theory and hence gets enhanced in presence of quadratic curvature corrections. The stability analysis reveals that anisotropic power-law solutions remain stable over a substantially large parameter region.

  16. Anisotropic 3D texture synthesis with application to volume rendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas


    We present a novel approach to improving volume rendering by using synthesized textures in combination with a custom transfer function. First, we use existing knowledge to synthesize anisotropic solid textures to fit our volumetric data. As input to the synthesis method, we acquire high quality...... images using a 12.1 megapixel camera. Next, we extend the volume rendering pipeline by creating a transfer function which yields not only color and opacity from the input intensity, but also texture coordinates for our synthesized 3D texture. Thus, we add texture to the volume rendered images....... This method is applied to a high quality visualization of a pig carcass, where samples of meat, bone, and fat have been used to produce the anisotropic 3D textures....

  17. Anisotropic behavior of quantum transport in graphene superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Cummings, Aron W.; Roche, Stephan


    We report on the possibility to generate highly anisotropic quantum conductivity in disordered graphene-based superlattices. Our quantum simulations, based on an efficient real-space implementation of the Kubo-Greenwood formula, show that in disordered graphene superlattices the strength...... orders of magnitude, and suggesting the possibility of building graphene electronic circuits based on the unique properties of chiral massless Dirac fermions in graphene....

  18. Plasmon-enhanced Kerr nonlinearity via subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors (United States)

    Ren, Juanjuan; Chen, Hongyi; Gu, Ying; Zhao, Dongxing; Zhou, Haitao; Zhang, Junxiang; Gong, Qihuang


    We theoretically investigate the enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity through anisotropic Purcell factors provided by plasmon nanostructures. In a three-level atomic system with crossing damping, larger anisotropism of Purcell factors leads to more enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in electromagnetically induced transparency windows. While for fixed anisotropic Purcell factors, Kerr nonlinearity with orthogonal dipole moments increases with the decrease of its crossing damping, and Kerr nonlinearity with nonorthogonal dipole moments is very sensitive to both the value of crossing damping and the orientation of the dipole moments. We design the non-resonant gold nanorods array, which only provides subwavelength-confined anisotropic Purcell factors, and demonstrate that the Kerr nonlinearity of cesium atoms close to the nanorods array can be modulated at the nanoscale. These findings should have potential application in ultracompact quantum logic devices.

  19. Biodirected synthesis and nanostructural characterization of anisotropic gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Torrente, Daniel; Marucho, Marcelo; José-Yacamán, Miguel


    Gold nanoparticles with anisotropic structures have tunable absorption properties and diverse bioapplications as image contrast agents, plasmonics, and therapeutic-diagnostic materials. Amino acids with electrostatically charged side chains possess inner affinity for metal ions. Lysine (Lys) efficiently controlled the growing into star-shape nanoparticles with controlled narrow sizes (30-100 nm) and produced in high yields (85-95%). Anisotropic nanostructures showed tunable absorbance from UV to NIR range, with extraordinary colloidal stability (-26 to -42 mV) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties. Advanced electron microscopy characterization through ultra-high-resolution SEM, STEM, and HR-TEM confirmed the size, nanostructure, crystalline structure, and chemical composition. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that Lys interacted preferentially with Au(I) through the -COOH group instead of their positive side chains with a binding free energy (BFE) of 3.4 kcal mol(-1). These highly monodisperse and colloidal stable anisotropic particles prepared with biocompatible compounds may be employed in biomedical applications.

  20. The reciprocity theorem for porous anisotropic media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper we give a reciprocity theorem for anisotropic
    porous media in the quasi-stationary case. The distribution of the
    pores is assumed statistically homogeneous.

  1. Particle Creation in Anisotropically Expanding Universe


    Suresh, P. K.


    Using squeezed vacuum state formalism of quantum optics, an approximate solution to the semiclassical Einstein equation is obtained in Bianchi type-I universe. The phenomena of nonclassical particle creation is also examined in the anisotropic background cosmology.

  2. Quantitative multi-waves migration in elastic anisotropic media; Migration quantitative multi-ondes en milieu elastique anisotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgne, H.


    Seismic imaging is an important tool for ail exploration. From the filtered seismic traces and a subsurface velocity model, migration allows to localize the reflectors and to estimate physical properties of these interfaces. The subsurface is split up into a reference medium, corresponding to the low spatial frequencies (a smooth medium), and a perturbation medium, corresponding to the high spatial frequencies. The propagation of elastic waves in the medium of reference is modelled by the ray theory. The association of this theory with a principle of diffraction or reflection allows to take into account the high spatial frequencies: the Kirchhoff approach represents so the medium of perturbations with continuous surfaces, characterized by reflection coefficients. The target of the quantitative migration is to reconstruct this reflection coefficient, notably its behaviour according to the incidence angle. These information will open the way to seismic characterization of the reservoir domain, with. a stratigraphic inversion for instance. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative migration results, one of the current challenges is to take into account the anisotropy of the subsurface. Taking into account rocks anisotropy in the imaging process of seismic data requires two improvements from the isotropic case. The first one roughly concerns the modelling aspect: an anisotropic propagator should be used to avoid a mis-positioning or bad focusing of the imaged reflectors. The second correction concerns the migration aspect: as anisotropy affects the reflectivity of subsurface, a specific anisotropic imaging formula should be applied in the migration kernel, in order to recover the correct A V A behavior of the subsurface reflectors, If the first correction is DOW made in most so-called anisotropic imaging algorithms, the second one is currently ignored. The first part of my work concerns theoretical aspects. 1 study first the preservation of amplitudes in the

  3. Anisotropic plasmons, excitons, and electron energy loss spectroscopy of phosphorene (United States)

    Ghosh, Barun; Kumar, Piyush; Thakur, Anmol; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh; Bhowmick, Somnath; Agarwal, Amit


    In this article, we explore the anisotropic electron energy loss spectrum (EELS) in monolayer phosphorene based on ab initio time-dependent density-functional-theory calculations. Similarly to black phosphorus, the EELS of undoped monolayer phosphorene is characterized by anisotropic excitonic peaks for energies in the vicinity of the band gap and by interband plasmon peaks for higher energies. On doping, an additional intraband plasmon peak also appears for energies within the band gap. Similarly to other two-dimensional systems, the intraband plasmon peak disperses as ωpl∝√{q } in both the zigzag and armchair directions in the long-wavelength limit and deviates for larger wave vectors. The anisotropy of the long-wavelength plasmon intraband dispersion is found to be inversely proportional to the square root of the ratio of the effective masses: ωpl(q y ̂) /ωpl(q x ̂) =√{mx/my } .

  4. Supergranulation and multiscale flows in the solar photosphere. Global observations vs. a theory of anisotropic turbulent convection (United States)

    Rincon, F.; Roudier, T.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Rieutord, M.


    The Sun provides us with the only spatially well-resolved astrophysical example of turbulent thermal convection. While various aspects of solar photospheric turbulence, such as granulation (one-Megameter horizontal scale), are well understood, the questions of the physical origin and dynamical organization of larger-scale flows, such as the 30-Megameters supergranulation and flows deep in the solar convection zone, remain largely open in spite of their importance for solar dynamics and magnetism. Here, we present a new critical global observational characterization of multiscale photospheric flows and subsequently formulate an anisotropic extension of the Bolgiano-Obukhov theory of hydrodynamic stratified turbulence that may explain several of their distinctive dynamical properties. Our combined analysis suggests that photospheric flows in the horizontal range of scales between supergranulation and granulation have a typical vertical correlation scale of 2.5 to 4 Megameters and operate in a strongly anisotropic, self-similar, nonlinear, buoyant dynamical regime. While the theory remains speculative at this stage, it lends itself to quantitative comparisons with future high-resolution acoustic tomography of subsurface layers and advanced numerical models. Such a validation exercise may also lead to new insights into the asymptotic dynamical regimes in which other, unresolved turbulent anisotropic astrophysical fluid systems supporting waves or instabilities operate.

  5. P wave anisotropic tomography of the Alps (United States)

    Hua, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Dapeng; Xu, Yixian


    The first tomographic images of P wave azimuthal and radial anisotropies in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Alps are determined by joint inversions of arrival time data of local earthquakes and teleseismic events. Our results show the south dipping European plate with a high-velocity (high-V) anomaly beneath the western central Alps and the north dipping Adriatic plate with a high-V anomaly beneath the Eastern Alps, indicating that the subduction polarity changes along the strike of the Alps. The P wave azimuthal anisotropy is characterized by mountain chain-parallel fast-velocity directions (FVDs) in the western central Alps and NE-SW FVDs in the Eastern Alps, which may be caused by mantle flow induced by the slab subductions. Our results reveal a negative radial anisotropy (i.e., Vph Vph > Vpv) in the low-velocity mantle wedge, which may reflect the subvertical plate subduction and its induced mantle flow. The results of anisotropic tomography provide important new information on the complex mantle structure and dynamics of the Alps and adjacent regions.

  6. Anisotropic rectangular metric for polygonal surface remeshing

    KAUST Repository

    Pellenard, Bertrand


    We propose a new method for anisotropic polygonal surface remeshing. Our algorithm takes as input a surface triangle mesh. An anisotropic rectangular metric, defined at each triangle facet of the input mesh, is derived from both a user-specified normal-based tolerance error and the requirement to favor rectangle-shaped polygons. Our algorithm uses a greedy optimization procedure that adds, deletes and relocates generators so as to match two criteria related to partitioning and conformity.

  7. Penetration effect in uniaxial anisotropic metamaterials (United States)

    Vytovtov, K.; Barabanova, E.; Zouhdi, S.


    Plane harmonic wave propagation along an interface between vacuum and a semi-infinite anisotropic metamaterial is considered. Possibility of penetration effect in the considered case is studied. It is shown that there is a bulk wave within the anisotropic metamaterial with an arbitrary orientation of the anisotropy axis. It is also proved that a reflected wave must propagate perpendicularly to the interface in the case of the extraordinary wave. Moreover, no wave is reflected in the case of ordinary wave propagation.

  8. A hybrid-stress finite element approach for stress and vibration analysis in linear anisotropic elasticity (United States)

    Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, Gerald W.; Mahadevan, L.


    A hybrid stress finite element method is developed for accurate stress and vibration analysis of problems in linear anisotropic elasticity. A modified form of the Hellinger-Reissner principle is formulated for dynamic analysis and an algorithm for the determination of the anisotropic elastic and compliance constants from experimental data is developed. These schemes were implemented in a finite element program for static and dynamic analysis of linear anisotropic two dimensional elasticity problems. Specific numerical examples are considered to verify the accuracy of the hybrid stress approach and compare it with that of the standard displacement method, especially for highly anisotropic materials. It is that the hybrid stress approach gives much better results than the displacement method. Preliminary work on extensions of this method to three dimensional elasticity is discussed, and the stress shape functions necessary for this extension are included.

  9. Modeling of CMUTs with Multiple Anisotropic Layers and Residual Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    Usually the analytical approach for modeling CMUTs uses the single layer plate equation to obtain the deflection and does not take anisotropy and residual stress into account. A highly accurate model is developed for analytical characterization of CMUTs taking an arbitrary number of layers...... and residual stress into account. Based on the stress-strain relation of each layer and balancing stress resultants and bending moments, a general multilayered anisotropic plate equation is developed for plates with an arbitrary number of layers. The exact deflection profile is calculated for a circular...... clamped plate of anisotropic materials with residual bi-axial stress. From the deflection shape the critical stress for buckling is calculated and by using the Rayleigh-Ritz method the natural frequency is estimated....

  10. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals (United States)

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen


    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal. PMID:26271208

  11. Local deposition of anisotropic nanoparticles using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). (United States)

    Fedorov, Roman G; Mandler, Daniel


    We demonstrate localized electrodeposition of anisotropic metal nanoobjects, namely Au nanorods (GNR), on indium tin oxide (ITO) using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). A gold microelectrode was the source of the gold ions whereby double pulse chronoamperometry was employed to generate initially Au seeds which were further grown under controlled conditions. The distance between the microelectrode and the ITO surface as well as the different experimental parameters (electrodeposition regime, solution composition and temperature) were optimized to produce faceted gold seeds with the required characteristics (size and distribution). Colloidal chemical synthesis was successfully exploited for better understanding the role of the surfactant and different additives in breaking the crystallographic symmetry and anisotropic growth of GNR. Experiments performed in a conventional three-electrode cell revealed the most appropriate electrochemical conditions allowing high yield synthesis of nanorods with well-defined shape as well as nanocubes and bipyramids.

  12. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs. (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P


    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Spatial nonlinearity in anisotropic metamaterial plasmonic slot waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Elsawy, Mahmoud M R


    We study the main nonlinear solutions of plasmonic slot waveguides made from an anisotropic metamaterial core with a positive Kerr-type nonlinearity surrounded by two semi-infinite metal regions. First, we demonstrate that for a highly anisotropic diagonal elliptical core, the bifurcation threshold of the asymmetric mode is reduced from GW/m threshold for the isotropic case to 50 MW/m one indicating a strong enhancement of the spatial nonlinear effects, and that the slope of the dispersion curve of the asymmetric mode stays positive, at least near the bifurcation, suggesting a stable mode. Second, we show that for the hyperbolic case there is no physically meaningful asymmetric mode, and that the sign of the effective nonlinearity can become negative.

  14. Growth and anisotropic transport properties of self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierwagen, O.


    Self-assembled InAs nanostructures in InP, comprising quantum wells, quantum wires, and quantum dots, are studied in terms of their formation and properties. In particular, the structural, optical, and anisotropic transport properties of the nanostructures are investigated. The focus is a comprehending exploration of the anisotropic in-plane transport in large ensembles of laterally coupled InAs nanostructures. The self-assembled Stranski-Krastanov growth of InAs nanostructures is studied by gas-source molecular beam epitaxy on both nominally oriented and vicinal InP(001). Optical polarization of the interband transitions arising from the nanostructure type is demonstrated by photoluminescence and transmission spectroscopy. The experimentally convenient four-contact van der Pauw Hall measurement of rectangularly shaped semiconductors, usually applied to isotropic systems, is extended to yield the anisotropic transport properties. Temperature dependent transport measurements are performed in large ensembles of laterally closely spaced nanostructures. The transport of quantum wire-, quantum dash- and quantum dot containing samples is highly anisotropic with the principal axes of conductivity aligned to the <110> directions. The direction of higher mobility is [ anti 110], which is parallel to the direction of the quantum wires. In extreme cases, the anisotropies exceed 30 for electrons, and 100 for holes. The extreme anisotropy for holes is due to diffusive transport through extended states in the [ anti 110], and hopping transport through laterally localized states in the [110] direction, within the same sample. A novel 5-terminal electronic switching device based on gate-controlled transport anisotropy is proposed. The gate-control of the transport anisotropy in modulation-doped, self-organized InAs quantum wires embedded in InP is demonstrated. (orig.)

  15. High power laser perforating tools and systems (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F


    ystems devices and methods for the transmission of 1 kW or more of laser energy deep into the earth and for the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems, devices and methods for the laser perforation of a borehole in the earth. These systems can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perforate such boreholes.

  16. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.


    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  17. Toward High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.


    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr......Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  18. Towards High Performance in Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, C.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, H.


    Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design in industr......Achieving high performance in complex industrial systems requires information manipulation at different system levels. The paper shows how different models of same subsystems, but using different quality of information/data, are used for fault diagnosis as well as robust control design...... in industrial refrigeration systems....

  19. Individualization of the anisotropic phenomena of the imbalanced Nature (United States)

    Shlafman, L. M.; Kontar, V. A.


    What is an individual phenomenon of Nature? Where are the boundaries? Why it is considered as an individual phenomenon? etc. People cannot directly detect the "something isotropic." Sometimes we notice that there is a "black box." But on closer inspection, especially with new methods, the "black box" began to lighten. It seems that his "blackness" is the result of imperfect human sensors and interpretations, but not a phenomenon of Nature. Really people can identify only the anisotropic phenomena of Nature, but with the significant errors. Let's take a look at our home planet Earth. Where are the borders of our planet? It is may seem as the very simple question. People walk on the land and swim on the seas. This is the border on the surface of land and water. But what is about the dust? The dust is a part of the land, which is in the air. Weight of dust is very small compared to the weight of the planet. But it is the dust has formed valleys. Dust can rise very high above the planet's surface and even fly into the space. A similar situation is with the water. The bulk of the liquid water is in surface and underground waters. Water vapor is in the atmosphere. Atmospheric water is much less than on the earth and under the earth. But atmospheric water plays a huge role in the world and even extends into the space. Without a full accounting of dust and water impossible correctly describe the planet. But with considering the dust and water the planet is not solid-liquid ball. It is like "fuzzy blowball" with the boundaries that go to infinity. This "fuzziness" refers to gravity. The gravitational field does not end in the Lagrange points. This "fuzziness" illustrated by the electro-magnetic fields, etc. Our planet can be seen as a multidimensional anisotropic phenomenon of Nature. The anisotropy precisely is, and therefore is the gradient and movement. This phenomenon is clearly imbalanced because nothing ever repeats itself exactly, etc. The borders of any anisotropic

  20. High Efficiency, Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL


    Supermarket refrigeration systems account for approximately 50% of supermarket energy use, placing this class of equipment among the highest energy consumers in the commercial building domain. In addition, the commonly used refrigeration system in supermarket applications is the multiplex direct expansion (DX) system, which is prone to refrigerant leaks due to its long lengths of refrigerant piping. This leakage reduces the efficiency of the system and increases the impact of the system on the environment. The high Global Warming Potential (GWP) of the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants commonly used in these systems, coupled with the large refrigerant charge and the high refrigerant leakage rates leads to significant direct emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Methods for reducing refrigerant leakage and energy consumption are available, but underutilized. Further work needs to be done to reduce costs of advanced system designs to improve market utilization. In addition, refrigeration system retrofits that result in reduced energy consumption are needed since the majority of applications address retrofits rather than new stores. The retrofit market is also of most concern since it involves large-volume refrigerant systems with high leak rates. Finally, alternative refrigerants for new and retrofit applications are needed to reduce emissions and reduce the impact on the environment. The objective of this Collaborative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hill Phoenix is to develop a supermarket refrigeration system that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and has 25 to 30 percent lower energy consumption than existing systems. The outcomes of this project will include the design of a low emission, high efficiency commercial refrigeration system suitable for use in current U.S. supermarkets. In addition, a prototype low emission, high efficiency supermarket refrigeration system will be produced for

  1. Reinterpreting aircraft measurements in anisotropic scaling turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Hovde


    Full Text Available Due to both systematic and turbulent induced vertical fluctuations, the interpretation of atmospheric aircraft measurements requires a theory of turbulence. Until now virtually all the relevant theories have been isotropic or "quasi isotropic" in the sense that their exponents are the same in all directions. However almost all the available data on the vertical structure shows that it is scaling but with exponents different from the horizontal: the turbulence is scaling but anisotropic. In this paper, we show how such turbulence can lead to spurious breaks in the scaling and to the spurious appearance of the vertical scaling exponent at large horizontal lags.

    We demonstrate this using 16 legs of Gulfstream 4 aircraft near the top of the troposphere following isobars each between 500 and 3200 km in length. First we show that over wide ranges of scale, the horizontal spectra of the aircraft altitude are nearly k-5/3. In addition, we show that the altitude and pressure fluctuations along these fractal trajectories have a high degree of coherence with the measured wind (especially with its longitudinal component. There is also a strong phase relation between the altitude, pressure and wind fluctuations; for scales less than ≈40 km (on average the wind fluctuations lead the pressure and altitude, whereas for larger scales, the pressure fluctuations leads the wind. At the same transition scale, there is a break in the wind spectrum which we argue is caused by the aircraft starting to accurately follow isobars at the larger scales. In comparison, the temperature and humidity have low coherencies and phases and there are no apparent scale breaks, reinforcing the hypothesis that it is the aircraft trajectory that is causally linked to the scale breaks in the wind measurements.

    Using spectra and structure functions for the wind, we then estimate their exponents (β, H at small (5/3, 1/3 and large scales (2

  2. Fabrication of anisotropic multifunctional colloidal carriers (United States)

    Jerri, Huda A.

    The field of colloidal assembly has grown tremendously in recent years, although the direct or template-assisted methods used to fabricate complex colloidal constructions from monodisperse micro- and nanoparticles have been generally demonstrated on model materials. In this work, novel core particle syntheses, particle functionalizations and bottom-up assembly techniques are presented to create functional colloidal devices. Using particle lithography, high-information colloidal vectors have been developed and modified with imaging and targeting agents. Localized nanoscale patches have been reliably positioned on microparticles to serve as foundations for further chemical or physical modifications. Site-specific placement of RGD targeting ligands has been achieved in these lithographed patches. Preferential uptake of these targeted vectors by RGD-specific 3T3 fibroblasts was verified using confocal laser scanning microscopy. A transition was made from the functionalization of model imaging core particles to the lithography of colloidal cartridges, in an effort to construct colloidal syringes with specialized, programmable release profiles. A variety of functional, pH-sensitive fluorescent cores were engineered to respond to solution conditions. When triggered, the diverse composite core microparticles and reservoir microcapsules released embedded fluorescent moieties such as dye molecules, and fluorophore-conjugated nanoparticles. The microcapsules, created using layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte deposition on sacrificial templates, were selectively modified with a robust coating. The pH-responsive anisotropic reservoir microcapsules were extremely stable in solution, and exhibited a "Lazarus" functionality of rehydrating to their original state following desiccation. A snapshot of focused-release of core constituents through the lone opening in colloidal monotremes has been obtained by anisotropically-functionalizing degradable cores with barrier shells. Additionally

  3. Multimodal location algorithm for Lamb waves propagating through anisotropic materials (United States)

    Paget, Christophe A.; Rehman, M. Abdul


    Composite material use in aerospace structures has grown over the last two decades and more recently there has been an increase in the use of anisotropic composite layups. One of the most promising SHM techniques is Acoustic Emission (AE) using Lamb waves. Previous location algorithms, capable of locating damage such as cracks, delamination and debonding, have focused their application to either isotropic or quasi-isotropic structures. Previous work was dedicated to anisotropic structures based on single Lamb wave mode propagations. The scope of this work is to include different modes in the AE location algorithm to improve its location. There are cases where it is likely that different modes trigger different transducers for the same event. The transducer time-of-flight is dependent on the mode velocity, therefore an AE location calculated from single-modal algorithm would expect to have significant location inaccuracy. By considering the possibility of different Lamb wave modes triggering each sensor in the location algorithm, and using certain mathematical and physical assumptions, significant improvements of the AE location can be reached, reducing NDT burden. The multi-modal algorithm also includes the ability to locate AE in anisotropic material based on previous proven single-modal algorithm known as Elliptical algorithm. Such a multi-modal elliptical approach taken in the algorithm discussed in the work is expected to reduce significantly the AE location error for highly anisotropic material. Based on analytical equations, this algorithm processes large amounts of AE data in a condensed period of time, allowing live structural monitoring of large assets.

  4. Ultra-transparent media with anisotropic mass density for broadband acoustic invisibility (United States)

    Kan, Weiwei; Shen, Zhonghua


    This paper demonstrates the design of ultra-transparent anisotropic media for broadband acoustic invisibility. The required parameter distributions of the proposed invisibility cloak are derived by coordinate transformation, and its practical implementation simply consists of two-dimensional solid arrays in fluids. By studying the acoustic properties of the structures in the quasi-static limit, it is found that similar anisotropic features and transparent effects can be achieved with two kinds of structures, i.e., anisotropic solid cells arranged in the square lattice and cylindrical cells arranged in the highly anisotropic lattice. The acoustic impedance of the anisotropic cloaking media can be perfectly matched to the background fluid. The performances of the designs are quantitatively evaluated and compared in broadband by the averaged invisibility parameter. The full three-dimensional structure is also analyzed for demonstrating the practical feasibility of the scheme. The results show that the anisotropic structures are effective for manipulating the acoustic field and suppressing the wave scattering.

