WorldWideScience

Sample records for highest resolution near-ir

  1. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  2. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  3. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  4. Optical design of a versatile FIRST high-resolution near-IR spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2012-09-01

    We report the update optical design of a versatile FIRST high resolution near IR spectrograph, which is called Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectromeTer (FIRST). This spectrograph uses cross-dispersed echelle design with white pupils and also takes advantage of the image slicing to increase the spectra resolution, while maintaining the instrument throughput. It is an extremely high dispersion R1.4 (blazed angle of 54.74°) silicon immersion grating with a 49 mm diameter pupil is used as the main disperser at 1.4μm -1.8μm to produce R=72,000 while an R4 echelle with the same pupil diameter produces R=60,000 at 0.8μm -1.35μm. Two cryogenic Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings are used as cross-dispersers to allow simultaneous wavelength coverage of 0.8μm -1.8μm. The butterfly mirrors and dichroic beamsplitters make a compact folding system to record these two wavelength bands with a 2kx2k H2RG array in a single exposure. By inserting a mirror before the grating disperser (the SIG and the echelle), this spectrograph becomes a very efficient integral field 3-D imaging spectrograph with R=2,000-4,000 at 0.8μm-1.8μm by coupling a 10x10 telescope fiber bundle with the spectrograph. Details about the optical design and performance are reported.

  5. Near-IR High-Resolution Imaging Polarimetry of the SU Aur Disk: Clues for Tidal Tails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Jerome; Michihiro, Takami; Karr, Jennifer; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Sitko, Michael; Mayama, Satoshi; Kusakabe, Nobuyuki; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    We present new high-resolution (approximately 0.09) H-band imaging observations of the circumstellar disk around the T Tauri star SU Aur. Our observations with Subaru-HiCIAO have revealed the presence of scattered light as close as 0.15 (approximately 20 AU) to the star. Within our image, we identify bright emission associated with a disk with a minimum radius of approximately 90 AU, an inclination of approximately 35 deg from the plane of the sky, and an approximate PA of 15 deg for the major axis. We find a brightness asymmetry between the northern and southern sides of the disk due to a non-axisymmetric disk structure. We also identify a pair of asymmetric tail structures extending east and west from the disk. The western tail extends at least 2. 5 (350 AU) from the star, and is probably associated with a reflection nebula previously observed at optical and near-IR wavelengths. The eastern tail extends at least 1 (140 AU) at the present signal-to-noise. These tails are likely due to an encounter with an unseen brown dwarf, but our results do not exclude the explanation that these tails are outflow cavities or jets.

  6. Testing the Hypothesis that Methanol Maser Rings Trace Circumstellar Disks: High Resolution Near-IR and Mid-IR Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    De Buizer, James M.; Bartkiewicz, Anna; Szymczak, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Milliarcsecond VLBI maps of regions containing 6.7 GHz methanol maser emission have lead to the recent discovery of ring-like distributions of maser spots and the plausible hypothesis that they may be tracing circumstellar disks around forming high mass stars. We aimed to test this hypothesis by imaging these regions in the near and mid-infrared at high spatial resolution and compare the observed emission to the expected infrared morphologies as inferred from the geometries of the maser rings...

  7. High-resolution TNG spectra of T Tauri stars. Near-IR GIANO observations of the young variables XZ Tauri and DR Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniucci, S.; Nisini, B.; Biazzo, K.; Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.; Sanna, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Origlia, L.; Oliva, E.

    2017-10-01

    narrower metallic lines, despite its larger accretion luminosity. This suggests that accretion is not the only driver of metallic line excitation. Conclusions: The presented observations demonstrate the potential of wide-band, high-resolution near-IR spectroscopy to simultaneously probe the different phenomena that occur in the interaction region between the stellar magnetosphere and the accretion disk, thus providing hints on how these two structures are linked to each other.

  8. Synthetic high-resolution near-IR spectra of the Sun for planetary data reductions made from ATMOS/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Haingja; Kim, Sang J.; Hwang, Sungwon; Jung, Aeran; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lee, Jinny; Jang, Minhwan

    2007-12-01

    We have constructed synthetic solar spectra for the 2302-4800 cm -1 (2.08-4.34 μm) range, a spectral range where planetary objects mainly emit reflected sunlight, using ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy)/Spacelab-3 and Atlas-3 spectra, of which resolution is 0.01 cm -1. We adopted Voigt line profiles for the modeling of line shapes based on an atlas of line identifications compiled by Geller [Geller, M., 1992. Key to Identification of Solar Features. A High-Resolution Atlas of the Infrared Spectrum of the Sun and the Earth Atmosphere from Space. NASA Reference Publ. 1224, vol. III. NASA, Washington, DC, pp. 1-22], who derived solar line positions and intensities from contaminated high-resolution solar spectra obtained by ATMOS/Spacelab-3. Because the ATMOS spectra in these wavelength ranges are compromised by absorption lines of molecules existing in Earth's high-altitude atmosphere and in the compartment of the spacecraft, the direct use of these high-resolution solar spectra has been inconvenient for the data reductions of planetary spectra. We compared the synthetic solar spectra with the ATMOS spectra, and obtained satisfactory fits for the majority of the solar lines with the exception of abnormal lines, which do not fit with Voigt line profiles. From the model fits, we were able to determine Voigt line parameters for the majority of solar lines; and we made a list of the abnormal lines. We also constructed telluric-line-free solar spectra by manually eliminating telluric lines from the ATMOS spectra and filling the gaps with adjacent continua. These synthetic solar spectra will be useful to eliminate solar continua from spectra of planetary objects to extract their own intrinsic spectral features.

  9. The Near-IR Photometric and Optical Spectroscopic Study of V582 Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seog Yoon, Tae; Oh, Hyung-Il

    2015-08-01

    We present the near-IR photometric and optical spectroscopic observational results of the FU Orionis object V582 Aurigae. The near-IR photometric observations with KASINICS and the high resolution optical spectroscopic observations with BOES attached to the 1.8-m reflector have been carried out from February 2013 to March 2015 at Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea. The periodic photometric variations of a night time scale and a year time scale in J, H, Ks bands and some typical spectroscopic features of FU Orionis objects are examined and discussed.

  10. Near-IR imaging of occlusal dental decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Christopher M.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near-IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains and pigmentation. Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  11. Broadband Near IR Laser Hazard Filters. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-02

    In order to provide the Army’s requirements for ocular and system protection in the near IR region (690 nm to 1100 nm), a filter should have for the...coated onto transparent glass substrates, glass mirrors and plastic substrates. The plastic substrates used in Phase I were polycarbonate, PMMA , Mylar, TPX...transparent in the visible to near IR spectrum including polycarbonate (PC), polymethyl methacrylate ( PMMA ), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl-chloride (PVC

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Near-IR BN/KL outflow images (Bally+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Silvia, D.; Youngblood, A.

    2015-02-01

    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) at the Gemini South telescope on Cerro Pachon is the first and only sodium-based multi-laser guide star (LGS) adaptive optics system. GeMS works with a LGS constellation of 5-spots: 4 of the LGS spots are at the corners of a 60" square, with the 5-th positioned in the center. The Adaptive Optics (AO) bench called Canopus is mounted on one of the f/16 Cassegrain ports. Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) is a wide-field 4096 by 4096 pixel (85" by 85" field of view) camera designed to work at the diffraction limit of the 8- meter telescope in the near-infrared. Three 85" diameter fields were observed in OMC1 between 30 December 2012 and 28 February 2013 using GSAOI. Observations of each field were obtained through 1% bandpass narrow-band filters centered on the 1.644um [FeII] and 2.122um H2 emission lines and the broad-band Ks filter. The corrected images have FWHM diameters of 0.080" to 0.10", providing the highest angular resolution images of the BN/KL outflow ever obtained in the near-IR. (2 data files).

  13. Near-IR imaging of cracks in teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Dental enamel is highly transparent at near-IR wavelengths and several studies have shown that these wavelengths are well suited for optical transillumination for the detection and imaging of tooth decay. We hypothesize that these wavelengths are also well suited for imaging cracks in teeth. Extracted teeth with suspected cracks were imaged at several wavelengths in the near-IR from 1300-1700-nm. Extracted teeth were also examined with optical coherence tomography to confirm the existence of suspected cracks. Several teeth of volunteers were also imaged in vivo at 1300-nm to demonstrate clinical potential. In addition we induced cracks in teeth using a carbon dioxide laser and imaged crack formation and propagation in real time using near-IR transillumination. Cracks were clearly visible using near-IR imaging at 1300-nm in both in vitro and in vivo images. Cracks and fractures also interfered with light propagation in the tooth aiding in crack identification and assessment of depth and severity.

  14. Near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging at 1,300 nm and 1,500-1,700 nm for in vivo caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C; Lucas, Seth A; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Cozin, Matthew J; Lee, Robert C; Fried, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Several studies suggest that near-IR imaging methods at wavelengths longer than 1,300 nm have great potential for caries detection. In this study, the diagnostic performance of both near-IR transillumination and near-IR reflectance was assessed on teeth scheduled for extraction due to orthodontic treatment (n = 109 teeth on 40 test subjects). Three intra-oral near-IR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo images using a high definition InGaAs camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provided occlusal and approximal images using 1,300 nm light which manifests the highest transparency in enamel. A third reflectance probe utilized cross-polarization and operated at wavelengths greater than 1,500 nm where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. Teeth were collected after extraction and sectioned and examined with polarized light microscopy and microradiography which served as the gold standard. In addition, radiographs were taken of the teeth and the diagnostic performance of near-IR imaging was compared with radiography. Near-IR imaging was significantly more sensitive (P detection of lesions on both occlusal and proximal surfaces. Near-IR imaging methods are ideally suited for screening all tooth surfaces for carious lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. 48:828-836, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a 10- to 20-fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12-48 hours exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths >500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two-dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion contrast in the visible does not accurately reflect the

  16. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: Variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a ten to twenty fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Materials and Methods Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12–48 hr exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Results Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion

  17. Large-format platinum silicide microwave kinetic inductance detectors for optical to near-IR astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szypryt, P; Meeker, S R; Coiffard, G; Fruitwala, N; Bumble, B; Ulbricht, G; Walter, A B; Daal, M; Bockstiegel, C; Collura, G; Zobrist, N; Lipartito, I; Mazin, B A

    2017-10-16

    We have fabricated and characterized 10,000 and 20,440 pixel Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) arrays for the Dark-speckle Near-IR Energy-resolved Superconducting Spectrophotometer (DARKNESS) and the MKID Exoplanet Camera (MEC). These instruments are designed to sit behind adaptive optics systems with the goal of directly imaging exoplanets in a 800-1400 nm band. Previous large optical and near-IR MKID arrays were fabricated using substoichiometric titanium nitride (TiN) on a silicon substrate. These arrays, however, suffered from severe non-uniformities in the TiN critical temperature, causing resonances to shift away from their designed values and lowering usable detector yield. We have begun fabricating DARKNESS and MEC arrays using platinum silicide (PtSi) on sapphire instead of TiN. Not only do these arrays have much higher uniformity than the TiN arrays, resulting in higher pixel yields, they have demonstrated better spectral resolution than TiN MKIDs of similar design. PtSi MKIDs also do not display the hot pixel effects seen when illuminating TiN on silicon MKIDs with photons with wavelengths shorter than 1 µm.

  18. Saturn’s rings in the near-IR: a new view from Cassini-VIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ciarniello, Mauro; Clark, Roger Nelson; Cassini VIMS Team

    2017-10-01

    The reflectance spectrum of Saturn’s rings in the UV, visible and near-IR regions is dominated by fine-grained crystalline water ice with relatively small amounts of non-icy material, generally proposed to be space-weathered silicates, organics, nano-phase iron oxides or carbon. Previous observations by the VIMS instrument on Cassini have revealed significant spatial variations in the rings’ near-IR spectrum, with higher levels of contamination by non-icy material in the Cassini Division and C ring and larger ice grain sizes in the A and B rings (Nicholson et al. [2008], Cuzzi et al. [2009], Hedman & Nicholson [2013], Filacchione et al. [2012, 2014]). Over the past 12 months, with the Cassini spacecraft passing ever closer to Saturn, VIMS has obtained the best-ever complete spectral scans of both the sunlit and dark sides of the main rings in the 0.35-5.1 micron range, with radial resolutions of 50-120 km. The observations were made at a uniform emission angle of ~15 degrees and a constant phase angle of 60 or 130 degrees so as to minimize extraneous photometric variations. In addition to confirming previous results, the new data clearly show significant smaller-scale spectral variations between the C ring plateaux and their background, within the inner B ring, across several density wave halos and in the trans-Keeler region in the outer A ring.

  19. Near-IR Spectral Variability of Be Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Austin; Eisner, J. A.; Rudolph, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Be class stars exhibit variability across the electromagnetic spectrum, including in both the visible and infrared regions. While variability in the optical range has been explored previously, spectroscopic variability in the near-IR has not been investigated as thoroughly. This study is focused on tracking the spectral variability of K Dra, one of the Be stars for which we collected data. We observed our sample using the FSPEC instrument on the 90-inch Bok telescope at Kitt Peak. The data were collected during four five-night runs, two in 2010 separated by one month and two in 2011 also separated by one month. A reduction pipeline written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) was used to produce emission spectra of the star from these data. Here we present spectra from these epochs that show emission from the Brackett Gamma hydrogen transition. We use changes in these features to constrain variability in the Hydrogen gas comprising the disk of this star as a function of time.

  20. Transillumination and reflectance probes for in vivo near-IR imaging of dental caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Lucas, Seth A.; Staninec, Michal; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the utility of near infrared (NIR) imaging for caries detection employing transillumination and reflectance imaging geometries. Three intra-oral NIR imaging probes were fabricated for the acquisition of in vivo, real time videos using a high definition InGaAs SWIR camera and near-IR broadband light sources. Two transillumination probes provide occlusal and interproximal images using 1300-nm light where water absorption is low and enamel manifests the highest transparency. A third reflectance probe utilizes cross polarization and operates at >1500-nm, where water absorption is higher which reduces the reflectivity of sound tissues, significantly increasing lesion contrast. These probes are being used in an ongoing clinical study to assess the diagnostic performance of NIR imaging for the detection of caries lesions in teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons.

  1. A Systematic Study to Optimize SiPM Photo-Detectors for Highest Time Resolution in PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S.; Frisch, B.; Hillemanns, H.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Pauwels, K.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a systematic study of time resolution made with three different commercial silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-025P, S10931-050P, and S10931-100P) and two LSO scintillating crystals. This study aimed to determine the optimum detector conditions for highest time resolution in a prospective time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) system. Measurements were based on the time over threshold method in a coincidence setup using the ultrafast amplifier-discriminator NINO and a fast oscilloscope. Our tests with the three SiPMs of the same area but of different SPAD sizes and fill factors led to best results with the Hamamatsu type of 50×50×μm2 single-pixel size. For this type of SiPM and under realistic geometrical PET scanner conditions, i.e., with 2×2×10×mm3 LSO crystals, a coincidence time resolution of 220 ±4 ps FWHM could be achieved. The results are interpreted in terms of SiPM photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark noise, and photon yield.

  2. Imaging of occlusal dental caries (decay) with near-IR light at 1310-nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Fried, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR. Previous work demonstrated that near-IR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) [1]. However, most new dental decay occurs in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth. These caries lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of decay due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. In this study, a near- IR imaging system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire occlusal images by launching the near-IR light into the buccal surface of the tooth just above the gingival margin (gum-line). The near-IR light diffuses through the highly scattering dentin providing uniform back illumination of the enamel of the crowns allowing imaging of the occlusal surfaces. The near-IR images show high contrast between sound and demineralized areas. Demineralization (decay) can be easily differentiated from stains, pigmentation, and hypomineralization (fluorosis). Moreover, the high transparency of the enamel enables imaging at greater depth for the detection of subsurface decay hidden under the enamel. These early images suggest that the near-IR offers significant advantages over conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods.

  3. The TEDI instrument for near-IR radial velocity surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Jerry; Erskine, David J.; Lloyd, James; Herter, Terry; Marckwordt, Mario; Feuerstein, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The TEDI (TripleSpec Externally Dispersed Interferometry) is an interferometric spectrometer that will be used to explore the population of planets around the lowest mass stars. The instrument, to be deployed on the Palomar 200 Cassegrain mount, includes a stabilized Michelson interferometer combined with a medium resolution, broad band (0.8 - 2.4 micron) spectrograph, TripleSpec. We describe the instrument design and its application to Doppler velocimetry and high-resolution spectroscopy.

  4. Pulsating stars in ω Centauri. Near-IR properties and period-luminosity relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarrete Camila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ω Centauri (NGC 5139 contains many variable stars of different types, including the pulsating type II Cepheids, RR Lyrae and SX Phoenicis stars. We carried out a deep, wide-field, near-infrared (IR variability survey of ω Cen, using the VISTA telescope. We assembled an unprecedented homogeneous and complete J and KS near-IR catalog of variable stars in the field of ω Cen. In this paper we compare optical and near-IR light curves of RR Lyrae stars, emphasizing the main differences. Moreover, we discuss the ability of near-IR observations to detect SX Phoenicis stars given the fact that the amplitudes are much smaller in these bands compared to the optical. Finally, we consider the case in which all the pulsating stars in the three different variability types follow a single period-luminosity relation in the near-IR bands.

