Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.
1992-01-01
The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analysis that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented. (author). 10 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs
Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.M.; Larsen, E.W.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) algorithm that effectively accelerates the iterative solution of transport problems with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, DSA loses its effectiveness for transport problems that have strongly anisotropic scattering. Two generalizations of DSA are proposed, which, for highly anisotropic scattering problems, converge at least an order of magnitude (clock time) faster than the DSA method. These two methods are developed, the results of Fourier analyses that theoretically predict their efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical predictions are presented
The importance of anisotropic scattering in high energy neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prillinger, G.; Mattes, M.
1984-01-01
To describe the highly anisotropic scattering of very fast neutrons adequately the transport code ANISN has been improved. Fokker-Planck terms have been introduced into the transport equation which accurately describe the small changes in energy and angle. The new code has been tested for a d(50)-Be neutron source in a deep penetration iron problem. The influence of the forward peaked elastic scattering on the fast neutron spectrum is shown to be significant and can be handled efficiently in the new ANISN version. Since common cross-section libraries are limited by Legendre expansion, or by their upper energy boundary, or exclude elastic scattering above 20 MeV a special library has been created. (Auth.)
Disadvantage factor for anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saad, E.A.; Abdel Krim, M.S.; EL-Dimerdash, A.A.
1990-01-01
The invariant embedding method is used to solve the problem for a two region reactor with anisotropic scattering and to compute the disadvantage factor necessary for calculating some reactor parameters
Synthetic acceleration methods for linear transport problems with highly anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.M.
1989-01-01
One of the iterative methods which is used to solve the discretized transport equation is called the Source Iteration Method (SI). The SI method converges very slowly for problems with optically thick regions and scattering ratios (σ s /σ t ) near unity. The Diffusion-Synthetic Acceleration method (DSA) is one of the methods which has been devised to improve the convergence rate of the SI method. The DSA method is a good tool to accelerate the SI method, if the particle which is being dealt with is a neutron. This is because the scattering process for neutrons is not severely anisotropic. However, if the particle is a charged particle (electron), DSA becomes ineffective as an acceleration device because here the scattering process is severely anisotropic. To improve the DSA algorithm for electron transport, the author approaches the problem in two different ways in this thesis. He develops the first approach by accelerating more angular moments (φ 0 , φ 1 , φ 2 , φ 3 ,...) than is done in DSA; he calls this approach the Modified P N Synthetic Acceleration (MPSA) method. In the second approach he modifies the definition of the transport sweep, using the physics of the scattering; he calls this approach the Modified Diffusion Synthetic Acceleration (MDSA) method. In general, he has developed, analyzed, and implemented the MPSA and MDSA methods in this thesis and has shown that for a high order quadrature set and mesh widths about 1.0 cm, they are each about 34 times faster (clock time) than the DSA method. Also, he has found that the MDSA spectral radius decreases as the mesh size increases. This makes the MDSA method a better choice for large spatial meshes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.M.
1998-01-01
The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has been known to be an effective tool for accelerating the iterative solution of transport equations with isotopic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, the DSA method is not effective for transport equations that have strongly anisotropic scattering. A generalization of the modified DSA (MDSA) methods is proposed. This method converges (Clock time) faster than the MDSA method. It is developed, the results of a Fourier analysis that theoretically predicts its efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical prediction are presented. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattab, K.M.
1997-01-01
The diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) method has been known to be an effective tool for accelerating the iterative solution of transport equations with isotropic or mildly anisotropic scattering. However, the DSA method is not effective for transport equations that have strongly anisotropic scattering. A generalization of the modified DSA (MDSA) method is proposed that converges (clock time) faster than the MDSA method. This method is developed, the results of a Fourier analysis that theoretically predicts its efficiency are described, and numerical results that verify the theoretical prediction are presented
Neutron transfer with anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Wakil, S.A.; Haggag, M.H.; Saad, E.A.
1979-01-01
The finite slab problem is reduced to a semi-infinite one by adding an infinitesimally thick layer such that both the added layer and the total layer are semi-infinite. The relation between the reflection and transmission functions for a finite slab and those for an infinite one are obtained in terms of an operator which satisfies a semigroup equation. The method is applied to anisotropic scattering with azimuthal dependence. Numerical calculations are made and the results compared with those of other workers. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Shuyuan; Zhang, Wenjiao; He, Xiaodong; Li, Jianjun; Yao, Yongtao; Lin, Xiu
2015-01-01
To probe thermal degradation behavior of fibrous insulation for long-term service, an inverse analysis model was developed to simultaneously reconstruct thermal degradation properties of fibers after thermal exposures from the experimental thermal response data, by using the measured infrared spectral transmittance and X-ray phase analysis data as direct inputs. To take into account the possible influence of fibers degradation after thermal exposure on the conduction heat transfer, we introduced a new parameter in the thermal conductivity model. The effect of microstructures on the thermal degradation parameters was evaluated. It was found that after high temperature thermal exposure the decay rate of the radiation intensity passing through the material was weakened, and the probability of being scattered decreased during the photons traveling in the medium. The fibrous medium scattered more radiation into the forward directions. The shortened heat transfer path due to possible mechanical degradation, along with the enhancement of mean free path of phonon scattering as devitrification after severe heat treatment, made the coupled solid/gas thermal conductivities increase with the rise of heat treatment temperature. - Highlights: • A new model is developed to probe conductive and radiative properties degradation of fibers. • To characterize mechanical degradation, a new parameter is introduced in the model. • Thermal degradation properties are reconstructed from experiments by L–M algorithm. • The effect of microstructures on the thermal degradation parameters is evaluated. • The analysis provides a powerful tool to quantify thermal degradation of fiber medium
Transient electromagnetic scattering on anisotropic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, R.D.
1990-01-01
This dissertation treats the problem of transient scattering of obliquely incident electromagnetic plane waves on a stratified anisotropic dielectric slab. Scattering operators are derived for the reflective response of the medium. The internal fields are calculated. Wave splitting and invariant imbedding techniques are used. These techniques are first presented for fields normally incident on a stratified, isotropic dielectric medium. The techniques of wave splitting and invariant imbedding are applied to normally incident plane waves on an anisotropic medium. An integro-differential equation is derived for the reflective response and the direct and inverse scattering problems are discussed. These techniques are applied to the case of obliquely incident plane waves. The reflective response is derived and the direct and inverse problems discussed and compared to those for the normal incidence case. The internal fields are investigated for the oblique incidence via a Green's function approach. A numerical scheme is presented to calculate the Green's function. Finally, symmetry relations of the reflective response are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konovalov, N.V.
The accuracy of the calculation of the characteristics of a radiation field in a plane layer is investigated by solving the transfer equation in dependence on the error in the specification of the scattering indicatrix. It is shown that a small error in the specification of the indicatrix can lead to a large error in the solution at large optical depths. An estimate is given for the region of optical thicknesses for which the emission field can be determined with sufficient degree of accuracy from the transfer equation with a known error in the specification of the indicatrix. For an estimation of the error involved in various numerical methods, and also for a determination of the region of their applicability, the results of calculations of problems with strongly anisotropic indicatrix are given
Analysis of electromagnetic scattering by uniaxial anisotropic bispheres.
Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Hai-Ying
2011-02-01
Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory and the Fourier transformation approach, electromagnetic (EM) scattering of two interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes is investigated. By introducing the Fourier transformation, the EM fields in the uniaxial anisotropic spheres are expanded in terms of the spherical vector wave functions. The interactive scattering coefficients and the expansion coefficients of the internal fields are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the bispheres is considered. Some selected calculations on the effects of the size parameter, the uniaxial anisotropic absorbing dielectric, and the sphere separation distance are described. The backward radar cross section of two uniaxial anisotropic spheres with a complex permittivity tensor changing with the sphere separation distance is numerically studied. The authors are hopeful that the work in this paper will help provide an effective calibration for further research on the scattering characteristic of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres or other shaped anisotropic particles.
Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Ekanem
2018-04-05
Apr 5, 2018 ... scattering characteristics in fractured media and thus, validate the practical utility of using anisotropic .... to fluid flow. ... account the porosity of the host rock and assumes .... The free surface boundary conditions generally.
Algebraic collapsing acceleration of the characteristics method with anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Tellier, R.; Hebert, A.; Roy, R.
2004-01-01
In this paper, the characteristics solvers implemented in the lattice code Dragon are extended to allow a complete anisotropic treatment of the collision operator. An efficient synthetic acceleration method, called Algebraic Collapsing Acceleration (ACA), is presented. Tests show that this method can substantially speed up the convergence of scattering source iterations. The effect of boundary conditions, either specular or white reflections, on anisotropic scattering lattice-cell problems is also considered. (author)
Anisotropic light scattering of individual sickle red blood cells.
Kim, Youngchan; Higgins, John M; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Suresh, Subra; Park, YongKeun
2012-04-01
We present the anisotropic light scattering of individual red blood cells (RBCs) from a patient with sickle cell disease (SCD). To measure light scattering spectra along two independent axes of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs with arbitrary orientation, we introduce the anisotropic Fourier transform light scattering (aFTLS) technique and measured both the static and dynamic anisotropic light scattering. We observed strong anisotropy in light scattering patterns of elongated-shaped sickle RBCs along its major axes using static aFTLS. Dynamic aFTLS analysis reveals the significantly altered biophysical properties in individual sickle RBCs. These results provide evidence that effective viscosity and elasticity of sickle RBCs are significantly different from those of the healthy RBCs.
Biasing anisotropic scattering kernels for deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carter, L.L.; Hendricks, J.S.
1983-01-01
The exponential transform is often used to improve the efficiency of deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations. This technique is usually implemented by biasing the distance-to-collision kernel of the transport equation, but leaving the scattering kernel unchanged. Dwivedi obtained significant improvements in efficiency by biasing an isotropic scattering kernel as well as the distance-to-collision kernel. This idea is extended to anisotropic scattering, particularly the highly forward Klein-Nishina scattering of gamma rays
Neutron transport in two dissimilar media anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkart, A.R.; Ishiguro, Y.; Siewert, C.E.
1976-01-01
The elementary solution of the one-speed neutron-transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering are used in conjunction with Chandrasekhar's invariance principles to solve in a concise manner the Milne problem for two adjoining half-spaces and the critical reactor problem for a reflected slab
Finite-difference modelling of anisotropic wave scattering in discrete ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2
cells containing equivalent anisotropic medium by the use of the linear slip equivalent model. Our. 16 results show ...... frequency regression predicted by equation (21) can be distorted by the effects of multiple scattering. 337 ..... other seismic attributes, at least for the relatively simple geometries of subsurface structure. 449.
Effect of neutron anisotropic scattering in fast reactor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiba, Gou
2004-01-01
Numerical tests were performed about an effect of a neutron anisotropic scattering on criticality in the Sn transport calculation. The simplest approximation, the consistent P approximation and the extended transport approximation were compared with each other in one-dimensional slab fast reactor models. JAERI fast set which has been used for fast reactor analyses is inadequate to evaluate the effect because it doesn't include the scattering matrices and the self-shielding factors to calculate the group-averaged cross sections weighted by the higher-order moment of angular flux. In the present study, the sub-group method was used to evaluate the group-averaged cross sections. Results showed that the simplest approximation is inadequate and the transport approximation is effective for evaluating the anisotropic scattering. (author)
Complex eigenvalues for neutron transport equation with quadratically anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sjoestrand, N.G.
1981-01-01
Complex eigenvalues for the monoenergetic neutron transport equation in the buckling approximation have been calculated for various combinations of linearly and quadratically anisotropic scattering. The results are discussed in terms of the time-dependent case. Tables are given of complex bucklings for real decay constants and of complex decay constants for real bucklings. The results fit nicely into the pattern of real and purely imaginary eigenvalues obtained earlier. (author)
Chen, X. W.; Zhao, C. Y.; Wang, B. X.
2018-05-01
Thermal barrier coatings are common porous materials coated on the surface of devices operating under high temperatures and designed for heat insulation. This study presents a comprehensive investigation on the microstructural effect on radiative scattering coefficient and asymmetry factor of anisotropic thermal barrier coatings. Based on the quartet structure generation set algorithm, the finite-difference-time-domain method is applied to calculate angular scattering intensity distribution of complicated random microstructure, which takes wave nature into account. Combining Monte Carlo method with Particle Swarm Optimization, asymmetry factor, scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are retrieved simultaneously. The retrieved radiative properties are identified with the angular scattering intensity distribution under different pore shapes, which takes dependent scattering and anisotropic pore shape into account implicitly. It has been found that microstructure significantly affects the radiative properties in thermal barrier coatings. Compared with spherical shape, irregular anisotropic pore shape reduces the forward scattering peak. The method used in this paper can also be applied to other porous media, which designs a frame work for further quantitative study on porous media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuereci, R. Goekhan [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministry of Education, Ankara (Turkey). 75th year Anatolia High School
2017-11-15
One speed, time independent and homogeneous medium neutron transport equation is solved with the anisotropic scattering which includes both the linearly and the quadratically anisotropic scattering kernel. Having written Case's eigenfunctions and the orthogonality relations among of these eigenfunctions, slab albedo problem is investigated as numerically by using Modified F{sub N} method. Selected numerical results are presented in tables.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.
1976-05-01
The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lillie, R.A.; Robinson, J.C.
1976-05-01
The discrete ordinates method is the most powerful and generally used deterministic method to obtain approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. A finite element formulation, utilizing a canonical form of the transport equation, is here developed to obtain both integral and pointwise solutions to neutron transport problems. The formulation is based on the use of linear triangles. A general treatment of anisotropic scattering is included by employing discrete ordinates-like approximations. In addition, multigroup source outer iteration techniques are employed to perform group-dependent calculations. The ability of the formulation to reduce substantially ray effects and its ability to perform streaming calculations are demonstrated by analyzing a series of test problems. The anisotropic scattering and multigroup treatments used in the development of the formulation are verified by a number of one-dimensional comparisons. These comparisons also demonstrate the relative accuracy of the formulation in predicting integral parameters. The applicability of the formulation to nonorthogonal planar geometries is demonstrated by analyzing a hexagonal-type lattice. A small, high-leakage reactor model is analyzed to investigate the effects of varying both the spatial mesh and order of angular quadrature. This analysis reveals that these effects are more pronounced in the present formulation than in other conventional formulations. However, the insignificance of these effects is demonstrated by analyzing a realistic reactor configuration. In addition, this final analysis illustrates the importance of incorporating anisotropic scattering into the finite element formulation. 8 tables, 29 figures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Wan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The history of methods for the electromagnetic scattering by an anisotropic sphere has been reviewed. Two main methods, angular expansion method and T-matrix method, which are widely used for the anisotropic sphere, are expressed in Cartesian coordinate firstly. The comparison of those and the further exploration on the scattering field are illustrated afterwards. Based on the most general form concluded by variable separation method, the coupled electric field and magnetic field of radial anisotropic sphere can be derived. By simplifying the condition, simpler case of uniaxial anisotropic media is expressed with confirmed coefficients for the internal and external field. Details of significant phenomenon are presented.
Raman scattering in a Heisenberg S = 1/2 antiferromagnet on the anisotropic triangular lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, Natalia; Brenig, Wolfram
2009-01-01
We investigate two-magnon Raman scattering from the S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice (THAF), considering both isotropic and anisotropic exchange interactions. We find that the Raman intensity for the isotropic THAF is insensitive to the scattering geometry, while both the line profile and the intensity of the Raman response for the anisotropic THAF shows a strong dependence on the scattering geometry. For the isotropic case we present an analytical and numerical study of the Raman intensity including both the effect of renormalization of the one-magnon spectrum by 1 = S corrections and final-state magnonmagnon interactions. The bare Raman intensity displays two peaks related to one-magnon van-Hove singularities. We find that 1 = S self-energy corrections to the one-magnon spectrum strongly modify this intensity profile. The central Raman-peak is significantly enhanced due to plateaus in the magnon dispersion, the high frequency peak is suppressed due to magnon damping, and the overall spectral support narrows considerably. Additionally we investigate final-state interactions by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation to O(1 = S). In contrast to collinear antiferromagnets, the non-collinear nature of the magnetic ground state leads to an irreducible magnon scattering which is retarded and non-separable already to lowest order. We show that final-state interactions lead to a rather broad Raman-continuum centered around approximately twice the 'roton'-energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marleau, G.; Debos, E.
1998-01-01
One of the main problems encountered in cell calculations is that of spatial homogenization where one associates to an heterogeneous cell an homogeneous set of cross sections. The homogenization process is in fact trivial when a totally reflected cell without leakage is fully homogenized since it involved only a flux-volume weighting of the isotropic cross sections. When anisotropic leakages models are considered, in addition to homogenizing isotropic cross sections, the anisotropic scattering cross section must also be considered. The simple option, which consists of using the same homogenization procedure for both the isotropic and anisotropic components of the scattering cross section, leads to inconsistencies between the homogeneous and homogenized transport equation. Here we will present a method for homogenizing the anisotropic scattering cross sections that will resolve these inconsistencies. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Z.J.; Wu, Z.S.; Qu, T.; Shang, Q.C.; Bai, L.
2016-01-01
Based on the generalized multiparticle Mie theory, multiple scattering of an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam (ZOBB) with arbitrary propagation direction is investigated. The particle size and configuration are arbitrary. The arbitrary incident Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spherical vector wave functions (SVWFs). Utilizing the vector addition theorem of SVWFs, interactive and total scattering coefficients are derived through the continuous boundary conditions on which the interaction of the particles is considered. The accuracy of the theory and codes are verified by comparing results with those obtained for arbitrary plane wave incidence by CST simulation, and for ZOBB incidence by a numerical method. The effects of angle of incidence, pseudo-polarization angle, half-conical angle, beam center position, and permittivity tensor elements on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres, such as a linear chain, a 4×4×4 cube-shaped array, and other periodical structures consisting of massive spheres, are numerically analyzed. Selected results on the properties of typical particles such as TiO 2 , SiO 2 , or other particle lattices are calculated. This investigation could provide an effective test for further research on the scattering characteristics of an aggregate of anisotropic spheres by a high-order Bessel vortex beam. The results have important application in optical tweezers and particle manipulation. - Highlights: • Scattering of Bessel beam by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres is studied. • The zero-order Bessel beam propagates and polarizes along arbitrary direction. • The accuracy of expansion coefficients, the scattering theory and codes is verified. • Effects of various parameters on scattering properties are numerically discussed. • Scattering properties of several type of periodical array are numerically analyzed.
Monoenergetic neutral particle transport in an anisotropically scattering half-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.; Garth, J.C.; Woolf, S.
1995-01-01
During the past several years, a considerable effort has been underway to develop reliable analytical benchmark solutions to the one-speed transport equation in various geometries. The reader may well ask open-quotes whyclose quotes such a task has been undertaken, given the recent rapid advances in numerical transport theory. The simple answer is that reliable numerical solutions do not yet exist, and their development still represents a mathematical challenge. However, regardless of how mathematically challenging the development is, there are more compelling reasons for this effort which are rooted in the very fundamentals of science and technology. In particular, these solutions, which are highly accurate numerical evaluations of analytical solution representations, serve as open-quotes industry standardsclose quotes to which other more approximate methods or approximations can be compared. Thus analytical benchmarks are part of the process control and continuous improvement of numerical transport methods and are therefore integral components in TQM (Total Quality Management) as applied to transport methods development. With the above reasoning in mind, the authors begin the development and application of a new analytical solution and evaluation for a half-space featuring anisotropic scattering. This work is an extension of previous efforts in which isotropically scattering half-spaces were treated. The previous benchmarks were obtained most conveniently via a numerical Laplace transform inversion which could be applied in a straightforward manner to the case of isotropic scattering. The application of the Laplace transform method is problematical for anisotropic scattering and does not admit to the direct identification of the scalar flux from integral transport theory
Anisotropic scattering in three dimensional differential approximation of radiation heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Condiff, D.W.
1987-01-01
The differential approximation is extended to account for anisotropic scattering in invariant three dimensional form. A moment method using polyadic Legendre functions establishes that pressure cross sections should take precedence over extinction cross sections for treating radiation heat transfer in an absorbing, emitting, and scattering medium, and that use of these cross sections accounts for the extent of preferred forward or backwards scattering. The procedure and principle is extended to polyadic P-N approximations
Multiple small-angle neutron scattering studies of anisotropic materials
Allen, A J; Long, G G; Ilavsky, J
2002-01-01
Building on previous work that considered spherical scatterers and randomly oriented spheroidal scatterers, we describe a multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) analysis for nonrandomly oriented spheroids. We illustrate this with studies of the multi-component void morphologies found in plasma-spray thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hai-Xia; Cheng Chuan-Fu
2011-01-01
We study the light scattering of an orthogonal anisotropic rough surface with secondary most probable slope distribution. It is found that the scattered intensity profiles have obvious secondary maxima, and in the direction perpendicular to the plane of incidence, the secondary maxima are oriented in a curve on the observation plane, which is called the orientation curve. By numerical calculation of the scattering wave fields with the height data of the sample, it is validated that the secondary maxima are induced by the side face element, which constitutes the prismoid structure of the anisotropic surface. We derive the equation of the quadratic orientation curve. Experimentally, we construct the system for light scattering measurement using a CCD. The scattered intensity profiles are extracted from the images at different angles of incidence along the orientation curves. The experimental results conform to the theory. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Akito; Yamamoto, Junji; Ebisuya, Mituo; Sumita, Kenji
1979-01-01
A new method for calculating the anisotropic neutron transport is proposed for the angular spectral analysis of D-T fusion reactor neutronics. The method is based on the transport equation with new type of anisotropic scattering kernels formulated by a single function I sub(i) (μ', μ) instead of polynomial expansion, for instance, Legendre polynomials. In the calculation of angular flux spectra by using scattering kernels with the Legendre polynomial expansion, we often observe the oscillation with negative flux. But in principle this oscillation disappears by this new method. In this work, we discussed anisotropic scattering kernels of the elastic scattering and the inelastic scatterings which excite discrete energy levels. The other scatterings were included in isotropic scattering kernels. An approximation method, with use of the first collision source written by the I sub(i) (μ', μ) function, was introduced to attenuate the ''oscillations'' when we are obliged to use the scattering kernels with the Legendre polynomial expansion. Calculated results with this approximation showed remarkable improvement for the analysis of the angular flux spectra in a slab system of lithium metal with the D-T neutron source. (author)
The scattering properties of anisotropic dielectric spheres on electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Hui; Zhang Weiyi; Wang Zhenlin; Ming Naiben
2004-01-01
The scattering coefficients of spheres with dielectric anisotropy are calculated analytically in this paper using the perturbation method. It is found that the different modes of vector spherical harmonics and polarizations are coupled together in the scattering coefficients (c-matrix) in contrast to the isotropic case where all modes are decoupled from each other. The generalized c-matrix is then incorporated into our codes for a vector wave multiple scattering program; the preliminary results on face centred cubic structure show that dielectric anisotropy reduces the symmetry of the scattering c-matrix and removes the degeneracy in photonic band structures composed of isotropic dielectric spheres
Wang, Tao; Jiang, Zhenfei; Ji, Xiaoling; Zhao, Daomu
2016-04-01
Spectral shifts and spectral switches of a polychromatic electromagnetic light wave on scattering from an anisotropic semisoft boundary medium are discussed. It is shown that both the property of the incident field and the character of the scattering medium play roles in the change of the spectrum of the far-zone scattered field. It is also shown that the distribution of the far-zone scattered spectrum, including the magnitude of the spectral shift and the direction at which the spectral switch occurs, is rotationally nonsymmetric.
Evidence for anisotropic excitonlike enhancement of the Raman scattering from La2CuO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, W.H.; Peters, C.R.; Wanklyn, B.M.; Chen, C.; Watts, B.E.
1988-01-01
Polarized Raman studies on oriented single crystals of La 2 CuO 4 yield α/sub z//sub z/ spectra with narrow lines at 429 and 228 cm/sup -1/ that are identified as the two A 1 /sub g/ modes expected for the tetragonal K 2 NiF 4 structure; α/sub x//sub z/ spectra with one line at 228 cm/sup -1/ that has E/sub g/ symmetry; and α/sub x//sub x/ spectra with numerous peaks that are due to normally forbidden phonon excitations. The α/sub x//sub x/ spectra also show strong second-order features, suggesting a highly anisotropic, excitonlike enhancement of the Raman scattering
Two-group neutron transport theory in adjacent space with lineary anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maiorino, J.R.
1978-01-01
A solution method for two-group neutron transport theory with anisotropic scattering is introduced by the combination of case method (expansion method of self singular function) and the invariant imbedding (invariance principle). The numerical results for the Milne problem in light water and borated water is presented to demonstrate the avalibility of the method [pt
DTF4-J, 1-D Neutron Transport with Anisotropic Scattering by Sn Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimura, Hideo
1971-01-01
Nature of physical problem solved: DTF-4-J solves the one-dimensional multi-group transport equation with anisotropic scattering by Sn method. It is a FORTRAN adaptation of the Los Alamos DTF-IV program written by K.D. Lathrop, and it is combined with the JAERI SIMPLED-4 program written by H. Nishimura
Polarized optical scattering by inhomogeneities and surface roughness in an anisotropic thin film.
Germer, Thomas A; Sharma, Katelynn A; Brown, Thomas G; Oliver, James B
2017-11-01
We extend the theory of Kassam et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A12, 2009 (1995)JOAOD60740-323210.1364/JOSAA.12.002009] for scattering by oblique columnar structure thin films to include the induced form birefringence and the propagation of radiation in those films. We generalize the 4×4 matrix theory of Berreman [J. Opt. Soc. Am.62, 502 (1972)JOSAAH0030-394110.1364/JOSA.62.000502] to include arbitrary sources in the layer, which are necessary to determine the Green function for the inhomogeneous wave equation. We further extend first-order vector perturbation theory for scattering by roughness in the smooth surface limit, when the layer is anisotropic. Scattering by an inhomogeneous medium is approximated by a distorted Born approximation, where effective medium theory is used to determine the effective properties of the medium, and strong fluctuation theory is used to determine the inhomogeneous sources. In this manner, we develop a model for scattering by inhomogeneous films, with anisotropic correlation functions. The results are compared with Mueller matrix bidirectional scattering distribution function measurements for a glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) film. While the results are applied to the GLAD film example, the development of the theory is general enough that it can guide simulations for scattering in other anisotropic thin films.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.C.
1980-01-01
High energy and small momentum transfer 2 'yields' 2 hadronic scattering processes are described in the physical framework of particle exchange. Particle production in high energy collisions is considered with emphasis on the features of inclusive reactions though with some remarks on exclusive processes. (U.K.)
Approximate solution to neutron transport equation with linear anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coppa, G.; Ravetto, P.; Sumini, M.
1983-01-01
A method to obtain an approximate solution to the transport equation, when both sources and collisions show a linearly anisotropic behavior, is outlined and the possible implications for numerical calculations in applied neutronics as well as shielding evaluations are investigated. The form of the differential system of equations taken by the method is quite handy and looks simpler and more manageable than any other today available technique. To go deeper into the efficiency of the method, some typical calculations concerning critical dimension of multiplying systems are then performed and the results are compared with the ones coming from the classical Ssub(N) approximations. The outcome of such calculations leads us to think of interesting developments of the method which could be quite useful in alternative to other today widespread approximate procedures, for any geometry, but especially for curved ones. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, G.A.; Vilhena, M.T. de; Bodmann, B.E.J.
2010-01-01
In the present work we propose a heuristic construction of a transport equation for neutrons with anisotropic scattering considering only the radial cylinder dimension. The eigenvalues of the solutions of the equation correspond to the positive values for the one dimensional case. The central idea of the procedure is the application of the S N method for the discretisation of the angular variable followed by the application of the zero order Hankel transformation. The basis the construction of the scattering terms in form of an integro-differential equation for stationary transport resides in the hypothesis that the eigenvalues that compose the elementary solutions are independent of geometry for a homogeneous medium. We compare the solutions for the cartesian one dimensional problem for an infinite cylinder with azimuthal symmetry and linear anisotropic scattering for two cases. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laletin, N.I.; Sultanov, N.V.; Boyarinov, V.F.
1992-01-01
Estimation is fulfilled of an influence of scattering anisotropy on K ef the TRX and BAPL assemblies by the WIMS-D4 program in the transport (TA) and linear-anisotropic (LAA) approximations. It is shown that account for the scattering anisotropy in the LAA in comparison with TA decreases K ef by 0.8% for TRX assemblies and by 0.5-0.6% for BAPL ones. For more detailed account for the scattering anisotropy in calculations of cylindrical and cluster cells in the one-velocity approximation is developed a technique for account for the anisotropy in the methods of surface pseudosources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trombetti, T.
1990-01-01
The exact kernel method is presented for linear transport problems with azimuth-dependent angular fluxes. It is based on the evaluation of average scattering densities (ASD's) that fully describe the neutron (or particle) transfer between subsets of the unit sphere of directions by anisotropic scattering. Reciprocity and other ASD functional properties are proved and combined with the symmetry properties of suitable SN quadrature sets. This greatly reduces the number of independent ASD's to be computed and stored. An approach for performing ASD computations with reciprocity checks is presented. ASD expressions of the scattering source for typical 2D geometries are explicitly given. (author)
Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping
2015-08-24
Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Shigenao; Mori, Yusuke; Sakai, Seigo
2004-01-01
Radiative heat transfer in the fog layer is analyzed. Direct and diffuse solar irradiation, and infrared sky flux are considered as incident radiation. Anisotropic scattering of radiation by water droplets is taken into account. Absorption and emission of radiation by water droplets and radiative gases are also considered. Furthermore, spectral dependences of radiative properties of irradiation, reflectivity, gas absorption and scattering and absorption of mist are considered. The radiation element method by ray emission model (REM 2 ) is used for the nongray radiation analysis. Net downward radiative heat flux at the sea surface and radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer are calculated for several conditions. Transmitted solar flux decreases as liquid water content (LWC) in the fog increases. However, the value does not become zero but has the value about 60 W/m 2 . The effect of humidity and mist on radiative cooling at night is investigated. Due to high temperature and humidity condition, the radiation cooling at night is not so large even in the clear sky. Furthermore, the radiative equilibrium temperature distribution in the fog layer in the daytime is higher as LWC increases, and the inversion layer of temperature occurs
Box, M. A.; Deepak, A.
1981-01-01
The propagation of photons in a medium with strongly anisotropic scattering is a problem with a considerable history. Like the propagation of electrons in metal foils, it may be solved in the small-angle scattering approximation by the use of Fourier-transform techniques. In certain limiting cases, one may even obtain analytic expressions. This paper presents some of these results in a model-independent form and also illustrates them by the use of four different phase-function models. Sample calculations are provided for comparison purposes
Mao, Shi-Chun; Wu, Zhen-Sen
2008-12-01
An exact solution to the two-dimensional scattering properties of an anisotropic elliptic cylinder for transverse electric polarization is presented. The internal field in an anisotropic elliptic cylinder is expressed as integral representations of Mathieu functions and Fourier series. The coefficients of the series expansion are obtained by imposing boundary conditions on the anisotropic-free-space interface. A matrix is developed to solve the nonorthogonality properties of Mathieu functions at the interface between two different media. Numerical results are given for the bistatic radar cross section and the amplitude of the total magnetic field along the x and y axes. The result is in agreement with that available as expected when an elliptic cylinder degenerates to a circular one.
Spectral analysis of the SN approximations in a slab with quadratically anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ourique, L.E.; Pazos, R.P.; Vilhena, M.T.; Barros, R.C.
2003-01-01
The spectral analysis of the S N approximations to the one-dimensional transport equation began with 3 and 4, following the studies of 1 and 2 about the discrete eigenvalues of the transport equation. In previous work about the influence of a parameter in the solutions of S N approximations, it was considered the total macroscopic cross section as a control parameter and was analyzed how its variation changes the nature of the eigenvalues of the S N transport matrix, in problems with linearly anisotropic scattering. It was showed the existence of bifurcations points, i.e., there exist some values of control parameters for which the S N transport matrix has only real eigenvalues while for other values the S N relation between the eigenvalues of S N transport matrix and control parameter, supposing quadratically anisotropic scattering. Numerical results are reported. (author)
Spectral analysis of the S{sub N} approximations in a slab with quadratically anisotropic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ourique, L.E.; Pazos, R.P. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: ourique@pucrs.br; rpp@pucrs.br; Vilhena, M.T. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia); vilhena@cesup.ufrgs.br; Barros, R.C. [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico]. E-mail: dickbarros@uol.com.br
2003-07-01
The spectral analysis of the S{sub N} approximations to the one-dimensional transport equation began with 3 and 4, following the studies of 1 and 2 about the discrete eigenvalues of the transport equation. In previous work about the influence of a parameter in the solutions of S{sub N} approximations, it was considered the total macroscopic cross section as a control parameter and was analyzed how its variation changes the nature of the eigenvalues of the S{sub N} transport matrix, in problems with linearly anisotropic scattering. It was showed the existence of bifurcations points, i.e., there exist some values of control parameters for which the S{sub N} transport matrix has only real eigenvalues while for other values the S{sub N} relation between the eigenvalues of S{sub N} transport matrix and control parameter, supposing quadratically anisotropic scattering. Numerical results are reported. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fletcher, J.K.
1987-12-01
The computer code MARC/PN provides a solution of the multigroup transport equation by expanding the flux in spherical harmonics. The coefficients of the series so obtained satisfy linked first order differential equations, and on eliminating terms associated with odd parity harmonics a second order system results which can be solved by established finite difference or finite element techniques. This report describes modifications incorporated in MARC/PN to allow for anisotropic scattering, and the modelling of irregular exterior boundaries in the finite element option. The latter development leads to substantial reductions in problem size, particularly for three dimensions. Also, links to an interactive graphics mesh generator (SUPERTAB) have been added. The final section of the report contains results from problems showing the effects of anisotropic scatter and the ability of the code to model irregular geometries. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganapol, B.D., E-mail: ganapol@cowboy.ame.arizona.edu [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Mostacci, D.; Previti, A. [Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli, 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy)
2016-07-01
We present highly accurate solutions to the neutral particle transport equation in a half-space. While our initial motivation was in response to a recently published solution based on Chandrasekhar's H-function, the presentation to follow has taken on a more comprehensive tone. The solution by H-functions certainly did achieved high accuracy but was limited to isotropic scattering and emission from spatially uniform and linear sources. Moreover, the overly complicated nature of the H-function approach strongly suggests that its extension to anisotropic scattering and general sources is not at all practical. For this reason, an all encompassing theory for the determination of highly precise benchmarks, including anisotropic scattering for a variety of spatial source distributions, is presented for particle transport in a half-space. We illustrate the approach via a collection of cases including tables of 7-place flux benchmarks to guide transport methods developers. The solution presented can be applied to a considerable number of one and two half-space transport problems with variable sources and represents a state-of-the-art benchmark solution.
Horsewill, A J; Panesar, K S; Rols, S; Johnson, M R; Murata, Y; Komatsu, K; Mamone, S; Danquigny, A; Cuda, F; Maltsev, S; Grossel, M C; Carravetta, M; Levitt, M H
2009-01-09
We report an inelastic neutron scattering investigation of the quantum dynamics of hydrogen molecules trapped inside anisotropic fullerene cages. Transitions among the manifold of quantized rotational and translational states are directly observed. The spectra recorded as a function of energy and momentum transfer are interpreted in terms of the rotational potential and the cage dimensions. The thermodynamics of orthohydrogen and parahydrogen are investigated through temperature dependence measurements.
Decay constants for pulsed monoenergetic neutron systems with quadratically anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sjoestrand, N.G.
1977-06-01
The eigenvalues of the time-dependent transport equation for monoenergetic neutrons have been studied numerically for various combinations of linearly and quadratically anisotropic scattering assuming a space dependence of e β . The results, presented in the form of tables and graphs, show that quadratic anisotropy leads to a more complicated eigenvalue spectrum. However, no drastic changes occur in comparison to purely linear anistropy.(author)
Multi-parameter Analysis and Inversion for Anisotropic Media Using the Scattering Integral Method
Djebbi, Ramzi
2017-10-24
The main goal in seismic exploration is to identify locations of hydrocarbons reservoirs and give insights on where to drill new wells. Therefore, estimating an Earth model that represents the right physics of the Earth\\'s subsurface is crucial in identifying these targets. Recent seismic data, with long offsets and wide azimuth features, are more sensitive to anisotropy. Accordingly, multiple anisotropic parameters need to be extracted from the recorded data on the surface to properly describe the model. I study the prospect of applying a scattering integral approach for multi-parameter inversion for a transversely isotropic model with a vertical axis of symmetry. I mainly analyze the sensitivity kernels to understand the sensitivity of seismic data to anisotropy parameters. Then, I use a frequency domain scattering integral approach to invert for the optimal parameterization. The scattering integral approach is based on the explicit computation of the sensitivity kernels. I present a new method to compute the traveltime sensitivity kernels for wave equation tomography using the unwrapped phase. I show that the new kernels are a better alternative to conventional cross-correlation/Rytov kernels. I also derive and analyze the sensitivity kernels for a transversely isotropic model with a vertical axis of symmetry. The kernels structure, for various opening/scattering angles, highlights the trade-off regions between the parameters. For a surface recorded data, I show that the normal move-out velocity vn, ƞ and δ parameterization is suitable for a simultaneous inversion of diving waves and reflections. Moreover, when seismic data is inverted hierarchically, the horizontal velocity vh, ƞ and ϵ is the parameterization with the least trade-off. In the frequency domain, the hierarchical inversion approach is naturally implemented using frequency continuation, which makes vh, ƞ and ϵ parameterization attractive. I formulate the multi-parameter inversion using the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdallah, A M; Elsherbiny, E M; Sobhy, M [Reactor departement, nuclear research centre, Inshaas, (Egypt)
1995-10-01
The P{sub n}-spatial expansion method has been used for calculating the one speed transport utilization factor in heterogenous slab cells in which neutrons may scatter anisotropically; by considering the P{sup 1-} approximation with a two-term scattering kernel in both the fuel and moderator regions, an analytical expression for the disadvantage factor has been derived. The numerical results obtained have been shown to be much better than those calculated by the usual P{sup 1-} and P{sup 3-} approximations and comparable with those obtained by some exact methods. 3 tabs.
Gauge unification in highly anisotropic string compactifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebecker, A.; Trapletti, M.
2005-01-01
It is well known that heterotic string compactifications have, in spite of their conceptual simplicity and aesthetic appeal, a serious problem with precision gauge coupling unification in the perturbative regime of string theory. Using both a duality-based and a field-theoretic definition of the boundary of the perturbative regime, we reevaluate the situation in a quantitative manner. We conclude that the simplest and most promising situations are those where some of the compactification radii are exceptionally large, corresponding to highly anisotropic orbifold models. Thus, one is led to consider constructions which are known to the effective field-theorist as higher-dimensional or orbifold grand unified theories (orbifold GUTs). In particular, if the discrete symmetry used to break the GUT group acts freely, a non-local breaking in the larger compact dimensions can be realized, leading to a precise gauge coupling unification as expected on the basis of the MSSM particle spectrum. Furthermore, a somewhat more model dependent but nevertheless very promising scenario arises if the GUT breaking is restricted to certain singular points within the manifold spanned by the larger compactification radii
Characterization of Anisotropic Behavior for High Grade Pipes
Yang, Kun; Huo, Chunyong; Ji, Lingkang; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jiming; Ma, Qiurong
With the developing requirement of nature gas, the property needs of steel for pipe line are higher and higher, especially in strength and toughness. It is necessary to improve the steel grade in order to ensure economic demand and safety. However, with the rise of steel grade, the differences on properties in different orientations (anisotropic behaviors) become more and more obvious after the process of hot rolling, which may affect the prediction of fracture for the pipes seriously (Thinking of isotropic mechanical properties for material in traditional predict way). In order to get the reason for anisotropic mechanics, a series of tests are carried out for high grade steel pipes, including not only mechanical properties but also microstructures. Result indicates that there are obviously anisotropic behaviors for high grade steel pipes in two orientations (rolling orientation and transverse orientation). Strength is better in T orientation because Rm is higher and Rt 0.5 rises more in T orientation, and toughness is better in L orientation because of the higher Akv and SA in L orientation under a same temperature. Banded structures are formed in T orientation, and the spatial distribution of inclusion and precipitated phases are different in T, L and S orientation. The anisotropic arrangement for the matrix in space (banded structures), which is formed after the process of hot rolling, may affect the mechanical properties in different orientation. Moreover, the elasticity modulus of particles is different from the elasticity modulus of matrix, deformation between particles and matrix may cause stress concentration, and damage forms in this place. Because of the different distribution of particles in space, the level of damage is anisotropic in different orientations, and the anisotropic mechanical properties occur finally. Therefore, the anisotropic mechanical properties are determined by the anisotropic microstructures, both the anisotropic of matrix and the
Experimental Validation of UTDefect: Scattering in Anisotropic Media and Near-field Behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pecorari, Claudio
2002-11-01
crack instead of a strip-like, surface-breaking crack. Though differences between the theoretical predictions and the experimental results were found, they could be explained in terms of the high sensitivity of the measured quantities to the uncertainties associated to the orientation of the crystallographic axes of the material. Such a high sensitivity of the scattered waves to the axes orientation cast reasonable doubt on whether the position of crack can be accurately deduced from ultrasonic measurements if the anisotropic structure of the material is not known within a very high degree of precision. To carry out the second task, a series of 19 steel samples of different thickness were prepared. The thickness range and transducer frequency were chosen so that the path travelled by the beam upon reflection from the back surface of each sample spanned the near-field region of the transducer. For each sample the amplitude of the component at 5 MHz was measured three times. Such an experimental configuration was simulated by considering the backscattering of an incident beam of longitudinal waves by a large crack with stress-free surfaces. Even in this case, a reasonable agreement between theory and experiment was found, with the maximum difference between the two of the order of 10 percent at a distance of 0.5 near-field lengths from the transducers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuereci, R.G. [Kirikkale Univ., Kirikkale (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministry of Education, Ankara (Turkey). 75th year Anatolia High School
2017-05-15
One speed, time independent and homogeneous medium neutron transport equation can be solved with the anisotropic scattering which includes both the linear anisotropic and the quadratic anisotropic scattering properties. Having solved Case's eigenfunctions and the orthogonality relations among these eigenfunctions, some neutron transport problems such as albedo problem can be calculated as numerically by using numerical or semi-analytic methods. In this study the half-space albedo problem is investigated by using the modified F{sub N} method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildiz, C.
1998-01-01
The critical slab problem is studied in one-speed neutron transport theory using a linearly anisotropic kernel which combines forward and backward scattering. It is shown that, the recently observed non-monotonic variation of the thickness also exists in this strongly anisotropic case. In addition, the influence of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness is analysed in detail. Numerical analysis for the critical thickness are performed using the spherical harmonics method and results are tabulated for selected illustrative cases as a function of different degrees of anisotropic scattering. Finally, some results are discussed and compared with those already obtained by other methods, the agreement is satisfactory. The spherical harmonic method gives generally accurate results in one dimensional geometry, and it is very suitable for the numerical solution of the neutron transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering
Hoenders, BJ; Benaron, DA; Chance, B; Muller, GJ; Katzir, A
1996-01-01
We will present two methods leading to the solution for the problem of anisotropical light scattering by arbitrarily shaped bodies. Each method converts the equation of radiative transfer and the boundary conditions valid at the boundary of the scattering medium into a set of Fredholm integral
Zhang, Qiang
2017-12-26
The effect of interfacial scattering on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was studied in the (Ta12n/Fe36n)n multilayers, where the numbers give the thickness in nanometer and n is an integer from 1 to 12. The multilayer structure has been confirmed by the XRR spectra and STEM images of cross-sections. The magneto-transport properties were measured by four-point probe method in Hall bar shaped samples in the temperature range of 5 - 300 K. The AMR increases with n, which could be ascribed to the interfacial spin-orbit scattering. At 5 K, the longitudinal resistivity (ρ) increases by 6.4 times and the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρ) increases by 49.4 times from n =1 to n =12, indicative of the interfacial scattering effect. The skew-scattering, side-jump and intrinsic contributions to the AHE were separated successfully. As n increases from 1 to 12, the intrinsic contribution decreases because of the decaying crystallinity or finite size effect and the intrinsic contribution dominated the AHE for all samples. The side jump changes from negative to positive because the interfacial scattering and intralayer scattering in Fe layers both contribute to side jump in the AHE but with opposite sign.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, G.A.; Bogado Leite, S.Q.; Vilhena, M.T. de
2009-01-01
An analytical solution has been obtained for the one-speed stationary neutron transport problem, in an infinitely long cylinder with anisotropic scattering by the decomposition method. Series expansions of the angular flux distribution are proposed in terms of suitably constructed functions, recursively obtainable from the isotropic solution, to take into account anisotropy. As for the isotropic problem, an accurate closed-form solution was chosen for the problem with internal source and constant incident radiation, obtained from an integral transformation technique and the F N method
Anisotropic Raman scattering and mobility in monolayer 1T_d-ReS_2 controlled by strain engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Z.H.; Wei, B.C.; He, C.Y.; Min, Y.M.; Chen, C.H.; Liu, L.Z.; Wu, X.L.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Symmetry breaking is achieved by strain that modulates the band structure and carrier population. • Mobility cunt-on rate can be enhanced by structural transformation. • The angle-dependent Raman spectrum of A_g-like, E_g-like and C_p models are used to discriminate and analysis structural anisotropy. • Strain engineering is a useful method to design the anisotropic Raman scattering and mobility. - Abstract: Regulation of electronic structure and mobility cut-on rate in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has attracted much attention because of its potential in electronic device design. The anisotropic Raman scattering and mobility cut-on rate of monolayer unique distorted-1T (1T_d) ReS_2 with external strain are determined theoretically based on the density function theory. The angle-dependent Raman spectrum of A_g-like, E_g-like and C_p models are used to discriminate and analysis structural anisotropy; the strain is exploited to adjust the structural symmetry and electronic structure of ReS_2 so as to enhance mobility cut-on rate to almost 6 times of the original value. Our results suggest the use of the strain engineering in high-quality semiconductor switch device.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Lancellotti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Linear embedding via Green’s operators (LEGO is a domain decomposition method particularly well suited for the solution of scattering and radiation problems comprised of many objects. The latter are enclosed in simple-shaped subdomains (electromagnetic bricks which are in turn described by means of scattering operators. In this paper we outline the extension of the LEGO approach to the case of penetrable objects with dyadic permittivity or permeability. Since a volume integral equation is only required to solve the scattering problem inside a brick and the scattering operators are inherently surface operators, the LEGO procedure per se can afford a reduction of the number of unknowns in the numerical solution with the Method of Moments and subsectional basis functions. Further substantial reduction is achieved with the eigencurrents expansion method (EEM which employs the eigenvectors of the scattering operator as local entire-domain basis functions over a brick’s surface. Through a few selected numerical examples we discuss the validation and the efficiency of the LEGO-EEM technique applied to clusters of anisotropic bodies.
Effect of reflecting modes on combined heat transfer within an anisotropic scattering slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi Hongliang; Tan Heping; Lu Yiping
2005-01-01
Under various interface reflecting modes, different transient thermal responses will occur in the media. Combined radiative-conductive heat transfer is investigated within a participating, anisotropic scattering gray planar slab. The two interfaces of the slab are considered to be diffuse and semitransparent. Using the ray tracing method, an anisotropic scattering radiative transfer model for diffuse reflection at boundaries is set up, and with the help of direct radiative transfer coefficients, corresponding radiative transfer coefficients (RTCs) are deduced. RTCs are used to calculate the radiative source term in energy equation. Transient energy equation is solved by the full implicit control-volume method under the external radiative-convective boundary conditions. The influences of two reflecting modes including both specular reflection and diffuse reflection on transient temperature fields and steady heat flux are examined. According to numerical results obtained in this paper, it is found that there exits great difference in thermal behavior between slabs with diffuse interfaces and that with specular interfaces for slabs with big refractive index
Brillouin scattering at high pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimsditch, M.; Polian, A.
1988-02-01
Technical advances which have made Brillouin scattering a useful tool in high pressure diamond anvil cell (DAC) studies, viz. multipassing and tandem operation of Fabry-Perot interferometers, are reviewed. Experimental aspects, such as allowed scattering geometries, are outlined and the data analysis required to transform Brillouin spectra into sound velocities and elastic constants is presented. Experimental results on H 2 , N 2 , Ar, and He are presented, and the close relationship between the Brillouin scattering results and equations of state is highlighted
Compton scattering at high intensities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinzl, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.heinzl@plymouth.ac.u [University of Plymouth, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)
2009-12-01
High-intensity Compton scattering takes place when an electron beam is brought into collision with a high power laser. We briefly review the main intensity signatures using the formalism of strong-field quantum electrodynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamba, Irene M.; Haack, Jeffrey R.