  5. Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented in the high-frequency asymptotic approximation by the eikonal equation, to develop effective isotropic models, which are used to efficiently and approximately extrapolate anisotropic wavefields using the isotropic, relatively cheaper, operators. These effective velocity models are source dependent and tend to embed the anisotropy in the inhomogeneity. Though this isotropically generated wavefield theoretically shares the same kinematic behavior as that of the first arrival anisotropic wavefield, it also has the ability to include all the arrivals resulting from a complex wavefield propagation. In fact, the effective models reduce to the original isotropic model in the limit of isotropy, and thus, the difference between the effective model and, for example, the vertical velocity depends on the strength of anisotropy. For reverse time migration (RTM), effective models are developed for the source and receiver fields by computing the traveltime for a plane wave source stretching along our source and receiver lines in a delayed shot migration implementation. Applications to the BP TTI model demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. Tungsten based Anisotropic Metamaterial as an Ultra-broadband Absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Yinyue; Ding, Fei; Fung, Kin Hung; Ji, Ting; Li, Dongdong; Hao, Yuying


    The trapped rainbow effect has been mostly found on tapered anisotropic metamaterials (MMs) made of low loss noble metals, such as gold, silver, etc. In this work, we demonstrate that an anisotropic MM waveguide made of high loss metal tungsten can also support the trapped rainbow effect similar to the noble metal based structure. We show theoretically that an array of tungsten/germanium anisotropic nano-cones placed on top of a reflective substrate can absorb light at the wavelength range from 0.3 micrometer to 9 micrometer with an average absorption efficiency approaching 98%. It is found that the excitation of multiple orders of slow-light resonant modes is responsible for the efficient absorption at wavelengths longer than 2 micrometer, and the anti-reflection effect of tapered lossy material gives rise to the near perfect absorption at shorter wavelengths. The absorption spectrum suffers a small dip at around 4.2 micrometer where the first order and second order slow-light modes get overlapped, but we ca...

  7. Overview of thermal conductivity models of anisotropic thermal insulation materials (United States)

    Skurikhin, A. V.; Kostanovsky, A. V.


    Currently, the most of existing materials and substances under elaboration are anisotropic. It makes certain difficulties in the study of heat transfer process. Thermal conductivity of the materials can be characterized by tensor of the second order. Also, the parallelism between the temperature gradient vector and the density of heat flow vector is violated in anisotropic thermal insulation materials (TIM). One of the most famous TIM is a family of integrated thermal insulation refractory material («ITIRM»). The main component ensuring its properties is the «inflated» vermiculite. Natural mineral vermiculite is ground into powder state, fired by gas burner for dehydration, and its precipitate is then compressed. The key feature of thus treated batch of vermiculite is a package structure. The properties of the material lead to a slow heating of manufactured products due to low absorption and high radiation reflection. The maximum of reflection function is referred to infrared spectral region. A review of current models of heat propagation in anisotropic thermal insulation materials is carried out, as well as analysis of their thermal and optical properties. A theoretical model, which allows to determine the heat conductivity «ITIRM», can be useful in the study of thermal characteristics such as specific heat capacity, temperature conductivity, and others. Materials as «ITIRM» can be used in the metallurgy industry, thermal energy and nuclear power-engineering.

  8. Effective Elliptic Models for Efficient Wavefield Extrapolation in Anisotropic Media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptically anisotropic media offers significant cost reduction compared to that of transversely isotropic media (TI), especially when the medium exhibits tilt in the symmetry axis (TTI). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate focusing for TI media. Therefore, we develop effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behavior of the TTI wavefield. Specifically, we use an iterative elliptically anisotropic eikonal solver that provides the accurate traveltimes for a TI model. The resultant coefficients of the elliptical eikonal provide the effective models. These effective models allow us to use the cheaper wavefield extrapolation operator for elliptic media to obtain approximate wavefield solutions for TTI media. Despite the fact that the effective elliptic models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including the frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy tradeoff for wavefield computations in TTI media, considering the cost prohibitive nature of the problem. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach on the BP TTI model.

  9. Holonomic functions of several complex variables and singularities of anisotropic Ising n-fold integrals (United States)

    Boukraa, S.; Hassani, S.; Maillard, J.-M.


    Focusing on examples associated with holonomic functions, we try to bring new ideas on how to look at phase transitions, for which the critical manifolds are not points but curves depending on a spectral variable, or even fill higher dimensional submanifolds. Lattice statistical mechanics often provides a natural (holonomic) framework to perform singularity analysis with several complex variables that would, in the most general mathematical framework, be too complex, or simply could not be defined. In a learn-by-example approach, considering several Picard-Fuchs systems of two-variables ‘above’ Calabi-Yau ODEs, associated with double hypergeometric series, we show that D-finite (holonomic) functions are actually a good framework for finding properly the singular manifolds. The singular manifolds are found to be genus-zero curves. We then analyze the singular algebraic varieties of quite important holonomic functions of lattice statistical mechanics, the n-fold integrals χ(n), corresponding to the n-particle decomposition of the magnetic susceptibility of the anisotropic square Ising model. In this anisotropic case, we revisit a set of so-called Nickelian singularities that turns out to be a two-parameter family of elliptic curves. We then find the first set of non-Nickelian singularities for χ(3) and χ(4), that also turns out to be rational or elliptic curves. We underline the fact that these singular curves depend on the anisotropy of the Ising model, or, equivalently, that they depend on the spectral parameter of the model. This has important consequences on the physical nature of the anisotropic χ(n)s which appear to be highly composite objects. We address, from a birational viewpoint, the emergence of families of elliptic curves, and that of Calabi-Yau manifolds on such problems. We also address the question of singularities of non-holonomic functions with a discussion on the accumulation of these singular curves for the non-holonomic anisotropic full

  10. An Efficient FPGA Implementation of Optimized Anisotropic Diffusion Filtering of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrajit Pal


    Full Text Available Digital image processing is an exciting area of research with a variety of applications including medical, surveillance security systems, defence, and space applications. Noise removal as a preprocessing step helps to improve the performance of the signal processing algorithms, thereby enhancing image quality. Anisotropic diffusion filtering proposed by Perona and Malik can be used as an edge-preserving smoother, removing high-frequency components of images without blurring their edges. In this paper, we present the FPGA implementation of an edge-preserving anisotropic diffusion filter for digital images. The designed architecture completely replaced the convolution operation and implemented the same using simple arithmetic subtraction of the neighboring intensities within a kernel, preceded by multiple operations in parallel within the kernel. To improve the image reconstruction quality, the diffusion coefficient parameter, responsible for controlling the filtering process, has been properly analyzed. Its signal behavior has been studied by subsequently scaling and differentiating the signal. The hardware implementation of the proposed design shows better performance in terms of reconstruction quality and accelerated performance with respect to its software implementation. It also reduces computation, power consumption, and resource utilization with respect to other related works.

  11. Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan


    Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.

  12. MULTIPULSE - high resolution and high power in one TDEM system (United States)

    Chen, Tianyou; Hodges, Greg; Miles, Philip


    An airborne time domain electromagnetic (TEM) system with high resolution and great depth of exploration is desired for geological mapping as well as for mineral exploration. The MULTIPULSE technology enables an airborne TEM system to transmit a high power pulse (a half-sine, for instance) and one or multiple low power pulse(s) (trapezoid or square) within a half-cycle. The high power pulse ensures good depth of exploration and the low power pulse allows a fast transmitter current turn off and earlier off-time measurement thus providing higher frequency signals, which allows higher near-surface resolution and better sensitivity to weak conductors. The power spectrum of the MULTIPULSE waveform comprising a half-sine and a trapezoid pulse clearly shows increased power in the higher frequency range (> ~2.3 kHz) compared to that of a single half-sine waveform. The addition of the low power trapezoid pulse extends the range of the sensitivity 10-fold towards the weak conductors, expanding the geological conductivity range of a system and increasing the scope of its applications. The MULTIPULSE technology can be applied to standard single-pulse airborne TEM systems on both helicopter and fixed-wing. We field tested the HELITEM MULTIPULSE system over a wire-loop in Iroquois Falls, demonstrating the different sensitivity of the high and low power pulses to the overburden and the wire-loop. We also tested both HELITEM and GEOTEM MULTIPULSE systems over a layered oil sand geologic setting in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. The results show comparable shallow geologic resolution of the MULTIPULSE to that of the RESOLVE system while maintaining superior depth of exploration, confirming the increased geological conductivity range of a system employing MULTIPULSE compared to the standard single-pulse systems.

  13. The LASI high-frequency ellipticity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    A high-frequency, high-resolution, electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (5) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (6) visualization of complex structures during the survey.

  14. Correlation theory of crystal field and anisotropic exchange effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker


    A general theory for including correlation effects in static and dynamic properties is presented in terms of Raccah or Stevens operators. It is explicitly developed for general crystal fields and anisotropic interactions and systems with several sublattices, like the rare earth compounds....... The theory gives explicitly a temperature dependent renormalization of both the crystal field and the interactions, and a damping of the excitations and in addition a central park component. The general theory is illustrated by a discussion of the singlet-doublet system. The correlation effects...

  15. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  16. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turnquist, Norman [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Qi, Xuele [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Raminosoa, Tsarafidy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Salas, Ken [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Samudrala, Omprakash [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Shah, Manoj [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Van Dam, Jeremy [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Yin, Weijun [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany); Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research, Munchen (Germany)


    This report summarizes the progress made during the April 01, 2010 – December 30, 2013 period under Cooperative Agreement DE-EE0002752 for the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems.” The overall objective of this program is to advance the technology for well fluids lifting systems to meet the foreseeable pressure, temperature, and longevity needs of the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) industry for the coming ten years. In this program, lifting system requirements for EGS wells were established via consultation with industry experts and site visits. A number of artificial lift technologies were evaluated with regard to their applicability to EGS applications; it was determined that a system based on electric submersible pump (ESP) technology was best suited to EGS. Technical barriers were identified and a component-level technology development program was undertaken to address each barrier, with the most challenging being the development of a power-dense, small diameter motor that can operate reliably in a 300°C environment for up to three years. Some of the targeted individual component technologies include permanent magnet motor construction, high-temperature insulation, dielectrics, bearings, seals, thrust washers, and pump impellers/diffusers. Advances were also made in thermal management of electric motors. In addition to the overall system design for a full-scale EGS application, a subscale prototype was designed and fabricated. Like the full-scale design, the subscale prototype features a novel “flow-through-the-bore” permanent magnet electric motor that combines the use of high temperature materials with an internal cooling scheme that limits peak internal temperatures to <330°C. While the full-scale high-volume multi-stage pump is designed to lift up to 80 kg/s of process water, the subscale prototype is based on a production design that can pump 20 kg/s and has been modified

  17. Charging-discharging system with high power factor, high efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Soo; Joe, Kee Yeon; Byun, Young Bok; Koo, Heun Hoi [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents equipment for charging and discharging with high power factor and high efficiency. This equipment is consisted of 3{Phi} SPWM AC/DC converter for improving input current waveform and input power factor, and bidirectional DC/DC converter for electric isolation in the DC link Part. Therefore, Input power factor and the total efficiency in the proposed system can be increased more than in the conventional phase-controlled thyristor charging-discharging System. (author). 7 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Delivering Training for Highly Demanding Information Systems (United States)

    Norton, Andrew Lawrence; Coulson-Thomas, Yvette May; Coulson-Thomas, Colin Joseph; Ashurst, Colin


    Purpose: There is a lack of research covering the training requirements of organisations implementing highly demanding information systems (HDISs). The aim of this paper is to help in the understanding of appropriate training requirements for such systems. Design/methodology/approach: This research investigates the training delivery within a…

  19. Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Feng


    Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized Fractional Derivative Anisotropic Viscoelastic Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Hilton


    Full Text Available Isotropic linear and nonlinear fractional derivative constitutive relations are formulated and examined in terms of many parameter generalized Kelvin models and are analytically extended to cover general anisotropic homogeneous or non-homogeneous as well as functionally graded viscoelastic material behavior. Equivalent integral constitutive relations, which are computationally more powerful, are derived from fractional differential ones and the associated anisotropic temperature-moisture-degree-of-cure shift functions and reduced times are established. Approximate Fourier transform inversions for fractional derivative relations are formulated and their accuracy is evaluated. The efficacy of integer and fractional derivative constitutive relations is compared and the preferential use of either characterization in analyzing isotropic and anisotropic real materials must be examined on a case-by-case basis. Approximate protocols for curve fitting analytical fractional derivative results to experimental data are formulated and evaluated.

  1. Gravitational stresses in anisotropic rock masses (United States)

    Amadei, B.; Savage, W.Z.; Swolfs, H.S.


    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the stress field induced by gravity in anisotropic rock masses. These rocks are assumed to be laterally restrained and are modelled as a homogeneous, orthotropic or transversely isotropic, linearly elastic material. The analysis, constrained by the thermodynamic requirement that strain energy be positive definite, gives the following important result: inclusion of anisotropy broadens the range of permissible values of gravity-induced horizontal stresses. In fact, for some ranges of anisotropic rock properties, it is thermodynamically admissible for gravity-induced horizontal stresses to exceed the vertical stress component; this is not possible for the classical isotropic solution. Specific examples are presented to explore the nature of the gravity-induced stress field in anisotropic rocks and its dependence on the type, degree and orientation of anisotropy with respect to the horizontal ground surface. ?? 1987.

  2. A hydrodynamic approach to the study of anisotropic instabilities in dissipative relativistic plasmas (United States)

    Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra


    We develop a purely hydrodynamic formalism to describe collisional, anisotropic instabilities in a relativistic plasma, that are usually described with kinetic theory tools. Our main motivation is the fact that coarse-grained models of high particle number systems give more clear and comprehensive physical descriptions of those systems than purely kinetic approaches, and can be more easily tested experimentally as well as numerically. Also they make it easier to follow perturbations from linear to nonlinear regimes. In particular, we aim at developing a theory that describes both a background nonequilibrium fluid configurations and its perturbations, to be able to account for the backreaction of the latter on the former. Our system of equations includes the usual conservation laws for the energy-momentum tensor and for the electric current, and the equations for two new tensors that encode the information about dissipation. To make contact with kinetic theory, we write the different tensors as the moments of a nonequilibrium one-particle distribution function (1pdf) which, for illustrative purposes, we take in the form of a Grad-like ansatz. Although this choice limits the applicability of the formalism to states not far from equilibrium, it retains the main features of the underlying kinetic theory. We assume the validity of the Vlasov-Boltzmann equation, with a collision integral given by the Anderson-Witting prescription, which is more suitable for highly relativistic systems than Marle’s (or Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) form, and derive the conservation laws by taking its corresponding moments. We apply our developments to study the emergence of instabilities in an anisotropic, but axially symmetric background. For small departures of isotropy we find the dispersion relation for normal modes, which admit unstable solutions for a wide range of values of the parameter space.

  3. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark


    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  4. Modeling Geodynamic Mobility of Anisotropic Lithosphere (United States)

    Perry-Houts, J.; Karlstrom, L.


    The lithosphere is often idealized as a linear, or plastic layer overlying a Newtonian half-space. This approach has led to many insights into lithospheric foundering that include Rayligh-Taylor drips, slab-style delaminations, and small scale convection in the asthenosphere. More recent work has begun to quantify the effect of anisotropic lithosphere viscosity on these same phenomena. Anisotropic viscosity may come about due to stratigraphic deposition in the upper crust, dike/sill emplacement in the mid crust, or volcanic underplating at the Moho related to arcs or plumes. Anisotropic viscosity is also observed in the mantle, due to preferential orientation of olivine grains during flow. Here we extend the work of Lev & Hager (2008) on modeling anisotropic lithospheric foundering to investigate the effects of anisotropic regions which vary in size, magnitude, and orientation. We have extended Aspect, a modern geodynamic finite element code with a large developer and user base, to model exotic constitutive laws with an arbitrary fourth order tensor in place of the viscosity term. We further implement a material model to represent a transverse isotropic medium, such as is expected in a layered, or fractured lithosphere. We have validated our implementation against previous results, and analytic solutions, reproducing the result that horizontally oriented anisotropy tends to inhibit drips, and produce longer-wavelength instabilities. We expect that increased lateral extent of anisotropic regions will exaggerate this effect, to a limit at which the effect will plateau. Varying lithosphere thickness, and mantle anisotropy anisotropy may produce similar behavior. The implications of this effect are significant to lithospheric foundering beneath arcs and hotspots, possibly influencing the recycling of eclogite, production of silicic magmas, and dynamic topography.

  5. Modelling of CMUTs with Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Traditionally, CMUTs are modelled using the isotropic plate equation and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and FEM simulations. In this paper, the deflection profile and material parameters are calculated using the anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic...... calculations match perfectly with FEM while an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection profile. Furthermore, we show how commonly used analytic modelling methods such as static calculations of the pull-in voltage and dynamic modelling through an equivalent circuit representation can...

  6. Anisotropic nanomaterials preparation, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan


    In this book anisotropic one-dimensional and two-dimensional nanoscale building blocks and their assembly into fascinating and qualitatively new functional structures embracing both hard and soft components are explained. Contributions from leading experts regarding important aspects like synthesis, assembly, properties and applications of the above materials are compiled into a reference book. The anisotropy, i.e. the direction-dependent physical properties, of materials is fascinating and elegant and has sparked the quest for anisotropic materials with useful properties. With such a curiosi

  7. High-sensitivity, high-speed continuous imaging system (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Bender, III, Howard A


    A continuous imaging system for recording low levels of light typically extending over small distances with high-frame rates and with a large number of frames is described. Photodiode pixels disposed in an array having a chosen geometry, each pixel having a dedicated amplifier, analog-to-digital convertor, and memory, provide parallel operation of the system. When combined with a plurality of scintillators responsive to a selected source of radiation, in a scintillator array, the light from each scintillator being directed to a single corresponding photodiode in close proximity or lens-coupled thereto, embodiments of the present imaging system may provide images of x-ray, gamma ray, proton, and neutron sources with high efficiency.

  8. Anisotropic flow and related phenomena in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{{s}_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Margutti, Jacopo


    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is designed and optimised to study the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), a new state of matter, which is expected to be created at the high energy densities reached at the LHC. One of the key observables used to characterize the proper- ties of the QGP is the azimuthal anisotropy in particle production. This so-called anisotropic flow is sensitive to the transport properties and equation of state of the QGP. In this presentation, we report the first measurements of anisotropic flow in Pb–Pb collisions at √ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV with ALICE and compare them with both theoretical predictions and experimental measurements at lower energies and other collision systems. This provides a unique opportunity to test the validity of the hydrodynamic paradigm and to further constraint the key transport parameters of the QGP.

  9. High slot utilization systems for electric machines (United States)

    Hsu, John S


    Two new High Slot Utilization (HSU) Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials. The epoxy/resin/curing treatment ensures the mechanical strength of the assembly of teeth, core, and coils. In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.

  10. Subsurface Stress Fields in FCC Single Crystal Anisotropic Contacts (United States)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik; Swanson, Gregory R.; Duke, Gregory; Ham-Battista, Gilda


    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent high cycle fatigue (HCF) failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and non-crystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is presented for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, based on the adaptation of a stress function method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis (FEA). Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined. Obtaining accurate subsurface stress results for anisotropic single crystal contact problems require extremely refined three-dimensional (3-D) finite element grids, especially in the edge of contact region. Obtaining resolved shear stresses (RSS) on the principal slip planes also involves

  11. Vortices and magnetic structures of the target type in two-dimensional ferromagnetics with the anisotropic exchange interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Borisov, A B; Mikushina, N A; Moskvin, A S


    One investigated into structure of vortices and of other topological defects in two-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnet. Paper contains basic data derived from microscopic theory of spin anisotropy in 3d- and 4f-element base systems. One studied effect of parameters of anisotropic exchange and single-ionic anisotropy on vortex structure. One studied magnetization vortices in freely plane ferromagnetic with anisotropic exchange and local anisotropy. One predicted and analyzed structure of a new class of static leading centre (target) type vortex configurations in anisotropic ferromagnet

  12. Mechanics of anisotropic inclusions applied to mica fish populations (United States)

    Mulchrone, K.


    An analytical solution is derived for the mechanical behaviour of a linear viscous anisotropic elliptical inclusion immersed in a linear viscous isotropic fluid. By assuming that the internal anisotropy deforms passively a system of three differential equations describe the rate of change of ellipse long axis orientation, anisotropy orientation and ellipse aspect ratio. Taking appropriate limits, the model can be adapted to represent the behaviour of mica fish which deform only by glide along the basal plane. Simulation studies indicate that ellipse long axes tend towards a stable orientation of approximately 15 degrees, whereas anisotropy orientations tend to show a fatter and more asymmetric distribution. This is consistent with published natural data.

  13. Fluid-like elasticity induced by anisotropic effective mass density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guancong; Fu, Caixing; Wang, Guanghao

    shows the systems can have distinctive responses to waves with each polarization. In particular, we demonstrate that only longitudinal wave can propagate within a finite frequency regime, whereas transverse (flexural) waves meet a bandgap — a property conventionally found only in fluids. Effective......We present a three-dimensional anisotropic elastic metamaterial, which can generate dipolar resonances. Repeating these subwavelength units can lead to one-dimensional arrays, which are essentially elastic rods that can withstand both longitudinal, and flexural vibrations. Band structure analysis...... scenarios such as civil engineering and seismic wave control....

  14. Aeroelastic modal dynamics of wind turbines including anisotropic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisker Skjoldan, P.


    Several methods for aeroelastic modal analysis of a rotating wind turbine are developed and used to analyse the modal dynamics of two simplified models and a complex model in isotropic and anisotropic conditions. The Coleman transformation is used to enable extraction of the modal frequencies, damping, and periodic mode shapes of a rotating wind turbine by describing the rotor degrees of freedom in the inertial frame. This approach is valid only for an isotropic system. Anisotropic systems, e.g., with an unbalanced rotor or operating in wind shear, are treated with the general approaches of Floquet analysis or Hill's method which do not provide a unique reference frame for observing the modal frequency, to which any multiple of the rotor speed can be added. This indeterminacy is resolved by requiring that the periodic mode shape be as constant as possible in the inertial frame. The modal frequency is thus identified as the dominant frequency in the response of a pure excitation of the mode observed in the inertial frame. A modal analysis tool based directly on the complex aeroelastic wind turbine code BHawC is presented. It uses the Coleman approach in isotropic conditions and the computationally efficient implicit Floquet analysis in anisotropic conditions. The tool is validated against system identifications with the partial Floquet method on the nonlinear BHawC model of a 2.3 MW wind turbine. System identification results show that nonlinear effects on the 2.3 MW turbine in most cases are small, but indicate that the controller creates nonlinear damping. In isotropic conditions the periodic mode shape contains up to three harmonic components, but in anisotropic conditions it can contain an infinite number of harmonic components with frequencies that are multiples of the rotor speed. These harmonics appear in calculated frequency responses of the turbine. Extreme wind shear changes the modal damping when the flow is separated due to an interaction between

  15. An analytic approach to modeling the optical response of anisotropic nanoparticle arrays at surfaces and interfaces. (United States)

    Persechini, L; Verre, R; McAlinden, N; Wang, J J; Ranjan, M; Facsko, S; Shvets, I V; McGilp, J F


    Anisotropic nanoparticle (NP) arrays with useful optical properties, such as localized plasmon resonances (LPRs), can be grown by self-assembly on substrates. However, these systems often have significant dispersion in NP dimensions and distribution, which makes a numerical approach to modeling the LPRs very difficult. An improved analytic approach to this problem is discussed in detail and applied successfully to NP arrays from three systems that differ in NP metal, shape and distribution, and in substrate and capping layer. The materials and anisotropic NP structures that will produce LPRs in desired spectral regions can be determined using this approach.

  16. Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang, Shiming [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yilong, E-mail: [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Donglu, E-mail: [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); The Materials Science and Engineering Program, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)


    Anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites were prepared by combining miniemulsion polymerization and sol–gel reaction. The morphologies of the anisotropic composites were found to be greatly influenced by surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle seeds. Two different types of the oleic acid modified ZnO nanoparticles (OA-ZnO) were prepared by post-treatment of commercial ZnO powder and homemade OA-ZnO nanoparticles. The morphologies and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that both post-treated OA-ZnO and in-situ prepared OA-ZnO nanoparticles resulted in the yolk–shell and Janus structure nanocomposites, but with varied size and morphology. These nanocomposites showed stable and strong fluorescence by introducing quantum dots as the co-seeds. The fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites were decorated separately with surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. These composites with unique anisotropic properties will have high potential in biomedical applications, particularly in bio-detection. - Graphical abstract: Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Non-magnetic anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus nanocomposites are prepared and characterized. • Different surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles results in varied morphology and size of the final product. • Fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites embodying quantum dots are an ideal candidate for bio-detection applications.

  17. Hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present study deals with hypersurface-homogeneous cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy in Saez–Ballester theory of gravitation. Exact solutions of field equations are obtained by applying a special law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields a constant negative value of the deceleration parameter.

  18. Minimally coupled scalar field cosmology in anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological model in the Einstein gravitational theory with a minimally coupled scalar field. We consider a non-interacting combination of scalar field and perfect fluid as the source of matter components which are separately conserved. The dynamics of cosmic scalar ...

  19. A new algorithm for anisotropic solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We establish a new algorithm that generates a new solution to the Einstein field equations, with an anisotropic matter distribution, from a seed isotropic solution. The new solution is expressed in terms of integrals of an isotropic gravitational potential; and the integration can be completed exactly for particular ...