  5. Probing Gas and Dust around B[e] Stars at the Highest Angular Resolution: A Decade of Interferometric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilland, A.

    2017-02-01

    Long-baseline interferometry is the one and only technique offering the sub-milliarcsecond resolution needed to spatially resolve the close environment of stars. Since the construction of modern facilities such as the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) in Chile, and the Center for High Resolution Array (CHARA) in California, it became a key technique to probe massive stars and their often complex circumstellar environments. The more recent generation of instruments even combines the power of interferometry and spectroscopy allowing to put more constraints on chemical, physical, and dynamical properties of circumstellar gas and dust. Here I briefly present the technique and the current generation of instruments, I review the main results obtained in the last decade on B[e] stars, and, I present the upcoming second generation of instruments at VLTI and the current plan to upgrade CHARA.

  6. Fluorenyl benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole near-IR fluorescent probes for two-photon fluorescence imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Kevin D.; Yao, Sheng; Kim, Bosung; Yue, Xiling

    2016-03-01

    Imaging biological samples with two-photon fluorescence (2PF) microscopy has the unique advantage of resulting high contrast 3D resolution subcellular image that can reach up to several millimeters depth. 2PF probes that absorb and emit at near IR region need to be developed. Two-photon excitation (2PE) wavelengths are less concerned as 2PE uses wavelengths doubles the absorption wavelength of the probe, which means 2PE wavelengths for probes even with absorption at visible wavelength will fall into NIR region. Therefore, probes that fluoresce at near IR region with high quantum yields are needed. A series of dyes based on 5-thienyl-2, 1, 3-benzothiadiazole and 5-thienyl-2, 1, 3-benzoselenadiazole core were synthesized as near infrared two-photon fluorophores. Fluorescence maxima wavelengths as long as 714 nm and fluorescence quantum yields as high as 0.67 were achieved. The fluorescence quantum yields of the dyes were nearly constant, regardless of solvents polarity. These diazoles exhibited large Stokes shift (fluorescence figure of merit (FM , 1.04×10-2 GM). Cells incubated on a 3D scaffold with one of the new probes (encapsulated in Pluronic micelles) exhibited bright fluorescence, enabling 3D two-photon fluorescence imaging to a depth of 100 µm.

  7. Measurement of Gas and Aerosol Phase Absorption Spectra across the Visible and Near-IR Using Supercontinuum Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radney, James G; Zangmeister, Christopher D

    2015-07-21

    We demonstrate a method to measure the absorption spectra of gas and aerosol species across the visible and near-IR (500 to 840 nm) using a photoacoustic (PA) spectrometer and a pulsed supercontinuum laser source. Measurements of gas phase absorption spectra were demonstrated using H2O(g) as a function of relative humidity (RH). The measured absorption intensities and peak shapes were able to be quantified and compared to spectra calculated using the 2012 High Resolution Transmission (HITRAN2012) database. Size and mass selected nigrosin aerosol was used to measure absorption spectra across the visible and near-IR. Spectra were measured as a function of aerosol size/mass and show good agreement to Mie theory calculations. Lastly, we measured the broadband absorption spectrum of flame generated soot aerosol at 5% and 70% RH. For the high RH case, we are able to quantifiably separate the soot and water absorption contributions. For soot, we observe an enhancement in the mass specific absorption cross section ranging from 1.5 at 500 nm (p < 0.01) to 1.2 at 840 nm (p < 0.2) and a concomitant increase in the absorption Ångström exponent from 1.2 ± 0.4 (5% RH) to 1.6 ± 0.3 (70% RH).

  8. Monolayers of gold nanostars with two Near-IR LSPR capable of additive photothermal response

    KAUST Repository

    Pallavicini, Piersandro

    2015-07-06

    Monolayers of photothermally responsive gold nanostars on PEI-coated surfaces display two Localized Surface Plasmon Resonances (LSPR) in the near-IR region that can be laser-irradiated either separately, obtaining two different T jumps, or simultaneously, obtaining a T jump equal to the sum of what obtained with separate irradiations

  9. Optical and near-IR spectroscopy of nova Oph 2017 (TCP J17394608-2457555)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Ashish; Pavana, M.; Anupama, G. C.; Bhowmick, Anirban; Dar, Rahul; Kumar, S. Pramod

    2017-05-01

    We report optical and near-IR spectroscopic observations of the nova Oph 2017 (ATel #10366, #10367, #10369). The optical spectrum on May 11, 2017 was obtained using the HFOSC instrument mounted on the 2m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) of the Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle, India, in the 380-800nm wavelength range.

  10. IRTF NEAR-IR IMAGING OF COMET 9P-TEMPEL 1 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-IR images of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 were obtained at the NASA IRTF during the period from June 24 through July 17, 2005 UT. These observations were taken as part of...

  11. IRTF NEAR-IR SPECTROSCOPY OF COMET 9P-TEMPEL 1 V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Near-IR spectra of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 were obtained with SpeX at the NASA IRTF during the period from June 24 through July 08, 2005 UT. These observations were taken...

  12. Near-IR absorbing phthalocyanine derivatives as materials for organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayukh, Mayank

    2011-12-01

    Phthalocyanines (Pcs) are highly conjugated synthetic porphyrin analogs that exhibit high extinction coefficients and hole mobilities, and strong pi-pi interactions. We have developed a general method for the synthesis of peripherally functionalized Pc chromophores using 'click' chemistry, wherein an alkynyl substituted Pc is reacted with an azide, providing an elegant route to the creation of a library of numerous Pcs. We have also developed a simple route to the synthesis of tri- and tetravalent metal Pc derivatives such as titanyl phthalocyanine (TiO Pc) involving solvent-free conditions. Solvent-free conditions are environmentally friendly and industrially economical, and in the present context effectively eliminate the formation of non-metallated phthalocyanine (H 2Pc), a side product often seen in other routes that interferes with their purification. We have also prepared and characterized thin-films of some of these Pcs, TiOPcs in particular, wherein we have developed an easy route to various TiO Pc polymorphs exhibiting different near-IR sensitivities via spin-coating whose optical properties are reminiscent of Phase-I and Phase-II polymorphs of the unmodified TiOPc. Phase-II is particularly interesting as it is photoelectrically active in the near-IR region with a Q-band maximum at ca. 890 nm. We have also fabricated and characterized organic solar cells in both planar heterojunction (PHJ) and bulk heterojunction (BHJ) architectures based on one of these materials, which exhibited good near-IR photoactivity with the absorption spectrum extending up to 1 micrometer in the near-IR. The incident and absorbed photon to current efficiency (IPCE and APCE) spectra showed contributions from the TiOPc in the near-IR region with local maxima around 680 nm and 920 nm, corresponding to the Frenkel and the charge-transfer (CT) bands of the TiOPc, respectively.

  13. High contrast reflectance imaging of simulated lesions on tooth occlusal surfaces at near-IR wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, William A; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L

    2013-10-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-infrared (near-IR) without the interference of stain. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1,300 nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 × 4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1- and 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using near-IR reflectance at three wavelengths, 1,300, 1,460, and 1,600 nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405 nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500 nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. The contrast of both the 1- and 2-day lesions were significantly higher (P reflectance imaging at 1,460 and 1,600 nm than it was for near-IR reflectance imaging at 1,300 nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. The markedly higher contrast at 1,460 and 1,600 nm wavelengths, coincident with higher water absorption, suggest that these wavelengths are better suited than 1,300 nm for imaging early/shallow demineralization on tooth surfaces. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. N-annulated perylene fused porphyrins with enhanced near-IR absorption and emission

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2010-09-17

    N-Annulated perylene fused porphyrins 1 and 2 were synthesized by oxidative dehydrogenation using a Sc(OTf)3/DDQ system. These newly synthesized hybrid molecules are highly soluble in organic solvents and exhibit remarkably intense near-IR absorption, as well as detectable photoluminescence quantum yields, all of which are comparable to or even exceed those of either meso-β doubly linked porphyrin dimer/trimer or bis/tri-N-annulated rylenes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  15. Portable milk product quality analyzer based on spectrometry in the near IR range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.

    2008-03-01

    We have used near IR spectrometry and multiple regression analysis to construct the calibration models for determining the weight fractions of the major components of milk blends, and we have used the latter to study the feasibility of using a portable spectrophotometer (designed at the Institute of Spectroscopy) based on a silicon CCD linear array as a working tool for monitoring the quality of biotechnological products.

  16. Metallo-Phthalocyanine Near-IR Fluorophores: Oligonucleotide Conjugates and Their Applications in PCR Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Irina V.; Verdree, Vera T.; Pakhomov, Serhii; Strickler, Karen L.; Allen, Michael W.; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Water soluble, metallo-pthalocyanine (MPc) near-IR fluorophores were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as highly stable and sensitive reporters for fluorescence assays. Their conjugation to oligonucleotides was achieved via succinimidyl ester-amino coupling chemistry with the conditions for conjugation extensively examined and optimized. In addition, various conjugate purification and isolation techniques were evaluated as well. Results showed that under proper conditions and following purification using reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography, labeling efficiencies near 80% could be achieved using ZnPc (Zn phthalocyanine) as the labeling fluorophore. Absorption and fluorescence spectra accumulated for the conjugates indicated that the intrinsic fluorescence properties of the MPc’s were not significantly altered by covalent attachment to oligonucleotides. As an example of the utility of MPc reporters, we used the MPc–oligonucleotide conjugates as primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplifications with the products sorted via electrophoresis and detected using near-IR fluorescence (λex = 680 nm). The MPc dyes were found to be more chemically stable under typical thermal cycling conditions used for PCR compared to the carbocyanine-based near-IR reporter systems typically used and produced single and narrow bands in the electrophoretic traces, indicative of producing a single PCR product during amplification. PMID:18030995

  17. Design of fiber laser and sensor systems for gas spectroscopy in the near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, George; Whitenett, Gillian; Shields, Peter; Marshall, Joanna; Culshaw, Brian

    2004-03-01

    Because of the ready availability of fibre optic components from the communications industry, fibre optic systems operating in the near-IR are well suited for remote, multi-point monitoring of hazardous and environmentallyimportant gases. However a number of challenges have to be met in order exploit the potential commercial opportunities and applications for such sensors. Here we review our research on gas sensors based on fibre laser systems and absorption spectroscopy. Fibre lasers are of particular interest for sensors since on-going developments have extended their wavelength range of operation over ~1480-1620nm, encompassing the near-IR absorption lines of numerous gases. We discuss several configurations for fibre laser systems which offer the prospect of either enhanced performance or the possibility of multiplexing a number of sensor cells. However, because gas absorption lines in the near-IR spectral region are relatively weak, high sensitivity techniques are required for a number of species and we discuss methods for path-length enhancement through ring-down and intra-cavity absorption spectroscopy. Effective interrogation methods are required to attain the benefits of the various forms of cavity enhanced spectroscopy in fibre optic systems and several techniques are under investigation to realise this potential.

  18. Theoretical Near-IR Spectra for Surface Abundance Studies of Massive Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of O-type stars based on theoretical near-IR spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio near-IR (1-5 micron) spectra of massive stars in different environments of local galaxies. Our goal is to analyze model near-IR spectra corresponding to those expected from NIRspec on JWST in order to map the wind properties and surface composition across the parameter range of 0 stars and to determine projected rotational velocities. As a massive star evolves, internal coupling, related mixing, and mass loss impact its intrinsic rotation rate. These three parameters form an intricate loop, where enhanced rotation leads to more mixing which in turn changes the mass loss rate, the latter thus affecting the rotation rate. Since the effects of rotation are expected to be much more pronounced at low metallicity, we pay special attention to models for massive stars in the the Small Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy provides a unique opportunity to probe stellar evolution, and the feedback of massive stars on galactic evol.ution in conditions similar to the epoch of maximal star formation. Plain-Language Abstract: We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of massive stars based on theoretical near-infrared (1-5 micron) spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. This study is to prepare for observations by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  19. Near-IR period-luminosity relations for pulsating stars in ω Centauri (NGC 5139)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, C.; Catelan, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Alonso-García, J.; Gran, F.; Dékány, I.; Minniti, D.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: The globular cluster ω Centauri (NGC 5139) hosts hundreds of pulsating variable stars of different types, thus representing a treasure trove for studies of their corresponding period-luminosity (PL) relations. Our goal in this study is to obtain the PL relations for RR Lyrae and SX Phoenicis stars in the field of the cluster, based on high-quality, well-sampled light curves in the near-infrared (IR). Methods: Observations were carried out using the VISTA InfraRed CAMera (VIRCAM) mounted on the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA). A total of 42 epochs in J and 100 epochs in KS were obtained, spanning 352 days. Point-spread function photometry was performed using DoPhot and DAOPHOT crowded-field photometry packages in the outer and inner regions of the cluster, respectively. Results: Based on the comprehensive catalog of near-IR light curves thus secured, PL relations were obtained for the different types of pulsators in the cluster, both in the J and KS bands. This includes the first PL relations in the near-IR for fundamental-mode SX Phoenicis stars. The near-IR magnitudes and periods of Type II Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars were used to derive an updated true distance modulus to the cluster, with a resulting value of (m - M)0 = 13.708 ± 0.035 ± 0.10 mag, where the error bars correspond to the adopted statistical and systematic errors, respectively. Adding the errors in quadrature, this is equivalent to a heliocentric distance of 5.52 ± 0.27 kpc. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile, with the VISTA telescope (project ID 087.D-0472, PI R. Angeloni).

  20. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kotin, Pavel Aleksandrovich; Bubenov, Sergey Sergeevich; Mordvinova, Natalia Evgenievna; Dorofeev, Sergey Gennadievich

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm). In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculia...

  1. Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy using lanthanide centred near-IR emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhiyu; Tropiano, Manuel; Mantulnikovs, Konstantins; Faulkner, Stephen; Vosch, Tom; Sørensen, Thomas Just

    2015-02-11

    The narrow, near infrared (NIR) emission from lanthanide ions has attracted great interest, particularly with regard to developing tools for bioimaging, where the long lifetimes of lanthanide excited states can be exploited to address problems arising from autofluorescence and sample transparency. Despite the promise of lanthanide-based probes for near-IR imaging, few reports on their use are present in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that images can be recorded by monitoring NIR emission from lanthanide complexes using detectors, optical elements and a microscope that were primarily designed for the visible part of the spectrum.

  2. Near-IR Direct Detection of Water Vapor in Tau Bootis b

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-24

    rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. NEAR-IR DIRECT DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN TAU BOÖTIS b Alexandra C. Lockwood1, John A. Johnson1,2, Chad F...Bender3,4, John S. Carr5, Travis Barman6, Alexander J. W. Richert3,4, and Geoffrey A. Blake1 1 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California...their host star. Hundreds of transiting planets have been discovered and characterized, and the ongoing Kepler mission has found potential exoplanet

  3. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Spectroscopic Instrumentation for Quantitative Near-Ir Analysis of Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilert, Arnold James

    1995-01-01

    The utility of near-IR spectroscopy for routine quantitative analyses of a wide variety of compositional, chemical, or physical parameters of organic materials is well understood. It can be used for relatively fast and inexpensive non-destructive bulk material analysis before, during, and after processing. It has been demonstrated as being a particularly useful technique for numerous analytical applications in cereal (food and feed) science and industry. Further fulfillment of the potential of near-IR spectroscopic analysis, both in the process and laboratory environment, is reliant upon the development of instrumentation that is capable of meeting the challenges of increasingly difficult applications. One approach to the development of near-IR spectroscopic instrumentation that holds a great deal of promise is acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. A combination of attributes offered by AOTF spectrometry, including speed, optical throughput, wavelength reproducibility, ruggedness (no -moving-parts operation) and flexibility, make it particularly desirable for numerous applications. A series of prototype (research model) acousto -optic tunable filter instruments were developed and tested in order to investigate the feasibility of the technology for quantitative near-IR spectrometry. Development included design, component procurement, assembly and/or configuration of the optical and electronic subsystems of which each functional spectrometer arrangement was comprised, as well as computer interfacing and acquisition/control software development. Investigation of this technology involved an evolution of several operational spectrometer systems, each of which offered improvements over its predecessor. Appropriate testing was conducted at various stages of development. Demonstrations of the potential applicability of our AOTF spectrometer to quantitative process monitoring or laboratory analysis of numerous organic substances, including food materials, were

  4. Spectrally resolved confocal microscopy using lanthanide centred near-IR emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Zhiyu; Tropiano, Manuel; Mantulnikovs, Konstantins

    2015-01-01

    The narrow, near infrared (NIR) emission from lanthanide ions has attracted great interest, particularly with regard to developing tools for bioimaging, where the long lifetimes of lanthanide excited states can be exploited to address problems arising from autofluorescence and sample transparency....... Despite the promise of lanthanide-based probes for near-IR imaging, few reports on their use are present in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that images can be recorded by monitoring NIR emission from lanthanide complexes using detectors, optical elements and a microscope that were primarily designed...

  5. CH1-ORB MOON M3 2 L0 RAW NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMAGES V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains raw near-IR spectral image cubes acquired from November 2008 through August 2009 by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument during the...

  6. CH1-ORB MOON M3 4 L2 REFLECTANCE NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMGS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains pixel located, reflectance-calibrated, near-IR spectral image data acquired from November 2008 through August 2009 by the Moon Mineralogy...