2014-01-01
We present the formulation of a conservative spectral method for the Boltzmann collision operator with anisotropic scattering cross-sections. The method is an extension of the conservative spectral method of Gamba and Tharkabhushanam [17,18], which uses the weak form of the collision operator to represent the collisional term as a weighted convolution in Fourier space. The method is tested by computing the collision operator with a suitably cut-off angular cross section and comparing the results with the solution of the Landau equation. We analytically study the convergence rate of the Fourier transformed Boltzmann collision operator in the grazing collisions limit to the Fourier transformed Landau collision operator under the assumption of some regularity and decay conditions of the solution to the Boltzmann equation. Our results show that the angular singularity which corresponds to the Rutherford scattering cross section is the critical singularity for which a grazing collision limit exists for the Boltzmann operator. Additionally, we numerically study the differences between homogeneous solutions of the Boltzmann equation with the Rutherford scattering cross section and an artificial cross section, which give convergence to solutions of the Landau equation at different asymptotic rates. We numerically show the rate of the approximation as well as the consequences for the rate of entropy decay for homogeneous solutions of the Boltzmann equation and Landau equation
Anisotropic kernel p(μ → μ') for transport calculations of elastically scattered neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, B.
1985-01-01
Literature in the area of anisotropic neutron scattering is by no means lacking. Attention, however, is usually devoted to solution of some particular neutron transport problem and the model employed is at best approximate. The present approach to the problem in general is classically exact and may be of some particular value to individuals seeking exact numerical results in transport calculations. For attempts neutrons originally directed toward the unit vector Omega, it attempts the evaluation of p(theta'), defined such that p(theta') d theta' is that fraction of scattered neutrons that emerges in the vicinity of a cone i.e., having been scattered to between angles theta' and theta' + d theta' with the axis of preferred orientation i; Omega makes an angle theta with i. The relative simplicity of the final form of the solution for hydrogen, in spite of the complicated nature of the limits involved, is a trade-off that truly is not necessary. The exact general solution presented here in integral form, has exceedingly simple limits, i.e., 0 ≤ theta' ≤ π regardless of the material involved; but the form of the final solution is extraordinarily complicated
Plasma resonance in anisotropic layered high-Tc superconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sakai, Shigeki; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1999-01-01
The plasma resonance is described theoretically by the inductive coupling model for a large stacked Josephson-junction system such as the intrinsic Josephson-junction array in anisotropic high- T-c superconductors. Eigenmodes of the plasma oscillation are analytically described and a numerical...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blevin, H.A.; Fletcher, J.; Hunter, S.R.
1978-05-01
In a recent paper, a Monte-Carlo simulation of electron swarms in hydrogen using an isotropic scattering model was reported. In this previous work discrepancies between the predicted and measured electron transport parameters were observed. In this paper a far more realistic anisotropic scattering model is used. Good agreement between predicted and experimental data is observed and the simulation code has been used to calculate various parameters which are not directly measurable
Theoretical and numerical study of highly anisotropic turbulent flows
Biferale, L.; Daumont, I.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2004-01-01
We present a detailed numerical study of anisotropic statistical fluctuations in stationary, homogeneous turbulent flows. We address both problems of intermittency in anisotropic sectors, and the relative importance of isotropic and anisotropic fluctuations at different scales on a direct numerical
Characterization of highly anisotropic three-dimensionally nanostructured surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Daniel
2014-01-01
Generalized ellipsometry, a non-destructive optical characterization technique, is employed to determine geometrical structure parameters and anisotropic dielectric properties of highly spatially coherent three-dimensionally nanostructured thin films grown by glancing angle deposition. The (piecewise) homogeneous biaxial layer model approach is discussed, which can be universally applied to model the optical response of sculptured thin films with different geometries and from diverse materials, and structural parameters as well as effective optical properties of the nanostructured thin films are obtained. Alternative model approaches for slanted columnar thin films, anisotropic effective medium approximations based on the Bruggeman formalism, are presented, which deliver results comparable to the homogeneous biaxial layer approach and in addition provide film constituent volume fraction parameters as well as depolarization or shape factors. Advantages of these ellipsometry models are discussed on the example of metal slanted columnar thin films, which have been conformally coated with a thin passivating oxide layer by atomic layer deposition. Furthermore, the application of an effective medium approximation approach to in-situ growth monitoring of this anisotropic thin film functionalization process is presented. It was found that structural parameters determined with the presented optical model equivalents for slanted columnar thin films agree very well with scanning electron microscope image estimates. - Highlights: • Summary of optical model strategies for sculptured thin films with arbitrary geometries • Application of the rigorous anisotropic Bruggeman effective medium applications • In-situ growth monitoring of atomic layer deposition on biaxial metal slanted columnar thin film
Electromagnetic scattering by a uniaxial anisotropic sphere located in an off-axis Bessel beam.
Qu, Tan; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shang, Qing-Chao; Li, Zheng-Jun; Bai, Lu
2013-08-01
Electromagnetic scattering of a zero-order Bessel beam by an anisotropic spherical particle in the off-axis configuration is investigated. Based on the spherical vector wave functions, the expansion expression of the zero-order Bessel beam is derived, and its convergence is numerically discussed in detail. Utilizing the tangential continuity of the electromagnetic fields, the expressions of scattering coefficients are given. The effects of the conical angle of the wave vector components of the zero-order Bessel beam, the ratio of the radius of the sphere to the central spot radius of the zero-order Bessel beam, the shift of the beam waist center position along both the x and y axes, the permittivity and permeability tensor elements, and the loss of the sphere on the radar cross section (RCS) are numerically analyzed. It is revealed that the maximum RCS appears in the conical direction or neighboring direction when the sphere is illuminated by a zero-order Bessel beam. Furthermore, the RCS will decrease and the symmetry is broken with the shift of the beam waist center.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dixneuf, Sophie; Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael
2015-01-01
Owing in part to the p orbitals of its filled L shell, neon has repeatedly come on stage for its peculiar properties. In the context of collision-induced Raman spectroscopy, in particular, we have shown, in a brief report published a few years ago [M. Chrysos et al., Phys. Rev. A 80, 054701 (2009)], that the room-temperature anisotropic Raman lineshape of Ne–Ne exhibits, in the far wing of the spectrum, a peculiar structure with an aspect other than a smooth wing (on a logarithmic plot) which contrasts with any of the existing studies, and whose explanation lies in the distinct way in which overlap and exchange interactions interfere with the classical electrostatic ones in making the polarizability anisotropy, α ∥ − α ⊥ . Here, we delve deeper into that study by reporting data for that spectrum up to 450 cm −1 and for even- and odd-order spectral moments up to M 6 , as well as quantum lineshapes, generated from SCF, CCSD, and CCSD(T) models for α ∥ − α ⊥ , which are critically compared with the experiment. On account of the knowledge of the spectrum over the augmented frequency domain, we show how the inverse scattering problem can be tackled both effectively and economically, and we report an analytic function for the anisotropy whose quantum lineshape faithfully reproduces our observations
Anisotropic properties of single crystals of high Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tholence, J.L.; Saint-Paul, M.; Laborde, O.; Monceau, P.; Guillot, M.; Niel, H.; Levet, J.C.; Potel, M.; Padiou, J.; Gougeon, P.
1990-01-01
In this article the authors make a review of some of the anisotropic properties of high T c compounds, essentially RE Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 , Bi-SR-Ca-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O systems. In section 2 a short description of the crystal growth is reported. Section 3 deals with the anisotropic elastic properties measured by ultrasonic techniques. In section 4 the authors discuss the anisotropy in magnetization measurements and consequently on the critical currents. Section 5 concerns the magnetoresistance measurements, and the determination of the superconducting critical magnetic field H c2 . Finally in section 6, in conclusion of result described in sections 4 and 5, the authors discuss on the pinning force and on the controversial Lorentz force for explaining the broadening of the superconducting transition under magnetic field. The authors apologize for not having quoted all the works published on these different topics, which is in fact practically impossible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, V.; Sahni, D.C.
1983-01-01
In this paper, the authors present the mathematical techniques that were developed for solving the integral transport equation for the criticality of a homogeneous cylinder of finite height with general anisotropic scattering. They present the integral transport equations for the Fourier transformed spherical harmonic moments of the angular flux. These moments are also represented by a series of products of spherical Bessel functions. The criticality problem is, then, posed by the matrix eigenvalue problem whose eigenvector is composed of the expansion coefficients mentioned above. An methodology of calculating the general matrix element is discussed by using the recursion relations derived in this paper. Finally, for the one-group criticality of finite cylinders, the benchmark results are generated when scattering is linearly anisotropic. Also, these benchmarks are solved and compared with the S/sub N/ method of TWOTRAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulut, S.; Guelecyuez, M.C.; Kaskas, A.; Tezcan, C.
2007-01-01
H N and singular eigenfunction methods are used to determine the neutron distribution everywhere in a source-free half space with zero incident flux for a linearly anisotropic scattering kernel. The singular eigenfunction expansion of the method of elementary solutions is used. The orthogonality relations of the discrete and continuous eigenfunctions for linearly anisotropic scattering provides the determination of the expansion coefficients. Different expansions of the exit distribution are used: the expansion in powers of μ, the expansion in terms of Legendre polynomials and the expansion in powers of 1/(1+μ). The results are compared to each other. In the second part of our work, the transport equation and the infinite medium Green function are used. The numerical results of the extrapolation length obtained for the different expansions is discussed. (orig.)
Reducing the orientation influence of Mueller matrix measurements for anisotropic scattering media
Sun, Minghao; He, Honghui; Zeng, Nan; Du, E.; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui
2014-09-01
Mueller matrix polarimetry techniques contain rich micro-structural information of samples, such as the sizes and refractive indices of scatterers. Recently, Mueller matrix imaging methods have shown great potentials as powerful tools for biomedical diagnosis. However, the orientations of anisotropic fibrous structures in tissues have prominent influence on Mueller matrix measurements, resulting in difficulties for extracting micro-structural information effectively. In this paper, we apply the backscattering Mueller matrix imaging technique to biological samples with different microstructures, such as chicken heart muscle, bovine skeletal muscle, porcine liver and fat tissues. Experimental results show that the directions of the muscle fibers have prominent influence on the Mueller matrix elements. In order to reduce the orientation influence, we adopt the rotation-independent MMT and RLPI parameters, which were proposed in our previous studies, to the tissue samples. Preliminary results in this paper show that the orientation-independent parameters and their statistic features are helpful for analyzing the tissues to obtain their micro-structural properties. Since the micro-structure variations are often related to the pathological changes, the method can be applied to microscope imaging techniques and used to detect abnormal tissues such as cancer and other lesions for diagnosis purposes.
High energy elastic hadron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fearnly, T.A.
1986-04-01
The paper deals with the WA7 experiment at the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The elastic differential cross sections of pion-proton, kaon-proton, antiproton-proton, and proton-proton at lower SPS energies over a wide range of momentum transfer were measured. Some theoretical models in the light of the experimental results are reviewed, and a comprehensive impact parameter analysis of antiproton-proton elastic scattering over a wide energy range is presented. A nucleon valence core model for high energy proton-proton and antiproton-proton elastic scattering is described
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Głaz, Waldemar, E-mail: glaz@kielich.amu.edu.pl; Bancewicz, Tadeusz [Nonlinear Optics Division, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Godet, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Photonique d’Angers, Université d’Angers, 2 Boulevard Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Gustafsson, Magnus [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå (Sweden); Haskopoulos, Anastasios; Maroulis, George [Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)
2016-07-21
A comprehensive study is presented of many aspects of the depolarized anisotropic collision induced (CI) component of light scattered by weakly bound compounds composed of a dihydrogen molecule and a rare gas (Rg) atom, H{sub 2}–Rg. The work continues a series of earlier projects marking the revival of interest in linear light scattering following the development of new highly advanced tools of quantum chemistry and other theoretical, computational, and experimental means of spectral analyses. Sophisticated ab initio computing procedures are applied in order to obtain the anisotropic polarizability component’s dependence on the H{sub 2}–Rg geometry. These data are then used to evaluate the CI spectral lines for all types of Rg atoms ranging from He to Xe (Rn excluded). Evolution of the properties of CI spectra with growing polarizability/masses of the complexes studied is observed. Special attention is given to the heaviest, Kr and Xe based, scatterers. The influence of specific factors shaping the spectral lines (e.g., bound and metastable contribution, potential anisotropy) is discussed. Also the share of pressure broadened allowed rotational transitions in the overall spectral profile is taken into account and the extent to which it is separable from the pure CI contribution is discussed. We finish with a brief comparison between the obtained results and available experimental data.
Highly Sensitive Flexible Magnetic Sensor Based on Anisotropic Magnetoresistance Effect.
Wang, Zhiguang; Wang, Xinjun; Li, Menghui; Gao, Yuan; Hu, Zhongqiang; Nan, Tianxiang; Liang, Xianfeng; Chen, Huaihao; Yang, Jia; Cash, Syd; Sun, Nian-Xiang
2016-11-01
A highly sensitive flexible magnetic sensor based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect is fabricated. A limit of detection of 150 nT is observed and excellent deformation stability is achieved after wrapping of the flexible sensor, with bending radii down to 5 mm. The flexible AMR sensor is used to read a magnetic pattern with a thickness of 10 μm that is formed by ferrite magnetic inks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard.
1975-11-01
The Integral Transform Method for the neutron transport equation has been developed in last years by Asaoka and others. The method uses Fourier transform techniques in solving isotropic one-dimensional transport problems in homogeneous media. The method has been extended to linearly anisotropic transport in one-dimensional homogeneous media. Series expansions were also obtained using Hembd techniques for the new anisotropic matrix elements in cylindrical geometry. Carlvik spatial-spherical harmonics method was generalized to solve the same problem. By applying a relation between the isotropic and anisotropic one-dimensional kernels, it was demonstrated that anisotropic matrix elements can be calculated by a linear combination of a few isotropic matrix elements. This means in practice that the anisotropic problem of order N with the N+2 isotropic matrix for the plane and spherical geometries, and N+1 isotropic matrix for cylindrical geometries can be solved. A method of solving linearly anisotropic one-dimensional transport problems in homogeneous media was defined by applying Mika and Stankiewicz observations: isotropic matrix elements were computed by Hembd series and anisotropic matrix elements then calculated from recursive relations. The method has been applied to albedo and critical problems in cylindrical geometries. Finally, a number of results were computed with 12-digit accuracy for use as benchmarks [fr
High field dielectric properties of anisotropic polymer-ceramic composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomer, V.; Randall, C. A.
2008-01-01
Using dielectrophoretic assembly, we create anisotropic composites of BaTiO 3 particles in a silicone elastomer thermoset polymer. We study a variety of electrical properties in these composites, i.e., permittivity, dielectric breakdown, and energy density as function of ceramic volume fraction and connectivity. The recoverable energy density of these electric-field-structured composites is found to be highly dependent on the anisotropy present in the system. Our results indicate that x-y-aligned composites exhibit higher breakdown strengths along with large recoverable energy densities when compared to 0-3 composites. This demonstrates that engineered anisotropy can be employed to control dielectric breakdown strengths and nonlinear conduction at high fields in heterogeneous systems. Consequently, manipulation of anisotropy in high-field dielectric properties can be exploited for the development of high energy density polymer-ceramic systems
High frequency and pulse scattering physical acoustics
Pierce, Allan D
1992-01-01
High Frequency and Pulse Scattering investigates high frequency and pulse scattering, with emphasis on the phenomenon of echoes from objects. Geometrical and catastrophe optics methods in scattering are discussed, along with the scattering of sound pulses and the ringing of target resonances. Caustics and associated diffraction catastrophes are also examined.Comprised of two chapters, this volume begins with a detailed account of geometrically based approximation methods in scattering theory, focusing on waves transmitted through fluid and elastic scatterers and glory scattering; surface ray r
Coherence factors in a high-tc cuprate probed by quasi-particle scattering off vortices.
Hanaguri, T; Kohsaka, Y; Ono, M; Maltseva, M; Coleman, P; Yamada, I; Azuma, M; Takano, M; Ohishi, K; Takagi, H
2009-02-13
When electrons pair in a superconductor, quasi-particles develop an acute sensitivity to different types of scattering potential that is described by the appearance of coherence factors in the scattering amplitudes. Although the effects of coherence factors are well established in isotropic superconductors, they are much harder to detect in their anisotropic counterparts, such as high-superconducting-transition-temperature cuprates. We demonstrate an approach that highlights the momentum-dependent coherence factors in Ca2-xNaxCuO2Cl2. We used Fourier-transform scanning tunneling spectroscopy to reveal a magnetic-field dependence in quasi-particle scattering interference patterns that is sensitive to the sign of the anisotropic gap. This result is associated with the d-wave coherence factors and quasi-particle scattering off vortices. Our technique thus provides insights into the nature of electron pairing as well as quasi-particle scattering processes in unconventional superconductors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Z.H.; Wei, B.C.; He, C.Y.; Min, Y.M.; Chen, C.H.; Liu, L.Z., E-mail: lzliu@nju.edu.cn; Wu, X.L., E-mail: hkxlwu@nju.edu.cn
2017-05-15
Highlights: • Symmetry breaking is achieved by strain that modulates the band structure and carrier population. • Mobility cunt-on rate can be enhanced by structural transformation. • The angle-dependent Raman spectrum of A{sub g}-like, E{sub g}-like and C{sub p} models are used to discriminate and analysis structural anisotropy. • Strain engineering is a useful method to design the anisotropic Raman scattering and mobility. - Abstract: Regulation of electronic structure and mobility cut-on rate in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has attracted much attention because of its potential in electronic device design. The anisotropic Raman scattering and mobility cut-on rate of monolayer unique distorted-1T (1T{sub d}) ReS{sub 2} with external strain are determined theoretically based on the density function theory. The angle-dependent Raman spectrum of A{sub g}-like, E{sub g}-like and C{sub p} models are used to discriminate and analysis structural anisotropy; the strain is exploited to adjust the structural symmetry and electronic structure of ReS{sub 2} so as to enhance mobility cut-on rate to almost 6 times of the original value. Our results suggest the use of the strain engineering in high-quality semiconductor switch device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saleem, M.; Fazal-E-Aleem; Azhar, I.A.
1988-06-01
The various characteristics of pp and antipp elastic scattering at high energies are explained by using the generalized Chou-Yang model which takes into consideration the anisotropic scattering of objects constituting colliding particles. The model is also used to extract the form factor and radius of the ..lambda.. particle.
A study of phonon anisotropic scattering effect on silicon thermal conductivity at nanoscale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bong, Victor N-S; Wong, Basil T. [Swinburne Sarawak Research Centre for Sustainable Technologies, Faculty of Engineering, Computing & Science, Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)
2015-08-28
Previous studies have shown that anisotropy in phonon transport exist because of the difference in phonon dispersion relation due to different lattice direction, as observed by a difference in in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity. The directional preference (such as forward or backward scattering) in phonon propagation however, remains a relatively unexplored frontier. Our current work adopts a simple scattering probability in radiative transfer, which is called Henyey and Greenstein probability density function, and incorporates it into the phonon Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the effect of directional scattering in phonon transport. In this work, the effect of applying the anisotropy scattering is discussed, as well as its impact on the simulated thermal conductivity of silicon thin films. While the forward and backward scattering will increase and decrease thermal conductivity respectively, the extent of the effect is non-linear such that forward scattering has a more obvious effect than backward scattering.
A study of phonon anisotropic scattering effect on silicon thermal conductivity at nanoscale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bong, Victor N-S; Wong, Basil T.
2015-01-01
Previous studies have shown that anisotropy in phonon transport exist because of the difference in phonon dispersion relation due to different lattice direction, as observed by a difference in in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivity. The directional preference (such as forward or backward scattering) in phonon propagation however, remains a relatively unexplored frontier. Our current work adopts a simple scattering probability in radiative transfer, which is called Henyey and Greenstein probability density function, and incorporates it into the phonon Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the effect of directional scattering in phonon transport. In this work, the effect of applying the anisotropy scattering is discussed, as well as its impact on the simulated thermal conductivity of silicon thin films. While the forward and backward scattering will increase and decrease thermal conductivity respectively, the extent of the effect is non-linear such that forward scattering has a more obvious effect than backward scattering
Anisotropic magnetoresistance and thermodynamic fluctuations in high-temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heine, G.
1999-05-01
Measurements of the in-plane and out-of-plane resistivity and the transverse and longitudinal in-plane and out-of-plane magnetoresistance above T, are reported in the high-temperature superconductors Bi2Sr2CaCu208+' and YBa2CU307 b . The carrier concentration of the Bi2Sr2CaCu208+' single crystals covers a broad range of the phase diagram from the slightly under doped to the moderately over doped region. The doping concentration of the thin films ranges from strongly under doped to optimally doped. The in-plane resistivities obey a metallic-like temperature dependence with a positive magnetoresistance in the transverse and the longitudinal orientation of the magnetic field. The out-of-plane resistivities show an activated behavior above T, with a metallic region at higher temperatures and negative magnetoresistance. The data were analyzed in the framework of a model for superconducting order parameter fluctuations. The positive in-plane magnetoresistance of the highly anisotropic Bi2Sr2CaCu208+x single crystals is interpreted as the suppression of the fluctuation-conductivity enhancement including orbital and spin contributions, whereas the negative magnetoresistance arises from the reduction of the fluctuation-induced pseudogap in the single-electron density-of-states by the magnetic field. For higher temperatures a transition to the normal-state magnetoresistance occurs for the in-plane transport. In the less anisotropic YBa2CU307 b thin films the positive out-of-plane magnetoresistance near T, changes sign to a negative magnetoresistance at higher temperatures. This behavior is also consistent with predictions from the theory of thermodynamic order-parameter fluctuations. The agreement of the fluctuation theory with the experimental findings is excellent for samples from the over doped side of the phase diagram, but deteriorate with decreasing carrier concentration. This behavior is interpreted by the dominating d-wave symmetry of the superconducting order
Yueh, S. H.; Kwok, R.
1993-01-01
In this paper, theoretical and numerical results of the polarimetric scattering and emission from random rough surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum are presented for the remote sensing of ocean and soil surfaces. The polarimetric scattered field for rough dielectric surfaces is derived to the second order by the small perturbation method (SPM). It is found that the second-order scattered field is coherent in nature, and its coefficients for different polarizations present the lowest-order corrections to the Fresnel reflection coefficients of the surfaces. In addition, the cross-polarized (HV and VH) components of the coherent fields are reciprocal and not zero for surfaces with anisotropic directional spectrum when the azimuth angle of the incident direction is not aligned with the symmetry directions of surfaces. In order to verify the energy conservation condition of the theoretical results, which is important if the theory is to be applied to the passive polarimetry of rough surfaces, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to numerically calculate the polarimetric reflectivities of one-dimensional random rough surfaces which are generated with a prescribed power-law spectrum in the spectral domain and transformed to the spatial domain by the FFT. The surfaces simulated by this approach are periodic with the period corresponding to the low-wavenumber cutoff. To calculate the scattering from periodic dielectric surfaces, the authors present a new numerical technique which applies the Floquet theorem to reduce the problem to one period and does not require the evaluation of one-dimensional periodic Green's function used in the conventional method of moment formulation. Once the scattering coefficients are obtained, the polarimetric Stokes vectors for the emission from the random surfaces are then calculated according to the Kirchhoff's law and are illustrated as functions of relative azimuth observation and row directions. The second-order SPM is also
TWOTRAN-2, 2-D Multigroup Transport in X-Y, R-Z, R-Theta Geometry with Anisotropic Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lathrop, K.D.; Brinkley, F.W.
1995-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: TWOTRAN2 solves the two-dimensional multigroup transport equation in (x,y), (r,theta), and (r,z) geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k eff and eigenvalue searches) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white or input-specified boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. 2 - Method of solution: The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used in finite difference form which is solved with the central (diamond) difference approximation. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to zero and correct algorithm. Standard inner (within-group) and outer iterative cycles are accelerated by a coarse-mesh re-balancing on a coarse mesh which may be independent of the material mesh. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXLEN can be accommodated. On IBM machines, TWOTRAN2 will execute in the 4-byte mode so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXLEN can be accommodated. MAXLEN can be several hundred thousand and most problems can be core-contained. On the CDC machines MAXLEN can be slightly greater than 40,000 words and peripheral storage is used for most group-dependent data
Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Junwei; Zhao, Yuelei; Wen, Yan; Li, Peng; Zhang, Senfu; He, Xin; Zhang, Junli; Zhang, Xixiang
2017-01-01
effect. The skew-scattering, side-jump and intrinsic contributions to the AHE were separated successfully. As n increases from 1 to 12, the intrinsic contribution decreases because of the decaying crystallinity or finite size effect and the intrinsic
Multi-parameter Analysis and Inversion for Anisotropic Media Using the Scattering Integral Method
Djebbi, Ramzi
2017-01-01
the model. I study the prospect of applying a scattering integral approach for multi-parameter inversion for a transversely isotropic model with a vertical axis of symmetry. I mainly analyze the sensitivity kernels to understand the sensitivity of seismic
Li, Pengcheng; Liu, Celong; Li, Xianpeng; He, Honghui; Ma, Hui
2016-09-20
In earlier studies, we developed scattering models and the corresponding CPU-based Monte Carlo simulation programs to study the behavior of polarized photons as they propagate through complex biological tissues. Studying the simulation results in high degrees of freedom that created a demand for massive simulation tasks. In this paper, we report a parallel implementation of the simulation program based on the compute unified device architecture running on a graphics processing unit (GPU). Different schemes for sphere-only simulations and sphere-cylinder mixture simulations were developed. Diverse optimizing methods were employed to achieve the best acceleration. The final-version GPU program is hundreds of times faster than the CPU version. Dependence of the performance on input parameters and precision were also studied. It is shown that using single precision in the GPU simulations results in very limited losses in accuracy. Consumer-level graphics cards, even those in laptop computers, are more cost-effective than scientific graphics cards for single-precision computation.
Continuum and bound electronic wavefunctions for anisotropic multiple-scattering potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, J.; Dill, D.; Dehmer, J.L.
1975-01-01
Standard multiple-scattering treatments of bound and continuum one-electron states are restricted to a monopole potential in each of the various spherical regions. We have extended the treatment within these regions to a general potential. The corresponding multiple-scattering equations should facilitate accurate treatment of effects of the build-up of charge due to bonding, of the dipole character of polar molecules, and of external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Öztürk, Hakan
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in homogeneous slab is investigated. • A combination of forward–backward and linear anisotropy is used. • The effect of the strongly anisotropic scattering on the critical size is analyzed. - Abstract: The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in a uniform finite slab is studied in the case of a combination of forward and backward scattering with linearly anisotropic scattering using U N method based on the Chebyshev polynomials of second kind. The effect of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness of the slab is investigated. The critical slab thicknesses are calculated by using Marshak boundary condition for various values of the anisotropy parameters and they are presented in the tables. In comparison to the results obtained by other methods, the results of this study are in compatible with the former ones
Anisotropic static solutions in modelling highly compact bodies
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
x2µ(x)dx which is the mass function. The radial pressure pr = p + 2S/. √. 3 and the tangential pressure p⊥ = p − S/. √. 3 are not equal for anisotropic matter. The magnitude S provides a measure of anisotropy. The field equations (1)–(3) were integrated by Chaisi and Maharaj [12] for the energy density. µ = j r2. + k + lr2,. (4).
High-energy proton scattering on nuclei
Klovning, A; Schlüpmann, K
1973-01-01
High-energy proton scattering on Be, C, Cu and Pb targets is studied using a single-arm spectrometer. The projectile momenta were 19 and 24 GeV/c, the square of the four-momentum transfer varied from t=0.1 to t =4.4 GeV/sup 2/. Momentum distributions of scattered protons are recorded in the high-momentum range. An application of multiple- scattering theory yielded agreement of calculation and experimental results to within a +or-30% uncertainty of the former. (15 refs).
Techniques in high pressure neutron scattering
Klotz, Stefan
2013-01-01
Drawing on the author's practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement.Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of rea
Jain, Neha; Shukla, Prashant; Singh, Jai
2018-05-01
Correlation images are very useful in determining the morphological changes. We have investigated the correlation image analysis on depolarization and retardance matrices of polystyrene and gelatine samples respectively. We observed that that correlation images have a potential to show a significant variation with change in the concentration of samples (polystyrene and gelatine). For polystyrene microspheres the correlation value decreases with increasing scattering coefficient. In gelatine samples the correlation also decreases with sample concentration. This variation in correlation for retardance shows the change in a birefringence property of gelatine solution.
Very High Energy Neutron Scattering from Hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowley, R A; Stock, C; Bennington, S M; Taylor, J; Gidopoulos, N I
2010-01-01
The neutron scattering from hydrogen in polythene has been measured with the direct time-of flight spectrometer, MARI, at the ISIS facility of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with incident neutron energies between 0.5 eV and 600 eV. The results of experiments using the spectrometer, VESUVIO, have given intensities from hydrogen containing materials that were about 60% of the intensity expected from hydrogen. Since VESUVIO is the only instrument in the world that routinely operates with incident neutron energies in the eV range we have chosen to measure the scattering from hydrogen at high incident neutron energies with a different type of instrument. The MARI, direct time-of-flight, instrument was chosen for the experiment and we have studied the scattering for several different incident neutron energies. We have learnt how to subtract the gamma ray background, how to calibrate the incident energy and how to convert the spectra to an energy plot . The intensity of the hydrogen scattering was independent of the scattering angle for scattering angles from about 5 degrees up to 70 degrees for at least 3 different incident neutron energies between 20 eV and 100 eV. When the data was put on an absolute scale, by measuring the scattering from 5 metal foils with known thicknesses under the same conditions we found that the absolute intensity of the scattering from the hydrogen was in agreement with that expected to an accuracy of ± 5.0% over a wide range of wave-vector transfers between 1 and 250 A -1 . These measurements show that it is possible to measure the neutron scattering with incident neutron energies up to at least 100 eV with a direct geometry time-of-flight spectrometer and that the results are in agreement with conventional scattering theory.
Effect of quasiparticles on interlayer transport in highly anisotropic layered superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artemenko, S.N.; Bulaevskii, L.N.; Maley, M.P.; Vinokur, V.M.
1999-01-01
We have performed a microscopic calculation of the dielectric response function in highly anisotropic layered superconductors and used the developed approach to obtain the frequency-dependent London penetration length and conductivity in the case of d-wave pairing for currents perpendicular to the layers. We consider a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling of electrons and take into account contributions from both superconducting electrons and quasiparticles to the dielectric response. We show that quasiparticles change the low-temperature behavior of the penetration length in the intermediate frequency range where the frequency is smaller than the superconducting order parameter but larger than the inverse quasiparticle scattering time. The obtained results are used to describe the low-temperature behavior of the Josephson plasma resonance, in particular the temperature dependence of the resonance frequency and the resonance linewidth in zero external magnetic field. We compare our results with the available experimental data for Tl 2 Ba 2 CuO 6 and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi-2212) and show that results of a BCS model with coherent interlayer tunneling for the dc c-axis resistivity in the superconducting state are inconsistent with experimental data for underdoped and optimally doped Bi-2212 crystals. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliva, Amaury M.; Filho, Hermes A.; Silva, Davi M.; Garcia, Carlos R., E-mail: aoliva@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: davijmsilva@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: cgh@instec.cu [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Departamento de Modelagem Computacional; Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba)
2017-07-01
In this paper, we propose a numerical methodology for the development of a method of the spectral nodal class that will generate numerical solutions free from spatial truncation errors. This method, denominated Spectral Deterministic Method (SDM), is tested as an initial study of the solutions (spectral analysis) of neutron transport equations in the discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) formulation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, multigroup approximation, with linearly anisotropic scattering, considering homogeneous and heterogeneous domains with fixed source. The unknowns in the methodology are the cell-edge, and cell average angular fluxes, the numerical values calculated for these quantities coincide with the analytic solution of the equations. These numerical results are shown and compared with the traditional ne- mesh method Diamond Difference (DD) and the coarse-mesh method spectral Green's function (SGF) to illustrate the method's accuracy and stability. The solution algorithms problems are implemented in a computer simulator made in C++ language, the same that was used to generate the results of the reference work. (author)
Neutron Scattering and High Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winn, Barry L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stone, Matthew B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2014-11-01
The workshop “Neutron Scattering and High Magnetic Fields” was held September 4-5, 2014 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The workshop was held in response to a recent report by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences entitled “High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States: Current Status and Future Directions.”1 This report highlights the fact that neutron scattering measurements carried out in high magnetic fields provide important opportunities for new science. The workshop explored the range of the scientific discoveries that could be enabled with neutron scattering measurements at high fields (25 Tesla or larger), the various technologies that might be utilized to build specialized instruments and sample environment equipment to enable this research at ORNL, and possible routes to funding and constructing these facilities and portable high field sample environments.
Turbulence Scattering of High Harmonic Fast Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
M. Ono; J. Hosea; B. LeBlanc; J. Menard; C.K. Phillips; R. Wilson; P. Ryan; D. Swain; J. Wilgen; S. Kubota; and T.K. Mau
2001-01-01
Effect of scattering of high-harmonic fast-magnetosonic waves (HHFW) by low-frequency plasma turbulence is investigated. Due to the similarity of the wavelength of HHFW to that of the expected low-frequency turbulence in the plasma edge region, the scattering of HHFW can become significant under some conditions. The scattering probability increases with the launched wave parallel-phase-velocity as the location of the wave cut-off layer shifts toward the lower density edge. The scattering probability can be reduced significantly with higher edge plasma temperature, steeper edge density gradient, and magnetic field. The theoretical model could explain some of the HHFW heating observations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)
Tian, Yan L; Zhao, Yue C; Yang, Cheng J; Wang, Fu J; Liu, Xian P; Jing, Xiu B
2018-10-01
In this paper, micro/nano-scale structures were fabricated on nitinol alloy (NiTi) to realize tunable anisotropic wetting and high adhesive capability. Laser texturing and silanization process are utilized to change the morphological and chemical properties of substrates. It is noted that these treated substrates exhibit the joint characteristics of anisotropic wetting and high adhesive capability. In order to investigate the influences of laser-texturing and silanization processes on NiTi, these surfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), a white light confocal microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and goniometer. The relationship between water volume and anisotropic wetting was also established. From the experimental testing, we can obtain the following conclusions: (1) the anisotropic wetting characterized by the difference between the water contact angles (WCAs) in the vertical and parallel directions ranges from 0° to 20.3°, which is far more than the value of natural rice leaves. (2) the water sliding angles (WSAs) kept stable at 180°, successfully mimicking the adhesive ability of rose petals. (3) the silanization process could strengthen the hydrophobicity but weaken anisotropic wetting. These bio-inspired NiTi surfaces have a tremendous potential applications such as microfluidic devices, bio-mimetic materials fabrication and lab on chip. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inayoshi, Muneto; Ikeda, Masanobu; Hori, Masaru; Goto, Toshio; Hiramatsu, Mineo; Hiraya, Atsunari.
1995-01-01
Both anisotropic ablation and thin film formation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were successfully demonstrated using synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of PTFE, that is, the SR ablation process. Anisotropic ablation by the SR irradiation was performed at an extremely high rate of 3500 μm/min at a PTFE target temperature of 200degC. Moreover, a PTFE thin film was formed at a high rate of 2.6 μm/min using SR ablation of PTFE. The chemical structure of the deposited film was similar to that of the PTFE target as determined from Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. (author)
Debije, M.G.; Haas, de M.P.; Savenije, T.J.; Warman, J.M.; Fontana, M.; Stutzmann, N.; Caseri, W.R.; Smith, P.
2003-01-01
Self-assembled columns of alternating tetrachloro- and tetraalkylaminoplatinum moieties form stable, highly oriented, optically anisotropic films on a friction-deposited polytetrafluoroethylene surface (see Figure). Charge transport in the films is rapid (mobility =¿ca. 10–2 cm2¿V–1¿s–1) and highly
Two-Step Condensation of the Ideal Bose Gas in Highly Anisotropic Traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.
1997-01-01
The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum states. In the second step, at a significantly lower temperature, the ground state becomes macroscopically occupied. It should be possible to verify these predictions using present-day atom traps. The two-step behavior can occur in a rather general class of anisotropic traps, including the box potential. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
High energy hadron-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koplik, J.; Mueller, A.H.
1975-01-01
Theoretical expectations for hadron-nucleus scattering at high energy if the basic hadron-hadron interaction is due to Regge poles and cuts arising in multiperipheral or soft field theory models are described. Experiments at Fermilab may provide a critical test of such models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, K.E.; Kim, D.H.
1991-01-01
The wide temperature range of the reversible, lossy state of the new high-temperature superconductors in a magnetic field was recognized soon after their discovery. This behavior, which had gone virtually undetected in conventional superconductors, has generated considerable interest, both for a fundamental understanding of the HTS and because it degrades the performance of HTS for finite-field applications. We show that recently proposed explanation of this behavior for the highly-anisotropic high-temperature superconductors, as a dimensional crossover of the magnetic vortices, is strongly supported by recent experiments on a Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O x single crystal using the high-Q mechanical oscillator techniques
Reduction of Raman scattering and fluorescence from anvils in high pressure Raman scattering
Dierker, S. B.; Aronson, M. C.
2018-05-01
We describe a new design and use of a high pressure anvil cell that significantly reduces the Raman scattering and fluorescence from the anvils in high pressure Raman scattering experiments. The approach is particularly useful in Raman scattering studies of opaque, weakly scattering samples. The effectiveness of the technique is illustrated with measurements of two-magnon Raman scattering in La2CuO4.
Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps
van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.
1997-01-01
The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Walla Frederik
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We investigated the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons on gold films with the metallized probe tip of a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM. The emission of the polaritons from the tip, illuminated by near-infrared laser radiation, was found to be anisotropic and not circularly symmetric as expected on the basis of literature data. We furthermore identified an additional excitation channel via light that was reflected off the tip and excited the plasmon polaritons at the edge of the metal film. Our results, while obtained for a non-rotationally-symmetric type of probe tip and thus specific for this situation, indicate that when an s-SNOM is employed for the investigation of plasmonic structures, the unintentional excitation of surface waves and anisotropic surface wave propagation must be considered in order to correctly interpret the signatures of plasmon polariton generation and propagation.
Numerical solutions of the monoenergetic neutron transport equation with anisotropic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahl, B.
1985-01-01
The Boltzmann equation for monoenergetic neutrons has been solved numerically with high accuracy for homogeneous slabs and spheres with various degree of linear anisotropy. Vacuum boundary conditions are used. The numerical method is based on previous work by Carlvik. Benchmark values of the criticality factor and higher order eigenvalues are given for multiplying systems of thickness or diameter from 10 -5 to 20 mean free paths and with anisotropy coefficients from 0.0 to 0.3. For slab geometry, both even and odd mode eigenvalues are treated. With increasing anisotropy, an increasing number of complex eigenvalues is observer. The total flux is calculated from the eigenvector and tables of the fundamental mode flux are given. Accurate extrapolation distances are derived for various dimensions and anisotropy coefficients from our eigenvalue results on slabs and spheres and from the work by Sanchez on infinite cylinders.The time eigenvalue spectrum in subcritical systems has also been studied. First, the connection between the eigenvalues arising from the time dependent and stationary transport equation is established. Based on this, the spectrum of real time eigenvalues in slabs and spheres is calculated. For spheres, the existence of complex time eigenvalues in the region beyond the value corresponding to the Corngold limit is numerically established. The presence of such eigenvalues has earlier not been proved. It is further shown that the Boltzmann equation for a sphere is significantly simplified when the decay constant is at the Corngold limit. The spectrum of sphere diameters corresponding to this decay constant is calculated for various linear anisotropies, and detailed numerical results are given. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menezes, Welton A.; Filho, Hermes Alves; Barros, Ricardo C.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Fixed-source S N transport problems. • Energy multigroup model. • Anisotropic scattering. • Slab-geometry spectral nodal method. - Abstract: A generalization of the spectral Green’s function (SGF) method is developed for multigroup, fixed-source, slab-geometry discrete ordinates (S N ) problems with anisotropic scattering. The offered SGF method with the one-node block inversion (NBI) iterative scheme converges numerical solutions that are completely free from spatial truncation errors for multigroup, slab-geometry S N problems with scattering anisotropy of order L, provided L < N. As a coarse-mesh numerical method, the SGF method generates numerical solutions that generally do not give detailed information on the problem solution profile, as the grid points can be located considerably away from each other. Therefore, we describe in this paper a technique for the spatial reconstruction of the coarse-mesh solution generated by the multigroup SGF method. Numerical results are given to illustrate the method’s accuracy
Hadron production in high energy muon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, R.G.
1978-01-01
An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering was determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the frame-work of the quark-proton model
Hadron production in high energy muon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, R.G.
1978-01-01
An experiment was performed to study muon-proton scattering at an incident energy of 225 GeV and a total effective flux of 4.3 x 10 10 muons. This experiment is able to detect charged particles in coincidence with the scattered muon in the forward hemisphere, and results are reported for the neutral strange particles K/sub s/ 0 and Λ 0 decaying into two charged particles. Within experimental limits the masses and lifetimes of these particles are consistent with previous measurements. The distribution of hadrons produced in muon scattering is determined, measuring momentum components parallel and transverse to the virtual photon direction, and these distributions are compared to other high energy experiments involving the scattering of pions, protons, and neutrinos from protons. Structure functions for hadron production and particle ratios are calculated. No azimuthal dependence is observed, and lambda production does not appear to be polarized. The physical significance of the results is discussed within the framework of the quark-parton model. 29 references
Highly Enhanced Many-Body Interactions in Anisotropic 2D Semiconductors.
Sharma, Ankur; Yan, Han; Zhang, Linglong; Sun, Xueqian; Liu, Boqing; Lu, Yuerui
2018-05-15
dynamics of excitons, trions, and biexcitons in reduced dimensions and fundamental many body interactions. We begin by explaining the fundamental reasons for the highly enhanced interactions in the 2D systems influenced by dielectric screening, resulting in high binding energies of excitons and trions, which are supported by theoretical calculations and experimental observations. Phosphorene has shown much higher binding energies of excitons and trions than TMD monolayers, which allows robust quasi-particles in anisotropic materials at room temperature. We also discuss the role of extrinsic defects induced in phosphorene, resulting in localized excitonic emissions in the near-infrared range, making it suitable for optical telecommunication applications. Finally, we present our vision of the exciting device applications based on the highly enhanced many body interactions in phosphorene, including exciton-polariton devices, polariton lasers, single-photon emitters, and tunable light emitting diodes (LEDs).
High luminosity muon scattering at FNAL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazizi, K.; Conrad, J.; Fang, G.; Erdmann, M.; Geesaman, D.; Jackson, H.; Guyot, C.; Virchaux, M.; Holmgren, H.; Malensek, A.; Melanson, H.; Morfin, J.; Schellman, H.; Nickerson, R.
1990-02-01
The charge of this group was to evaluate the physics that can be done with a high luminosity μ scattering experiment at FNAL using the upgraded Tevatron muon beam, and consider the apparatus required. In this report, the physics that can be accomplished with a high luminosity μ scattering experiment is evaluated. The CERN and FNAL μ beams are compared in the context of such an experiment. The expected muon flux with the upgraded machine is estimated. Two possible detectors are compared: the air-core toroid experiment proposed by Guyot et al., and an upgraded version of the E665 double-diode apparatus now in place at FNAL. The relative costs of the detectors are considered. A list of detailed questions that need to be answered regarding the double-diode experiment has be compiled. 2 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs
Vector Boson Scattering at High Mass
The ATLAS collaboration
2009-01-01
In the absence of a light Higgs boson, the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking will be best studied in processes of vector boson scattering at high mass. Various models predict resonances in this channel. Here, we investigate $WW $scalar and vector resonances, $WZ$ vector resonances and a $ZZ$ scalar resonance over a range of diboson centre-of-mass energies. Particular attention is paid to the application of forward jet tagging and to the reconstruction of dijet pairs with low opening angle resulting from the decay of highly boosted vector bosons. The performances of different jet algorithms are compared. We find that resonances in vector boson scattering can be discovered with a few tens of inverse femtobarns of integrated luminosity.
High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources
Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M
2005-01-01
No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2
[Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
This report discusses: quasielastic scattering studies on glycerol; gamma-ray scattering from alkali halides; lattice dynamics in metals; Moessbauer neutron scattering, x-ray diffraction, and macroscopic studies of high T c superconductors containing tungsten; NiAl scattering studies; and atomic interference factors and nuclear Casimir effect
Vector Boson Scattering at High Mass
Sherwood, P
2009-01-01
In the absence of a light Higgs boson, the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking will be best studied in processes of vector boson scattering at high mass. Various models predict resonances in this channel. Here, we investigate W W scalar and vector resonances, W Z vector resonances and a Z Z scalar resonance over a range of diboson centre-of-mass energies. Particular attention is paid to the application reconstruction of dijet pairs with low opening angle resulting from the decay of highly boosted vector bosons.
High-throughput anisotropic plasma etching of polyimide for MEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bliznetsov, Vladimir; Manickam, Anbumalar; Ranganathan, Nagarajan; Chen, Junwei
2011-01-01
This note describes a new high-throughput process of polyimide etching for the fabrication of MEMS devices with an organic sacrificial layer approach. Using dual frequency superimposed capacitively coupled plasma we achieved a vertical profile of polyimide with an etching rate as high as 3.5 µm min −1 . After the fabrication of vertical structures in a polyimide material, additional steps were performed to fabricate structural elements of MEMS by deposition of a SiO 2 layer and performing release etching of polyimide. (technical note)
Saberi-Pouya, S.; Zarenia, M.; Perali, A.; Vazifehshenas, T.; Peeters, F. M.
2018-05-01
Excitonic superfluidity in double phosphorene monolayers is investigated using the BCS mean-field equations. Highly anisotropic superfluidity is predicted where we found that the maximum superfluid gap is in the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) regime along the armchair direction and in the BCS-BEC crossover regime along the zigzag direction. We estimate the highest Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature with maximum value up to ˜90 K with onset carrier densities as high as 4 ×1012cm-2 . This transition temperature is significantly larger than what is found in double electron-hole few-layers graphene. Our results can guide experimental research toward the realization of anisotropic condensate states in electron-hole phosphorene monolayers.
A modified Rietveld method to model highly anisotropic ceramics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tutuncu, G.; Motahari, M.; Daymond, M.R.; Ustundag, E.
2012-01-01
High energy X-ray diffraction was employed to probe the complex constitutive behavior of a polycrystalline ferroelectric material in various sample orientations. Pb(Zn,Nb)O 3 –Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZN–PZT) ceramics were subjected to a cyclic bipolar electric field while diffraction patterns were taken. Using transmission geometry and a two-dimensional detector, lattice strain and texture evolution (domain switching) were measured in multiple sample directions simultaneously. In addition, texture analysis suggests that non-180° domain switching is coupled with lattice strain evolution during uniaxial electrical loading. As a result of this material’s high strain anisotropy, the full-pattern Rietveld method was inadequate to analyze the diffraction data. Instead, a modified Rietveld method, which includes an elastic anisotropy term, yielded significant improvements in the data analysis results.
High-temperature reaction of ''anisotropic'' pyrolitic graphite with oxygen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavrenko, V.A.; Pomytkin, A.P.; Neshpor, V.S.; Vinokur, F.L.
1980-01-01
Investigated is the kinetics of initial interaction stages of highly dense crystalloorientated pyrographite with oxygen. Oxidation was carried out in pure oxygen within 0.1-740 mm Hg pressure range and 500-1100 deg C temperature range. It is stated, that at the temperatures below 700 deg C pyrographite oxidation is subjected to a linear law. Above 700-800 deg C the linear law is preserved only at the initial oxidation stage, then the process is described by a parabolic law. Extension of the linear site is decreased in time with the reduction of oxygen pressure. The reaction has apparent fractional order. Activation energy of pyrogrpahite oxidation by the linear low constitutes approximately 58 kcal/mol within 600-800 deg C range and 14 kcal/mol within 800-1100 deg C range. The apparent activation energy constitutes approximately 13 kcal/mol in the region of correspondence to the parabolic law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, L.M.; Ghosh, R.N.; McLean, M.