  20. Adaptive slices for acquisition of anisotropic BRDF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, Radomír; Filip, Jiří

    (2018) ISSN 2096-0433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-18407S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : anisotropic BRDF * slice * sampling Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http:// library

  1. Casimir interactions for anisotropic magnetodielectric metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dalvit, Diego A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Milonni, Peter W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We extend our previous work on the generalization of the Casimir-Lifshitz theory to treat anisotropic magnetodielectric media, focusing on the forces between metals and magnetodielectric metamaterials and on the possibility of inferring magnetic effects by measurements of these forces.

  2. Anisotropic Interactions between Cold Rydberg Atoms (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-CL-TR-2015-0002 Anisotropic interactions between cold Rydberg atoms Luis Marcassa INSTITUTO DE FISICA DE SAO CARLOS Final Report 09/28...problem with the report +551633739806 Organization / Institution name Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos Grant/Contract Title The full title of the

  3. Theory of anisotropic diamagnetism, local moment magnetization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 27, 2015 ... We present theoretical analyses of anisotropic lattice diamagnetism, magnetization due to magnetic ions and carrier spin-polarization in the diluted magnetic semiconductor, Pb1-EuTe. The lattice diamagnetism results from orbital susceptibility due to inter band effects and spin-orbit contributions.

  4. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation models were ...

  5. Anisotropic behaviour of semiconducting tin monosulphoselenide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The anisotropic behaviour and the effect of change in stoichiometric proportion of S and. Se content on the electrical properties of single crystals of the series, SnSxSe1–x (where x = 0, 0⋅25, 0⋅50, 0⋅75 and 1), is presented systematically. Keywords. Crystal growth; layered structure; resistivity; anisotropy; stacking disorder.

  6. On characterization of anisotropic plant protein structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krintiras, G.A.; Göbel, J.; Bouwman, W.G.; Goot, van der A.J.; Stefanidis, G.D.


    In this paper, a set of complementary techniques was used to characterize surface and bulk structures of an anisotropic Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)–vital wheat gluten blend after it was subjected to heat and simple shear flow in a Couette Cell. The structured biopolymer blend can form a basis for a

  7. Magnetized anisotropic dark energy models with constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 3, 2016 ... and galaxy clustering statistics [15] are −1.67 <ω<. −0.62 and −1.33 <ω< −0.79, respectively. LRS Bianchi type-I cosmological models are inves- tigated by Akarsu and Kilinic [16] in the presence of dynamically anisotropic dark energy and perfect fluid. Precise solutions of Einstein's field equations.

  8. Acoustic reflection from the boundary of anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reflection and refraction of plane harmonic acoustic waves are studied at a plane boundary between anisotropic thermoviscoelastic solid and a non-viscous fluid. At this fluid-solid interface, an incident acoustic wave through the fluid reflects back as an attenuated acoustic wave and refracts as four attenuating waves into ...

  9. Modelling anisotropic water transport in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This work reports anisotropic water transport in a polymer composite consisting of an epoxy matrix reinforced with aligned triangular bars made of vinyl ester. By gravimetric experiments, water diffusion in resin and polymer composites were characterized. Parameters for Fickian diffusion and polymer relaxation ...

  10. Acoustic reflection from the boundary of anisotropic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 10 December 2008; revised 4 May 2009. Abstract. Vertical slownesses of waves at a boundary of an anisotropic thermoviscoelastic medium are calculated as roots of a polynomial equation of degree eight. Out of the corresponding eight waves, the four, which travel towards the boundary are identified as ...

  11. Theory of anisotropic diamagnetism, local moment magnetization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present theoretical analyses of anisotropic lattice diamagnetism, magnetization due to magnetic ions and carrier spin-polarization in the diluted magnetic semiconductor, Pb1 xEuxTe. The lattice diamagnetism results from orbital susceptibility due to inter band effects and spin-orbit contributions. The spin-orbit ...

  12. Polarization-tailored Fano interference in plasmonic crystals: A Mueller matrix model of anisotropic Fano resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, S K; Singh, A K; Kumar, A; Misra, A Mandal S; Mitra, P; Ghosh, N


    We present a simple yet elegant Mueller matrix approach for controlling the Fano interference effect and engineering the resulting asymmetric spectral line shape in anisotropic optical system. The approach is founded on a generalized model of anisotropic Fano resonance, which relates the spectral asymmetry to two physically meaningful and experimentally accessible parameters of interference, namely, the Fano phase shift and the relative amplitudes of the interfering modes. The differences in these parameters between orthogonal linear polarizations in an anisotropic system are exploited to desirably tune the Fano spectral asymmetry using pre- and post-selection of optimized polarization states. Experimental control on the Fano phase and the relative amplitude parameters and resulting tuning of spectral asymmetry is demonstrated in waveguided plasmonic crystals using Mueller matrix-based polarization analysis. The approach enabled tailoring of several exotic regimes of Fano resonance including the complete reve...

  13. A Proposal for measuring Anisotropic Shear Viscosity in Unitary Fermi Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P


    We present a proposal to measure anisotropic shear viscosity in a strongly interacting, ultra-cold, unitary Fermi gas confined in a harmonic trap. We introduce anisotropy in this setup by strongly confining the gas in one of the directions with relatively weak confinement in the remaining directions. This system has a close resemblance to anisotropic strongly coupled field theories studied recently in the context of gauge-gravity duality. Computations in such theories (which have gravity duals) revealed that some of the viscosity components of the anisotropic shear viscosity tensor can be made much smaller than the entropy density, thus parametrically violating the bound proposed by Kovtun, Son and Starinets (KSS): $\\frac {\\eta} {s} \\geq \\frac{1}{4 \\pi}$. A Boltzmann analysis performed in a system of weakly interacting particles in a linear potential also shows that components of the viscosity tensor can be reduced. Motivated by these exciting results, we propose two hydrodynamic modes in the unitary Fermi ga...

  14. Performance tuning for high performance computing systems


    Pahuja, Himanshu


    A Distributed System is composed by integration between loosely coupled software components and the underlying hardware resources that can be distributed over the standard internet framework. High Performance Computing used to involve utilization of supercomputers which could churn a lot of computing power to process massively complex computational tasks, but is now evolving across distributed systems, thereby having the ability to utilize geographically distributed computing resources. We...

  15. A high throughput spectral image microscopy system (United States)

    Gesley, M.; Puri, R.


    A high throughput spectral image microscopy system is configured for rapid detection of rare cells in large populations. To overcome flow cytometry rates and use of fluorophore tags, a system architecture integrates sample mechanical handling, signal processors, and optics in a non-confocal version of light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy. Spectral images with native contrast do not require the use of exogeneous stain to render cells with submicron resolution. Structure may be characterized without restriction to cell clusters of differentiation.

  16. An iterative, fast-sweeping-based eikonal solver for 3D tilted anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Computation of first-arrival traveltimes for quasi-P waves in the presence of anisotropy is important for high-end near-surface modeling, microseismic-source localization, and fractured-reservoir characterization - and it requires solving an anisotropic eikonal equation. Anisotropy deviating from elliptical anisotropy introduces higher order nonlinearity into the eikonal equation, which makes solving the eikonal equation a challenge. We addressed this challenge by iteratively solving a sequence of simpler tilted elliptically anisotropic eikonal equations. At each iteration, the source function was updated to capture the effects of the higher order nonlinear terms. We used Aitken\\'s extrapolation to speed up convergence rate of the iterative algorithm. The result is an algorithm for computing first-arrival traveltimes in tilted anisotropic media. We evaluated the applicability and usefulness of our method on tilted transversely isotropic media and tilted orthorhombic media. Our numerical tests determined that the proposed method matches the first arrivals obtained by wavefield extrapolation, even for strongly anisotropic and highly complex subsurface structures. Thus, for the cases where two-point ray tracing fails, our method can be a potential substitute for computing traveltimes. The approach presented here can be easily extended to compute first-arrival traveltimes for anisotropic media with lower symmetries, such as monoclinic or even the triclinic media.

  17. High-temperature alloys for high-power thermionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang S.; Jacobson, D.L.; D' cruz, L.; Luo, Anhua; Chen, Bor-Ling.


    The need for structural materials with useful strength above 1600 k has stimulated interest in refractory-metal alloys. Tungsten possesses an extreme high modulus of elasticity as well as the highest melting temperature among metals, and hence is being considered as one of the most promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as space nuclear power systems. This report is divided into three chapters covering the following: (1) the processing of tungsten base alloys; (2) the tensile properties of tungsten base alloys; and (3) creep behavior of tungsten base alloys. Separate abstracts were prepared for each chapter. (SC)

  18. Anisotropic magnetothermoelectric power of ferromagnetic thin films (United States)

    Anwar, M. S.; Lacoste, B.; Aarts, J.


    In this article, we report the measurements of the magnetothermoelectric power (MTEP) in metallic ferromagnetic thin films of Ni80 Fe20 (Permalloy; Py), Co and CrO2 at temperatures in the range of 100 K to 400 K. In 25 nm thick Py films and 50 nm thick Co films both the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and MTEP show a relative change in resistance and thermoelectric power (TEP) of the order of 0.2% when the magnetic field is reversed, and in both cases there is no significant change in AMR or MTEP after the saturation field has been reached. Surprisingly, both Py and Co films have opposite MTEP behaviour although both have the same sign for AMR and TEP. The data on half metallic ferromagnet CrO2 films show a different picture. Films of thickness of 100 nm were grown on TiO2 and on sapphire. The MTEP behavior at low fields shows peaks similar to the AMR in these films, with variations up to 1 % . With increasing field both the MR and the MTEP variations keep growing, with MTEP showing relative changes of 1.5% with the thermal gradient along the b -axis and even 20% with the gradient along the c -axis, with an intermediate value of 3% for the film on sapphire. It appears that the low-field effects are due to the magnetic domain state, and the high-field effects are intrinsic to the electronic structure of CrO2 and intergarian tunnelling magnetoresistance that contributes to MTEP as tunnelling-MTEP. Our results will stimulate the research work in the field of spin dependent thermal transport in ferromagnetic materials to further develop spin-Caloritronics.

  19. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert


    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  20. Anisotropic parameter inversion in VTI media using diffraction data

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Diffracted waves contain useful information regarding the subsurface geometry and velocity. They are particularly valuable for anisotropic media as they inherently possess a wide range of dips necessary to resolve angular dependence of velocity. Using this property of diffraction data to our vantage, we develop an algorithm to invert for effective η model, assuming no prior knowledge of it. The obtained effective η model is then converted to interval η model using Dix-type inversion formula. The effectiveness of this approach is tested on the VTI Marmousi model, which yields good structural match even for a highly complex media such as the Marmousi model.

  1. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Amardeep, E-mail:; Goyal, Navdeep [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, INDIA-160014 (India); Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L. [Agrionics, Central Scientific Instruments Organization, CSIR, Chandigarh, INDIA-160030 (India)


    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  2. Heat Conductance is Strongly Anisotropic for Pristine Silicon Nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Brandbyge, Mads


    We compute atomistically the heat conductance for ultrathin pristine silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with diameters ranging from 1 to 5 nm. The room temperature thermal conductance is found to be highly anisotropic: wires oriented along the 110 direction have 50−75% larger conductance than wires orient...... instead use the Tersoff empirical potential model (TEP). For the smallest wires, the thermal conductances obtained from DFT and TEP calculations agree within 10%. The presented results could be relevant for future phonon-engineering of nanowire devices....

  3. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media. (United States)

    Salama, Amgad; Negara, Ardiansyah; El Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu


    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties is an essential feature that exists almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical investigation of nanoparticles transport in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad


    In this work the problem related to the transport of nanoparticles in anisotropic porous media is investigated numerically using the multipoint flux approximation. Anisotropy of porous media properties are an essential feature that exist almost everywhere in subsurface formations. In anisotropic media, the flux and the pressure gradient vectors are no longer collinear and therefore interesting patterns emerge. The transport of nanoparticles in subsurface formations is affected by several complex processes including surface charges, heterogeneity of nanoparticles and soil grain collectors, interfacial dynamics of double-layer and many others. We use the framework of the theory of filtration in this investigation. Processes like particles deposition, entrapment, as well as detachment are accounted for. From the numerical methods point of view, traditional two-point flux finite difference approximation cannot handle anisotropy of media properties. Therefore, in this work we use the multipoint flux approximation (MPFA). In this technique, the flux components are affected by more neighboring points as opposed to the mere two points that are usually used in traditional finite volume methods. We also use the experimenting pressure field approach which automatically constructs the global system of equations by solving multitude of local problems. This approach facilitates to a large extent the construction of the global system. A set of numerical examples is considered involving two-dimensional rectangular domain. A source of nanoparticles is inserted in the middle of the anisotropic layer. We investigate the effects of both anisotropy angle and anisotropy ratio on the transport of nanoparticles in saturated porous media. It is found that the concentration plume and porosity contours follow closely the principal direction of anisotropy of permeability of the central domain.

  5. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong


    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  6. Quantitative ultrasonic testing of acoustically anisotropic materials with verification on austenitic and dissimilar weld joints (United States)

    Boller, C.; Pudovikov, S.; Bulavinov, A.


    Austenitic stainless steel materials are widely used in a variety of industry sectors. In particular, the material is qualified to meet the design criteria of high quality in safety related applications. For example, the primary loop of the most of the nuclear power plants in the world, due to high durability and corrosion resistance, is made of this material. Certain operating conditions may cause a range of changes in the integrity of the component, and therefore require nondestructive testing at reasonable intervals. These in-service inspections are often performed using ultrasonic techniques, in particular when cracking is of specific concern. However, the coarse, dendritic grain structure of the weld material, formed during the welding process, is extreme and unpredictably anisotropic. Such structure is no longer direction-independent to the ultrasonic wave propagation; therefore, the ultrasonic beam deflects and redirects and the wave front becomes distorted. Thus, the use of conventional ultrasonic testing techniques using fixed beam angles is very limited and the application of ultrasonic Phased Array techniques becomes desirable. The "Sampling Phased Array" technique, invented and developed by Fraunhofer IZFP, allows the acquisition of time signals (A-scans) for each individual transducer element of the array along with fast image reconstruction techniques based on synthetic focusing algorithms. The reconstruction considers the sound propagation from each image pixel to the individual sensor element. For anisotropic media, where the sound beam is deflected and the sound path is not known a-priori, a novel phase adjustment technique called "Reverse Phase Matching" is implemented. By taking into account the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the weld structure, a ray tracing algorithm for modeling the acoustic wave propagation and calculating the sound propagation time is applied. This technique can be utilized for 2D and 3D real time image reconstruction. The

  7. Anisotropically Enhanced Nonlinear Optical Properties of Ensembles of Gold Nanorods Electrospun in Polymer Nanofiber Film. (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Hu, Zhongliang; Ma, Zhijun; Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Dong, Guoping; Zhou, Shifeng; Qiu, Jianrong


    Polymeric nanofibers containing gold nanorods (GNRs) are aligned in a uniform orientation through electrospinning. The dispersive and absorptive parts of the third-order optical nonlinear optical refractive index of the composite film measured by polarization dependent z-scan method are demonstrated to be anisotropically enhanced. Anisotropic optical response of the aligned GNRs and its connection with the ultrafast electron dynamics are discussed in light of the results of resonant femtosecond pump-probe experiments. The significant appearance of anisotropic nonlinear optical properties of ensembles of GNRs is attributed to the sensitive excitation of longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of highly aligned GNRs. For the macroscopic applications of ensembles of GNRs, such as passive mode-locking and all-optical switching, the experimental results demonstrate that the alignment of GNRs through electrospinning should be very high efficient, and economic.

  8. High performance computing on vector systems

    CERN Document Server

    Roller, Sabine


    Presents the developments in high-performance computing and simulation on modern supercomputer architectures. This book covers trends in hardware and software development in general and specifically the vector-based systems and heterogeneous architectures. It presents innovative fields like coupled multi-physics or multi-scale simulations.

  9. Finite-element method for multigroup neutron transport: anisotropic scattering in 1-D slab geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyait, N.S.; Ackroyd, R.T.


    Proof-tests on 1-D multigroup neutron transport problems are reported for strong anisotropic scattering. These tests have been undertaken as part of the validation of the 3-D multigroup finite-element transport code FELTRAN for anisotropic scattering media. To illustrate the treatment of within-group and intergroup anisotropic scattering in the finite-element method the relevant theory is outlined. Ingroup scattering is checked using the backward-forward-isotropic (BFI) scattering law for source and eigenvalue problems. With this law anisotropic scattering problems can be transformed into equivalent isotropic scattering problems. In this way the well-validated isotropic scattering version of FELTRAN is used to validate the anisotropic version. Intergroup scattering effects are checked by solving few-group source problems for P/sub 1/ and P/sub 3/ scattering and the BFI scattering law. For P/sub 1/ and P/sub 3/ scattering checks are made with the discrete-ordinate finite-difference code ANISN and the spherical harmonics finite-difference code MARC/PN. For the BFI scattering law comparison is made with two-group exact solutions of Williams (1985) for 1-D systems.

  10. Management issues for high performance storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Burris, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Managing distributed high-performance storage systems is complex and, although sharing common ground with traditional network and systems management, presents unique storage-related issues. Integration technologies and frameworks exist to help manage distributed network and system environments. Industry-driven consortia provide open forums where vendors and users cooperate to leverage solutions. But these new approaches to open management fall short addressing the needs of scalable, distributed storage. We discuss the motivation and requirements for storage system management (SSM) capabilities and describe how SSM manages distributed servers and storage resource objects in the High Performance Storage System (HPSS), a new storage facility for data-intensive applications and large-scale computing. Modem storage systems, such as HPSS, require many SSM capabilities, including server and resource configuration control, performance monitoring, quality of service, flexible policies, file migration, file repacking, accounting, and quotas. We present results of initial HPSS SSM development including design decisions and implementation trade-offs. We conclude with plans for follow-on work and provide storage-related recommendations for vendors and standards groups seeking enterprise-wide management solutions.

  11. Two-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem (United States)

    Servan-Camas, Borja; Tsai, Frank T.-C.


    This study develops a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with a two-relaxation-time collision operator (TRT) to cope with anisotropic heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and anisotropic velocity-dependent hydrodynamic dispersion in the saltwater intrusion problem. The directional-speed-of-sound technique is further developed to address anisotropic hydraulic conductivity and dispersion tensors. Forcing terms are introduced in the LBM to correct numerical errors that arise during the recovery procedure and to describe the sink/source terms in the flow and transport equations. In order to facilitate the LBM implementation, the forcing terms are combined with the equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) to create pseudo-EDFs. This study performs linear stability analysis and derives LBM stability domains to solve the anisotropic advection-dispersion equation. The stability domains are used to select the time step at which the lattice Boltzmann method provides stable solutions to the numerical examples. The LBM was implemented for the anisotropic dispersive Henry problem with high ratios of longitudinal to transverse dispersivities, and the results compared well to the solutions in the work of Abarca et al. (2007).

  12. Transformative Heterointerface Evolution and Plasmonic Tuning of Anisotropic Trimetallic Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Lin, Mouhong; Kim, Gyeong-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Ho; Oh, Jeong-Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min


    Multicomponent nanoparticles that incorporate multiple nanocrystal domains into a single particle represent an important class of material with highly tailorable structures and properties. The controlled synthesis of multicomponent NPs with 3 or more components in the desired structure, particularly anisotropic structure, and property is, however, challenging. Here, we developed a polymer and galvanic replacement reaction-based transformative heterointerface evolution (THE) method to form and tune gold-copper-silver multimetallic anisotropic nanoparticles (MAPs) with well-defined configurations, including structural order, particle and junction geometry, giving rise to extraordinarily high tunability in the structural design, synthesis and optical property of trimetallic plasmonic nanoantenna structures. MAPs can easily, flexibly integrate multiple surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks and incorporate various plasmonic field localization and enhancement within one structure. Importantly, a heteronanojunction in these MAPs can be finely controlled and hence tune the SPR properties of these structures, widely covering UV, visible and near-infrared range. The development of the THE method and new findings in synthesis and property tuning of multicomponent nanostructures pave ways to the fabrication of highly tailored multicomponent nanohybrids and realization of their applications in optics, energy, catalysis and biotechnology.

  13. Subsurface Stress Fields In Single Crystal (Anisotropic) Contacts (United States)

    Arakere, Nagaraj K.; Knudsen, Erik C.; Duke, Greg; Battista, Gilda; Swanson, Greg


    Single crystal superalloy turbine blades used in high pressure turbomachinery are subject to conditions of high temperature, triaxial steady and alternating stresses, fretting stresses in the blade attachment and damper contact locations, and exposure to high-pressure hydrogen. The blades are also subjected to extreme variations in temperature during start-up and shutdown transients. The most prevalent HCF failure modes observed in these blades during operation include crystallographic crack initiation/propagation on octahedral planes, and noncrystallographic initiation with crystallographic growth. Numerous cases of crack initiation and crack propagation at the blade leading edge tip, blade attachment regions, and damper contact locations have been documented. Understanding crack initiation/propagation under mixed-mode loading conditions is critical for establishing a systematic procedure for evaluating HCF life of single crystal turbine blades. This paper presents analytical and numerical techniques for evaluating two and three dimensional subsurface stress fields in anisotropic contacts. The subsurface stress results are required for evaluating contact fatigue life at damper contacts and dovetail attachment regions in single crystal nickel-base superalloy turbine blades. An analytical procedure is , presented, for evaluating the subsurface stresses in the elastic half-space, using a complex potential method outlined by Lekhnitskii. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical and spherical anisotropic contacts, using finite element analysis. Effects of crystal orientation on stress response and fatigue life are examined.

  14. Defining and assessing an anisotropic delineation margin for modern radiotherapy. (United States)

    Bell, L R; Pogson, E M; Metcalfe, P E; Holloway, L C


    Uncertainty in target volume delineation for modern radiotherapy impacts dosimetry and patient outcomes. Delineation uncertainty is generally overlooked in practice as a source of error, potentially since historically, other uncertainties have been the main focus. This work defined and assessed an anisotropic delineation margin in both polar and spherical coordinate systems in order to account for the spatially varying nature of this uncertainty using a whole breast radiotherapy cohort as a proof of concept. A cohort of 21 whole breast radiotherapy patient datasets with clinical target volumes delineated by eight independent observers was utilized. Patients were divided into categories based on target volume and laterality. An anisotropic delineation margin for each category was determined by multiplying the average standard deviation in observer contours in each category by a factor of two. Standard deviation was determined in both polar and spherical coordinates at angular increments. This anisotropic approach was compared to a conventional clinical approach, where the delineation margin was applied in the cardinal directions only. The assessment of the delineation margin was undertaken by comparing the encompassment of the observer volumes by the target volume with added margin. The extra, presumed healthy tissue included in the margin and the malignant tissue missed by the margin were determined. The proposed delineation margin is effective at accounting for inter-observer variation, producing >95% coverage of all CTVs for polar, spherical, and Cartesian margins in 82%, 79%, and 92% of cases, respectively. Additionally, 1400 cm3 only with significantly greater encompassment of interobserver variation, less missed malignant tissue and less included healthy tissue. This methodology has been validated for a whole breast radiotherapy cohort as a proof of concept, however could be applied to other anatomical sites.

  15. Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, J.


    This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow. 2014 Jie Chen et al.

  16. Coupling Two-Phase Fluid Flow with Two-Phase Darcy Flow in Anisotropic Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen


    Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow.

  17. Measurements of correlations of anisotropic flow harmonics in Pb--Pb Collisions with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, You


    We report the first measurements of the correlation strength between various anisotropic flow harmonics, using ALICE data. This correlation strength is characterized with multi-particle cumulants of mixed harmonics, which by construction depend only on the fluctuations of magnitudes of the anisotropic flow vectors. A detailed comparison to theoretical model calculations, including HIJING, Monte Carlo Glauber and hydrodynamics is also presented. These studies further constrain initial conditions, the properties and the evolution of the system to be used in theoretical simulations of heavy-ion collisions.

  18. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system. (United States)

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Patel, Ankit H; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X


    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and retinitis pigmentosa. The SSOCT channel operates at a wavelength of 1 microm for increased penetration and visualization of the choriocapillaris and choroid, sites of major disease activity for DR and wet AMD. This AO system is designed for use in clinical populations; a dual deformable mirror (DM) configuration allows simultaneous low- and high-order aberration correction over a large range of refractions and ocular media quality. The system also includes a wide field (33 deg.) line scanning ophthalmoscope (LSO) for initial screening, target identification, and global orientation, an integrated retinal tracker (RT) to stabilize the SLO, OCT, and LSO imaging fields in the presence of lateral eye motion, and a high-resolution LCD-based fixation target for presentation of visual cues. The system was tested in human subjects without retinal disease for performance optimization and validation. We were able to resolve and quantify cone photoreceptors across the macula to within approximately 0.5 deg (approximately 100-150 microm) of the fovea, image and delineate ten retinal layers, and penetrate to resolve features deep into the choroid. The prototype presented here is the first of a new class of powerful flexible imaging platforms that will provide clinicians and researchers with high-resolution, high performance adaptive optics imaging to help guide therapies, develop new drugs, and improve patient outcomes.