  7. NEAR-IR PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HB, MSTO, AND SGB FOR METAL POOR GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  8. Using Near-IR Imaging to Probe Accretion-Disk Physics in Powerful Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton; O'Dea, Chris; Baum, Stefi

    1999-08-01

    An intriguing question in the study of powerful radio galaxies concerns the reason for their wide diversity of properties: is this related predominantly to external environmental effects, or to intrinsic differences in their central engines and accretion processes? We propose to address this question by using the 2.1m + ONIS to obtain J, H and K imaging of two samples of FR I and FR II radio galaxies, to measure the luminosity and colors of warm circumnuclear dust and determine the near- IR structure and environment of the surrounding host galaxies. The dust absorbs radiation from the AGN and re-radiates it in the near-IR, which can thus be used as a diagnostic of the AGN radiant energy output. This will be compared with the AGN kinetic energy output in the form of radio jets. Our two samples are statistically well-matched in both radio power and redshift space, allowing us to carry out statistical comparisons between AGN properties such as the radiant / kinetic energy conversion, as well as large-scale host galaxy properties. This will indicate whether differences between these classes of active galaxies are related primarily to the central engine, or instead dominated by the large-scale properties of the host galaxy and its environment.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for optical detection of colon cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Sarit; Pellach, Michal [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Kam, Yossi [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Grinberg, Igor; Corem-Salkmon, Enav [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Rubinstein, Abraham [Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12065, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Margel, Shlomo, E-mail: shlomo.margel@mail.biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry, Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2013-03-01

    Near IR (NIR) fluorescent human serum albumin (HSA) nanoparticles hold great promise as contrast agents for tumor diagnosis. HSA nanoparticles are considered to be biocompatible, non-toxic and non-immunogenic. In addition, NIR fluorescence properties of these nanoparticles are important for in vivo tumor diagnostics, with low autofluorescence and relatively deep penetration of NIR irradiation due to low absorption of biomatrices. The present study describes the synthesis of new NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, by entrapment of a NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles, which also significantly increases the photostability of the dye. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA) and anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA) were covalently conjugated to the NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles, increasing the potential fluorescent signal in tumors with upregulated corresponding receptors. Specific colon tumor detection by the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles was demonstrated in a chicken embryo model and a rat model. In future work we also plan to encapsulate cancer drugs such as doxorubicin within the NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles for both colon cancer imaging and therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Near IR human serum albumin nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticles were shown to be physically and chemically stable and photostable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumor-targeting ligands were covalently conjugated to the nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific colon cancer tumor detection was demonstrated in chicken-embryo and rat models.

  10. Near-IR Spectroscopy of Lyman Break Galaxies in Two QSO Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth, Pimol; Elston, Richard J.

    2001-02-01

    Recently there have been numerous detections of z>=3 galaxies using the Lyman break technique [8] allowing for direct observations of galaxies in a young state. We propose to conduct a comprehensive study of the properties of these Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) using near-IR spectroscopy to study the rest-frame optical emission lines H(beta), [OII] (lambda) 3727, and [OIII] (lambda)$(lambda) 4959, 5007. Observations of these emission lines will allow us to determine the source of excitations (AGN vs. star formation), star formation rates, chemical abundances, and nuclear velocity dispersions of LBGs in the fields of Q1244+1129 and Q1451+1223. By supplementing our near-IR observations with available observations of QSO absorption line spectra, we can constrain the total halo mass of each absorbing galaxy and consequently constrain the bias of galaxy formation. Ultimately, we will combine the information obtained from these spectra with existing HST NICMOS and WFPC-2 observations and galaxy formation models to determine the nature of LBGs. The 4-m coupled with the multi-slit capability of FLAMINGOS make it now efficient to carry out a comprehensive study of these LBGs. Study of these galaxies, when the universe was 10% of its current age, is crucial in our efforts to better understand galaxy formation and evolution.

  11. Targeting β-amyloid plaques and oligomers: development of near-IR fluorescence imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongwu; Yang, Jian; Wang, Letian; Xu, Yungen; Zhang, Siyuan; Lv, Jie; Ran, Chongzhao; Li, Yuyan

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicated that shifting treatment to a presymptomatic stage may produce significant benefits to prevent/alleviate the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); in particular, early incorporation of noninvasive imaging and biomarker testing will be significantly beneficial for AD drug development. Based on amyloid cascade hypothesis and its revised version, both β-amyloid deposition and soluble oligomeric species could be good diagnostic biomarkers for AD. Near-IR fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, which so far is limited to animal studies, is a promising method for its incomparable advantages such as low cost, high-throughput and easy operation. This review focuses on recent reported NIRF probes that showed excellent binding to plaques and oligomers. We hope that this review will shed light on the future of NIRF probes' discovery.

  12. Near-IR Spectral Imaging of Semiconductor Absorption Sites in Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Samson

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive spectral maps of absorption sites in integrated circuits (ICs by varying the wavelength of the optical probe within the near-IR range. This method has allowed us to improve the contrast of the acquired images by revealing structures that have a different optical absorption from neighboring sites. A false color composite image from those acquired at different wavelengths is generated from which the response of each semiconductor structure can be deduced. With the aid of the spectral maps, nonuniform absorption was also observed in a semiconductor structure located near an electrical overstress defect. This method may prove important in failure analysis of ICs by uncovering areas exhibiting anomalous absorption, which could improve localization of defective edifices in the semiconductor parts of the microchip

  13. AgCl-doped CdSe quantum dots with near-IR photoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Kotin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped with a novel Ag precursor: AgCl. The addition of AgCl causes dramatic changes in the morphology of synthesized nanocrystals from spherical nanoparticles to tetrapods and finally to large ellipsoidal nanoparticles. Ellipsoidal nanoparticles possess an intensive near-IR photoluminescence ranging up to 0.9 eV (ca. 1400 nm. In this article, we explain the reasons for the formation of the ellipsoidal nanoparticles as well as the peculiarities of the process. The structure, Ag content, and optical properties of quantum dots are also investigated. The optimal conditions for maximizing both the reaction yield and IR photoluminescence quantum yield are found.

  14. Real-time near IR (1310 nm) imaging of CO2 laser ablation of enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-18

    The high-transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) can be exploited for real-time imaging of ablation crater formation during drilling with lasers. NIR images were acquired with an InGaAs focal plane array and a NIR zoom microscope during drilling incisions in human enamel samples with a lambda=9.3-microm CO(2) laser operating at repetition rates of 50-300-Hz with and without a water spray. Crack formation, dehydration and thermal changes were observed during ablation. These initial images demonstrate the potential of NIR imaging to monitor laser-ablation events in real-time to provide information about the mechanism of ablation and to evaluate the potential for peripheral thermal and mechanical damage.

  15. Measurement and compensation of laser-induced wavefront deformations and focal shifts in near IR optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenvoll, Martin; Schäfer, Bernd; Mann, Klaus

    2014-10-20

    We demonstrate the feasibility of passive compensation of the thermal lens effect in fused silica optics, placing suitable optical materials with negative dn/dT in the beam path of a high power near IR fiber laser. Following a brief overview of the involved mechanisms, photo-thermal absorption measurements with a Hartmann-Shack sensor are described, from which coefficients for surface/coating and bulk absorption in various materials are determined. Based on comprehensive knowledge of the 2D wavefront deformations resulting from absorption, passive compensation of thermally induced aberrations in complex optical systems is possible, as illustrated for an F-Theta objective. By means of caustic measurements during high-power operation we are able to demonstrate a 60% reduction of the focal shift in F-Theta lenses through passive compensation.

  16. Near-IR brightening of the blazar CTA 102 (2230+114) observed by the GASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnerero, M. I.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Arevalo, M. J.; Bueno, A.; Gonzalez, A. I.; Puerto-Gimenez, I.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; GASP Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    The GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) reports on the recent observation of a strong near-IR brightening of the gamma-loud quasar CTA 102. This is one of the 28 blazars for which the GASP performs a long-term, multiwavelength monitoring. Observations performed at the Teide Observatory on 2012 June 5.2 UT revealed J = 14.02 +/- 0.02, H = 13.19 +/- 0.02, and Ks = 12.36 +/- 0.02, compared to J = 15.42 +/- 0.04, H = 14.99 +/- 0.04, and Ks = 14.30 +/- 0.06 measured on 2011 December 5.9 UT.

  17. Fabrication of Large Area Fishnet Optical Metamaterial Structures Operational at Near-IR Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis W. Prather

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a fabrication process for large area (2 mm × 2 mm fishnet metamaterial structures for near IR wavelengths. This process involves: (a defining a sacrificial Si template structure onto a quartz wafer using deep-UV lithography and a dry etching process (b deposition of a stack of Au-SiO2-Au layers and (c a ‘lift-off’ process which removes the sacrificial template structure to yield the fishnet structure. The fabrication steps in this process are compatible with today’s CMOS technology making it eminently well suited for batch fabrication. Also, depending on area of the exposure mask available for patterning the template structure, this fabrication process can potentially lead to optical metamaterials spanning across wafer-size areas.

  18. The voltage optimization of a four-element lens used on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry for highest energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, O., E-mail: omersise@sdu.edu.tr [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Martínez, G. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Madesis, I. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Laoutaris, A. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Department of Applied Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR, 15780 Athens (Greece); Dimitriou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Fernández-Martín, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zouros, T.J.M. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • We investigate the voltage settings for the four-element injection lens of an HDA. • The two well-known approaches, BEM and FDM, in charged particle optics were used. • We tested optimal lens voltages from simulation on the actual experimental setup. • The measured FWHM were well modeled using realistic source parameters. • The results are helpful to experimenters. - Abstract: The methodology and results of a detailed four-element lens optimization analysis based on electron trajectory numerical simulations are presented for a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA), whose entry aperture size is determined by the injection lens itself and is therefore virtual. Trajectory calculations were performed using both the boundary-element method (BEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM) and results from these two different approaches were benchmarked against each other, to probe and confirm the accuracy of our results. Since the first and last electrode are held at fixed potentials, the two intermediate adjustable lens electrode voltages were varied over the entire available voltage space in a direct, systematic, brute-force approach, while minima in beam spot size on the 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) at the exit of the HDA were investigated using a beam shaping approach. Lens voltages demonstrating improved energy resolution for the combined lens/HDA/PSD spectrograph system were sought with and without pre-retardation. The optimal voltages were then tested experimentally on the modeled HDA system using a hot-wire electron gun. The measured energy resolution was found to be in good overall agreement with our simulations, particularly at the highest resolution (∼0.05%) working conditions. These simulations also provide a detailed insight to the distinctive trajectory optics and positions of the first and second image planes, when the PSD has to be placed some distance away from the HDA exit plane, and is therefore not at the ideal optics

  19. Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-07

    We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.

  20. Serial removal of caries lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces using near-IR image-guided IR laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Tom, Henry; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have established that caries lesions can be imaged with high contrast without the interference of stains at near-IR wavelengths greater than 1300-nm. It has been demonstrated that computer controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, we report our progress towards the development of algorithms for generating rasterized ablation maps from near-IR reflectance images for the removal of natural lesions from tooth occlusal surfaces. An InGaAs camera and a filtered tungsten-halogen lamp producing near-IR light in the range of 1500-1700-nm were used to collect crosspolarization reflectance images of tooth occlusal surfaces. A CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3- μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs was used for image-guided ablation.

  1. Phthalocyanine dimerization-based molecular beacons using near-IR fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterova, Irina V.; Erdem, S. Sibel; Pakhomov, Serhii; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Herein we demonstrate the use of a novel dimerization-based molecular beacon (MB) probe consisting of two metallo-phthalocyanine (Pc) fluorophores that use near-IR fluorescence, appropriate for highly specific and sensitive in-vivo and/or in-vitro DNA/RNA detection. Pc’s possess a propensity to form non-fluorescent H-dimers that is utilized as the molecular “off” switch in the closed MB conformation. The “on” switch, which is generated when the solution target binds to the loop of the MB forming the open form, also provides two fluorophores for transduction resulting in a doubling of the extinction coefficient and improving the resulting fluorescence yield compared to a classical single-fluorophore/quencher MB system. In addition, the Pc-based MBs possess high thermal, photo and chemical stabilities that are essential for many highly sensitive applications, such as molecular imaging. The dimer-based MBs were obtained using a simple single-step synthesis procedure and demonstrated excellent quenching efficiencies (98%) as well as a high signal-to-background ratio (~60) exceeding the performance characteristics of many conventionally-available MB probes. PMID:19191492

  2. In vivo near-IR imaging of approximal dental decay at 1,310 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staninec, Michal; Lee, Chulsung; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    The high transparency of dental enamel in the near-IR (NIR) light at 1,310-nm can be exploited for imaging dental caries without the use of ionizing radiation (X-rays). We present the results of the first in vivo imaging study in which NIR images were acquired of approximal contact surfaces. NIR imaging hand-pieces were developed and attached to a compact InGaAs focal plane array and subsequently used to acquire in vivo NIR images of 33 caries lesions on 18 test subjects. The carious lesions were discernible on bitewing radiographs, but were not visible upon clinical examination. NIR images were acquired in vivo from three directions and the majority of lesions examined were too small to require restoration, based on accepted bitewing radiograph criteria. All but one of the 33 lesions examined were successfully imaged from at least one direction. This first in vivo study of imaging at the 1,310-nm wavelength region shows that NIR imaging has great potential as a screening tool for the detection of approximal lesions without the use of ionizing radiation. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Investigation near IR absorption in thin crystalline Si wafers with randomly etched nano-pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Nurfarizza Surhada Mohd; Sinin, Nurul Aqidah Mohd; Sepeai, Suhaila; Leong, Cheow Siu; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2017-05-01

    Significant research has been focused on optimizing efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells with nanostructured surfaces. Light absorption is greatly enhanced by light trapping in nanostructures. The main focus of research work presented here is to enhance the broadband light absorption in randomly etched nano-pillar textures. The nano-pillars were formed through metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) process with silver nanoparticles serving as the etch masks. Uniformly distributed nano-pillars (SiNPs) were fabricated using single step etch process. Nano-pillars were fabricated on thin (˜ 150 µm) c-Si substrates by immersion into an aqueous solution of HF, AgNO3, and H2O2. The nano-pillars morphology and optical response were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and near IR transmission. The performance of growth nano-pillars on as-cut (without saw damage removal process) and planar substrate (with saw damage removed) was evaluated. Typical dimensions of the vertically-etched anisotropic Si nano-pillars were diameter ˜ 80-250 nm, depth ˜ 500-1000 nm, and separation ˜ 300-500 nm for etching times in 5 and 20 minutes range. Such nano-pillars exhibit almost zero reflection and are expected to enhance efficiency of the solar cell.

  4. Doubly and triply linked porphyrin-perylene monoimides as near IR dyes with large dipole moments and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-01-21

    Doubly and triply linked porphyrin-perylene monoimides 3 and 4, with extraordinary stability, large dipole moments, and strong near IR absorption, were prepared by means of one-pot oxidative cyclodehydrogenation promoted by FeCl 3. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. Near-IR imaging of erbium laser ablation with a water spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia L.; Maffei, Marie E.; Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Near-IR (NIR) imaging can be used to view the formation of ablation craters during laser ablation since the enamel of the tooth is almost completely transparent near 1310-nm1. Laser ablation craters can be monitored under varying irradiation conditions to assess peripheral thermal and transient-stress induced damage, measure the rate and efficiency of ablation and provide insight into the ablation mechanism. There are fundamental differences in the mechanism of enamel ablation using erbium lasers versus carbon dioxide laser systems due to the nature of the primary absorber and it is necessary to have water present on the tooth surface for efficient ablation at erbium laser wavelengths. In this study, sound human tooth sections of approximately 2-3-mm thickness were irradiated by free running and Q-switched Er:YAG & Er:YSGG lasers under varying conditions with and without a water spray. The incision area in the interior of each sample was imaged using a tungsten-halogen lamp with a band-pass filter centered at 1310-nm combined with an InGaAs area camera with a NIR zoom microscope. Obvious differences in the crater evolution were observed between CO2 and erbium lasers. Ablation stalled after a few laser pulses without a water spray as anticipated. Efficient ablation was re-initiated by resuming the water spray. Micro-fractures were continuously produced apparently driven along prism lines during multi-pulse ablation. These fractures or fissures appeared to merge together as the crater evolved to form the leading edge of the ablation crater. These observations support the proposed thermo-mechanical mechanisms of erbium laser involving the strong mechanical forces generated by selective absorption by water.

  6. Synchrotron-Based Highest Resolution FTIR Spectroscopy of Azulene, Naphthalene (C_{10}H_8), Indole (C_{8}H_6N) and Biphenyl (C_{12}H_{10})

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S.; Quack, M.; Lerch, Ph.