1993-01-01
A physics based model has been developed that accounts for the principal features of anisotropic creep deformation of single crystal superalloys. The present paper extends this model to simulate other types of high temperature deformation under strain controlled test conditions, such as stress relaxation and tension tests at constant strain rate in single crystals subject to axial loading along an arbitrary crystal direction. The approach is applied to the SRR99 single crystal superalloy where a model parameter database is available, determined via analysis of a database of constant stress creep curves. A software package has been generated to simulate the deformation behaviour under complex stress-strain conditions taking into account anisotropic elasticity. (orig.)
Highly anisotropic metasurface: a polarized beam splitter and hologram
Zheng, Jun; Ye, Zhi-Cheng; Sun, Nan-Ling; Zhang, Rui; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Zhang, Jie
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional metasurface structures have recently been proposed to reduce the challenges of fabrication of traditional plasmonic metamaterials. However, complex designs and sophisticated fabrication procedures are still required. Here, we present a unique one-dimensional (1-D) metasurface based on bilayered metallic nanowire gratings, which behaves as an ideal polarized beam splitter, producing strong negative reflection for transverse-magnetic (TM) light and efficient reflection for transverse-electric (TE) light. The large anisotropy resulting from this TE-metal-like/TM-dielectric-like feature can be explained by the dispersion curve based on the Bloch theory of periodic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. The results indicate that this photon manipulation mechanism is fundamentally different from those previously proposed for 2-D or 3-D metastructures. Based on this new material platform, a novel form of metasurface holography is proposed and demonstrated, in which an image can only be reconstructed by using a TM light beam. By reducing the metamaterial structures to 1-D, our metasurface beam splitter exhibits the qualities of cost-efficient fabrication, robust performance, and high tunability, in addition to its applicability over a wide range of working wavelengths and incident angles. This development paves a foundation for metasurface structure designs towards practical metamaterial applications. PMID:25262791
Yuan, Yufeng; Yu, Xiantong; Ouyang, Qingling; Shao, Yonghong; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Yong, Ken-Tye
2018-04-01
This study proposed a novel highly anisotropic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor employing emerging 2D black phosphorus (BP) and graphene atomic layers. Light absorption and energy loss were well balanced by optimizing gold film thickness and number of BP layers to generate the strongest SPR excitation. The proposed SPR biosensor was designed by the phase-modulation approach and is more sensitive to biomolecule bindings, providing 3 orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than the red-shift in SPR angle. Our results show the optimized configuration was 48 nm Au film coated with 4-layer BP crystal to produce the sharpest phase variation (up to 89.8975°), and lowest minimum reflectivity (1.9119 × 10-7). Detection sensitivity up to 7.4914 × 104 degree/refractive index unit is almost 4.5 times enhanced compared to monolayer graphene-based SPR sensors with 48 nm Au film. The anisotropic BP layers act as a polarizer, so the proposed SPR biosensor would exhibit optically tunable detection sensitivity, making it a promising candidate for exploring highly anisotropic platforms in biosensing.
Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Rozanov, Vladimir V.
2012-01-01
A numerical accuracy analysis of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) solution based on separation of the diffuse light field into anisotropic and smooth parts is presented. The analysis uses three different algorithms based on the discrete ordinate method (DOM). Two methods, DOMAS and DOM2+, that do not use the truncation of the phase function, are compared against the TMS-method. DOMAS and DOM2+ use the Small-Angle Modification of RTE and the single scattering term, respectively, as an anisotropic part. The TMS method uses Delta-M method for truncation of the phase function along with the single scattering correction. For reference, a standard discrete ordinate method, DOM, is also included in analysis. The obtained results for cases with high scattering anisotropy show that at low number of streams (16, 32) only DOMAS provides an accurate solution in the aureole area. Outside of the aureole, the convergence and accuracy of DOMAS, and TMS is found to be approximately similar: DOMAS was found more accurate in cases with coarse aerosol and liquid water cloud models, except low optical depth, while the TMS showed better results in case of ice cloud.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budak, Vladimir P.; Korkin, Sergey V.
2008-01-01
The authors developed a numerical method of the boundary-value problem solution in the vectorial radiative transfer theory applicable to the turbid media with an arbitrary three-dimensional geometry. The method is based on the solution representation as the sum of an anisotropic part that contains all the singularities of the exact solution and a smooth regular part. The regular part of the solution could be found numerically by the finite element method that enables to extend the approach to the arbitrary medium geometry. The anisotropic part of the solution is determined analytically by the special form of the small-angle approximation. The method development is performed by the examples of the boundary-value problems for the plane unidirectional and point isotropic sources in a turbid medium slab
High energy gravitational scattering: a numerical study
Marchesini, Giuseppe
2008-01-01
The S-matrix in gravitational high energy scattering is computed from the region of large impact parameters b down to the regime where classical gravitational collapse is expected to occur. By solving the equation of an effective action introduced by Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano we find that the perturbative expansion around the leading eikonal result diverges at a critical value signalling the onset of a new regime. We then discuss the main features of our explicitly unitary S-matrix down to the Schwarzschild's radius R=2G s^(1/2), where it diverges at a critical value b ~ 2.22 R of the impact parameter. The nature of the singularity is studied with particular attention to the scaling behaviour of various observables at the transition. The numerical approach is validated by reproducing the known exact solution in the axially symmetric case to high accuracy.
High-order dynamic lattice method for seismic simulation in anisotropic media
Hu, Xiaolin; Jia, Xiaofeng
2018-03-01
The discrete particle-based dynamic lattice method (DLM) offers an approach to simulate elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media by calculating the anisotropic micromechanical interactions between these particles based on the directions of the bonds that connect them in the lattice. To build such a lattice, the media are discretized into particles. This discretization inevitably leads to numerical dispersion. The basic lattice unit used in the original DLM only includes interactions between the central particle and its nearest neighbours; therefore, it represents the first-order form of a particle lattice. The first-order lattice suffers from numerical dispersion compared with other numerical methods, such as high-order finite-difference methods, in terms of seismic wave simulation. Due to its unique way of discretizing the media, the particle-based DLM no longer solves elastic wave equations; this means that one cannot build a high-order DLM by simply creating a high-order discrete operator to better approximate a partial derivative operator. To build a high-order DLM, we carry out a thorough dispersion analysis of the method and discover that by adding more neighbouring particles into the lattice unit, the DLM will yield different spatial accuracy. According to the dispersion analysis, the high-order DLM presented here can adapt the requirement of spatial accuracy for seismic wave simulations. For any given spatial accuracy, we can design a corresponding high-order lattice unit to satisfy the accuracy requirement. Numerical tests show that the high-order DLM improves the accuracy of elastic wave simulation in anisotropic media.
Multiple exchange and high-energy fixed-angle scattering
Halliday, I G; Orzalesi, C A; Tau, M
1975-01-01
The application of the eikonal ansatz to fermion fermion elastic scattering with Abelian vector gluon exchanges is discussed. The behaviours of the elastic scattering amplitude and the elastic form factor are considered and an important mechanism for fixed angle high energy elastic scattering is identified. (6 refs).
Anisotropic deformation of Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material at high temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fong, R.W.L., E-mail: fongr@aecl.ca [Fuel and Fuel Channel Safety Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)
2013-09-15
Zr–2.5Nb alloy is used for the pressure tubes in CANDU® reactor fuel channels. In reactor, the pressure tube normally operates at 300 °C and experiences a primary coolant fluid internal pressure of approximately 10 MPa. Manufacturing and processing procedures generate an anisotropic state in the pressure tube which makes the tube stronger in the hoop (transverse) direction than in the axial (longitudinal) direction. This anisotropy condition is present for temperatures less than 500 °C. During postulated accident conditions where the material temperature could reach 1000 °C, it might be assumed that the high temperature and subsequent phase change would reduce the inherent anisotropy, and thus affect the deformation behaviour (ballooning) of the pressure tube. From constant-load, rapid-temperature-ramp, uniaxial deformation tests, the deformation rate in the longitudinal direction of the tube behaves differently than the deformation rate in the transverse direction of the tube. This anisotropic mechanical behaviour appears to persist at temperatures up to 1000 °C. This paper presents the results of high-temperature deformation tests using longitudinal and transverse specimens taken from as-received Zr–2.5Nb pressure tubes. It is shown that the anisotropic deformation behaviour observed at high temperatures is largely due to the stable crystallographic texture of the α-Zr phase constituent in the material that was previously observed by neutron diffraction measurements during heating at temperatures up to 1050 °C. The deformation behaviour is also influenced by the phase transformation occurring at high temperatures during heating. The effects of texture and phase transformation on the anisotropic deformation of as-received Zr–2.5Nb pressure tube material are discussed in the context of the tube ballooning behaviour. Because of the high temperatures in postulated accident scenarios, any irradiation damage will be annealed from the pressure tube material
High-precision positioning of radar scatterers
Dheenathayalan, P.; Small, D.; Schubert, A.; Hanssen, R.F.
2016-01-01
Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy
Scattering of high energy electrons on deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossetete, B.
1964-12-01
The aim of this work is to obtain information on the neutron form factor from the study of the scattering of electrons on deuterium. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical study of the elastic and inelastic scattering. We introduce different form factors: Sachs form factor, the Pauli and Dirac form factors, they appear in the analytic expression of the scattering cross-section. We show how the deuteron form factors can be deduced from neutron's and proton's form factors. In the case of the inelastic scattering we show how the cross section can be broken into components associated to partial waves and we obtain different formulas for the inelastic cross-section based on the Breit formula or the Durand formalism. The second part is dedicated to the experiment setting of electron scattering on deuterium. The elastic scattering experiment has been made on solid or liquid CD 2 targets while inelastic scattering has been studied on a liquid target. We have used an electron beam produced by the Orsay linear accelerator and the scattered electrons have been analysed by a magnetic spectrometer and a Cerenkov detector. The results give a very low value (slightly positive)for the charge form factor of the neutron and a magnetic form factor for the neutron slightly below that of the proton [fr
High energy lepton-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sciulli, F.
1982-01-01
The author summarizes the general expressions expected for neutrino scattering, and the formula for the electromagnetic process which is involved for minor scattering. He discusses the complications of quark binding and the historical development of fits from deep inelastic data. He also evaluates the signifigance of the results gained from the data, concluding his discussion by asking basic questions about the tests of the quark model and suggesting that there is still much to be learned about inelastic scattering, that more precision is necessary. The author is hopeful that the work now being conducted on the CFRR data will help solve some of the discrepancy
High-intensity-laser-electron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.
1997-01-01
In the field of an intense laser, photon-electron scattering becomes nonlinear when the oscillatory energy of the electron approaches its rest mass. The electron wave function is dressed by the field with a concomitant increase in the effective electron mass. When the photon energy in the electron rest frame is comparable to the electron rest mass, multiphoton Compton scattering occurs. When the photon energy is significantly lower than the electron rest mass, the electron acquires momentum from the photon field and emits harmonics. This paper reviews nonlinear photon-electron scattering processes and results from two recent experiments where they have been observed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roll, Karl; Faust, Alexander; Kessler, Lutz
2007-01-01
In today's sheet metal forming simulation, most attention is paid to yield loci functions, which describe the anisotropy of the material in yielding. The coefficients, defining the shape of the yield locus in these functions are usually fitted at a certain level of plastic work and are then valid for the whole range of plastic deformation. Modern high and ultrahigh strength steels, especially those with induced plasticity, may often exhibit only a very small anisotropy in yielding, but a severe anisotropy in work hardening for different loading conditions. This behavior can not be described by fitting the yield locus at a specific value of plastic deformation. An approach to take into account the anisotropic hardening of sheet metals is to provide different yield curves for several loading conditions and expand the yield locus dependent on the current form of load. By doing this, one can use a comparatively simple yield locus, like that of Hill from 1948, because all anisotropy is given by the different hardening curves. For the commercial FEM code LS DYNA the material model MATFEM Generalized Yield is available as a user subroutine, which supports this approach. In this paper, forming simulation results of different yield loci are compared with experimental results. The simulations were carried out in LS-DYNA with the Barlat 89 and 2000 yield loci and isotropic hardening and with the GenYld model combining a Hill 48 yield locus and anisotropic hardening. The deep drawing experiments were conducted on a hydraulic press, measuring binder and punch forces. The deformation of the sheet was measured by optical grid analysis. A comparison of the simulated and measured plastic strains shows that using a model including anisotropic hardening can produce better results than the usage of a complex yield locus but isotropic hardening for the examined materials. This might be interesting for e.g. spring back simulations. By combining a simple yield locus with anisotropic
Non-eikonal effects in high-energy scattering IV. Inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurvitz, S.A.; Kok, L.P.; Rinat, A.S.
1978-01-01
Amplitudes of inelastically scattered high-energy projections were calculated. In the scattering on 12 C(Tsub(P)=1 GeV) sizeable non-eikonal corrections in diffraction extrema even for relatively small q 2 are demonstrated. At least part of the anomaly in the 3 - distribution may be due to these non-eikonal effects. (B.G.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jin, Zhenghe; Mullen, Jeffrey T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Kim, Ki Wook, E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)
2016-08-01
The intrinsic carrier transport dynamics in phosphorene is theoretically examined. Utilizing a density functional theory treatment, the low-field mobility and the saturation velocity are characterized for both electrons and holes in the monolayer and bilayer structures. The analysis clearly elucidates the crystal orientation dependence manifested through the anisotropic band structure and the carrier-phonon scattering rates. In the monolayer, the hole mobility in the armchair direction is estimated to be approximately five times larger than in the zigzag direction at room temperature (460 cm{sup 2}/V s vs. 90 cm{sup 2}/V s). The bilayer transport, on the other hand, exhibits a more modest anisotropy with substantially higher mobilities (1610 cm{sup 2}/V s and 760 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively). The calculations on the conduction-band electrons indicate a comparable dependence while the characteristic values are generally smaller by about a factor of two. The variation in the saturation velocity is found to be less pronounced. With the anticipated superior performance and the diminished anisotropy, few-layer phosphorene offers a promising opportunity particularly in p-type applications.
Dual-band high-efficiency polarization converter using an anisotropic metasurface
Lin, Baoqin; Wang, Buhong; Meng, Wen; Da, Xinyu; Li, Wei; Fang, Yingwu; Zhu, Zihang
2016-05-01
In this work, a dual-band and high-efficiency reflective cross-polarization converter based on an anisotropic metasurface for linearly polarized electromagnetic waves is proposed. Its unit cell is composed of an elliptical disk-ring mounted on grounded dielectric substrate, which is an anisotropic structure with a pair of mutually perpendicular symmetric axes u and v along ± 45 ° directions with respect to y-axis direction. Both the simulation and measured results show that the polarization converter can convert x- or y-polarized incident wave to its cross polarized wave in the two frequency bands (6.99-9.18 GHz, 11.66-20.40 GHz) with the conversion efficiency higher than 90%; moreover, the higher frequency band is an ultra-wide one with a relative bandwidth of 54.5% for multiple plasmon resonances. In addition, we present a detailed analysis for the polarization conversion of the polarization converter, and derive a formula to calculate the cross- and co-polarization reflections at y-polarized incidence according to the phase differences between the two reflected coefficients at u-polarized and v-polarized incidences. The simulated, calculated, and measured results are all in agreement with the entire frequency regions.
Gossla, Elke; Tonndorf, Robert; Bernhardt, Anne; Kirsten, Martin; Hund, Rolf-Dieter; Aibibu, Dilibar; Cherif, Chokri; Gelinsky, Michael
2016-10-15
Electrostatic flocking - a common textile technology which has been applied in industry for decades - is based on the deposition of short polymer fibres in a parallel aligned fashion on flat or curved substrates, covered with a layer of a suitable adhesive. Due to their highly anisotropic properties the resulting velvet-like structures can be utilised as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications in which the space between the fibres can be defined as pores. In the present study we have developed a fully resorbable compression elastic flock scaffold from a single material system based on chitosan. The fibres and the resulting scaffolds were analysed concerning their structural and mechanical properties and the biocompatibility was tested in vitro. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of the chitosan fibres were analysed as a function of the applied sterilisation technique (ethanol, supercritical carbon dioxide, γ-irradiation and autoclaving). All sterilisation methods decreased the Young's modulus (from 14GPa to 6-12GPa). The tensile strength was decreased after all treatments - except after the autoclaving of chitosan fibres submerged in water. Compressive strength of the highly porous flock scaffolds was 18±6kPa with a elastic modulus in the range of 50-100kPa. The flocked scaffolds did not show any cytotoxic effect during indirect or direct culture of human mesenchymal stem cells or the sarcoma osteogenic cell line Saos-2. Furthermore cell adhesion and proliferation of both cell types could be observed. This is the first demonstration of a fully biodegradable scaffold manufactured by electrostatic flocking. Most tissues possess anisotropic fibrous structures. In contrast, most of the commonly used scaffolds have an isotropic morphology. By utilising the textile technology of electrostatic flocking, highly porous and clearly anisotropic scaffolds can be manufactured. Flocking leads to parallel aligned short fibres, glued on the surface of a substrate
Scattering and extinction from high-aspect-ratio trenches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar
2015-01-01
We construct a semi-analytical model describing the scattering, extinction and absorption properties of a high aspect-ratio trench in a metallic film. We find that these trenches act as highly efficient scatterers of free waves. In the perfect conductor limit, which for many metals is approached...
Radiative Transfer Equation for Anisotropic Spherical Medium with Specular Reflective Index
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elghazaly, A.
2009-01-01
Radiative transfer problem for anisotropic scattering in a spherical homogeneous, turbid medium with diffuse and angular dependent (specular) reflecting boundaries is solved using the Pomraning-Eddington approximation method. The angular dependent specular reflectivity of the boundary is considered as Fresnel's reflection probability function. The partial heat flux is calculated with anisotropic scattering through a homogeneous solid sphere. The calculations are carried out for spherical media of radii 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mfp and for different scattering albedo. Two different weight functions are used to verify the boundary conditions. Our results are compared with the available data and give an excellent agreement for thick and highly scattering media
High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
B. Giddings, Steven; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Maximilian; Andersen, Jeppe Rosenkrantz
2010-01-01
We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena...... and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra...... a physical scattering process, and ultraplanckian scattering exhibiting Regge behavior. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonperturbative completion of gravity with mechanisms which restore unitarity in the strong gravity regime....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larroche, O.
2007-01-01
A locally split-step explicit (LSSE) algorithm was developed for efficiently solving a multi-dimensional advection-diffusion type equation involving a highly inhomogeneous and highly anisotropic diffusion tensor, which makes the problem very ill-conditioned for standard implicit methods involving the iterative solution of large linear systems. The need for such an optimized algorithm arises, in particular, in the frame of thermonuclear fusion applications, for the purpose of simulating fast charged-particle slowing-down with an ion Fokker-Planck code. The LSSE algorithm is presented in this paper along with the results of a model slowing-down problem to which it has been applied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildiz, C.
2001-01-01
Time-dependent, one-speed neutron transport equations with strong forward and backward scattering together with isotropic scattering are studied in homogeneous slabs and spheres. First, a simple formal equivalence between the transport equations for a critical and for a time-decaying system is established. Then, the transport equation is converted into a more conventional one. The F N method of solving the resulting transport equation is applied to the calculation of the critical parameters and decay constants for the fundamental mode of the flux distribution and one-speed neutrons in spheres and infinite slabs. Numerical results are given for a number of significant figures and compared with those already available in the literature. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zandee, A.P.L.M.
1977-01-01
This thesis deals with an experiment aimed at determining the angle dependence of an intermolecular potential between H 2 molecule and a rare gas atom. The small relative difference in total collision cross section for beams of differently oriented H 2 molecules colliding with inert gas atoms in a scattering box is measured (anisotropy A). Through variation of the orientation and by studying its influence on the total collision cross sections, the angle dependence of the intermolecular potential can be arrived at
Lepton-nucleon scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchmueller, W.
1993-12-01
Recent theoretical developments in the field of inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering are reviewed with emphasis on physics at HERA. Structure functions at small Bjorken-x are discussed in detail. Further topics are photoproduction of jets, the gluon densities in proton and photon, charm physics, electroweak processes and the search for new particles and interactions. (orig.)
High energy proton-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beurtey, R.M.
1977-01-01
This paper is restricted to an overall global criticism of what has been produced, experimentally and theoretically, during the past ten years, concerning elastic proton scattering at intermediate energy: theoretical models and approximations, phenomenological analysis, criticisms and suggestions on experimental methods
High-harmonic generation in a quantum electron gas trapped in a nonparabolic and anisotropic well
Hurst, Jérôme; Lévêque-Simon, Kévin; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine; Manfredi, Giovanni; Haas, Fernando
2016-05-01
An effective self-consistent model is derived and used to study the dynamics of an electron gas confined in a nonparabolic and anisotropic quantum well. This approach is based on the equations of quantum hydrodynamics, which incorporate quantum and nonlinear effects in an approximate fashion. The effective model consists of a set of six coupled differential equations (dynamical system) for the electric dipole and the size of the electron gas. Using this model we show that: (i) high harmonic generation is related to the appearance of chaos in the phase space, as attested to by related Poincaré sections; (ii) higher order harmonics can be excited efficiently and with relatively weak driving fields by making use of chirped electromagnetic waves.
Gashinova, M S; Kolmakov, Y A; Vendik, I B
2002-01-01
The electrodynamic analysis of the arbitrary multilayer medium, including the anisotropic layers and containing the arbitrary form conductors is carried out. Thin layers of the high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) are considered as conductors. Determination of the surface current density is a result of the numerical solution. Accounting for the losses in the HTSC is accomplished on the basis of determining the equivalent surface impedance and using the Leontovich boundary conditions. Anisotropy is accounted for in the determination of the Green spectral dyad for the structure with arbitrary number of the anisotropic or isotropic layers. Calculation of the surface current density distribution demonstrates the correctness of the proposed model
High energy asymptotics of the scattering amplitude for the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Keywords. Scattering matrix; asymptotic expansion; high energy; diagonal singula- ..... (see subsection 2 of § 3) with functions of the generator of dilations. A = 1. 2 d ..... ness in quantum scattering theory, Ann. Inst. Henri Poincaré, Phys. Théor.
High energy scattering in gravity and supergravity
Giddings, Steven B; Andersen, Jeppe R
2010-01-01
We investigate features of perturbative gravity and supergravity by studying scattering in the ultraplanckian limit, and sharpen arguments that the dynamics is governed by long-distance physics. A simple example capturing aspects of the eikonal resummation suggests why short distance phenomena and in particular divergences or nonrenormalizability do not necessarily play a central role in this regime. A more profound problem is apparently unitarity. These considerations can be illustrated by showing that known gravity and supergravity amplitudes have the same long-distance behavior, despite the extra light states of supergravity, and this serves as an important check on long-range dynamics in a context where perturbative amplitudes are finite. We also argue that these considerations have other important implications: they obstruct probing the conjectured phenomenon of asymptotic safety through a physical scattering process, and gravity appears not to reggeize. These arguments sharpen the need to find a nonpert...
Gehne, Stephan; Benson, Philip; Koor, Nick; Enfield, Mark
2017-04-01
The finding of considerable volumes of hydrocarbon resources within tight sedimentary rock formations in the UK led to focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of low permeability rock types and hydraulic fracturing. Despite much research in these fields, there remains a scarcity of available experimental data concerning the fracture mechanics of fluid driven fracturing and the fracture properties of anisotropic, low permeability rock types. In this study, hydraulic fracturing is simulated in a controlled laboratory environment to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time and assess how environmental factors and rock properties influence the fracture process and the developing fracture network. Here we report data on employing fluid overpressure to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in a highly anisotropic shale ( 50% P-wave velocity anisotropy). Experiments are carried out in a triaxial deformation apparatus using cylindrical samples. The bedding planes are orientated either parallel or normal to the major principal stress direction (σ1). A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from the pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic Emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. Indirect tensile strength measurements at atmospheric pressure show a high tensile strength anisotropy ( 60%) of the shale. Depending on the relative bedding orientation within the stress field, we find that fluid induced fractures in the sample propagate in two of the three principal fracture orientations: Divider and Short-Transverse. The fracture progresses parallel to the bedding plane (Short-Transverse orientation) if the bedding plane is aligned (parallel) with the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kukhtarev, N.V.; Lyuksyutov, S; Buchhave, Preben
1996-01-01
We have predicted and observed an anisotropic photocurrent induced in the cubic crystal Bi/sub 12/SiO/sub 20/ by a high-contrast interference pattern. The transverse current detected when the interference pattern is tilted is caused by deflection of the direct current generated by an external...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueki, T.; Larsen, E.W.
1998-01-01
The authors show that Monte Carlo simulations of neutral particle transport in planargeometry anisotropically scattering media, using the exponential transform with angular biasing as a variance reduction device, are governed by a new Boltzman Monte Carlo (BMC) equation, which includes particle weight as an extra independent variable. The weight moments of the solution of the BMC equation determine the moments of the score and the mean number of collisions per history in the nonanalog Monte Carlo simulations. Therefore, the solution of the BMC equation predicts the variance of the score and the figure of merit in the simulation. Also, by (1) using an angular biasing function that is closely related to the ''asymptotic'' solution of the linear Boltzman equation and (2) requiring isotropic weight changes as collisions, they derive a new angular biasing scheme. Using the BMC equation, they propose a universal ''safe'' upper limit of the transform parameter, valid for any type of exponential transform. In numerical calculations, they demonstrate that the behavior of the Monte Carlo simulations and the performance predicted by deterministically solving the BMC equation agree well, and that the new angular biasing scheme is always advantageous
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Libotte, Rafael Barbosa; Alves Filho, Hermes; Oliva, Amaury Muñoz
2017-01-01
The physical phenomenon of transport of neutral particles in a host environment is of interest in various scientific applications, e.g., nuclear reactors, shielding calculations, radiological protection, nuclear medicine, agronomy, materials science, oil prospecting, etc. In all these areas there is a need for an accurate description of the transport of the particles in the host medium. In this class of applications are the neutron shielding problems, also referred to as 'fixed-source' problems, where the interaction of the particles with the medium does not produce new neutrons, i.e., non-multiplicative medium. In this context, the development of tools that model these problems is relevant and of a beneficial return to society. In this work, we propose the development of deterministic mathematical and computational modeling of neutron transport using the linearized equation of Boltzmann applied to neutron shielding problems. Here we present also the development of a spectro-nodal method (coarse mesh) considering the scattering phenomenon as being linearly anisotropic. We show the results using a computational application, developed in Java language, version 1.8.0 9 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milesi, M.; Chastel, Y.; Hachem, E.; Bernacki, M.; Loge, R.E.; Bouchard, P.O.
2010-01-01
Forged components exhibit good mechanical strength, particularly in terms of high cycle fatigue properties. This is due to the specific microstructure resulting from large plastic deformation as in a forging process. The goal of this study is to account for critical phenomena such as the anisotropy of the fatigue resistance in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on industrial forged components. Standard high cycle fatigue criteria usually give good results for isotropic behaviors but are not suitable for components with anisotropic features. The aim is to represent explicitly this anisotropy at a lower scale compared to the process scale and determined local coefficients needed to simulate a real case. We developed a multi-scale approach by considering the statistical morphology and mechanical characteristics of the microstructure to represent explicitly each element. From stochastic experimental data, realistic microstructures were reconstructed in order to perform high cycle fatigue simulations on it with different orientations. The meshing was improved by a local refinement of each interface and simulations were performed on each representative elementary volume. The local mechanical anisotropy is taken into account through the distribution of particles. Fatigue parameters identified at the microscale can then be used at the macroscale on the forged component. The linkage of these data and the process scale is the fiber vector and the deformation state, used to calculate global mechanical anisotropy. Numerical results reveal an expected behavior compared to experimental tendencies. We proved numerically the dependence of the anisotropy direction and the deformation state on the endurance limit evolution.
Inclusive quasielastic and deep inelastic electron scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Day, D.B.
1990-01-01
With high electron energies a kinematic regime can be reached where it will be possible to separate quasielastic and deep inelastic scattering. We present a short description of these processes which dominate the inclusive spectrum. Using the highest momentum transfer data available to guide our estimates, we give the kinematic requirements and the cross sections expected. These results indicate that inclusive scattering at high q has a yet unfilled potential. 18 refs., 13 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard.
1975-04-01
For the one-dimensional geometries, the transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering can be reduced to a single integral equation; this is a singular-kernel FREDHOLM equation of the second kind. When applying a conventional projective method that of GALERKIN, to the solution of this equation the well-known collision probability algorithm is obtained. Piecewise polynomial expansions are used to represent the flux. In the ANILINE code, the flux is supposed to be linear in plane geometry and parabolic in both cylindrical and spherical geometries. An integral relationship was found between the one-dimensional isotropic and anisotropic kernels; this allows to reduce the new matrix elements (issuing from the anisotropic kernel) to classic collision probabilities of the isotropic scattering equation. For cylindrical and spherical geometries used an approximate representation of the current was used to avoid an additional numerical integration. Reflective boundary conditions were considered; in plane geometry the reflection is supposed specular, for the other geometries the isotropic reflection hypothesis has been adopted. Further, the ANILINE code enables to deal with an incoming isotropic current. Numerous checks were performed in monokinetic theory. Critical radii and albedos were calculated for homogeneous slabs, cylinders and spheres. For heterogeneous media, the thermal utilization factor obtained by this method was compared with the theoretical result based upon a formula by BENOIST. Finally, ANILINE was incorporated into the multigroup APOLLO code, which enabled to analyse the MINERVA experimental reactor in transport theory with 99 groups. The ANILINE method is particularly suited to the treatment of strongly anisotropic media with considerable flux gradients. It is also well adapted to the calculation of reflectors, and in general, to the exact analysis of anisotropic effects in large-sized media [fr
Parity nonconservation in polarized electron scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prescott, C.Y.
1979-10-01
Recent observations of parity violation in inelastic scattering of electrons at high energy is discussed with reference to the process e(polarized) + D(unpolarized) → e + X. The kinetics of this process, the idealized case of scattering from free quark targets, experimental techniques and results, and relations to atomic physics of parity violation in bismuth and thallium atoms with a model independent analysis. 17 references
Synthesis of aerogel tiles with high light scattering length
Danilyuk, A F; Okunev, A G; Onuchin, A P; Shaurman, S A
1999-01-01
The possibility of aerogel tiles production for RICH detectors is described. Monolithic blocks of silica aerogel were synthesized by two-step sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane Si(OEt) sub 4 followed by high temperature supercritical drying with organic solvent. The important characteristic of aerogel is the light scattering length. In the wide range of refraction indexes the light scattering length exceeds 4 cm at 400 nm.
High-energy expansion for nuclear multiple scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallace, S.J.
1975-01-01
The Watson multiple scattering series is expanded to develop the Glauber approximation plus systematic corrections arising from three (1) deviations from eikonal propagation between scatterings, (2) Fermi motion of struck nucleons, and (3) the kinematic transformation which relates the many-body scattering operators of the Watson series to the physical two-body scattering amplitude. Operators which express effects ignored at the outset to obtain the Glauber approximation are subsequently reintroduced via perturbation expansions. Hence a particular set of approximations is developed which renders the sum of the Watson series to the Glauber form in the center of mass system, and an expansion is carried out to find leading order corrections to that summation. Although their physical origins are quite distinct, the eikonal, Fermi motion, and kinematic corrections produce strikingly similar contributions to the scattering amplitude. It is shown that there is substantial cancellation between their effects and hence the Glauber approximation is more accurate than the individual approximations used in its derivation. It is shown that the leading corrections produce effects of order (2kR/subc/) -1 relative to the double scattering term in the uncorrected Glauber amplitude, hk being momentum and R/subc/ the nuclear char []e radius. The leading order corrections are found to be small enough to validate quatitative analyses of experimental data for many intermediate to high energy cases and for scattering angles not limited to the very forward region. In a Gaussian model, the leading corrections to the Glauber amplitude are given as convenient analytic expressions
Highly Anisotropic Adhesive Film Made from Upside-Down, Flat, and Uniform Vertically Aligned CNTs.
Hong, Sanghyun; Lundstrom, Troy; Ghosh, Ranajay; Abdi, Hamed; Hao, Ji; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Su, Paul; Suhr, Jonghwan; Vaziri, Ashkan; Jalili, Nader; Jung, Yung Joon
2016-12-14
We have created a multifunctional dry adhesive film with transferred vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs). This unique VA-CNT film was fabricated by a multistep transfer process, converting the flat and uniform bottom of VA-CNTs grown on atomically flat silicon wafer substrates into the top surface of an adhesive layer. Unlike as-grown VA-CNTs, which have a nonuniform surface, randomly entangled CNT arrays, and a weak interface between the CNTs and substrates, this transferred VA-CNT film shows an extremely high coefficient of static friction (COF) of up to 60 and a shear adhesion force 30 times higher (12 N/cm 2 ) than that of the as-grown VA-CNTs under a very small preloading of 0.2 N/cm 2 . Moreover, a near-zero normal adhesion force was observed with 20 mN/cm 2 preloading and a maximum 100-μm displacement in a piezo scanner, demonstrating ideal properties for an artificial gecko foot. Using this unique structural feature and anisotropic adhesion properties, we also demonstrate effective removal and assembly of nanoparticles into organized micrometer-scale circular and line patterns by a single brushing of this flat and uniform VA-CNT film.
Optical reflectance studies of highly specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steele, J A; Lewis, R A; Sirbu, L; Enachi, M; Tiginyanu, I M; Skuratov, V A
2015-01-01
High-precision optical angular reflectance measurements are reported for a specular anisotropic nanoporous (111) InP membrane prepared by doping-assisted wet-electrochemical etching. The membrane surface morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscope imaging and revealed a quasi-uniform and self-organized nanoporous network consisting of semiconductor ‘islands’ in the sub-wavelength regime. The optical response of the nanoporous InP surface was studied at 405 nm (740 THz; UV), 633 nm (474 THz; VIS) and 1064 nm (282 THz; NIR), and exhibited a retention of basic macro-dielectric properties. Refractive index determinations demonstrate an optical anisotropy for the membrane which is strongly dependent on the wavelength of incident light, and exhibits an interesting inversion (positive anisotropy to negative) between 405 and 633 nm. The inversion of optical anisotropy is attributed to a strongly reduced ‘metallic’ behaviour in the membrane when subject to above-bandgap illumination. For the simplest case of sub-bandgap incident irradiation, the optical properties of the nanoporous InP sample are analysed in terms of an effective refractive index n eff and compared to effective media approximations. (invited article)
Deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, S.
1991-01-01
The eikonal picture which has theoretical foundations in some areas of physics has been successful in explaining various aspects of elastic scattering at high energies. Chou and Yang first proposed a preliminary version of the eikonal model for hadron-hadron elastic scattering. The model is based on geometrical considerations in which hadrons are treated as extended objects. Elastic scattering then results from the propagation of attenuated wave function. By assuming that at high energies the scattering amplitude is purely imaginary and that the hadronic matter distribution is proportional to the charge distribution on protons, Durand and Lipes studied high energy pp scattering on the basis of this prestine model. Later on, the model was extended to other elastic reactions. However, a survey of literature shows that it has been successful only in the diffraction peak region. It has been shown that the pristine Chou-Yange model can explain the differential cross section for deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at √s = 53 GeV in the diffraction peak region. In order to fit the large momentum transfer data, the generalized Chou-Yang model is used
Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H.; Smith, D.R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.
2005-01-01
The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and λ = 1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis (ρ ∼ .1) or near the edge (ρ ∼ .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics
Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H,; Smith, D. R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.
2005-09-26
The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and {lambda}=1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis ({rho} {approx} .1) or near the edge ({rho} {approx} .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics.
Some Notes on Neutron Up-Scattering and the Doppler-Broadening of High-Z Scattering Resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-09-28
When neutrons are scattered by target nuclei at elevated temperatures, it is entirely possible that the neutron will actually gain energy (i.e., up-scatter) from the interaction. This phenomenon is in addition to the more usual case of the neutron losing energy (i.e., down-scatter). Furthermore, the motion of the target nuclei can also cause extended neutron down-scattering, i.e., the neutrons can and do scatter to energies lower than predicted by the simple asymptotic models. In recent years, more attention has been given to temperature-dependent scattering cross sections for materials in neutron multiplying systems. This has led to the inclusion of neutron up-scatter in deterministic codes like Partisn and to free gas scattering models for material temperature effects in Monte Carlo codes like MCNP and cross section processing codes like NJOY. The free gas scattering models have the effect of Doppler Broadening the scattering cross section output spectra in energy and angle. The current state of Doppler-Broadening numerical techniques used at Los Alamos for scattering resonances will be reviewed, and suggestions will be made for further developments. The focus will be on the free gas scattering models currently in use and the development of new models to include high-Z resonance scattering effects. These models change the neutron up-scattering behavior.
Evaluation of a scattering correction method for high energy tomography
Tisseur, David; Bhatia, Navnina; Estre, Nicolas; Berge, Léonie; Eck, Daniel; Payan, Emmanuel
2018-01-01
One of the main drawbacks of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is the contribution of the scattered photons due to the object and the detector. Scattered photons are deflected from their original path after their interaction with the object. This additional contribution of the scattered photons results in increased measured intensities, since the scattered intensity simply adds to the transmitted intensity. This effect is seen as an overestimation in the measured intensity thus corresponding to an underestimation of absorption. This results in artifacts like cupping, shading, streaks etc. on the reconstructed images. Moreover, the scattered radiation provides a bias for the quantitative tomography reconstruction (for example atomic number and volumic mass measurement with dual-energy technique). The effect can be significant and difficult in the range of MeV energy using large objects due to higher Scatter to Primary Ratio (SPR). Additionally, the incident high energy photons which are scattered by the Compton effect are more forward directed and hence more likely to reach the detector. Moreover, for MeV energy range, the contribution of the photons produced by pair production and Bremsstrahlung process also becomes important. We propose an evaluation of a scattering correction technique based on the method named Scatter Kernel Superposition (SKS). The algorithm uses a continuously thickness-adapted kernels method. The analytical parameterizations of the scatter kernels are derived in terms of material thickness, to form continuously thickness-adapted kernel maps in order to correct the projections. This approach has proved to be efficient in producing better sampling of the kernels with respect to the object thickness. This technique offers applicability over a wide range of imaging conditions and gives users an additional advantage. Moreover, since no extra hardware is required by this approach, it forms a major advantage especially in those cases where
Ultrasonic Beam Propagation in Highly Anisotropic Materials Simulated by Multi-Gaussian Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Hyun Jo; Schmerr, Lester W.
2007-01-01
The necessity of nondestructively inspecting fiber-reinforced composites, austenitic steels, and other inherently anisotropic materials has stimulated considerable interest in developing beam models for anisotropic media. The properties of slowness surface play key role in the beam models based on the paraxial approximation. In this paper, we apply a modular multi-Gaussian beam (MMGB) model to study the effects of material anisotropy on ultrasonic beam profile. It is shown that the anisotropic effects of beam skew and excess beam divergence enter into the MMGB model through parameters defining the slope and curvature of the slowness surface. The overall beam profile is found when the quasi longitudinal (qL) beam propagates in the symmetry plane of a transversely isotropic gr/ep composite. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effects of these parameters on ultrasonic beam diffraction and beam skew. The MMGB calculations are also checked by comparing the anisotropy factor and beam skew angle with other analytical solutions
Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Longtin, Remi; Rossell, Marta D; Gröning, Pierangelo
2016-04-06
We report a new methodology based on glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of an organic molecule in combination with perpendicular growth of a second inorganic material. The resulting thin films retain a very well-defined tilted columnar microstructure characteristic of GLAD with the inorganic material embedded inside the columns. We refer to this new methodology as growth assisted by glancing angle deposition or GAGLAD, since the material of interest (here, the inorganic) grows in the form of tilted columns, though it is deposited under a nonglancing configuration. As a "proof of concept", we have used silver and zinc oxide as the perpendicularly deposited material since they usually form ill-defined columnar microstructures at room temperature by GLAD. By means of our GAGLAD methodology, the typical tilted columnar microstructure can be developed for materials that otherwise do not form ordered structures under conventional GLAD. This simple methodology broadens significantly the range of materials where control of the microstructure can be achieved by tuning the geometrical deposition parameters. The two examples presented here, Ag/Alq3 and ZnO/Alq3, have been deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), respectively: two different vacuum techniques that illustrate the generality of the proposed technique. The two type of hybrid samples present very interesting properties that demonstrate the potentiality of GAGLAD. On one hand, the Ag/Alq3 samples present highly optical anisotropic properties when they are analyzed with linearly polarized light. To our knowledge, these Ag/Alq3 samples present the highest angular selectivity reported in the visible range. On the other hand, ZnO/Alq3 samples are used to develop highly porous ZnO thin films by using Alq3 as sacrificial material. In this way, antireflective ZnO samples with very low refractive index and extinction coefficient have been obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abderraouf Messai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave analysis of high Tc superconducting rectangular microstrip patch over ground plane with rectangular aperture in the case where the patch is printed on a uniaxially anisotropic substrate material is presented. The dyadic Green’s functions of the considered structure are efficiently determined in the vector Fourier transform domain. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with measurements and previously published data for several anisotropic substrate materials. Numerical results showing variation of the resonant frequency and the quality factor of the superconducting antenna with regard to operating temperature are given. Finally, the effects of uniaxial anisotropy in the substrate on the resonant frequencies of different TM modes of the superconducting microstrip antenna with rectangular aperture in the ground plane are presented.
Salama, Amgad
2015-11-01
One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Role of Texture, Cracks, and Fractures in Highly Anisotropic Shales
Baird, Alan F.; Kendall, J. Michael; Fisher, Quentin J.; Budge, Jessica
2017-12-01
Organic shales generally have low permeability unless fractures are present. However, how gas, oil, and water flows into these fractures remains enigmatic. The alignment of clay minerals and the alignment of fractures and cracks are effective means to produce seismic anisotropy. Thus, the detection and characterization of this anisotropy can be used to infer details about lithology, rock fabric, and fracture and crack properties within the subsurface. We present a study characterizing anisotropy using S wave splitting from microseismic sources in a highly anisotropic shale. We observe very strong anisotropy (up to 30%) with predominantly VTI (vertical transverse isotropy) symmetry, but with evidence of an HTI (horizontal transverse isotropy) overprint due to a NE striking vertical fracture set parallel to the maximum horizontal compressive stress. We observe clear evidence of a shear wave triplication due to anisotropy, which to our knowledge is one of only a very few observations of such triplications in field-scale data. We use modal proportions of minerals derived from X-ray fluorescence data combined with realistic textures to estimate the contribution of intrinsic anisotropy as well as possible contributions of horizontally aligned cracks. We find that aligned clays can explain much of the observed anisotropy and that any cracks contributing to the vertical transverse isotropy (VTI) must have a low ratio of normal to tangential compliance (ZN/ZT), typical of isolated cracks with low hydraulic connectivity. Subhorizontal cracks have also been observed in the reservoir, and we propose that their reactivation during hydraulic fracturing may be an important mechanism to facilitate gas flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Xiangxing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Hongya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiao, Zhiyu [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Guoqing [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)
2015-09-15
NdFeB powders were consolidated into nanocrystalline bulk magnets by a near-net-shape process of high-velocity compaction (HVC) at room temperature with no binder employed. The nanostructure can be maintained after compaction. The compacted magnets with relatively high density can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. The mechanical strength of the HVCed magnet after heat treatment is comparable to that of the conventional bonded NdFeB magnets. The anisotropic magnet has also been prepared by hot deformation using HVCed magnet as the precursor. The remanence value along the pressing direction increased from 0.64 to 0.95 T and maximum energy product (BH){sub max} increased from 65 to 120 kJ/m{sup 3} after hot deformation. The processing–structure–properties relationships for both isotropic and anisotropic magnets are discussed. - Highlights: • HVC is a feasible binder-free approach for preparing NdFeB magnets. • The compacted magnets can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. • The magnets post heat treatment have compression strength higher than bonded magnets. • The approach of HVC is a potential pre-process for anisotropic NdFeB bulk magnets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng, Xiangxing; Liu, Zhongwu; Yu, Hongya; Xiao, Zhiyu; Zhang, Guoqing
2015-01-01
NdFeB powders were consolidated into nanocrystalline bulk magnets by a near-net-shape process of high-velocity compaction (HVC) at room temperature with no binder employed. The nanostructure can be maintained after compaction. The compacted magnets with relatively high density can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. The mechanical strength of the HVCed magnet after heat treatment is comparable to that of the conventional bonded NdFeB magnets. The anisotropic magnet has also been prepared by hot deformation using HVCed magnet as the precursor. The remanence value along the pressing direction increased from 0.64 to 0.95 T and maximum energy product (BH) max increased from 65 to 120 kJ/m 3 after hot deformation. The processing–structure–properties relationships for both isotropic and anisotropic magnets are discussed. - Highlights: • HVC is a feasible binder-free approach for preparing NdFeB magnets. • The compacted magnets can inherit the coercivity of the starting powders. • The magnets post heat treatment have compression strength higher than bonded magnets. • The approach of HVC is a potential pre-process for anisotropic NdFeB bulk magnets
Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity moessbauer radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.
1991-05-01
We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol
Neutron scattering at the high-flux isotope reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cable, J.W. Chakoumakos, B.C.; Dai, P.
1995-01-01
The title facilities offer the brightest source of neutrons in the national user program. Neutron scattering experiments probe the structure and dynamics of materials in unique and complementary ways as compared to x-ray scattering methods and provide fundamental data on materials of interest to solid state physicists, chemists, biologists, polymer scientists, colloid scientists, mineralogists, and metallurgists. Instrumentation at the High- Flux Isotope Reactor includes triple-axis spectrometers for inelastic scattering experiments, a single-crystal four diffractometer for crystal structural studies, a high-resolution powder diffractometer for nuclear and magnetic structure studies, a wide-angle diffractometer for dynamic powder studies and measurements of diffuse scattering in crystals, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument used primarily to study structure-function relationships in polymers and biological macromolecules, a neutron reflectometer for studies of surface and thin-film structures, and residual stress instrumentation for determining macro- and micro-stresses in structural metals and ceramics. Research highlights of these areas will illustrate the current state of neutron science to study the physical properties of materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broome, J.
1965-11-01
The programme SCATTER is a KDF9 programme in the Egtran dialect of Fortran to generate normalized angular distributions for elastically scattered neutrons from data input as the coefficients of a Legendre polynomial series, or from differential cross-section data. Also, differential cross-section data may be analysed to produce Legendre polynomial coefficients. Output on cards punched in the format of the U.K. A. E. A. Nuclear Data Library is optional. (author)
A high pressure sample facility for neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlile, C.J.; Glossop, B.H.
1981-06-01
Commissioning tests involving deformation studies and tests to destruction as well as neutron diffraction measurements of a standard sample have been carried out on the SERC high pressure sample facility for neutron scattering studies. A detailed description of the pressurising equipment is given. (author)
High vacuum general purpose scattering chamber for nuclear reaction study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suresh Kumar; Ojha, S.C.
2003-01-01
To study the nuclear reactions induced by beam from medium energy accelerators, one of the most common facility required is a scattering chamber. In the scattering chamber, projectile collides with the target nucleus and the scattered reaction products are detected with various type of nuclear detector at different angles with respect to the beam. The experiments are performed under high vacuum to minimize the background reaction and the energy losses of the charged particles. To make the chamber general purpose various requirement of the experiments are incorporated into it. Changing of targets, changing angle of various detectors while in vacuum are the most desired features. The other features like ascertaining the beam spot size and position on the target, minimizing the background counts by proper beam dump, accurate positioning of the detector as per plan etc. are some of the important requirements
Small polarons and c-axis transport in highly anisotropic metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ho, A.F.; Schofield, A.J.
2002-09-01
Motivated by the anomalous c-axis transport properties of the quasi two-dimensional metal, Sr 2 RuO 4 , and some of its relatives, we have studied the interlayer hopping of single electrons that are coupled strongly to c-axis bosons. We find a c-axis resistivity that reflects the in-plane electronic scattering in the low and very high temperature limits (relative to the characteristic temperature of the boson T boson ). For temperatures near the T boson , a broad maximum in the resistivity can appear for sufficiently strong electron-boson coupling. This feature may account for the observed 'metallic to non-metallic crossover' seen in these layered oxides, where the boson may be a phonon. (author)
Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.
1990-10-01
We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support
Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1990-01-01
We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support
Thermal neutron scattering studies of condensed matter under high pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlile, C.J.; Salter, D.C.
1978-01-01
Although temperature has been used as a thermodynamic variable for samples in thermal neutron scattering experiments since the inception of the neutron technique, it is only in the last decade that high pressures have been utilised for this purpose. In the paper the problems particular to this field of work are outlined and a review is made of the types of high-pressure cells used and the scientific results obtained from the experiments. 103 references. (author)
Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.