  19. Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.J.; Gosnell, T.R.; Roberts, J.P.; Lester, C.S.; Gibson, R.B.; Harper, S.E.; Tallman, C.R.


    Subpicosecond, high-brightness excimer laser systems are being used to explore the interaction of intense coherent ultraviolet radiation with matter. Applications of current systems include generation of picosecond x-ray pulses, investigation of possible x-ray laser pumping schemes, studies of multiphoton phenomena in atomic species, and time-resolved photochemistry. These systems, based on the amplification of subpicosecond pulses in small aperture (/approximately/1 cm/sup 2/) XeCl or KrF amplifiers, deliver focal spot intensities of /approximately/10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/. Scaling to higher intensities, however, will require an additional large aperture amplifier which preserves near-diffraction-limited beam quality and subpicosecond pulse duration. We describe here both a small aperture KrF system which routinely provides intensities >10/sup 17/ W/cm/sup 2/ to several experiments, and a large aperture XeCl system designed to deliver /approximately/1 J subpicosecond pulses and yield intensities on target in excess of 10/sup 19/W/cm/sup 2/. We also discuss the effects of two-photon absorption on large-aperture, high-brightness excimer lasers. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Birefringence, anisotropic shrinkage and luminance in injection molded light-guide plate: Modeling and experiment (United States)

    Lin, Tsui-Hsun

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight system have been widely used in industry due to several advantages over traditional cathode-ray tubes (CRTs). The main component of the backlight system is the light-guide plate (LGP) which is designed to provide the highest possible degree of light concentration and luminance efficiency. However, the relationship between processing conditions in manufacturing and their optical performance have not been established. In addressing this issue, LGP moldings were made of optical grade polycarbonates (PCs) of low and high viscosity and a polystyrene (PS). The theoretical and experimental studies on the effect of the processing conditions on the anisotropic shrinkage, residual stresses and birefringence, and resulting luminance in the injection molded V-groove LGPs were carried out. The stress-optical coefficient and relaxation modulus functions of polymers were obtained by specially designed rheo-optical instrument. These functions were incorporated to the linear viscoelastic and photoviscoelastic constitutive equations to predict the thermal birefringence in constrained, freely quenched plates and LGP moldings. The flow-induced birefringence and anisotropic shrinkage of LGPs were simulated by using a combination of a CV/FEM/FDM technique, a nonlinear viscoelastic constitutive equation, and orientation functions. The residual normal and transverse birefringence in LGPs along with shrinkages were measured. The predicted total birefringence was obtained by a summation of the predicted flow- and thermally-induced birefringence. Numerical results were compared with measurements at various processing conditions indicating a good agreement in the anisotropic shrinkage and a fair agreement in the residual birefringence. The luminance as a function of a viewing angle on the injection molded LGPs at various molding conditions was measured by means of the device that was built for this purpose. Strong effects from the

  1. High Latitude Dust in the Earth System (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Baddock, Matthew; Bradwell, Tom; Crusius, John; Darlington, Eleanor; Gaiero, Diego; Gasso, Santiago; Gisladottir, Gudrun; Hodgkins, Richard; McCulloch, Robert; hide


    Natural dust is often associated with hot, subtropical deserts, but significant dust events have been reported from cold, high latitudes. This review synthesizes current understanding of high-latitude (> or = 50degN and > or = 40degS) dust source geography and dynamics and provides a prospectus for future research on the topic. Although the fundamental processes controlling aeolian dust emissions in high latitudes are essentially the same as in temperate regions, there are additional processes specific to or enhanced in cold regions. These include low temperatures, humidity, strong winds, permafrost and niveo-aeolian processes all of which can affect the efficiency of dust emission and distribution of sediments. Dust deposition at high latitudes can provide nutrients to the marine system, specifically by contributing iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll oceans; it also affects ice albedo and melt rates. There have been no attempts to quantify systematically the expanse, characteristics, or dynamics of high-latitude dust sources. To address this, we identify and compare the main sources and drivers of dust emissions in the Northern (Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland) and Southern (Antarctica, New Zealand, and Patagonia) Hemispheres. The scarcity of year-round observations and limitations of satellite remote sensing data at high latitudes are discussed. It is estimated that under contemporary conditions high-latitude sources cover >500,000 sq km and contribute at least 80-100 Tg/yr1 of dust to the Earth system (approx. 5% of the global dust budget); both are projected to increase under future climate change scenarios.

  2. Ultrasonic Modeling of Bounded Beam Reflection from Anisotropic Media (United States)

    Schmitt, D. R.; Malehmir, R.; Kazemi, N.


    In this contribution, we try to physically model and understand the physics behind directional dependency of reflectivity from an anisotropic medium as a test of existing theory. One aspect of this is to motivate researchers to look beyond the simplifying assumptions that have been widely employed in the analysis of azimuthally varying seismic reflectivity. To do this, we are making laboratory measurements of the acoustic reflectivity from an orthorhombic medium cut at a variety of orientations in order to expose surfaces with differing anisotropy. The laboratory experiments employ a large aperture transmitter and a small, near-point-source, receiver placed within a goniometer that allows for rotation of the transducers and of the sample, this system was developed in earlier studies of reflectivity from porous media. This enables us to measure reflectivity from any azimuth and over a large range of incidence angles. We used Aluminum with known elastic properties for calibration and comparing the reflectivity results with Zoepprtiz solution. The successful correlation with reflectivity data enables us to go one step ahead and replace the sample with any anisotropic sample. The samples are machined from a `phenolic' material created with fibre cloth layers embedded within an epoxy resin, this material is known to be weakly orthorhombic. Blocks fo this material are cut such that the reflecting surfaces lie at a variety of angles with respect to the layering. These results suggest that some care should be employed in azimuthal seismic studies as it may be difficult to detect the differences in the reflectivity before the P-wave critical angle. However, this critical angle displays substantial change with azimuth and may provide important information for seismic investigations.The reflectivity variations are being modelled using a code called ARTc (Anisotropic Reflection and Transmission code) that provides the plane-wave reflectivity and transmissivity for the general

  3. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  4. High Temperature Perforating System for Geothermal Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, Moises E. [Schlumberger Technology Corporation, Sugar Land, TX (United States)


    The objective of this project is to develop a perforating system consisting of all the explosive components and hardware, capable of reliable performance in high temperatures geothermal wells (>200 ºC). In this light we will focused on engineering development of these components, characterization of the explosive raw powder and developing the internal infrastructure to increase the production of the explosive from laboratory scale to industrial scale.

  5. Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina


    The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tension...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....... investigated, it is found that isotropic plasticity can only predict surface instabilities if non-associated plastic flow is accounted for. However, for anisotropic plasticity a surface instability is observed for associated plastic flow if the principal axes of anisotropy coincide with the directions...

  6. Equilibrium-Based Nonhomogeneous Anisotropic Beam Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Couturier, Philippe


    The stiffness matrix and the nodal forces associated with distributed loads are obtained for a nonhomogeneous anisotropic elastic beam element by the use of complementary energy. The element flexibility matrix is obtained by integrating the complementary-energy density corresponding to six beam...... equilibrium states, and then inverted and expanded to provide the element-stiffness matrix. Distributed element loads are represented via corresponding internal-force distributions in local equilibrium with the loads. The element formulation does not depend on assumed shape functions and can, in principle......, include any variation of cross-sectional properties and load variation, provided that these are integrated with sufficient accuracy in the process. The ability to represent variable cross-sectional properties, coupling from anisotropic materials, and distributed element loads is illustrated by numerical...

  7. The shear viscosity in anisotropic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Sachin [Department of Physics, Cornell University,Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)


    We construct anisotropic black brane solutions and analyse the behaviour of some of their metric perturbations. These solutions correspond to field theory duals in which rotational symmetry is broken due an externally applied, spatially constant, force. We find, in several examples, that when the anisotropy is sufficiently big compared to the temperature, some components of the viscosity tensor can become very small in units of the entropy density, parametrically violating the KSS bound. We obtain an expression relating these components of the viscosity, in units of the entropy density, to a ratio of metric components at the horizon of the black brane. This relation is generally valid, as long as the forcing function is translationally invariant, and it directly connects the parametric violation of the bound to the anisotropy in the metric at the horizon. Our results suggest the possibility that such small components of the viscosity tensor might also arise in anisotropic strongly coupled fluids found in nature.

  8. Silicon as an anisotropic mechanical material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Reck, Kasper; Skands, Gustav Erik


    While silicon is an anisotropic material it is often in literature treated as an isotropic material when it comes to plate calculations. This leads to considerable errors in the calculated deflection. To overcome this problem, we present an in-depth analysis of the bending behavior of thin...... both exact analytical expressions and approximate expressions calculated by the Galerkin method. The results are applied to plates made on silicon (0 0 1), (0 1 1) and (1 1 1) substrates, respectively, and analytical equations for the deflection, strain energy and resonance frequency of such plates...... are presented. These expressions are in excellent agreement with anisotropic finite element calculations. The calculated deflection differs less than 0.1%, for both circular and rectangular plates, compared to finite element calculations. The results are presented as ready-to-use facilitating accurate...

  9. Birefringent light propagation on anisotropic cosmological backgrounds (United States)

    Asenjo, Felipe A.; Hojman, Sergio A.


    Exact electromagnetic wave solutions to Maxwell equations on anisotropic Bianchi I cosmological spacetime backgrounds are studied. The waves evolving on Bianchi I spacetimes exhibit birefringence (associated with linear polarization) and dispersion. The particular case of a vacuum-dominated anisotropic Universe, which reproduces a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe (for late times)—while, for earlier times, it matches a Kasner Universe—is studied. The electromagnetic waves do not, in general, follow null geodesics. This produces a modification of the cosmological redshift, which is then dependent on light polarization, its dispersion, and its non-null geodesic behavior. New results presented here may help to tackle some issues related to the "horizon" problem.

  10. Rainbow metric from quantum gravity: Anisotropic cosmology (United States)

    Assanioussi, Mehdi; Dapor, Andrea


    In this paper we present a construction of effective cosmological models which describe the propagation of a massive quantum scalar field on a quantum anisotropic cosmological spacetime. Each obtained effective model is represented by a rainbow metric in which particles of distinct momenta propagate on different classical geometries. Our analysis shows that upon certain assumptions and conditions on the parameters determining such anisotropic models, we surprisingly obtain a unique deformation parameter β in the modified dispersion relation of the modes, hence, inducing an isotropic deformation despite the general starting considerations. We then ensure the recovery of the dispersion relation realized in the isotropic case, studied in [M. Assanioussi, A. Dapor, and J. Lewandowski, Phys. Lett. B 751, 302 (2015), 10.1016/j.physletb.2015.10.043], when some proper symmetry constraints are imposed, and we estimate the value of the deformation parameter for this case in loop quantum cosmology context.

  11. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng


    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  12. Anisotropic stellar models admitting conformal motion (United States)

    Banerjee, Ayan; Banerjee, Sumita; Hansraj, Sudan; Ovgun, Ali


    We address the problem of finding static and spherically symmetric anisotropic compact stars in general relativity that admit conformal motions. The study is framed in the language of f( R) gravity theory in order to expose opportunity for further study in the more general theory. Exact solutions of compact stars are found under the assumption that spherically symmetric spacetimes admit conformal motion with anisotropic matter distribution in nature. In this work, two cases have been studied for the existence of such solutions: first, we consider the model given by f(R)=R and then f(R)=aR+b . Finally, specific characteristics and physical properties have been explored analytically along with graphical representations for conformally symmetric compact stars in f( R) gravity.

  13. Fuzzy systems in high-energy physics (United States)

    Castellano, Marcello; Masulli, Francesco; Penna, Massimo


    Decision making is one of the major subjects of interest in physics. This is due to the intrinsic finite accuracy of measurement that leads to the possible results to span a region for each quantity. In this way, to recognize a particle type among the others by a measure of a feature vector, a decision must be made. The decision making process becomes a crucial point whenever a low statistical significance occurs as in space cosmic ray experiments where searching in rare events requires us to reject as many background events as possible (high purity), keeping as many signal events as possible (high efficiency). In the last few years, interesting theoretical results on some feedforward connectionist systems (FFCSs) have been obtained. In particular, it has been shown that multilayer perceptrons (MLPs), radial basis function networks (RBFs), and some fuzzy logic systems (FLSs) are nonlinear universal function approximators. This property permits us to build a system showing intelligent behavior , such as function estimation, time series forecasting, and pattern classification, and able to learn their skill from a set of numerical data. From the classification point of view, it has been demonstrated that non-parametric classifiers based FFCSs holding the universal function approximation property, can approximate the Bayes optimal discriminant function and then minimize the classification error. In this paper has been studied the FBF when applied to a high energy physics problem. The FBF is a powerful neuro-fuzzy system (or adaptive fuzzy logic system) holding the universal function approximation property and the capability of learning from examples. The FBF is based on product-inference rule (P), the Gaussian membership function (G), a singleton fuzzifier (S), and a center average defuzzifier (CA). The FBF can be regarded as a feedforward connectionist system with just one hidden layer whose units correspond to the fuzzy MIMO rules. The FBF can be identified both by

  14. High-Performance Energy Applications and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Barton [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)


    The Paradyn project has a history of developing algorithms, techniques, and software that push the cutting edge of tool technology for high-end computing systems. Under this funding, we are working on a three-year agenda to make substantial new advances in support of new and emerging Petascale systems. The overall goal for this work is to address the steady increase in complexity of these petascale systems. Our work covers two key areas: (1) The analysis, instrumentation and control of binary programs. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the Dyninst API tool kits. (2) Infrastructure for building tools and applications at extreme scale. Work in this area falls under the general framework of the MRNet scalability framework. Note that work done under this funding is closely related to work done under a contemporaneous grant, “Foundational Tools for Petascale Computing”, SC0003922/FG02-10ER25940, UW PRJ27NU.

  15. Hybrid ventilation systems and high performance buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utzinger, D.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee, WI (United States). School of Architecture and Urban Planning


    This paper described hybrid ventilation design strategies and their impact on 3 high performance buildings located in southern Wisconsin. The Hybrid ventilation systems combined occupant controlled natural ventilation with mechanical ventilation systems. Natural ventilation was shown to provide adequate ventilation when appropriately designed. Proper control integration of natural ventilation into hybrid systems was shown to reduce energy consumption in high performance buildings. This paper also described the lessons learned from the 3 buildings. The author served as energy consultant on all three projects and had the responsibility of designing and integrating the natural ventilation systems into the HVAC control strategy. A post occupancy evaluation of building energy performance has provided learning material for architecture students. The 3 buildings included the Schlitz Audubon Nature Center completed in 2003; the Urban Ecology Center completed in 2004; and the Aldo Leopold Legacy Center completed in 2007. This paper included the size, measured energy utilization intensity and percentage of energy supplied by renewable solar power and bio-fuels on site for each building. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Patrick D.; Souza, João B.; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V.


    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I-parallel to/I-perpendicular to= 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  17. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology. (United States)

    Cunningham, Patrick D; Souza, João B; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V


    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor-polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I∥/I⊥ = 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  18. High COP rotating wheel solid desiccant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.


    Solar and solar-gas activated desiccant space-conditioning systems can be reasonably compact, simple and void of high technology components, with operation that is intrinsically safe, of potentially long-life, and with moderate servicing demands. They can, further, operate in any US climate and utilize, even under maximum design conditions, low-grade thermal input, typical of low-cost, flat-plate collectors. A technical assessment is presented of a third-generation desiccant cooling unit approaching ARI (American Refrigeration Institute) design-point Coefficient of Performance (COP) for cooling of 0.95, at a design-point Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of over 20, and a Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) for heating of 0.75. Typically, solar-gas desiccant systems operate on open-cycle principles and can provide cooling, heating, ventilation, and/or humidification/dehumidification and use ambient air as the working fluid, thus avoiding the need for high-pressure, or highvacuum, sealed-refrigerant assemblies. Among several alternative solar-desiccant systems, the adiabatic, rotary-regenerative system is the most advanced open-cycle, solid-desiccant, heating-cooling system presently considered for solar applications. In addition to space heating and cooling, the system can inexpensively provide fresh make-up air due to its regenerative nature. Since 1974, two residential-size units have been under development, and laboratory, field, and manufacturing-cost evaluations have highlighted their potential advantages for space conditioning. Recently, a third advanced unit was designed, which incorporates identical technology to that of the earlier models and a higher effectiveness heat exchanger. Projected rated and seasonal cooling performance comparison between the advanced and earlier models are also presented for three climatic regions.

  19. Effect of inflation on anisotropic cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.


    The effects of anisotropic cosmologies on inflation are studied. By properly formulating the field equations it is possible to show that any model that undergoes sufficient inflation will become isotropic on scales greater than the horizon today. Furthermore, we shall show that it takes a very long time for anisotropies to become visible in the observable part of the Universe. It is interesting to note that the time scale will be independent of the Bianchi Model and of the initial anisotropy. 6 refs.

  20. Optical Propagation in Anisotropic Metamaterials (Postprint) (United States)


    OPTICAL PROPAGATION ANALYSIS USING BERREMAN MATRIX METHOD Figure 2 shows a TM polarized plane wave propagating in the − plane from free space...respectively, inside the anisotropic metamaterial. TM represents the component of the wave vector in the metamaterial for TM polarization and...or alternatively, refractive index and characteristic impedance. These properties depend not only on the wavelength and polarization but also the

  1. Review of Anisotropic Terahertz Material Response


    ARIKAWA, T.; Zhang, Q.; Ren, L; Belyanin, A. A.; Kono, J.


    Anisotropy is ubiquitous in solids and enhanced in low-dimensional materials. In response to an electromagnetic wave, anisotropic absorptive and refractive properties result in dichroic and birefringent optical phenomena both in the linear and nonlinear optics regimes. Such material properties have led to a diverse array of useful polarization components in the visible and near-infrared, but mature technology is non-existent in the terahertz (THz). Here, we review several novel types of aniso...

  2. Anisotropic conducting films for electromagnetic radiation applications (United States)

    Cavallo, Francesca; Lagally, Max G.; Rojas-Delgado, Richard


    Electronic devices for the generation of electromagnetic radiation are provided. Also provided are methods for using the devices to generate electromagnetic radiation. The radiation sources include an anisotropic electrically conducting thin film that is characterized by a periodically varying charge carrier mobility in the plane of the film. The periodic variation in carrier mobility gives rise to a spatially varying electric field, which produces electromagnetic radiation as charged particles pass through the film.

  3. Anisotropic Spinodal Decomposition under Shear Flow (United States)

    Imaeda, T.; Onuki, A.; Kawasaki, K.


    When a critical fluid is brought into the unstable region in the presence of shear flow, growing fluctuations are greatly elongated in the flow direction, giving rise to strongly anisotropic light scattering. In the strong shear case the linear growth theory becomes applicable in a sizable time region 0 Bar-on and Miller, it is found to increase as t(a') with a' =~ 0.2, whereas the characteristic size in the flow direction continues to increase roughly as t.

  4. On anisotropic black branes with Lifshitz scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Roychowdhury


    Full Text Available In this paper, based on the method of scalar perturbations, we construct the anisotropic charged Lifshitz background perturbatively up to leading order in the anisotropy. We perform our analysis both in the extremal as well as in the non-extremal limit. Finally, we probe the so called superfluid phase of the boundary theory and explore the effects of anisotropy on the superconducting condensate.

  5. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Magnetic Loading (United States)


    10 SLOTTED ANTENNA WITH ANISOTROPIC MAGNETIC LOADING STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured...therefor. CROSS REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention ...of the VSWR curve, and modest bandwidth in each passband. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION [0006] It is a first object of the present invention to provide

  6. Acoustic anisotropic wavefields through perturbation theory

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Solving the anisotropic acoustic wave equation numerically using finite-difference methods introduces many problems and media restriction requirements, and it rarely contributes to the ability to resolve the anisotropy parameters. Among these restrictions are the inability to handle media with η<0 and the presence of shear-wave artifacts in the solution. Both limitations do not exist in the solution of the elliptical anisotropic acoustic wave equation. Using perturbation theory in developing the solution of the anisotropic acoustic wave equation allows direct access to the desired limitation-free solutions, that is, solutions perturbed from the elliptical anisotropic background medium. It also provides a platform for parameter estimation because of the ability to isolate the wavefield dependency on the perturbed anisotropy parameters. As a result, I derive partial differential equations that relate changes in the wavefield to perturbations in the anisotropy parameters. The solutions of the perturbation equations represented the coefficients of a Taylor-series-type expansion of the wavefield as a function of the perturbed parameter, which is in this case η or the tilt of the symmetry axis. The expansion with respect to the symmetry axis allows use of an acoustic transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) kernel to estimate the background wavefield and the corresponding perturbation coefficients. The VTI extrapolation kernel is about one-fourth the cost of the transversely isotropic model with a tilt in the symmetry axis kernel. Thus, for a small symmetry axis tilt, the cost of migration using a first-order expansion can be reduced. The effectiveness of the approach was demonstrated on the Marmousi model.

  7. A two-dimensional linear elasticity problem for anisotropic materials, solved with a parallelization code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Victor PRICOP


    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a numerical approach of static linear elasticity equations for anisotropic materials. The domain and boundary conditions are simple, to enhance an easy implementation of the finite difference scheme. SOR and gradient are used to solve the resulting linear system. The simplicity of the geometry is also useful for MPI parallelization of the code.

  8. High Performance Commercial Fenestration Framing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Manteghi; Sneh Kumar; Joshua Early; Bhaskar Adusumalli


    A major objective of the U.S. Department of Energy is to have a zero energy commercial building by the year 2025. Windows have a major influence on the energy performance of the building envelope as they control over 55% of building energy load, and represent one important area where technologies can be developed to save energy. Aluminum framing systems are used in over 80% of commercial fenestration products (i.e. windows, curtain walls, store fronts, etc.). Aluminum framing systems are often required in commercial buildings because of their inherent good structural properties and long service life, which is required from commercial and architectural frames. At the same time, they are lightweight and durable, requiring very little maintenance, and offer design flexibility. An additional benefit of aluminum framing systems is their relatively low cost and easy manufacturability. Aluminum, being an easily recyclable material, also offers sustainable features. However, from energy efficiency point of view, aluminum frames have lower thermal performance due to the very high thermal conductivity of aluminum. Fenestration systems constructed of aluminum alloys therefore have lower performance in terms of being effective barrier to energy transfer (heat loss or gain). Despite the lower energy performance, aluminum is the choice material for commercial framing systems and dominates the commercial/architectural fenestration market because of the reasons mentioned above. In addition, there is no other cost effective and energy efficient replacement material available to take place of aluminum in the commercial/architectural market. Hence it is imperative to improve the performance of aluminum framing system to improve the energy performance of commercial fenestration system and in turn reduce the energy consumption of commercial building and achieve zero energy building by 2025. The objective of this project was to develop high performance, energy efficient commercial

  9. Anisotropic Optical Properties of Layered Germanium Sulfide

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Dezhi; Wang, Feijiu; Mohamed, Nur Baizura; Mouri, Shinichiro; Sandhaya, Koirala; Zhang, Wenjing; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Ohfuchi, Mari; Matsuda, Kazunari


    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus, have attracted much interest from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and device applications. The establishment of new functionalities in anisotropic layered 2D materials is a challenging but rewarding frontier, owing to their remarkable optical properties and prospects for new devices. Here, we report the anisotropic optical properties of layered 2D monochalcogenide of germanium sulfide (GeS). Three Raman scattering peaks corresponding to the B3g, A1g, and A2g modes with strong polarization dependence are demonstrated in the GeS flakes, which validates polarized Raman spectroscopy as an effective method for identifying the crystal orientation of anisotropic layered GeS. Photoluminescence (PL) is observed with a peak at around 1.66 eV that originates from the direct optical transition in GeS at room temperature. Moreover, determination of the polarization dependent characteristics of the PL and absorption reveals...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomaryov Andrey Budimirovicn


    Full Text Available In the paper, the results of deformability study of agrillite claystones are used for determination of the Jointed rock model parameters. The number of stamp, pressuremeter and compressive tests allowed to research anisotropic deformability of argillite claystone in vertical and horizontal direction. The following problems were solved during the study: 1 the in-place and laboratory experiments to calculate the anisotropy coefficient were done for anisotropic agrillite claystones with both natural moisture and total water saturation; 2 the deformation parameters were determined and the numerical simulation of the stress-strain state of claystone in field tests was carried out with the use of Plaxis 2D software application; 3 the comparative analysis was done for calculated claystone deformation and the values obtained during the in-place tests. The authors proved that agrillite claystones shows two times less deformation under loading in the horizontal direction than vertically. The ratio is obtained to determine the parameters for numerical simulation of the Jointed Rock model used as a practical tool for analysis of stress-strain behavior of anisotropic soils. The authors provided a recommended practice for consideration of specific properties of argillite claystones when carrying out foundation works.