    2013-06-01

    Great progress has been made in resolution (Δν≤ 20 MHz) and sensitivity in the field of high resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy over the last decade. In particular, the use of synchrotron sources such as the Swiss Light Source (SLS) have overcome one of the disadvantages of high resolution FTIR spectroscopy, the problem of noise related to modest signal strength with broad band coverage from weak light sources. FTIR spectroscopy with synchrotron sources now makes it possible to investigate scientific questions of fundamental physics and astrophysics. One of the great challenges of astronomical infrared spectroscopy is the identification of the Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs) found in several interstellar objects. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed to be the carrier of the UIBs For that reason we have started to investigate with our ETH-SLS interferometer the rotationally resolved FTIR spectra of the bicyclic molecules naphthalene (C_{10}H_8)^d and azulene (C_{10}H_8) as a simple prototypical spectrum for a PAH infrared spectrum and of indole (C_{8}H_6N) as a prototype of a bicyclic heteroaromatic system. We have analysed in high resolution the ν_{46} band of naphthalene, the ν_{35} and 2ν_{40} bands of indole as well as the ν_{44} band of azulene. We have found a coincidence between the ν_{46} fundamental of naphthalene and the UIB at 12.78 μm. A comparison of the biphenyl FTIR spectrum with the UIBs in the range 13 to 15 μm illustrates a coincidence between the UIBs at 13.6 μm and 14.2 μm with the major biphenyl bands. S. Albert, K. Keppler Albert and M. Quack, Trend in Optics and Photonics 2003, 84, 177-180. S. Albert and M. Quack, ChemPhysChem, 2007, 8, 1271-1281. S. Albert, K. Keppler Albert and M. Quack, High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Handbook of High Resolution Spectroscopy, Vol. 2 (Eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt), Wiley, Chicester 2011, 965-1021. S. Albert, K.K. Albert, Ph

  7. DEEP NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M4: HUNTING FOR BROWN DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieball, A. [Argelander Institut für Astronomie, Helmholtz Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, University of Bonn (Germany); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Knigge, C. [Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Allard, F. [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574: CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Dotter, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Richer, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Zurek, D., E-mail: adieball@astro.uni-bonn.de [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 near-IR (NIR) imaging data of the globular cluster (GC) M4. The best-photometry NIR color–magnitude diagram (CMD) clearly shows the main sequence extending toward the expected end of the hydrogen-burning limit and going beyond this point toward fainter sources. The white dwarf (WD) sequence can be identified. As such, this is the deepest NIR CMD of a GC to date. Archival HST optical data were used for proper-motion cleaning of the CMD and for distinguishing the WDs from brown dwarf (BD) candidates. Detection limits in the NIR are around F110W ≈ 26.5 mag and F160W ≈ 27 mag, and in the optical around F775W ≈ 28 mag. Comparing our observed CMDs with theoretical models, we conclude that we have reached beyond the H-burning limit in our NIR CMD and are probably just above or around this limit in our optical–NIR CMDs. Thus, any faint NIR sources that have no optical counterpart are potential BD candidates, since the optical data are not deep enough to detect them. We visually inspected the positions of NIR sources that are fainter than the H-burning limit in F110W and for which the optical photometry did not return a counterpart. We found in total five sources for which we did not get an optical measurement. For four of these five sources, a faint optical counterpart could be visually identified, and an upper optical magnitude was estimated. Based on these upper optical magnitude limits, we conclude that one source is likely a WD, one source could be either a WD or BD candidate, and the remaining two sources agree with being BD candidates. No optical counterpart could be detected for just one source, which makes this source a good BD candidate. We conclude that we found in total four good BD candidates.

  8. Predicting future space near-IR grism surveys using the WFC3 infrared spectroscopic parallels survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Teplitz, Harry; Rafelski, Marc [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bunker, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ross, Nathaniel; Malkan, Matt [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Scarlata, Claudia; Bedregal, Alejandro G. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dominguez, Alberto; Masters, Dan; Siana, Brian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We present near-infrared emission line counts and luminosity functions from the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) program for 29 fields (0.037 deg{sup 2}) observed using both the G102 and G141 grism. Altogether we identify 1048 emission line galaxies with observed equivalent widths greater than 40 Å, 467 of which have multiple detected emission lines. We use simulations to correct for significant (>20%) incompleteness introduced in part by the non-dithered, non-rotated nature of the grism parallels. The WISP survey is sensitive to fainter flux levels ((3-5) × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}) than the future space near-infrared grism missions aimed at baryonic acoustic oscillation cosmology ((1-4) × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}), allowing us to probe the fainter emission line galaxies that the shallower future surveys may miss. Cumulative number counts of 0.7 < z < 1.5 galaxies reach 10,000 deg{sup –2} above an Hα flux of 2 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Hα-emitting galaxies with comparable [O III] flux are roughly five times less common than galaxies with just Hα emission at those flux levels. Galaxies with low Hα/[O III] ratios are very rare at the brighter fluxes that future near-infrared grism surveys will probe; our survey finds no galaxies with Hα/[O III] < 0.95 that have Hα flux greater than 3 × 10{sup –16} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. Our Hα luminosity function contains a comparable number density of faint line emitters to that found by the Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer near-infrared grism surveys, but significantly fewer (factors of 3-4 less) high-luminosity emitters. We also find that our high-redshift (z = 0.9-1.5) counts are in agreement with the high-redshift (z = 1.47) narrowband Hα survey of HiZELS (Sobral et al.), while our lower redshift luminosity function (z = 0.3-0.9) falls slightly below their z = 0.84 result. The evolution

  9. Selective Laser Ablation of Carious Lesions using Simultaneous Scanned Near-IR Diode and CO2 Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenneth H; Fried, Daniel

    2017-01-28

    Previous studies have established that carious lesions can be imaged with high contrast using near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption, namely 1450-nm, without the interference of stains. It has been demonstrated that computer-controlled laser scanning systems utilizing IR lasers operating at high pulse repetition rates can be used for serial imaging and selective removal of caries lesions. In this study, a point-to-point scanning system was developed integrating a 1450-nm diode laser with the CO2 ablation laser. This approach is advantageous since it does not require an expensive near-IR camera. In this pilot study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a combined NIR and IR laser system for the selective removal of carious lesions.

  10. IRTF NEAR-IR SPECTROSCOPY OF ASTEROIDS V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution, near-infrared (0.8 - 2.5 micron) spectra of asteroids obtained with SpeX at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on...

  11. IRTF NEAR-IR SPECTROSCOPY OF ASTEROIDS V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution, near-infrared (0.8 - 2.5 micron) spectra of asteroids obtained with SpeX at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on...

  12. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Mars Analogue Materials Under Arid Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the hyper-spectral imagers MRO-CRISM and Mars Express OMEGA in martian orbit have signatures from Fe-bearing phases (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, and jarosite), H2O/OH-bearing phases (e.g., smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases), and carbonate [e.g., 1-5]. Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of VNIR spectra acquired in the laboratory under appropriate environmental conditions on samples whose mineralogical composition is known. We report here additional results for our ongoing project [6] to acquire VNIR spectra under arid conditions.

  13. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Xukun Yin; Lei Dong; Huadan Zheng; Xiaoli Liu; Hongpeng Wu; Yanfang Yang; Weiguang Ma; Lei Zhang; Wangbao Yin; Liantuan Xiao; Suotang Jia

    2016-01-01

    A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can ...

  14. Neptune’s zonal winds from near-IR Keck adaptive optics imaging in August 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, S.C.; De Pater, I.; Marcus, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present H-band (1.4–1.8 ?m) images of Neptune with a spatial resolution of ?0.06?, taken with the W.M. Keck II telescope using the slit-viewing camera (SCAM) of the NIRSPEC instrument backed with Adaptive Optics. Images with 60-second integration times span 4 hours each on UT 20 and 21 August,

  15. High heralding-efficiency of near-IR fiber coupled photon pairs for quantum technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, P. Ben [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Murphy, Ryan [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Rosenberg, Danna [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Grein, Matthew E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Stelmakh, Veronika [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Bennink, Ryan S [ORNL; Wong, Franco N. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2015-01-01

    We report on the development and use of a high heralding-efficiency, single-mode-fiber coupled telecom-band source of entangled photons for quantum technology applications. The source development efforts consisted of theoretical and experimental efforts and we demonstrated a correlated-mode coupling efficiency of 97% 2%, the highest efficiency yet achieved for this type of system. We then incorporated these beneficial source development techniques in a Sagnac configured telecom-band entangled photon source that generates photon pairs entangled in both time/energy and polarization degrees of freedom. We made use of these highly desirable entangled states to investigate several promising quantum technologies.

  16. Low Mass AGN: Combining IRAC With Near-IR Grism Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, James; Teplitz, Harry; Malkan, Matt; Scarlata, Claudia; Bagley, Micaela; Baronchelli, Ivano; Hayden-Pawson, Connor; Rafelski, Marc

    2017-10-01

    Low mass AGN are critical to understanding the evolution of AGNs and stars in galaxies, marking the time periods of highest accretion efficiency and greatest likely deviations from the black hole mass - sigma correlation. Using the WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP), we have just recently identified 68 candidate z > 1 AGN in 27 fields from their near-infrared emission line ratios. The WISP survey selects emission line galaxies without any pre-selection bias and is exquisitely sensitive to low mass (down to 10^7 solar masses), high-equivalent width galaxies that are missed by most other surveys. We propose to take IRAC 4.5 micron imaging of these AGN candidate fields in order to confirm 68 low mass AGN candidates, identify additional low mass IR-AGN missed by emission line selection, and produce the SED fits that can separate hot dust from star light, allowing comparison of stellar mass to AGN bolometric luminosity. The upcoming Euclid and WFIRST missions will generate hundreds of thousands of near-infrared spectra over a similar redshift range to WISP. For most of these objects, near-infrared emission line ratios will be the only viable AGN diagnostic. The Spitzer IRAC color AGN selection is one of the most robust AGN identifiers available. We wish to test these near-infrared emission line selection methods against the IRAC selection in order to evaluate the reliability of the AGN these future missions are likely to produce.

  17. 3D kinematics of the near-IR HH 223 outflow in L723

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Estalella, R.; Gómez, G.; García-Lorenzo, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we derive the full 3D kinematics of the near-infrared outflow HH 223, located in the dark cloud Lynds 723 (L723), where a well-defined quadrupolar CO outflow is found. HH 223 appears projected on to the two lobes of the east-west CO outflow. The radio continuum source VLA 2, towards the centre of the CO outflow, harbours a multiple system of low-mass young stellar objects. One of the components has been proposed to be the exciting source of the east-west CO outflow. From the analysis of the kinematics, we get further evidence on the relationship between the near-infrared and CO outflows and on the location of their exciting source. The proper motions were derived using multi-epoch, narrow-band H2 (2.122 μm line) images. Radial velocities were derived from the 2.122 μm line of the spectra. Because of the extended (˜5 arcmin), S-shaped morphology of the target, the spectra were obtained with the multi-object-spectroscopy (MOS) observing mode using the instrument Long-Slit Intermediate Resolution Infrared Spectrograph (LIRIS) at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. To our knowledge, this work is the first time that MOS observing mode has been successfully used in the near-infrared range for an extended target.

  18. NEAR-IR DIRECT DETECTION OF WATER VAPOR IN TAU BOÖTIS b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockwood, Alexandra C.; Johnson, John A.; Blake, Geoffrey A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bender, Chad F.; Richert, Alexander J. W. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carr, John S. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Barman, Travis, E-mail: alock@caltech.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We use high dynamic range, high-resolution L-band spectroscopy to measure the radial velocity (RV) variations of the hot Jupiter in the τ Boötis planetary system. The detection of an exoplanet by the shift in the stellar spectrum alone provides a measure of the planet's minimum mass, with the true mass degenerate with the unknown orbital inclination. Treating the τ Boo system as a high flux ratio double-lined spectroscopic binary permits the direct measurement of the planet's true mass as well as its atmospheric properties. After removing telluric absorption and cross-correlating with a model planetary spectrum dominated by water opacity, we measure a 6σ detection of the planet at K{sub p} = 111 ± 5 km s{sup –1}, with a 1σ upper limit on the spectroscopic flux ratio of 10{sup –4}. This RV leads to a planetary orbital inclination of i=45{sub −4}{sup +3}° and a mass of M{sub P}=5.90{sub −0.20}{sup +0.35} M{sub Jup}. We report the first detection of water vapor in the atmosphere of a non-transiting hot Jupiter, τ Boo b.

  19. In vivo flow cytometry and time-resolved near-IR angiography and lymphography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Brock, Robert W.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2007-05-01

    Integration of photoacoustic and photothermal techniques with high-speed, high-resolution transmission and fluorescence microscopy shows great potential for in vivo flow cytometry and indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared (IR) angiography of blood and lymph microvessels. In particular, the capabilities of in vivo flow cytometry using rat mesentery and nude mouse ear models are demonstrated for real-time quantitative detection of circulating and migrating individual blood and cancer cells in skin, mesentery, lymph nodes, liver, kidney; studying vascular dynamics with a focus on lymphatics; monitoring cell traffic between blood and lymph systems; high-speed imaging of cell deformability in flow; and label-free real-time monitoring of single cell extravasation from blood vessel lumen into tissue. As presented, the advantages of ICG IR-angiography include estimation of time resolved dye dynamics (appearance and clearance) in blood and lymph microvessels using fluorescent and photoacoustic modules of the integrated technique. These new approaches are important for monitoring and quantifying metastatic and apoptotic cells; comparative measurements of plasma and cell velocities; analysis of immune responses; monitoring of circulating macromolecules, chylomicrons, bacteria, viruses and nanoparticles; molecular imaging. In the future, we believe that the integrated technique presented will have great potential for translation to early disease diagnoses (e.g. cancer) or assessment of innovative therapeutic interventions in humans.

  20. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xukun; Dong, Lei; Zheng, Huadan; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yanfang; Ma, Weiguang; Zhang, Lei; Yin, Wangbao; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-27

    A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10(-8) W ⋅ cm (-1)/Hz(1/2).

  1. Impact of Humidity on Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Based CO Detection Using a Near-IR Telecommunication Diode Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xukun Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A near-IR CO trace gas sensor based on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS is evaluated using humidified nitrogen samples. Relaxation processes in the CO-N2-H2O system are investigated. A simple kinetic model is used to predict the sensor performance at different gas pressures. The results show that CO has a ~3 and ~5 times slower relaxation time constant than CH4 and HCN, respectively, under dry conditions. However, with the presence of water, its relaxation time constant can be improved by three orders of magnitude. The experimentally determined normalized detection sensitivity for CO in humid gas is 1.556 × 10 − 8   W ⋅ cm − 1 / Hz 1 / 2 .

  2. Colloidal silicon quantum dots: synthesis and luminescence tuning from the near-UV to the near-IR range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes a series of representative synthesis processes, which have been developed in the last two decades to prepare silicon quantum dots (QDs. The methods include both top-down and bottom-up approaches, and their methodological advantages and disadvantages are presented. Considerable efforts in surface functionalization of QDs have categorized it into (i a two-step process and (ii in situ surface derivatization. Photophysical properties of QDs are summarized to highlight the continuous tuning of photoluminescence color from the near-UV through visible to the near-IR range. The emission features strongly depend on the silicon nanostructures including QD surface configurations. Possible mechanisms of photoluminescence have been summarized to ascertain the future challenges toward industrial use of silicon-based light emitters.

  3. Exploring the NRO Opportunity for a Hubble-Sized Wide-Field Near-IR Space Telescope - New WFIRST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Alan; Spergel, David; Mountain, Matt; Postman, Mark; Elliott, Erin; Bendek, Eduardo; Bennett, David; Dalcanton, Julianne; Gaudi, Scott; Gehrels, Neil; hide

    2013-01-01

    We discuss scientific, technical, and programmatic issues related to the use of an NRO 2.4m telescope for the WFIRST initiative of the 2010 Decadal Survey. We show that this implementation of WFIRST, which we call "NEW WFIRST," would achieve the goals of the NWNH Decadal Survey for the WFIRST core programs of Dark Energy and Microlensing Planet Finding, with the crucial benefit of deeper and/or wider near-IR surveys for GO science and a potentially Hubble-like Guest Observer program. NEW WFIRST could also include a coronagraphic imager for direct detection of dust disks and planets around neighboring stars, a high-priority science and technology precursor for future ambitious programs to image Earth-like planets around neighboring stars.

  4. Image-guided removal of occlusal caries lesions with a λ= 9.3-μm CO2 laser using near-IR transillumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Leon C.; Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that near-IR transillumination is well suited for imaging deep occlusal lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine if near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser for the selective removal of natural occlusal lesions on extracted teeth. Near-IR occlusal transillumination images of extracted human teeth with natural occlusal caries lesions were acquired using an InGaAs camera and near-IR light at wavelengths from 1290 to 1470-nm from a filtered tungsten halogen source. A CO2 laser operating at 9.3-μm with a pulse duration of 10-15-μs and a pulse repetition rate of 100-300-Hz was used for caries removal. Optical Coherence tomography was used to confirm lesion presence and serial scans were used to assess selective removal. Teeth were also sectioned for histological examination using polarized light microscopy. This study suggests that near-infrared transillumination is a promising method for the image guided laser ablation of occlusal caries lesions but the use of serial near-IR transillumination imaging for monitoring lesion removal was limited.

  5. Graphitic carbon nitride C 6N 9H 3·HCl: Characterisation by UV and near-IR FT Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Paul F.; Lees, Victoria; Quirico, Eric; Montagnac, Gilles; Sella, Andrea; Reynard, Bruno; Simon, Patrick; Bailey, Edward; Deifallah, Malek; Corà, Furio

    2009-10-01

    The graphitic layered compound C 6N 9H 3·HCl was prepared by reaction between melamine and cyanuric chloride under high pressure-high temperature conditions in a piston cylinder apparatus and characterised using SEM, powder X-ray diffraction, UV Raman and near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy with near-IR excitation. Theoretical calculations using density functional methods permitted evaluation of the mode of attachment of H atoms to nitrogen sites in the structure and a better understanding of the X-ray diffraction pattern. Broadening in the UV and near-IR FT Raman spectra indicate possible disordering of the void sites within the graphitic layers or it could be due to electron-phonon coupling effects.