1993-02-01
The QUEGS facility at MURR has produced a number of new results and demonstrated the range of potential applications of high resolution, high intensity Moessbauer scattering. This work has been carried out by both MU and Purdue researchers and includes published results on Na, W, pentadecane, polydimethylsiloxane and other systems, manuscripts submitted on alkali halides (Phys. Rev. B) and accurate Moessbauer lineshape measurements (Phys. Rev. C), and manuscripts in preparation on glycerol, NiAl and Moessbauer spectra obtained by modulating a scattering crystal. Recently, new collaborations have been initiated which will substantially enhance our efforts. These are with W. Steiner (Vienna), G. Coddens (Saclay), and R. D. Taylor (Los Alamos). Steiner is experienced with Fe-57 Moessbauer scattering, while Coddens specializes in quasielastic neutron scattering; both of these areas naturally complement our work. R. D. Taylor has pioneered Moessbauer spectroscopy from the time of its discovery and has already made important contributions to our study of lattice dynamics and superconductivity for lead alloyed with small quantities of tin. At the same time, a significant instrument upgrade is underway, funded in part by the DOE-URIP program
Accurate calculation of high harmonics generated by relativistic Thomson scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popa, Alexandru
2008-01-01
The recent emergence of the field of ultraintense laser pulses, corresponding to beam intensities higher than 10 18 W cm -2 , brings about the problem of the high harmonic generation (HHG) by the relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. Starting from the equations of the relativistic motion of the electron in the electromagnetic field, we give an exact solution of this problem. Taking into account the Lienard-Wiechert equations, we obtain a periodic scattered electromagnetic field. Without loss of generality, the solution is strongly simplified by observing that the electromagnetic field is always normal to the direction electron-detector. The Fourier series expansion of this field leads to accurate expressions of the high harmonics generated by the Thomson scattering. Our calculations lead to a discrete HHG spectrum, whose shape and angular distribution are in agreement with the experimental data from the literature. Since no approximations were made, our approach is also valid in the ultrarelativistic regime, corresponding to intensities higher than 10 23 W cm -2 , where it predicts a strong increase of the HHG intensities and of the order of harmonics. In this domain, the nonlinear Thomson scattering could be an efficient source of hard x-rays
Elastic scattering and total cross section at very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castaldi, R.; Sanguinetti, G.
1985-01-01
The aim of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the field of elastic scattering and total cross section in this new energy domain. In Section 2 a survey of the experimental situation is outlined. The most significant data are presented, with emphasis on the interpretation, not the specific details or technicalities. This section is therefore intended to give a self-contained look at the field, especially for the nonspecialist. In Section 3, hadron scattering at high energy is described in an impact parameter picture, which provides a model-independent intuitive geometrical representation. The diffractive character of elastic scattering, seen as the shadow of inelastic absorption, is presented as a consequence of unitarity in the s-channel. Spins are neglected throughout this review, inasmuch as the asymptotic behavior in the very high-energy limit is the main concern here. In Section 4 some relevant theorems are recalled on the limiting behavior of hadron-scattering amplitudes at infinite energy. There is also a brief discussion on how asymptotically rising total cross sections imply scaling properties in the elastic differential cross sections. A quick survey of eikonal models is presented and their predictions are compared with ISR and SPS Collider data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donnelly, Vincent M; Belostotskiy, Sergey G; Economou, Demetre J; Sadeghi, Nader
2010-01-01
Laser scattering experiments were performed in high pressure (100s of Torr) parallel-plate, slot-type DC microdischarges operating in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (n e ) and electron temperature (T e ). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300 - 700 Torr, LTS yielded T e = 0.9 ± 0.3 eV and n e = (6 ± 3)·10 13 cm -3 , in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (T g ) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with T g values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.
High-resolution, high-sensitivity NMR of nano-litre anisotropic samples by coil spinning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakellariou, D [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, SCM, Lab Struct and Dynam Resonance Magnet, CNRS URA 331, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Le Goff, G; Jacquinot, J F [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, SPEC: Serv Phys Etat Condense, CNRS URA 2464, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)
2007-07-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can probe the local structure and dynamic properties of liquids and solids, making it one of the most powerful and versatile analytical methods available today. However, its intrinsically low sensitivity precludes NMR analysis of very small samples - as frequently used when studying isotopically labelled biological molecules or advanced materials, or as preferred when conducting high-throughput screening of biological samples or 'lab-on-a-chip' studies. The sensitivity of NMR has been improved by using static micro-coils, alternative detection schemes and pre-polarization approaches. But these strategies cannot be easily used in NMR experiments involving the fast sample spinning essential for obtaining well-resolved spectra from non-liquid samples. Here we demonstrate that inductive coupling allows wireless transmission of radio-frequency pulses and the reception of NMR signals under fast spinning of both detector coil and sample. This enables NMR measurements characterized by an optimal filling factor, very high radio-frequency field amplitudes and enhanced sensitivity that increases with decreasing sample volume. Signals obtained for nano-litre-sized samples of organic powders and biological tissue increase by almost one order of magnitude (or, equivalently, are acquired two orders of magnitude faster), compared to standard NMR measurements. Our approach also offers optimal sensitivity when studying samples that need to be confined inside multiple safety barriers, such as radioactive materials. In principle, the co-rotation of a micrometer-sized detector coil with the sample and the use of inductive coupling (techniques that are at the heart of our method) should enable highly sensitive NMR measurements on any mass-limited sample that requires fast mechanical rotation to obtain well-resolved spectra. The method is easy to implement on a commercial NMR set-up and exhibits improved performance with miniaturization, and we
Pulsar high energy emission due to inverse Compton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyutikov, Maxim
2013-06-15
We discuss growing evidence that pulsar high energy is emission is generated via Inverse Compton mechanism. We reproduce the broadband spectrum of Crab pulsar, from UV to very high energy gamma-rays - nearly ten decades in energy, within the framework of the cyclotron-self-Compton model. Emission is produced by two counter-streaming beams within the outer gaps, at distances above ∼ 20 NS radii. The outward moving beam produces UV-X-ray photons via Doppler-booster cyclotron emission, and GeV photons by Compton scattering the cyclotron photons produced by the inward going beam. The scattering occurs in the deep Klein-Nishina regime, whereby the IC component provides a direct measurement of particle distribution within the magnetosphere. The required plasma multiplicity is high, ∼10{sup 6} – 10{sup 7}, but is consistent with the average particle flux injected into the pulsar wind nebula.
Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites
Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun; Sheng, Ping
2012-01-01
By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle
Large-angle hadron scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goloskokov, S.V.; Kudinov, A.V.; Kuleshov, S.P.
1981-01-01
Basing on the quasipotential Logunov-Tavkhelidze approach, corrections to the amplitude of high-energy large-angle meson-nucleon scattering are estimated. The estimates are compared with the available experimental data on pp- and π +- p-scattering, so as to check the adequacy of the suggested scheme to account for the preasymptotic deffects. The compared results are presented in the form of tables and graphs. The following conclusions are drawn: 1. the account for corrections, due to the long-range interaction, to the amplituda gives a good aghreee main asymptotic termment between the theoretical and experimental data. 2. in the case of π +- p- scattering the corrections prove to be comparable with the main asymptotic term up to the values of transferred pulses psub(lambdac)=50 GeV/c, which results in a noticeable deviation form the quark counting rules at such energies. Nevertheless, the preasymptotic formulae do well, beginning with psub(lambdac) approximately 6 GeV/c. In case of pp-scattering the corrections are mutually compensated to a considerable degree, and the deviation from the quark counting rules is negligible
Tezkan, Bülent; Červ, Václav; Pek, Josef
1992-12-01
Anisotropy in magnetotelluric (MT) data has been found very often and has been explained as the result of local structures of different conductivities. In this paper, an observed anisotropy in MT data is not interpreted qualitatively in terms of local structures but is modelled quantitatively by a quasi-anisotropic layer. Besides the MT transfer functions, measurements of the vertical magnetic component are required. The second goal of this paper is to describe a method which permits the resolution of mid-crustal conductive layers in the presence of an additional high-conductivity layer at the surface. This method is possible in a two-dimensional (2-D) situation that limits the spatial extension of the surface structure. Again, vertical magnetic field recordings are necessary, but the phase of the E-polarization with respect to the 2-D structure is the most sensitive parameter. Using two field sites in Southern Germany, it has been possible to give a quantitative explanation of anisotropy and an improved depth resolution, and to derive an integrated conductivity of the highly conductive mid-crustal layers using MT and geomagnetic depth sounding data. The anisotropic highly conductive layer is located 12 km beneath the poorly conductive Black Forest crystalline rocks, whereas it is at a depth of 6 km beneath the highly conductive Rhine Graben sediments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Topchyan, I.I.; Dokhner, R.D.
1977-01-01
The effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects in uniform fields of elastic stresses on the relaxation of the elastic coefficients of a crystal was investigated in the nonlinear elasticity theory approximation. In calculating the interaction of point defects with elastic-stress fields was taken into consideration. The expression for the relaxations of the elasticity coefficients are obtained in an analytical form. The relaxation of the second-order elasticity coefficients is due to the dimentional interaction of a point defect with an applied-stress field, whereas the relaxation of the higher-order elasticity coefficients is determined both by dimentional and module effects
Eliminating high-order scattering effects in optical microbubble sizing.
Qiu, Huihe
2003-04-01
Measurements of bubble size and velocity in multiphase flows are important in much research and many industrial applications. It has been found that high-order refractions have great impact on microbubble sizing by use of phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA). The problem has been investigated, and a model of phase-size correlation, which also takes high-order refractions into consideration, is introduced to improve the accuracy of bubble sizing. Hence the model relaxes the assumption of a single-scattering mechanism in a conventional PDA system. The results of simulation based on this new model are compared with those based on a single-scattering-mechanism approach or a first-order approach. An optimization method for accurately sizing air bubbles in water has been suggested.
Unifying logarithmic and factorial behavior in high-energy scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cornwall, J.M.; Morris, D.A.
1995-01-01
The elegant instanton calculus of Lipatov and others used to find factorially divergent behavior (g N N exclamation point) for N g much-gt 1 in gφ 4 perturbation theory is strictly only applicable when all external momenta vanish; a description of high-energy 2→N scattering with N massive particles is beyond the scope of such techniques. On the other hand, a standard multiperipheral treatment of scattering with its emphasis on leading logarithms gives a reasonable picture of high-energy behavior but does not result in factorial divergences. Using a straightforward graphical analysis we present a unified picture of both these phenomena as they occur in the two-particle total cross section of gφ 4 theory. We do not attempt to tame the unitarity violations associated with either multiperipheralism or the Lipatov technique at strong coupling
Systematics of elastic scattering at high and intermediate energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias De Deus, J [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Lisboa (Portugal); Kroll, P [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.)
1977-01-01
A model for elastic scattering valid in the intermediate and high-energy region is proposed. The model includes three kinds of entities: the pomeron, a universal GS pomeron; the reggeons, also universal and of GS type; and the core, a low-energy central real piece required by dispersion relations. The number of free functions and parameters is rather small. The approach supports naive duality and, in general, agrees with the results of absorptive models.
Recent developments on high-energy gravitational scattering
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
After a quick reminder of earlier results I will discuss some recent progress in the high-energy gravitational scattering of particles, strings, and branes and, in particular: 1. Gravitational bremsstrahlung; 2. Causality constraints in the presence of higher derivative corrections; 3. Absorption of an energetic closed string by a stack of D-branes. These developments should eventually help us understand how information is preserved in the quantum analog of classical gravitational collapse.
Raman scattering and luminescence of high-Tc superconducting oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eremenko, V.V.; Gnezdilov, V.P.; Fomin, V.I.; Fugol', I.Ya.; Samovarov, V.N.
1989-01-01
Raman and luminescence spectra of high-T c superconducting oxides are summarized, mainly YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ and partly La 2-x Ba x CuO 4-σ . In raman spectra we succeeded to distinguish electron scattering to define the energy gap Δ in the superconducting state. The luminescence spectra are due to the emission of oxygen and interaction with conduction electrons. 70 refs.; 13 figs
Anisotropic ferromagnetic behaviors in highly orientated epitaxial NiO-based thin films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Jun Zhang
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Antiferromagnetic materials attract a great amount of attention recently for promising antiferromagnet-based spintronics applications. NiO is a conventional antiferromagnetic semiconductor material and can show ferromagnetism by doping other magnetic elements. In this work, we synthesized epitaxial Fe-doped NiO thin films on SrTiO3 substrates with various crystal orientations by pulsed laser deposition. The room-temperature ferromagnetism of these films is anisotropic, including the saturated magnetization and the coercive field. The anisotropic magnetic behaviors of Fe-doped NiO diluted magnetic oxide system should be closely correlated to the magnetic structure of antiferromagnetic NiO base. Within the easy plane of NiO, the coercive field of the films becomes smaller, and larger coercive field while tested out of the easy plane of NiO. The saturated magnetization anisotropy is due to different strain applied by different substrates. These results lead us to more abundant knowledge of the exchange interactions in this conventional antiferromagnetic system.
Cai, Ling; Toulouse, Jean; Luo, Haosu; Tian, Wei
2014-08-01
The lead free relaxor Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) undergoes a structural cubic-to-tetragonal transition near 800 K which is caused by the cooperative rotations of O6 octahedra. These rotations are also accompanied by the displacements of the cations and the formation of the polar nanodomains (PNDs) that are responsible for the characteristic dielectric dispersion of relaxor ferroelectrics. Because of their intrinsic properties, spontaneous polarization, and lack of inversion symmetry, these PNDs are also piezoelectric and can mediate an interaction between polarization and strain or couple the optic and acoustic phonons. Because PNDs introduce a local tetragonal symmetry, the phonon coupling they mediate is found to be anisotropic. In this paper we present inelastic neutron scattering results on coupled transverse acoustic (TA) and transverse optic (TO) phonons in the [110] and [001] directions and across the cubic-tetragonal phase transition at TC˜800 K. The phonon spectra are analyzed using a mode coupling model. In the [110] direction, as in other relaxors and some ferroelectric perovskites, a precipitous drop of the TO phonon into the TA branch or "waterfall" is observed at a certain qwf˜0.14 r.l.u. In the [001] direction, the highly overdamped line shape can be fitted with closely positioned bare mode energies which are largely overlapping along the dispersion curves. Two competing lattice coupling mechanism are proposed to explain these observations.
High-pressure system for Compton scattering experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oomi, G.; Honda, F.; Kagayama, T.; Itoh, F.; Sakurai, H.; Kawata, H.; Shimomura, O.
1998-01-01
High-pressure apparatus for Compton scattering experiments has been developed to study the momentum distribution of conduction electrons in metals and alloys at high pressure. This apparatus was applied to observe the Compton profile of metallic Li under pressure. It was found that the Compton profile at high pressure could be obtained within several hours by using this apparatus and synchrotron radiation. The result on the pressure dependence of the Fermi momentum of Li obtained here is in good agreement with that predicted from the free-electron model
High-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering spectroscopy at 780 nm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Itay Remer
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate a high-speed stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS spectroscopy system that is able to acquire stimulated Brillouin gain point-spectra in water samples and Intralipid tissue phantoms over 2 GHz within 10 ms and 100 ms, respectively, showing a 10-100 fold increase in acquisition rates over current frequency-domain SBS spectrometers. This improvement was accomplished by integrating an ultra-narrowband hot rubidium-85 vapor notch filter in a simplified frequency-domain SBS spectrometer comprising nearly counter-propagating continuous-wave pump-probe light at 780 nm and conventional single-modulation lock-in detection. The optical notch filter significantly suppressed stray pump light, enabling detection of stimulated Brillouin gain spectra with substantially improved acquisition times at adequate signal-to-noise ratios (∼25 dB in water samples and ∼15 dB in tissue phantoms. These results represent an important step towards the use of SBS spectroscopy for high-speed measurements of Brillouin gain resonances in scattering and non-scattering samples.
Zhao, L. Z.; Deng, X. X.; Yu, H. Y.; Guan, H. J.; Li, X. Q.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Liu, Z. W.; Greneche, J. M.
2017-12-01
High-velocity compaction (HVC) has been proposed as an effective approach for the fabrication of nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets. In this work, the effect of powder size on the density of HVCed magnets has been studied and the anisotropic nanocrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets were prepared by HVC followed by hot deformation (HD). It is found that a proper particle size range is beneficial to high density. The investigations on the microstructure, magnetic domain structure, and hyperfine structure, indicate that the deformed grain structure and the magnetic domain structure with uniform paramagnetic grain boundary phase give good magnetic properties of HVC + HDed magnets. These magnets also have good mechanical and anti-corrosion properties. The results indicate that HVC is not only a near-net-shape, room temperature and binder-free process but is also able to maintain uniform nanostructure and to achieve good magnetic properties in both isotropic and anisotropic magnets. As a result, HVC can be employed as an ideal alternative process for bonding or hot pressing for the conventional MQI, MQII and MQIII magnets.
Endpoint behavior of high-energy scattering cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chay, Junegone; Kim, Chul
2010-01-01
In high-energy processes near the endpoint, there emerge new contributions associated with spectator interactions. Away from the endpoint region, these new contributions are suppressed compared to the leading contribution, but the leading contribution becomes suppressed as we approach the endpoint and the new contributions become comparable. We present how the new contributions scale as we reach the endpoint and show that they are comparable to the suppressed leading contributions in deep inelastic scattering by employing a power-counting analysis. The hadronic tensor in deep inelastic scattering is shown to factorize including the spectator interactions, and it can be expressed in terms of the light cone distribution amplitudes of initial hadrons. We also consider the contribution of the spectator contributions in Drell-Yan processes. Here the spectator interactions are suppressed compared to double parton annihilation according to the power counting.
Spin effects in high energy quark-quark scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goloskokov, S.V.; Selyugin, O.V.
1993-01-01
The spin amplitudes in high-energy quark-quark scattering at /t/>1 GeV 2 are analyzed. It is shown that the gluon contributions in the QCDα s 3 order lead to the spin-flip amplitude growing as s. This means the existence of the spin-flip part in pomeron exchange. The resulting T f is about few per cent of the spin-non-flip contribution. The factorization of the large-distance and high-energy effects in the spin-flip amplitude is obtained. 13 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab
High-pressure anisotropic distortion of Pb3Bi2S6
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Lars Arnskov; Balic Zunic, Tonci; Makovicky, Emil
2008-01-01
The compound Pb3Bi2S6 is investigated by X-ray diffraction on single crystals in a diamond-anvil cell between 0.0001 and 10.5 GPa. It undergoes a first-order phase transition at hydrostatic pressure between 3.7 and 4.9 Gpa. The space group symmetry changes from Bbmm to Pbnm, and the unit......-cell volume decreases by 4%. The transition is strongly anisotropic, with a contraction along one of the crystal axes by 16% and expansion along another one by 14%. This is a piezoplastic phase transition, a displacive pressure-induced phase transition with systematic shearing of atomic planes and a migration...
Neutron scattering investigation of magnetic excitations at high energy transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loong, C.K.
1984-01-01
With the advance of pulsed spallation neutron sources, neutron scattering investigation of elementary excitations in magnetic materials can now be extended to energies up to several hundreds of MeV. We have measured, using chopper spectrometers and time-of-flight techniques, the magnetic response functions of a series of d and f transition metals and compounds over a wide range of energy and momentum transfer. In PrO 2 , UO 2 , BaPrO 3 and CeB 6 we observed crystal-field transitions between the magnetic ground state and the excited levels in the energy range from 40 to 260 MeV. In materials exhibiting spin-fluctuation or mixed-valent character such as Ce 74 Th 26 , on the other hand, no sharp crystal-field lines but a broadened quasielastic magnetic peak was observed. The line width of the quasielastic component is thought to be connected to the spin-fluctuation energy of the 4f electrons. The significance of the neutron scattering results in relation to the ground state level structure of the magnetic ions and the spin-dynamics of the f electrons is discussed. Recently, in a study of the spin-wave excitations in itinerant magnetic systems, we have extended the spin-wave measurements in ferromagnetic iron up to about 160 MeV. Neutron scattering data at high energy transfers are of particular interest because they provide direct comparison with recent theories of itinerant magnetism. 26 references, 7 figures
Bedra, Sami; Bedra, Randa; Benkouda, Siham; Fortaki, Tarek
2017-12-01
In this paper, the effects of both anisotropies in the substrate and superstrate loading on the resonant frequency and bandwidth of high-Tc superconducting circular microstrip patch in a substrate-superstrate configuration are investigated. A rigorous analysis is performed using a dyadic Galerkin's method in the vector Hankel transform domain. Galerkin's procedure is employed in the spectral domain where the TM and TE modes of the cylindrical cavity with magnetic side walls are used in the expansion of the disk current. The effect of the superconductivity of the patch is taken into account using the concept of the complex resistive boundary condition. London's equations and the two-fluid model of Gorter and Casimir are used in the calculation of the complex surface impedance of the superconducting circular disc. The accuracy of the analysis is tested by comparing the computed results with previously published data for several anisotropic substrate-superstrate materials. Good agreement is found among all sets of results. The numerical results obtained show that important errors can be made in the computation of the resonant frequencies and bandwidths of the superconducting resonators when substrate dielectric anisotropy, and/or superstrate anisotropy are ignored. Other theoretical results obtained show that the superconducting circular microstrip patch on anisotropic substrate-superstrate with properly selected permittivity values along the optical and the non-optical axes combined with optimally chosen structural parameters is more advantageous than the one on isotropic substrate-superstrate by exhibiting wider bandwidth characteristic.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caddick, J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Kendall, J.M.; Raymer, D.G. [Western Geophysical, Middlesex (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences
1998-09-01
Shales are the most common sedimentary rocks in hydrocarbon environments often forming the source rock and trapping rock for a reservoir. Due to the platy nature of the constituent grains, shales are commonly anisotropic. In this paper we calculate seismic waveforms for highly anisotropic shales using Maslow asymptotic theory (MAT). This theory is an extension of classical ray theory which provides valid waveforms in regions of caustics (wavefront folding) where ray theory amplitudes are unstable. Asymptotic ray theory (ART) is based on the Fermat or geometrical ray which connects the source and receiver. In contrast, the Maslov solution integrates the contributions from neighbouring non-Fermat rays. Ray-paths, travel-times, amplitudes and synthetic seismograms are presented for three highly anisotropic shales using a very simple 1D model comprised of an anisotropic shale overlying an isotropic shale. The ART waveforms fail to account for complex waveform effects due to triplications. In comparison, the MAT waveforms predict nonsingular amplitudes at wavefront cusps and it predicts the diffracted signals from these cusps. A Maslov solution which integrates ray contributions over a single slowness component will break down when rays focus in 3D (at a point rather than along a line). One of the tested shales shows such a point caustic and integration over 2 slowness components is required to remove the amplitude singularity. Finally, we examine the effects of wavefront triplications on Alford rotations which are used to estimate shear-wave splitting. In such cases, the rotation successfully finds the fast shear-wave polarization, but it can be unreliable in its estimate of the time separation. (authors) 21 refs.
Effective channel approach to nuclear scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rule, D.W.
1975-01-01
The description of high energy nuclear reactions is considered within the framework of the effective channel approach. A variational procedure is used to obtain an expression for the Green's function in the effective channel, which includes the average fluctuation potential, average energy, and an additional term arising from the non-commutability of the kinetic energy operator and the effective target wave function. The resulting expression for the effective channel, containing one variational parameter, is used to obtain the coupling potential. The resulting formulation is applied to the elastic scattering of 1 GeV protons by 4 He nuclei. A simple Gaussian form is used for the spin--isospin averaged proton--nucleon interaction. The variational parameter in the effective channel wave function is fixed a posteriori via the total p-- 4 He cross section. The effect of the coupling to the effective channel is demonstrated, as well as the effect of each term in the coupled equation for this channel. The calculated elastic cross sections were compared to both the recent data from Saclay and the earlier Brookhaven data for the 1-GeV p-- 4 He elastic scattering cross section. Using proton--nucleus elastic scattering experiments to study the proton--nucleon elastic scattering amplitude is discussed. The main purpose of our study is to investigate the effects on the cross section of varying, within its estimated range of uncertainty, each parameter which enters into the coupled equations. The magnitude of these effects was found to be large enough to conclude that any effects due to dynamical correlations would be obscured by the uncertainties in the input parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Feng, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Yang, Xiaoguang, E-mail: yxg@buaa.edu.cn [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Yonggang [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Qi, Hongyu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, P.O. Box 405, Beijing 100191 (China)
2013-11-15
Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO{sub 2} aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Duoqi; Sun, Yantao; Feng, Jian; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Shiwei; Mi, Chunhu; Jiang, Yonggang; Qi, Hongyu
2013-01-01
Compression tests were conducted on a ceramic-fiber-reinforced SiO 2 aerogel at high temperature. Anisotropic mechanical property was found. In-plane Young's modulus is more than 10 times higher than that of out-of-plane, but fracture strain is much lower by a factor of 100. Out-of-plane Young's modulus decreases with increasing temperature, but the in-plane modulus and fracture stress increase with temperature. The out-of-plane property does not change with loading rates. Viscous flow at high temperature is found to cause in-plane shrinkage, and both in-plane and out-of-plane properties change. Compression induced densification of aerogel matrix was also found by Scanning Electron Microscope analysis
Inelastic neutron scattering from high-density fcc 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomlinson, W.; Eckert, J.; Shirane, G.
1978-01-01
The phonon dispersion relations in high-density crystals of fcc 4 He have been measured along high-symmetry directions by the neutron-inelastic-scattering technique. A recent study of the lattice dynamics of fcc 4 He by Eckert et al. has been extended to cover the fcc phase diagram at pressures below 5 kbar. Molar volumes of 9.03, 9.43, and 9.97 cm 3 /mole have been studied in the temperature range from near the melting curve to near the fcc-hcp transition line. The phonon dispersion relations are in good agreement with a first-order self-consistent phonon theory calculation by Goldman. The observed phonon-group line shapes at large energy and momentum transfers show evidence for multiphonon scattering in agreement with calculations by Glyde. Eckert et al. reported extremely large anharmonic isochoric temperature shifts of the phonon energies. The present work studied the shifts as a function of molar volume and temperature. Mode-Grueneisen-parameter dispersion curves have been measured using the present data and earlier measurements at lower density in the fcc phase by Traylor et al. Macroscopic Grueneisen parameters have been calculated from the phonon density of states obtained from the data
The anisotropic magnetic property and Faraday rotation in Er3Ga5O12 under high magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wei; Zhang Xijuan; Liu Gongqiang
2005-01-01
A theoretical investigation on the anisotropic magnetic property and Faraday rotation in Er 3 Ga 5 O 12 (ErGaG) is presented. With particular consideration of the anisotropy of the exchange interaction between rare-earth ions (Er 3+ ), the magnetization, based on the quantum theory, in ErGaG under high magnetic field (HMF) is calculated. Theoretical calculations show that the appropriate choice of the crystal field (CF) parameters is of great importance. A novel three-level model is presented, and in terms of this model the Faraday rotation under HMF is calculated. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Faraday rotation (θ) depends not only on the magnetization (M) but also on the magnetic field (H e ). The theory is in good agreement with the experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beane, S R; Detmold, W; Lin, H W; Luu, T C; Orginos, K; Parreno, A; Savage, M J; Torok, A; Walker-Loud, A
2011-07-01
The volume dependence of the octet baryon masses and relations among them are explored with Lattice QCD. Calculations are performed with nf = 2 + 1 clover fermion discretization in four lattice volumes, with spatial extent L ? 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 fm, with an anisotropic lattice spacing of b_s ? 0.123 fm in the spatial direction, and b_t = b_s/3.5 in the time direction, and at a pion mass of m_\\pi ? 390 MeV. The typical precision of the ground-state baryon mass determination is
Highly Enhanced Raman Scattering on Carbonized Polymer Films.
Yoon, Jong-Chul; Hwang, Jongha; Thiyagarajan, Pradheep; Ruoff, Rodney S; Jang, Ji-Hyun
2017-06-28
We have discovered a carbonized polymer film to be a reliable and durable carbon-based substrate for carbon enhanced Raman scattering (CERS). Commercially available SU8 was spin coated and carbonized (c-SU8) to yield a film optimized to have a favorable Fermi level position for efficient charge transfer, which results in a significant Raman scattering enhancement under mild measurement conditions. A highly sensitive CERS (detection limit of 10 -8 M) that was uniform over a large area was achieved on a patterned c-SU8 film and the Raman signal intensity has remained constant for 2 years. This approach works not only for the CMOS-compatible c-SU8 film but for any carbonized film with the correct composition and Fermi level, as demonstrated with carbonized-PVA (poly(vinyl alcohol)) and carbonized-PVP (polyvinylpyrollidone) films. Our study certainly expands the rather narrow range of Raman-active material platforms to include robust carbon-based films readily obtained from polymer precursors. As it uses broadly applicable and cheap polymers, it could offer great advantages in the development of practical devices for chemical/bio analysis and sensors.
A simple, high performance Thomson scattering diagnostic for high temperature plasma research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartog, D.J.D.; Cekic, M.
1994-02-01
This Thomson scattering diagnostic is used to measure the electron temperature and density of the plasma in the MST reversed-field pinch, a magnetic confinement fusion research device. This diagnostic system is unique for its type in that it combines high performance with simple design and low cost components. In the design of this instrument, careful attention was given to the suppression of stray laser line light with simple and effective beam dumps, viewing dumps, aperatures, and a holographic edge filter. This allows the use of a single grating monochromator for dispersion of the Thomson scattered spectrum onto the microchannel plate detector. Alignment and calibration procedures for the laser beam delivery system, the scattered light collection system, and the spectrometer and detector are described. A sample Thomson scattered spectrum illustrates typical data
High pressure apparatus for neutron scattering at low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munakata, Koji; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Aso, Naofumi
2010-01-01
Effects of pressure on the physical properties are very important for understanding highly correlated electron systems, in which pressure-induced attractive phenomena such as superconductivity and magnetically ordered non-Fermi liquid have been observed. Up to now, many scientists have developed a lot of high pressure apparatus for each purpose. The characteristic features of various materials and pressure transmitting media for use of high pressure apparatus are reported. Then, two kinds of clamp type high-pressure cell designed for low-temperature neutron diffraction measurements are shown; one is a piston cylinder type high-pressure cell which can be attached to the dilution refrigerator, and the other one is a newly-developed cubic anvil type high-pressure cell which can generate pressure above 7GPa. We also introduce the results of magnetic neutron scattering under pressure on a pressure-induced superconducting ferromagnet UGe 2 in use of the piston cylinder type clamp cell, and those on an iron arsenide superconductor SrFe 2 As 2 in use of the cubic anvil type clamp cell. (author)
Ultra-High Field Magnets for X-Ray and Neutron Scattering using High Temperature Superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winn, Barry L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Broholm, C. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Bird, M. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Breneman, Bruce C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Coffey, Michael [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cutler, Roy I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duckworth, Robert C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Erwin, R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hahn, Seungyong [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Hernandez, Yamali [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Herwig, Kenneth W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holland, Leo D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lonergan, Kevin M. [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Melhem, Ziad [Oxford Instruments, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Minter, Stephen J. [Cryomagnetics, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nelson, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Paranthaman, M. Parans [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pierce, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruff, Jacob [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Shen, Tengming [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherline, Todd E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smeibidl, Peter G. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Tennant, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); van der Laan, Danko [Advanced Conductor Technologies, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Wahle, Robert J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB), (Germany); Zhang, Yifei [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)
2017-01-01
X-ray and neutron scattering techniques are capable of acquiring information about the structure and dynamics of quantum matter. However, the high-field magnet systems currently available at x-ray and neutron scattering facilities in the United States are limited to fields of 16 tesla (T) at maximum, which precludes applications that require and/or study ultra-high field states of matter. This gap in capability—and the need to address it—is a central conclusion of the 2005 National Academy of Sciences report by the Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. To address this gap, we propose a magnet development program that would more than double the field range accessible to scattering experiments. With the development and use of new ultra-high field–magnets, the program would bring into view new worlds of quantum matter with profound impacts on our understanding of advanced electronic materials.
Neutron scattering on liquid He4 at high momentum transfers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parlinski, K.
1975-01-01
Using the Sears method of expansion of the dynamic structure factor into a series over the inverse powers of the wave vector and five moments of the velocity correlation function, the distribution of neutrons scattered on liquid helium at T=0 K and at the momentum transfer k=14.33 A -1 is calculated. The calculated distribution takes into account the interaction among helium atoms. The distributions are compared with the experimental data. The results show that proper information of the occupation fraction of the zero-momentum state - the condensate - can be obtained by the neutron scatterng method at high-momentum transfers only when the interaction among helium atoms is taken into account. (author)
The High Energy Asymptotics of Scattering Processes in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Enberg, Rikard; Golec-Biernat, K.; Munier, S.
2005-05-12
High energy scattering in the QCD parton model was recently shown to be a reaction-diffusion process, and thus to lie in the universality class of the stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piscounov equation. We recall that the latter appears naturally in the context of the parton model. We provide a thorough numerical analysis of the mean field approximation, given in QCD by the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. In the framework of a simple stochastic toy model that captures the relevant features of QCD, we discuss and illustrate the universal properties of such stochastic models. We investigate in particular the validity of the mean field approximation and how it is broken by fluctuations. We find that the mean field approximation is a good approximation in the initial stages of the evolution in rapidity.
High-energy vector boson scattering after the Higgs discovery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilian, Wolfgang; Sekulla, Marco; Ohl, Thorsten; Reuter, Juergen
2014-08-01
Weak vector-boson W,Z scattering at high energy probes the Higgs sector and is most sensitive to any new physics associated with electroweak symmetry breaking. We show that in the presence of the 125 GeV Higgs boson, a conventional effective-theory analysis fails for this class of processes. We propose to extrapolate the effective-theory ansatz by an extension of the parameter-free K-matrix unitarization prescription, which we denote as direct T-matrix unitarization. We generalize this prescription to arbitrary non-perturbative models and describe the implementation, as an asymptotically consistent reference model matched to the low-energy effective theory. We present exemplary numerical results for full six-fermion processes at the LHC.
Gaussian basis functions for highly oscillatory scattering wavefunctions
Mant, B. P.; Law, M. M.
2018-04-01
We have applied a basis set of distributed Gaussian functions within the S-matrix version of the Kohn variational method to scattering problems involving deep potential energy wells. The Gaussian positions and widths are tailored to the potential using the procedure of Bačić and Light (1986 J. Chem. Phys. 85 4594) which has previously been applied to bound-state problems. The placement procedure is shown to be very efficient and gives scattering wavefunctions and observables in agreement with direct numerical solutions. We demonstrate the basis function placement method with applications to hydrogen atom–hydrogen atom scattering and antihydrogen atom–hydrogen atom scattering.
Inelastic two composite particle systems scattering at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yushun.
1986-11-01
In this paper, by using the collective coordinate of Bohr and phenomenological deformed optical potentials, the scattering amplitudes of two composite particle systems can be obtained and the collective excitation for two composite particle systems in the scattering process is discussed. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs
Roudier, François; Fernandez, Anita G; Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Borner, Georg H H; Schindelman, Gary; Song, Shuang; Baskin, Tobias I; Dupree, Paul; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O; Benfey, Philip N
2005-06-01
The orientation of cell expansion is a process at the heart of plant morphogenesis. Cellulose microfibrils are the primary anisotropic material in the cell wall and thus are likely to be the main determinant of the orientation of cell expansion. COBRA (COB) has been identified previously as a potential regulator of cellulose biogenesis. In this study, characterization of a null allele, cob-4, establishes the key role of COB in controlling anisotropic expansion in most developing organs. Quantitative polarized-light and field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveal that loss of anisotropic expansion in cob mutants is accompanied by disorganization of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils and subsequent reduction of crystalline cellulose. Analyses of the conditional cob-1 allele suggested that COB is primarily implicated in microfibril deposition during rapid elongation. Immunodetection analysis in elongating root cells revealed that, in agreement with its substitution by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, COB was polarly targeted to both the plasma membrane and the longitudinal cell walls and was distributed in a banding pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. Our observations suggest that COB, through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation, is an essential factor in highly anisotropic expansion during plant morphogenesis.
Lee, Won Hee; Kim, Tae-Seong
2012-01-01
This study proposes an advanced finite element (FE) head modeling technique through which high-resolution FE meshes adaptive to the degree of tissue anisotropy can be generated. Our adaptive meshing scheme (called wMesh) uses MRI structural information and fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensors in the FE mesh generation process, optimally reflecting electrical properties of the human brain. We examined the characteristics of the wMeshes through various qualitative and quantitative comparisons to the conventional FE regular-sized meshes that are non-adaptive to the degree of white matter anisotropy. We investigated numerical differences in the FE forward solutions that include the electrical potential and current density generated by current sources in the brain. The quantitative difference was calculated by two statistical measures of relative difference measure (RDM) and magnification factor (MAG). The results show that the wMeshes are adaptive to the anisotropic density of the WM anisotropy, and they better reflect the density and directionality of tissue conductivity anisotropy. Our comparison results between various anisotropic regular mesh and wMesh models show that there are substantial differences in the EEG forward solutions in the brain (up to RDM=0.48 and MAG=0.63 in the electrical potential, and RDM=0.65 and MAG=0.52 in the current density). Our analysis results indicate that the wMeshes produce different forward solutions that are different from the conventional regular meshes. We present some results that the wMesh head modeling approach enhances the sensitivity and accuracy of the FE solutions at the interfaces or in the regions where the anisotropic conductivities change sharply or their directional changes are complex. The fully automatic wMesh generation technique should be useful for modeling an individual-specific and high-resolution anisotropic FE head model incorporating realistic anisotropic conductivity distributions
High energy deep inelastic scattering in perturbative quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallon, S.
1996-01-01
In this PhD thesis, we deal with high energy Deep Inelastic Scattering in Perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). In this work, two main topics are emphasized: The first one deals with dynamics based on perturbative renormalization group, and on perturbative Regge approaches. We discuss the applicability of these predictions, the possibility of distinguishing them in the HERA experiments, and their unification. We prove that the perturbative Regge dynamic can be successfully applied to describe the HERA data. Different observables are proposed for distinguishing these two approaches. We show that these two predictions can be unified in a system of equations. In the second one, unitarization and saturation problems in high energy QCD are discussed. In the multi-Regge approach, equivalent to the integrable one-dimensional XXX Heisenberg spin chain, we develop methods in order to solve this system, based on the Functional Bethe Ansatz. In the dipole model context, we propose a new formulation of unitarity and saturation effects, using Wilson loops. (author)
High-rep-rate Thomson scattering for LHD
den Hartog, D. J.; Borchardt, M. T.; Holly, D. J.; Schmitz, O.; Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Osakabe, M.; Morisaki, T.
2017-10-01
A high-rep-rate pulse-burst laser system is being built for the LHD Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. This laser will have two operating scenarios, a fast-burst sequence of 15 kHz rep rate for at least 15 ms, and a slow-burst sequence of 1 kHz for at least 50 ms. There will be substantial flexibility in burst sequences for tailoring to experimental requirements. This new laser system will operate alongside the existing lasers in the LHD TS diagnostic, and will use the same beamline. This increase in temporal resolution capability complements the high spatial resolution (144 points) of the LHD TS diagnostic, providing unique measurement capability unmatched on any other fusion experiment. The new pulse-burst laser is a straightforward application of technology developed at UW-Madison, consisting of a Nd:YAG laser head with modular flashlamp drive units and a customized control system. Variable pulse-width drive of the flashlamps is accomplished by IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) switching of electrolytic capacitor banks. Direct control of the laser Pockels cell drive enables optimal pulse energy extraction, producing >1.5 J q-switched pulses with 20 ns FWHM. Burst operation of this laser system will be used to capture fast time evolution of the electron temperature and density profiles during events such as ELMs, RMP perturbations, and various MHD modes. This work is supported by the U. S. Department of Energy and the National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan).
Yang, Defu; Chen, Xueli; Peng, Zhen; Wang, Xiaorui; Ripoll, Jorge; Wang, Jing; Liang, Jimin
2013-01-01
Modeling light propagation in the whole body is essential and necessary for optical imaging. However, non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption regions commonly exist in biological tissues, which lead to inaccuracy of the existing light transport models. In this paper, a novel hybrid light transport model that couples the simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SPN) with the radiosity theory (HSRM) was presented, to accurately describe light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities. In the model, the radiosity theory was used to characterize the light transport in non-scattering regions and the SPN was employed to handle the scattering problems, including subsets of low-scattering and high absorption. A Neumann source constructed by the light transport in the non-scattering region and formed at the interface between the non-scattering and scattering regions was superposed into the original light source, to couple the SPN with the radiosity theory. The accuracy and effectiveness of the HSRM was first verified with both regular and digital mouse model based simulations and a physical phantom based experiment. The feasibility and applicability of the HSRM was then investigated by a broad range of optical properties. Lastly, the influence of depth of the light source on the model was also discussed. Primary results showed that the proposed model provided high performance for light transport in turbid media with non-scattering, low-scattering and high absorption heterogeneities.
Band structure and optical properties of highly anisotropic LiBa2[B10O16(OH)3] decaborate crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smok, P.; Kityk, I.V.; Berdowski, J.
2003-01-01
The band structure (BS), charge density distribution and linear-optical properties of the anisotropic crystal LiBa 2 [B 10 O 16 (OH) 3 ] (LBBOH) are calculated using a self-consistent norm-conserving pseudopotential method within the framework of the local-density approximation theory. A high anisotropy of the band energy gap (4.22 eV for the E parallel b, 4.46 eV for the E parallel c) and giant birefringence (up to 0.20) are found. Comparison of the theoretically calculated and the experimentally measured polarised spectra of the imaginary part of the dielectric susceptibility ε 2 shows a good agreement. The anisotropy of the charge density distribution, BS dispersion and of the optical spectra originate from anisotropy between the 2p z B-2p z O and 2p y,x B-2p y,y O bonding orbitals. The observed anisotropy in the LBBOH is principally different from that of β-BaB 2 O 4 (BBO) single crystals. In the LBBOH single crystals the anisotropy of optical and charge density distribution is caused by different projection of the orbitals originating from particular borate clusters on the particular crystallographic axes, contrary to the BBO, where the anisotropy is caused prevailingly by a different local site symmetry of oxygen within the borate planes. The observed anisotropy is analysed in terms of the band energy dispersion and space charge density distribution
The spectrometer of the High-Resolution Multi position Thomson Scattering Diagnostic for TJ-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herranz, J.; Barth, C. J.; Castejon, F.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; Mirones, E.; Pastor, I.; Perez, D.; Rodriguez, C.
2001-01-01
Since 1998, a high-resolution multiposition thompson scattering system is in operation at the stellarator TJ-II, combining high accuracy and excellent spatial resolution. A description of the diagnostic spectrometer is presented. The main characteristics of the spectrometer that allow YJ-II Thomson scattering diagnostic to have high spatial and spectral resolution are described in this paper. (Author)
Highly-resolving Rutherford-scattering spectroscopy with heavy ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, C.
2003-10-01
in the present thesis for the first time the Browne-Buechner spectrometer for the highly resolving ion-beam analysis in the ion beam center Rossendorf is completely presented. A main topic of this theis lied in the apparative construction and the taking-into-operation of the spectrometer and the scattering chamber including the facilities for the sample treatment and characterization. In the framework of this thesis for the chosen measurement arrangement the experimental conditions were elaborated, which allow the routine-like application of the spectrometer for analyses of thin-film systems. for C and Li ions as incident particles especially the straggling was more precisely determined in a large range of materials. By means of the spectrometer also the interaction of the ion with the solid respectively single atoms on its surface could be studied. For the first time the mean charge-state after the single collision on a gold atom was determined for differently heavy ions in a wide energy range
First high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering for fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.; Schramm, G.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.
1982-01-01
Electron temperature and density measurements by Thomson scattering were performed for the first time for the whole duration of a tokamak discharge. A Nd:YAG laser of 60 pulses per second at 1.06μm was used in ASDEX in combination with silicon avalanche photodiode detectors. Density calibration was done by rotational anti-Stokes Raman scattering from hydrogen. The system is used for measurements at electron densities as low as 3x10 12 cm -3 . (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roehr, H.; Steuer, K.H.; Hirsch, K.; Salzmann, H.
1982-09-01
In contrast to conventional ruby laser scattering devices allowing only singly pulse measurements, time evolution of Te and ne can be obtained with multipulse lasers. Within a short time interval ( proportional 1 ms) rapid variations can be investigated by employing a periodically Q-switched ruby laser. Several scattering systems under construction in different laboratories to register the time evolution of Tsub(e) and nsub(e) during the whole plasma discharge will be reported. The set-up operating successfully on the Garching tokamak ASDEX will be described in detail. This scattering system uses a Nd:YAG laser (1 J/pulse, up to 100 pps, pulse duration 30 ns, burst of max. 400 pulses) and silicon avalanche diodes as detectors. Time resolved nsub(e) and Tsub(e) measurements on different types of ASDEX discharges are shown, e.g. the electron density and electron heating during neutral beam injection in a divertor discharge. As an example of relatively fast changes of nsub(e) and Tsub(e), results on pellet injection are presented. Interferometric and ECE measurements are in good agreement with the Thomson results. Stationary ''long pulse discharges'' in ASDEX (10 s) at low densitites (10 12 cm -3 ) were diagnosed with reduced time resolution by averaging over several laser pulses. Measurements of the time evolution of electron temperature and -density profiles were done in a first step with a scanning mirror system. These results enables optimazing out 15 spatial-point Thomson scattering system on ASDEX. (orig./AH)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schwenk-Ferrero, A.
1986-11-01
GANTRAS is a system of codes for neutron transport calculations in which the anisotropy of elastic and inelastic (including (n,n'x)-reactions) scattering is fully taken into account. This is achieved by employing a rigorous method, so-called I * -method, to represent the scattering term of the transport equation and with the use of double-differential cross-sections for the description of the emission of secondary neutrons. The I * -method was incorporated into the conventional transport code ONETRAN. The ONETRAN subroutines were modified for the new purpose. An implementation of the updated version ANTRA1 was accomplished for plane and spherical geometry. ANTRA1 was included in GANTRAS and linked to another modules which prepare angle-dependent transfer matrices. The GANTRAS code consists of three modules: 1. The CROMIX code which calculates the macroscopic transfer matrices for mixtures on the base of microscopic nuclide-dependent data. 2. The ATP code which generates discretized angular transfer probabilities (i.e. discretizes the I * -function). 3. The ANTRA1 code to perform S N transport calculations in one-dimensional plane and spherical geometries. This structure of GANTRAS allows to accommodate the system to various transport problems. (orig.) [de
Salama, Amgad; El Amin, Mohamed F.; Sun, Shuyu
2015-01-01
One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since
Anomalous anisotropic compression behavior of superconducting CrAs under high pressure
Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Wei; Hu, Qingyang; Zhao, Jinggeng; Li, Chunyu; Yang, Ke; Cheng, Jinguang; Luo, Jianlin; Wang, Lin; Mao, Ho-kwang
2015-01-01
CrAs was observed to possess the bulk superconductivity under high-pressure conditions. To understand the superconducting mechanism and explore the correlation between the structure and superconductivity, the high-pressure structural evolution of CrAs was investigated using the angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The structure of CrAs remains stable up to 1.8 GPa, whereas the lattice parameters exhibit anomalous compression behaviors. With increasing pressure, the lattice parameters a and c both demonstrate a nonmonotonic change, and the lattice parameter b undergoes a rapid contraction at ∼0.18−0.35 GPa, which suggests that a pressure-induced isostructural phase transition occurs in CrAs. Above the phase transition pressure, the axial compressibilities of CrAs present remarkable anisotropy. A schematic band model was used to address the anomalous compression behavior of CrAs. The present results shed light on the structural and related electronic responses to high pressure, which play a key role toward understanding the superconductivity of CrAs. PMID:26627230
Scattering of a high-order Bessel beam by a spheroidal particle
Han, Lu
2018-05-01
Within the framework of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT), scattering from a homogeneous spheroidal particle illuminated by a high-order Bessel beam is formulated analytically. The high-order Bessel beam is expanded in terms of spheroidal vector wave functions, where the spheroidal beam shape coefficients (BSCs) are computed conveniently using an intrinsic method. Numerical results concerning scattered field in the far zone are displayed for various parameters of the incident Bessel beam and of the scatter. These results are expected to provide useful insights into the scattering of a Bessel beam by nonspherical particles and particle manipulation applications using Bessel beams.
Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.
2009-01-01
In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...