  11. Longitudinal fluctuations and decorrelation of anisotropic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Qin, Guang-You [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Roy, Victor [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark & Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division MS70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We investigate the decorrelation of 2nd and 3rd order anisotropic flow for charged particles in two different pseudo rapidity (η) windows by varying the pseudo rapidity gap, in an event-by-event (3+1)D ideal hydrodynamic model, with fluctuating initial conditions from A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model. We visualize the parton distribution at initial state for Pb+Pb collisions at LHC and Au+Au collisions at RHIC, and demonstrate the longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, the fluctuations of the string length and the fluctuations due to finite number of partons at different beam energies. The decorrelation of anisotropic flow of final hadrons with large η gaps is found to originate from the spatial decorrelation along the longitudinal direction in the AMPT initial conditions through hydrodynamic evolution. The agreement between our results and recent CMS data in most centralities suggests that the string-like mechanism of initial parton production in AMPT model captures the initial longitudinal fluctuation that is responsible for the measured decorrelation of anisotropic flow in Pb+Pb collisions at LHC. Our predictions for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy show stronger longitudinal decorrelation than at LHC, indicating larger longitudinal fluctuations at lower beam energies.

  12. High COP rotating wheel solid desiccant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S.


    This paper presents a technical assessment of a third-generation desiccant cooling unit approaching ARI (American Refrigeration Institute) design-point Coefficient of Performance (COP) for cooling of 0.95, at a design-point Energy Efficiency Ratio(EER) of over 20, and a Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) for heating of 0.75. Typically, solar-gas desiccant systems operate on open-cycle principles and can provide cooling, heating, ventilation, and/or humidification/dehumidification and use ambient air as the working fluid, thus avoiding the need for high-pressure, or highvacuum, sealed-refrigerant assemblies. Among several alternative solar-desiccant systems, the adiabatic, rotary-regenerative system is the most advanced open-cycle, solid-desiccant, heating-cooling system presently considered for solar applications. In addition to space heating and cooling, the system can inexpensively provide fresh makeup air due to its regenerative nature. Since 1974, two residential-size units have been under development, and laboratory, field, and manufacturing-cost evaluations have highlighted their potential advantages for space conditioning. Recently, a third ''advanced'' unit was designed, which incorporates identical technology to that of the earlier models and a higher effectiveness heat exchanger. Projected rated and seasonal cooling performance comparison between the ''advanced'' and earlier models are also presented for three climatic regions.

  13. On the design of reflectors that produce a cut-off line with a given anisotropic source of light (United States)

    Kloos, G.


    The problem of generating a cut-off line with a carefully calculated reflector contour has been treated in detail by Spencer et al. for the case of a cylindrical source of light mounted perpendicular to the optic axis. Because this geometry does not properly represent the geometry in which standard light sources are used in the illumination systems which we study, the attempt was made to extend this theory to anisotropic light sources. This case of lower symmetry is closer to the geometry of light sources encountered in headlamp design. Spencer et al. were able to obtain an implicit algebraic equation for the problem of high symmetry that they analyzed. After adopting their method to the problem under investigation, the method of analysis used was different insofar as an algebraic equation was not obtained and the corresponding ordinary differential equation and the corresponding initial-value problem were solved instead and the solutions are visualized with the aid of a computer-algebra system. In this context, the concept of a so-called polar line or surface proved helpful. This describes a set of points that connect the tangent lines that link a given point of the reflector contour to a given extended lightsource of low symmetry. The extension of the lightsource is assumed to be elliptical in the plane that contains the optic axis and the plane perpendicular to the cut-off line. The analysis extended to the anisotropic case gave some insight into the underlying scaling laws and geometrical constraints.

  14. Anisotropic Thermal Behavior of Silicone Polymer, DC 745

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jillian Cathleen [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Torres, Joseph Angelo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Volz, Heather Michelle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gallegos, Jennifer Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In material applications, it is important to understand how polymeric materials behave in the various environments they may encounter. One factor governing polymer behavior is processing history. Differences in fabrication will result in parts with varied or even unintended properties. In this work, the thermal expansion behavior of silicone DC 745 is studied. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) is used to determine changes in sample dimension resulting from changes in temperature. This technique can measure thermal events such as the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), melting, glass transitions, cure shrinkage, and internal relaxations. Using a thermomechanical analyzer (Q400 TMA), it is determined that DC 745 expands anisotropically when heated. This means that the material has a different CTE depending upon which direction is being measured. In this study, TMA experiments were designed in order to confirm anisotropic thermal behavior in multiple DC 745 samples of various ages and lots. TMA parameters such as temperature ramp rate, preload force, and temperature range were optimized in order to ensure the most accurate and useful data. A better understanding of the thermal expansion of DC 745 will allow for more accurate modeling of systems using this material.

  15. Method to incorporate anisotropic semiconductor nanocrystals of all shapes in an ultrathin and uniform silica shell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutter, Eline M.; Pietra, Francesca; Moes, Relinde; Mitoraj, Dariusz; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; De Mello Donegá, Celso; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël


    In this work, we present a method for the incorporation of anisotropic colloidal nanocrystals of many different shapes in silica in a highly controlled way. This method yields a uniform silica shell, with thickness tunable from 3 to 17 nm. The silica shell perfectly adapts to the shape of the

  16. S wave propagation in acoustic anisotropic media (United States)

    Stovas, Alexey


    The acoustic anisotropic medium can be defined in two ways. The first one is known as a pseudo-acoustic approximation (Alkhalifah, 1998) that is based on the fact that in TI media, P wave propagation is weakly dependent on parameter known as "vertical S-wave velocity" (Thomsen, 1986). The standard way to define the pseudo-acoustic approximation is to set this parameter to zero. However, as it was shown later (Grechka et al., 2004), there is "S wave artifact" in such a medium. Another way is to define the stack of horizontal solid-fluid layers and perform an upscaling based on the Backus (1962) averaging. The stiffness coefficient that responds to "vertical S wave velocity" turns to zero if any of layers has zero vertical S wave velocity. In this abstract, I analyze the S wave propagation is acoustic anisotropic medium and define important kinematic properties such as the group velocity surface and Dix-type equations. The kinematic properties can easily be defined from the slowness surface. In elastic transversely isotropic medium, the equations for P and SV wave slowness surfaces are coupled. Setting "vertical S wave velocity" to zero, results in decoupling of equations. I show that the S wave group velocity surface is given by quasi-astroidal form with the reference astroid defined by vertical and horizontal projections of group velocity. I show that there are cusps attached to both vertical and horizontal symmetry axes. The new S wave parameters include vertical, horizontal and normal moveout velocities. With the help of new parameterization, suitable for S wave, I also derived the Dix-type of equations to define the effective kinematical properties of S waves in multi-layered acoustic anisotropic medium. I have shown that effective media defined from P and S waves have different parameters. I also show that there are certain symmetries between P and S waves parameters and equations. The proposed method can be used for analysis of S waves in acoustic anisotropic

  17. Seismic receiver function interpretation: Ps splitting or anisotropic underplating? (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Park, Jeffrey


    Crustal anisotropy is crucial to understanding the evolutionary history of Earth's lithosphere. Shear wave splitting of Moho P-to-S converted phases in receiver functions (RFs) have been often used to study crustal anisotropy. Harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases in delay times are used to infer splitting parameters of averaged anisotropy in the crust. However, crustal anisotropy may distribute at various levels within the crust due to complex deformational processes. Layered anisotropy requires careful investigation of the distribution of anisotropy before interpreting Moho Ps splitting. In this study, we show results from stations ARU in Russia, KIP in the Hawaiian Islands and LSA in Tibetan Plateau, where layered anisotropy is constrained well by intracrust Ps conversions at high frequencies using a harmonic-decomposition technique. Anisotropic velocity models are inferred by forward-modeling decomposed RF waveforms. We suggest that the harmonic variation of Moho Ps phases should always be investigated to check for anisotropic layering using RFs with frequency content above 1 Hz, rather than simply reporting averaged anisotropy of the whole crust.

  18. Membrane-mediated interaction between strongly anisotropic protein scaffolds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Schweitzer


    Full Text Available Specialized proteins serve as scaffolds sculpting strongly curved membranes of intracellular organelles. Effective membrane shaping requires segregation of these proteins into domains and is, therefore, critically dependent on the protein-protein interaction. Interactions mediated by membrane elastic deformations have been extensively analyzed within approximations of large inter-protein distances, small extents of the protein-mediated membrane bending and small deviations of the protein shapes from isotropic spherical segments. At the same time, important classes of the realistic membrane-shaping proteins have strongly elongated shapes with large and highly anisotropic curvature. Here we investigated, computationally, the membrane mediated interaction between proteins or protein oligomers representing membrane scaffolds with strongly anisotropic curvature, and addressed, quantitatively, a specific case of the scaffold geometrical parameters characterizing BAR domains, which are crucial for membrane shaping in endocytosis. In addition to the previously analyzed contributions to the interaction, we considered a repulsive force stemming from the entropy of the scaffold orientation. We computed this interaction to be of the same order of magnitude as the well-known attractive force related to the entropy of membrane undulations. We demonstrated the scaffold shape anisotropy to cause a mutual aligning of the scaffolds and to generate a strong attractive interaction bringing the scaffolds close to each other to equilibrium distances much smaller than the scaffold size. We computed the energy of interaction between scaffolds of a realistic geometry to constitute tens of kBT, which guarantees a robust segregation of the scaffolds into domains.

  19. Fiber Visualization with LIC Maps Using Multidirectional Anisotropic Glyph Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Höller


    Full Text Available Line integral convolution (LIC is used as a texture-based technique in computer graphics for flow field visualization. In diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, LIC bridges the gap between local approaches, for example directionally encoded fractional anisotropy mapping and techniques analyzing global relationships between brain regions, such as streamline tracking. In this paper an advancement of a previously published multikernel LIC approach for high angular resolution diffusion imaging visualization is proposed: a novel sampling scheme is developed to generate anisotropic glyph samples that can be used as an input pattern to the LIC algorithm. Multicylindrical glyph samples, derived from fiber orientation distribution (FOD functions, are used, which provide a method for anisotropic packing along integrated fiber lines controlled by a uniform random algorithm. This allows two- and three-dimensional LIC maps to be generated, depicting fiber structures with excellent contrast, even in regions of crossing and branching fibers. Furthermore, a color-coding model for the fused visualization of slices from T1 datasets together with directionally encoded LIC maps is proposed. The methodology is evaluated by a simulation study with a synthetic dataset, representing crossing and bending fibers. In addition, results from in vivo studies with a healthy volunteer and a brain tumor patient are presented to demonstrate the method's practicality.

  20. Level Set Approach to Anisotropic Wet Etching of Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radjenović


    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for the three dimensional (3D modeling and simulation of the profile evolution during anisotropic wet etching of silicon based on the level set method is presented. Etching rate anisotropy in silicon is modeled taking into account full silicon symmetry properties, by means of the interpolation technique using experimentally obtained values for the etching rates along thirteen principal and high index directions in KOH solutions. The resulting level set equations are solved using an open source implementation of the sparse field method (ITK library, developed in medical image processing community, extended for the case of non-convex Hamiltonians. Simulation results for some interesting initial 3D shapes, as well as some more practical examples illustrating anisotropic etching simulation in the presence of masks (simple square aperture mask, convex corner undercutting and convex corner compensation, formation of suspended structures are shown also. The obtained results show that level set method can be used as an effective tool for wet etching process modeling, and that is a viable alternative to the Cellular Automata method which now prevails in the simulations of the wet etching process.

  1. A high throughput droplet based electroporation system (United States)

    Yoo, Byeongsun; Ahn, Myungmo; Im, Dojin; Kang, Inseok


    Delivery of exogenous genetic materials across the cell membrane is a powerful and popular research tool for bioengineering. Among conventional non-viral DNA delivery methods, electroporation (EP) is one of the most widely used technologies and is a standard lab procedure in molecular biology. We developed a novel digital microfluidic electroporation system which has higher efficiency of transgene expression and better cell viability than that of conventional EP techniques. We present the successful performance of digital EP system for transformation of various cell lines by investigating effects of the EP conditions such as electric pulse voltage, number, and duration on the cell viability and transfection efficiency in comparison with a conventional bulk EP system. Through the numerical analysis, we have also calculated the electric field distribution around the cells precisely to verify the effect of the electric field on the high efficiency of the digital EP system. Furthermore, the parallelization of the EP processes has been developed to increase the transformation productivity. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant Number: 2013R1A1A2011956).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado-Molina, J.


    Full Text Available A low-cost airborne digital imaging system capable to perform aerial surveys with small-format cameras isintroduced. The equipment is intended to obtain high-resolution multispectral digital photographs constituting so aviable alternative to conventional aerial photography and satellite imagery. Monitoring software handles all theprocedures involved in image acquisition, including flight planning, real-time graphics for aircraft position updatingin a mobile map, and supervises the main variables engaged in the imaging process. This software also creates fileswith the geographical position of the central point of every image, and the flight path followed by the aircraftduring the entire survey. The cameras are mounted on a three-axis stabilized platform. A set of inertial sensorsdetermines platform's deviations independently from the aircraft and an automatic control system keeps thecameras at a continuous nadir pointing and heading, with a precision better than ± 1 arc-degree in three-axis. Thecontrol system is also in charge of saving the platform’s orientation angles when the monitoring software triggersthe camera. These external orientation parameters, together with a procedure for camera calibration give theessential elements for image orthocorrection. Orthomosaics are constructed using commercial GIS software.This system demonstrates the feasibility of large area coverage in a practical and economical way using smallformatcameras. Monitoring and automatization reduce the work while increasing the quality and the amount ofuseful images.

  3. On-wafer high temperature characterization system (United States)

    Teodorescu, L.; ǎghici, F., Dr; Rusu, I.; Brezeanu, G.


    In this work a on-wafer high temperature characterization system for wide bandgap semiconductor devices and circuits has been designed, implemented and tested. The proposed system can perform the wafer temperature adjustment in a large domain, from the room temperature up to 3000C with a resolution better than +/-0.50C. In order to obtain both low-noise measurements and low EMI, the heating element of the wafer chuck is supplied in two ways: one is from a DC linear power supply connected to the mains electricity, another one is from a second DC unit powered by batteries. An original temperature control algorithm, different from classical PID, is used to modify the power applied to the chuck.

  4. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yokojima, Satoshi, E-mail: [Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo 192-0392 (Japan); RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukaminato, Tuyoshi [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20, W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ohtani, Hiroyuki [Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Shinichiro, E-mail: [RIKEN, Research Cluster for Innovation, Nakamura Lab, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)


    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  5. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism. (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro


    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.

  6. Anisotropic elliptical dichroism and influence of imperfection of circular polarization upon anisotropic circular dichroism (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Yokojima, Satoshi; Fukaminato, Tuyoshi; Ohtani, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Shinichiro


    In spite of the importance of anisotropic circular dichroism, in practice, it is difficult to get rid of the artifacts that arise from the imperfection of the circular polarization. Undesirable linear dichroism, interference of two orthogonal polarization states, and linear birefringence prevent us from making accurate measurements. We propose a theoretical method for evaluating the contributions of the first two, which are thought to be the main artifacts when specimens are not thick enough. Using the time-dependent perturbation theory and taking into account the direction of light propagation toward an orientationally fixed molecule, we formulated the transition probability of systems perturbed by arbitrarily polarized light and the absorption difference associated with two kinds of polarized light. We also formulated, as an extension of the dissymmetry factor of circular dichroism, a newly defined dissymmetry factor associated with two arbitrary polarization states. Furthermore, we considered a mixed-state of photon ensemble in which polarization states distribute at a certain width around a certain average. Although the purity of polarization and ellipticity does not correspond immediately, by considering the mixed state it is possible to treat them consistently. We used quantum statistical mechanics to describe the absorption difference for two kinds of photon ensembles and applied the consequent formula to examine the reported experimental results of single-molecule chiroptical responses under discussion in the recent past. The artifacts are theoretically suggested to be sensitive to the incident direction of elliptically polarized light and to the oriented systems, the ellipticity, and the orientation of ellipse. The mixed state has little, if any, effect when the polarization state distribution is narrow.


    Newson, H.W.; Durham, N.C.; Wigner, E.P.; Princeton, N.J.; Epler, E.P.


    A control system is given for a high fiux reactor incorporating an anti- scram control feature whereby a neutron absorbing control rod acts as a fine adjustment while a neutron absorbing shim rod, actuated upon a command received from reactor period and level signals, has substantially greater effect on the neutron level and is moved prior to scram conditions to alter the reactor activity before a scram condition is created. Thus the probability that a scram will have to be initiated is substantially decreased.

  8. High-speed analog CMOS pipeline system (United States)

    Möschen, J.; Caldwell, A.; Hervas, L.; Hosticka, B.; Kötz, U.; Sippach, B.


    We present a switched-capacitor readout system for high speed analog signals. It consists of a 10 MHz four-channel delay-line chip with 58 samples per channel and a 12 channel buffer chip with a sampling rate of 1 MHz and a depth of nine samples. In addition the buffer chip includes an analog multiplexer with 25 inputs for the buffer channels and for 13 additional unbuffered signals. Both chips have been fabricated in CMOS-technology and will be used for the readout of the ZEUS high resolution calorimeter. The circuit and chip concept will be presented and some design optimizations will be discussed. Measurements from integrated prototypes will be given including some experimental data from irradiated chips.

  9. On the origin of anisotropic lithiation in crystalline silicon over germanium: A first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Yun [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hwang, Gyeong S., E-mail: [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We examine the underlying reasons for the anisotropic lithiation of Si over Ge in the crystalline phase. • Crystalline Si is lithiated in a layer-by-layer fashion, yielding a sharp amorphous–crystalline interface. • Lithiated c-Ge exhibits a graded lithiation front, which proceeds much faster than that in c-Si. • Lithiation behavior tends to be subject to the stiffness and dynamics of the host matrix. • We reveal the origin and extended impacts of the anisotropic Si vs. isotropic Ge lithiation. - Abstract: Silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) are both recognized as a promising anode material for high-energy lithium-ion batteries. Si is abundant and best known for its superior gravimetric energy storage capacity, while Ge exhibits faster charge/discharge rates and better capacity retention. Recently, it was discovered that Si lithiation exhibits strong orientation dependence while Ge lithiation proceeds isotropically, although they have the same crystalline structure. To better understand the underlying reasons behind these distinctive differences, we examine and compare the lithiation behaviors at the Li{sub 4}Si/c-Si(1 1 0) and Li{sub 4}Ge/c-Ge(1 1 0) model systems using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In comparison to lithiated c-Si, where a sharp amorphous–crystalline interface remains and advances rather slowly, lithiated c-Ge tends to loose its crystallinity rapidly, resulting in a graded lithiation front of fast propagation speed. Analysis of the elastic responses and dynamics of the host Si and Ge lattices clearly demonstrate that from the beginning of the lithiation process, Ge lattice responds with more significant weakening as compared to the rigid Si lattice. Moreover, the more flexible Ge lattice is found to undergo facile atomic rearrangements during lithiation, overshadowing the original crystallographic characteristic. These unique properties of Ge thereby contribute synergistically to the rapid

  10. Incommensurate correlations in the anisotropic triangular Heisenberg lattice (United States)

    Weichselbaum, Andreas; White, Steven R.


    We study the anisotropic spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic triangular Heisenberg lattice in two dimensions, seen as a set of chains with couplings J (J') along (in-between) chains, respectively. Our focus is on the incommensurate correlation that emerges in this system in a wide parameter range due to the intrinsic frustration of the spins. We study this system with traditional density matrix renormalization group using cylindrical boundary conditions to least constrain possible incommensurate order. Despite that the limit of essentially decoupled chains J'/J≲0.5 is not very accessible numerically, it appears that the spin-spin correlations remain incommensurate for any finite 0JC', where JC'/J>1. The incommensurate wave vector qJ, however, approaches the commensurate value corresponding to the antiferromagnetic correlation of a single chain very rapidly with decreasing J'/J, roughly as qJ˜π-c1(J'/J)ne-c2J/J'.

  11. Pulse splitting in nonlinear media with anisotropic dispersion properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Schmidt, M.R.


    The nonlinear self-focusing of beams in media with anisotropic (mix-signed) dispersion is investigated. Theoretical predictions employing virial-type arguments and self-similar techniques suggest that a pulse propagating in a nonlinear medium with anisotropic dispersion will not collapse to a sin......The nonlinear self-focusing of beams in media with anisotropic (mix-signed) dispersion is investigated. Theoretical predictions employing virial-type arguments and self-similar techniques suggest that a pulse propagating in a nonlinear medium with anisotropic dispersion will not collapse...... equation. The interaction of two wave beams is also investigated....

  12. Photovoltaics for high capacity space power systems (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.


    The anticipated energy requirements of future space missions will grow by factors approaching 100 or more, particularly as a permanent manned presence is established in space. The advances that can be expected in solar array performance and lifetime, when coupled with advanced, high energy density storage batteries and/or fuel cells, will continue to make photovoltaic energy conversion a viable power generating option for the large systems of the future. The specific technologies required to satisfy any particular set of power requirements will vary from mission to mission. Nonetheless, in almost all cases the technology push will be toward lighter weight and higher efficiency, whether of solar arrays of storage devices. This paper will describe the content and direction of the current NASA program in space photovoltaic technology. The paper will also discuss projected system level capabilities of photovoltaic power systems in the context of some of the new mission opportunities under study by NASA, such as a manned lunar base, and a manned visit to Mars.

  13. Gelation of anisotropic silica colloids with thermoreversible short-range interactions (United States)

    Murphy, Ryan; Wagner, Norman

    Colloidal suspensions containing anisotropic particles are widely used in particle-based technologies including pharmaceuticals, consumer products, and coatings. The rheological properties of colloidal suspensions are known to be affected by particle shape; however, the combined influence of particle shape and attraction strength is not quantitatively understood for dynamic arrest transitions such as gelation. A model system of anisotropic silica colloids with thermoreversible, short-range attractions was developed to quantify the effect of particle shape and attractions on the gelation behavior. This tunable model system aims to map a fundamental state diagram for anisotropic particle suspensions as a function of particle shape, volume fraction, and interaction strength. Macroscopic rheological properties of thermoreversible gels were explored to determine the influence of particle shape on the gel transition. Neutron and x-ray scattering methods further probed the underlying fluid and gel microstructure at various temperatures, volume fractions, and aspect ratios. Linking these fundamental macroscopic and microscopic measurements will provide practical insight into particle technologies and manufacturing processes containing anisotropic colloidal suspensions.

  14. Pressure-Induced Ferromagnetism due to an Anisotropic Electronic Topological Transition in Fe1.08Te (United States)

    Mydeen, K.; Kasinathan, D.; Koz, C.; Rößler, S.; Rößler, U. K.; Hanfland, M.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Schwarz, U.; Wirth, S.; Rosner, H.; Nicklas, M.


    A rapid and anisotropic modification of the Fermi-surface shape can be associated with abrupt changes in crystalline lattice geometry or in the magnetic state of a material. We show that such an electronic topological transition is at the basis of the formation of an unusual pressure-induced tetragonal ferromagnetic phase in Fe1.08Te . Around 2 GPa, the orthorhombic and incommensurate antiferromagnetic ground state of Fe1.08Te is transformed upon increasing pressure into a tetragonal ferromagnetic state via a conventional first-order transition. On the other hand, an isostructural transition takes place from the paramagnetic high-temperature state into the ferromagnetic phase as a rare case of a "type-0" transformation with anisotropic properties. Electronic-structure calculations in combination with electrical resistivity, magnetization, and x-ray diffraction experiments show that the electronic system of Fe1.08Te is instable with respect to profound topological transitions that can drive fundamental changes of the lattice anisotropy and the associated magnetic order.

  15. A vertex-centered and positivity-preserving scheme for anisotropic diffusion problems on arbitrary polygonal grids (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Su, Shuai; Wu, Jiming


    We suggest a new positivity-preserving finite volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion problems on arbitrary polygonal grids. The scheme has vertex-centered, edge-midpoint and cell-centered unknowns. The vertex-centered unknowns are primary and have finite volume equations associated with them. The edge-midpoint and cell-centered unknowns are treated as auxiliary ones and are interpolated by the primary unknowns, which makes the final scheme a pure vertex-centered one. Unlike most existing positivity-preserving schemes, the construction of the scheme is based on a special nonlinear two-point flux approximation that has a fixed stencil and does not require the convex decomposition of the co-normal. In order to solve efficiently the nonlinear systems resulting from the nonlinear scheme, Picard method and its Anderson acceleration are discussed. Numerical experiments demonstrate the second-order accuracy and well positivity of the solution for heterogeneous and anisotropic problems on severely distorted grids. The high efficiency of the Anderson acceleration is also shown on reduction of the number of nonlinear iterations. Moreover, the proposed scheme does not have the so-called numerical heat-barrier issue suffered by most existing cell-centered and hybrid schemes. However, further improvements have to be made if the solution is very close to the machine precision and the mesh distortion is very severe.