  6. Winds in the Middle Cloud Deck From the Near-IR Imaging by the Venus Monitoring Camera Onboard Venus Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatuntsev, I. V.; Patsaeva, M. V.; Titov, D. V.; Ignatiev, N. I.; Turin, A. V.; Fedorova, A. A.; Markiewicz, W. J.

    2017-11-01

    For more than 8 years the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the Venus Express orbiter performed continuous imaging of the Venus cloud layer in UV, visible and near-IR filters. We applied the correlation approach to sequences of the near-IR images at 965 nm to track cloud features and determine the wind field in the middle and lower cloud (49-57 km). From the VMC images that spanned from December of 2006 through August of 2013 we derived zonal and meridional components of the wind field. In low-to-middle latitudes (5-65°S) the velocity of the retrograde zonal wind was found to be 68-70 m/s. The meridional wind velocity slowly decreases from peak value of +5.8 ± 1.2 m/s at 15°S to 0 at 65-70°S. The mean meridional speed has a positive sign at 5-65°S suggesting equatorward flow. This result, together with the earlier measurements of the poleward flow at the cloud tops, indicates the presence of a closed Hadley cell in the altitude range 55-65 km. Long-term variations of zonal and meridional velocity components were found during 1,200 Earth days of observation. At 20° ± 5°S the zonal wind speed increases from -67.18 ± 1.81 m/s to -77.30 ± 2.49 m/s. The meridional wind gradually increases from +1.30 ± 1.82 m/s to +8.53 ± 2.14 m/s. Following Bertaux et al. (2016) we attribute this long-term trend to the influence from the surface topography on the dynamical process in the atmosphere via the upward propagation of gravity waves that became apparent in the VMC observations due to slow drift of the Venus Express orbit over Aphrodite Terra.

  7. Impact of animal density on cattle nutrition in dry Mediterranean rangelands: a faecal near-IR spectroscopy-aided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Yehuda, Y; Muklada, H; Peleg, G; Henkin, Z; Voet, H; Ungar, E D

    2018-02-01

    In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement. In each season, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the chemical composition of herbage samples (ash, NDF, CP, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) content from IVDMD). Near-IR spectroscopy was applied also to faecal samples to determine the chemical composition of the diet selected by the animal, as well as the contents of ash, NDF and CP in the faeces themselves. A faecal-NIRS equation was applied to estimate the dietary proportion of PL. Seasonal categories were green, dry without PL supplementation and dry with it. We found no effects of animal density on nutrition during the green season but effects were apparent when cows consumed dry pasture. Ash content predicted by faecal NIRS was higher in the diet than in plant samples clipped from pasture, which infers that cows ingested soil. Dietary and faecal ash contents were higher (Panimals. During the dry period, dietary contents of ME were higher in L than in H (Panimal health, the above results cast doubts on the long-term sustainability of the higher of the animal densities tested. Although it may be sustainable vis-à-vis the vegetation, treatment H may have exceeded the boundaries of what is acceptable for cow health. Chemical information revealed with NIRS can be used to evaluate whether animal densities are compatible with animal health and welfare standards and can play a role in determining the carrying capacity of Mediterranean rangelands.

  8. Single-lane single-fluor sequencing using dideoxy-labeled, heavy-atom-modified near-IR fluorescent dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daryl C.; Flanagan, James H., Jr.; Legendre, Benjamin L., Jr.; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.

    1995-04-01

    Using a near-IR (NIR) fluorescence detection system and labels synthesized in our laboratories, electropherograms of oligonucleotides separated by capillary gel electrophoresis and detected using NIR fluorescence will be presented. The sequence of nucleotide bases was determined using a single-lane, single-dye technique. The molar concentrations of the ddNTP's used during extension reactions were varied in order to achieve a ratio of 4:2:1:0 (A:C:G:T) which allowed the identification of each terminal base via fluorescence intensity measurements. Sequencing ladders were prepared from the template, M13mp18, using standard Sanger dideoxy chain termination techniques, the modified T7 DNA polymerase, and a NIR-labeled M13 primer. The data indicated reliable sequence determination up to 300 bases with a base-calling accuracy of 90%. In order to eliminate the need for dye-labeled primers and the T7 DNA polymerase enzyme, we have developed a sequencing strategy which utilizes dye-labeled dideoxy nucleotides in a single-lane, single-fluor approach. Base-calling is accomplished by measuring the fluorescence lifetime of intramolecular heavy-atom modified dyes.

  9. Efficient near-IR hyperthermia and intense nonlinear optical imaging contrast on the gold nanorod-in-shell nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kuo-Wei; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Chung, Kuei-Yi; Huang, Keng-Shiang; Hsieh, Chien-Tai; Sun, Chi-Kuang; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2009-10-14

    New gold nanorod (Au NR)-in-shell nanostructures were developed to be more efficacious than Au NRs in near-IR (NIR) hyperthermia and nonlinear optical imaging contrast. Au NR-in-shell nanostructures are composed of an intact Au NR in a Au/Ag nanoshell. These nanostructures have a broad, intense absorption band that extends from 400 nm to 900 nm in the NIR. They are more efficient and efficacious than Au NRs with respect to in vitro hypothermia performance. Au NR-in-shell-labeled cancer cells were destroyed using continuous-wave NIR radiation with 50% less laser power than needed for Au NRs. Noticeably, the area of the destroyed cells was significantly larger than the size of the laser irradiation beam; in contrast, the destroyed area was usually restricted to the size of the laser beam spot when Au NRs were used. With their extraordinarily broad and strong surface plasmon resonance band, Au NR-in-shell nanostructures efficiently augmented several multiphoton nonlinear processes as well. The multiphoton emission spectrum covered almost the entire visible wavelength. The yield of the multiphoton signals of Au NR-in-shell nanostructures was on average 55 times larger than that of Au NRs. In vitro images of cancer cells targeted by Au NR-in-shell nanostructures revealed a stronger multiphoton contrast than those targeted by Au NRs.

  10. Contrasts in near-IR images of the Venus clouds (VMC/VEx) and their probable causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygina, O. S.; Petrova, E. V.; Markiewicz, W. J.

    2017-09-01

    Contrasts in near-IR images of the Venus clouds (Venus Monitoring Camera VMC/Venus Express) and their probable causes were studied. The comparison of the measured phase profiles to the single-scattering phase functions of particles with different sizes and refractive indices and the phase profiles of clouds modeled with the radiative-transfer code has shown that in most cases, the sizes of particles in the NIR-dark and NIR-bright features are the same; in the NIR images (as well as in the visible ones) the higher brightness may be caused by a higher refractive index of particles in the clouds or/and the higher optical depth of the clouds; the effect of the higher refractive index on the UV profiles is opposite due to absorption; the presence of small submicron particles in the clouds and, especially, above them produces a considerable effect on brightness in UV and visible, while its influence on the NIR brightness is very weak.

  11. Near-IR imaging of interproximal lesions from occlusal surfaces and the influence of stains and plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Bühler, Christopher M.; Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2006-02-01

    Dental enamel manifests high transparency in the near-IR (NIR). Our previous work demonstrated that NIR light at 1310-nm is ideally suited for the transillumination of interproximal dental caries (dental decay in between teeth) and that it can also be used to image decay in the pits and fissures of the occlusal (biting) surfaces of posterior teeth where most new dental decay occurs. Early occlusal lesions cannot be detected by x-rays during the early stages of lesion development due to the overlapping topography of the crown of the tooth. Stains and non-calcified plaque are not visible in the NIR enabling better discrimination of demineralized areas. We also demonstrate that interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above). Moreover, multiple illumination and detector angles can be exploited for optimal contrast between caries and sound tissue. These measurements suggest that NIR imaging offers significant advantages over the conventional visual, tactile and radiographic caries detection methods and other optical caries detection and imaging techniques.

  12. Estimation of Cellulose Crystallinity of Lignocelluloses Using Near-IR FT-Raman Spectroscopy and Comparison of the Raman and Segal-WAXS Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard R. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Of the recently developed univariate and multivariate near-IR FT-Raman methods for estimating cellulose crystallinity, the former method was applied to a variety of lignocelluloses: softwoods, hardwoods, wood pulps, and agricultural residues/fibers. The effect of autofluorescence on the crystallinity estimation was minimized by solvent extraction or chemical treatment...

  13. EVIDENCE FOR NON-STELLAR REST-FRAME NEAR-IR EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Johannes U.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Whitaker, Katherine E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Franx, Marijn [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-03-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR (2–5 μm) emission in galaxies at z ∼ 1. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and Hα emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis, together with the IR-colors and Hα profiles, shows that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of excess in the majority of galaxies. Our results suggest that non-stellar near-IR emission is linked to increased SFRs and is ubiquitous among star-forming galaxies. As such, the near-IR emission might be a powerful tool to measure SFRs in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. An optical-near-IR study of a triplet of super star clusters in the starburst core of M82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westmoquette, M. S. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Bastian, N. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Smith, L. J. [Space Telescope Science Institute and European Space Agency, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seth, A. C. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gallagher III, J. S.; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 5534 Sterling, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Silich, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; González, D. Rosa [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, C.P. 72840, Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, C., E-mail: westmoquette@gmail.com [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-07-10

    We present HST/STIS optical and Gemini/NIFS near-IR IFU spectroscopy and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the triplet of super star clusters (A1, A2, and A3) in the core of the M82 starburst. Using model fits to the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra and the weakness of red supergiant CO absorption features (appearing at ∼6 Myr) in the NIFS H-band spectra, the ages of A2 and A3 are 4.5 ± 1.0 Myr. A1 has strong CO bands, consistent with our previously determined age of 6.4 ± 0.5 Myr. The photometric masses of the three clusters are 4-7 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉}, and their sizes are R{sub eff} = 159, 104, 59 mas (∼2.8, 1.8, 1.0 pc) for A1, A2, and A3. The STIS spectra yielded radial velocities of 320 ± 2, 330 ± 6, and 336 ± 5 km s{sup –1} for A1, A2, and A3, placing them at the eastern end of the x{sub 2} orbits of M82's bar. Clusters A2 and A3 are in high-density (800-1000 cm{sup –3}) environments, and like A1, are surrounded by compact H II regions. We suggest the winds from A2 and A3 have stalled, as in A1, due to the high ISM ambient pressure. We propose that the three clusters were formed in situ on the outer x{sub 2} orbits in regions of dense molecular gas subsequently ionized by the rapidly evolving starburst. The similar radial velocities of the three clusters and their small projected separation of ∼25 pc suggest that they may merge in the near future unless this is prevented by velocity shearing.

  15. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  16. The Spectacular Radio-Near-IR-X-Ray Jet of 3C 111: the X-Ray Emission Mechanism and Jet Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clautice, Devon; Perlman, Eric S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Lister, Matthew L.; Tombesi, Francesco; Cara, Mihai; Marshall, Herman L.; Hogan, Brandon M.; Kazanas, Demos

    2016-01-01

    Relativistic jets are the most energetic manifestation of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) phenomenon. AGN jets are observed from the radio through gamma-rays and carry copious amounts of matter and energy from the subparsec central regions out to the kiloparsec and often megaparsec scale galaxy and cluster environs. While most spatially resolved jets are seen in the radio, an increasing number have been discovered to emit in the optical/near- IR and/or X-ray bands. Here we discuss a spectacular example of this class, the 3C 111 jet, housed in one of the nearest, double-lobed FR II radio galaxies known. We discuss new, deep Chandra and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations that reveal both near-IR and X-ray emission from several components of the 3C 111 jet, as well as both the northern and southern hotspots. Important differences are seen between the morphologies in the radio, X-ray, and near-IR bands. The long (over 100 kpc on each side), straight nature of this jet makes it an excellent prototype for future, deep observations, as it is one of the longest such features seen in the radio, near-IR/optical, and X-ray bands. Several independent lines of evidence, including the X-ray and broadband spectral shape as well as the implied velocity of the approaching hotspot, lead us to strongly disfavor the EC/CMB model and instead favor a two-component synchrotron model to explain the observed X-ray emission for several jet components. Future observations with NuSTAR, HST, and Chandra will allow us to further constrain the emission mechanisms.

  17. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  18. Spatial distribution of Io's volcanic activity from near-IR adaptive optics observations on 100 nights in 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kleer, Katherine; de Pater, Imke

    2016-12-01

    The extreme and time-variable volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io is the result of periodic tidal forcing. The spatial distribution of Io's surface heat flux provides an important constraint on models for tidal heat dissipation, yielding information on interior properties and on the depth at which the tidal heat is primarily dissipated. We analyze the spatial distribution of 48 hot spots based on more than 400 total hot spot detections in adaptive optics images taken on 100 nights in 2013-2015 (data presented in de Kleer and de Pater [2016] Time variability of Io's volcanic activity from near-IR adaptive optics 13 observations on 100 nights in 2013-2015). We present full surface maps of Io at multiple near-infrared wavelengths for three epochs during this time period, and show that the longitudinal distribution of hot spots has not changed significantly since the Galileo mission. We find that hot spots that are persistently active at moderate intensities tend to occur at different latitudes/longitudes than those that exhibit sudden brightening events characterized by high peak intensities and subsequent decay phases. While persistent hot spots are located primarily between ± 30°N, hot spots exhibiting bright eruption events occur primarily between 40° and 65° in both the northern and southern hemispheres. In addition, while persistent hot spots occur preferentially on the leading hemisphere, all bright eruptions were detected on the trailing hemisphere, despite the comparable longitudinal coverage of our observations to both hemispheres. A subset of the bright hot spots which are not intense enough to qualify as outburst eruptions resemble outbursts in terms of temporal evolution and spatial distribution, and may be outbursts whose peak emission went unobserved, or else scaled-down versions of the same phenomenon. A statistical analysis finds that large eruptions are more spatially clustered and occur at higher latitudes than 95% of simulated datasets that

  19. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Smectite Acquired Under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Achilles, Cherie N; Archer, Paul D.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, Dadi C.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the MEx OMEGA and the MRO CRISM hyper-spectral imaging instruments have spectral features associated with the H2O molecule and M OH functional groups (M = Mg, Fe, Al, and Si). Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of laboratory VNIR spectra, which were often acquired under ambient (humid) conditions. Smectites like nontronite, saponite, and montmorillionite have interlayer H2O that is exchangeable with their environment, and we have acquired smectite reflectance spectra under dry environmental conditions for interpretation of martian surface mineralogy. We also obtained chemical, Moessbauer (MB), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) data to understand variations in spectral properties. VNIR spectra were recorded in humid lab air at 25-35C, in a dynamic dry N2 atmosphere (50-150 ppmv H2O) after exposing the smectite samples (5 nontronites, 3 montmorillionites, and 1 saponite) to that atmosphere for up to approximately l000 hr each at 25-35C, approximately 105C, and approximately 215C, and after re-exposure to humid lab air. Heating at 105C and 215C for approximately 1000 hr is taken as a surrogate for geologic time scales at lower temperatures. Upon exposure to dry N2, the position and intensity of spectral features associated with M-OH were relatively insensitive to the dry environment, and the spectral features associated with H2O (e.g., approximately 1.90 micrometers) decreased in intensity and are sometimes not detectable by the end of the 215C heating step. The position and intensity of H2O spectral features recovered upon re-exposure to lab air. XRD data show interlayer collapse for the nontronites and Namontmorillionites, with the interlayer remaining collapsed for the latter after re-exposure to lab air. The interlayer did not collapse for the saponite and Ca-montmorillionite. TG data show that the concentration of H2O derived from structural OH was invariant

  20. Characterization of plasma-enhanced teflon AF for sensing benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water with near-IR surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Tim A; Nijjar, Rajvir; Kipper, Matt J; Lear, Kevin L

    2014-02-01

    Near-IR surface plasmon resonance is used to characterize Teflon AF films for refractive index-based detection of the aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants benzene, toluene, and xylenes in water. The technique requires no sample preparation, and film sensitivity is found to be enhanced by oxygen plasma etching. A diffusion equation model is used to extract the diffusion and partition coefficients, which indicate film enrichment factors exceeding two orders of magnitude, permitting a limit of detection of 183, 105 and 55 ppb for benzene, toluene, and xylenes, respectively. The effect of other potential interfering contaminants is quantified. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Power dependent study of kinetics of TRF2 recruitment in cells due to DNA damage caused by ultrafast near-IR Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Manas; Huda, Nazmul; Gilley, David; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2011-03-01

    Ultrafast laser microbeam is finding widespread applications in eliciting highly localized damage to cellular components allowing study of in-situ repair machinery. While the high peak power density that exists in ultrafast laser can cause various types of DNA damage including double strand breaks (DSB), tuning the power of these laser microbeams may cause specific type of DNA damage. Here, we report wavelength and dose dependent parametric study of kinetics of TRF2 recruitment in cells due to DNA damage caused by ultrafast near-IR Laser. A tunable Ti: Sapphire laser beam was coupled via laser port of an inverted microscope. Spot and line laser micro-irradiation pattern in nuclear sites of HT1080 cells expressing YFP-tagged TRF2 was achieved by piezo-scanning mechanism. The recruitment of TRF2-YFP was found to depend highly on the peak irradiance of the near-IR laser microbeam, the required threshold irradiance being much higher than that observed for DSB. Further, recruitment kinetics revealed that the time constant for TRF2 recruitment depends on the laser irradiance parameters. The time required for TRF2 recruitment was found to decrease with increased peak irradiance. We will present these results and also elucidate on physical mechanism of DNA damage caused by ultrafast laser microbeam.