Electron scattering from high-momentum neutrons in deuterium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimenko, A.V.; Kuhn, S.E.; Bueltmann, S.; Careccia, S.L.; Dharmawardane, K.V.; Dodge, G.E.; Guler, N.; Hyde-Wright, C.E.; Klein, A.; Tkachenko, S.; Weinstein, L.B.; Zhang, J.; Butuceanu, C.; Griffioen, K.A.; Baillie, N.; Fersch, R.G.; Funsten, H.; Egiyan, K.S.; Asryan, G.; Dashyan, N.B.
2006-01-01
We report results from an experiment measuring the semiinclusive reaction 2 H(e,e ' p s ) in which the proton p s is moving at a large angle relative to the momentum transfer. If we assume that the proton was a spectator to the reaction taking place on the neutron in deuterium, the initial state of that neutron can be inferred. This method, known as spectator tagging, can be used to study electron scattering from high-momentum (off-shell) neutrons in deuterium. The data were taken with a 5.765 GeV electron beam on a deuterium target in Jefferson Laboratory's Hall B, using the CEBAF large acceptance spectrometer. A reduced cross section was extracted for different values of final state missing mass W*, backward proton momentum p → s , and momentum transfer Q 2 . The data are compared to a simple plane wave impulse approximation (PWIA) spectator model. A strong enhancement in the data observed at transverse kinematics is not reproduced by the PWIA model. This enhancement can likely be associated with the contribution of final state interactions (FSI) that were not incorporated into the model. Within the framework of the simple spectator model, a 'bound neutron structure function' F 2n eff was extracted as a function of W* and the scaling variable x* at extreme backward kinematics, where the effects of FSI appear to be smaller. For p s >0.4 GeV/c, where the neutron is far off-shell, the model overestimates the value of F 2n eff in the region of x* between 0.25 and 0.6. A dependence of the bound neutron structure function on the neutron's 'off-shell-ness' is one possible effect that can cause the observed deviation
High Tg and fast curing epoxy-based anisotropic conductive paste for electronic packaging
Keeratitham, Waralee; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat
2016-03-01
Herein, our main objective is to prepare the fast curing epoxy system with high glass transition temperature (Tg) by incorporating the multifunctional epoxy resin into the mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a major epoxy component and aromatic diamine as a hardener. Furthermore, the curing behavior as well as thermal and thermomechanical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It was found that Tg obtained from tan δ of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system increased from 100 °C to 205 °C with the presence of 30 percentage by weight of multifunctional epoxy resin. Additionally, the isothermal DSC results showed that the multifunctional epoxy resin can accelerate the curing reaction of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system. Namely, a high degree of curing (˜90%) was achieved after a few minutes of curing at low temperature of 130 °C, owing to a large number of epoxy ring of multifunctional epoxy resin towards the active hydrogen atoms of aromatic diamine.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cross, T.A.; Lee, K.C.; Ketchem, R.R.; Hu, W.; Lazo, N.D.; Huo, S. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
1994-12-01
To understand the details of macromolecular function, high-resolution structural and dynamic detail is essential. The polypeptide fold of the gramicidin channel has been effectively modeled for the past 20 years, yet the functional changes in conductance and channel lifetime associated with amino acid substitutions cannot be predicted. To accomplish this goal, high-resolution electrostatic modeling and the precise orientation of all dipoles are required. Furthermore, an enhanced knowledge of the complex molecular environment of this membrane-bound peptide is needed. An aqueous environment is relatively uniform and achiral. The membrane environment is very heterogenous and chiral. A knowledge of the interactions, specific and nonspecific, between peptide and lipid will aid in developing a better understanding of this environment. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to study the peptide in an extended lipid bilayer, rather than in a vesicular or micellar form. These latter environments are likely to possess increased dynamics, increased water penetration, and distorted interactions between the polypeptide and membrane surface. To perform NMR studies on bilayer bound peptides, solid state NMR methods are required, and for specific site information, isotopic labels are incorporated using solid phase peptide synthesis.
Model of K+p elastic scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazal-e-Aleem
1985-01-01
Very recent measurements of the angular distribution for K + p elastic scattering which show a structure near -t = 3.8(GeV/c) 2 , together with the total cross section and ratio of the real and imaginary parts of the scattering amplitude for 50 2 , have been fitted by using a simple Regge-pole model with phenomenological residue functions. The break in the slope near -t = 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 observed in the differential cross section has also been explained
Anisotropic transport properties of quasiballistic InAs nanowires under high magnetic field
Vigneau, Florian; Zeng, Zaiping; Escoffier, Walter; Caroff, Philippe; Leturcq, Renaud; Niquet, Yann-Michel; Raquet, Bertrand; Goiran, Michel
2018-03-01
The magnetoconductance of a long channel InAs nanowire based field effect transistor in the quasiballistic regime under large magnetic field is investigated. The quasi-1D nanowire is fully characterized by a bias voltage spectroscopy and measurements under magnetic field up to 50 T applied either perpendicular or parallel to the nanowire axis lifting the spin and orbital degeneracies of the subbands. Under normal magnetic field, the conductance shows quantized steps due to the backscattering reduction and a decrease due to depopulation of the 1D modes. Under axial magnetic field, a quasioscillatory behavior is evidenced due to the coupling of the magnetic field with the angular momentum of the wave function. In addition the formation of cyclotron orbits is highlighted under high magnetic field. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculation of the 1D band structure and related parameters.
Anisotropic dynamic mass density for fluidsolid composites
Wu, Ying
2012-10-01
By taking the low frequency limit of multiple-scattering theory, we obtain the dynamic effective mass density of fluidsolid composites with a two-dimensional rectangular lattice structure. The anisotropic mass density can be described by an angle-dependent dipole solution, to the leading-order of solid concentration. The angular dependence vanishes for the square lattice, but at high solid concentrations there is a structure-dependent factor that contributes to the leading-order solution. In all cases, Woods formula is found to be accurately valid for the effective bulk modulus, independent of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the solutions are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Highly anisotropic conductivity of tablets pressed from polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokarský, Jonáš; Kulhánková, Lenka; Neuwirthová, Lucie; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina; Vallová, Silvie; Stýskala, Vítězslav; Čapková, Pavla
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Montmorillonite (MMT) can be intercalated with polyaniline (PANI) chains. • Tablets pressed from PANI/MMT exhibit high anisotropy in electrical conductivity. • Pressure 28MPa is sufficient to reach the anisotropy. • Tablets pressed from pure PANI also exhibit anisotropy in electrical conductivity. - Abstract: Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared from anilinium sulfate (precursor) and ammonium peroxodisulfate (oxidizing agent) using simple one-step method. The resulting nanocomposite obtained in powder form has been pressed into tablets using various compression pressures (28–400 MPa). Electrical conductivities of tablets in two perpendicular directions, i.e. direction parallel with the main surface of tablet (σ=) and in orthogonal direction (σ⊥), and corresponding anisotropy factors (i.e., the ratio σ=/σ⊥) have been studied in dependence on compression pressure used during the preparation. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular modeling which led to the understanding of the internal structure. Measurement of hardness performed on pressed tablets has been also involved. Taking into account the highest value of anisotropy factor reached (σ=/σ⊥ = 490), present study shows a chance to design conductors with nearly two-dimensional conductivity.
Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio
2018-04-27
Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.
Highly anisotropic conductivity of tablets pressed from polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tokarský, Jonáš, E-mail: jonas.tokarsky@vsb.cz [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre of Excellence, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Kulhánková, Lenka [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Neuwirthová, Lucie; Mamulová Kutláková, Kateřina [Nanotechnology centre, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Vallová, Silvie [Faculty of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Stýskala, Vítězslav [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VŠB-TU Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava—Poruba (Czech Republic); Čapková, Pavla [Faculty of Science, University of J.E. Purkyně, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic)
2016-03-15
Highlights: • Montmorillonite (MMT) can be intercalated with polyaniline (PANI) chains. • Tablets pressed from PANI/MMT exhibit high anisotropy in electrical conductivity. • Pressure 28MPa is sufficient to reach the anisotropy. • Tablets pressed from pure PANI also exhibit anisotropy in electrical conductivity. - Abstract: Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was prepared from anilinium sulfate (precursor) and ammonium peroxodisulfate (oxidizing agent) using simple one-step method. The resulting nanocomposite obtained in powder form has been pressed into tablets using various compression pressures (28–400 MPa). Electrical conductivities of tablets in two perpendicular directions, i.e. direction parallel with the main surface of tablet (σ=) and in orthogonal direction (σ⊥), and corresponding anisotropy factors (i.e., the ratio σ=/σ⊥) have been studied in dependence on compression pressure used during the preparation. Polyaniline-montmorillonite nanocomposite was characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis, raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and molecular modeling which led to the understanding of the internal structure. Measurement of hardness performed on pressed tablets has been also involved. Taking into account the highest value of anisotropy factor reached (σ=/σ⊥ = 490), present study shows a chance to design conductors with nearly two-dimensional conductivity.
Highly anisotropic SmCo5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Lidong; Zhang, Songlin; Zhang, Jian; Ping Liu, J.; Xia, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yan, Aru; Yi, Jianhong; Li, Wei; Guo, Zhaohui
2015-01-01
Surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) has been shown to be a promising method for preparing rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) nanoflakes and nanoparticles. In this work, we prepared SmCo 5 nanoflakes by SABM at low temperature, and 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine were specially selected as solvent and surfactant, respectively, due to their low melting points. The effects of milling temperature on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic performance of SmCo 5 nanoflakes were investigated systematically. Comparing with the samples milled at room temperature, the SmCo 5 nanoflakes prepared at low temperature displayed more homogeneous morphology and lower oxygen content. Remarkably, better crystallinity, better grain alignment and larger remanence ratio were shown in the samples milled at low temperature, which resulted from the distinct microstructure caused by low milling temperature. The differences in structural evolution between the SmCo 5 nanoflakes milled at room temperature and low temperature, including the formation of nanocrystalline, grain boundary sliding, grain rotation, et al., were discussed. It was found that lowering the temperature of SABM was a powerful method for the fabrication of RE-TM nanoflakes, which showed better hard magnetic properties and lower oxygen content. This was important for the preparation of high-performance sintered magnets, bonded magnets and nanocomposite magnets. - Highlights: • We prepare SmCo 5 nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature. • Better grain alignment and higher remanence ratio are achieved. • The oxygen content is reduced by lowering the milling temperature. • A distinct microstructural evolution caused by low milling temperature is clarified
High repetition Thomson scattering profile measurements using a nonimaging technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zigler, A.
1983-01-01
The Thomson scattering technique is one of the most useful diagnostics for the study of magnetically confined plasmas. In this work, a simple multi-space and time Thomson scattering technique has been proposed. The spatial resolution is obtained by conversion of the scattered laser light collected from different plasma points into a time sequence. This can be done by focusing the image of the laser beam through a wideangle lens onto an array of fiber optic light pipes. Since the laser emits relatively short pulses (1020 nsec), scattered light pulses from each of the light pipes can be delayed relative to one another without overlapping. Such delays can be achieved by using an array of fiber optics of differing lengths (2-4 meters). The light is transmitted then into a spectrometer and detected by fast detectros (few nsec rise and fall time). Reconstruction from the time sequence to the spatial structure is obtained by using existing fast gate circuits. The data then is A/D converted and handled by using a data acquisition system
Heavy ion scattering: High energy limits of RBS and ERD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauhala, E.
1994-01-01
Elastic scattering of 7 Li ions by oxygen and 12 C, 14 N and 16 O ions by aluminum, silicon, titanium and sulfur have been studied below the Coulomb barrier energies 3-30 MeV in the angular range of 78 degrees - 170 degrees. By kinematically reversing the reactions, the recoiling of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen by 40-100 MeV 27 Al, 28 Si, 32S and 48 Ti ions into recoil angles of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees has also been investigated. Excitation functions and angular distributions are presented. Contrary to the case of light H and He ions, the heavy ion scattering cross sections fall off rapidly above the non-Rutherford threshold energy, rendering heavy ion RBS and ERD spectrometry worthless. Both classical and wave mechanical calculations have been attempted for predicting the RBS threshold energies. Simple calculations give moderate accuracy, while the more extensive nuclear potential perturbation approach relies on parameters fitted for the particular experiment. The authors present a general classical semi-empirical model for both direct scattering (RBS) and the kinematically reversed reactions (ERD), accurately reproducing the experimental data. The model is based on parameters fitted from the present scattering experiments and from an extensive literature survey
Neutron-proton elastic scattering at high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem (Punjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics)
1980-09-06
The most recent measurements of the differential and total cross sections of neutron-proton elastic scattering from 70 to 400 GeV/c have been explained by using rho as a simple pole and pomeron as a dipole. The predictions are also made regarding the energy dependence of dip and bump structure in angular distribution.
The Current Status of High Energy Elastic Scattering
Block, Martin M.; Kang, Kyungsik; White, Alan R.
The recent total cross section, σtot, and ρ-value results from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider experiments,1,2 presented at the 4th “Blois” Workshop on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering, held at Elba in May 1991, provide a natural springboard from which to launch a focused review of the field.
High energy spin waves in iron measured by neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boothroyd, A.T.; Paul, D.M.; Mook, H.A.
1991-01-01
We present new results for the spin were dispersion relation measured along the [ζζ0] direction in bcc iron (12% silicon) by time-of-flight, neutron inelastic scattering. The excitations were followed to the zone boundary, where they are spread over a range of energies around 300meV. 6 refs., 2 figs
Simulating elastic light scattering using high performance computing methods
Hoekstra, A.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Verbraeck, A.; Kerckhoffs, E.J.H.
1993-01-01
The Coupled Dipole method, as originally formulated byPurcell and Pennypacker, is a very powerful method tosimulate the Elastic Light Scattering from arbitraryparticles. This method, which is a particle simulationmodel for Computational Electromagnetics, has one majordrawback: if the size of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jooncheol; Kim, Minsoo; Herrault, Florian; Kim, Jung-Kwun; Allen, Mark G
2015-01-01
This paper presents a rectangular, anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core that possesses a magnetically hard axis in the long geometric axis direction. Previously, we have developed nanolaminated cores comprising tens to hundreds of layers of 300–1000 nm thick metallic alloys (i.e. Ni 80 Fe 20 or Co 44 Ni 37 Fe 19 ) based on sequential electrodeposition, demonstrating suppressed eddy-current losses at MHz frequencies. In this work, magnetic anisotropy was induced to the nanolaminated CoNiFe cores by applying an external magnetic field (50–100 mT) during CoNiFe film electrodeposition. The fabricated cores comprised tens to hundreds of layers of 500–1000 nm thick CoNiFe laminations that have the hard-axis magnetic property. Packaged in a 22-turn solenoid test inductor, the anisotropic core showed 10% increased effective permeability and 25% reduced core power losses at MHz operation frequency, compared to an isotropic core of the identical geometry. Operating the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core in a step-down dc–dc converter (15 V input to 5 V output) demonstrated 81% converter efficiency at a switching frequency of 1.1 MHz and output power of 6.5 W. A solenoid microinductor with microfabricated windings integrated with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core was fabricated, demonstrating a constant inductance of 600 nH up to 10 MHz and peak quality factor exceeding 20 at 4 MHz. The performance of the microinductor with the anisotropic nanolaminated CoNiFe core is compared with other previously reported microinductors. (fast track communication)
Electron scattering in large water clusters from photoelectron imaging with high harmonic radiation.
Gartmann, Thomas E; Hartweg, Sebastian; Ban, Loren; Chasovskikh, Egor; Yoder, Bruce L; Signorell, Ruth
2018-06-06
Low-energy electron scattering in water clusters (H2O)n with average cluster sizes of n < 700 is investigated by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using high harmonic radiation at photon energies of 14.0, 20.3, and 26.5 eV for ionization from the three outermost valence orbitals. The measurements probe the evolution of the photoelectron anisotropy parameter β as a function of cluster size. A remarkably steep decrease of β with increasing cluster size is observed, which for the largest clusters reaches liquid bulk values. Detailed electron scattering calculations reveal that neither gas nor condensed phase scattering can explain the cluster data. Qualitative agreement between experiment and simulations is obtained with scattering calculations that treat cluster scattering as an intermediate case between gas and condensed phase scattering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, P.; Xiao, Y. M.; Rod, E.; Bai, L. G.; Shen, G. Y.; Sinogeikin, S.; Gao, N.; Ding, Y.; Mao, H.-K.
2015-01-01
The double-differential scattering cross-section for the inelastic scattering of x-ray photons from electrons is typically orders of magnitude smaller than that of elastic scattering. With samples 10-100 μm size in a diamond anvil cell at high pressure, the inelastic x-ray scattering signals from samples are obscured by scattering from the cell gasket and diamonds. One major experimental challenge is to measure a clean inelastic signal from the sample in a diamond anvil cell. Among the many strategies for doing this, we have used a focusing polycapillary as a post-sample optic, which allows essentially only scattered photons within its input field of view to be refocused and transmitted to the backscattering energy analyzer of the spectrometer. We describe the modified inelastic x-ray spectrometer and its alignment. With a focused incident beam which matches the sample size and the field of view of polycapillary, at relatively large scattering angles, the polycapillary effectively reduces parasitic scattering from the diamond anvil cell gasket and diamonds. Raw data collected from the helium exciton measured by x-ray inelastic scattering at high pressure using the polycapillary method are compared with those using conventional post-sample slit collimation
Advanced Thomson scattering system for high-flux linear plasma generator
Meiden, van der H.J.; Lof, A.R.; Berg, van den M.A.; Brons, S.; Donné, A.J.H.; Eck, van H.J.N.; Koelman, Peter; Koppers, W.R.; Kruijt, O.G.; Naumenko, N.N.; Oyevaar, T.; Prins, P.R.; Rapp, J.; Scholten, J.; Schram, D.C.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Star, van der G.; Tugarinov, S.N.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.
2012-01-01
An advanced Thomson scattering system has been built for a linear plasma generator for plasma surface interaction studies. The Thomson scattering system is based on a Nd:YAG laser operating at the second harmonic and a detection branch featuring a high etendue (f /3) transmission grating
High energy nucleus-nucleus scattering and matter radius of unstable nucleus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, H.; Okuhara, Y.
1985-07-01
The interaction cross sections of high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering have been studied with the Glauber Model and Hartree-Fock like variational calculation for the nuclear structure. It is found that the experimental interaction cross sections of the light unstable nucleus-stable nucleus scatterings measured by INS-LBL collaboration are well reproduceable. (author)
Scattering of high-energy α particles on 12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, I.
1977-04-01
Glauber multiple scattering theory is applied to analyse the elastic and inelastic scattering of 1.37 GeV α particles on 12 C. An approach which treats the N-α amplitude at the incident nucleon kinetic energy equal to the α-kinetic energy per particle as the basic interaction is adopted. Using the gaussian model for 4 He to obtain the N-α amplitude in terms of the NN amplitude, it is found that, in general, the experimental data are qualitatively explained. However, large discrepancies in terms of the magnitude of the cross-sections in the small angle region and the positions of the minima in the angular distribution at larger angles are generally present. Effects of the two-body correlations in the projectile as well as in the target are also investigated
α4He elastic scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usmani, A.A.; Usmani, Q.N.
1988-03-01
Differential cross sections for α 4 He elastic scattering have been calculated at incident α particle momenta of 4.32, 5.07 and 7.0 GeV/c within the framework of the Glauber multiple scattering theory. The full Glauber amplitude is calculated using the Monte Carlo method for evaluating multidimensional integrals. We find that, in general, the more realistic double Gaussian model for the density brings theory closer to experiment as compared to the generally used single Gaussian model. Our results with the double Gaussian model are in fairly good agreement with the experimented data at 4.32 and 5.07 GeV/c. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab
Coherent Raman scattering in high-pressure/high-temperature fluids: An overview
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, S.C.; Moore, D.S.
1990-01-01
The present understanding of high-pressure/high-temperature dense-fluid behavior is derived almost exclusively from hydrodynamic and thermodynamic measurements. Such results average over the microscopic aspects of the materials and are, therefore, insufficient for a complete understanding of fluid behavior. At the present, dense-fluid models can be verified only to the extend that they agree with the macroscopic measurements. Recently, using stimulated Raman scattering, Raman induced Kerr effect scattering, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, we have been able to probe some of the microscopic phenomenology of these dense fluids. In this paper, we discuss primarily the use of CARS in conjunction with a two-stage light-gas gun to obtain vibrational spectra of shock-compressed liquid N 2 , O 2 , CO, their mixtures, CH 3 NO 2 , and N 2 O. These experimental spectra are compared to synthetic spectra calculated using a semiclassical model for CARS intensities and best fit vibrational frequencies, peak Raman susceptibilities, and Raman linewidths. For O 2 , the possibility of resonance enhancement from collision-induced absorption is addressed. Shifts in the vibrational frequencies reflect the influence of increased density and temperature on the intramolecular motion. The derived parameters suggest thermal equilibrium of the vibrational levels is established less than a few nanoseconds after shock passage. Vibrational temperatures are obtained that agree with those derived from equation-of-state calculations. Measured linewidths suggest that vibrational dephasing times have decreased to subpicosecond values at the highest shock pressures
High energy neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.S.; Needham, L.M.; Paoli, M.P.
1987-10-01
The neutron recoil scattering from liquid 4 He at 4.2 K and 1.6 K has been observed for a momentum transfer of 150 A -1 using the Electron Volt Spectrometer on the pulsed neutron source, ISIS. The experiment yielded mean atomic kinetic energy values = 14.8 +- 3 K at 4.2 K and = 14.6 +- 3.2 K at 1.6 K in good agreement with values obtained at lower momentum transfers. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curry, J J, E-mail: jjcurry@nist.go [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8422 (United States)
2010-06-16
Coherent and incoherent scattering of x-rays during x-ray absorption imaging of high-intensity discharge lamps have been studied with Monte Carlo simulations developed specifically for this purpose. The Monte Carlo code is described and some initial results are discussed. Coherent scattering, because of its angular concentration in the forward direction, is found to be the most significant scattering mechanism. Incoherent scattering, although comparably strong, is not as significant because it results primarily in photons being scattered in the rearward direction and therefore out of the detector. Coherent scattering interferes with the detected absorption signal because the path of a scattered photon through the object to be imaged is unknown. Although scattering is usually a small effect, it can be significant in regions of high contrast. At the discharge/wall interface, as many as 50% of the detected photons are scattered photons. The effect of scattering on analysis of Hg distributions has not yet been quantified.
Resonant Inverse Compton Scattering Spectra from Highly Magnetized Neutron Stars
Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Baring, Matthew G.; Gonthier, Peter L.; Harding, Alice K.
2018-02-01
Hard, nonthermal, persistent pulsed X-ray emission extending between 10 and ∼150 keV has been observed in nearly 10 magnetars. For inner-magnetospheric models of such emission, resonant inverse Compton scattering of soft thermal photons by ultrarelativistic charges is the most efficient production mechanism. We present angle-dependent upscattering spectra and pulsed intensity maps for uncooled, relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of magnetar magnetospheres, calculated using collisional integrals over field loops. Our computations employ a new formulation of the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields that is physically correct for treating important spin-dependent effects in the cyclotron resonance, thereby producing correct photon spectra. The spectral cutoff energies are sensitive to the choices of observer viewing geometry, electron Lorentz factor, and scattering kinematics. We find that electrons with energies ≲15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with inferred turnovers for magnetar hard X-ray tails. More energetic electrons still emit mostly below 1 MeV, except for viewing perspectives sampling field-line tangents. Pulse profiles may be singly or doubly peaked dependent on viewing geometry, emission locale, and observed energy band. Magnetic pair production and photon splitting will attenuate spectra to hard X-ray energies, suppressing signals in the Fermi-LAT band. The resonant Compton spectra are strongly polarized, suggesting that hard X-ray polarimetry instruments such as X-Calibur, or a future Compton telescope, can prove central to constraining model geometry and physics.
Hard scattering processes in high energy γ-induced reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Agostini, G.
1994-09-01
Recent results from photoproduction and γγ collisions are reviewed, with special focus on hard interactions, featuring the jets as the best evidence, as manifestation of parton-parton and photon-parton scattering. The experimental results are in good agreement with perturbative QCD expectations and the data are going to have the appropriate accuracy to discriminate between the available parameterizations of the photon structure functions. In particular, the combination of F 2 γ measured in γγ and the jet cross sections measured in γγ and γp will probably constrain in the near future the gluon content of the photon. (orig.)
Collective Thomson scattering measurements with high frequency resolution at TEXTOR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Korsholm, Søren Bang
2010-01-01
We discuss the development and first results of a receiver system for the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic at TEXTOR with frequency resolution in the megahertz range or better. The improved frequency resolution expands the diagnostic range and utility of CTS measurements in general ...... and is a prerequisite for measurements of ion Bernstein wave signatures in CTS spectra. The first results from the new acquisition system are shown to be consistent with theory and with simultaneous measurements by the standard receiver system. © 2010 EURATOM...
Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei
2014-01-01
The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T −γ ) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced
Uranium nitride: a cubic antiferromagnet with anisotropic critical behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buyers, W.J.L.; Holden, T.M.; Svensson, E.C.; Lander, G.H.
1977-11-01
Highly anisotropic critical scattering associated with the transition at T/sub N/ = 49.5 K to the type-I antiferromagnetic structure has been observed in uranium nitride. The transverse susceptibility is found to be unobservably small. The longitudinal susceptibility diverges at T/sub N/ and its anisotropy shows that the spins within the (001) ferromagnetic sheets of the [001] domain are much more highly correlated than they are with the spins lying in adjacent (001) sheets. The correlation range within the sheets is much greater than that expected for a Heisenberg system with the same T/sub N/. The rod-like scattering extended along the spin and domain direction is reminiscent of two-dimensional behavior. The results are inconsistent with a simple localized model and may reflect the itinerant nature of the 5f electrons
Anisotropic charged impurity-limited carrier mobility in monolayer phosphorene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*STAR, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)
2014-12-07
The room temperature carrier mobility in atomically thin 2D materials is usually far below the intrinsic limit imposed by phonon scattering as a result of scattering by remote charged impurities in its environment. We simulate the charged impurity-limited carrier mobility μ in bare and encapsulated monolayer phosphorene. We find a significant temperature dependence in the carrier mobilities (μ ∝ T{sup −γ}) that results from the temperature variability of the charge screening and varies with the crystal orientation. The anisotropy in the effective mass leads to an anisotropic carrier mobility, with the mobility in the armchair direction about one order of magnitude larger than in the zigzag direction. In particular, this mobility anisotropy is enhanced at low temperatures and high carrier densities. Under encapsulation with a high-κ overlayer, the mobility increases by up to an order of magnitude although its temperature dependence and its anisotropy are reduced.
Plasma turbulence imaging using high-power laser Thomson scattering
Zweben, S. J.; Caird, J.; Davis, W.; Johnson, D. W.; Le Blanc, B. P.
2001-01-01
The two-dimensional (2D) structure of plasma density turbulence in a magnetically confined plasma can potentially be measured using a Thomson scattering system made from components of the Nova laser of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. For a plasma such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the laser would form an ≈10-cm-wide plane sheet beam passing vertically through the chamber across the magnetic field. The scattered light would be imaged by a charge coupled device camera viewing along the direction of the magnetic field. The laser energy required to make 2D images of density turbulence is in the range 1-3 kJ, which can potentially be obtained from a set of frequency-doubled Nd:glass amplifiers with diameters in the range of 208-315 mm. A laser pulse width of ⩽100 ns would be short enough to capture the highest frequency components of the expected density fluctuations.
High-energy electroweak neutrino-nucleon deeply virtual Compton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Magno V. T.
2007-01-01
In this work we estimate the differential and total cross sections for the high-energy deeply virtual Compton scattering in the weak sector. In the weak neutral sector one considers neutrino scattering off an unpolarized proton target through the exchange of Z 0 . We numerically compute the process Z*p→γp within the QCD color dipole formalism, which successfully describes the current high-energy electromagnetic DVCS experimental data. We also discuss possible applications for the weak charged sector and perform predictions for scattering on nuclear targets
Goertz, David E.; Frijlink, Martijn E.; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, A.F.W.
2006-01-01
An experimental lipid encapsulated contrast agent comprised substantially of micrometer to submicrometer diameter bubbles was evaluated for its capacity to produce nonlinear scattering in response to high transmit frequencies. Agent characterization experiments were conducted at transmit frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubach, J.F.
1976-01-01
The purpose of this work is to develop a formalism that will allow one to search the wide variety of transitions presented by nuclei in order to locate situations in which the exchange-current effects are important or dominant and thus allow one to study the contributions of the meson exchanges to the electromagnetic densities within the nucleus. The nuclei studied are assumed to be described in a shell model using harmonic oscillator wave functions. The formalism needed to allow one to do a multipole analysis of these exchange currents within 1s and 1p nuclei is developed. This formalism is then applied to an examination of electron scattering from a series of light nuclei: 3 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, and 10 B. Three significant effects due to the inclusion of exchange currents are seen: (1) The exchange currents can often introduce new structure into the form factors. (2) At larger momentum transfer (700 to 1000 MeV/c) the exchange current contributions to the form factor dominate the simpler one-body form factor by a few orders of magnitude. (3) The exchange currents can excite E4 and M5 multipoles in the p shell which are forbidden to the simpler one-body currents. The elastic scattering of two heavy ions at intermediate and high energies (compared to the Coulomb barrier) is examined in the formalism of the WKB and ''Glauber theory'' approximations. As a concrete example, the scattering of 16 O from 60 Ni is studied assuming an optical-model potential that fits elastic scattering data at low energies. One immediate result is that the WKB approximation agrees quite well with ''exact'' numerical calculations at energies as low as 60 MeV. The Glauber theory fails below about 1 GeV but correction terms are developed that can extend the usefulness of the Glauber theory to much lower energies. The model problem of scattering from a black-sphere model of the nucleus is briefly examined
Inelastic X-ray scattering experiments at extreme conditions: high temperatures and high pressures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.Hosokawa
2008-03-01
Full Text Available In this article, we review the present status of experimental techniques under extreme conditions of high temperature and high pressure used for inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS experiments of liquid metals, semiconductors, molten salts, molecular liquids, and supercritical water and methanol. For high temperature experiments, some types of single-crystal sapphire cells were designed depending on the temperature of interest and the sample thickness for the X-ray transmission. Single-crystal diamond X-ray windows attached to the externally heated high-pressure vessel were used for the IXS experiment of supercritical water and methanol. Some typical experimental results are also given, and the perspective of IXS technique under extreme conditions is discussed.
Controlling Stimulated Brillouin/Raman Scattering in High Power Fiber Lasers
2017-08-09
AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2017-0043 TR-2017-0043 CONTROLLING STIMULATED BRILLOUIN/RAMAN SCATTERING IN HIGH POWER FIBER LASERS Cody Mart Ben...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research addressed suppression of stimulated Brillouin/Raman scattering in high power fiber lasers
p-barp elastic scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padua, A.B. de.
1986-01-01
The p-bar p elastic scattering is analysed in the energy range 9.78 pp werefitted under the hypothesis of a pure imaginary amplitude and writted as a sum of exponentials, that is, a(s,t) = a(s,O) Σ n i=l α i exp β i t. Using the parameters a(s,O), α i and β i we obtained the absorption constante K- pp , the form factor and the mean square radius of the - p matter distribution by the Chou-Yang model. These calculations reveal a dip around -t ≅ 1.3 (GeV/c) 2 at 31 and 62 GeV. (author) [pt
[Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
There are four areas where major progress has occurred this year. We have applied the Fourier-transform method of describing and analyzing Moessbauer effect (ME) line shapes to make measurements of the temperature dependence of the recoilless fraction in tungsten. We have carried out quasi-elastic measurements of the gamma scattering from viscous liquids, learning about diffusive motion in polydimethylsiloxane, pentadecane, and glycerol. We have made major progress in fundamental physics, having shown for the first time how to determine precise quantum interference parameters, obtaining experimental results on the 46.5 keV line of 183 W and the 129 keV line of 191 Ir. Finally, we have continued our development of MICE detectors, with a theoretical analysis of the MICE lineshape and its relation to the lineshape of conventional transmission ME spectroscopy. 12 refs
Modification of diode characteristics by electron back-scatter from high-atomic-number anodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.; Rose, D.V.; Swanekamp, S.B.
1996-01-01
In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes, back-scattered electrons alter the vacuum space charge and resulting electron and ion currents. Electron multiple back-scattering was studied through equilibrium solutions of the Poisson equation for 1-dimensional, bipolar diodes in order to predict their early-time behavior. Before ion turn-on, back-scattered electrons from high-Z anodes suppress the diode current by about 10%. After ion turn-on in the same diodes, electron back-scatter leads to substantial enhancements of both the electron and ion currents above the Child-Langmuir values. Current enhancements with ion flow from low-Z anodes are small. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs
Modification of diode characteristics by electron back-scatter from high-atomic-number anodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mosher, D; Cooperstein, G [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Rose, D V; Swanekamp, S B [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)
1997-12-31
In high-power vacuum diodes with high-atomic-number anodes, back-scattered electrons alter the vacuum space charge and resulting electron and ion currents. Electron multiple back-scattering was studied through equilibrium solutions of the Poisson equation for 1-dimensional, bipolar diodes in order to predict their early-time behavior. Before ion turn-on, back-scattered electrons from high-Z anodes suppress the diode current by about 10%. After ion turn-on in the same diodes, electron back-scatter leads to substantial enhancements of both the electron and ion currents above the Child-Langmuir values. Current enhancements with ion flow from low-Z anodes are small. (author). 5 figs., 7 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Xiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang, Shiming [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yilong, E-mail: yilongwang@tongji.edu.cn [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Donglu, E-mail: shid@ucmail.uc.edu [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); The Materials Science and Engineering Program, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)
2016-07-01
Anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites were prepared by combining miniemulsion polymerization and sol–gel reaction. The morphologies of the anisotropic composites were found to be greatly influenced by surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle seeds. Two different types of the oleic acid modified ZnO nanoparticles (OA-ZnO) were prepared by post-treatment of commercial ZnO powder and homemade OA-ZnO nanoparticles. The morphologies and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that both post-treated OA-ZnO and in-situ prepared OA-ZnO nanoparticles resulted in the yolk–shell and Janus structure nanocomposites, but with varied size and morphology. These nanocomposites showed stable and strong fluorescence by introducing quantum dots as the co-seeds. The fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites were decorated separately with surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. These composites with unique anisotropic properties will have high potential in biomedical applications, particularly in bio-detection. - Graphical abstract: Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Non-magnetic anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus nanocomposites are prepared and characterized. • Different surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles results in varied morphology and size of the final product. • Fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites embodying quantum dots are an ideal candidate for bio-detection applications.
Analytical calculations of multiple scattering for high energy photons and neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoe, R.S.
1994-04-01
Radiography of large dense objects often require the use of highly penetrating radiation. For example, a couple of centimeters of steel attenuates 50 keV x-rays by a factor of approximately 10 -14 whereas this same amount of steel would attenuate a 500 keV photon beam by only a factor of about 0.25. However, this increase in penetrating power comes with a price. In the case of x-radiation there are two bills to pay: (1) For projection radiography, this increase in penetration directly causes a corresponding decrease in resolution. (2) This increase in penetration occurs in a region where the interaction of radiation and matter is changing from absorption to scattering. In the above example the fraction of scattering goes from about 0.1 at 50 keV to over 0.99 at 500 keV. These scattered photons can significantly degrade contrast. In order to overcome some of these difficulties, radiography using scattered photons has been studied by myself and numerous other authors. In all the above cases, calculation of the intensity of scattered radiation is of primary importance. In cases where scattering is probable, multiple scattering can also be probable. Calculations of multiple scattering are generally very difficult and usually require the use of extremely sophisticated Monte Carlo simulations. It is not unusual for these calculations to require several hours of CPU time on some of the worlds largest and fastest supercomputers. In this paper I will present an alternative approach. I will present an analytical solution to the equations of double scattering, and show how this solution can extended to the case of higher order scattering. Finally, I will give numerical examples of these solutions and compare them to solutions obtained by Monte Carlo simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Yang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The optical, elastic anisotropic and thermodynamic properties of TiN in the NaCl (B1 structure are analyzed in detail in the temperature range from 0 to 2000 K and the pressure range from 0 to 20 GPa. From the calculated dielectric constants, a first order isostructural phase transition between 29 and 30 GPa is found for TiN. The absorption spectra exhibit high values ranging from the far infrared region to the ultra-violet one. The anisotropy value of Young's modulus of TiN is smaller than that of c-BN at 0 GPa and the anisotropy of TiN clearly increases with an increase of pressure. The effects of pressure and temperature on the bulk modulus, Grüneisen parameter, Gibbs free energy, and Debye temperature are significant. The Grüneisen parameter of TiN is much larger than that of c-BN. At temperatures below 1000 K, TiN's heat capacity is much larger than that of c-BN.
Luo Sheng; Huang Sai Jun; He Yu Sheng; Li Chun Guang; Zhang Xue Qiang
2003-01-01
A modified Ambegaokar-Halperin thermal-fluctuation model has been developed to describe the c-axis V-I characteristics and low-current ohmic resistance of highly anisotropic superconductors in a magnetic field parallel to the c-axis. The model assumes loss of phase coherence across the CuO-planes associated with the correlated motion of pancake vortices in the liquid state. The predicted V-I characteristics in the current-induced transition from the superconducting to the resistive state are in good agreement with measurements on a 2212-BSCCO single crystal as a function of temperature and field, provided the effect of the interlayer capacitance is taken into account. The measurements are consistent with a flux pancake correlation length within the CuO-planes varying as xi sub 0 /(T/T sub 0 - 1) supnu, where xi sub 0 = 1.57 +- 0.08 mu m and nu = 0.50 +- 0.01. Our measurements imply a current-dependent interlayer resistance above and below T sub c.
11. international conference on elastic and diffractive scattering: towards high energy frontiers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2005-07-01
This conference is held every 2 years. Every time these conferences on elastic and diffractive scattering adapt their content to the most recent experimental and theoretical results concerning not only quantum chromodynamics (QCD) but also other fields of particle physics where diffractive physics is present. This year, besides classical themes such as: -) forward scattering, -) total cross-sections, -) real parts, and -) pomeron and odderon, the participants have addressed many other subjects such as: -) LHC physics, -) non-perturbative approaches to high-energy scattering, -) the dipole model, -) small-x evolution, -) hard diffraction in QCD, -) nuclear shadowing, -) diffractive Higgs studies, -) spin effects, -) 4-quarks and 5-quarks, or -) B-physics.
11. international conference on elastic and diffractive scattering: towards high energy frontiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-01-01
This conference is held every 2 years. Every time these conferences on elastic and diffractive scattering adapt their content to the most recent experimental and theoretical results concerning not only quantum chromodynamics (QCD) but also other fields of particle physics where diffractive physics is present. This year, besides classical themes such as: -) forward scattering, -) total cross-sections, -) real parts, and -) pomeron and odderon, the participants have addressed many other subjects such as: -) LHC physics, -) non-perturbative approaches to high-energy scattering, -) the dipole model, -) small-x evolution, -) hard diffraction in QCD, -) nuclear shadowing, -) diffractive Higgs studies, -) spin effects, -) 4-quarks and 5-quarks, or -) B-physics
Lin, Jun-Li; Zhong, Weicheng; Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Heuser, Brent J.
2017-12-01
High-resolution neutron radiography has been used to image bulk circumferential hydride lens particles in unirradiated Zircaloy 4 tubing cross section specimens. Zircaloy 4 is a common light water nuclear reactor (LWR) fuel cladding; hydrogen pickup, hydride formation, and the concomitant effect on the mechanical response are important for LWR applications. Ring cross section specimens with three hydrogen concentrations (460, 950, and 2830 parts per million by weight) and an as-received reference specimen were imaged. Azimuthally anisotropic hydride lens particles were observed at 950 and 2830 wppm. The BISON finite element analysis nuclear fuel performance code was used to model the system elastic response induced by hydride volumetric dilatation. The compressive hoop stress within the lens structure becomes azimuthally anisotropic at high hydrogen concentrations or high hydride phase fraction. This compressive stress anisotropy matches the observed lens anisotropy, implicating the effect of stress on hydride formation as the cause of the observed lens azimuthal asymmetry. The cause and effect relation between compressive stress and hydride lens anisotropy represents an indirect validation of a key BISON output, the evolved hoop stress associated with hydride formation.
High Precision Stokes Polarimetry for Scattering Light using Wide Dynamic Range Intensity Detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shibata Shuhei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a Stokes polarimetry for scattering light from a sample surface. To achieve a high accuracy measurement two approaches of an intensity detector and analysis algorism of a Stokes parameter were proposed. The dynamic range of this detector can achieve up to 1010 by combination of change of neutral-density (ND filters having different density and photon counting units. Stokes parameters can be measured by dual rotating of a retarder and an analyzer. The algorism of dual rotating polarimeter can be calibrated small linear diattenuation and linear retardance error of the retarder. This system can measured Stokes parameters from −20° to 70° of its scattering angle. It is possible to measure Stokes parameters of scattering of dust and scratch of optical device with high precision. This paper shows accuracy of this system, checking the polarization change of scattering angle and influence of beam size.
Patterns of High energy Massive String Scatterings in the Regge Regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee Jen Chi
2009-01-01
We calculate high energy massive string scattering amplitudes of open bosonic string in the Regge regime (RR). We found that the number of high energy amplitudes for each fixed mass level in the RR is much more numerous than that of Gross regime (GR) calculated previously. Moreover, we discover that the leading order amplitudes in the RR can be expressed in terms of the Kummer function of the second kind. In particular, based on a summation algorithm for Stirling number identities developed recently, we discover that the ratios calculated previously among scattering amplitudes in the GR can be extracted from this Kummer function in the RR. We conjecture and give evidences that the existence of these GR ratios in the RR persists to sub-leading orders in the Regge expansion of all string scattering amplitudes. Finally, we demonstrate the universal power-law behavior for all massive string scattering amplitudes in the RR. (author)
Transverse momentum at work in high-energy scattering experiments
Signori, Andrea
2017-01-01
I will review some aspects of the definition and the phenomenology of Transverse-Momentum-Dependent distributions (TMDs) which are potentially interesting for the physics program at several current and future experimental facilities. First of all, I will review the definition of quark, gluon and Wilson loop TMDs based on gauge invariant hadronic matrix elements. Looking at the phenomenology of quarks, I will address the flavor dependence of the intrinsic transverse momentum in unpolarized TMDs, focusing on its extraction from Semi-Inclusive Deep-Inelastic Scattering. I will also present an estimate of its impact on the transverse momentum spectrum of W and Z bosons produced in unpolarized hadronic collisions and on the determination of the W boson mass. Moreover, the combined effect of the flavor dependence and the evolution of TMDs with the energy scale will be discussed for electron-positron annihilation. Concerning gluons, I will present from an effective theory point of view the TMD factorization theorem for the transverse momentum spectrum of pseudoscalar quarkonium produced in hadronic collisions. Relying on this, I will discuss the possibility of extracting precise information on (un)polarized gluon TMDs at a future Fixed Target Experiment at the LHC (AFTER@LHC).
Structure of high excited nuclear states and elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhivopistsev, F.A.; Rzhevskij, E.S.
1979-01-01
An approach to a unified description of nuclear reactions and nuclear structure based on the formalism of the quantum Green functions and on the ideas of the theory of finite Fermi systems has been formulated. New structural vertices are introduced, which are responsible for nucleon collectivization in an atomic nucleus and for the excitation of many-phonon, quasideuteron, quasitriton and other configurations. The vertices define both the processes of particle scattering by atomic nuclei (T matrix and optical potentials) and the nuclear structure (secular equations and wave functions). The vertices are determined from the equations with effective many-particle forces Fsub(nm)sup(c). In their turn the Fsub(nm)sup(c) forces are either determined from a comparison of theory and experiment, or calculated from the equations with more fundamental nucleon-nucleon forces in a nucleus. The effective forces Fsub(nm)sup(c) are more universal than the constants of the theory of finite Fermi-systems, which extends the boundaries of applicability of the particle-hole formalism in the description of nuclear processes. In this approach the traditional methods of description of the nuclear structure, based on particular models of hamiltonian and wave functions, acquire a natural interpretation
Studies of high energy lepton-nucleon scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ingelman, G.
1982-05-01
The first part of this thesis is related to the problem of detecting charmed particles. A new technique for observing very short decay paths in nuclear emulsions is developed and applied on a sample of neutrino induced reactions. Techniques for producing thick pellicles of nuclear track emulsion are also developed. In the second part, phenomenological investigations of deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering are made. Monte Carlo computer programs, based on the parton model and perturbative QCD for the initial hard process and the Lund model for the following soft hadronization, are used to simulate these reactions and thereby obtain explicit results. Generally good agreement is found when comparing these with experimental data, thus supporting this basic framework. Predictions to test QCD are made. Transverse momentum properties are studied in detail, in particular effects from soft gluon emission. The properties of a model for baryon production, both from the target remnant and the colour force field, are discussed and the results found to agree with data. It is shown that, at the presently available energies, the observable energy flow is not due to QCD, but arises from the baryon production in the target fragmentation. In a model to explain the observed Λ polarization, a connection between the confinement of quarks and these polarization phenomena is suggested. (Auth.)
Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization
Oh, Juwon; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth's surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry
Elastic orthorhombic anisotropic parameter inversion: An analysis of parameterization
Oh, Juwon
2016-09-15
The resolution of a multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is highly influenced by the parameterization used in the inversion algorithm, as well as the data quality and the sensitivity of the data to the elastic parameters because the scattering patterns of the partial derivative wavefields (PDWs) vary with parameterization. For this reason, it is important to identify an optimal parameterization for elastic orthorhombic FWI by analyzing the radiation patterns of the PDWs for many reasonable model parameterizations. We have promoted a parameterization that allows for the separation of the anisotropic properties in the radiation patterns. The central parameter of this parameterization is the horizontal P-wave velocity, with an isotropic scattering potential, influencing the data at all scales and directions. This parameterization decouples the influence of the scattering potential given by the P-wave velocity perturbation fromthe polar changes described by two dimensionless parameter perturbations and from the azimuthal variation given by three additional dimensionless parameters perturbations. In addition, the scattering potentials of the P-wave velocity perturbation are also decoupled from the elastic influences given by one S-wave velocity and two additional dimensionless parameter perturbations. The vertical S-wave velocity is chosen with the best resolution obtained from S-wave reflections and converted waves, little influence on P-waves in conventional surface seismic acquisition. The influence of the density on observed data can be absorbed by one anisotropic parameter that has a similar radiation pattern. The additional seven dimensionless parameters describe the polar and azimuth variations in the P- and S-waves that we may acquire, with some of the parameters having distinct influences on the recorded data on the earth\\'s surface. These characteristics of the new parameterization offer the potential for a multistage inversion from high symmetry
Corrections to the leading eikonal amplitude for high-energy scattering and quasipotential approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Suan Hani; Nguyen Duy Hung
2003-12-01
Asymptotic behaviour of the scattering amplitude for two scalar particle at high energy and fixed momentum transfers is reconsidered in quantum field theory. In the framework of the quasipotential approach and the modified perturbation theory a systematic scheme of finding the leading eikonal scattering amplitudes and its corrections is developed and constructed. The connection between the solutions obtained by quasipotential and functional approaches is also discussed. (author)
Secure data storage by three-dimensional absorbers in highly scattering volume medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matoba, Osamu; Matsuki, Shinichiro; Nitta, Kouichi
2008-01-01
A novel data storage in a volume medium with highly scattering coefficient is proposed for data security application. Three-dimensional absorbers are used as data. These absorbers can not be measured by interferometer when the scattering in a volume medium is strong enough. We present a method to reconstruct three-dimensional absorbers and present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the proposed data storage.
Dreher, L.; Donhauser, D.; Daeubler, J.; Glunk, M.; Rapp, C.; Schoch, W.; Sauer, R.; Limmer, W.
2010-06-01
Based on a detailed theoretical examination of the lattice distortion in high-index epilayers in terms of continuum mechanics, expressions are deduced that allow the calculation and experimental determination of the strain tensor for (hhl) -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers. Analytical expressions are derived for the strain-dependent free-energy density and for the resistivity tensor for monoclinic and orthorhombic crystal symmetries, phenomenologically describing the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance by appropriate anisotropy and resistivity parameters, respectively. Applying the results to (113)A orientation with monoclinic crystal symmetry, the expressions are used to determine the strain tensor and the shear angle of a series of (113)A -oriented (Ga,Mn)As layers by high-resolution x-ray diffraction and to probe the magnetic anisotropy and anisotropic magnetoresistance at 4.2 K by means of angle-dependent magnetotransport. Whereas the transverse-resistivity parameters are nearly unaffected by the magnetic field, the parameters describing the longitudinal resistivity are strongly field dependent.