  16. A two-step finite volume method to discretize heterogeneous and anisotropic pressure equation on general grids (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Al Kobaisi, Mohammed


    A novel Two-Step cell-centered Finite Volume Method (TSFVM) is developed in this work to discretize the heterogeneous and anisotropic pressure equation on triangular and quadrilateral grids in 2D and hexahedral and tetrahedral grids in 3D. Physical properties such as permeability and porosity are piece-wise constant on each grid cell. In the first step, the Galerkin Finite Element Method (FEM) is utilized to compute pressure solutions at all cell vertices. In the second step, pressure values at cell vertices are used to derive continuous two-point flux stencils for cell faces. Mass conservation equations are then written for each cell to obtain a system of linear equations that can be solved for pressure at cell centers. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out to test the performance of our TSFVM. In particular, we compare TSFVM with the classical Multipoint Flux Approximation (MPFA-O) method as well as a more recently developed MPFA method with full pressure support called enhanced MPFA (eMPFA). The results show that the TSFVM compares well with eMPFA for challenging test cases for which MPFA-O breaks down. Specifically, and as a significant step forward, our TSFVM is quite robust for challenging problems involving heterogeneous and highly anisotropic permeability tensors when both MPFA-O and eMPFA suffer from unphysical oscillations. Finally, the numerical convergence study demonstrates that TSFVM has comparable convergence behavior to MPFA-O method for both homogeneous and discontinuous permeability fields.

  17. Generalized anisotropic turbulence spectra and applications in the optical waves' propagation through anisotropic turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zhou, Fugen


    Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. In this work, two theoretical atmosphere refractive-index fluctuations spectral models are derived for optical waves propagating through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. They consider simultaneously the finite turbulence inner and outer scales and the asymmetric property of turbulence eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path. Two anisotropy factors which parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane, so that the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence eddies in the xy-plane is no longer required. Deviations from the classic 11/3 power law behavior in the spectrum model are also allowed by assuming power law value variations between 3 and 4. Based on the derived anisotropic spectral model and the Rytov approximation theory, expressions for the variance of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze the derived spectral models and the variance of AOA fluctuations.

  18. Dynamical 3-Space: Anisotropic Brownian Motion Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.


    Full Text Available In 2014 Jiapei Dai reported evidence of anisotropic Brownian motion of a toluidine blue colloid solution in water. In 2015 Felix Scholkmann analysed the Dai data and detected a sidereal time dependence, indicative of a process driving the preferred Brownian mo- tion diffusion direction to a star-based preferred direction. Here we further analyse the Dai data and extract the RA and Dec of that preferred direction, and relate the data to previous determinations from NASA Spacecraft Earth-flyby Doppler shift data, and other determinations.

  19. Anisotropic thermal conductivity of graphene wrinkles. (United States)

    Wang, C; Liu, Y; Li, L; Tan, H


    In this paper, the anisotropic thermal conductivity characteristics of graphene wrinkles are observed for the first time using a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics method. Our results reveal that the wrinkling level has little effect on the thermal conductivity along the wrinkling direction. However, the wrinkling level plays an important role in the reduction of thermal conductivity along the texture direction, which results from the contributions of increased bond length, von Mises stress, broadening of phonon modes and G-band redshift. These results indicate that graphene wrinkles can be a promising candidate to modulate thermal conductivity properties in nanoscale thermal managements and thermoelectric devices.

  20. Multichannel image regularization using anisotropic geodesic filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grazzini, Jacopo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This paper extends a recent image-dependent regularization approach introduced in aiming at edge-preserving smoothing. For that purpose, geodesic distances equipped with a Riemannian metric need to be estimated in local neighbourhoods. By deriving an appropriate metric from the gradient structure tensor, the associated geodesic paths are constrained to follow salient features in images. Following, we design a generalized anisotropic geodesic filter; incorporating not only a measure of the edge strength, like in the original method, but also further directional information about the image structures. The proposed filter is particularly efficient at smoothing heterogeneous areas while preserving relevant structures in multichannel images.

  1. On Anisotropic Hardy Inequalities and Their Applications (United States)

    Guseĭnov, R. V.


    Certain generalizations of the Hardy inequality are obtained for functions in anisotropic Sobolev spaces on Rn and on certain unbounded domains satisfying a horn condition. On the basis of these inequalities the uniqueness of solution for the Neumann problem in an unbounded domain of "layer" type is proved and the general form of this solution for a class of quasielliptic equations is established. In addition, a theorem on the absence of negative spectrum is proved for a certain class of such equations, considered in Rn.

  2. Selective edge enhancement using anisotropic vortex filter. (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, Paramasivam


    In optical image processing, selective edge enhancement is important when it is preferable to emphasize some edges of an object more than others. We propose a new method for selective edge enhancement of amplitude objects using the anisotropic vortex phase mask by introducing anisotropy in a conventional vortex mask with the help of the sine function. The anisotropy is capable of edge enhancement in the selective region and in the required direction by changing the power and offset angle, respectively, of the sine function.

  3. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)


    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  4. Anisotropic resonant scattering from polymer photonic crystals. (United States)

    Haines, Andrew I; Finlayson, Chris E; Snoswell, David R E; Spahn, Peter; Hellmann, G Peter; Baumberg, Jeremy J


    Hyperspectral goniometry reveals anisotropic scattering which dominates the visual appearance of self-assembled polymer opals. The technique allows reconstruction of the reciprocal-space of nanostructures, and indicates that chain defects formed during shear-ordering are responsible for the anisotropy in these samples. Enhanced scattering with improving order is shown to arise from increased effective refractive index contrast, while broadband background scatter is suppressed by absorptive dopants. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan


    This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering

  6. The Global Systems Science High School Curriculum (United States)

    Gould, A. D.; Sneider, C.; Farmer, E.; Erickson, J.


    Global Systems Science (GSS), a high school integrated interdisciplinary science project based at Lawrence Hall of Science at UC Berkeley, began in the early 1990s as a single book "Planet at Risk" which was only about climate change. Federal grants enabled the project to enlist about 150 teachers to field test materials in their classes and then meeting in summer institutes to share results and effect changes. The result was a series of smaller modules dealing not only with climate change, but other related topics including energy flow, energy use, ozone, loss of biodiversity, and ecosystem change. Other relevant societal issues have also been incorporated including economics, psychology and sociology. The course has many investigations/activities for student to pursue, interviews with scientists working in specific areas of research, and historical contexts. The interconnectedness of a myriad of small and large systems became an overarching theme of the resulting course materials which are now available to teachers for free online at

  7. A new framework for magnetohydrodynamic simulations with anisotropic pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Hirabayashi, Kota; Amano, Takanobu


    We describe a new theoretical and numerical framework of the magnetohydrodynamic simulation incorporated with an anisotropic pressure tensor, which can play an important role in a collisionless plasma. A classical approach to handle the anisotropy is based on the double adiabatic approximation assuming that a pressure tensor is well described only by the components parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This gyrotropic assumption, however, fails around a magnetically neutral region, where the cyclotron period may get comparable to or even longer than a dynamical time in a system, and causes a singularity in the mathematical expression. In this paper, we demonstrate that this singularity can be completely removed away by the combination of direct use of the 2nd-moment of the Vlasov equation and an ingenious gyrotropization model. Numerical tests also verify that the present model properly reduces to the standard MHD or the double adiabatic formulation in an asymptotic manner under an appropria...

  8. Mott Quantum Criticality in the Anisotropic 2D Hubbard Model. (United States)

    Lenz, Benjamin; Manmana, Salvatore R; Pruschke, Thomas; Assaad, Fakher F; Raczkowski, Marcin


    We present evidence for Mott quantum criticality in an anisotropic two-dimensional system of coupled Hubbard chains at half-filling. In this scenario emerging from variational cluster approximation and cluster dynamical mean-field theory, the interchain hopping t_{⊥} acts as a control parameter driving the second-order critical end point T_{c} of the metal-insulator transition down to zero at t_{⊥}^{c}/t≃0.2. Below t_{⊥}^{c}, the volume of the hole and electron Fermi pockets of a compensated metal vanishes continuously at the Mott transition. Above t_{⊥}^{c}, the volume reduction of the pockets is cut off by a first-order transition. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a putative quantum critical point in layered organic conductors, whose location remains elusive so far.

  9. A 2-D model for friction of complex anisotropic surfaces (United States)

    Costagliola, Gianluca; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.


    The friction force observed at macroscale is the result of interactions at various lower length scales that are difficult to model in a combined manner. For this reason, simplified approaches are required, depending on the specific aspect to be investigated. In particular, the dimensionality of the system is often reduced, especially in models designed to provide a qualitative description of frictional properties of elastic materials, e.g. the spring-block model. In this paper, we implement for the first time a two dimensional extension of the spring-block model, applying it to structured surfaces and investigating by means of numerical simulations the frictional behaviour of a surface in the presence of features like cavities, pillars or complex anisotropic structures. We show how friction can be effectively tuned by appropriate design of such surface features.

  10. Anisotropic magnetothermopower in ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayathilaka, P.B. [Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Mihintale (Sri Lanka); Belyea, D.D. [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Fawcett, T.J. [College of Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Miller, Casey W. [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Rochester Institute of Technology, 85 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)


    We report observing the anisotropic magnetothermopower in a variety of ferromagnetic thin films grown on macroscopic substrates. These measurements were enabled by eliminating spurious signals related to the Anomalous Nernst Effect by butt-mounting the sample to the heat source and sink, and appropriate positioning of electrical contacts to avoid unwanted thermal gradients. This protocol enabled detailed measurements of the magnetothermopower in the transverse and longitudinal configurations. This may enable Spin Seebeck Effect studies in the in-plane geometry. - Highlights: • Unintentional thermal gradients along surface normal mitigated via butt-mounting. • Longitudinal/transverse magnetothermopower measured on many systems. • Anomalous Nernst Effect reduced. • Importance of magnetic anisotropy identified with angle-dependent measurements.

  11. Anisotropic magnetoresistance components in (Ga,Mn)As. (United States)

    Rushforth, A W; Výborný, K; King, C S; Edmonds, K W; Campion, R P; Foxon, C T; Wunderlich, J; Irvine, A C; Vasek, P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T; Gallagher, B L


    We explore the basic physical origins of the noncrystalline and crystalline components of the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) in (Ga,Mn)As. The sign of the noncrystalline AMR is found to be determined by the form of spin-orbit coupling in the host band and by the relative strengths of the nonmagnetic and magnetic contributions to the Mn impurity potential. We develop experimental methods yielding directly the noncrystalline and crystalline AMR components which are then analyzed independently. We report the observation of an AMR dominated by a large uniaxial crystalline component and show that AMR can be modified by local strain relaxation. Generic implications of our findings for other dilute moment systems are discussed.

  12. Evolution, Interaction, and Intrinsic Properties of Dislocations in Intermetallics: Anisotropic 3D Dislocation Dynamics Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qian [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.

  13. Transport Phenomena in Multilayered Massless Dirac Fermion System α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tajima


    Full Text Available A zero-gap state with a Dirac cone type energy dispersion was discovered in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 under high hydrostatic pressures. This is the first two-dimensional (2D zero-gap state discovered in bulk crystals with a layered structure. In contrast to the case of graphene, the Dirac cone in this system is highly anisotropic. The present system, therefore, provides a new type of massless Dirac fermion system with anisotropic Fermi velocity. This system exhibits remarkable transport phenomena characteristic to electrons on the Dirac cone type energy structure.

  14. Configurable computing for high-security/high-performance ambient systems


    Gogniat, Guy; Bossuet, Lilian; Burleson, Wayne


    This paper stresses why configurable computing is a promising target to guarantee the hardware security of ambient systems. Many works have focused on configurable computing to demonstrate its efficiency but as far as we know none have addressed the security issue from system to circuit levels. This paper recalls main hardware attacks before focusing on issues to build secure systems on configurable computing. Two complementary views are presented to provide a guide for security and main issues ...

  15. Quantum electrodynamics of inhomogeneous anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Adrian E.R.; Lombardo, Fernando C. [Ciudad Universitaria, Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA CONICET-UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    In this work we calculate the closed time path generating functional for the electromagnetic (EM) field interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. For this purpose, we first find a general expression for the electromagnetic field's influence action from the interaction of the field with a composite environment consisting in the quantum polarization degrees of freedom in each point of space, at arbitrary temperatures, connected to thermal baths. Then we evaluate the generating functional for the gauge field, in the temporal gauge, by implementing the Faddeev-Popov procedure. Finally, through the point-splitting technique, we calculate closed expressions for the energy, the Poynting vector, and the Maxwell tensor in terms of the Hadamard propagator. We show that all the quantities have contributions from the field's initial conditions and also from the matter degrees of freedom. Throughout the whole work we discuss how the gauge invariance must be treated in the formalism when the EM-field is interacting with inhomogeneous anisotropic matter. We study the electrodynamics in the temporal gauge, obtaining the EM-field's equation and a residual condition. Finally we analyze the case of the EM-field in bulk material and also discuss several general implications of our results in relation with the Casimir physics in a non-equilibrium scenario. (orig.)

  16. On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore


    In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...

  17. Anisotropic diffusion phantoms based on microcapillaries (United States)

    Vellmer, Sebastian; Edelhoff, Daniel; Suter, Dieter; Maximov, Ivan I.


    Diffusion MRI is an efficient and widely used technique for the investigation of tissue structure and organisation in vivo. Multiple phenomenological and biophysical diffusion models are intensively exploited for the analysis of the diffusion experiments. However, the verification of the applied diffusion models remains challenging. In order to provide a ;gold standard; and to assess the accuracy of the derived parameters and the limitations of the diffusion models, anisotropic diffusion phantoms with well known architecture are demanded. In the present work we built four anisotropic diffusion phantoms consisting of hollow microcapillaries with very small inner diameters of 5, 10 and 20 μ m and outer diameters of 90 and 150 μ m. For testing the suitability of these phantoms, we performed diffusion measurements on all of them and evaluated the resulting data with a set of popular diffusion models, such as diffusion tensor and diffusion kurtosis imaging, a two compartment model with intra- and extra-capillary water spaces using bi-exponential fitting, and time-dependent diffusion coefficients in Mitra's limit. The perspectives and limitations of these diffusion phantoms are presented and discussed.

  18. Relativistic model for anisotropic strange stars (United States)

    Deb, Debabrata; Chowdhury, Sourav Roy; Ray, Saibal; Rahaman, Farook; Guha, B. K.


    In this article, we attempt to find a singularity free solution of Einstein's field equations for compact stellar objects, precisely strange (quark) stars, considering Schwarzschild metric as the exterior spacetime. To this end, we consider that the stellar object is spherically symmetric, static and anisotropic in nature and follows the density profile given by Mak and Harko (2002) , which satisfies all the physical conditions. To investigate different properties of the ultra-dense strange stars we have employed the MIT bag model for the quark matter. Our investigation displays an interesting feature that the anisotropy of compact stars increases with the radial coordinate and attains its maximum value at the surface which seems an inherent property for the singularity free anisotropic compact stellar objects. In this connection we also perform several tests for physical features of the proposed model and show that these are reasonably acceptable within certain range. Further, we find that the model is consistent with the energy conditions and the compact stellar structure is stable with the validity of the TOV equation and Herrera cracking concept. For the masses below the maximum mass point in mass vs radius curve the typical behavior achieved within the framework of general relativity. We have calculated the maximum mass and radius of the strange stars for the three finite values of bag constant Bg.

  19. Anisotropic Thermoplasticty and Strain Localization in Shale (United States)

    Semnani, S. J.; White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.


    Sedimentary rocks such as shale are inherently anisotropic due to their layered structure, and sensitive to temperature changes caused by various engineering applications e.g. carbon sequestration, waste disposal, wellbore drilling, as well as geothermal and heat storage applications. These materials are also prone to strain localization in the form of a shear band when subjected to critical loads. Strain localization is generally considered as a manifestation of material instability, which has been linked traditionally to failure of materials. While isotropic material models simplify the modeling process, they fail to accurately describe the mechanical behavior and onset of instability in anisotropic rocks. We present a thermo-plastic framework for modeling the coupled thermo-mechanical response and for predicting the inception of a shear band in shale using the general framework of critical state plasticity and the specific framework of modified Cam-Clay model. Under the assumption of infinitesimal deformation, the formulation incorporates anisotropy in both elastic and plastic responses. The model is first calibrated using experimental data from triaxial tests to demonstrate its capability in capturing anisotropy in the mechanical response. Subsequently, stress-point simulations of strain localization are carried out under two different conditions, namely, isothermal localization and adiabatic localization. The adiabatic formulation investigates the effect of temperature on localization via thermo-mechanical coupling. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the effect of anisotropy, hardening, and thermal softening on strain localization.

  20. Polarization Control by Using Anisotropic 3D Chiral Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Menglin L N; Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Itoh, Tatsuo


    Due to the mirror symmetry breaking, chiral structures show fantastic electromagnetic (EM) properties involving negative refraction, giant optical activity, and asymmetric transmission. Aligned electric and magnetic dipoles excited in chiral structures contribute to extraordinary properties. However, the chiral structures that exhibit n-fold rotational symmetry show limited tuning capability. In this paper, we proposed a compact, light, and highly tunable anisotropic chiral structure to overcome this limitation and realize a linear-to-circular polarization conversion. The anisotropy is due to simultaneous excitations of two different pairs of aligned electric and magnetic dipoles. The 3D omega-like structure, etched on two sides of one PCB board and connected by metallic vias, achieves 60% of linearto- circular conversion (transmission) efficiency at the operating frequency of 9.2 GHz. The desired 90-degree phase shift between the two orthogonal linear polarization components is not only from the finite-thick...

  1. Optical transmission properties of an anisotropic defect cavity in one-dimensional photonic crystal (United States)

    Ouchani, Noama; El Moussaouy, Abdelaziz; Aynaou, Hassan; El Hassouani, Youssef; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram


    We investigate theoretically the possibility to control the optical transmission in the visible and infrared regions by a defective one dimensional photonic crystal formed by a combination of a finite isotropic superlattice and an anisotropic defect layer. The Green's function approach has been used to derive the reflection and the transmission coefficients, as well as the densities of states of the optical modes. We evaluate the delay times of the localized modes and we compare their behavior with the total densities of states. We show that the birefringence of an anisotropic defect layer has a significant impact on the behavior of the optical modes in the electromagnetic forbidden bands of the structure. The amplitudes of the defect modes in the transmission and the delay time spectrum, depend strongly on the position of the cavity layer within the photonic crystal. The anisotropic defect layer induces transmission zeros in one of the two components of the transmission as a consequence of a destructive interference of the two polarized waves within this layer, giving rise to negative delay times for some wavelengths in the visible and infrared light ranges. This property is a typical characteristic of the anisotropic photonic layer and is without analogue in their counterpart isotropic defect layers. This structure offers several possibilities for controlling the frequencies, transmitted intensities and the delay times of the optical modes in the visible and infrared regions. It can be a good candidate for realizing high-precision optical filters.

  2. Finite-Difference Methods for Extremely Anisotropic Diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Es (Bram); B. Koren (Barry); H.J. de Blank


    htmlabstractAnisotropic diffusion is a common physical phenomenon and describes processes where the diffusion of some scalar quantity is directionally dependent. Anisotropic diffusive processes are for instance Darcy’s flow for porous media, large scale turbulence where turbulence scales are

  3. Wave propagation in a general anisotropic poroelastic medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The medium considered is a general anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid with a viscous fluid saturating its pores of anisotropic permeability. The wave propagation phenomenon in a saturated porous medium is explained through two relations. One defines modified Christoffel equations for the propagation of plane harmonic ...

  4. Reformulation of Nonlinear Anisotropic Crystal Elastoplasticity for Impact Physics (United States)


    Clayton JD. An alternative three-term decomposition for single crystal deformation motivated by non-linear elastic dislocation solutions. Quarterly...ARL-TR-7231 ● MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Reformulation of Nonlinear Anisotropic Crystal Elastoplasticity for Impact...of Nonlinear Anisotropic Crystal Elastoplasticity for Impact Physics by JD Clayton Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL

  5. Existence of longitudinal waves in pre-stressed anisotropic elastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium, three types of quasi-waves propagate along an arbitrary direction. In general, none of the waves is truly longitudinal. The present study finds the specific directions in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium along which longitudinal waves may propagate. This paper ...

  6. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann


    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  7. Orthonormal bases for anisotropic α-modulation spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    In this article we construct orthonormal bases for bi-variate anisotropic α-modulation spaces. The construction is based on generating a nice anisotropic α-covering and using carefully selected tensor products of univariate brushlet functions with regards to this covering. As an application, we s...

  8. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials (United States)

    Friesen, Dwayne; Babcock, Walter C.; Tuttle, Mark


    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

  9. Anisotropic surface hole-transport property of triphenylamine-derivative single crystal prepared by solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Minoru, E-mail: [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Katagiri, Mitsuhiko; Shironita, Sayoko [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Nagayama, Norio [Nagaoka University of Technology, Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Ricoh Company, Ltd., Nishisawada, Numazu, Shizuoka 410-0007 (Japan)


    Highlights: • A hole transport molecule was investigated based on its electrochemical redox characteristics. • The solubility and supersolubility curves of the molecule were measured in order to prepare a large crystal. • The polarization micrograph and XRD results revealed that a single crystal was obtained. • An anisotropic surface conduction, in which the long-axis direction exceeds that of the amorphous layer, was observed. • The anisotropic surface conduction was well explained by the molecular stacked structure. - Abstract: This paper reports the anisotropic hole transport at the triphenylamine-derivative single crystal surface prepared by a solution method. Triphenylamine derivatives are commonly used in a hole-transport material for organic photoconductors of laser-beam printers, in which the materials are used as an amorphous form. For developing organic photovoltaics using the photoconductor’s technology, preparation of a single crystal seems to be a specific way by realizing the high mobility of an organic semiconductor. In this study, a single crystal of 4-(2,2-diphenylethenyl)-N,N-bis(4-methylphenyl)-benzenamine (TPA) was prepared and its anisotropic hole-transport property measured. First, the hole-transport property of the TPA was investigated based on its chemical structure and electrochemical redox characteristics. Next, a large-scale single crystal formation at a high rate was developed by employing a solution method based on its solubility and supersolubility curves. The grown TPA was found to be a single crystal based on the polarization micrograph observation and crystallographic analysis. For the TPA single crystal, an anisotropic surface conduction was found, which was well explained by its molecular stack structure. The measured current in the long-axis direction is one order of magnitude greater than that of amorphous TPA.

  10. Intermittent Anisotropic Turbulence Detected by THEMIS in the Magnetosheath (United States)

    Macek, W. M.; Wawrzaszek, A.; Kucharuk, B.; Sibeck, D. G.


    Following our previous study of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data, we consider intermittent turbulence in the magnetosheath depending on various conditions of the magnetized plasma behind the Earth’s bow shock and now also near the magnetopause. Namely, we look at the fluctuations of the components of the Elsässer variables in the plane perpendicular to the scale-dependent background magnetic fields and along the local average ambient magnetic fields. We have shown that Alfvén fluctuations often exhibit strong anisotropic non-gyrotropic turbulent intermittent behavior resulting in substantial deviations of the probability density functions from a normal Gaussian distribution with a large kurtosis. In particular, for very high Alfvénic Mach numbers and high plasma beta, we have clear anisotropy with non-Gaussian statistics in the transverse directions. However, along the magnetic field, the kurtosis is small and the plasma is close to equilibrium. On the other hand, intermittency becomes weaker for moderate Alfvén Mach numbers and lower values of the plasma parameter beta. It also seems that the degree of intermittency of turbulence for the outgoing fluctuations propagating relative to the ambient magnetic field is usually similar as for the ingoing fluctuations, which is in agreement with approximate equipartition of energy between these oppositely propagating Alfvén waves. We believe that the different characteristics of this intermittent anisotropic turbulent behavior in various regions of space and astrophysical plasmas can help identify nonlinear structures responsible for deviations of the plasma from equilibrium.