  2. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  3. Living matter observations with a novel hyperspectral supercontinuum confocal microscope for VIS to near-IR reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Ferrari, Luisa; Mussi, Valentina; Botti, Elisabetta; Costanzo, Antonio; Selci, Stefano

    2013-10-25

    A broad range hyper-spectroscopic microscope fed by a supercontinuum laser source and equipped with an almost achromatic optical layout is illustrated with detailed explanations of the design, implementation and data. The real novelty of this instrument, a confocal spectroscopic microscope capable of recording high resolution reflectance data in the VIS-IR spectral range from about 500 nm to 2.5 μm wavelengths, is the possibility of acquiring spectral data at every physical point as defined by lateral coordinates, X and Y, as well as at a depth coordinate, Z, as obtained by the confocal optical sectioning advantage. With this apparatus we collect each single scanning point as a whole spectrum by combining two linear spectral detector arrays, one CCD for the visible range, and one InGaAs infrared array, simultaneously available at the sensor output channel of the home made instrument. This microscope has been developed for biomedical analysis of human skin and other similar applications. Results are shown illustrating the technical performances of the instrument and the capability in extracting information about the composition and the structure of different parts or compartments in biological samples as well as in solid statematter. A complete spectroscopic fingerprinting of samples at microscopic level is shown possible by using statistical analysis on raw data or analytical reflectance models based on Abelés matrix transfer methods.

  4. Living Matter Observations with a Novel Hyperspectral Supercontinuum Confocal Microscope for VIS to Near-IR Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca R. Bertani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A broad range hyper-spectroscopic microscope fed by a supercontinuum laser source and equipped with an almost achromatic optical layout is illustrated with detailed explanations of the design, implementation and data. The real novelty of this instrument, a confocal spectroscopic microscope capable of recording high resolution reflectance data in the VIS-IR spectral range from about 500 nm to 2.5 μm wavelengths, is the possibility of acquiring spectral data at every physical point as defined by lateral coordinates, X and Y, as well as at a depth coordinate, Z, as obtained by the confocal optical sectioning advantage. With this apparatus we collect each single scanning point as a whole spectrum by combining two linear spectral detector arrays, one CCD for the visible range, and one InGaAs infrared array, simultaneously available at the sensor output channel of the home made instrument. This microscope has been developed for biomedical analysis of human skin and other similar applications. Results are shown illustrating the technical performances of the instrument and the capability in extracting information about the composition and the structure of different parts or compartments in biological samples as well as in solid statematter. A complete spectroscopic fingerprinting of samples at microscopic level is shown possible by using statistical analysis on raw data or analytical reflectance models based on Abelés matrix transfer methods.

  5. Palagonitic Mars from Rock Rinds to Dust: Evidence from Visible, Near-IR, and Thermal Emission Spectra of Poorly Crystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Mertzman, S. A.; Lane, M. D.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for Martian bright regions are characterized by a general shape consisting of a ferric absorption edge extending from about 400 to 750 nm and relatively constant reflectivity extending from about 750 nm to beyond 2000 nm . Among terrestrial geologic materials, the best spectral analogues are certain palagonic tephras from Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). By definition, palagonite is a yellow or orange isotropic mineraloid formed by hydration and devitrification of basaltic glass. The ferric pigment in palagonite is nanometer-sized ferric oxide particles (np-Ox) dispersed throughout the hydrated basaltic glass matrix. The hydration state of the np-Ox particles is not known, and the best Martian spectral analogues contain allophane-like materials and not crystalline phyllosilicates. We show here that laboratory VNIR and TES spectra of palagonitic alteration rinds developed on basaltic rocks are spectral endmembers that provide a consistent explanation for both VNIR and TES data of Martian dark regions.

  6. Third harmonic generation from mid-IR to near-IR regions in a phase-matched silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Shum, Perry Ping; Shao, Xuguang; Huang, Tianye; Sun, Yunxu

    2014-10-06

    The conversion efficiency of third harmonic generation (THG) from mid-IR (3600 nm) to near-IR (1200 nm) regions in a silicon-silicon-nanocrystal hybrid plasmonic waveguide (SSHPW) was calculated. The required modal phase-matching condition (PMC) between the 0-th mode at fundamental wave (FW) and the 2-nd mode at third harmonic (TH) is achieved by carefully designing the waveguide geometry. Benefiting from the hybridized surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nature of the two guided modes, the SSHPW is capable of achieving both high THG nonlinear coefficient |I₆| and reasonable linear propagation loss, thereby resulting in large figure-of-merits (FOMs) for both FW and TH. According to our simulation, THG conversion efficiency up to 0.823% is achieved at 62.9 ����m SSHPW with pump power of 1 W.

  7. Design of ``push-pull'' p-type quinoid-based organic dyes with near-IR absorption: A density function theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenqing; Li, Juan; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Wansong

    2017-04-01

    Based on an experimentally synthesized p-type dye QT-1, we screened and designed a series of quinoid-based "push-pull" dyes SPL401 - SPL407 by modifying the π-conjugated linker for ptype dye-sensitized solar cells (p-type DSSC). Further, we systematically calculated their electronic and optical properties by using the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT). The results indicate that compared to QT-1, SPL406 and SPL407, which have not only smaller energy gaps, higher oscillator strength f increased by 70% and 80%, and 141 nm and 110 nm redshifts, respectively, but also a broader absorption spectrum covering the entire visible range to the near-IR region of 1200 nm, may be the most promising candidates among SPL401 - SPL407 for p-type organic sensitizers.

  8. Up to the highest peak!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    In the early hours of this morning, the beam energy was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record and the highest energy for this year’s run. Now operators will prepare the machine to make high-energy collisions later this month. CERN Operations Group leader Mike Lamont (foreground) and LHC engineer in charge Alick Macpherson in the CERN Control Centre early this morning. At 5:23 this morning, Friday 19 March, the energy of both beams in the LHC was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record. During the night, operators had tested the performance of the whole machine with two so-called ‘dry runs’, that is, without beams. Given the good overall response, beams were injected at around 3:00 a.m. and stabilized soon after. The ramp started at around 4:10 and lasted about one hour. Over the last couple of weeks, operation of the LHC at 450 GeV has become routinely reproducible. The operators were able to test and optimize the beam orbit, the beam collimation, the injection and ext...

  9. SiPM Photodetectors for Highest Time Resolution in PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S; Meyer, T; Lecoq, P; Jarron, P; Frisch, B

    2012-01-01

    Mesh anode Vacuum Phototriodes (VPTs) are radiation resistant, single gain-stage photomultipliers which are designed to operate in a strong quasi-axial magnetic field. These VPTs are used in the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC to detect scintillation light from lead tungstate crystals. Short term dynamic response changes occur because of pulse rate variations during normal LHC operation cycles. Over the longer term the effect of increasing integrated charge taken from the photocathode causes an overall degradation of response. We have investigated these effects over time periods exceeding two years of simulated operation and discuss the implications for the long term performance of the VPTs in CMS.

  10. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra for Smectite, Sulfate And Perchlorate under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.V.; Ming, W.; Golden, D.C.; Arvidson, R.E.; Wiseman, S.M.; Lichtenberg, K.A.; Cull, S.; Graff, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for the martian surface obtained from orbit by the MRO-CRISM and OMEGA instruments are interpreted as having spectral signatures of H2O/OH-bearing phases, including smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases [e.g., 1-4]. Interpretations of martian spectral signatures are based on and constrained by spectra that are obtained in the laboratory on samples with known mineralogical compositions and other physicochemical characteristics under, as appropriate, Mars-like environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and humidity). With respect to environmental conditions, differences in the absolute concentration of atmospheric H2O can effect the hydration state and therefore the spectra signatures of smectite phyllosilicates (solvation H2O) and certain sulfates (hydration H2O) [e.g., 5-7]. We report VNIR spectral data acquired under humid (laboratory air) and dry (dry N2 gas) environments for two natural smectites (nontronite API-33A and saponite SapCa-1) to characterize the effect of solvation H2O on spectral properties. We also report spectral data for the thermal dehydration products of (1) melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O) in both air and dry N2 gas and (2) Mg-perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2.6H2O) in dry N2 environments. Spectral measurements for samples dehydrated in dry N2 were made without exposing them to humid laboratory air.

  11. Near-IR Spectroscopy of Luminous LoBAL Quasars at 1 < z < 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Andreas; Schramm, Malte; Zuo, Wenwen; Wu, Xue-Bing; Urrutia, Tanya; Kotilainen, Jari; Reynolds, Thomas; Terao, Koki; Nagao, Tohru; Izumiura, Hideyuki

    2017-10-01

    We present near-IR spectroscopy of 22 luminous low-ionization broad absorption line quasars (LoBAL QSOs) at redshift 1.3SEDs) for the LoBAL sample and a matched non-BAL quasar sample. We do not find any statistically significant difference between LoBAL QSOs and non-BAL QSOs in their black hole mass or Eddington ratio distributions. The mean UV to mid-IR SED of the LoBAL QSOs is consistent with non-BAL QSOs, apart from their stronger reddening. At z> 1 there is no clear difference in their optical emission line properties. We do not see particularly weak [O III] or strong Fe II emission. The LoBAL QSOs do not show a stronger prevalence of ionized gas outflows as traced by the [O III] line, compared to normal QSOs of similar luminosity. We conclude that the optical–MIR properties of LoBAL QSOs are consistent with the general quasar population and do not support them to constitute a special phase of active galactic nucleus evolution.

  12. All-solid-state electrochromic device integrated with near-IR blocking layer for image sensor and energy-saving glass application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Hao; Chen, Yung-Chih; Wang, Jen-Yuan

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) integrated with near-IR (NIR) blocking layer fabricated by reactive DC magnetron sputtering technique has been developed for image sensor and energy-saving glass applications. The all-solid-state ECD with the single-substrate structure of glass/NIR-blocking transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/NiO/Ta2O5/WO3/ITO could potentially modulate the optical transmittance between 81.9% and 17.5% at 550 nm in the visible region and between 38.0% and 9.5% at the NIR wavelength larger than 1100 nm. The better energy-saving and light blocking performance, including the larger optical density difference (ΔOD) and lower solar heat-gain coefficient (SHGC) could be achieved in the NIR-blocking ECD structure, even with the general criteria SHGC(bleach)/SHGC(colored) state. Furthermore, the NIR-blocking TCO with the low sheet resistance and high transparency characteristics also provides the lower power consumption in the switching cycle at voltages as low as 5 V, and makes ECDs the ideal components for applications of large area and battery powered devices.

  13. Bis(í-oxo)dicopper in Cu-ZSM-5 and Its Role in the Decomposition of NO: A Combined in Situ XAFS, UV-Vis-Near-IR, and Kinetic Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Groothaert, M.H.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Battiston, A.A.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    In situ XAFS combined with UV-vis-near-IR spectroscopy are used to identify the active site in copper-loaded ZSM-5 responsible for the catalytic decomposition of NO. Cu-ZSM-5 was probed with in situ XAFS (i) after O2 activation and (ii) while catalyzing the direct decomposition of NO into N2 and O2.

  14. Near-IR MCD of the nonheme ferrous active site in naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase: correlation to crystallography and structural insight into the mechanism of Rieske dioxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takehiro; Chakrabarty, Sarmistha; Lipscomb, John D; Solomon, Edward I

    2008-02-06

    Near-IR MCD and variable temperature, variable field (VTVH) MCD have been applied to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase (NDO) to describe the coordination geometry and electronic structure of the mononuclear nonheme ferrous catalytic site in the resting and substrate-bound forms with the Rieske 2Fe2S cluster oxidized and reduced. The structural results are correlated with the crystallographic studies of NDO and other related Rieske nonheme iron oxygenases to develop molecular level insights into the structure/function correlation for this class of enzymes. The MCD data for resting NDO with the Rieske center oxidized indicate the presence of a six-coordinate high-spin ferrous site with a weak axial ligand which becomes more tightly coordinated when the Rieske center is reduced. Binding of naphthalene to resting NDO (Rieske oxidized and reduced) converts the six-coordinate sites into five-coordinate (5c) sites with elimination of a water ligand. In the Rieske oxidized form the 5c sites are square pyramidal but transform to a 1:2 mixture of trigonal bipyramial/square pyramidal sites when the Rieske center is reduced. Thus the geometric and electronic structure of the catalytic site in the presence of substrate can be significantly affected by the redox state of the Rieske center. The catalytic ferrous site is primed for the O2 reaction when substrate is bound in the active site in the presence of the reduced Rieske site. These structural changes ensure that two electrons and the substrate are present before the binding and activation of O2, which avoids the uncontrolled formation and release of reactive oxygen species.

  15. Hybrid Theranostic Platform for Second Near-IR Window Light Triggered Selective Two-Photon Imaging and Photothermal Killing of Targeted Melanoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchounwou, Christine; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Viraka Nellore, Bhanu Priya; Pramanik, Avijit; Kanchanapally, Rajashekhar; Jones, Stacy; Chavva, Suhash Reddy; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2015-09-23

    Despite advances in the medical field, even in the 21st century cancer is one of the leading causes of death for men and women in the world. Since the second near-infrared (NIR) biological window light between 950 and 1350 nm offers highly efficient tissue penetration, the current article reports the development of hybrid theranostic platform using anti-GD2 antibody attached gold nanoparticle (GNP) conjugated, single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) for second near-IR light triggered selective imaging and efficient photothermal therapy of human melanoma cancer cell. Reported results demonstrate that due to strong plasmon-coupling, two-photon luminescence (TPL) intensity from theranostic GNP attached SWCNT materials is 6 orders of magnitude higher than GNP or SWCNT alone. Experimental and FDTD simulation data indicate that the huge enhancement of TPL intensity is mainly due to strong resonance enhancement coupled with the stronger electric field enhancement. Due to plasmon coupling, the theranostic material serves as a local nanoantennae to enhance the photothermal capability via strong optical energy absorption. Reported data show that theranostic SWCNT can be used for selective two-photon imaging of melanoma UACC903 cell using 1100 nm light. Photothermal killing experiment with 1.0 W/cm(2) 980 nm laser light demonstrates that 100% of melanoma UACC903 cells can be killed using theranostic SWCNT bind melanoma cells after just 8 min of exposure. These results demonstrate that due to plasmon coupling, the theranostic GNP attached SWCNT material serves as a two-photon imaging and photothermal source for cancer cells in biological window II.

  16. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Laskar, T.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chary, R. [US Planck Data Center, MS220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Postigo, A. de Ugarte [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schulze, S., E-mail: dperley@dark-cosmology.dk [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  17. Relative Throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments for the James Webb Space Telescope as Measured During Ground Testing the Integrated Science Instrument Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumuth, Eliot; Birkmann, Stephan; Kelly, Douglas M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Lindler, Don; Martel, Andre; Ohl, Raymond G.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rowlands, Neil; Te Plate, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Data were obtained for the purpose of measuring the relative throughput of the Near-IR Science Instruments (SIs) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) as part of the second and third cryogenic-vacuum tests (CV2CV3) of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) conducted at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in 2014 and 20152016, at the beginning and end of the environmental test program, respectively. This Poster focuses on data obtained as part of the Initial Optical Baseline and as part of the Final Performance test -- two epochs that roughly bracket the CV3 test. The purpose of the test is to trend relative throughput to monitor for any potential changes from gross problems such as contamination or degradation of an optical element. Point source data were taken at a variety of wavelengths for NIRCam Module A and Module B, NIRSpec, NIRISS, Guider 1 and Guider 2 using the Laser Diode (LD) 1.06 micron, LD 1.55 micron, 2.1 micron LED and 3.5 micron LED, as well as for NIRCam Mod A and B and NIRISS using a tungsten source and the F277W, and F480M filters. Spectra were taken using the G140M, G235M, and G395M gratings for NIRSpec, the GRISMR grism for NIRCam Mod A and B and the GR150C grism for NIRISS. The results of these measurements are compared to what would be expected given the efficiency of each of the optical elements in each SI. Although these data were taken as a check against gross problems, they can also be used to provide the first relative throughput estimate for each SI through the various filters source wavelengths measured in their flight-like configurations.