High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghazi, M.E.
2002-01-01
Many important properties of transition metal oxides such as, copper oxide high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in manganites are due to strong electron-electron interactions, and hence these systems are called highly correlated systems. These materials are characterised by the coexistence of different kinds of order, including charge, orbital, and magnetic moment. This thesis contains high-resolution X-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in such systems namely the high-T C copper oxides isostructural system, La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with various Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2), and the CMR manganite system, Nd 1/2 Sr 1/2 MnO 3 . It also includes a review of charge ordering in a large variety of transition metal oxides, such as ferrates, vanadates, cobaltates, nickelates, manganites, and cuprates systems, which have been reported to date in the scientific literature. Using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering, it has been demonstrated that the charge stripes exist in a series of single crystals of La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 with Sr concentrations (x = 0.33 - 0.2) at low temperatures. Satellite reflections due to the charge ordering were found with the wavevector (2ε, 0, 1) below the charge ordering transition temperature, T CO , where 2ε is the amount of separation from the corresponding Bragg peak. The charge stripes are shown to be two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd
Large-angle theory for pion-nucleus scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoock, D.W. Jr.
1978-01-01
An approximate solution for high-energy, projectile-nucleus, multiple scattering is developed from the exact Watson series and applied to pion scattering for 12 C and 4 He. Agreement with measured differential cross sections available from the literature for the range 150 to 260 MeV pion laboratory energies is surprisingly good. The approximation method expands the propagators of the Watson series about the transverse component of the momentum transfer. Contributions of each of the first two terms to double scattering from a Gaussian potential are compared to the exact solution. The purely plane-wave propagation produces a scattering amplitude that agrees to order (k 0 a) -1 with the exact solution at the forward and backward directions at high energies. The second (off-axis) propagation term produces an amplitude that is one order smaller at forward angles and two orders smaller at 180 0 than the exact amplitude. At intermediate angles it is of the same order. The general multiple-scattering series is approximated with selection of plane-wave propagation as the fundamental process at large and small angles. This model suggests that a single nucleon accepts most of the momentum transfer for backward scattering. The resulting multiple-scattering formula agrees with the well-known high-energy eikonal theory at small angles and the backward-angle scattering formula of Chen at exactly 180 0 . A lowest-order formula that includes off-axis propagation is also derived. Predicted differential cross sections are found to be sensitive to nucleon motion and binding. For 4 He the effect of the nuclear potential on the pion kinetic energy is also examined and found to produce significant changes in the predicted cross sections
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bairamov, Bakhysh
2004-01-01
...: As detailed in an on-line proposal the contractor will: 1) develop and build an optical device, fitted to a Fabry-Perot interferometer, to perform high-resolution quasieleastic light scattering spectroscopy; 2...
High-Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Signless Stirling Number Identity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jen-Chi Lee
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We give a complete proof of a set of identities (7 proposed recently from calculation of high-energy string scattering amplitudes. These identities allow one to extract ratios among high-energy string scattering amplitudes in the fixed angle regime from high-energy amplitudes in the Regge regime. The proof is based on a signless Stirling number identity in combinatorial theory. The results are valid for arbitrary real values L rather than only for L=0,1 proved previously. The identities for non-integer real value L were recently shown to be realized in high-energy compactified string scattering amplitudes [He S., Lee J.C., Yang Y., arXiv:1012.3158]. The parameter L is related to the mass level of an excited string state and can take non-integer values for Kaluza-Klein modes.
A bibliography of high energy two-body and inclusive scattering data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gault, F.D.; Read, B.J.; Roberts, R.G.
1977-09-01
A bibliography is presented of the data on high energy two-body and quasi-two-body final state scattering processes. This updated edition also covers one and two-particle inclusive production. It contains references to those published papers whose main purpose is to provide data on high energy two-body and inclusive hadronic scattering cross-sections rather than just properties of the produced particles. It covers the leading high energy physics journals and the period up to June 1977. The entries are grouped by process in the order indicated in the Table of Contents, and an author index is also provided. (author)
Photon-photon scattering at the high-intensity frontier
Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Kohlfürst, Christian; Seegert, Nico
2018-04-01
The tremendous progress in high-intensity laser technology and the establishment of dedicated high-field laboratories in recent years have paved the way towards a first observation of quantum vacuum nonlinearities at the high-intensity frontier. We advocate a particularly prospective scenario, where three synchronized high-intensity laser pulses are brought into collision, giving rise to signal photons, whose frequency and propagation direction differ from the driving laser pulses, thus providing various means to achieve an excellent signal to background separation. Based on the theoretical concept of vacuum emission, we employ an efficient numerical algorithm which allows us to model the collision of focused high-intensity laser pulses in unprecedented detail. We provide accurate predictions for the numbers of signal photons accessible in experiment. Our study is the first to predict the precise angular spread of the signal photons, and paves the way for a first verification of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in a well-controlled laboratory experiment at one of the many high-intensity laser facilities currently coming online.
High resolution resonant Raman scattering in InP and GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kernohan, E.T.M.
1996-04-01
Previous studies of III-V semiconductors using resonant Raman scattering have concentrated on measuring the variations in scattering intensity under different excitation conditions. The shape of the Raman line also contains important information, but this has usually been lost because the low signal strengths mean that resolution has been sacrificed for sensitivity. It might therefore be expected that further insights into the processes involved in Raman scattering could be obtained by using high resolution methods. In this thesis I have measured single- and multiple- phonon scattering from bulk GaAs and InP with a spectral resolution better than the intrinsic widths of the Raman lines. For scattering in the region of one longitudinal optic (LO) phonon energy, it is found that in InP the scattering in the allowed and forbidden configurations occur at different Raman shifts, above and below the zone-centre phonon energy respectively. These shifts are used to determine the scattering processes involved, and how they differ between InP and GaAs. The lineshapes obtained in multiple-phonon scattering are found to depend strongly on the excitation energy used, providing evidence for the presence of intermediate resonances. The measured spectra are used to provide information about the phonon dispersion of InP, whose dispersion it is difficult to measure in any other way, and the first evidence is found for an upward dispersion of the LO mode. Raman lineshapes are measured for InP in a magnetic field. The field alters the electronic bandstructure, leading to a series of strong resonances in the Raman efficiency due to interband magneto-optical transitions between Landau levels. This allows multiphonon processes up to sixth-order to be investigated. (author)
Temporal reflectance from a light pulse irradiated medium embedded with highly scattering cores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu Peifeng; Lu Xiaodong
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to utilize ultrashort pulsed laser for optical diagnostics with numerical simulations. The method is based on the use of ultrafast pulses with a pulsewidth selected according to the probed medium's radiative property and/or size. Our previous work in nonhomogeneous media has shown that the resulting time-resolved reflectance signal will have a unique characteristic: it will show a direct correlation of ballistic photon travel time and interface location, which is in between different layers or nonhomogeneous regions. The premise is based on utilizing the medium's structural information carried by the ballistic and snake photons without being masked by the diffuse photons. In this study, the space-time correlation is further explored in the case of minimally scattered photons from a large scattering coefficient core region embedded within a less-scattering medium. Time-resolved reflectance signals of the single scattering core and multiple scattering cores within a three-dimensional medium demonstrate the concept and illustrate the additional effect due to the scattered photons from the core region. A unique temporal signal profile's correlation at various detector positions with respect to the scattering core is explained in detail. The result has important implications. This approach will lead to a much simpler and more precise determination of the probed medium's composition or structure. Due to the large computational requirement to obtain the physical details of the light pulse propagation inside highly scattering multi-dimensional media, the reverse Monte-Carlo method is used. The potential applications of the method include non-destructive diagnostics, optical imaging, and remote sensing of underwater objects
Eikonal propagators and high-energy parton-parton scattering in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meggiolaro, Enrico
2001-01-01
In this paper we consider 'soft' high-energy parton-parton scattering processes in gauge theories, i.e., elastic scattering processes involving partons at very high squared energies s in the center of mass and small squared transferred momentum t (s→∞, t 2 ). By a direct resummation of perturbation theory in the limit we are considering, we derive expressions for the truncated-connected quark (antiquark) propagator in an external gluon field, as well as for the residue at the pole of the full unrenormalized propagator, both for scalar and fermion gauge theories. These are the basic ingredients to derive high-energy parton-parton scattering amplitudes, using the LSZ reduction formulae and a functional integral approach. The above procedure is also extended to include the case in which at least one of the partons is a gluon. The meaning and the validity of the results are discussed
Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M.
1996-01-01
Interest in producing high damage threshold KH 2 PO 4 (KDP) and (D x H 1-x ) 2 PO 4 (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different open-quotes vintagesclose quotes of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic's resolution to LLNL's standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm 2 (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borgne, H.
2004-12-01
Seismic imaging is an important tool for ail exploration. From the filtered seismic traces and a subsurface velocity model, migration allows to localize the reflectors and to estimate physical properties of these interfaces. The subsurface is split up into a reference medium, corresponding to the low spatial frequencies (a smooth medium), and a perturbation medium, corresponding to the high spatial frequencies. The propagation of elastic waves in the medium of reference is modelled by the ray theory. The association of this theory with a principle of diffraction or reflection allows to take into account the high spatial frequencies: the Kirchhoff approach represents so the medium of perturbations with continuous surfaces, characterized by reflection coefficients. The target of the quantitative migration is to reconstruct this reflection coefficient, notably its behaviour according to the incidence angle. These information will open the way to seismic characterization of the reservoir domain, with. a stratigraphic inversion for instance. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative migration results, one of the current challenges is to take into account the anisotropy of the subsurface. Taking into account rocks anisotropy in the imaging process of seismic data requires two improvements from the isotropic case. The first one roughly concerns the modelling aspect: an anisotropic propagator should be used to avoid a mis-positioning or bad focusing of the imaged reflectors. The second correction concerns the migration aspect: as anisotropy affects the reflectivity of subsurface, a specific anisotropic imaging formula should be applied in the migration kernel, in order to recover the correct A V A behavior of the subsurface reflectors, If the first correction is DOW made in most so-called anisotropic imaging algorithms, the second one is currently ignored. The first part of my work concerns theoretical aspects. 1 study first the preservation of amplitudes in the
Time resolved Thomson scattering measurements on a high pressure mercury lamp
Vries, de N.; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Kieft, E.R.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.
2005-01-01
Time resolved Thomson scattering (TS) measurements have been performed on an ac driven high pressure mercury lamp. For this high intensity discharge (HID) lamp, TS is coherent and a coherent fitting routine, including rotational Raman calibration, was used to determine ne and Te from the measured
Collective Thomson scattering of a high power electron cyclotron resonance heating beam in LHD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kubo, S.; Nishiura, M.; Tanaka, K.
2010-01-01
Collective Thomson scattering (CTS) system has been constructed at LHD making use of the high power ECRH system in LHD. The necessary features for CTS, high power probing beams and receiving beams, both with well defined Gaussian profile and with the fine controllability, are endowed in the ECRH ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, J.
1993-08-01
The possibilities to measure structure functions, to extract parton distributions, and to measure α s and Λ QCD in current and future high energy deep inelastic scattering experiments are reviewed. A comparison is given for experiments at HERA, an ep option at LEP xLHC, and a high energy neutrino experiment. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naoe, Masayuki, E-mail: naoe@denjiken.ne.jp [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Kobayashi, Nobukiyo [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Ohnuma, Shigehiro [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi [Research Institute for Electromagnetic Materials, 2-1-1 Yagiyama-Minami, Taihaku-ku, Sendai 982-0807 (Japan); Masumoto, Hiroshi [Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)
2015-10-01
Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF{sub 2} matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co{sub 0.69}Pd{sub 0.31}){sub 52}–(Ca{sub 0.31}F{sub 0.69}){sub 48} exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF{sub 2}-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF{sub 2} matrix. - Highlights: • We fabricated high-resistive and anisotropic granular films by tandem-sputtering. • CaF{sub 2}-based films exhibit a hundredfold higher resistivity than conventional films. • Uniaxial field annealing improved the magnetic properties dramatically. • High uniaxial anisotropy extended ferromagnetic resonance frequency to 4 GHz. • Annealed samples can be regarded as a ferromagnetic homogenized material.
Thomson scattering measurements on the high beta pinch Extrap-T1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karlsson, P.
1989-11-01
Electron temperature and density measurement on a high beta discharge in the Extrap-T1 device have been performed with Thomson scattering. It was found that the signal levels were low and the plasma background radiation high. The spread of the measured temperatures and densities was large. A computer code was developed to investigate whether this spread in measured temperatures was due to shot to shot variations or to photon statistics. The code showed that the scattered data could be explained by photon statistics
High-energy string-brane scattering: leading eikonal and beyond
D'Appollonio, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Veneziano, Gabriele
2010-01-01
We extend previous techniques for calculations of transplanckian-energy string-string collisions to the high-energy scattering of massless closed strings from a stack of N Dp-branes in Minkowski spacetime. We show that an effective non-trivial metric emerges from the string scattering amplitudes by comparing them against the semiclassical dynamics of high-energy strings in the extremal p-brane background. By changing the energy, impact parameter and effective open string coupling, we are able to explore various interesting regimes and to reproduce classical expectations, including tidal-force excitations, even beyond the leading-eikonal approximation.
Theoretical aspects of high energy elastic nucleon scattering
Kundrat, Vojtech; Lokajicek, Milos
2010-01-01
The eikonal model must be denoted as strongly preferable for the analysis of elastic high-energy hadron collisions. The given approach allows to derive corresponding impact parameter profiles that characterize important physical features of nucleon collisions, e.g., the range of different forces. The contemporary phenomenological analysis of experimental data is, however, not able to determine these profiles unambiguously, i.e., it cannot give the answer whether the elastic hadron collisions are more central or more peripheral than the inelastic ones. However, in the collisions of mass objects (like protons) the peripheral behavior of elastic collisions should be preferred.
High-speed scattering of charged and uncharged particles in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Westphal, K.
1985-01-01
After a brief consideration of the high-speed scattering of two point charges high-speed scattering is thoroughly discussed for a charged particle by a fixed mass and of two uncharged particles of comparable masses. Perturbation technique is used over Minkowski spacetime in the de Donder gauge and the field equations and the resulting equations of motion (which take the reaction of the particles' quasistatic self-field into account) are solved by iteration. The obtained energy-momentum conservation laws allow the computation of second-order corrections for the scattering angle and the cross section. The asymptotic structure of the far-field indicates synchrotron radiation (electromagnetic and gravitational, respectively) which causes an energy loss whose reaction on the motion is briefly considered in the low-velocity limit including bound motion. (For neutral particles this is a third-order effect.) (author)
A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction
Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.
2011-03-01
The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perelli-Cippo, E.; Andreani, C.; Casalboni, M.; Dire, S.; Fernandez-Canoto, D.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Pietropaolo, A.; Prosposito, P.; Schutzmann, S.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.
2006-01-01
High-energy inelastic neutron scattering (HINS) employing epithermal neutrons is a new technique under development at the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, aiming to access the high-energy and low wave-vector transfer region in neutron scattering experiments at eV energies. New neutron detectors have been developed for HINS based on the resonant detector (RD). These make use of the detection of prompt gammas after neutron absorption in an analyzer foil. The RD is used in the very low angle detector (VLAD) bank, which will extend the explored kinematical region to momentum transfer -1 , whilst still keeping energy transfer >300 meV. The final VLAD will cover the scattering range 1-5 o and will be installed by the end of 2005. The results obtained with prototype VLAD detectors on polycrystalline ice and liquid water in silica xerogels provide a demonstration of the feasibility of the measurements under realistic conditions
Significance of scatter radar studies of E and F region irregularities at high latitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwald, R.A.
1983-01-01
This chapter considers the mechanisms by which electron density irregularities may be generated in the high latitude ionosphere and the techniques through which they are observed with ground base radars. The capabilities of radars used for studying these irregularities are compared with the capabilities of radars used for incoherent scatter measurements. The use of irregularity scatter techniques for dynamic studies of larger scale structured phenomena is discussed. Topics considered include E-region irregularities, observations with auroral radars, plasma drifts associated with a westward travelling surge, and ionospheric plasma motions associated with resonant waves. It is shown why high latitude F-region irregularity studies must be made in the HF frequency band (3-30 MHz). The joint use of the European Incoherent Scatter Association (EISCAT), STARE and SAFARI facilities is examined, and it is concluded that the various techniques will enhance each other and provide a better understanding of the various processes being studied
Probe high-Tc Superconductors by neutron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauque, B.
2007-10-01
This research thesis explores two aspects of the phase diagram of high critical temperature superconductors: the evolution of AF correlations and the nature of the pseudo-gap phase. The author presents the problematic associated with these particular semiconductors, describes the neutron diffusion probe used in this study, and presents the three families of semiconductors investigated during this research: Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x and La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 . He reports the results of the investigation of the spin dynamics in the Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x . He reports a detailed investigation of the magnetic cross section associated with different types of non conventional magnetic orders proposed as candidates for the pseudo-gap phase. He reports and comments the results obtained for the pseudo-gap phase for the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x and La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 families. Finally, the author discusses the consequences of the obtained results for the description of the diagram phase of high critical temperature semiconductors
Eiselt, Thomas; Gomard, Guillaume; Preinfalk, Jan; Gleißner, Uwe; Lemmer, Uli; Hanemann, Thomas
2016-11-01
In this work, we develop a wet-processable scattering layer exhibiting a high refractive index that can be used in organic light-emitting diodes for light outcoupling purposes. The composite layers contain an acrylate casting resin, benzylmethacrylate, and phenanthrene, which is employed to increase the refractive index. The mixtures are first rheologically characterized and then polymerized with heat and UV radiation. For the refractive index measurements, the polymerized samples require a planar surface without air bubbles. To produce flat samples, a special construction consisting of a glass plate, a teflon sheet, a silicone ring (PDMS mold), another teflon sheet, and another glass plate is developed. Glue clamps are used to hold the construction together. The refractive index of the samples can be increased from 1.565 to 1.585 at 20°C at a wavelength of 589 nm following the addition of 20 wt% phenanthrene. A master mixture with a high refractive index is taken for further experiments. Nanoscaled titanium dioxide is added and dispersed into the master mixture and then spin coated on a glass substrate. These layers are optically characterized. Most of the presented layers present the expected haze of over 50%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satter, M.A.
1990-08-01
In this paper, a formalism for studying the anisotropic interaction between two substitutional magnetic impurities and the magnetic anisotropic effect in a dilute noble metal- transition metal magnetic alloy has been developed from relativistic scattering theory. The theoretical development and the computational techniques of this formalism are based on relativistic spin-polarized scattering theory and relativistic band structure frameworks. For studying the magnetic anisotropic effect a convenient ''working'' frame of reference with its axes oriented along the fcc crystal axes is set up. This formalism is applied to study the situation for two Fe impurities in paramagnetic Au hosts. For AuFe dilute alloy, the two impurity site interaction as a function of separation is not oscillatory and the anisotropic effect is found to be less than the two site interaction itself only by an order of magnitude. Apart from the anisotropic coupling of the two impurity spins to the separation vector, for the first time, another weak anisotropic coupling to the crystal axes is also contained in the two site interaction. These anisotropic effects are the results of the relativistic spin-orbit interaction which are incorporated into the formalism. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, T.; Batra, P.; Bugel, Leonard G.; Camilleri, Leslie Loris; Conrad, Janet Marie; Fisher, Peter H.; Formaggio, Joseph Angelo; Karagiorgi, Georgia S.; )
2009-01-01
We extend the physics case for a new high-energy, ultra-high statistics neutrino scattering experiment, NuSOnG (Neutrino Scattering On Glass) to address a variety of issues including precision QCD measurements, extraction of structure functions, and the derived Parton Distribution Functions (PDFs). This experiment uses a Tevatron-based neutrino beam to obtain a sample of Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) events which is over two orders of magnitude larger than past samples. We outline an innovative method for fitting the structure functions using a parameterized energy shift which yields reduced systematic uncertainties. High statistics measurements, in combination with improved systematics, will enable NuSOnG to perform discerning tests of fundamental Standard Model parameters as we search for deviations which may hint of 'Beyond the Standard Model' physics
Small angle scattering methods to study porous materials under high uniaxial strain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Floch, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.le-floch@univ-lyon1.fr; Balima, Félix; Pischedda, Vittoria; Legrand, Franck; San-Miguel, Alfonso [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)
2015-02-15
We developed a high pressure cell for the in situ study of the porosity of solids under high uniaxial strain using neutron small angle scattering. The cell comprises a hydraulically actioned piston and a main body equipped with two single-crystal sapphire windows allowing for the neutron scattering of the sample. The sample cavity is designed to allow for a large volume variation as expected when compressing highly porous materials. We also implemented a loading protocol to adapt an existing diamond anvil cell for the study of porous materials by X-ray small angle scattering under high pressure. The two techniques are complementary as the radiation beam and the applied pressure are in one case perpendicular to each other (neutron cell) and in the other case parallel (X-ray cell). We will illustrate the use of these two techniques in the study of lamellar porous systems up to a maximum pressure of 0.1 GPa and 0.3 GPa for the neutron and X-ray cells, respectively. These devices allow obtaining information on the evolution of porosity with pressure in the pore dimension subdomain defined by the wave-numbers explored in the scattering process. The evolution with the applied load of such parameters as the fractal dimension of the pore-matrix interface or the apparent specific surface in expanded graphite and in expanded vermiculite is used to illustrate the use of the high pressure cells.
High-energy gravitational scattering and the general relativistic two-body problem
Damour, Thibault
2018-02-01
A technique for translating the classical scattering function of two gravitationally interacting bodies into a corresponding (effective one-body) Hamiltonian description has been recently introduced [Phys. Rev. D 94, 104015 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104015]. Using this technique, we derive, for the first time, to second-order in Newton's constant (i.e. one classical loop) the Hamiltonian of two point masses having an arbitrary (possibly relativistic) relative velocity. The resulting (second post-Minkowskian) Hamiltonian is found to have a tame high-energy structure which we relate both to gravitational self-force studies of large mass-ratio binary systems, and to the ultra high-energy quantum scattering results of Amati, Ciafaloni and Veneziano. We derive several consequences of our second post-Minkowskian Hamiltonian: (i) the need to use special phase-space gauges to get a tame high-energy limit; and (ii) predictions about a (rest-mass independent) linear Regge trajectory behavior of high-angular-momenta, high-energy circular orbits. Ways of testing these predictions by dedicated numerical simulations are indicated. We finally indicate a way to connect our classical results to the quantum gravitational scattering amplitude of two particles, and we urge amplitude experts to use their novel techniques to compute the two-loop scattering amplitude of scalar masses, from which one could deduce the third post-Minkowskian effective one-body Hamiltonian.
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
High energy charge exchange np and antipp scattering using the dual fermion model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weigt, G.
1976-01-01
The five independent helicity amplitudes Phisub(i)(s, t) calculated by Mandelstam from the Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond model for fermion-antifermion scattering are used in the Regge limit for a phenomenological description of high energy np and antipp charge exchange scattering. A forward spike which widens with increasing energy as well as an energy dependence changing from lower to higher energy data are reproduced by these non-evasive dual Born amplitudes using π, A 2 and rho Regge pole t-channel exchanges. (author)
Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I.
1995-01-01
The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of open-quotes double-to-singleclose quotes ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification
Double electron ionization in Compton scattering of high energy photons by helium atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amusia, M.Y.; Mikhailov, A.I. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)
1995-08-01
The cross section for double-electron ionization of two-electron atoms and ions in Compton scattering of high energy photons is calculated. It is demonstrated that its dependence on the incoming photon frequency is the same as that for single-electron ionization. The ratio of {open_quotes}double-to-single{close_quotes} ionization in Compton scattering was found to be energy independent and almost identical with the corresponding value for photoionization. For the He atom it is 1.68%. This surprising result deserves experimental verification.
High speed low power optical detection of sub-wavelength scatterer
Roy, S.; Bouwens, M.A.J.; Wei, L.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, H.P.; Walle, P. van der
2015-01-01
Optical detection of scatterers on a flat substrate, generally done using dark field microscopy technique, is challenging since it requires high power illumination to obtain sufficient SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) to be able to detect sub-wavelength particles. We developed a bright field technique,
Neutron scattering studies on the high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu306+x
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurgens, M.J.G.M.
1990-01-01
The aim of the work described in this thesis is to clarify some of the magnetic aspects of high T c superconductors across the phase diagram as a function of doping and temperature, for which YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x has been chosen. Mainly the neutron scattering technique has been employed, which supplies a very powerful tool for this kind of research, for it directly shows the microscopic phenomena of the magnetism involved. First an introduction to the neutron scattering technique is given and a description of the spectrometers employed (ch. 2). The determination of the crystal structure of YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x is described, and the single crystals which were used during all the experiments on the magnetic properties as described in this thesis, are characterized (ch. 3). Ch. 4 deals with the phase diagram of the insulating antiferromagnetic phase in YBa 2 Cu 3 o 6+x , as obtained with neutron scattering. The inelastic scattering experiments on the magnetic excitations in this system are presented in ch. 5. In ch. 6 the total susceptibility, measure with a AQUID, is discussed. The local magnetizations, as determined with a polarized neutron scattering technique are the subject of ch. 7. (author). 254 refs.; 77 figs.; 25 tabs
High-k Scattering Receiver Mixer Performance for NSTX-U
Barchfeld, Robert; Riemenschneider, Paul; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville; Ren, Yang; Kaita, Robert
2016-10-01
The High-k Scattering system detects primarily electron-scale turbulence k θ spectra for studying electron thermal transport in NSTX-U. A 100 mW, 693 GHz probe beam passes through plasma, and scattered power is detected by a 4-pixel quasi optical, mixer array. Remotely controlled receiving optics allows the scattering volume to be located from core to edge with a k θ span of 7 to 40 cm-1. The receiver array features 4 RF diagonal input horns, where the electric field polarization is aligned along the diagonal of a square cross section horn, at 30 mm channel spacing. The local oscillator is provided by a 14.4 GHz source followed by a x48 multiplier chain, giving an intermediate frequency of 1 GHz. The receiver optics receive 4 discreet scattering angles simultaneously, and then focus the signals as 4 parallel signals to their respective horns. A combination of a steerable probe beam, and translating receiver, allows for upward or downward scattering which together can provide information about 2D turbulence wavenumber spectrum. IF signals are digitized and stored for later computer analysis. The performance of the receiver mixers is discussed, along with optical design features to enhance the tuning and performance of the mixers. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54518 and DE-AC02-09CH1146.
Glucose detection in a highly scattering medium with diffuse photon-pair density wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-Ping Yu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a novel optical method for glucose measurement based on diffuse photon-pair density wave (DPPDW in a multiple scattering medium (MSM where the light scattering of photon-pair is induced by refractive index mismatch between scatters and phantom solution. Experimentally, the DPPDW propagates in MSM via a two-frequency laser (TFL beam wherein highly correlated pairs of linear polarized photons are generated. The reduced scattering coefficient μ2s′ and absorption coefficient μ2a of DPPDW are measured simultaneously in terms of the amplitude and phase measurements of the detected heterodyne signal under arrangement at different distances between the source and detection fibers in MSM. The results show that the sensitivity of glucose detection via glucose-induced change of reduced scattering coefficient (δμ2s′ is 0.049%mM−1 in a 1% intralipid solution. In addition, the linear range of δμ2s′ vs glucose concentration implies that this DPPDW method can be used to monitor glucose concentration continuously and noninvasively subcutaneously.
High-sensitivity measurements of the excitation function for Bhabha scattering at MeV energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsertos, H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Armbruster, P.; Kienle, P.; Krusche, B.; Schreckenbach, K.
1989-02-01
Using a monochromatic e + beam scattered on a Be foil and a high-resolution detector device, the excitation function for elastic e + e - scattering was measured with a statistical accuracy of 0.25% in 1.4 keV steps in the c.m.-energy range between 770 keV and 840 keV (1.79 - 1.86 MeV/c 2 ) at c.m. scattering angles between 80 0 and 100 0 (FWHM). Within the experimental sensitivity of 0.5 b.eV/sr (c.m.) for the energy-integrated differential cross section no resonances were observed (97% CL). From this limit we infer that a hypothetical spinless resonant state should have a width of less than 1.9 meV corresponding to a lifetime limit of 3.5x10 -13 s. This limit establishes the most stringent bound for new particles in this mass range derived from Bhabha scattering and is independent of assumptions about the internal structure of the hypothetical particles. Less sensitivite limits were, in addition, derived around 520 keV c.m. energy (≅ 1.54 MeV/c 2 ) from an investigation with a thorium and a mylar foil as scatterers. (orig.)
High resolution Thomson scattering system for steady-state linear plasma sources
Lee, K. Y.; Lee, K. I.; Kim, J. H.; Lho, T.
2018-01-01
The high resolution Thomson scattering system with 63 points along a 25 mm line measures the radial electron temperature (Te) and its density (ne) in an argon plasma. By using a DC arc source with lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) electrode, plasmas with electron temperature of over 5 eV and densities of 1.5 × 1019 m-3 have been measured. The system uses a frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG laser with 0.25 J/pulse at 20 Hz. The scattered light is collected and sent to a triple-grating spectrometer via optical-fibers, where images are recorded by an intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera. Although excellent in stray-light reduction, a disadvantage comes with its relatively low optical transmission and in sampling a tiny scattering volume. Thus requires accumulating multitude of images. In order to improve photon statistics, pixel binning in the ICCD camera as well as enlarging the intermediate slit-width inside the triple-grating spectrometer has been exploited. In addition, the ICCD camera capture images at 40 Hz while the laser is at 20 Hz. This operation mode allows us to alternate between background and scattering shot images. By image subtraction, influences from the plasma background are effectively taken out. Maximum likelihood estimation that uses a parameter sweep finds best fitting parameters Te and ne with the incoherent scattering spectrum.
Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.
Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng
2015-05-07
Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.
Nucleus-Nucleus Scattering in the High-Energy Approximation and the Optical Folding Potential
Lukyanov, V K; Lukyanov, K V
2004-01-01
For the nucleus-nucleus scattering, the complex potential is obtained which corresponds to the eikonal phase of an optical limit of the Glauber-Sitenko high-energy approximation. The potential does not include free parameters, its real and imaginary parts depend on energy and are determined by the reported data on the nuclear density distributions and nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude. Alternatively, for the real part, the folding potential can be utilized which includes the effective NN-forces and the exchange term, as well. As a result, the microscopic optical potential is constructed where contributions of the calculated real and imaginary parts are formed by fitting the two respective factors. An efficient of the approach is confirmed by agreements of calculations with the experimental data on elastic scattering cross-sections.
High energy deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon and related meson exclusive production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machado, Magno V. T.
2007-01-01
In this work we estimate the differential cross section for the high energy deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, γ*γ→γγ, within the QCD dipole-dipole scattering formalism. For the phenomenology, a saturation model for the dipole-dipole cross section for two photon scattering is considered. Its robustness is supported by a good description of current accelerator data. In addition, we consider the related exclusive vector meson production processes, γ*γ→Vγ. This analysis is focused on the light ρ and φ meson production, which produces larger cross sections. The phenomenological results are compared with the theoretical calculation using the color-dipole Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov approach
Triple parton scatterings in high-energy proton-proton collisions arXiv
d'Enterria, David
2017-01-01
A generic expression to compute triple parton scattering cross sections in high-energy proton-proton (pp) collisions is presented as a function of the corresponding single parton cross sections and the transverse parton profile of the proton encoded in an effective parameter σeff,TPS. The value of σeff,TPS is closely related to the similar effective cross section that characterizes double parton scatterings, and amounts to σeff,TPS=12.5±4.5 mb. Estimates for triple charm (cc¯) and bottom (bb¯) production in pp collisions at LHC and FCC energies are presented based on next-to-next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations for single cc¯, bb¯ cross sections. At s≈100 TeV, about 15% of the pp collisions produce three cc¯ pairs from three different parton-parton scatterings.
Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany
Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for
Létourneau, Pierre-David
2016-09-19
We present a wideband fast algorithm capable of accurately computing the full numerical solution of the problem of acoustic scattering of waves by multiple finite-sized bodies such as spherical scatterers in three dimensions. By full solution, we mean that no assumption (e.g. Rayleigh scattering, geometrical optics, weak scattering, Born single scattering, etc.) is necessary regarding the properties of the scatterers, their distribution or the background medium. The algorithm is also fast in the sense that it scales linearly with the number of unknowns. We use this algorithm to study the phenomenon of super-resolution in time-reversal refocusing in highly-scattering media recently observed experimentally (Lemoult et al., 2011), and provide numerical arguments towards the fact that such a phenomenon can be explained through a homogenization theory.
Anisotropic characterization of magnetorheological materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dohmen, E., E-mail: eike.dohmen@tu-dresden.de; Modler, N.; Gude, M.
2017-06-01
For the development of energy efficient lightweight parts novel function integrating materials are needed. Concerning this field of application magnetorheological (MR) fluids, MR elastomers and MR composites are promising materials allowing the adjustment of mechanical properties by an external magnetic field. A key issue for operating such structures in praxis is the magneto-mechanical description. Most rheological properties are gathered at laboratory conditions for high magnetic flux densities and a single field direction, which does not correspond to real praxis conditions. Although anisotropic formation of superstructures can be observed in MR suspensions (Fig. 1) or experimenters intentionally polymerize MR elastomers with anisotropic superstructures these MR materials are usually described in an external magnetic field as uniform, isotropic materials. This is due to missing possibilities for experimentally measuring field angle dependent properties and ways of distinguishing between material properties and frictional effects. Just a few scientific works experimentally investigated the influence of different field angles (Ambacher et al., 1992; Grants et al., 1990; Kuzhir et al., 2003) or the influence of surface roughness on the shear behaviour of magnetic fluids (Tang and Conrad, 1996) . The aim of this work is the introduction of a novel field angle cell allowing the determination of anisotropic mechanical properties for various MR materials depending on the applied magnetic field angle. - Highlights: • Novel magnetic field angle testing device (MFATD) presented. • Determination of magnetic field dependent anisotropic mechanical properties. • Experimental data for different field directions shown for a commercial MR fluid. • Material description of MR fluids as transversal-isotropic solids. • Magnetic field angle dependent variations in shear stresses experimentally measured. • Determination of frictional coefficients between the MR fluid and
Cheng, Zhe; Bougher, Thomas; Bai, Tingyu; Wang, Steven Y; Li, Chao; Yates, Luke; Foley, Brian M; Goorsky, Mark; Cola, Baratunde A; Faili, Firooz; Graham, Samuel
2018-02-07
The maximum output power of GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors is limited by high channel temperature induced by localized self-heating, which degrades device performance and reliability. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is an attractive candidate to aid in the extraction of this heat and in minimizing the peak operating temperatures of high-power electronics. Owing to its inhomogeneous structure, the thermal conductivity of CVD diamond varies along the growth direction and can differ between the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, resulting in a complex three-dimensional (3D) distribution. Depending on the thickness of the diamond and size of the electronic device, this 3D distribution may impact the effectiveness of CVD diamond in device thermal management. In this work, time-domain thermoreflectance is used to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of an 11.8 μm-thick high-quality CVD diamond membrane from its nucleation side. Starting with a spot-size diameter larger than the thickness of the membrane, measurements are made at various modulation frequencies from 1.2 to 11.6 MHz to tune the heat penetration depth and sample the variation in thermal conductivity. We then analyze the data by creating a model with the membrane divided into ten sublayers and assume isotropic thermal conductivity in each sublayer. From this, we observe a two-dimensional gradient of the depth-dependent thermal conductivity for this membrane. The local thermal conductivity goes beyond 1000 W/(m K) when the distance from the nucleation interface only reaches 3 μm. Additionally, by measuring the same region with a smaller spot size at multiple frequencies, the in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities are extracted. Through this use of multiple spot sizes and modulation frequencies, the 3D anisotropic thermal conductivity of CVD diamond membrane is experimentally obtained by fitting the experimental data to a thermal model. This work provides an improved
An anisotropic elastoplasticity model implemented in FLAG
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buechler, Miles Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, Thomas R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-12
Many metals, including Tantalum and Zirconium, exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior at the single crystal level, and if components are manufactured from these metals through forming processes the polycrystal (component) may also exhibit anisotropic elastoplastic behavior. This is because the forming can induce a preferential orientation of the crystals in the polycrystal. One example is a rolled plate of Uranium where the sti /strong orientation of the crystal (c-axis) tends to align itself perpendicular to the rolling direction. If loads are applied to this plate in di erent orientations the sti ness as well as the ow strength of the material will be greater in the through thickness direction than in other directions. To better accommodate simulations of such materials, an anisotropic elastoplasticity model has been implemented in FLAG. The model includes an anisotropic elastic stress model as well as an anisotropic plasticity model. The model could represent single crystals of any symmetry, though it should not be confused with a high- delity crystal plasticity model with multiple slip planes and evolutions. The model is most appropriate for homogenized polycrystalline materials. Elastic rotation of the material due to deformation is captured, so the anisotropic models are appropriate for arbitrary large rotations, but currently they do not account for signi cant change in material texture beyond the elastic rotation of the entire polycrystal.
High-resolution nonresonant x-ray Raman scattering study on rare earth phosphate nanoparticles
Huotari, Simo; Suljoti, Edlira; Sahle, Christoph J.; Raedel, Stephanie; Monaco, Giulio; de Groot, Frank M. F.
2015-01-01
We report high-resolution x-ray Raman scattering studies of high-order multipole spectra of rare earth 4d -> 4f excitations (the N-4,N-5 absorption edge) in nanoparticles of the phosphates LaPO4, CePO4, PrPO4, and NdPO4. We also present corresponding data for La 5p -> 5d excitations (the O-2,O-3
Highly Anisotropic Magnon Dispersion in Ca_{2}RuO_{4}: Evidence for Strong Spin Orbit Coupling.
Kunkemöller, S; Khomskii, D; Steffens, P; Piovano, A; Nugroho, A A; Braden, M
2015-12-11
The magnon dispersion in Ca_{2}RuO_{4} has been determined by inelastic neutron scattering on single crytals containing 1% of Ti. The dispersion is well described by a conventional Heisenberg model suggesting a local moment model with nearest neighbor interaction of J=8 meV. Nearest and next-nearest neighbor interaction as well as interlayer coupling parameters are required to properly describe the entire dispersion. Spin-orbit coupling induces a very large anisotropy gap in the magnetic excitations in apparent contrast with a simple planar magnetic model. Orbital ordering breaking tetragonal symmetry, and strong spin-orbit coupling can thus be identified as important factors in this system.
Highly anisotropic magnon dispersion in Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. Evidence for strong spin orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunkemoeller, Stefan; Khomskii, Daniel; Braden, Markus [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Steffens, Paul; Piovano, Andrea [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France); Nugroho, Augustinus Agung [Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)
2016-07-01
Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is a key material for the understanding of the impact of spin-orbit coupling in 4d and 5d compounds, which is intensively studied at present. We have studied the magnon dispersion in Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} by inelastic neutron scattering on large single crystals containing 1% of Ti. With this unmagnetic substitution large single crystals could be obtained with the floating zone method. The magnon dispersion can be well described with the simple conventional Heisenberg model. Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} reveals a large anisotropy gap of 13 meV, which shows that spin-orbit coupling and some in-plane orbital ordering are both important parameters for the description of the electronic and magnetic properties of Ca{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}.
Multiple scattering processes: inverse and direct
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kagiwada, H.H.; Kalaba, R.; Ueno, S.
1975-01-01
The purpose of the work is to formulate inverse problems in radiative transfer, to introduce the functions b and h as parameters of internal intensity in homogeneous slabs, and to derive initial value problems to replace the more traditional boundary value problems and integral equations of multiple scattering with high computational efficiency. The discussion covers multiple scattering processes in a one-dimensional medium; isotropic scattering in homogeneous slabs illuminated by parallel rays of radiation; the theory of functions b and h in homogeneous slabs illuminated by isotropic sources of radiation either at the top or at the bottom; inverse and direct problems of multiple scattering in slabs including internal sources; multiple scattering in inhomogeneous media, with particular reference to inverse problems for estimation of layers and total thickness of inhomogeneous slabs and to multiple scattering problems with Lambert's law and specular reflectors underlying slabs; and anisotropic scattering with reduction of the number of relevant arguments through axially symmetric fields and expansion in Legendre functions. Gaussian quadrature data for a seven point formula, a FORTRAN program for computing the functions b and h, and tables of these functions supplement the text
Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Imberti, S. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Amaldi' , Rome (Italy) and CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: silvia.imberti@roma2.infn.it; Andreani, C. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Garbuio, V. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Gorini, G. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy); Pietropaolo, A. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Senesi, R. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma 60133 (Italy); CNR-INFM, Rome (Italy); Tardocchi, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica ' G.Occhialini' , Milan (Italy); CNR-INFM, Milan (Italy)
2005-11-01
New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. <2{theta}<5 deg. This equipment allows High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering (HINS) measurements to be performed in the (q,{omega}) kinematical region at low wavevector (q<10A{sup -1}) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar {omega}>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A{sup -1}high energy transfer (-bar {omega}>1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.
Baryon scattering at high energies. Wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartels, J.; Motyka, L.; Jagellonian Univ., Krakow
2007-11-01
The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark-antiquark pair in γ * scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in γ * scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the γ * -initiated quark-antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2→4 transition vertex (triple Pomeron vertex). The odderon-term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik-Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three reggeized gluon state which then, via a new 3→4 transition vertex, couples to the four gluon (two-Pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes. (orig.)
Baryon scattering at high energies. Wave function, impact factor, and gluon radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartels, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Motyka, L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Physics
2007-11-15
The scattering of a baryon consisting of three massive quarks is investigated in the high energy limit of perturbative QCD. A model of a relativistic proton-like wave function, dependent on valence quark longitudinal and transverse momenta and on quark helicities, is proposed, and we derive the baryon impact factors for two, three and four t-channel gluons. We find that the baryonic impact factor can be written as a sum of three pieces: in the first one a subsystem consisting of two of the three quarks behaves very much like the quark-antiquark pair in {gamma}{sup *} scattering, whereas the third quark acts as a spectator. The second term belongs to the odderon, whereas in the third (C-even) piece all three quarks participate in the scattering. This term is new and has no analogue in {gamma}{sup *} scattering. We also study the small x evolution of gluon radiation for each of these three terms. The first term follows the same pattern of gluon radiation as the {gamma}{sup *}-initiated quark-antiquark dipole, and, in particular, it contains the BFKL evolution followed by the 2{yields}4 transition vertex (triple Pomeron vertex). The odderon-term is described by the standard BKP evolution, and the baryon couples to both known odderon solutions, the Janik-Wosiek solution and the BLV solution. Finally, the t-channel evolution of the third term starts with a three reggeized gluon state which then, via a new 3{yields}4 transition vertex, couples to the four gluon (two-Pomeron) state. We briefly discuss a few consequences of these findings, in particular the pattern of unitarization of high energy baryon scattering amplitudes. (orig.)
Application of laser resonance scattering to the study of high-temperature plasma-wall interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, Mitsuo; Muraoka, Katsunori; Hamamoto, Makoto; Akazaki, Masanori; Miyazoe, Yasushi
1981-01-01
Studies on laser resonance scattering and its application to the study of high-temperature plasma-wall interaction are reviewed. The application of dye laser beam to resonant scattering method has been developed. This method is able to detect low density atoms. The fluorescent photon counts can be estimated for a two-level system and a three-level system. The S/N ratio, Which is in close connection with the detection limit, has been estimated. The doppler effect due to the thermal motion of atoms is taken into consideration. The calibration of the absolute number of atoms is necessary. Tunable coherent light is used as the light source for resonance scattering method. This is able to excite atoms strongly and to increase the detection efficiency. As dye lasers, a N 2 laser, a YAG laser, and a KrF excimer laser have been studied. In VUV region, rare gas or rare gas halide lasers can be used. The strong output power can be expected when the resonance lines of atoms meet the synchronizing region of the excimer laser. The resonance scattering method is applied to the detection of impurity metal atoms in plasma. The studies of laser systems for the detection of hydrogen atoms are also in progress. (Kato, T.)
Hwu, Chyanbin
2010-01-01
As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Nadal, Guillem [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-07-15
We consider a non-relativistic free scalar field theory with a type of anisotropic scale invariance in which the number of coordinates ''scaling like time'' is generically greater than one. We propose the Cartesian product of two curved spaces, the metric of each space being parameterized by the other space, as a notion of curved background to which the theory can be extended. We study this type of geometries, and find a family of extensions of the theory to curved backgrounds in which the anisotropic scale invariance is promoted to a local, Weyl-type symmetry. (orig.)
Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.
Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M
2016-11-01
An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm 2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves
Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments
Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.
2005-11-01
New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1∘500 meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20 Å-11 eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed.
High energy behaviour of the scattering amplitude in the presence of confined channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gehlen, G.; Rittenberg, V.
1977-09-01
The two-channel potential scattering problem in three space-dimensions is considered in the case when one channel is permanently confined. Two examples of confining potentials are considered: the harmonic oscillator and the infinite well. The two cases give radically different results: for the infinite well there is no high energy limit; in the case of the harmonic oscillator the amplitude has properties similar to that of dual absorptive models. (orig.) [de
A dynamic elastic and inelastic scattering theory of high-energy electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhonglin
1990-01-01
A review is given on the applications of elastic multislice theory for simulating the images and diffractions of reflection electron microscopy. The limitation of this theory is illustrated according to some experimental observations. A generalized elastic and inelastic multislice theory is then introduced from quantum mechanics; its applications for approaching inelastic plasmon excitation and phonon excitation (or thermal diffuse scattering) are discussed. The energy-filtered inelastic high resolution images can be simulated based on this theory
Thomson scattering measuring device using high sensitivity photomultipliers: 16% up to 860nm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hesse, M.
1976-03-01
Photomultipliers with high quantum efficiency were used to observe the entire rubis laser light spectrum scattered by a plasma. The optical and electronic acquisition device used to study this spectrum is described. The spectra obtained revealed a dissymmetry larger than that expected from relativistic theory. These results could not be interpreted. The diagnostic sensitivity allows the measurement of low electron densities (2.10 12 ecm -3 ) [fr
Dipole pomeron and. pi. /sup -/p elastic scattering at high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fazal-E-Aleem (Panjab Univ., Lahore (Pakistan). Physics Dept.)
1982-10-16
The differential cross-sections for high-energy ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering showing structure near -t=4 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ for psub(L)=50 and 200 GeV/c together with total cross-sections for 50<=psub(L)<=370 GeV/c, and with -t extending up to 11 (GeV/c)/sup 2/ have been fitted by using a dipole pomeron model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
2005-01-01
An effective spiral spin phase ground state provides a new paradigm for the high-temperature superconducting cuprates. It accounts for the recent neutron scattering observations of spin excitations regarding both the energy dispersion and the intensities, including the "universal" rotation by 45...... model. The form of the exchange interaction function reveals the effects of the Fermi surface, and the unique shape predicts large quantum spin fluctuations in the ground state....
High-Energy antipp and pp Elastic Scattering and Nucleon Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, M.M.; Innocente, V.; Fearnley, T.; Sanguinetti, G.
1987-01-01
High-energy antipp and pp elastic data from the CERN Collider and the ISR are analyzed in the nucleon valence core model. Diffraction is described by a profile function that incorporates crossing symmetry and saturation of Froissart-Martin bound. The model is found to provide a very satisfactory description of the elastic scattering over the whole range of energy and momentum transfer. Implications of the analysis on QCD models of nucleon structure are pointed out
High-Energy antipp and pp Elastic Scattering and Nucleon Structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Islam, M.M.; Innocente, V.; Fearnley, T.; Sanguinetti, G.