  11. Anisotropic Electron Tail Generation during Tearing Mode Magnetic Reconnection (United States)

    Dubois, Ami


    Magnetic reconnection (MR) plays an important role in particle transport, energization, and acceleration in space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas. In the MST RFP, discrete MR events release large amounts of energy from the equilibrium magnetic field, a large fraction of which is transferred to the ions in a non-collisional process. Key features are anisotropic heating, mass and charge dependence, and energetic ion tail formation. Unlike the ions, the thermal electron temperature decreases at MR events, which is consistent with enhanced electron heat transport due to increased magnetic stochasticity. However, new high-speed x-ray spectrum measurements reveal transient formation of a non-Maxwellian energetic electron tail during MR. The energetic tail is characterized by a power-law, E-γ, with the spectral index (γ) decreasing from 4.2 to 2.2 at MR, and then increasing rapidly to 6.8 due to increased stochastic transport. The x-ray emission peaks in a radial view and is symmetric in the toroidal direction, indicating an anisotropic electron tail is generated. The toroidal symmetry of the electron tail implies runaway acceleration is not a dominant process, consistent with the net emf, ηJll, being smaller than the Dreicer field. Modeling of bremsstrahlung emission shows that a power-law electron tail distribution that is localized near the magnetic axis will yield strong perpendicular anisotropy, consistent with x-ray measurements in the radial and toroidal views. A strong correlation between high energy x-ray flux and tearing mode dynamics suggests a turbulent mechanism is active. This implies that the electron tail formation most likely results from a turbulent wave-particle interaction. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  12. Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon


    The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth\\'s surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry

  13. Anisotropic electric conductivity of delafossite PdCoO2 studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. (United States)

    Noh, Han-Jin; Jeong, Jinwon; Jeong, Jinhwan; Cho, En-Jin; Kim, Sung Baek; Kim, Kyoo; Min, B I; Kim, Hyeong-Do


    An explicit connection between the electronic structure and the anisotropic high conductivity of delafossite-type PdCoO2 has been established by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and core-level x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The ARPES spectra show that a large hexagonal electronlike Fermi surface (FS) consists of very dispersive Pd 4d states. The carrier velocity and lifetime are determined from the ARPES data, and the conductivity is calculated by a solution of the Boltzmann equation, which demonstrates that the high anisotropic conductivity originates from the high carrier velocity, the large two-dimensional FS, and the long lifetime of the carriers.

  14. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems


    Au, Siu Fai


    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in theory fuel cell systems can be far more efficient than thermal power systems. This advantage is only partly utilized in present fuel cell pilot plants and additional optimization is needed. The comp...

  15. Analysis of the Numerical Diffusion in Anisotropic Mediums: Benchmarks for Magnetic Field Aligned Meshes in Space Propulsion Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pérez-Grande


    Full Text Available This manuscript explores numerical errors in highly anisotropic diffusion problems. First, the paper addresses the use of regular structured meshes in numerical solutions versus meshes aligned with the preferential directions of the problem. Numerical diffusion in structured meshes is quantified by solving the classical anisotropic diffusion problem; the analysis is exemplified with the application to a numerical model of conducting fluids under magnetic confinement, where rates of transport in directions parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field are quite different. Numerical diffusion errors in this problem promote the use of magnetic field aligned meshes (MFAM. The generation of this type of meshes presents some challenges; several meshing strategies are implemented and analyzed in order to provide insight into achieving acceptable mesh regularity. Second, Gradient Reconstruction methods for magnetically aligned meshes are addressed and numerical errors are compared for the structured and magnetically aligned meshes. It is concluded that using the latter provides a more correct and straightforward approach to solving problems where anisotropicity is present, especially, if the anisotropicity level is high or difficult to quantify. The conclusions of the study may be extrapolated to the study of anisotropic flows different from conducting fluids.

  16. Entanglement of the Thermal State of an Anisotropic XYZ Spin Chain in an Inhomogeneous Constant Magnetic Field (United States)

    -S. F. Obada, A.; M. Abd Al-Kadar, G.; K. Faramawy, F.; A. Youssef, A.


    A system of a two-qubit Heisenberg anisotropic XYZ spin chain in an inhomogeneous constant magnetic field with the Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya interaction is studied. The energy eigenvalues, the corresponding eigenstates and the thermal states of the system are evaluated. The entanglement is investigated according to Wootter's concurrence. The concurrence is studied against temperature for different values of the parameters involved.

  17. Patterning monolayer graphene with zigzag edges on hexagonal boron nitride by anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guole; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Peng; Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shuopei; Wang, Duoming; Shi, Dongxia; Yang, Rong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zhang, Guangyu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Nanomaterials and Nanodevices, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Graphene nanostructures are potential building blocks for nanoelectronic and spintronic devices. However, the production of monolayer graphene nanostructures with well-defined zigzag edges remains a challenge. In this paper, we report the patterning of monolayer graphene nanostructures with zigzag edges on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrates by an anisotropic etching technique. We found that hydrogen plasma etching of monolayer graphene on h-BN is highly anisotropic due to the inert and ultra-flat nature of the h-BN surface, resulting in zigzag edge formation. The as-fabricated zigzag-edged monolayer graphene nanoribbons (Z-GNRs) with widths below 30 nm show high carrier mobility and width-dependent energy gaps at liquid helium temperature. These high quality Z-GNRs are thus ideal structures for exploring their valleytronic or spintronic properties.

  18. Final fate of charged anisotropic fluid collapse (United States)

    Khan, Suhail; Shah, Hassan; Ahmad, Zahid; Ramzan, Muhammad


    This paper studies the effects of charge on spherically symmetric collapse of anisotropic fluid with a positive cosmological constant. It is observed that electromagnetic field places restriction on the bounds of cosmological constant, which acts as repulsive force against the contraction of matter content and hence the rate of destruction is faster in the presence of electromagnetic field. We have also noted that the presence of charge affects the time interval between the formation of cosmological horizon (CH) and black hole horizon (BHH). When the electric field strength E(t, r) vanishes, our investigations are in full agreement with the results obtained by Ahmad and Malik [Int. J. Theor. Phys. 55, 600 (2016)].

  19. Recent developments in anisotropic heterogeneous shell theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grigorenko, Alexander Ya; Grigorenko, Yaroslav M; Vlaikov, Georgii G


    This volume focuses on the relevant general theory and presents some first applications, namely those based on classical shell theory. After a brief introduction, during which the history and state-of-the-art are discussed, the first chapter presents the mechanics of anisotropic heterogeneous shells, covering all relevant assumptions and the basic relations of 3D elasticity, classical and refined shell models. The second chapter examines the numerical techniques that are used, namely discrete orthogonalization, spline-collocation and Fourier series, while the third highlights applications based on classical theory, in particular, the stress-strain state of shallow shells, non-circular shells, shells of revolution, and free vibrations of conical shells. The book concludes with a summary and an outlook bridging the gap to the second volume.

  20. Analytical study of anisotropic compact star models (United States)

    Ivanov, B. V.


    A simple classification is given of the anisotropic relativistic star models, resembling the one of charged isotropic solutions. On the ground of this database, and taking into account the conditions for physically realistic star models, a method is proposed for generating all such solutions. It is based on the energy density and the radial pressure as seeding functions. Numerous relations between the realistic conditions are found and the need for a graphic proof is reduced just to one pair of inequalities. This general formalism is illustrated with an example of a class of solutions with linear equation of state and simple energy density. It is found that the solutions depend on three free constants and concrete examples are given. Some other popular models are studied with the same method.

  1. Impact location estimation in anisotropic structures (United States)

    Zhou, Jingru; Mathews, V. John; Adams, Daniel O.


    Impacts are major causes of in-service damage in aerospace structures. Therefore, impact location estimation techniques are necessary components of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In this paper, we consider impact location estimation in anisotropic composite structures using acoustic emission signals arriving at a passive sensor array attached to the structure. Unlike many published location estimation algorithms, the algorithm presented in this paper does not require the waveform velocity profile for the structure. Rather, the method employs time-of-arrival information to jointly estimate the impact location and the average signal transmission velocities from the impact to each sensor on the structure. The impact location and velocities are estimated as the solution of a nonlinear optimization problem with multiple quadratic constraints. The optimization problem is solved by using first-order optimality conditions. Numerical simulations as well as experimental results demonstrate the ability of the algorithm to accurately estimate the impact location using acoustic emission signals.

  2. Crack Path Prediction in Anisotropic Brittle Materials (United States)

    Hakim, Vincent; Karma, Alain


    A force balance condition to predict quasistatic crack paths in anisotropic brittle materials is derived from an analysis of diffuse interface continuum models that describe both short-scale failure and macroscopic linear elasticity. The path is uniquely determined by the directional anisotropy of the fracture energy, independent of details of the failure process. The derivation exploits the gradient dynamics and translation symmetry properties of this class of models to define a generalized energy-momentum tensor whose integral around an arbitrary closed path enclosing the crack tip yields all forces acting on this tip, including Eshelby’s configurational forces, cohesive forces, and dissipative forces. Numerical simulations are in very good agreement with analytic predictions.

  3. Spectral functions from anisotropic lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Amato, A. [Helsinki Institute of Physics and University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Evans, W. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics Universitat Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Giudice, P. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Münster, D–48149 Münster (Germany); Harris, T. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Kelly, A. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland); Kim, S.Y. [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, I–00044 Frascati (RM) (Italy); Praki, K. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Ryan, S.M. [School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Skullerud, J.-I. [Department of Mathematical Physics, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)


    The FASTSUM collaboration has been carrying out lattice simulations of QCD for temperatures ranging from one third to twice the crossover temperature, investigating the transition region, as well as the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma. In this contribution we concentrate on quarkonium correlators and spectral functions. We work in a fixed scale scheme and use anisotropic lattices which help achieving the desirable fine resolution in the temporal direction, thus facilitating the (ill posed) integral transform from imaginary time to frequency space. We contrast and compare results for the correlators obtained with different methods, and different temporal spacings. We observe robust features of the results, confirming the sequential dissociation scenario, but also quantitative differences indicating that the methods' systematic errors are not yet under full control. We briefly outline future steps towards accurate results for the spectral functions and their associated statistical and systematic errors.

  4. Adiabatic theory for anisotropic cold molecule collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Mariusz [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Gagarina 7, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Shagam, Yuval; Narevicius, Edvardas [Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Moiseyev, Nimrod [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Faculty of Physics, Technion–Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)


    We developed an adiabatic theory for cold anisotropic collisions between slow atoms and cold molecules. It enables us to investigate the importance of the couplings between the projection states of the rotational motion of the atom about the molecular axis of the diatom. We tested our theory using the recent results from the Penning ionization reaction experiment {sup 4}He(1s2s {sup 3}S) + HD(1s{sup 2}) → {sup 4}He(1s{sup 2}) + HD{sup +}(1s) + e{sup −} [Lavert-Ofir et al., Nat. Chem. 6, 332 (2014)] and demonstrated that the couplings have strong effect on positions of shape resonances. The theory we derived provides cross sections which are in a very good agreement with the experimental findings.

  5. Pure-Connection Gravity and Anisotropic Singularities (United States)

    Krasnov, Kirill; Shtanov, Yuri


    In four space-time dimensions, there exists a special infinite-parameter family of chiral modified gravity theories. They are most properly described by a connection field, with space-time metric being a secondary and derived concept. All these theories have the same number of degrees of freedom as general relativity, which is the only parity-invariant member of this family. Modifications of general relativity can be arranged so as to become important in regions with large curvature. In this paper we review how a certain simple modification of this sort can resolve the Schwarzschild black-hole and Kasner anisotropic singularities of general relativity. In the corresponding solutions, the fundamental connection field is regular in space-time.

  6. Anisotropic plasmas from axion and dilaton deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,Prince Consort Rd., London (United Kingdom); Sosa-Rodriguez, Omar [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham (United Kingdom)


    We construct black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity that are holographically dual to anisotropic plasmas arising from deformations of an infinite class of four-dimensional CFTs. The CFTs are dual to AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5}, where X{sub 5} is an Einstein manifold, and the deformations involve the type IIB axion and dilaton, with non-trivial periodic dependence on one of the spatial directions of the CFT. At low temperatures the solutions approach smooth domain wall solutions with the same AdS{sub 5}×X{sub 5} solution appearing in the far IR. For sufficiently large deformations an intermediate scaling regime appears which is governed by a Lifshitz-like scaling solution. We calculate the DC thermal conductivity and some components of the shear viscosity tensor.

  7. High Reliability Oscillators for Terahertz Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To develop reliable THz sources with high power and high DC-RF efficiency, Virginia Diodes, Inc. will develop a thorough understanding of the complex interactions...

  8. Effective orthorhombic anisotropic models for wavefield extrapolation

    KAUST Repository

    Ibanez-Jacome, W.


    Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, we generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the firstarrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, we develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic ones, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation with the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, and using them to explicitly evaluate the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. We extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the more expensive anisotropic extrapolator.

  9. Reliable High Performance Processing System (RHPPS) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's exploration, science, and space operations systems are critically dependent on the hardware technologies used in their implementation. Specifically, the...

  10. Conical Refraction of Elastic Waves by Anisotropic Metamaterials and Application for Parallel Translation of Elastic Waves. (United States)

    Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young


    Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.

  11. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, J.H.W.; Kouffeld, R.W.J.; Hemmes, K.; Au, Siu Fai

    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  12. Innovative High Temperature Fuel Cell systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Au, Siu Fai


    The world's energy consumption is growing extremely rapidly. Fuel cell systems are of interest by researchers and industry as the more efficient alternative to conventional thermal systems for power generation. The principle of fuel cell conversion does not involve thermal combustion and hence in

  13. High-Capacity Aeronautical Satellite Communication System (United States)

    Sue, M. K.; Davarian, F.; Chan, H. W.


    System primarily designed to serve aircraft en route. Provides 5,093 forward communication channels and 7,093 reverse channels. This allocation of forward and reverse channels reflects anticipated communication traffic patterns. East and west satellites relay messages from ground to airplanes and from airplanes to ground. Use of two satellites instead of one increases availability of services and reliability of system.

  14. See-through optical combiner for augmented reality head-mounted display: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens. (United States)

    Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byounghyo; Yoo, Dongheon; Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Byoungho


    A novel see-through optical device to combine the real world and the virtual image is proposed which is called an index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL). The convex lens made of anisotropic crystal is enveloped with the isotropic material having same refractive index with the extraordinary refractive index of the anisotropic crystal. This optical device functions as the transparent glass or lens according to the polarization state of the incident light. With the novel optical property, IMACL can be utilized in the see-through near eye display, or head-mounted display for augmented reality. The optical property of the proposed optical device is analyzed and aberration by the anisotropic property of the index-matched anisotropic crystal lens is described with the simulation. The concept of the head-mounted display using IMACL is introduced and various optical performances such as field of view, form factor and transmittance are analyzed. The prototype is implemented to verify the proposed system and experimental results show the mixture between the virtual image and real world scene.

  15. On the Design of High Resolution Imaging Systems (United States)

    Eckardt, A.; Reulke, R.


    The design of high-resolution systems is always a consideration of many parameters. Technological parameter of the imaging system, e.g. diameter of the imaging system, mass and power, as well as storage and data transfer, have an direct impact on spacecraft size and design. The paper describes the essential design parameters for the description of high-resolution systems.

  16. High-performance commercial building systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, Stephen


    This report summarizes key technical accomplishments resulting from the three year PIER-funded R&D program, ''High Performance Commercial Building Systems'' (HPCBS). The program targets the commercial building sector in California, an end-use sector that accounts for about one-third of all California electricity consumption and an even larger fraction of peak demand, at a cost of over $10B/year. Commercial buildings also have a major impact on occupant health, comfort and productivity. Building design and operations practices that influence energy use are deeply engrained in a fragmented, risk-averse industry that is slow to change. Although California's aggressive standards efforts have resulted in new buildings designed to use less energy than those constructed 20 years ago, the actual savings realized are still well below technical and economic potentials. The broad goal of this program is to develop and deploy a set of energy-saving technologies, strategies, and techniques, and improve processes for designing, commissioning, and operating commercial buildings, while improving health, comfort, and performance of occupants, all in a manner consistent with sound economic investment practices. Results are to be broadly applicable to the commercial sector for different building sizes and types, e.g. offices and schools, for different classes of ownership, both public and private, and for owner-occupied as well as speculative buildings. The program aims to facilitate significant electricity use savings in the California commercial sector by 2015, while assuring that these savings are affordable and promote high quality indoor environments. The five linked technical program elements contain 14 projects with 41 distinct R&D tasks. Collectively they form a comprehensive Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) program with the potential to capture large savings in the commercial building sector, providing significant economic benefits to

  17. Ultrasound finite element simulation sensitivity to anisotropic titanium microstructures (United States)

    Freed, Shaun; Blackshire, James L.; Na, Jeong K.


    Analytical wave models are inadequate to describe complex metallic microstructure interactions especially for near field anisotropic property effects and through geometric features smaller than the wavelength. In contrast, finite element ultrasound simulations inherently capture microstructure influences due to their reliance on material definitions rather than wave descriptions. To better understand and quantify heterogeneous crystal orientation effects to ultrasonic wave propagation, a finite element modeling case study has been performed with anisotropic titanium grain structures. A parameterized model has been developed utilizing anisotropic spheres within a bulk material. The resulting wave parameters are analyzed as functions of both wavelength and sphere to bulk crystal mismatch angle.

  18. Development of laser ablation plasma by anisotropic self-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Naofumi


    Full Text Available We have proposed a method for reproducing an accurate solution of low-density ablation plasma by properly treating anisotropic radiation. Monte-Carlo method is employed for estimating Eddington tensor with limited number of photon samples in each fluid time step. Radiation field from ablation plasma is significantly affected by the anisotropic Eddington tensor. Electron temperature around the ablation surface changes with the radiation field and is responsible for the observed emission. An accurate prediction of the light emission from the laser ablation plasma requires a careful estimation of the anisotropic radiation field.

  19. Anomalously large bend elastic constant and faster electro-optic response in anisotropic gels formed by a dipeptide (United States)

    Bhargavi, R.; Nair, Geetha G.; Prasad, S. Krishna; Prabhu, Rashmi; Yelamaggad, C. V.


    We report rheological, static, and dynamic Freedericksz transformation measurements on an anisotropic thermoreversible gel formed by gelation of a nematic liquid crystal (NLC) with a monodisperse dipeptide. The storage and loss modulii obtained from a low strain oscillatory shear experiment display that the material forms a weak anisotropic gel, and undergoes a sharp thermal transition to an anisotropic sol state. Freedericksz transformation studies employing an electric field for the reorientation of the molecules present a surprising result: the gel possesses a very large Frank bend elastic constant value, which is orders of magnitude higher than that for the high temperature sol state as well as that for the neat NLC used. On the other hand, the splay elastic constant shows relatively a small increase. Further, these elastic constants show systematic but nonlinear variation with the concentration of the gelator. Attractive features of the electro-optic switching when the sol transforms to the gel state are the vanishing of the undesirable backflow effect, and nearly an order of magnitude decrease in the switching speed. In both the gel and sol states the extracted rotational viscosities are comparable to the values of the neat NLC at corresponding temperatures. In contrast, the bulk dynamic viscosity is more than three orders of magnitude higher in the gel. The studies also demonstrate that the anisotropic gel to anisotropic sol transition seen in this weak gel can be tracked by simply monitoring the static or the dynamic Freedericksz transformation.

  20. Smart Optical Composite Materials: Dispersions of Metal-Organic Framework@Superparamagnetic Microrods for Switchable Isotropic-Anisotropic Optical Properties. (United States)

    Mandel, Karl; Granath, Tim; Wehner, Tobias; Rey, Marcel; Stracke, Werner; Vogel, Nicolas; Sextl, Gerhard; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus


    A smart optical composite material with dynamic isotropic and anisotropic optical properties by combination of luminescence and high reflectivity was developed. This combination enables switching between luminescence and angle-dependent reflectivity by changing the applied wavelength of light. The composite is formed as anisotropic core/shell particles by coating superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica microrods with a layer of the luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF) 3 ∞ [Eu 2 (BDC) 3 ]·2DMF·2H 2 O (BDC 2- = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). The composite particles can be rotated by an external magnet. Their anisotropic shape causes changes in the reflectivity and diffraction of light depending on the orientation of the composite particle. These rotation-dependent optical properties are complemented by an isotropic luminescence resulting from the MOF shell. If illuminated by UV light, the particles exhibit isotropic luminescence while the same sample shows anisotropic optical properties when illuminated with visible light. In addition to direct switching, the optical properties can be tailored continuously between isotropic red emission and anisotropic reflection of light if the illuminating light is tuned through fractions of both UV and visible light. The integration and control of light emission modes within a homogeneous particle dispersion marks a smart optical material, addressing fundamental directions for research on switchable multifunctional materials. The material can function as an optic compass or could be used as an optic shutter that can be switched by a magnetic field, e.g., for an intensity control for waveguides in the visible range.

  1. Extreme Environment High Temperature Communication Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop and demonstrate a communications system capable of operation at extreme temperatures and pressures in hostile and corrosive...

  2. Proprietes optiques lineaires et non-lineaires de nanocomposites metal/dielectrique anisotropes (United States)

    Lamarre, Jean-Michel

    In this thesis, we present the development and the analysis of advanced fabrication techniques allowing for the precise control of the synthesis of nanocomposites formed of gold nanoparticles embedded in a silica matrix. We have developed a three-step technique allowing us to fabricate nanocomposite films with particles of controlled size and shape. (1) The first paper describes the sample fabrication method and their linear optical properties. The nanocomposite materials are first deposited using a PECVD/sputtering hybrid technique. In order to increase the nanoparticule size, the sample are then submitted to a 900°C thermal annealing for several hours. The modification technique used to change the particles from spheres to ellipsoids is described. This technique consists of irradiating the samples using high energy copper ions (30 MeV). The resulting structure is anisotropic since the particles' long axis are aligned with the irradiation direction. This is the first use of this technique for samples with gold particles embedded in a solid matrix. The details of the ellipsometric and spectrophotometric characterization are discussed and the linear optical properties of these materials measured by these techniques are presented. These measurements allow one to find the nanostructural parameters of the layer (gold concentration, particle size, thickness and surface roughness) from the complex refractive index of the layer. We demonstrate the effect of the annealing and the irradiation on the optical properties of the nanocomposite system notably on the control of the characteristics of the SPR absorption band. Thus, we show that the thermal annealing induce a red-shift in the SPR position while the irradiation step corresponds to a blue-shift. We also demonstrate that a final post-irradiation annealing treatment allows to re-form spherical nanoparticles. (2) The second paper is focused on the nonlinear optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposites. Polarized P

  3. Dufour and Soret effects on MHD flow of Williamson fluid over an infinite rotating disk with anisotropic slip

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Najeeb Alam


    This study deals with the investigation of MHD flow of Williamson fluid over an infinite rotating disk with the effects of Soret, Dufour, and anisotropic slip. The anisotropic slip and the Soret and Dufour effects are the primary features of this study, which greatly influence the flow, heat and mass transport properties. In simultaneous appearance of heat and mass transfer in a moving fluid, the mass flux generated by temperature gradients is known as the thermal-diffusion or Soret effect and the energy flux created by a composition gradient is called the diffusion-thermo or Dufour effect, however, difference in slip lengths in streamwise and spanwise directions is named as anisotropic slip. The system of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs), which governs the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics, is transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with the help of von K\\'arm\\'an similarity transformation. A numerical solution of the complicated ODEs is carried out by a MATLAB routi...

  4. Anisotropic flow of direct photons in Pb-Pb collisions at 2.76 TeV per nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Lohner, Daniel

    The measurement of direct photons is a unique tool for the study of early phases of ultra- relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Since photons do not interact with the strong-coupling medium created in these collisions, they carry undistorted information about the system at their production time. During the hydrodynamic expansion of the fireball, pressure gradients turn inhomogeneities in the initial energy density distribution into azimuthal anisotropies in the produced particle spectra. Recent hydrodynamic calculations predict a substantial portion of direct photons from early phases of the collision, where the anisotropic flow has not fully devel- oped. Thus, the direct-photon azimuthal anisotropy is generally expected to be small compared to the anisotropy of hadrons. However, measurements by the PHENIX experiment at RHIC revealed a direct-photon anisotropic flow with a magnitude similar to that for pions. This thesis presents the first measurement of the direct-photon anisotropic flow in Pb-Pb collisi...