  18. Addressing Academic Dishonesty among the Highest Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angela D.; Murdock, Tamera B.; Grotewiel, Morgan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although research shows that higher-achieving students report engaging in cheating behaviors less frequently than lower-achieving students, the cheating rates among this population are still startling. Certain aspects of the context of being a high-achieving student support academic dishonesty. We investigate integrity among the highest achievers…

  19. The Theoretical Highest Frame Rate of Silicon Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Goji Etoh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The frame rate of the digital high-speed video camera was 2000 frames per second (fps in 1989, and has been exponentially increasing. A simulation study showed that a silicon image sensor made with a 130 nm process technology can achieve about 1010 fps. The frame rate seems to approach the upper bound. Rayleigh proposed an expression on the theoretical spatial resolution limit when the resolution of lenses approached the limit. In this paper, the temporal resolution limit of silicon image sensors was theoretically analyzed. It is revealed that the limit is mainly governed by mixing of charges with different travel times caused by the distribution of penetration depth of light. The derived expression of the limit is extremely simple, yet accurate. For example, the limit for green light of 550 nm incident to silicon image sensors at 300 K is 11.1 picoseconds. Therefore, the theoretical highest frame rate is 90.1 Gfps (about 1011 fps

  20. Microbial agent detection using near-IR electrophoretic and spectral signatures (MADNESS) for rapid identification in detect-to-warn applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Anthony Lee; Bambha, Ray P.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Fruetel, Julia A.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Krafcik, Karen Lee

    2009-10-01

    Rapid identification of aerosolized biological agents following an alarm by particle triggering systems is needed to enable response actions that save lives and protect assets. Rapid identifiers must achieve species level specificity, as this is required to distinguish disease-causing organisms (e.g., Bacillus anthracis) from benign neighbors (e.g., Bacillus subtilis). We have developed a rapid (1-5 minute), novel identification methodology that sorts intact organisms from each other and particulates using capillary electrophoresis (CE), and detects using near-infrared (NIR) absorbance and scattering. We have successfully demonstrated CE resolution of Bacillus spores and vegetative bacteria at the species level. To achieve sufficient sensitivity for detection needs ({approx}10{sup 4} cfu/mL for bacteria), we have developed fiber-coupled cavity-enhanced absorbance techniques. Using this method, we have demonstrated {approx}two orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than published results for absorbing dyes, and single particle (spore) detection through primarily scattering effects. Results of the integrated CE-NIR system for spore detection are presented.

  1. Insect abundance over Chinese rice fields in relation to environmental parameters, studied with a polarization-sensitive CW near-IR lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shiming; Malmqvist, Elin; Li, Wansha; Jansson, Samuel; Li, Yiyun; Duan, Zheng; Svanberg, Katarina; Feng, Hongqiang; Song, Ziwei; Zhao, Guangyu; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Svanberg, Sune

    2017-07-01

    Effective monitoring of flying insects is of major societal importance in view of the role of insects as indispensable pollinators, destructive disease vectors and economically devastating agricultural pests. The present paper reports on monitoring of flying agricultural pests using a continuous-wave lidar system in a rice-field location in Southern China. Using a Scheimpflug arrangement, range resolution over several 100 m long observational paths was achieved. The system operates with two perpendicularly polarized near-infrared lasers, which are activated intermittently, and back-scattered radiation from insects was recorded by a linear array detector placed after a linear polarizer. Our polarization sensitive system was used to monitor the flying insect diurnal activity and also the influence of changes in weather conditions, e.g., the occurrence of rain. Activity strongly peaked at dusk and rose again, although to a lower extent, just before dawn. At the onset of rainfall, a strong increase in insect counts occurred which was interpreted as the rain-induced bringing down of high-altitude migrant insects.

  2. Detailed Analysis of Near-IR Water (H2O) Emission in Comet C/2014 Q2 (LOVEJOY) with the GIANO/TNG Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggi, S.; Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Brucato, J.R.; Tozzi, G. P.; Oliva, E.; Massi, F.; Sanna, N.; Tozzi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the Oort cloud comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) on 2015 January 31 and February 1 and 2 at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 au and geocentric distance of 0.8 au during its approach to the Sun. Comet Lovejoy was observed with GIANO, the near-infrared high-resolution spectrograph mounted at the Nasmyth-A focus of the TNG (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo) telescope in La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. We detected strong emissions of radical CN and water, along with many emission features of unidentified origin, across the 1-2.5 micron region. Spectral lines from eight ro-vibrational bands of H2O were detected, six of them for the first time. We quantified the water production rate [Q(H2O), (3.11+/- 0.14) x 10(exp 29)/s] by comparing the calibrated line fluxes with the Goddard full non-resonance cascade fluorescence model for H2O. The production rates of ortho-water [Q(H2O)ORTHO, (2.33+/- 0.11) x 10(exp 29)/s] and para-water [Q(H2O)PARA, (0.87+/-0.21) x 10(exp 29)/s] provide a measure of the ortho-to-para ratio (2.70+/- 0.76)). The confidence limits are not small enough to provide a critical test of the nuclear spin temperature.

  3. Dust Properties of C II Detected z ˜ 5.5 Galaxies: New HST/WFC3 Near-IR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisic, I.; Faisst, A. L.; Capak, P. L.; Pavesi, R.; Riechers, D. A.; Scoville, N. Z.; Cooke, K.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Casey, C. M.; Smolcic, V.

    2017-08-01

    We examine the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) properties of 10 [C II]λ158 μm-detected galaxies at z ˜ 5.5 in COSMOS using new Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 near-infrared imaging. Together with pre-existing 158 μm continuum and [C II] line measurements by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, we study their dust attenuation properties on the IRX-β diagram, which connects the total dust emission (\\propto {IRX}={log}({L}{FIR}/{L}1600)) to the line-of-sight dust column (∝ β). We find systematically bluer UV continuum spectral slopes (β) compared to previous low-resolution ground-based measurements, which relieves some of the tension between models of dust attenuation and observations at high redshifts. While most of the galaxies are consistent with local starburst or Small Magellanic Cloud-like dust properties, we find galaxies with low IRX values and a large range in β that cannot be explained by models of a uniform dust distribution well mixed with stars. A stacking analysis of Keck/DEIMOS optical spectra indicates that these galaxies are metal-poor with young stellar populations that could significantly alter their spatial dust distribution.

  4. A Physical Model-based Correction for Charge Traps in the Hubble Space Telescope’s Wide Field Camera 3 Near-IR Detector and Its Applications to Transiting Exoplanets and Brown Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yifan; Apai, Dániel; Lew, Ben W. P.; Schneider, Glenn

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-IR channel is extensively used in time-resolved observations, especially for transiting exoplanet spectroscopy as well as brown dwarf and directly imaged exoplanet rotational phase mapping. The ramp effect is the dominant source of systematics in the WFC3 for time-resolved observations, which limits its photometric precision. Current mitigation strategies are based on empirical fits and require additional orbits to help the telescope reach a thermal equilibrium. We show that the ramp-effect profiles can be explained and corrected with high fidelity using charge trapping theories. We also present a model for this process that can be used to predict and to correct charge trap systematics. Our model is based on a very small number of parameters that are intrinsic to the detector. We find that these parameters are very stable between the different data sets, and we provide best-fit values. Our model is tested with more than 120 orbits (∼40 visits) of WFC3 observations and is proved to be able to provide near photon noise limited corrections for observations made with both staring and scanning modes of transiting exoplanets as well as for starting-mode observations of brown dwarfs. After our model correction, the light curve of the first orbit in each visit has the same photometric precision as subsequent orbits, so data from the first orbit no longer need to be discarded. Near-IR arrays with the same physical characteristics (e.g., JWST/NIRCam) may also benefit from the extension of this model if similar systematic profiles are observed.

  5. The world's highest levels of surface UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Raul R; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Damiani, Alessandro; Riechelmann, Stefan; Rayas, Juan; Labbe, Fernando; Laroze, David

    2014-01-01

    Chile's northern Atacama Desert has been pointed out as one of the places on earth where the world's highest surface ultraviolet (UV) may occur. This area is characterized by its high altitude, prevalent cloudless conditions and relatively low total ozone column. Aimed at detecting those peak UV levels, we carried out in January 2013 ground-based spectral measurements on the Chajnantor Plateau (5100 m altitude, 23°00'S, 67°45'W) and at the Paranal Observatory (2635 m altitude, 24°37'S, 70°24'W). The UV index computed from our spectral measurements peaked at 20 on the Chajnantor Plateau (under broken cloud conditions) and at 16 at the Paranal Observatory (under cloudless conditions). Spectral measurements carried out in June 2005 at the Izaña Observatory (2367 m altitude, 28°18'N, 16°30'W) were used for further comparisons. Due to the differences in sun-earth separation, total ozone column, altitude, albedo, aerosols and clouds, peak UV levels are expected to be significantly higher at southern hemisphere sites than at their northern hemisphere counterparts.

  6. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    of about 5000 m suggesting that the topography is fairly well supported by local isostasy. In contrast, the highest peaks of the India-Asia collision zone seam the plateau rim and exceed the surface elevation predicted by crustal thickness and local isostasy. They are likely supported by the lithospheric strength of the northern and southern foreland basins and further uplifted by spatially variable unloading of the orogen due to major rivers and glaciers. Peak altitude, landscape dissection and the long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness increase from the center of the Tibetan Plateau to the rim. However, we found evidence for a similar trend on a global scale from mid- to high-latitude orogens. Towards high latitudes, peaks of similar height are characterized by a more dissected landscape and supported by a thinner crust compared to mid-latitude mountain ranges. This however, would imply that the recent glacial period has already influenced orogens on their crustal level. We propose that long-term glacial erosion in high latitudes may have already thinned the orogenic crust and conclude that (a) over-thickened crust in zones of plate convergence can buffer intense erosion and maintain high mountain topography over millions of years even in heavily glaciated orogens, (b) high peaks may persist or may even be uplifted due to glacial erosion and (c) glacial erosion limiting mountain topography may NOT work as simple as a buzz-saw applied to fluvial topography supported by a thick mountain root.

  7. Novel Wavelength Standards in the Near IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-15

    standards is to support the optical telecommunications industry and especially dense wavelength division multiplexing ( DWDM ). Indeed, many commercially...of Standards and Technology (NIST) to have absorption lines known to 130 MHz, or is some cases 13 MHz [1, 8]. Some applications of DWDM call for

  8. Packing of Helices: Is Chirality the Highest Crystallographic Symmetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Gautier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chiral structures resulting from the packing of helices are common in biological and synthetic materials. Herein, we analyze the noncentrosymmetry (NCS in such systems using crystallographic considerations. A comparison of the chiral structures built from helices shows that the chirality can be expected for specific building units such as 31/32 or 61/65 helices which, in hexagonal arrangement, will more likely lead to a chiral resolution. In these two systems, we show that the highest crystallographic symmetry (i.e., the symmetry which can describe the crystal structure from the smallest assymetric unit is chiral. As an illustration, we present the synthesis of two materials ([Zn(2,2’-bpy3](NbF62 and [Zn(2,2’-bpy3](TaF62 in which the 3n helices pack into a chiral structure.

  9. Syntheses, crystal structures, visible and near-IR luminescent properties of ternary lanthanide (Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}) complexes containing 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione and 1,10-phenanthroline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jing [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilizations, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 renmin street, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhang Hongjie [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilizations, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 renmin street, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail: hongjie@ciac.jl.cn; Song Shuyan; Li Zhefeng; Sun Lining [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilizations, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 renmin street, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Xing Yan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilizations, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 renmin street, Changchun 130022 (China); Guo Xianmin [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilizations, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 renmin street, Changchun 130022 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    The ligands 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedione (Hbfa) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were used to prepare ternary lanthanide (Ln) complexes [Dy(bfa){sub 3}phen and Tm(bfa){sub 3}phen]. Crystal data: Dy(bfa){sub 3}phen C{sub 42}H{sub 26}F{sub 9}N{sub 2}O{sub 6}Dy, triclinic, P1-bar , a=9.9450(6) A, b=14.0944(9) A, c=14.6043(9) A, {alpha}=82.104(1){sup o}, {beta}=87.006(1){sup o}, {gamma}=76.490(1){sup o}, V=1971.1(2) A{sup 3}, Z=2; Tm(bfa){sub 3}phen C{sub 42}H{sub 26}F{sub 9}N{sub 2}O{sub 6}Tm, triclinic, P1-bar , a=9.898(5) A, b=13.918(5) A, c=14.753(5) A, {alpha}=83.517(5){sup o}, {beta}=86.899(5){sup o}, {gamma}=76.818(5){sup o}, V=1965.3(14) A{sup 3}, Z=2. The coordination number of the central Ln{sup 3+} (Ln=Dy, Tm) ion is eight, with six oxygen atoms from three Hbfa ligands and two nitrogen atoms from the phen ligand. The photophysical properties of the two complexes were studied by absorption spectra, diffuse reflectance spectra, and emission spectra. They show the characteristic luminescence of the corresponding Ln{sup 3+} ion in both visible and near-IR (NIR) region. Additionally, the energy transfer mechanisms between the ligands and central Ln{sup 3+} ions were discuss0008.

  10. Plasmoid impacts on neutron stars and highest energy cosmic rays

    OpenAIRE

    Litwin, C.; Rosner, R.

    2001-01-01

    Particle acceleration by electrostatic polarization fields that arise in plasmas streaming across magnetic fields is discussed as a possible acceleration mechanism of highest-energy cosmic rays. Specifically, plasmoids arising in planetoid impacts onto neutron star magnetospheres are considered. We find that such impacts at plausible rates may account for the observed flux and energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays.

  11. Highest weight generating functions for hyperKähler T{sup ⋆}(G/H) spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ramgoolam, Sanjaye [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-05

    We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function.

  12. Plasmoid Impacts on Neutron Stars and Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, C.; Rosner, R.

    2001-05-01

    Particle acceleration by electrostatic polarization fields that arise in plasmas streaming across magnetic fields is discussed as a possible acceleration mechanism of highest energy \\(>~1020 eV\\) cosmic rays. Specifically, plasmoids arising in planetoid impacts onto neutron star magnetospheres are considered. We find that such impacts at plausible rates may account for the observed flux and energy spectrum of the highest energy cosmic rays.

  13. Highest treeline in the Northern Hemisphere found in Southern Tibet

    OpenAIRE

    Miehe, Georg; Miehe, Sabine; Vogel, Jonas; Co, Sonam; Duo, La

    2007-01-01

    This article was first published in "Mountain Research and Development" (MRD), vol 27 no 2, pp 169-173. The rights of reproduction remain with the co-copyright holders: The International Mountain Society (IMS) and the United Nations University (UNU), c/o MRD Editorial Office, Bern, Switzerland (www.mrd-journal.org). Three new records of the highest treelines in the northern hemisphere are presented here, based on the definition of a “tree.” The tree species with the highest tre...

  14. Exploring the cultural dimensions of the right to the highest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many international and regional human rights instruments. This right contains both freedoms and entitlements, including the freedom to control one's own health and body and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services.

  15. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  16. Selecting the highest probability in binomial or multinomial trials

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Bruce; Robbins, Herbert

    1981-01-01

    Some sequential procedures are considered for selecting the binomial population with largest success probability or for selecting the multinomial outcome with highest cell probability. Procedures with and without sequential elimination of inferior populations are evaluated with respect to the expected probability of the population selected.

  17. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  18. Absorption spectra and Raman gain coefficient in near-IR region of Er3+ ions doped TeO2-Nb2O5-Bi2O3-ZnO glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, El Sayed; Hegazy, H. H.; Almojadah, Samar; Reben, M.

    2015-11-01

    Er3+ ions doped TeO2 based glasses were prepared by quenching melting technique. A systematic characterization of glass transition temperature and optical properties of the prepared glass was carried out. The gain cross-section for the Er3+laser transition 4I13/2→4I15/2 was calculated. The results show the TNBZ glass doped with 2000 ppm of Er2O3 had the maximum value of gain cross-section equal to 14.4 cm-1 and large stimulated emission cross-section (1.4×10-20 cm2). The glasses developed here showed the widest bandwidths of gain cross section from 249 to 1106 cm-1. Moreover the Raman gain coefficient of the present glass was obtained from Raman scattering experiments using 532 nm excitation. This composition has also the maximum value of Raman gain coefficient (g=1.4×10-10 m/W) and it has the highest value of full width half maximum (FWHM≈ 380 cm-1). Finally, the structure of the prepared glasses was investigated through deconvolution Raman spectra. The thermal stability and spectroscopic properties indicate that this glass doped with Er3+ is a promising candidate for fiber lasers and Raman gain amplifiers.

  19. Robert Aymar receives one of the highest Finnish distinctions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008 Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, was awarded the decoration of Commander, first class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the President of the Republic of Finland. This decoration, one of the highest of Finland, was presented in a ceremony by the Ambassador Hannu Himanen, Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN and other international organisations in Geneva. Robert Aymar was honoured for his service to CERN, the LHC, his role in the cooperation between Finland and CERN, as well as his contribution to science in general. In his speech the ambassador underlined CERN’s efforts in the field of education, mentioning the High school teachers programme.

  20. Is LEP beam-beam limited at its highest energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, D; Meddahi, Malika; Verdier, A

    1999-01-01

    The operation of LEP at 45.6 GeV was limited by beam-beam effects and the vertical beam-beam parameter xy never exceeded 0.045. At the highest energy of 94.5 GeV, the increased damping allows higher beam-beam parameters xy . Values above 0.07 in the vertical plane averaged over four experiments have been obtained frequently with peak values up to 0.075 in a single experiment. Although the maximum intensity in LEP is presently limited by technical considerations, some observations indicate that the beam-beam limit is close and the question of the maximum possible values can be raised. These observations are shown in this paper and possible consequences are presented. The optimum operation of LEP in the neighbourhood of the beam-beam limit is discussed.