1987-07-15
High-energy antipp and pp elastic data from the CERN Collider and the ISR are analyzed in the nucleon valence core model. Diffraction is described by a profile function that incorporates crossing symmetry and saturation of Froissart-Martin bound. The model is found to provide a very satisfactory description of the elastic scattering over the whole range of energy and momentum transfer. Implications of the analysis on QCD models of nucleon structure are pointed out.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Fierz-Schmidhauser
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Ambient relative humidity (RH determines the water content of atmospheric aerosol particles and thus has an important influence on the amount of visible light scattered by particles. The RH dependence of the particle light scattering coefficient (σ_{sp} is therefore an important variable for climate forcing calculations. We used a humidification system for a nephelometer which allows for the measurement of σ_{sp} at a defined RH in the range of 20–95%. In this paper we present measurements of light scattering enhancement factors f(RH=σ_{sp}(RH/σ_{sp}(dry from a 1-month campaign (May 2008 at the high alpine site Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland. Measurements at the Jungfraujoch are representative for the lower free troposphere above Central Europe. For this aerosol type hardly any information about the f(RH is available so far. At this site, f(RH=85% varied between 1.2 and 3.3. Measured f(RH agreed well with f(RH calculated with Mie theory using measurements of the size distribution, chemical composition and hygroscopic diameter growth factors as input. Good f(RH predictions at RH<85% were also obtained with a simplified model, which uses the Ångström exponent of σ_{sp}(dry as input. RH influences further intensive optical aerosol properties. The backscatter fraction decreased by about 30% from 0.128 to 0.089, and the single scattering albedo increased on average by 0.05 at 85% RH compared to dry conditions. These changes in σ_{sp}, backscatter fraction and single scattering albedo have a distinct impact on the radiative forcing of the Jungfraujoch aerosol.
Positive Scattering Cross Sections using Constrained Least Squares
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dahl, J.A.; Ganapol, B.D.; Morel, J.E.
1999-01-01
A method which creates a positive Legendre expansion from truncated Legendre cross section libraries is presented. The cross section moments of order two and greater are modified by a constrained least squares algorithm, subject to the constraints that the zeroth and first moments remain constant, and that the standard discrete ordinate scattering matrix is positive. A method using the maximum entropy representation of the cross section which reduces the error of these modified moments is also presented. These methods are implemented in PARTISN, and numerical results from a transport calculation using highly anisotropic scattering cross sections with the exponential discontinuous spatial scheme is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Mertens, G.
1977-01-01
In order to study multiple scattering effects both in the gas and particularly in the solid materials of high-pressure gas scintillators, two asymmetry experiments have been performed by scattering of 15.6 MeV polarized neutrons from helium contained in stainless steel vessels of different wall thicknesses. A monte Carlo computer code taking into account the polarization dependence of the differential scattering cross sections has been written to simulate the experiments and to calculate corrections for multiple scattering on helium, xenon and the gas containment materials. Besides the asymmetries for the various scattering processes involved, the code yields time-of-flight spectra of the scattered neutrons and pulse height spectra of the helium recoil nuclei in the gas scintillator. The agreement between experimental results and Monte Carlo calculations is satisfactory. (Auth.)
Discrete ordinates transport methods for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pautz, S.D.
1998-04-01
The author examines the solutions of the discrete ordinates (S N ) method for problems with highly forward-peaked scattering kernels. He derives conditions necessary to obtain reasonable solutions in a certain forward-peaked limit, the Fokker-Planck (FP) limit. He also analyzes the acceleration of the iterative solution of such problems and offer improvements to it. He extends the analytic Fokker-Planck limit analysis to the S N equations. This analysis shows that in this asymptotic limit the S N solution satisfies a pseudospectral discretization of the FP equation, provided that the scattering term is handled in a certain way (which he describes) and that the analytic transport solution satisfies an analytic FP equation. Similar analyses of various spatially discretized S N equations reveal that they too produce solutions that satisfy discrete FP equations, given the same provisions. Numerical results agree with these theoretical predictions. He defines a multidimensional angular multigrid (ANMG) method to accelerate the iterative solution of highly forward-peaked problems. The analyses show that a straightforward application of this scheme is subject to high-frequency instabilities. However, by applying a diffusive filter to the ANMG corrections he is able to stabilize this method. Fourier analyses of model problems show that the resulting method is effective at accelerating the convergence rate when the scattering is forward-peaked. The numerical results demonstrate that these analyses are good predictors of the actual performance of the ANMG method
High density QCD and nucleus-nucleus scattering deeply in the saturation region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kormilitzin, Andrey; Levin, Eugene; Miller, Jeremy S.
2011-01-01
In this paper we solve the equations that describe nucleus-nucleus scattering, in high density QCD, in the framework of the BFKL Pomeron Calculus. We found that (i) the contribution of short distances to the opacity for nucleus-nucleus scattering dies at high energies, (ii) the opacity tends to unity at high energy, and (iii) the main contribution that survives comes from soft (long distance) processes for large values of the impact parameter. The corrections to the opacity Ω(Y,b)=1 were calculated and it turns out that they have a completely different form, namely (1-Ω→exp(-Const√(Y))) than the opacity that stems from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which is (1-Ω→exp(-ConstY 2 )). We reproduce the formula for the nucleus-nucleus cross section that is commonly used in the description of nucleus-nucleus scattering, and there is no reason why it should be correct in the Glauber-Gribov approach.
Naoe, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Nobukiyo; Ohnuma, Shigehiro; Iwasa, Tadayoshi; Arai, Ken-Ichi; Masumoto, Hiroshi
2015-10-01
Ultra-high resistive and anisotropic soft magnetic films for gigahertz applications are desirable to demonstrate the really practical films. Here we present a study of novel nanogranular films fabricated by tandem-sputtering deposition. Their electromagnetic properties and nanostructure have also been discussed. These films consisted of nanocrystallized CoPd alloy-granules and CaF2 matrix, and a specimen having a composition of (Co0.69Pd0.31)52-(Ca0.31F0.69)48 exhibited distinct in-plane uniaxial anisotropy after uniaxial field annealing with granule growth. Its complex permeability spectra have a ferromagnetic resonance frequency extending to the Super-High-Frequency band due to its higher anisotropy field, and its frequency response was quite well reproduced by a numerical calculation based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the CaF2-based nanogranular film exhibits a hundredfold higher electrical resistivity than conventional oxide or nitride-based films. Higher resistivity enables the film thickness to achieve a margin exceeding threefold against eddy current loss. The greater resistivity of nanogranular films is attributed to the wide energy bandgap and superior crystallinity of CaF2 matrix.
Final-photon polarization in the scattering of photons by high-energy electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, J.; Choi, S.Y.; Ie, S.H.; Song, H.S.; Good, R.H. Jr.
1987-01-01
A general method for calculating the polarization of the outgoing photon beam in any reaction is presented. As an example the method is applied to the high-energy photon beam produced in Compton scattering of a laser beam by a high-energy electron beam. The Stokes parameters of the outgoing photon beam, relative to a unit vector normal to the photon momentum and including their dependence on the polarization of incident photon and electron beams, are obtained explicitly. It is expected that this method will be useful, both in photon production reactions and in the subsequent high-energy photon reactions
Anisotropic constant-roll inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro [Kobe University, Department of Physics, Kobe (Japan)
2018-01-15
We study constant-roll inflation in the presence of a gauge field coupled to an inflaton. By imposing the constant anisotropy condition, we find new exact anisotropic constant-roll inflationary solutions which include anisotropic power-law inflation as a special case. We also numerically show that the new anisotropic solutions are attractors in the phase space. (orig.)
Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao
2017-01-01
When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...
Scattering of W and Z bosons at high-energy lepton colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleper, Christian; Kilian, Wolfgang; Reuter, Juergen; Sekulla, Marco
2016-07-01
We present a new study of quasi-elastic W and Z scattering processes in high-energy e"+e"- collisions, based on and extrapolating the low-energy effective theory which extends the Standard Model with a 125 GeV Higgs boson. Besides parameterizing deviations in terms of the dimension-8 operators that arise in the effective theory, we also study simplified models of new physics in W/Z scattering in terms of scalar and tensor resonance multiplets. The high-energy asymptotics of all models is regulated by a universal unitarization procedure. This enables us to provide benchmark scenarios which can be meaningfully evaluated off-shell and in exclusive event samples, and to determine the sensitivity of an e"+e"- collider to the model parameters. We analyze the longitudinal vector boson scattering modes, where we optimize the cuts for the fiducial cross section for different collider scenarios. Here, we choose energy stages of 1.0, 1.4 and 3 TeV, as motivated by the extendability of the ILC project and the staging scenario of the CLIC project.
A new impact picture for low and high energy proton-proton elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Wu, Tai Tsun
1978-05-01
The impact picture that was used several years ago to predict the increase of total and integrated differential cross sections at high energies was improved significantly. The major improvements consist of the following: (1) the dependence of the Pomeron term on the momentum transfer is taken from a modified version of the relation between matter distribution and charge distribution; (2) Regge backgrounds are properly taken into account; and (3) a simple non-trivial form is used for the hadronic matter current in the proton. For proton-proton elastic scattering, the phenomenological differential cross section is in good agreement with the experimental data in the laboratory momentum range of 14 GeV/c to 2000 GeV/c, and is predicted for ISABELLE energy. Because of the third improvement, predictions are obtained for both polarization and R parameters for proton-proton elastic scattering
Andreopoulos, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S; Brailsford, D; Brice, S; Catanesi, G; Chen-Wishart, Z; Denner, P; Dunne, P; Giganti, C; Gonzalez Diaz, D; Haigh, J; Hamacher-Baumann, P; Hallsjo, S; Hayato, Y; Irastorza, I; Jamieson, B; Kaboth, A; Korzenev, A; Kudenko, Y; Leyton, M; Luk, K-B; Ma, W; Mahn, K; Martini, M; McCauley, N; Mermod, P; Monroe, J; Mosel, U; Nichol, R; Nieves, J; Nonnenmacher, T; Nowak, J; Parker, W; Raaf, J; Rademacker, J; Radermacher, T; Radicioni, E; Roth, S; Saakyan, R; Sanchez, F; Sgalaberna, D; Shitov, Y; Sobczyk, J; Soler, F; Touramanis, C; Valder, S; Walding, J; Ward, M; Wascko, M; Weber, A; Yokoyama, M; Zalewska, A; Ziembicki, M
2017-01-01
We propose to perform new measurements of proton and pion scattering on argon using a prototype High Pressure gas Time Projection Chamber (HPTPC) detector, and by doing so to develop the physics case for, and the technological readiness of, an HPTPC as a neutrino detector for accelerator neutrino oscillation searches. The motivation for this work is to improve knowledge of final state interactions, in order to ultimately achieve 1-2% systematic error on neutrino-nucleus scattering for oscillation measurements at 0.6 GeV and 2.5 GeV neutrino energy, as required for the Charge-Parity (CP) violation sensitivity projections by the Hyper-Kamiokande experiment (Hyper-K) and the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE). The final state interaction uncertainties in neutrino-nucleus interactions dominate cross-section systematic errors, currently 5–10% at these energies, and therefore R&D is needed to explore new approaches to achieve this substantial improvement.
High energy QCD scattering, the shape of gravity on an IR brane, and the Froissart bound
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giddings, Steven B.
2003-01-01
High-energy scattering in nonconformal gauge theories is investigated using the AdS/conformal field theory (CFT) dual string-gravity theory. It is argued that strong-gravity processes, such as black hole formation, play an important role in the dual dynamics. Further information about this dynamics is found by performing a linearized analysis of gravity for a mass near an infrared brane; this gives the far field approximation to black hole or other strong-gravity effects, and in particular allows us to estimate their shape. From this shape, one can infer a total scattering cross section that grows with center of mass energy as ln 2 E, saturating the Froissart bound
Discrimination of high-Z materials in concrete-filled containers using muon scattering tomography
Frazão, L.; Velthuis, J.; Thomay, C.; Steer, C.
2016-07-01
An analysis method of identifying materials using muon scattering tomography is presented, which uses previous knowledge of the position of high-Z objects inside a container and distinguishes them from similar materials. In particular, simulations were performed in order to distinguish a block of Uranium from blocks of Lead and Tungsten of the same size, inside a concrete-filled drum. The results show that, knowing the shape and position from previous analysis, it is possible to distinguish 5 × 5 × 5 cm3 blocks of these materials with about 4h of muon exposure, down to 2 × 2 × 2 cm3 blocks with 70h of data using multivariate analysis (MVA). MVA uses several variables, but it does not benefit the discrimination over a simpler method using only the scatter angles. This indicates that the majority of discrimination is provided by the angular information. Momentum information is shown to provide no benefits in material discrimination.
UCN up-scattering as a source of highly intense monochromatic pulsed beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauch, H.; Geltenborg, P.; Zimmer, O.
2011-01-01
The present proposal opens new possibilities to increase the usable neutron flux by advanced neutron cooling and phase space transformation methods. Thus a new instrument should be installed where the available neutron flux is used more efficiently. The essential point is an increase of phase space density and brilliance due to a more effective production of ultra-cold neutrons and a following transformation of these neutrons to higher energies. Recently reported progresses in the production of UCN's and in the up-scattering of such neutrons make the time mature to step towards a new method to produce high intense pulsed neutron beams. The up-scattering is made by fast moving Bragg crystals
Anisotropic hydrodynamics with a scalar collisional kernel
Almaalol, Dekrayat; Strickland, Michael
2018-04-01
Prior studies of nonequilibrium dynamics using anisotropic hydrodynamics have used the relativistic Anderson-Witting scattering kernel or some variant thereof. In this paper, we make the first study of the impact of using a more realistic scattering kernel. For this purpose, we consider a conformal system undergoing transversally homogenous and boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and take the collisional kernel to be given by the leading order 2 ↔2 scattering kernel in scalar λ ϕ4 . We consider both classical and quantum statistics to assess the impact of Bose enhancement on the dynamics. We also determine the anisotropic nonequilibrium attractor of a system subject to this collisional kernel. We find that, when the near-equilibrium relaxation-times in the Anderson-Witting and scalar collisional kernels are matched, the scalar kernel results in a higher degree of momentum-space anisotropy during the system's evolution, given the same initial conditions. Additionally, we find that taking into account Bose enhancement further increases the dynamically generated momentum-space anisotropy.
Coherent light scattering from a buried dipole in a high-aperture optical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vamivakas, A N; Mueller, T; Atatuere, M; Yurt, A; Koeklue, F H; Uenlue, M S
2011-01-01
We develop a theoretical formulation to calculate the absolute and differential transmission of a focused laser beam through a high-aperture optical system. The focused field interacts with a point dipole that is buried in a high-index material, and is situated at the Gaussian focus of the focusing and collection two-lens system. The derived expressions account for the vectorial nature of the focused electromagnetic field and the inhomogeneous focal region environment. The results obtained are in agreement with recent resonant light-scattering experiments where the buried emitter is an indium arsenide semiconductor quantum dot in gallium arsenide.
Hielscher, Andreas H.; Mourant, Judith R.; Bigio, Irving J.
2000-01-01
An apparatus and method for recording spatially dependent intensity patterns of polarized light that is diffusely backscattered from highly scattering media are described. These intensity patterns can be used to differentiate different turbid media, such as polystyrene-sphere and biological-cell suspensions. Polarized light from a He-Ne laser (.lambda.=543 nm) is focused onto the surface of the scattering medium, and a surface area of approximately 4.times.4 cm centered on the light input point is imaged through polarization analysis optics onto a CCD camera. A variety of intensity patterns may be observed by varying the polarization state of the incident laser light and changing the analyzer configuration to detect different polarization components of the backscattered light. Experimental results for polystyrene-sphere and Intralipid suspensions demonstrate that the radial and azimuthal variations of the observed pattern depend on the concentration, size, and anisotropy factor, g, of the particles constituting the scattering medium. Measurements performed on biological cell suspensions show that intensity patterns can be used to differentiate between suspensions of cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Introduction of the Mueller-matrix for diffusely backscattered light, permits the selection of a subset of measurements which comprehensively describes the optical properties of backscattering media.
Stimulated scattering in laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yin, L., E-mail: lyin@lanl.gov; Albright, B. J.; Rose, H. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Kline, J. L.; Finnegan, S. M.; Bergen, B.; Bowers, K. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Kirkwood, R. K.; Milovich, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2014-09-15
In laser driven fusion and high energy density physics experiments, one often encounters a kλ{sub D} range of 0.15 < kλ{sub D} < 0.5, where stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is active (k is the initial electron plasma wave number and λ{sub D} is the Debye length). Using particle-in-cell simulations, the SRS reflectivity is found to scale as ∼ (kλ{sub D}){sup −4} for kλ{sub D} ≳ 0.3 where electron trapping effects dominate SRS saturation; the reflectivity scaling deviates from the above for kλ{sub D} < 0.3 when Langmuir decay instability (LDI) is present. The SRS risk is shown to be highest for kλ{sub D} between 0.2 and 0.3. SRS re-scattering processes are found to be unimportant under conditions relevant to ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Large-scale simulations of the hohlraum plasma show that the SRS wavelength spectrum peaks below 600 nm, consistent with most measured NIF spectra, and that nonlinear trapping in the presence of plasma gradients determines the SRS spectral peak. Collisional effects on SRS, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), LDI, and re-scatter, together with three dimensional effects, are examined. Effects of collisions are found to include de-trapping as well as cross-speckle electron temperature variation from collisional heating, the latter of which reduces gain, introduces a positive frequency shift that counters the trapping-induced negative frequency shift, and affects SRS and SBS saturation. Bowing and breakup of ion-acoustic wavefronts saturate SBS and cause a dramatic, sharp decrease in SBS reflectivity. Mitigation of SRS and SBS in the strongly nonlinear trapping regime is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viness Pillay
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Macroporous polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan scaffolds for neural tissue engineering were fabricated with varied synthetic and viscosity profiles. A novel approach and mechanism was utilized for polyacrylamide grafting onto chitosan using potassium persulfate (KPS mediated degradation of both polymers under a thermally controlled environment. Commercially available high molecular mass polyacrylamide was used instead of the acrylamide monomer for graft copolymerization. This grafting strategy yielded an enhanced grafting efficiency (GE = 92%, grafting ratio (GR = 263%, intrinsic viscosity (IV = 5.231 dL/g and viscometric average molecular mass (MW = 1.63 × 106 Da compared with known acrylamide that has a GE = 83%, GR = 178%, IV = 3.901 dL/g and MW = 1.22 × 106 Da. Image processing analysis of SEM images of the newly grafted neurodurable scaffold was undertaken based on the polymer-pore threshold. Attenuated Total Reflectance-FTIR spectral analyses in conjugation with DSC were used for the characterization and comparison of the newly grafted copolymers. Static Lattice Atomistic Simulations were employed to investigate and elucidate the copolymeric assembly and reaction mechanism by exploring the spatial disposition of chitosan and polyacrylamide with respect to the reactional profile of potassium persulfate. Interestingly, potassium persulfate, a peroxide, was found to play a dual role initially degrading the polymers—“polymer slicing”—thereby initiating the formation of free radicals and subsequently leading to synthesis of the high molecular mass polyacrylamide-grafted-chitosan (PAAm-g-CHT—“polymer complexation”. Furthermore, the applicability of the uniquely grafted scaffold for neural tissue engineering was evaluated via PC12 neuronal cell seeding. The novel PAAm-g-CHT exhibited superior neurocompatibility in terms of cell infiltration owing to the anisotropic porous architecture, high molecular mass mediated robustness
Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rueff, J.P.
2007-06-01
Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)
Yoshimoto, Shinya; Takahashi, Kohtaro; Suzuki, Mitsuharu; Yamada, Hiroko; Miyahara, Ryosuke; Mukai, Kozo; Yoshinobu, Jun
2017-08-01
We have studied in-plane anisotropy in the field-effect mobility of solution-processed organic semiconductor 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene by using independently driven four gallium indium (Ga-In) probes. Liquid-metal Ga-In probes are highly effective for reproducible conductivity measurements of organic thin films. We demonstrated that a high mobility anisotropy of 44 was obtained by using a square four-probe method and a feedback circuit to keep the channel potential constant. The present method minimized the influences of the contact resistance and the insensitivity of anisotropy in a linear arrangement in two-dimensional field-effect transistors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monaco, G.
2008-01-01
The use of momentum-resolved inelastic X-ray scattering with meV energy resolution to study the high-frequency atomic dynamics in disordered systems is here reviewed. The typical realization of this experiment is described together with some common models used to interpret the measured spectra and to extract parameters of interest for the investigation of disordered systems. With the help of some selected examples, the present status of the field is discussed. Particular attention is given to those results which are still open for discussion or controversial, and which will require further development of the technique to be fully solved. Such an instrumental development seems nowadays possible at the light of recently proposed schemes for advanced inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometers. (author)
Model-based design evaluation of a compact, high-efficiency neutron scatter camera
Weinfurther, Kyle; Mattingly, John; Brubaker, Erik; Steele, John
2018-03-01
This paper presents the model-based design and evaluation of an instrument that estimates incident neutron direction using the kinematics of neutron scattering by hydrogen-1 nuclei in an organic scintillator. The instrument design uses a single, nearly contiguous volume of organic scintillator that is internally subdivided only as necessary to create optically isolated pillars, i.e., long, narrow parallelepipeds of organic scintillator. Scintillation light emitted in a given pillar is confined to that pillar by a combination of total internal reflection and a specular reflector applied to the four sides of the pillar transverse to its long axis. The scintillation light is collected at each end of the pillar using a photodetector, e.g., a microchannel plate photomultiplier (MCP-PM) or a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this optically segmented design, the (x , y) position of scintillation light emission (where the x and y coordinates are transverse to the long axis of the pillars) is estimated as the pillar's (x , y) position in the scintillator "block", and the z-position (the position along the pillar's long axis) is estimated from the amplitude and relative timing of the signals produced by the photodetectors at each end of the pillar. The neutron's incident direction and energy is estimated from the (x , y , z) -positions of two sequential neutron-proton scattering interactions in the scintillator block using elastic scatter kinematics. For proton recoils greater than 1 MeV, we show that the (x , y , z) -position of neutron-proton scattering can be estimated with < 1 cm root-mean-squared [RMS] error and the proton recoil energy can be estimated with < 50 keV RMS error by fitting the photodetectors' response time history to models of optical photon transport within the scintillator pillars. Finally, we evaluate several alternative designs of this proposed single-volume scatter camera made of pillars of plastic scintillator (SVSC-PiPS), studying the effect of
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeppesen, Claus; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1989-01-01
-temperature Potts-ordered phase to an intermediate phase which lacks conventional long-range order, and another transition which takes the system to the high-temperature disordered phase. The linear nature of the sine potential used makes it a marginal case in the sense that it favors neither hard domain boundaries...
Compact and high-efficiency device for Raman scattering measurement using optical fibers.
Mitsui, Tadashi
2014-11-01
We describe the design and development of a high-efficiency optical measurement device for operation within the small bore of a high-power magnet at low temperature. For the high-efficiency measurement of light emitted from this small region, we designed a compact confocal optics with lens focusing and tilting systems, and used a piezodriven translation stage that allows micron-scale focus control of the sample position. We designed a measurement device that uses 10 m-long optical fibers in order to avoid the influence of mechanical vibration and magnetic field leakage of high-power magnets, and we also describe a technique for minimizing the fluorescence signal of optical fibers. The operation of the device was confirmed by Raman scattering measurements of monolayer graphene on quartz glass with a high signal-to-noise ratio.
Resolution of the VESUVIO spectrometer for High-energy Inelastic Neutron Scattering experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imberti, S.; Andreani, C.; Garbuio, V.; Gorini, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.
2005-01-01
New perspectives for epithermal neutron spectroscopy have been opened up as a result of the development of the Resonance Detector and its use on inverse geometry time-of-flight spectrometers at spallation sources. A special application of the Resonance Detector is the Very Low Angle Detector Bank (VLAD) for the VESUVIO spectrometer at ISIS, operating in the angular range 1 deg. -1 ) and high energy (unlimited) transfer -bar ω>500meV, a regime so far inaccessible to experimental studies on condensed matter systems. The HINS measurements complement the Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (DINS) measurements performed on VESUVIO in the high wavevector q(20A -1 -1 ) and high energy transfer (-bar ω>1eV), where the short-time single-particle dynamics can be sampled. This paper will revise the main components of the resolution for HINS measurements of VESUVIO. Instrument performances and examples of applications for neutron scattering processes at high energy and at low wavevector transfer are discussed
Using X-ray Thomson Scattering to Characterize Highly Compressed, Near-Degenerate Plasmas at the NIF
Doeppner, Tilo; Kraus, D.; Neumayer, P.; Bachmann, B.; Divol, L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Landen, O. L.; Fletcher, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Falcone, R. W.; MacDonald, M. J.; Saunders, A.; Witte, B.; Redmer, R.; Chapman, D.; Baggott, R.; Gericke, D. O.; Yi, S. A.
2017-10-01
We are developing x-ray Thomson scattering for implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility to characterize plasma conditions in plastic and beryllium capsules near stagnation, reaching more than 20x compression and electron densities of 1025 cm-3, corresponding to a Fermi energy of 170 eV. Using a zinc He- α x-ray source at 9 keV, experiments at a large scattering angle of 120° measure non-collective scattering spectra with high sensitivity to K-shell ionization, and find higher charge states than predicted by widely used ionization models. Reducing the scattering angle to 30° probes the collective scattering regime with sensitivity to collisions and conductivity. We will discuss recent results and future plans. This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of High Frequency Temperature Fluctuations
Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.
2005-01-01
A novel technique for measurement of high frequency temperature fluctuations in unseeded gas flows using molecular Rayleigh scattering is investigated. The spectrum of laser light scattered from molecules in a gas flow is resolved using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The width of the spectral peak is broadened by thermal motion of the molecules and hence is related to gas temperature. The interference fringe pattern containing spectral information is divided into four concentric regions using a series of mirrors angled with respect to one another. Light from each of these regions is directed towards photomultiplier tubes and sampled at 10 kHz using photon counting electronics. Monitoring the relative change in intensity within each region allows measurement of gas temperature. Independently monitoring the total scattered intensity provides a measure of gas density. This technique also has the potential to simultaneously measure a single component of flow velocity by monitoring the spectral peak location. Measurements of gas temperature and density are demonstrated using a low speed heated air jet surrounded by an unheated air co-flow. Mean values of temperature and density are shown for radial scans across the jet flow at a fixed axial distance from the jet exit plane. Power spectra of temperature and density fluctuations at several locations in the jet are also shown. The instantaneous measurements have fairly high uncertainty; however, long data records provide highly accurate statistically quantities, which include power spectra. Mean temperatures are compared with thermocouple measurements as well as the temperatures derived from independent density measurements. The accuracy for mean temperature measurements was +/- 7 K.
Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng
2014-01-01
We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of th...
Anisotropic elliptic optical fibers
Kang, Soon Ahm
1991-05-01
The exact characteristic equation for an anisotropic elliptic optical fiber is obtained for odd and even hybrid modes in terms of infinite determinants utilizing Mathieu and modified Mathieu functions. A simplified characteristic equation is obtained by applying the weakly guiding approximation such that the difference in the refractive indices of the core and the cladding is small. The simplified characteristic equation is used to compute the normalized guide wavelength for an elliptical fiber. When the anisotropic parameter is equal to unity, the results are compared with the previous research and they are in close agreement. For a fixed value normalized cross-section area or major axis, the normalized guide wavelength lambda/lambda(sub 0) for an anisotropic elliptic fiber is small for the larger value of anisotropy. This condition indicates that more energy is carried inside of the fiber. However, the geometry and anisotropy of the fiber have a smaller effect when the normalized cross-section area is very small or very large.
High T{sub g} and fast curing epoxy-based anisotropic conductive paste for electronic packaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keeratitham, Waralee, E-mail: waralee.ke@student.chula.ac.th; Somwangthanaroj, Anongnat, E-mail: anongnat.s@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330 (Thailand)
2016-03-09
Herein, our main objective is to prepare the fast curing epoxy system with high glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) by incorporating the multifunctional epoxy resin into the mixture of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) as a major epoxy component and aromatic diamine as a hardener. Furthermore, the curing behavior as well as thermal and thermomechanical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). It was found that T{sub g} obtained from tan δ of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system increased from 100 °C to 205 °C with the presence of 30 percentage by weight of multifunctional epoxy resin. Additionally, the isothermal DSC results showed that the multifunctional epoxy resin can accelerate the curing reaction of DGEBA/aromatic diamine system. Namely, a high degree of curing (∼90%) was achieved after a few minutes of curing at low temperature of 130 °C, owing to a large number of epoxy ring of multifunctional epoxy resin towards the active hydrogen atoms of aromatic diamine.
Moeller scattering polarimetry for high energy e sup + e sup - linear colliders
Alexander, G
2002-01-01
The general features of the Moeller scattering and its use as an electron polarimeter are described and studied in view of the planned future high energy e sup + e sup - linear colliders. In particular the study concentrates on the TESLA collider which is planned to operate with longitudinal polarised beams at a centre of mass energy of the order of 0.5 TeV with a luminosity of 3.4x10 sup 3 sup 4 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1.
Inclusive gluon production in deep inelastic scattering at high parton density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Tuchin, Kirill
2002-01-01
We calculate the cross section of single inclusive gluon production in deep inelastic scattering at very high energies in the saturation regime, where the parton densities inside hadrons and nuclei are large and the evolution of structure functions with energy is nonlinear. The expression we obtain for the inclusive gluon production cross section is generated by this nonlinear evolution. We analyze the rapidity distribution of the produced gluons as well as their transverse momentum spectrum given by the derived expression for the inclusive cross section. We propose an ansatz for the multiplicity distribution of gluons produced in nuclear collisions which includes the effects of nonlinear evolution in both colliding nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbiellini, Bernardo
2013-01-01
The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La 2 CuO 4 . Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.
Barbiellini, Bernardo
2013-06-01
The bulk Fermi surface in an overdoped (x = 0.3) single crystal of La2-xSrxCuO4 has been observed by using x-ray Compton scattering. This momentum density technique also provides a powerful tool for directly seeing what the dopant Sr atoms are doing to the electronic structure of La2CuO4. Because of wave function effects, positron annihilation spectroscopy does not yield a strong signature of the Fermi surface in extended momentum space, but it can be used to explore the role of oxygen defects in the reservoir layers for promoting high temperature superconductivity.
High-energy elastic and quasi-elastic deuteron-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tekou, Amouzou
1974-01-01
A study is made of deuteron-nucleus elastic and quasi-elastic scattering and the connection between the opaque nucleus model and the Glauber model is pointed out. The contributions to different cross-sections of the collisions in which the nucleus, excited by one of the nucleons of the deuteron, is brought back to the ground state by the other nucleon is analysed. Coherent deuteron disintegration is found to be highly improbable when the target nucleus is heavy and incoherent disintegration accounts for nearly all the deuteron disintegration. Thus a correct comparison between theoretical and experimental data on proton stripping must take the incoherent deuteron disintegration into consideration
Local nuclear slope and curvature in high energy pp and pp-bar elastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Desgrolard, P. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Kontros, J.; Lengyel, A.I. [Inst. of Electron Physics, Uzhgorod (Ukraine); Martynov, E.S. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Bogolyubov Inst. for Theoretical Physics
1997-05-01
The local nuclear slope is reconstructed from the experimental angular distributions with a procedure that uses overlapping t-bins, for an energy that ranges from the ISR to the Sp-bar pS and the Tevatron. Predictions of several models of (p-bar,p) elastic scattering at high energy are tested. Only a model with two-components Pomeron and Odderon gives a satisfactory agreement with the (non fitted) slope data. The extreme sensitivity of the local nuclear curvature with the choice for a Pomeron model is emphasized. (author). 30 refs.
Backward elastic p3He-scattering and high momentum components of 3He wave function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uzikov, Yu.N.
1998-01-01
It is shown that owing to a dominance of np-pair transfer mechanism of backward elastic p 3 He-scattering for incident proton kinetic energies T p > 1 GeV the cross section of this process is defined mainly by the values of the Faddeev component of the wave function of 3 He nucleus, φ 23 (q 23 , p 1 ), at high relative momenta q 23 > 0.6 GeV/c of the NN-pair in the 1 S 0 -state and at low spectator momenta p 1 ∼ 0 - 0.2 GeV/c
Raman scattering diagnostics of YBa2Cu3Ox high temperature superconducting films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagratashvili, V.N.; Burimov, V.N.; Denisov, V.N.
1988-01-01
Superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O x films produced by laser spraying of ceramic material are investigated by light Raman scattering (LCS). It is shown that using LCS it is possible to obtain data on phase composition and prevailing film orientation and to find optical conditions for their synthesis. The LCS method feature consists in a possibility of non-destructive remote control and high space resolution (several microns). Experimental results have shown that the best parameters (the highest T c and the narrowest Δ T c interval) are typical of films with prevailing orientation of 0 xy crystallite plane parallel to the surface
Low and high frequency asymptotics acoustic, electromagnetic and elastic wave scattering
Varadan, VK
2013-01-01
This volume focuses on asymptotic methods in the low and high frequency limits for the solution of scattering and propagation problems. Each chapter is pedagogical in nature, starting with the basic foundations and ending with practical applications. For example, using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, the canonical problem of edge diffraction is first solved and then used in solving the problem of diffraction by a finite crack. In recent times, the crack problem has been of much interest for its applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of flaws in structural materials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dymski, T.C.
1976-01-01
For high energy scattering of pseudoscalar particles on spin 1 / 2 particles, the transition amplitude (for a given signature) is constructed as an infinite sum over spin of boson exchange graphs of the Feynman type, each of which has impact parameters up to some value R completely removed. This amplitude is advanced as a field theoretic realization of the nondiffractive component of Harari's dual absorption model. Comparing with π/sup +-/p→π/sup +-/p and π - p→π 0 n data shows that the imaginary parts of both helicity amplitudes are excellent, for either signature
The very low angle detector for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering on the VESUVIO spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perelli Cippo, E.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.
2008-01-01
The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank has been installed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The new device allows for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering measurements, at energies above 1 eV, maintaining the wave vector transfer lower than 10A -1 . This opens a still unexplored region of the kinematical (q,ω) space, enabling new and challenging experimental investigations in condensed matter. This paper describes the main instrumental features of the VLAD device, including instrument design, detector response, and calibration procedure
The very low angle detector for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering on the VESUVIO spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perelli Cippo, E.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pietropaolo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' G. Occhialini' , CNISM-Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); NAST Center - Nanoscienze-Nanotecnologie-Strumentazione, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@mib.infn.it; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro NAST - Nanoscienze-Nanotecnologie-Strumentazione, Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire 0QX OX11 (United Kingdom)
2008-05-01
The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank has been installed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The new device allows for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering measurements, at energies above 1 eV, maintaining the wave vector transfer lower than 10A{sup -1}. This opens a still unexplored region of the kinematical (q,{omega}) space, enabling new and challenging experimental investigations in condensed matter. This paper describes the main instrumental features of the VLAD device, including instrument design, detector response, and calibration procedure.
The very low angle detector for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering on the VESUVIO spectrometer
Perelli Cippo, E.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.
2008-05-01
The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank has been installed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS spallation neutron source. The new device allows for high-energy inelastic neutron scattering measurements, at energies above 1 eV, maintaining the wave vector transfer lower than 10Å-1. This opens a still unexplored region of the kinematical (q, ω) space, enabling new and challenging experimental investigations in condensed matter. This paper describes the main instrumental features of the VLAD device, including instrument design, detector response, and calibration procedure.
A high-resolution multiwire area detector for X-ray scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faruqi, A R; Andrews, H [Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK). Lab. of Molecular Biology
1989-11-10
A high-resolution multiwire area detector has been developed for recording X-ray scattering from biological specimens. The detector is 100x100 mm{sup 2} and, under the present operating conditions, has a spatial resolution of about 250 {mu}m in both directions. The detector is set up on a double-mirror focusing camera on a rotating anode X-ray generator and has been used in a number of small-angle experiments, two of which are described in this paper. (orig.).
High resolution measurements and study of the neutron inelastic scattering reaction on 56Fe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupont, E.
1998-01-01
High resolution measures of neutrons inelastic scattering cross section, have been performed on 56 Fe from 862 KeV to 3 MeV. The time of flight method has been used on the GELINA source of the IRMM in Geel (Belgium). Four barium fluoride scintillators, placed around the samples, recorded the gamma rays emissions coming from the iron and the boron. A study of the correlations between the partial elastic and inelastic lengths has been performed taking into account first transmission measures realized at Geel. (A.L.B.)
Development of high-spatial resolution TV Thomson scattering system for JFT-2M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Shiina, Tomio; Kozawa, Teruo; Ishige, Youichi.
1996-01-01
The JFT-2M TV Thomson scattering system (TVTS) with high spatial resolution was completed in the cooperation of the fusion research and development for the DOE-JAERI collaborative program, and has been operated for 3 years. The system is composed of six subsystems; vacuum components, optics, detector, control and data acquisition, software and laser subsystems. TVTS was totally tested in the JFT-2M tokamak and the electron temperature and density profiles are measured with good reproducibility, and the increase of electron temperature by increasing toroidal magnetic field is also measured with TVTS. (author)
Charged Particle Production in High Q2 Deep-Inelastic Scattering at HERA
Aaron, F.D.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2007-01-01
The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, $\\xp$, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic $\\ep$ scattering at high $Q^2$ in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality $100 < Q^2 < 20 000 \\GeV^{2}$. Compared with previous results presented by HERA experiments this analysis has a significantly higher statistical precision and extends the phase space to higher $Q^{2}$ and to the full range of $\\xp$. The results are compared with $e^+e^-$ annihilation data and with various calculations based on perturbative QCD using different models of the hadronisation process.
High-energy effective action from scattering of QCD shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ian Balitsky
2005-07-01
At high energies, the relevant degrees of freedom are Wilson lines - infinite gauge links ordered along straight lines collinear to the velocities of colliding particles. The effective action for these Wilson lines is determined by the scattering of QCD shock waves. I develop the symmetric expansion of the effective action in powers of strength of one of the shock waves and calculate the leading term of the series. The corresponding first-order effective action, symmetric with respect to projectile and target, includes both up and down fan diagrams and pomeron loops.
A new description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barshay, S.; Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa. Dept. of Physics); Goldberg, J.
1987-01-01
We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both √s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production. (orig.)
New description of high energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barshay, S; Goldberg, J
1987-10-15
We develop a generalization of the geometric picture for high-energy antiproton (proton)-proton elastic scattering. The eikonal at each impact parameter is considered to have fluctuations about an average value, and is thus characterized by a distribution. A connection to parton branching is made through the specific form of the distribution function for the eikonal. A unified physical theory with significant fluctuations accurately describes the anti p(p)-p data at both ..sqrt..s = 546 GeV and 53 GeV. The fluctuation parameter is remarkably well given by that directly observed in multiparticle production.
Small-angle neutron scattering study of high-pressure sintered detonation nanodiamonds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kidalov, S. V.; Shakhov, F. M., E-mail: fedor.shakhov@mail.ioffe.ru [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Lebedev, V. T.; Orlova, D. N.; Grushko, Yu. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Konstantinov St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)
2011-12-15
The structure of detonation diamonds sintered at a high pressure (7 GPa) and temperatures of 1200-1700 Degree-Sign C has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. It is shown that sintering leads to an increase in the particle size from 6 to 30 nm and established that this increase is due to the chainlike oriented attachment of particles. This study supplements the oriented-attachment model, which was suggested based on the X-ray diffraction spectra of detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) sintered under the same conditions.
Charged particle production in high Q deep-inelastic scattering at HERA
H1 Collaboration; Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2007-10-01
The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, x, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100
Charged particle production in high Q2 deep-inelastic scattering at HERA
Aaron, F. D.; Aktas, A.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Beckingham, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Avila, K. B. Cantun; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M. E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Prideaux, P.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, I.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Trevino, A. Vargas; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration
2007-10-01
The average charged track multiplicity and the normalised distribution of the scaled momentum, xp, of charged final state hadrons are measured in deep-inelastic ep scattering at high Q2 in the Breit frame of reference. The analysis covers the range of photon virtuality 100
Carbon Condensation during High Explosive Detonation with Time Resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering
Hammons, Joshua; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Nielsen, Michael; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; May, Chadd; Sinclair, Nicholas; Jensen, Brian; Gustavsen, Rick; Dattelbaum, Dana; Watkins, Erik; Firestone, Millicent; Ilavsky, Jan; van Buuren, Tony; Willey, Trevor; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; Washington State University/Advanced Photon Source Team
Carbon condensation during high-energy detonations occurs under extreme conditions and on very short time scales. Understanding and manipulating soot formation, particularly detonation nanodiamond, has attracted the attention of military, academic and industrial research. An in-situ characterization of these nanoscale phases, during detonation, is highly sought after and presents a formidable challenge even with today's instruments. Using the high flux available with synchrotron X-rays, pink beam small angle X-ray scattering is able to observe the carbon phases during detonation. This experimental approach, though powerful, requires careful consideration and support from other techniques, such as post-mortem TEM, EELS and USAXS. We present a comparative survey of carbon condensation from different CHNO high explosives. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Heung Son; Ma, Pyung Sik; Kim, Yoon Young
2016-09-01
In this paper, the scattering (S-) parameter retrieval method is presented specifically for anisotropic elastic metamaterials; so far, no retrieval has been accomplished when elastic metamaterials exhibit fully anisotropic behavior. Complex constitutive property and intrinsic scattering behavior of elastic metamaterials make their characterization far more complicated than that for acoustic and electromagnetic metamaterials. In particular, elastic metamaterials generally exhibit anisotropic scattering behavior due to higher scattering modes associated with shear deformation. They also exhibit nonlocal responses to some degrees, which originate from strong multiple scattering interactions even in the long wavelength limit. Accordingly, the conventional S-parameter retrieval methods cannot be directly used for elastic metamaterials, because they determine only the diagonal components in effective tensor property. Also, the conventional methods simply use the analytic inversion formulae for the material characterization so that inherent nonlocality cannot be taken into account. To establish a retrieval method applicable to anisotropic elastic metamaterials, we propose an alternative S-parameter method to deal with full anisotropy of elastic metamaterials. To retrieve the whole effective anisotropic parameter, we utilize not only normal but also oblique wave incidences. For the retrieval, we first retrieve the ratio of the effective stiffness tensor to effective density and then determine the effective density. The proposed retrieval method is validated by characterizing the effective material parameters of various types of non-resonant anisotropic metamaterials. It is found that the whole effective parameters are retrieved consistently regardless of used retrieval conditions in spite of inherent nonlocality.
High coercivity, anisotropic, heavy rare earth-free Nd-Fe-B by Flash Spark Plasma Sintering.
Castle, Elinor; Sheridan, Richard; Zhou, Wei; Grasso, Salvatore; Walton, Allan; Reece, Michael J
2017-09-11
In the drive to reduce the critical Heavy Rare Earth (HRE) content of magnets for green technologies, HRE-free Nd-Fe-B has become an attractive option. HRE is added to Nd-Fe-B to enhance the high temperature performance of the magnets. To produce similar high temperature properties without HRE, a crystallographically textured nanoscale grain structure is ideal; and this conventionally requires expensive "die upset" processing routes. Here, a Flash Spark Plasma Sintering (FSPS) process has been applied to a Dy-free Nd 30.0 Fe 61.8 Co 5.8 Ga 0.6 Al 0.1 B 0.9 melt spun powder (MQU-F, neo Magnequench). Rapid sinter-forging of a green compact to near theoretical density was achieved during the 10 s process, and therefore represents a quick and efficient means of producing die-upset Nd-Fe-B material. The microstructure of the FSPS samples was investigated by SEM and TEM imaging, and the observations were used to guide the optimisation of the process. The most optimal sample is compared directly to commercially die-upset forged (MQIII-F) material made from the same MQU-F powder. It is shown that the grain size of the FSPS material is halved in comparison to the MQIII-F material, leading to a 14% increase in coercivity (1438 kA m -1 ) and matched remanence (1.16 T) giving a BH max of 230 kJ m -3 .
High energy x-ray scattering studies of strongly correlated oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatton, Peter D; Wilkins, S B; Spencer, P D; Zimmermann, M v; D'Almeida, T
2003-01-01
Many transition metal oxides display strongly correlated charge, spin, or orbital ordering resulting in varied phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator transitions etc. X-ray scattering is one of the principle techniques for probing the structural response to such effects. In this paper, we discuss and review the use of synchrotron radiation high energy x-rays (50-200 keV) for the study of transition metal oxides such as nickelates (La 2-x Sr x NiO 4 ) and manganites (La 2-2x Sr 1+2x Mn 2 O 7 ). High energy x-rays have sufficient penetration to allow us to study large flux-grown single crystals. The huge increase in sample scattering volume means that extremely weak peaks can be observed. This allows us to study very weak charge ordering. Measurements of the intensity, width and position of the charge ordering satellites as a function of temperature provide us with quantitative measures of the charge amplitude, inverse correlation length and wavevector of the charge ordering
Characterizing riverbed sediment using high-frequency acoustics 1: spectral properties of scattering
Buscombe, Daniel D.; Grams, Paul E.; Kaplinski, Matt A.
2014-01-01
Bed-sediment classification using high-frequency hydro-acoustic instruments is challenging when sediments are spatially heterogeneous, which is often the case in rivers. The use of acoustic backscatter to classify sediments is an attractive alternative to analysis of topography because it is potentially sensitive to grain-scale roughness. Here, a new method is presented which uses high-frequency acoustic backscatter from multibeam sonar to classify heterogeneous riverbed sediments by type (sand, gravel,rock) continuously in space and at small spatial resolution. In this, the first of a pair of papers that examine the scattering signatures from a heterogeneous riverbed, methods are presented to construct spatially explicit maps of spectral properties from geo-referenced point clouds of geometrically and radiometrically corrected echoes. Backscatter power spectra are computed to produce scale and amplitude metrics that collectively characterize the length scales of stochastic measures of riverbed scattering, termed ‘stochastic geometries’. Backscatter aggregated over small spatial scales have spectra that obey a power-law. This apparently self-affine behavior could instead arise from morphological- and grain-scale roughnesses over multiple overlapping scales, or riverbed scattering being transitional between Rayleigh and geometric regimes. Relationships exist between stochastic geometries of backscatter and areas of rough and smooth sediments. However, no one parameter can uniquely characterize a particular substrate, nor definitively separate the relative contributions of roughness and acoustic impedance (hardness). Combinations of spectral quantities do, however, have the potential to delineate riverbed sediment patchiness, in a data-driven approach comparing backscatter with bed-sediment observations (which is the subject of part two of this manuscript).
Creation of high-energy phonons by four-phonon processes in anisotropic phonon system of He II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamenko, I.N.; Nemchenko, K.E.; Slipko, V.A.; Kitsenko, Yu.A.; Wyatt, A.F.G.
2007-01-01
The problem of the creation of high-energy phonons (h-phonons) by a pulse of low-energy phonons (I-phonons) moving from a heater to a detector in superfluid helium, is solved. The rate of h-phonon creation is obtained and it is shown that created h-phonons occupy a much smaller solid angle in momentum space, than the I-phonons. Analytical expression for the creation rate of h-phonon, along the symmetry axis of a pulse, are derived. It allows us to get useful approximate analytical expressions for creation rate of h-phonons. The time dependences of the parameters which describe the I-phonon pulse are obtained. This shows that half of the initial energy of I-phonon pulse can be transferred into h-phonons. The results of the calculations are compared with experimental data and we show that this theory explains a number of experimental results. The value of the momentum, which separates the I- and h-phonon subsystems, is found
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karelina, Anna
2004-02-18
In this work the anisotropy of the pinning forces of vortices in a-b plane of high temperature-supraconductors was examined. For this purpose vibrating reed with two degrees of freedom of the oscillation was constructed. The pinning forces were examined in single crystals of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The experiments with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} show that at temperatures lower than 78 K the vortices are in a nonequilibrium state. This leads to a flux creep and to a drift of the resonance frequency with time. This prevents the comparison of resonance curves in different directions of oscillations. In Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} single crystals the vortices are in more stable state, but the measurements of the resonance curves in different directions show no indication of the four-fold symmetry. At temperatures below 60 K a strong hysteresis of the resonance frequency and the resonance-oscillation amplitude was found in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} crystals as a function of the magnetic field. (orig.)
An, Xiaoxin; Jin, Kunpeng; Abbas, Nadeem; Fang, Qiuli; Wang, Fang; Du, Juan; Xia, Weixing; Yan, Aru; Liu, J. Ping; Zhang, Jian
2017-11-01
Hard magnetic NdFeB submicro/nanoflakes were successfully prepared by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature (SABMLT) by specially using 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine (TOA) as solvent and surfactant, respectively. Influences of the amount of TOA and milling temperature on the crystal structure, morphology and magnetic performances of the as-prepared NdFeB powders were investigated systematically. There is significant difference on morphology between the NdFeB powders milled at room and low temperature. The NdFeB powders with flaky morphology could be obtained even with a small amount of TOA by SABMLT, which could not be achieved by surfactant-assisted ball milling at room temperature (SABMRT). The better crystallinity, better grain alignment, higher coercivity, larger saturation magnetization and remanence ratio were achieved in the samples prepared by SABMLT. Furthermore, the final NdFeB powders prepared by SABMLT possessed a lower amount of residual TOA than those prepared by SABMRT. It was demonstrated that SABMLT is a promising way to fabricate rare-earth-transition metal nanoflakes with high anisotropy for permanent magnetic materials. The effective method of preparing NdFeB flakes by lowering temperature will be also useful to fabricate flakes of other functional materials.