  5. SU-E-T-447: Evaluation of the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) Heterogeneity Correction Dose Calculation in Flattened and Flattening- Filter-Free (FFF) Beams for High Energy X-Ray Beams Using the Radiological Physics Center (RPC) Lung Phantom. (United States)

    Repchak, R; Molineu, A; Popple, R; Kry, S; Howell, R; Followill, D


    Compare the accuracy of AAA heterogeneity corrected dose calculation algorithm for high energy x-ray beams (>10 MV) for flattened and FFF beams using RPC anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Six static beam SBRT treatment plans were created using the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) AAA v.8.9.08 heterogeneity correction algorithm. Two flattened beam plans (6 MV and 18 MV) and four other plans (6 MV, 6 MV FFF, 10 MV FFF and 15 MV) were delivered using a Clinac 21EX and TrueBeam STx, respectively. Prescription dose/coverage, 6 Gy to 95% PTV, and constraints were the same for all plans. The phantom contained radiochromic films in the 3 major planes and TLDs in the heart, spine, and tumor. Point doses and 2D dose distributions were exported from the Eclipse TPS and compared with the measured doses. The gamma index analysis evaluation criteria of ±5% dose to agreement and 3 mm distance to agreement was used. TLD to TPS tumor point dose ratios were 0.971±0.006(6MV) and 0.957±0.002(6MV), 0.995±0.005(15MV), 1.114±0.006(18MV), and 0.957±0.003(6MV FFF), 0.974±0.011(10MV FFF) for the six plans. Using ±5%/3mm gamma analysis criteria, the average passing rates for all three films were 96.3% and 95.5%, 97.4%, 66.1%, 93.7%, and 96.3% for the 6 MV, 6 MV, 15 MV, 18 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV FFF plans, respectively. Dose profiles were also evaluated. The current RPC credentialing criteria are: RPC/Inst. tumor dose ratio of 0.97±0.05 and 85% of the pixels in each film plane must pass a ±5%/5mm gamma index analysis. These data demonstrate that the AAA heterogeneity correction dose calculation algorithm is accurate for photon energies in 6-15 MV range for flattened and FFF beams. Heterogeneity corrected dose calculations for photon energies >15 MV were not accurate. Work supported by grants CA10953 and CA81647 (NCI, DHHS). © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  6. {mu}SR in Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Al{sub 3}: anisotropic Kondo effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLaughlin, D.E.; Rose, M.S.; Young, B.-L.; Bernal, O.O.; Heffner, R.H.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Pietri, R.; Andraka, B


    Zero-field {mu}{sup +} spin relaxation experiments in the heavy-fermion alloys Ce{sub 1-x}La{sub x}Al{sub 3}, x=0 and 0.2, examine a recent proposal that the system exhibits a strong anisotropic Kondo effect. We resolve a damped oscillatory component for both La concentrations, indicative of disordered antiferromagnetism. For x=0.2 the oscillation frequency decreases smoothly with increasing temperature, and vanishes at the specific heat anomaly temperature T{sup *}{approx}2.2 K. Our results are consistent with the view that T{sup *} is due to a magnetic transition rather than anisotropic Kondo behavior.

  7. Measurement of anisotropic elasticity of cortical bone with resonant ultrasound spectroscopy


    de Bernard, Simon; GRIMAL, Quentin; Haupert, Sylvain; Laugier, Pascal


    International audience; Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is a method able to precisely characterise all the terms of the stiffness tensor of an anisotropic material from a single measurement of the mechanical resonant frequencies of a sample. A previous attempt to apply this method to bone was unsuccessful due to high mechanical damping of bone which causes resonance peaks to overlap. We built a custom RUS setup and applied a signal processing method which allows retrieving resonant fre...

  8. Anisotropic etching of graphite flakes with water vapor to produce armchair-edged graphene. (United States)

    Luo, Da; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Hao; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Ruoming; Yang, Juan; Li, Yan


    A one-step anisotropic etching method is developed to specifically obtain armchair-edged graphene directly from graphite flakes on various substrates. The armchair edge structure of the produced graphene is verified by the atomic resolution images obtained from the fluid mode peakforce tapping AFM and the relatively high intensity of D band in the Raman spectra. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High Temperature Fiberoptic Thermal Imaging System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will fabricate and demonstrate a small diameter single fiber endoscope that can perform high temperature thermal imaging in a jet engine...

  10. Translation by anisotropic peeling or fracturing in elastic media (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Lister, John; Neufeld, Jerome


    The influence of rock anisotropy on the direction of hydraulic fracturing is an important open question. Two canonical systems have been proposed to investigate the fundamental aspects of such fluid-structure interaction problems: (i) Fluid injection and fracturing into an infinite elastic matrix (e.g., solid gelatin) and (ii) Fluid invasion and peeling beneath a deforming elastic sheet (e.g., bending plate). We investigate the second system and impose a non-uniform prewetting film thickness beneath the elastic sheet. We notice that while the bulk of the elastic sheet retains the static blister shape, a non-uniform prewetting film thickness can cause a horizontal translation of the blister. In particular, for a step jump in prewetting film thickness, asymptotic analysis indicates that, under constant fluid injection, the horizontal translation follows a t 7 / 17 time dependence in cartesian coordinates, and the prefactor of power-law translation depends on the ratio of the distinct prewetting film thicknesses on either side. We also provide numerical and experimental evidence demonstrating anisotropic blister evolution. This can be thought of as a model system for fluid-driven fracturing where the non-uniform prewetting film thickness mimics heterogeneity in material toughness.

  11. Beam Delivery Systems For High Power Lasers (United States)

    Hohberg, G.


    For materials processing with lasers, beam delivery systems are necessary for directing the radiation from the laser head to the working point on the workpiece. The more new fields of application are assumed by the laser, the greater the need for beam delivery systems which have been appropriately designed to meet the requirements of the task to be performed. Depending on the task on hand the appropriate design may be a fixed pipe with a focussing lens at its end or a six-axis articulated arm. This paper will describe the design principles and their optical and mechanical properties. The discussion of the advantages and disadvantages may be of some help in choosing an adequate delivery system.

  12. High-speed, intra-system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fairbanks, Tom [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dallmann, Nicholas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Desgeorges, Rose [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Recently, engineers have been studying on-payload networks for fast communication paths. Using intra-system networks as a means to connect devices together allows for a flexible payload design that does not rely on dedicated communication paths between devices. In this manner, the data flow architecture of the system can be dynamically reconfigured to allow data routes to be optimized for the application or configured to route around devices that are temporarily or permanently unavailable. To use intra-system networks, devices will need network controllers and switches. These devices are likely to be affected by single-event effects, which could affect data communication. In this paper we will present radiation data and performance analysis for using a Broadcom network controller in a neutron environment.

  13. High throughput solar cell ablation system (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John


    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  14. A High Efficiency Wind Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, M. Z.; Hussain, M. M.; Naveed, M. M.


    In this paper, a wind generator system that employs a Fourphase Interleaved Bi-directional DC / DC Converter, a Selective Harmonic Elimination Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SHE SPWM) based Inverter and a PermanentMagnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is studied. The merits of using the topolog......In this paper, a wind generator system that employs a Fourphase Interleaved Bi-directional DC / DC Converter, a Selective Harmonic Elimination Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SHE SPWM) based Inverter and a PermanentMagnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) is studied. The merits of using...

  15. Scattering of thermal He beams by crossed atomic and molecular beams. III. Anisotropic intermolecular potentials for He + N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO, and NO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, M.; Slankas, J.T.; Kuppermann, A.


    Differential scattering cross sections are measured for He + N/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, CO, and NO, using the crossed molecular beams technique. These data, which are sensitive to the van der Waals attractive minima and adjacent regions of the intermolecular potentials, are analyzed in terms of both central-field and anisotropic models. Little evidence is found for quenching of the observed diffraction oscillations, and anisotropic contributions are determined to be small:The spherical averages of these anisotropic potentials are indistinguishable, within experimental error, from the potentials obtained by a central-field analysis. This study thus provides a quantitative, empirical validation of the central-field assumption for molecular scattering in weakly anisotropic systems.

  16. Hydrodynamic cavitation in Stokes flow of anisotropic fluids (United States)

    Stieger, Tillmann; Agha, Hakam; Schoen, Martin; Mazza, Marco G.; Sengupta, Anupam


    Cavitation, the nucleation of vapour in liquids, is ubiquitous in fluid dynamics, and is often implicated in a myriad of industrial and biomedical applications. Although extensively studied in isotropic liquids, corresponding investigations in anisotropic liquids are largely lacking. Here, by combining liquid crystal microfluidic experiments, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical arguments, we report flow-induced cavitation in an anisotropic fluid. The cavitation domain nucleates due to sudden pressure drop upon flow past a cylindrical obstacle within a microchannel. For an anisotropic fluid, the inception and growth of the cavitation domain ensued in the Stokes regime, while no cavitation was observed in isotropic liquids flowing under similar hydrodynamic parameters. Using simulations we identify a critical value of the Reynolds number for cavitation inception that scales inversely with the order parameter of the fluid. Strikingly, the critical Reynolds number for anisotropic fluids can be 50% lower than that of isotropic fluids. PMID:28555615

  17. Modelling of anisotropic compact stars of embedding class one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhar, Piyali [Government General Degree College, Department of Mathematics, Singur, Hooghly, West Bengal (India); Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, U.P. (India); Manna, Tuhina [St. Xavier' s College, Department of Commerce (Evening), Kolkata, West Bengal (India)


    In the present article, we have constructed static anisotropic compact star models of Einstein field equations for the spherical symmetric metric of embedding class one. By assuming the particular form of the metric function ν, we have solved the Einstein field equations for anisotropic matter distribution. The anisotropic models represent the realistic compact objects such as SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1), Her X-1, Vela X-12, PSR J1614-2230 and Cen X-3. We have reported our results in details for the compact star Her X-1 on the ground of physical properties such as pressure, density, velocity of sound, energy conditions, TOV equation and red-shift etc. Along with these, we have also discussed about the stability of the compact star models. Finally we made a comparison between our anisotropic stars with the realistic objects on the key aspects as central density, central pressure, compactness and surface red-shift. (orig.)

  18. Modeling and Measurements of CMUTs with Square Anisotropic Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian


    The conventional method of modeling CMUTs use the isotropic plate equation to calculate the deflection, leading to deviations from FEM simulations including anisotropic effects of around 10% in center deflection. In this paper, the deflection is found for square plates using the full anisotropic...... plate equation and the Galerkin method. Utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is deflection was measured on fabricated CMUTs using a white light interferometer. Fitting...... the anisotropic calculated deflection to the measurement a deviation of 0.5-1.5% is seen for the fitted values. Finally it was also measured how the device behaved under increasing bias voltage and it is observed that the model including anisotropic effects is within the uncertainty interval of the measurements....

  19. Liquid Crystal Elastomer Actuators from Anisotropic Porous Polymer Template. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Li; Yu, Meina; Zhao, Dongyu; Song, Ping; Chi, Hun; Guo, Lin; Yang, Huai


    Controlling self-assembly behaviors of liquid crystals is a fundamental issue for designing them as intelligent actuators. Here, anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is utilized as a template to induce homogeneous alignment of liquid crystals. The mechanism of liquid crystal alignment induced by anisotropic porous polyvinylidene fluoride film is illustrated based on the relationship between the alignment behavior of liquid crystals and surface microstructure of anisotropic polyvinylidene fluoride film. Liquid crystal elastomer actuators with fast responsiveness, large strain change, and reversible actuation behaviors are achieved by the photopolymerization of liquid crystal monomer in liquid crystal cells coated with anisotropic porous films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. High Repetition Rate Thermometry System And Method

    KAUST Repository

    Chrystie, Robin


    A system and method for rapid thermometry using intrapulse spectroscopy can include a laser for propagating pulses of electromagnetic radiation to a region. Each of the pulses can be chirped. The pulses from the region can be detected. An intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined from the pulses. An instantaneous temperature of the region based on the intrapulse absorbance spectrum can be determined.

  1. Periodic Solutions for Highly Nonlinear Oscillation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadimi, M; Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H.D


    In this paper, Frequency-Amplitude Formulation is used to analyze the periodic behavior of tapered beam as well as two complex nonlinear systems. Many engineering structures, such as offshore foundations, oil platform supports, tower structures and moving arms, are modeled as tapered beams. The r...

  2. High fidelity imager emulator of measured systems (United States)

    Haefner, David P.; Teaney, Brian P.


    Characterizing an imaging system through the use of linear transfer functions allows prediction of the output for an arbitrary input. Through careful measurement of the systems transfer function, imaging effects can then be applied to desired imagery in order to conduct subjective comparison, image based analysis, or evaluate algorithm performance. The Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) currently utilizes a two-dimensional linear model of the systems transfer function to emulate the systems response and additive signal independent noise. In this correspondence, we describe how a two-dimensional MTF can be obtained through correct interpolation of one-dimensional measurements. We also present a model for the signal dependent noise (additive and multiplicative) and the details of its calculation from measurement. Through modeling of the experimental setup, we demonstrate how the emulated sensor replicates the observed objective performance in resolution, sampling, and noise. In support of the reproducible research effort, many of the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  3. High Assurance Models for Secure Systems (United States)

    Almohri, Hussain M. J.


    Despite the recent advances in systems and network security, attacks on large enterprise networks consistently impose serious challenges to maintaining data privacy and software service integrity. We identify two main problems that contribute to increasing the security risk in a networked environment: (i) vulnerable servers, workstations, and…

  4. Borehole Deformation and Failure in Anisotropic Media (United States)

    Gaede, Oliver; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Lumley, David


    Borehole breakouts develop due to compressive shear failure along the borehole wall and subsequent spalling of near wellbore rock. These compressive shear failures can occur during drilling and lead to a borehole enlargement in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress. In order to investigate the initiation of borehole breakouts in anisotropic media a numerical analysis of the borehole deformation has been performed. The numerical model is based on an extensive geophysical and geomechanical dataset, provided by BHP Billiton Petroleum. This dataset was established during the development and production phase of an oil reservoir on the North West Shelf, Western Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the severity of the influence of anisotropy on the breakout process. It is proposed that there is a hierarchy among the possible influences on the breakout process: 1. The regional stress field has a first order effect on the borehole breakout direction. 2. This is followed by a preferential fracture direction or anisotropic failure criterion of the medium. 3. And finally the elastic anisotropy of the medium affecting the local stress field around the borehole. A clear separation of these influences through methods of observation is not always trivial. Firstly, the preferential fracture direction and the elastic anisotropy, at least to some degree, are functions of the regional stress field. Secondly, most of the knowledge we have about the regional stress field in relatively aseismic regions is inferred from borehole breakout data. Therefore a numerical simulation is chosen as a method of study. Material properties like elastic anisotropy or failure criterion and even their dependency on the stress field can easily be manipulated. This geophysical and geomechanical data is used to populate the numerical model. The regional stress field is implemented as a boundary condition. The commercial Finite Element package ABAQUS is used to obtain the stress / strain

  5. High risk process control system assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Venetia [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil); Zamberlan, Maria Cristina [National Institute of Tehnology (INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Human Reliability and Ergonomics Research Group for the Oil, Gas and Energy Sector


    The evolution of ergonomics methodology has become necessary due to the dynamics imposed by the work environment, by the increase of the need of human cooperation and by the high interaction between various sections within a company. In the last 25 years, as of studies made in the high risk process control, we have developed a methodology to evaluate these situations that focus on the assessment of activities and human cooperation, the assessment of context, the assessment of the impact of work of other sectors in the final activity of the operator, as well as the modeling of existing risks. (author)

  6. Spatial Frequency Responses of Anisotropic Refractive Index Gratings Formed in Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Fukuda


    Full Text Available We report on an experimental investigation of spatial frequency responses of anisotropic transmission refractive index gratings formed in holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals (HPDLCs. We studied two different types of HPDLC materials employing two different monomer systems: one with acrylate monomer capable of radical mediated chain-growth polymerizations and the other with thiol-ene monomer capable of step-growth polymerizations. It was found that the photopolymerization kinetics of the two HPDLC materials could be well explained by the autocatalytic model. We also measured grating-spacing dependences of anisotropic refractive index gratings at a recording wavelength of 532 nm. It was found that the HPDLC material with the thiol-ene monomer gave higher spatial frequency responses than that with the acrylate monomer. Statistical thermodynamic simulation suggested that such a spatial frequency dependence was attributed primarily to a difference in the size of formed liquid crystal droplets due to different photopolymerization mechanisms.

  7. Hybrid processing and anisotropic sintering shrinkage in textured ZnO ceramics (United States)

    Keskinbora, Kahraman; Suzuki, Tohru S.; Ozgur Ozer, I.; Sakka, Yoshio; Suvaci, Ender


    We have studied the combined effects of the templated grain growth and magnetic alignment processes on sintering, anisotropic sintering shrinkage, microstructure development and texture in ZnO ceramics. Suspensions of 0-10 vol % ZnO template particles were slip cast in a 12 T rotating magnetic field. Sintering and texture characteristics were investigated via thermomechanical analysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. Sintering as well as texture characteristics depend on template concentration. For the studied ZnO system, there is a critical template concentration (2 vol % in this study) above which densification is limited by the templates owing to constrained sintering. Below this limit, the densification is enhanced and the anisotropic shrinkage is reduced, which is attributed to densifying characteristics of the templates.

  8. Spin wave instability processes in anisotropic ferrite materials (United States)

    Nazarov, Alexey V.


    A theoretical and experimental study of spin wave instability processes in anisotropic ferrite materials has been performed. The theory of spin wave instability for ferromagnetic insulators is extended to include generalized anisotropy based on a tensor formulation of the static and dynamic effective fields. The formalism is set up for saturated magnetic ellipsoids and a general microwave field configuration. The analysis yields working formulae for the threshold microwave field amplitude evaluations and critical mode determinations. Numerical simulations are used to calculate threshold field and critical modes for first order oblique pumping processes in a thin disk with easy plane anisotropy. The theory was successfully applied to the analysis of comprehensive experimental data on anisotropic ferrite materials for various static and microwave field configurations. The dependence of the threshold field amplitude on the external field was investigated experimentally at 9 and 16.7 GHz. The high power thresholds were measured for different geometrical configurations and spin wave relaxation rates were determined. The data showed qualitative agreement with the theoretical calculations. The spin wave linewidth was found to be independent of the spin wave propagation direction. The specific results are presented for three different ferrite materials, liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) yttrium iron garnet (YIG) single crystal thin films, polycrystalline hipped YIG, and Y-type zinc (Zn-Y) single crystal easy plane hexagonal ferrite. In LPE YIG films, the spin wave linewidth was 0.2 Oe at 9 GHz and the influence of thin film geometry and small magnetocrystalline anisotropy on the high power thresholds was found. In hipped YIG, the spin wave linewidth was determined by the grain size and was 1.2 Oe at 9 GHz and 0.6 Oe at 16.7 GHz. In Zn-Y, 9 GHz data demonstrated related sample size effects, so that high power thresholds were inversely proportional to the sample lateral size. At 16

  9. Two theorems about electromagnetic force in activate anisotropic regions


    Spałek, Dariusz; Spałek, Dariusz


    ICEM 2010, Roma ICEM 2010, Roma The paper has dealt with two problems of calculation of electromagnetic force/torque. The first one is for magnetically anisotropic and conductive region. It has been presented sufficient condition for surface-integral representation of electromagnetic force/torque in conductive and anisotropic region. The second approach deals with the problem of independence of force/torque calculated value from shape of integral-surface. The second theorem gives the su...



    Yshii, Lucas Nobumichi; Santana, Rafael Christovão; Monteiro, Francisco Alex Correia; Neto, Eliseu Lucena


    The Ritz method is used in the buckling analysis of anisotropic plates under several combinations of in-plane loads and boundary conditions. Ritz bases are generated from modi…ed Legendre polynomials, and the plate rigidities are carefully chosen to provide thermodynamically admissible materials. The accuracy of the proposed approach is assessed by means of several examples solved by …nite element models.Keywords: Ritz method, Anisotropic plates, Buckling analysis

  11. Hybrid localized waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, A. A.; Yermakov, O. Y.; Ovcharenko, A. I.


    We study both theoretically and experimentally a new class of surface electromagnetic waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurface. At certain frequency this type of metasurface demonstrates the topological transition from elliptical to hyperbolic regime.......We study both theoretically and experimentally a new class of surface electromagnetic waves supported by resonant anisotropic metasurface. At certain frequency this type of metasurface demonstrates the topological transition from elliptical to hyperbolic regime....

  12. Hybrid anisotropic materials for wind power turbine blades

    CERN Document Server

    Golfman, Yosif


    Based on rapid technological developments in wind power, governments and energy corporations are aggressively investing in this natural resource. Illustrating some of the crucial new breakthroughs in structural design and application of wind energy generation machinery, Hybrid Anisotropic Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades explores new automated, repeatable production techniques that expand the use of robotics and process controls. These practices are intended to ensure cheaper fabrication of less-defective anisotropic material composites used to manufacture power turbine blades. This boo

  13. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang


    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  14. Anisotropic ghost dark energy cosmological model with hybrid expansion law (United States)

    Mahanta, Chandra Rekha; Sarma, Nitin


    In this paper, we study the anisotropic Bianchi type-VI0 metric filled with dark matter and anisotropic ghost dark energy. We have solved the Einstein's field equations by considering hybrid expansion law (HEL) for the average scale factor. It is found that at later times the universe becomes spatially homogeneous, isotropic and flat. From a state finder diagnosis, it is found that our model is having similar behavior like ɅCDM model at late phase of cosmic time.

  15. On the interpretation of time-resolved anisotropic diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Ulf; Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Henriksen, Niels Engholm


    In this paper, we review existing systematic treatments for the interpretation of anisotropic diffraction patterns from partially aligned symmetric top molecules. Such patterns arise in the context of time-resolved diffraction experiments. We calculate diffraction patterns for ground-state NaI ex......I excited with an ultraviolet laser. The results are interpreted with the help of a qualitative analytic model, and general recommendations on the analysis and interpretation of anisotropic diffraction patterns are given....

  16. Generalized fabrication of surfactant-stabilized anisotropic metal nanoparticles to amino-functionalized surfaces: application to surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wang, Chungang; Chen, Ying; Ma, Zhanfang; Wang, Tingting; Su, Zhongmin


    A universal and facile approach for the self-assembly of surfactant-coated anisotropic metal nanoparticles on the amino-functionalized planar and spherical surfaces based on electrostatic attraction has been explored. Large-scale and different surface coverage of monolayer film and metallodielectric core-shell nanostructures of anisotropic metal nanoparticles, including Au nanorods, Au(core)Ag(shell) nanorods and Ag nanoprisms, have been fabricated. The optical response in the visible and the near infrared (NIR) of resulting nanostructures can be easily controlled by varying the concentration of the anisotropic nanoparticle, the amount of silica particles, and the immersion time of the substrates. Large-scale anisotropic metal nanoparticle monolayer films with subtle control over the surface coverage and tunable plasmon resonance as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates for probing 4-aminothiophenol were investigated, which exhibited high SERS activity, stability and reproducibility.

  17. Crystal collimator systems for high energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100516; Tikhomirov, Viktor; Lobko, Alexander


    Crystalline collimators can potentially considerably improve the cleaning performance of the presently used collimator systems using amorphous collimators. A crystal-based collimation scheme which relies on the channeling particle deflection in bent crystals has been proposed and extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, since the efficiency of particle capture into the channeling regime does not exceed ninety percent, this collimation scheme partly suffers from the same leakage problems as the schemes using amorphous collimators. To improve further the cleaning efficiency of the crystal-based collimation system to meet the requirements of the FCC, we suggest here a double crystal-based collimation scheme, to which the second crystal is introduced to enhance the deflection of the particles escaping the capture to the channeling regime in its first crystal. The application of the effect of multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal and of the same in a sequence of crystals is simu...

  18. High efficiency stoichiometric internal combustion engine system (United States)

    Winsor, Richard Edward; Chase, Scott Allen


    A power system including a stoichiometric compression ignition engine in which a roots blower is positioned in the air intake for the engine to control air flow. Air flow is decreased during part power conditions to maintain the air-fuel ratio in the combustion chamber of the engine at stoichiometric, thus enabling the use of inexpensive three-way catalyst to reduce oxides of nitrogen. The roots blower is connected to a motor generator so that when air flow is reduced, electrical energy is stored which is made available either to the roots blower to temporarily increase air flow or to the system electrical load and thus recapture energy that would otherwise be lost in reducing air flow.

  19. High Performance Interactive System Dynamics Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duckworth, Jonathan C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This brochure describes a system dynamics simulation (SD) framework that supports an end-to-end analysis workflow that is optimized for deployment on ESIF facilities(Peregrine and the Insight Center). It includes (I) parallel and distributed simulation of SD models, (ii) real-time 3D visualization of running simulations, and (iii) comprehensive database-oriented persistence of simulation metadata, inputs, and outputs.

  20. High Performance Interactive System Dynamics Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, Brian W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gruchalla, Kenny M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duckworth, Jonathan C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This presentation describes a system dynamics simulation (SD) framework that supports an end-to-end analysis workflow that is optimized for deployment on ESIF facilities(Peregrine and the Insight Center). It includes (I) parallel and distributed simulation of SD models, (ii) real-time 3D visualization of running simulations, and (iii) comprehensive database-oriented persistence of simulation metadata, inputs, and outputs.