Spin Wave Theory of Strongly Anisotropic Magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1977-01-01
A strong anisotropy gives rise to a non-spherical precession of the spins with different amplitudes in the x and y directions. The highly anharmonic exchange interaction thereby becomes effectively anisotropic. The possibility of detecting a genuine two-ion anisotropy is discussed, and comments...
Highly anisotropic SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Lidong; Zhang, Songlin [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zhangj@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Ping Liu, J. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Xia, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yan, Aru [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Science, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yi, Jianhong [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Li, Wei; Guo, Zhaohui [Division of Functional Materials, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)
2015-01-15
Surfactant-assisted ball milling (SABM) has been shown to be a promising method for preparing rare earth-transition metal (RE-TM) nanoflakes and nanoparticles. In this work, we prepared SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by SABM at low temperature, and 2-methyl pentane and trioctylamine were specially selected as solvent and surfactant, respectively, due to their low melting points. The effects of milling temperature on the morphology, microstructure and magnetic performance of SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes were investigated systematically. Comparing with the samples milled at room temperature, the SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes prepared at low temperature displayed more homogeneous morphology and lower oxygen content. Remarkably, better crystallinity, better grain alignment and larger remanence ratio were shown in the samples milled at low temperature, which resulted from the distinct microstructure caused by low milling temperature. The differences in structural evolution between the SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes milled at room temperature and low temperature, including the formation of nanocrystalline, grain boundary sliding, grain rotation, et al., were discussed. It was found that lowering the temperature of SABM was a powerful method for the fabrication of RE-TM nanoflakes, which showed better hard magnetic properties and lower oxygen content. This was important for the preparation of high-performance sintered magnets, bonded magnets and nanocomposite magnets. - Highlights: • We prepare SmCo{sub 5} nanoflakes by surfactant-assisted ball milling at low temperature. • Better grain alignment and higher remanence ratio are achieved. • The oxygen content is reduced by lowering the milling temperature. • A distinct microstructural evolution caused by low milling temperature is clarified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruceru, I; Nicolescu, G [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia - Hulubei' , PO Box MG - 6, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Duliu, O G [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, PO Box MG-II, 077125 Magurele (Romania)
2008-11-01
Coherent scattering of neutrinos on high Debye temperature monocrystals represent an alternative to detect solar as well as other high flux neutrino sources such as nuclear reactors or nuclear tests. Therefore, the possibility of detecting neutrinos by using sapphire monocrystals is presented and analyzed. Preliminary evaluations showed that 1 MeV neutrinos with a fluency density of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -1} s{sup -1} could interact with a 100 g sapphire monocrystal with a force of about 10{sup -6} dyne, value measurable with a high sensitivity torsion balance. For this reason a torsion balance provided with 1 m length molybdenum or tungsten wire and an optical autocollimator able to measure small rotation angles of about 0.1 seconds of arc was designed, constructed and now is under preliminary tests. Both theoretical and practical implications of such kind of detector are presented and discussed.
Laser Thomson scattering diagnostics of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muraoka, K.; Uchino, K.; Bowden, M.D.; Noguchi, Y.
2001-01-01
For various applications of non-equilibrium high pressure plasmas, knowledge of electron properties, such as electron density, electron temperature and/or electron energy distribution function (eedf), is prerequisite for any rational approach to understanding physical and chemical processes occurring in the plasmas. For this purpose, laser Thomson scattering has been successfully applied for the first time to measure the electron properties in plasmas for excimer laser pumping and in microdischarges. Although this diagnostic technique is well established for measurements in high temperature plasmas, its applications to these glow discharge plasmas have had various inherent difficulties, such as a presence of high density neutral particles (>10 21 m -3 ) in the excimer laser pumping discharges and an extremely small plasma size (<0.1 mm) and the presence of nearby walls for microdischarges. These difficulties have been overcome and clear signals have been obtained. The measured results are presented and their implications in the respective discharge phenomena are discussed
Anisotropic conductivity imaging with MREIT using equipotential projection algorithm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Degirmenci, Evren [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey); Eyueboglu, B Murat [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)
2007-12-21
Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) combines magnetic flux or current density measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface potential measurements to reconstruct images of true conductivity with high spatial resolution. Most of the biological tissues have anisotropic conductivity; therefore, anisotropy should be taken into account in conductivity image reconstruction. Almost all of the MREIT reconstruction algorithms proposed to date assume isotropic conductivity distribution. In this study, a novel MREIT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed to image anisotropic conductivity. Relative anisotropic conductivity values are reconstructed iteratively, using only current density measurements without any potential measurement. In order to obtain true conductivity values, only either one potential or conductivity measurement is sufficient to determine a scaling factor. The proposed technique is evaluated on simulated data for isotropic and anisotropic conductivity distributions, with and without measurement noise. Simulation results show that the images of both anisotropic and isotropic conductivity distributions can be reconstructed successfully.
Time-resolved Thomson scattering on high-intensity laser-produced hot dense helium plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sperling, P; Liseykina, T; Bauer, D; Redmer, R
2013-01-01
The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump–probe experiments to characterize warm and hot dense matter states, i.e. systems at solid-like densities and temperatures of one to several hundred eV. Such extreme conditions are relevant for high-energy density studies such as, e.g., in planetary physics and inertial confinement fusion. We consider here a liquid helium jet pumped with a high-intensity optical short-pulse laser that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The optical short-pulse laser generates a strongly inhomogeneous helium plasma which is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. We derive the respective Thomson scattering spectrum based on the Born–Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We observe plasmon modes that are generated in the interior of the target and study their temporal evolution. Such pump–probe experiments are promising tools to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature. The method described here can be applied to various pump–probe scenarios by combining optical lasers, soft x-rays and hard x-ray sources. (paper)
Liu, Yan; Shen, Yuecheng; Ruan, Haowen; Brodie, Frank L.; Wong, Terence T. W.; Yang, Changhuei; Wang, Lihong V.
2018-01-01
Normal development of the visual system in infants relies on clear images being projected onto the retina, which can be disrupted by lens opacity caused by congenital cataract. This disruption, if uncorrected in early life, results in amblyopia (permanently decreased vision even after removal of the cataract). Doctors are able to prevent amblyopia by removing the cataract during the first several weeks of life, but this surgery risks a host of complications, which can be equally visually disabling. Here, we investigated the feasibility of focusing light noninvasively through highly scattering cataractous lenses to stimulate the retina, thereby preventing amblyopia. This approach would allow the cataractous lens removal surgery to be delayed and hence greatly reduce the risk of complications from early surgery. Employing a wavefront shaping technique named time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing in reflection mode, we focused 532-nm light through a highly scattering ex vivo adult human cataractous lens. This work demonstrates a potential clinical application of wavefront shaping techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Flanagan, Gene [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
2016-02-17
Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) coated conductors are known for their ability to operate in the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures, even above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K). When these same conductors are operated at lower temperatures, they are able to operate in much higher magnetic fields than traditional superconductors like NiTi or Nb_{3}Sn. Thus, YBCO superconducting magnets are one of the primary options for generating the high magnetic fields needed for future high energy physics devices. Due to slow quench propagation, quench detection remains one of the primary limitations to YBCO magnets. Fiber optic sensing, based upon Rayleigh scattering, has the potential for spatial resolution approaching the wavelength of light, or very fast temporal resolution at low spatial resolution, and a continuum of combinations in between. This project has studied, theoretically and experimentally, YBCO magnets and Rayleigh scattering quench detection systems to demonstrate feasibility of the systems for YBCO quench protection systems. Under this grant an experimentally validated 3D quench propagation model was used to accurately define the acceptable range of spatial and temporal resolutions for effective quench detection in YBCO magnets and to evaluate present-day and potentially improved YBCO conductors. The data volume and speed requirements for quench detection via Rayleigh scattering required the development of a high performance fiber optic based quench detection/data acquisition system and its integration with an existing voltage tap/thermo-couple based system. In this project, optical fibers are tightly co-wound into YBCO magnet coils, with the fiber on top of the conductor as turn-to-turn insulation. Local changes in the temperature or strain of the conductor are sensed by the optical fiber, which is in close thermal and mechanical contact with the conductor. Intrinsic imperfections in the fiber reflect Rayleigh
Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roberts, Alexander; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar
2016-01-01
for a two-dimensional scatterer. We construct a simple resonator model which predicts the wavelength-dependent extinction, scattering, and absorption cross section of the trench and compare the model findings with full numerical simulations. Both extinction and scattering cross sections are mainly...
Pilipenko, S. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Andrianov, A. S.; Bach, U.; Buttaccio, S.; Cassaro, P.; Cimò, G.; Edwards, P. G.; Gawroński, M. P.; Gurvits, L. I.; Hovatta, T.; Jauncey, D. L.; Johnson, M. D.; Kovalev, Yu A.; Kutkin, A. M.; Lisakov, M. M.; Melnikov, A. E.; Orlati, A.; Rudnitskiy, A. G.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Stanghellini, C.; de Vicente, P.; Voitsik, P. A.; Wolak, P.; Zhekanis, G. V.
2018-03-01
The high brightness temperatures, Tb ≳ 1013 K, detected in several active galactic nuclei by RadioAstron space VLBI observations challenge theoretical limits. Refractive scattering by the interstellar medium may affect such measurements. We quantify the scattering properties and the sub-mas scale source parameters for the quasar B0529+483. Using RadioAstron correlated flux density measurements at 1.7, 4.8, and 22 GHz on projected baselines up to 240 000 km we find two characteristic angular scales in the quasar core, about 100 and 10 μas. Some indications of scattering substructure are found. Very high brightness temperatures, Tb ≥ 1013 K, are estimated at 4.8 and 22 GHz even taking into account the refractive scattering. Our findings suggest a clear dominance of the particle energy density over the magnetic field energy density in the core of this quasar.
One- and two-phonon mixed-symmetry states in 94Mo in high-resolution electron and proton scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, H.; Botha, N.T.; Burda, O.; Carter, J.; Fearick, R.W.; Foertsch, S.V.; Fransen, C.; Kuhar, M.; Lenhardt, A.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Neveling, R.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V.Yu.; Richter, A.; Scholten, O.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Smit, F.D.; Wambach, J.
2007-01-01
High-resolution inelastic electron scattering experiments at the S-DALINAC and proton scattering experiments at iThemba LABS permit a thorough test of the nature of proposed one- and two-phonon symmetric and mixed-symmetric 2 + states of the nucleus 94 Mo. The combined analysis reveals the one-phonon content of the mixed-symmetry state and its isovector character suggested by microscopic calculations. The purity of two-phonon 2 + states is extracted
Robust, high-throughput solution structural analyses by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hura, Greg L.; Menon, Angeli L.; Hammel, Michal; Rambo, Robert P.; Poole II, Farris L.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Jenney Jr, Francis E.; Classen, Scott; Frankel, Kenneth A.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Yang, Sungjae; Scott, Joseph W.; Dillard, Bret D.; Adams, Michael W. W.; Tainer, John A.
2009-07-20
We present an efficient pipeline enabling high-throughput analysis of protein structure in solution with small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our SAXS pipeline combines automated sample handling of microliter volumes, temperature and anaerobic control, rapid data collection and data analysis, and couples structural analysis with automated archiving. We subjected 50 representative proteins, mostly from Pyrococcus furiosus, to this pipeline and found that 30 were multimeric structures in solution. SAXS analysis allowed us to distinguish aggregated and unfolded proteins, define global structural parameters and oligomeric states for most samples, identify shapes and similar structures for 25 unknown structures, and determine envelopes for 41 proteins. We believe that high-throughput SAXS is an enabling technology that may change the way that structural genomics research is done.
Mitigation of stimulated Raman scattering in high power fiber lasers using transmission gratings
Heck, Maximilian; Bock, Victor; Krämer, Ria G.; Richter, Daniel; Goebel, Thorsten A.; Matzdorf, Christian; Liem, Andreas; Schreiber, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan
2018-02-01
The average output power of fiber lasers have been scaled deep into the kW regime within the recent years. However a further scaling is limited due to nonlinear effects like stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). Using the special characteristics of femtosecond laser pulse written transmission fiber gratings, it is possible to realize a notch filter that mitigates efficiently this negative effect by coupling the Raman wavelength from the core into the cladding of the fiber. To the best of our knowledge, we realized for the first time highly efficient gratings in large mode area (LMA) fibers with cladding diameters up to 400 μm. The resonances show strong attenuation at design wavelength and simultaneously low out of band losses. A high power fiber amplifier with an implemented passive fiber grating is shown and its performance is carefully investigated.
Multiple Coulomb scattering of high-energy heavy charged particle beams used in biology and medicine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, M.; Schimmerling, W.; Ludewigt, B.; Phillips, M.; Curtis, S.; Tobias, C.A.
1987-01-01
The authors measured lateral displacement and angular distributions of high-energy heavy charged particles emerging from a target at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory BEVALAC with beams used in radiobiology experiments. Multiple Coulomb scattering occurring in the target material generally spreads the beam laterally and increases its divergence. The apparatus consists of four sets of position-sensitive semiconductor detectors located along the beam line. Each providing two position signals and one energy signal. The difference between the two position signals is used to determine the particle position in one dimension. The two position signals are constrained to add up to the energy deposition signal in order to reject multiple-particle traversals. The vector directions for the incident and emerging particles are reconstructed in three dimensions from their measured coordinated positions. Lateral and angular distributions are reported for beams of high-energy neon, iron and uranium ions incident on targets of aluminum, cooper, lead and water
Highly localized distributed Brillouin scattering response in a photonic integrated circuit
Zarifi, Atiyeh; Stiller, Birgit; Merklein, Moritz; Li, Neuton; Vu, Khu; Choi, Duk-Yong; Ma, Pan; Madden, Stephen J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.
2018-03-01
The interaction of optical and acoustic waves via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) has recently reached on-chip platforms, which has opened new fields of applications ranging from integrated microwave photonics and on-chip narrow-linewidth lasers, to phonon-based optical delay and signal processing schemes. Since SBS is an effect that scales exponentially with interaction length, on-chip implementation on a short length scale is challenging, requiring carefully designed waveguides with optimized opto-acoustic overlap. In this work, we use the principle of Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis to locally measure the SBS spectrum with high spatial resolution of 800 μm and perform a distributed measurement of the Brillouin spectrum along a spiral waveguide in a photonic integrated circuit. This approach gives access to local opto-acoustic properties of the waveguides, including the Brillouin frequency shift and linewidth, essential information for the further development of high quality photonic-phononic waveguides for SBS applications.
Photon detectors for epithermal neutron scattering at high-ω and low-q
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.; Tardocchi, M.; Andreani, C.; Gorini, G.
2004-01-01
Inelastic epithermal neutron scattering at high energy (ℎω≥1 eV) and low wave vector (q≤10 A -1 ) transfers is the unique technique for the investigation of high-energy excitations in a variety of systems, ranging from magnetic materials to semiconductors. The key issue in order to make these measurements feasible on inverse geometry spectrometers, is to develop suitable detection systems for neutrons in the energy range 1-100 eV. The Resonance Detector Spectrometer configuration has to be considered as the most promising approach for electron Volt neutron spectroscopy. This configuration will be employed in the new low angle detector bank, VLAD, planned for VESUVIO spectrometer operating at ISIS source
Measurement of high-beta tokamak pressure profiles with multipoint Thomson scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levinton, F.M.
1983-01-01
A multipoint Thomson-scattering system has been developed to obtain pressure profiles along the major radius of Torus II, a high-beta tokamak. The profiles obtained during the 20 to 25 μs lifetime of the discharge indicates that the plasma has a peak temperature of 80 eV and density of 1.0 x 10 15 cm - 3 . The profiles remain fairly constant during this time until the equilibrium is lost, after which the temperature and density decays to 10 eV and 10 14 cm - 3 very quickly (approx. 1 μs). Experimental results show Torus II has a high-beta ( approx. 10%) equilibrium, with a strong shift of the peak of the pressure profile towards the outside. Numerical results from a 2-D free boundary MHD equilibrium code have obtained equilibria which closely approximate the experimentally measured profiles
A model for soft high-energy scattering: Tensor pomeron and vector odderon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ewerz, Carlo, E-mail: C.Ewerz@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Maniatis, Markos, E-mail: mmaniatis@ubiobio.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Avda. Andrés Bello s/n, Casilla 447, Chillán 3780000 (Chile); Nachtmann, Otto, E-mail: O.Nachtmann@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2014-03-15
A model for soft high-energy scattering is developed. The model is formulated in terms of effective propagators and vertices for the exchange objects: the pomeron, the odderon, and the reggeons. The vertices are required to respect standard rules of QFT. The propagators are constructed taking into account the crossing properties of amplitudes in QFT and the power-law ansätze from the Regge model. We propose to describe the pomeron as an effective spin 2 exchange. This tensor pomeron gives, at high energies, the same results for the pp and pp{sup -bar} elastic amplitudes as the standard Donnachie–Landshoff pomeron. But with our tensor pomeron it is much more natural to write down effective vertices of all kinds which respect the rules of QFT. This is particularly clear for the coupling of the pomeron to particles carrying spin, for instance vector mesons. We describe the odderon as an effective vector exchange. We emphasise that with a tensor pomeron and a vector odderon the corresponding charge-conjugation relations are automatically fulfilled. We compare the model to some experimental data, in particular to data for the total cross sections, in order to determine the model parameters. The model should provide a starting point for a general framework for describing soft high-energy reactions. It should give to experimentalists an easily manageable tool for calculating amplitudes for such reactions and for obtaining predictions which can be compared in detail with data. -- Highlights: •A general model for soft high-energy hadron scattering is developed. •The pomeron is described as effective tensor exchange. •Explicit expressions for effective reggeon–particle vertices are given. •Reggeon–particle and particle–particle vertices are related. •All vertices respect the standard C parity and crossing rules of QFT.
Resonant two-magnon Raman scattering in parent compounds of high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chubukov, A.V.; Frenkel, D.M.
1995-01-01
We propose a theory of two-magnon Raman scattering from the insulating parent compounds of high-T c superconductors, which contains information not only on magnetism, but also on the electronic properties in these materials. We use spin-density-wave formalism for the Hubbard model, and study diagrammatically the profile of the two-magnon scattering and its intensity dependence on the incoming photon frequency ω i both for ω i much-lt U and in the resonant regime, in which the energy of the incident photon is close to the gap between conduction and valence bands. In the nonresonant case, we identify the diagrams which contribute to the conventional Loudon-Fleury Hamiltonian. In the resonant regime, where most of the experiments have been done, we find that the dominant contribution to Raman intensity comes from a different diagram, one which allows for a simultaneous vanishing of all three of its dominators (i.e., a triple resonanc). We study this diagram in detail and show taht the triple resonance, combined with the spin-density-wave dispersion relation for the carriers, explains the unusual features found in the two-magnon profile and in the two-magnon peak intensity dependence on the incoming photon frequency. In particular, our theory predicts a maximum of the two-magnon peak intensity right at the upper edge of the features in the optical data, which has been one of the key experimental puzzles
Quasi-elastic scattering of electrons from 40Ca at high momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yates, T.C.
1992-01-01
Previous quasi-elastic electron scattering experiments have yielded seemingly inconsistent results when the integrated longitudinal strength is compared to calculations using the relativistic fermi gas model. Measurements made at Saclay on 12 C, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, 56 Fe, and 208 Pb indicated a smaller integrated longitudinal strength than expected on the basis of the relativistic fermi gas model. However, 238 U data taken at Bates showed nearly the full expected longitudinal strength at a momentum transfer of 550 MeV/c. This is one of the outstanding discrepancies in nuclear physics. Earlier experiments were hampered in that high momentum transfer could not be obtained at forward angles where the longtudinal strength is a large fraction of the total strength. The present experiment was designed to take advantage of the higher energy capability (greater than 800 MeV) at Bates recirculated linac in order to obtain momentum transfers greater than 600 MeV/c at a scattering angle of 45.5 degrees. Under these conditions the longitudinal strength is 40-75% of the total quasi-elastic strength
Time-resolved diffusion tomographic 2D and 3D imaging in highly scattering turbid media
Alfano, Robert R. (Inventor); Cai, Wei (Inventor); Gayen, Swapan K. (Inventor)
2000-01-01
A method for imaging objects in highly scattering turbid media. According to one embodiment of the invention, the method involves using a plurality of intersecting source/detectors sets and time-resolving equipment to generate a plurality of time-resolved intensity curves for the diffusive component of light emergent from the medium. For each of the curves, the intensities at a plurality of times are then inputted into the following inverse reconstruction algorithm to form an image of the medium: wherein W is a matrix relating output at source and detector positions r.sub.s and r.sub.d, at time t, to position r, .LAMBDA. is a regularization matrix, chosen for convenience to be diagonal, but selected in a way related to the ratio of the noise, to fluctuations in the absorption (or diffusion) X.sub.j that we are trying to determine: .LAMBDA..sub.ij =.lambda..sub.j .delta..sub.ij with .lambda..sub.j =/ Y is the data collected at the detectors, and X.sup.k is the kth iterate toward the desired absorption information. An algorithm, which combines a two dimensional (2D) matrix inversion with a one-dimensional (1D) Fourier transform inversion is used to obtain images of three dimensional hidden objects in turbid scattering media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rost, A.W. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Allan, M.P. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mackenzie, A.P. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Xie, Y. [CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Davis, J.C. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Kihou, K.; Lee, C.H.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H. [AIST, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Chuang, T.M. [LASSP, Department of Physics, Cornell, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); CMPMS Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Inst. of Physics, Academica Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)
2012-07-01
Cooper pairing in the Fe-based superconductors is thought to occur due to the projection of the antiferromagnetic interactions between iron atoms onto the complex momentum-space electronic structure. A key consequence is that distinct anisotropic energy gaps {Delta}{sub i}(k) with specific relative orientations should occur on the different electronic bands i. To determine this previously unresolved gap structure high-precision spectroscopy is required. Here we introduce the STM technique of intra-band Bogolyubov quasiparticle scattering interference (QPI) to iron-based superconductor studies, focusing on LiFeAs. We identify the QPI signatures of three hole-like dispersions and, by introducing a new QPI technique, determine the magnitude and relative orientations of corresponding anisotropic {Delta}{sub i}(k). Intra-band Bogolyubov QPI therefore yields the spectroscopic information required to identify the mechanism of superconductivity in Fe-based superconductors.
Unified model for small-t and high-t scattering at high energies: predictions at RHIC and LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martynov, E. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, N.N. Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev (Ukraine); Nicolescu, B. [CNRS and Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Theory Group, Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire et des Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Paris (France)
2008-07-15
The urgency of predictions in the large-t region at LHC stimulated us to present a unified model of small- and high-t scattering at high energies. Our model is based on safe theoretical ground: analyticity, unitarity, Regge behavior, gluon exchange and saturation of bounds established in axiomatic quantum field theory. We make precise predictions for the behavior of the differential cross sections at high t, the evolution of the dip-shoulder structure localized in the region 0.5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masakazu Washio; Kazuyuki Sakaue; Yoshimasa Hama; Yoshio Kamiya; Tomoko Gowa; Akihiko Masuda; Aki Murata; Ryo Moriyama; Shigeru Kashiwagi; Junji Urakawa
2007-01-01
High quality beam generation project based on High-Tech Research Center Project, which has been approved by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in 1999, has been conducted by advance research institute for science and engineering, Waseda University. In the project, laser photo-cathode RF-gun has been selected for the high quality electron beam source. RF cavities with low dark current, which were made by diamond turning technique, have been successfully manufactured. The low emittance electron beam was realized by choosing the modified laser injection technique. The obtained normalized emmitance was about 3 m.mrad at 100 pC of electron charge. The soft x-ray beam generation with the energy of 370 eV, which is in the energy region of so-called water window, by inverse Compton scattering has been performed by the collision between IR laser and the low emmitance electron beams. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voronov, D.L.; Warwick, T.; Gullikson, E. M.; Salmassi, F.; Padmore, H. A.
2016-01-01
High-resolution Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) requires diffraction gratings with very exacting characteristics. The gratings should provide both very high dispersion and high efficiency which are conflicting requirements and extremely challenging to satisfy in the soft x-ray region for a traditional grazing incidence geometry. To achieve high dispersion one should increase the groove density of a grating; this however results in a diffraction angle beyond the critical angle range and results in drastic efficiency loss. The problem can be solved by use of multilayer coated blazed gratings (MBG). In this work we have investigated the diffraction characteristics of MBGs via numerical simulations and have developed a procedure for optimization of grating design for a multiplexed high resolution imaging spectrometer for RIXS spectroscopy to be built in sector 6 at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We found that highest diffraction efficiency can be achieved for gratings optimized for 4"t"h or 5"t"h order operation. Fabrication of such gratings is an extremely challenging technological problem. We present a first experimental prototype of these gratings and report its performance. High order and high line density gratings have the potential to be a revolutionary new optical element that should have great impact in the area of soft x-ray RIXS.
High-Frequency Guided Wave Scattering by a Partly Through-Thickness Hole Based on 3D Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hai-Yan; Xu Jian; Ma Shi-Wei
2015-01-01
We present a theoretical investigation of the scattering of high frequency S0 Lamb mode from a circular blind hole defect in a plate based on the 3D theory. The S0 wave is incident at the frequency above the A1 mode cut-off frequency, in which the popular approximate plate theories are inapplicable. Due to the non-symmetric blind hole defect, the scattered fields will contain higher order converted modes in addition to the fundamental S0 and A0 modes. The far-field scattering amplitudes of various propagating Lamb modes for different hole sizes are inspected. The results are compared with those of lower frequencies and some different phenomena are found. Two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) results of transient scattered Lamb and SH wave signals agree well with the analytical dispersion curves, which check the validity of the solutions from another point of view. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, F.T.M. van den.
1984-01-01
In this thesis the author presents measurements of differential cross sections for the scattering of Na-atoms in the ground-state and first excited-state by the rare gas atoms Ne and Ar. The scattering experiments were performed in a crossed-beam apparatus built and tested by van Deventer et al. The unique high angular-resolution (0.1 0 ) of this beam-scattering apparatus permits us (i) to remove the discrepancies that still exist between the various X 2 Σ- and A 2 PI-potential curves for Na-Ar and Na-Ne reported up to now, (ii) to obtain detailed information on the B 2 Σ-potentials for these systems and (iii) to demonstrate the necessity of taking into account the spin-uncoupling effects, in the interpretation of the experimental Na-Ne scattering patterns. (Auth.)
Pérez-Arancibia, Carlos; Bruno, Oscar P
2014-08-01
This paper presents high-order integral equation methods for the evaluation of electromagnetic wave scattering by dielectric bumps and dielectric cavities on perfectly conducting or dielectric half-planes. In detail, the algorithms introduced in this paper apply to eight classical scattering problems, namely, scattering by a dielectric bump on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane, and scattering by a filled, overfilled, or void dielectric cavity on a perfectly conducting or a dielectric half-plane. In all cases field representations based on single-layer potentials for appropriately chosen Green functions are used. The numerical far fields and near fields exhibit excellent convergence as discretizations are refined-even at and around points where singular fields and infinite currents exist.
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-01-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.
1987-10-01
A facility for high intensity Moessbauer scattering has been commissioned at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue University using special isotopes produced at MURR. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out, including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 which indicates phason rather than phonon behavior. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have also been carried out using scattering to filter unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape. This method allows complete correction for source resonance self-absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. This analysis is important to both the funadmental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct elastic fractions and lineshape parameters. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron (MICE) spectroscopy, lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support
Mehra, Saahil
2013-01-01
Metal nanowire transparent networks are promising replacements to indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices. While the transparency and sheet resistance are key metrics for transparent electrode performance, independent control of the film light scattering properties is important to developing multifunctional electrodes for improved photovoltaic absorption. Here we show that controlled incorporation of ZnO nanopyramids into a metal nanowire network film affords independent, highly tunable control of the scattering properties (haze) with minimal effects on the transparency and sheet resistance. Varying the zinc oxide/silver nanostructure ratios prior to spray deposition results in sheet resistances, transmission (600 nm), and haze (600 nm) of 6-30 Ω □^{-1}, 68-86%, and 34-66%, respectively. Incorporation of zinc oxide nanopyramid scattering agents into the conducting nanowire mesh has a negligible effect on mesh connectivity, providing a straightforward method of controlling electrode scattering properties. The decoupling of the film scattering power and electrical characteristics makes these films promising candidates for highly scattering transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices and can be generalized to other metal nanowire films as well as carbon nanotube transparent electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan [TNO Stieltjes weg 1, 2600 AD, Delft (Netherlands)
2012-05-17
Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.
Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan
2006-01-01
For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement
Neutron scattering studies of magnetism in the high-Tc materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinha, S.K.
1990-01-01
In this paper, I shall attempt to review what has been learned about magnetism in the high-T c family of compounds using neutron scattering techniques. Whether or not it is true that magnetic effects are involved in an essential way in the mechanism for superconductivity in these materials (a point which has not yet been firmly established), they offer fascinating examples for the study of magnetism for its own sake, being realizations of spin 1/2 2D quantum antiferromagnets. Further, the rare earth spins in these materials also order at low temperatures reminiscent of the coexistence of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in the earlier well-studied families of magnetic superconductors such as ErRh 4 B 4 and the Chevrel-phase compounds, with the difference that the ordering here is primarily 2D in character
Recent high-accuracy measurements of the 1S0 neutron-neutron scattering length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howell, C.R.; Chen, Q.; Gonzalez Trotter, D.E.; Salinas, F.; Crowell, A.S.; Roper, C.D.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R.L.; Carman, T.S.; Hussein, A.; Gibbs, W.R.; Gibson, B.F.; Morris, C.; Obst, A.; Sterbenz, S.; Whitton, M.; Mertens, G.; Moore, C.F.; Whiteley, C.R.; Pasyuk, E.; Slaus, I.; Tang, H.; Zhou, Z.; Gloeckle, W.; Witala, H.
2000-01-01
This paper reports two recent high-accuracy determinations of the 1 S 0 neutron-neutron scattering length, a nn . One was done at the Los Alamos National Laboratory using the π - d capture reaction to produce two neutrons with low relative momentum. The neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup reaction was used in other measurement, which was conducted at the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory. The results from the two determinations were consistent with each other and with previous values obtained using the π - d capture reaction. The value obtained from the nd breakup measurements is a nn = -18.7 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.6 (systematic) fm, and the value from the π - d capture experiment is a nn = -18.50 ± 0.05 ± 0.53 fm. The recommended value is a nn = -18.5 ± 0.3 fm. (author)
High-Pressure Raman Scattering in the Layered Antiferromagnet NiPS_3
Rosenblum, S.; Merlin, R.; Francis, A. H.
1996-03-01
We report on two-magnon and vibrational Raman scattering from NiPS3 for pressures up to 30 GPa and temperatures between 110 and 300 K. NiPS3 is an S=1, two-dimensional antiferromagnet with TN = 150 K. It is the only known S=1 compound with a relative two-magnon linewidth comparable in magnitude to that of the parent compounds of the high temperature superconductors.(Rosenblum et al., Phys. Rev. B 49), 4352 (1994) In the cuprates, this anomalous linewidth is well described by phonon-magnon coupling.(Knoll et al.), Phys. Rev.B 42, 4842 (1990).^,(Nori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75), 553 (1995). Here, we will look at the measured Grüneisen parameters of the vibrational and magnetic excitations and relate them to the magnetostrictive model.
Aghakhani Mahyari, Farzaneh; Tohidi, Maryam; Safavi, Afsaneh
2016-09-01
A facile, seed-less and one-pot method was developed for synthesis of gold nanoflowers with multiple tips through reduction of HAuCl4 with deep eutectic solvent at room temperature. This solvent is eco-friendly, low-cost, non-toxic and biodegradable and can act as both reducing and shape-controlling agent. In this protocol, highly branched and stable gold nanoflowers were obtained without using any capping agent. The obtained products were characterized by different techniques including, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. The as-prepared gold nanoflowers exhibit efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties which can be used as excellent substrates for SERS.
N=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills scattering amplitudes at high energies. The Regge cut contribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartels, J.; Sabio Vera, A.
2008-07-01
We further investigate, in N=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theories, the high energy Regge behavior of six-point scattering amplitudes. In particular, for the new Regge cut contribution found in our previous paper, we compute in the leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) the energy spectrum of the BFKL equation in the color octet channel, and we calculate explicitly the two loop corrections to the discontinuities of the amplitudes for the transitions 2→4 and 3→3. We find an explicit solution of the BFKL equation for the octet channel for arbitrary momentum transfers and investigate the intercepts of the Regge singularities in this channel. As an important result we find that the universal collinear and infrared singularities of the BDS formula are not affected by this Regge-cut contribution. (orig.)
Scaling laws in high-energy inverse compton scattering. II. Effect of bulk motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nozawa, Satoshi; Kohyama, Yasuharu; Itoh, Naoki
2010-01-01
We study the inverse Compton scattering of the CMB photons off high-energy nonthermal electrons. We extend the formalism obtained by the previous paper to the case where the electrons have nonzero bulk motions with respect to the CMB frame. Assuming the power-law electron distribution, we find the same scaling law for the probability distribution function P 1,K (s) as P 1 (s) which corresponds to the zero bulk motions, where the peak height and peak position depend only on the power-index parameter. We solved the rate equation analytically. It is found that the spectral intensity function also has the same scaling law. The effect of the bulk motions to the spectral intensity function is found to be small. The present study will be applicable to the analysis of the x-ray and gamma-ray emission models from various astrophysical objects with nonzero bulk motions such as radio galaxies and astrophysical jets.
High-energy x-ray scattering studies of battery materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glazer, Matthew P. B.; Okasinski, John S.; Almer, Jonathan D.; Ren, Yang
2016-01-01
High-energy x-ray (HEX) scattering is a sensitive and powerful tool to nondestructively probe the atomic and mesoscale structures of battery materials under synthesis and operational conditions. The penetration power of HEXs enables the use of large, practical samples and realistic environments, allowing researchers to explore the inner workings of batteries in both laboratory and commercial formats. This article highlights the capability and versatility of HEX techniques, particularly from synchrotron sources, to elucidate materials synthesis processes and thermal instability mechanisms in situ, to understand (dis)charging mechanisms in operando under a variety of cycling conditions, and to spatially resolve electrode/electrolyte responses to highlight connections between inhomogeneity and performance. Such studies have increased our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying battery performance. Here, by deepening our understanding of the linkages between microstructure and overall performance, HEXs represent a powerful tool for validating existing batteries and shortening battery-development timelines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergner, G; Akimov, D; Bartelt, H; Dietzek, B; Popp, J; Schlücker, S
2011-01-01
A simplified setup for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is introduced, which allows for recording CARS images with 30 cm -1 excitation bandwidth for probing Raman bands between 500 and 900 cm -1 with minimal requirements for alignment. The experimental arrangement is based on electronic switching between CARS images recorded at different Raman resonances by combining a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as broadband light source and an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter (AOPDF) as tunable wavelength filter. Such spatial light modulator enables selection of a narrow-band spectrum to yield high vibrational contrast and hence chemical contrast in the resultant CARS images. Furthermore, an experimental approach to reconstruct spectral information from CARS image contrast is introduced
Interfacial electron and phonon scattering processes in high-powered nanoscale applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hopkins, Patrick E.
2011-10-01
The overarching goal of this Truman LDRD project was to explore mechanisms of thermal transport at interfaces of nanomaterials, specifically linking the thermal conductivity and thermal boundary conductance to the structures and geometries of interfaces and boundaries. Deposition, fabrication, and post possessing procedures of nanocomposites and devices can give rise to interatomic mixing around interfaces of materials leading to stresses and imperfections that could affect heat transfer. An understanding of the physics of energy carrier scattering processes and their response to interfacial disorder will elucidate the potentials of applying these novel materials to next-generation high powered nanodevices and energy conversion applications. An additional goal of this project was to use the knowledge gained from linking interfacial structure to thermal transport in order to develop avenues to control, or 'tune' the thermal transport in nanosystems.
Semihard interactions in nuclear collisions based on a unified approach to high energy scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drescher, H.J.; Hladik, M.; Werner, K.; Ostapchenko, S.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes
1998-01-01
Our ultimate goal is the construction of a model for interactions of two nuclei in the energy range between several tens of GeV up to several TeV per nucleon in the centre-of-mass system. Such nuclear collisions are very complex, being composed of many components, and therefore some strategy is needed to construct a reliable model. The central point of our approach is the hypothesis, that the behavior of high energy interactions is universal (universality hypothesis). A model for nuclear interactions in a modular fashion is proposed. The individual modules, based on the universality hypothesis, are identified as building blocks for more elementary interactions (like e + e - , lepton-proton), and can therefore be studied in a much simpler context. With these building blocks under control, a quite reliable model is developed for nucleus-nucleus scattering, providing in particular very useful tests for the complicated numerical procedures using Monte Carlo techniques. (author)
In-medium scaling law and electron scattering from high-spin states in 208Pb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arias de Saavedra, F.; Lallena, A.M.
1994-01-01
The effects of the environment modifications in the structure of the low-lying high-spin states of 208 Pb are studied by analyzing how the in-medium scaling law works on the excitation energies, wave functions, and electron scattering form factors corresponding to these states. It is shown that the consideration of f π * in addition to the effective ρ-meson mass does not affect too much most of the states analyzed. However, some of them appear to be extremely sensitive to its inclusion in the residual nucleon-nucleon interaction. As a result, a value of m ρ * /m ρ ∼f π * /f π ∼0.91 gives a good description of the (e,e') form factors of these particular states without any quenching factor. This value is in agreement with the one found for 48 Ca in a similar analysis performed in a previous work
Next-to-soft corrections to high energy scattering in QCD and gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luna, A.; Melville, S. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow,Glasgow G12 8QQ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Naculich, S.G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College,Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States); White, C.D. [Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy,Queen Mary University of London,327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2017-01-12
We examine the Regge (high energy) limit of 4-point scattering in both QCD and gravity, using recently developed techniques to systematically compute all corrections up to next-to-leading power in the exchanged momentum i.e. beyond the eikonal approximation. We consider the situation of two scalar particles of arbitrary mass, thus generalising previous calculations in the literature. In QCD, our calculation describes power-suppressed corrections to the Reggeisation of the gluon. In gravity, we confirm a previous conjecture that next-to-soft corrections correspond to two independent deflection angles for the incoming particles. Our calculations in QCD and gravity are consistent with the well-known double copy relating amplitudes in the two theories.
X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, K., E-mail: kazuhiro-matsuda@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)
2015-08-17
We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.
Simple types of anisotropic inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern
2010-01-01
We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caddick J.
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Shales are the most common sedimentary rocks in hydrocarbon environments often forming the source rock and trapping rock for a reservoir. Due to the platey nature of the constituent grains, shales are commonly anisotropic. In this paper we calculate seismic waveforms for highly anisotropic shales using Maslov asymptotic theory (MAT. This theory is an extension of classical ray theory which provides valid waveforms in regions of caustics (wavefront folding where ray theory amplitudes are unstable. Asymptotic ray theory (ART is based on the Fermat or geometrical ray which connects the source and receiver. In contrast, the Maslov solution integrates the contributions from neighbouring non-Fermat rays. Raypaths, travel-times, amplitudes and synthetic seismograms are presented for three highly anisotropic shales using a very simple 1D model comprised of an anisotropic shale overlying an isotropic shale. The ART waveforms fail to account for complex waveform effects due to triplications. In comparison, the MAT waveforms predict nonsingular amplitudes at wavefront cusps and it predicts the diffracted signals from these cusps. A Maslov solution which integrates ray contributions over a single slowness component will break down when rays focus in 3D (at a point rather than along a line. One of the tested shales shows such a point caustic and integration over 2 slowness components is required to remove the amplitude singularity. Finally, we examine the effects of wavefront triplications on Alford rotations which are used to estimate shear-wave splitting. In such cases, the rotation successfully finds the fast shear-wave polarization, but it can be unreliable in its estimate of the time separation. Les argiles sont les roches sédimentaires les plus répandues dans l'environnement des hydrocarbures, et forment souvent la roche mère et la roche des pièges pétrolifères. En raison de la structure en plaques des grains, les argiles sont g
Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan
2017-11-12
This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering
Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José, E-mail: jsdehesa@upv.es
2014-06-15
The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted.
Wireless energy transfer between anisotropic metamaterials shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José
2014-01-01
The behavior of strongly coupled Radial Photonic Crystals shells is investigated as a potential alternative to transfer electromagnetic energy wirelessly. These sub-wavelength resonant microstructures, which are based on anisotropic metamaterials, can produce efficient coupling phenomena due to their high quality factor. A configuration of selected constitutive parameters (permittivity and permeability) is analyzed in terms of its resonant characteristics. The coupling to loss ratio between two coupled resonators is calculated as a function of distance, the maximum (in excess of 300) is obtained when the shells are separated by three times their radius. Under practical conditions an 83% of maximum power transfer has been also estimated. -- Highlights: •Anisotropic metamaterial shells exhibit high quality factors and sub-wavelength size. •Exchange of electromagnetic energy between shells with high efficiency is analyzed. •Strong coupling is supported with high wireless transfer efficiency. •End-to-end energy transfer efficiencies higher than 83% can be predicted
Barnett, Alex H.; Nelson, Bradley J.; Mahoney, J. Matthew
2015-09-01
We apply boundary integral equations for the first time to the two-dimensional scattering of time-harmonic waves from a smooth obstacle embedded in a continuously-graded unbounded medium. In the case we solve, the square of the wavenumber (refractive index) varies linearly in one coordinate, i.e. (Δ + E +x2) u (x1 ,x2) = 0 where E is a constant; this models quantum particles of fixed energy in a uniform gravitational field, and has broader applications to stratified media in acoustics, optics and seismology. We evaluate the fundamental solution efficiently with exponential accuracy via numerical saddle-point integration, using the truncated trapezoid rule with typically 102 nodes, with an effort that is independent of the frequency parameter E. By combining with a high-order Nyström quadrature, we are able to solve the scattering from obstacles 50 wavelengths across to 11 digits of accuracy in under a minute on a desktop or laptop.
Mitri, F G
2010-03-01
Acoustic scattering properties of ultrasound contrast agents are useful in extending existing or developing new techniques for biomedical imaging applications. A useful first step in this direction is to investigate the acoustic scattering of a new class of acoustic beams, known as helicoidal high-order Bessel beams, to improve the understanding of their scattering characteristics by an ultrasound contrast agent, which at present is very limited. The transverse acoustic scattering of a commercially available albuminoidal ultrasound contrast agent shell filled with air or a denser gas such as perfluoropropane and placed in a helicoidal Bessel beam of any order is examined numerically. The shell is assumed to possess an outer radius a=3.5 microns and a thickness of approximately 105 nm. Moduli of the total and resonance transverse acoustic scattering form functions are numerically evaluated in the bandwidth 0scattering of a helicoidal Bessel beam of order m1 so that the dynamics of contrast agents would be significantly altered. The main finding of the present theory is the suppression or enhancement for a particular resonance that may be used to advantage in imaging with ultrasound contrast agents for clinical applications. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Highly efficient construction of oriented sandwich structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Hongyun; Xu Weiqing; Xu Shuping; Zhou Ji; Lombardi, John R
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study is to solve the problem of low achievement in fabricating sandwich surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. We demonstrated a highly efficient sandwich structure by the oriented assembly of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a periodic hexagonal array of metal nanoprisms with 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT) as linkers. The metal nanoprism array was prepared by vacuum deposition of metal on a close-packed polystyrene nanosphere pre-patterned substrate. The metal nanoprism array presents different surface properties from the pits left from the removal of polystyrene nanospheres, which causes linkers to selectively adsorb on the metal nanoprism array and sequentially leads to the oriented immobilization of the second-layer metal NPs, avoiding mismatched orientation. These sandwich SERS substrates were characterized by extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and their enhancement activity was evaluated under different excitation wavelengths. The sandwich structure greatly increases the achievement of ‘hot spots’ to almost 100% of all the metal nanoprisms and enables a large amplification of SERS signals by a factor of ten. This method has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, high throughput, controllability and high reproducibility. It has significance in both the study of SERS substrates and the development of plasmonic devices. (paper)
Hanle-Zeeman Scattering Matrix for Magnetic Dipole Transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Megha, A.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sankarasubramanian, K., E-mail: megha@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sankar@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India)
2017-06-01
The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole ( M 1) transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona. We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions using the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations. To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. For our studies we adopt the atomic parameters corresponding to the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole ( E 1) transitions.
Analysis of pp and pp-bar elastic scattering amplitudes at high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferreira, E.; Kodama, T.; Kohara, A.K. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
2012-07-01
Full text: A careful analysis of high energies elastic scattering data at 7 TeV for pp, 1800 - 1950 GeV for pp-bar and 540 -541 GeV for pp-bar in terms of its amplitudes has been performed as natural extension of previous analysis for lower energies. The disentanglement of the real and imaginary parts is written consistently with constraints from dispersion relations for amplitudes and for slopes, and also satisfying the universal asymptotic behavior for large |t| values due to the three gluon Exchange process. Values for the imaginary and real slopes and for the total cross section at 7 TeV, 1800-1950 GeV and 540-541 GeV are presented, and the shape of the differential cross section at 14 TeV, with a dip/bump structure more marked and at a smaller values of |t| is predicted. It is predicted that future measurements at large |t| will be connected smoothly with the perturbative tail observed in the interval 5.5 to 14.2 GeV{sup 2} at lower energies and that a marked dip would be observed in pp-bar scattering near this tail range. It is stressed for the consistent description of elastic pp and pp-bar data and pointed out the importance of the future measurements in the Coulomb interference range and in the transition range to the perturbative tail where the perturbative and non-perturbative effects appears together. (author)
Abdellah, Marwan
2017-02-15
Background We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Results Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm3 that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. Conclusion We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.
Xie, Qiong-Tao; Cui, Shuai; Cao, Jun-Peng; Amico, Luigi; Fan, Heng
2014-04-01
We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i) quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii) solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii) mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiong-Tao Xie
2014-06-01
Full Text Available We define the anisotropic Rabi model as the generalization of the spin-boson Rabi model: The Hamiltonian system breaks the parity symmetry; the rotating and counterrotating interactions are governed by two different coupling constants; a further parameter introduces a phase factor in the counterrotating terms. The exact energy spectrum and eigenstates of the generalized model are worked out. The solution is obtained as an elaboration of a recently proposed method for the isotropic limit of the model. In this way, we provide a long-sought solution of a cascade of models with immediate relevance in different physical fields, including (i quantum optics, a two-level atom in single-mode cross-electric and magnetic fields; (ii solid-state physics, electrons in semiconductors with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling; and (iii mesoscopic physics, Josephson-junction flux-qubit quantum circuits.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libotte, Rafael Barbosa; Alves Filho, Hermes; Oliva, Amaury Muñoz, E-mail: rafaellibotte@hotmail.com, E-mail: halves@iprj.uerj.br, E-mail: aoliva@iprj.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional
2017-07-01
The physical phenomenon of transport of neutral particles in a host environment is of interest in various scientific applications, e.g., nuclear reactors, shielding calculations, radiological protection, nuclear medicine, agronomy, materials science, oil prospecting, etc. In all these areas there is a need for an accurate description of the transport of the particles in the host medium. In this class of applications are the neutron shielding problems, also referred to as 'fixed-source' problems, where the interaction of the particles with the medium does not produce new neutrons, i.e., non-multiplicative medium. In this context, the development of tools that model these problems is relevant and of a beneficial return to society. In this work, we propose the development of deterministic mathematical and computational modeling of neutron transport using the linearized equation of Boltzmann applied to neutron shielding problems. Here we present also the development of a spectro-nodal method (coarse mesh) considering the scattering phenomenon as being linearly anisotropic. We show the results using a computational application, developed in Java language, version 1.8.0{sub 9}1.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mortensen, Asger; Rønnow, Henrik Moodysson; Bruus, Henrik
2000-01-01
The magnetic resonance at 41 meV observed in neutron scattering studies of YBa2Cu3O7 holds a key position in the understanding of high-T-c, superconductivity. Within the SO(5) model for superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, we have calculated the effect of an applied magnetic field on the neu......The magnetic resonance at 41 meV observed in neutron scattering studies of YBa2Cu3O7 holds a key position in the understanding of high-T-c, superconductivity. Within the SO(5) model for superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, we have calculated the effect of an applied magnetic field...