  1. Multi-pollutants sensors based on near-IR telecom lasers and mid-IR difference frequency generation: development and applications; Instruments de mesure multi-polluants par spectroscopie infrarouge bases sur des lasers fibres et par generation de difference de frequences: developpement et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousin, J

    2006-12-15

    At present the detection of VOC and other anthropic trace pollutants is an important challenge in the measurement of air quality. Infrared spectroscopy, allowing spectral regions rich in molecular absorption to be probed, is a suitable technique for in-situ monitoring of the air pollution. Thus the aim of this work was to develop instruments capable of detecting multiple pollutants for in-situ monitoring by IR spectroscopy. A first project benefited from the availability of the telecommunications lasers emitting in near-IR. This instrument was based on an external cavity diode laser (1500 - 1640 nm) in conjunction with a multipass cell (100 m). The detection sensitivity was optimised by employing a balanced detection and a sweep integration procedure. The instrument developed is deployable for in-situ measurements with a sensitivity of < 10{sup -8} cm{sup -1} Hz{sup -1/2} and allowed the quantification of chemical species such as CO{sub 2}, CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and the determination of the isotopic ratio {sup 13}CO{sub 2}/{sup 12}CO{sub 2} in combustion environment The second project consisted in mixing two near-IR fiber lasers in a non-linear crystal (PPLN) in order to produce a laser radiation by difference frequency generation in the middle-IR (3.15 - 3.43 {mu}m), where the absorption bands of the molecules are the most intense. The first studies with this source were carried out on detection of ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}). Developments, characterizations and applications of these instruments in the near and middle IR are detailed and the advantages of the 2 spectral ranges is highlighted. (author)

  2. Kyle Cranmer receives the highest recognition from the US government

    CERN Multimedia

    Allen Mincer

    Kyle Cranmer with Clay Sell, Deputy Secretary of EnergyKyle Cranmer, who has worked on ATLAS as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a Goldhaber Fellow at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and, most recently, an Assistant Professor at New York University, has been awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). As described at the United States Department of Energy web page: "The PECASE Awards are intended to recognize some of the finest scientists and engineers who, while early in their research careers, show exceptional potential for leadership at the frontiers of scientific knowledge during the twenty-first century...The PECASE Award is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers." Kyle's work on ATLAS focuses on tools and strategies for data analysis, triggering, and searches for the Higgs.At the awards ceremony, which took place on Thursday Nov. 1st in Washington, D.C.,...

  3. Academic Training - Tevatron: studying pp collisions at the highest energy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 15, 16, 17, 18 May Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 15, 16, 17 May - Council Chamber on 18 May Physics at the Tevatron B. HEINEMANN, Univ. of Liverpool, FERMILAB Physics Results from the Tevatron The Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab in the US is currently the world's highest energy collider. At the experiments CDF and D0 a broad physics programme is being pursued, ranging from flavour physics via electroweak precision measurements to searches for the Higgs boson and new particles beyond the Standard Model. In my lecture I will describe some of the highlight measurements in the flavour, electroweak and searches sectors, and the experimental techniques that are used. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/...

  4. Near-Ir surface-enhanced Raman spectrum of lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner

    2009-01-01

    Compacted powders of commercially available nano- and microparticles of silver were used to successfully induce the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in spruce milled-wood lignin (MWL). For the two silver particle sizes used in this investigation, the spectra were mostly similar. Some general characteristics of the lignin SERS spectrum are described. The...

  5. Light bullets from near-IR filament in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetanina, E. O.; Kompanets, V. O.; Dormidonov, A. E.; Chekalin, S. V.; Kandidov, V. P.

    2013-10-01

    The formation of light bullets during femtosecond laser pulse filamentation in the presence of anomalous group velocity dispersion has been recorded for the first time. The minimum experimentally detected width of the light bullet autocorrelation function is 27 fs, which corresponds to a duration of about 13.5 fs. The duration of the light bullet at a wavelength of 1800 nm is about two periods of the light field oscillation. The numerically calculated width of the autocorrelation function for such a light bullet is 23 fs, which is in good agreement with the experimental value.

  6. Status and future of the ALICE TPC, a high-resolution detector for the highest particle multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippmann, Christian [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: ALICE TPC-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) of the ALICE experiment is a large 3-dimensional tracking and particle identification device for ultra-high multiplicity collision events. It has been operated successfully at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, recording collisions of protons (since November 2009) and lead nuclei (one month each in 2010 and 2011). In the beginning of 2013, just before the first long LHC shutdown (LS1) starts, ALICE will record p-Pb collisions that are expected to occur at interaction rates up to 200 kHz. During LS1 the necessary consolidation and upgrade activities in order to ensure reliable operation at nominal LHC energies (√(s) = 14 TeV pp and √(s{sub NN}) =5.5 TeV Pb-Pb collisions) will be carried out. A new phase of the data taking will finally commence after the second long LHC shutdown (LS2) in 2018, where the ALICE upgrade plans foresee to operate the experiment in Pb-Pb at an interaction rate of 50 kHz. For this purpose, the MWPC-based TPC readout chambers will be replaced by Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs), allowing a continuous readout of the TPC. These upgrade plans have recently been endorsed by the CERN LHC Committee. In this presentation the performance and operational experience with the current TPC are discussed, and an overview of the upgrade plans and the ongoing R and D activities is given.

  7. Ultra-high resolution color images of the surface of comet 67P acquired by ROLIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Stefan; Mottola, Stefano; Arnold, Gabriele; Grothues, Hans-Georg; Hamm, Maximilian; Jaumann, Ralf; Michaelis, Harald; Pelivan, Ivanka; Proffe, Gerrit; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    On Nov 12, 2014, the Rosetta Philae lander descended towards comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The onboard ROLIS camera successfully acquired high resolution images of the surface looking down from its vantage point on the instrument platform. ROLIS is a compact CCD imager with a 1024×1024 pixel sensor and a 57° field of view (Mottola et al., 2007, SSR 128, 241). It is equipped with an infinity lens (IFL), without which the camera focus is 30 cm. At Philae's final landing site, ROLIS removed the IFL and initiated an imaging sequence that shows the surface at the highest resolution ever obtained for a cometary surface (~0.5 mm per pixel). Illumination of the scene was provided by an onboard array of LEDs in four different colors: red, green, blue, and near-IR. ROLIS acquired one image for each color and a single dark exposure. The images show a unique, almost fractal morphology for the surface below the landing site that defies easy interpretation. However, there are similarities with some structures seen by the CIVA camera. Color and albedo variations over the surface are minor, and individual grains cannot be distinguished. The images are out-of-focus, indicating the surface was further away than the nominal 30 cm. The location of the illumination spot and the change of focus over the image are consistent with an inclined surface, indicating that Philae's final resting position is strongly tilted. In fact, it was inclined so much that we see the local horizon, even though ROLIS is downward-looking. Remarkably, the scene beyond the horizon is illuminated by the Sun, and out-of-focus particles can be seen to travel in the sky. The images suggest the environment of the lander is laden with fine dust, but a final assessment requires careful consideration of possible sources of stray light. Just before Philae went to sleep, ROLIS acquired an additional exposure with the IFL and the red LED. The resulting image is fully in focus. Because Philae had rotated and lifted

  8. Adaptive optics high resolution spectroscopy: present status and future direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C; Angel, R; Ciarlo, D; Fugate, R O; Ge, J; Kuzmenko, P; Lloyd-Hart, M; Macintosh, B; Najita, J; Woolf, N

    1999-07-27

    High resolution spectroscopy experiments with visible adaptive optics (AO) telescopes at Starfire Optical Range and Mt. Wilson have demonstrated that spectral resolution can be routinely improved by a factor of - 10 over the seeing-limited case with no extra light losses at visible wavelengths. With large CCDs now available, a very wide wavelength range can be covered in a single exposure. In the near future, most large ground-based telescopes will be equipped with powerful A0 systems. Most of these systems are aimed primarily at diffraction-limited operation in the near IR. An exciting new opportunity will thus open up for high resolution IR spectroscopy. Immersion echelle gratings with much coarser grooves being developed by us at LLNL will play a critical role in achieving high spectral resolution with a compact and low cost IR cryogenically cooled spectrograph and simultaneous large wavelength coverage on relatively small IR detectors. We have constructed a new A0 optimized spectrograph at Steward Observatory to provide R = 200,000 in the optical, which is being commissioned at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5m telescope. We have completed the optical design of the LLNL IR Immersion Spectrograph (LISPEC) to take advantage of improved silicon etching technology. Key words: adaptive optics, spectroscopy, high resolution, immersion gratings

  9. How to identify the person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev D.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current version of the resolution of the RF Supreme Court Plenum of June 10, 2010 N 12, clarifying the provisions of the law on liability for crimes committed by a person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy (Part 4 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, is criticized. Evaluative character of the considered aggravating circumstance doesn’t allow to develop clear criteria for identifying the leaders of the criminal environment. Basing on the theory provisions and court practice, the authors suggest three criteria. The first criterion is specific actions including: establishment and leadership of the criminal association (criminal organization; coordinating criminal acts; creating sustainable links between different organized groups acting independently; dividing spheres of criminal influence, sharing criminal income and other criminal activities, indicating person’s authority and leadership in a particular area or in a particular sphere of activity. The second is having money, valuables and other property obtained by criminal means, without the person’s direct participation in their acquisition; transferring money, valuables and other property to that person systematically, without legal grounds (unjust enrichment; spending that money, valuables and other property to carry out criminal activities (crimes themselves and conditions of their commission. The third is international criminal ties manifested in committing one of the crimes under Part 1 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, if this crime is transnational in nature; ties with extremist and (or terrorist organizations, as well as corruption ties. The court may use one or several of these criteria.

  10. Resolution and super-resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Colin J R

    2017-06-01

    Many papers have claimed the attainment of super-resolution, i.e. resolution beyond that achieved classically, by measurement of the profile of a feature in the image. We argue that measurement of the contrast of the image of a dark bar on a bright background does not give a measure of resolution, but of detection sensitivity. The width of a bar that gives an intensity at the center of the bar of 0.735 that in the bright region (the same ratio as in the Rayleigh resolution criterion) is λ/(13.9×numerical aperture) for the coherent case with central illumination. This figure, which compares with λ/(numerical aperture) for the Abbe resolution limit with central illumination, holds for the classical case, and so is no indication of super-resolution. Theoretical images for two points, two lines, arrays of lines, arrays of bars, and grating objects are compared. These results can be used a reference for experimental results, to determine if super-resolution has indeed been attained. The history of the development of the theory of microscope resolution is outlined. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Silicon solid/state linear arrays for multispectral high resolution imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Solid-state, electronically scanned, linear detector arrays are now available which can be used in a pushbroom scan mode imaging system for high-resolution multispectral earth resource survey applications. These arrays provide high performance in the visible to near-IR region. Two performance criteria must be assessed in the choice of a detector array: signal-to-noise ratio and spectral response. Consideration of diffraction limitations shows that optics size cannot be significantly reduced by using very low-noise detectors. The required spectral response for a viable detector array should not have spectral ripples that cause a low-level, but significant, error in the detected effective reflectance of the target.

  12. A new derivation of the highest-weight polynomial of a unitary lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Chau, Huu-Tai; P Van, Isacker [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    2000-07-01

    A new method is presented to derive the expression of the highest-weight polynomial used to build the basis of an irreducible representation (IR) of the unitary algebra U(2J+1). After a brief reminder of Moshinsky's method to arrive at the set of equations defining the highest-weight polynomial of U(2J+1), an alternative derivation of the polynomial from these equations is presented. The method is less general than the one proposed by Moshinsky but has the advantage that the determinantal expression of the highest-weight polynomial is arrived at in a direct way using matrix inversions. (authors)

  13. High-resolution Near-infrared Observations of a Small Cluster Associated with a Bright-rimmed Cloud in W5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rieko; Sugitani, Koji; Miao, Jingqi; Fukuda, Naoya; Watanabe, Makoto; Kusune, Takayoshi; Pickles, Andrew J.

    2017-08-01

    We carried out near-infrared (IR) observations to examine star formation toward the bright-rimmed cloud SFO 12, of which the main exciting star is O7V star in W5-W. We found a small young stellar object (YSO) cluster of six members embedded in the head of SFO 12 facing its exciting star, aligned along the UV radiation incident direction from the exciting star. We carried out high-resolution near-IR observations with the Subaru adaptive optics (AO) system and revealed that three of the cluster members appear to have circumstellar envelopes, one of which shows an arm-like structure in its envelope. Our near-IR and {L}\\prime -band photometry and Spitzer IRAC data suggest that formation of two members at the tip side occurred in advance of other members toward the central part, under our adopted assumptions. Our near-IR data and previous studies imply that more YSOs are distributed in the region just outside the cloud head on the side of the main exciting star, but there is little sign of star formation toward the opposite side. We infer that star formation has been sequentially occurring from the exciting star side to the central part. We examined archival data of far-infrared and CO (J=3-2) which reveals that, unlike in the optical image, SFO 12 has a head-tail structure that is along the UV incident direction. This suggests that SFO 12 is affected by strong UV from the main exciting star. We discuss the formation of this head-tail structure and star formation there by comparing with a radiation-driven implosion (RDI) model.

  14. Unary resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Clément; Bagnol, Marc; Seiller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We give a characterization of deterministic polynomial time computation based on an algebraic structure called the resolution semiring, whose elements can be understood as logic programs or sets of rewriting rules over first-order terms. This construction stems from an interactive interpretation ...

  15. When Is Risk Highest for Women with Breast Cancer Gene Mutations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Risk Highest for Women With Breast Cancer Gene Mutations? Study narrows down peak times, possibly aiding in ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For women who have genetic mutations that increase ... at what age those gene flaws are most likely to cause trouble. Knowing ...

  16. The Progress of Black Student Enrollments at the Nation's Highest-Ranking Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents data from a survey of the admissions offices at the nation's 25 highest-ranked universities and liberal arts colleges to determine the racial makeup of freshman classes, examining number of African American applicants, acceptance rates, enrollment numbers, and yield rates. Duke University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and…

  17. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  18. Calculating joint confidence bands for impulse response functions using highest density regions

    OpenAIRE

    Lütkepohl, Helmut; Staszewska-Bystrova, Anna; Winker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new non-parametric method of constructing joint confidence bands for impulse response functions of vector autoregressive models. The estimation uncertainty is captured by means of bootstrapping and the highest density region (HDR) approach is used to construct the bands. A Monte Carlo comparison of the HDR bands with existing alternatives shows that the former are competitive with the bootstrap-based Bonferroni and Wald confidence regions. The relative tightness of the H...

  19. Calculating Joint Bands for Impulse Response Functions using Highest Density Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Winker, Peter; Lütkepohl, Helmut; Staszewska-Bystrova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new non-parametric method of constructing joint confidence bands for impulse response functions of vector autoregressive models. The estimation uncertainty is captured by means of bootstrapping and the highest density region (HDR) approach is used to construct the bands. A Monte Carlo comparison of the HDR bands with existing alternatives shows that the former are competitive with the bootstrap-based Bonferroni and Wald confidence regions. The relative tightness of the H...

  20. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  1. Interlaminar Stresses by Refined Beam Theories and the Sinc Method Based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemp, Wesley C. H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Tessler, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Computation of interlaminar stresses from the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory was performed using the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. The Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative was proposed as an efficient method for determining through-the-thickness variations of interlaminar stresses from one- and two-dimensional analysis by integration of the equilibrium equations of three-dimensional elasticity. However, the use of traditional equivalent single layer theories often results in inaccuracies near the boundaries and when the lamina have extremely large differences in material properties. Interlaminar stresses in symmetric cross-ply laminated beams were obtained by solving the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory with the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. Interlaminar stresses and bending stresses from the present approach were compared with a detailed finite element solution obtained by ABAQUS/Standard. The results illustrate the ease with which the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative can be used to obtain the through-the-thickness distributions of interlaminar stresses from the beam theories. Moreover, the results indicate that the refined zigzag theory is a substantial improvement over the Timoshenko beam theory due to the piecewise continuous displacement field which more accurately represents interlaminar discontinuities in the strain field. The higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory more accurately captures the interlaminar stresses at the ends of the beam because it allows transverse normal strain. However, the continuous nature of the displacement field requires a large number of monomial terms before the interlaminar stresses are computed as accurately as the refined zigzag theory.

  2. High-throughput sorting of the highest producing cell via a transiently protein-anchored system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiang Chuang

    Full Text Available Developing a high-throughput method for the effecient selection of the highest producing cell is very important for the production of recombinant protein drugs. Here, we developed a novel transiently protein-anchored system coupled with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS for the efficient selection of the highest producing cell. A furin cleavage peptide (RAKR was used to join a human anti-epithelial growth factor antibody (αEGFR Ab and the extracellular-transmembrane-cytosolic domains of the mouse B7-1 antigen (B7. The furin inhibitor can transiently switch secreted αEGFR Ab into a membrane-anchored form. After cell sorting, the level of membrane αEGFR Ab-RAKR-B7 is proportional to the amount of secreted αEGFR Ab in the medium. We further selected 23 αEGFR Ab expressing cells and demonstrated a high correlation (R2 = 0.9165 between the secretion level and surface expression levels of αEGFR Ab. These results suggested that the novel transiently protein-anchored system can easily and efficiently select the highest producing cells, reducing the cost for the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  3. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, The Pierre auger

    2007-12-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [1]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and AGN at a distance less than {approx} 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  4. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  5. Poverty, AIDS and child health: identifying highest-risk children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Boyes, Mark; Orkin, Mark; Sherr, Lorraine

    2013-10-11

    Identifying children at the highest risk of negative health effects is a prerequisite to effective public health policies in Southern Africa. A central ongoing debate is whether poverty, orphanhood or parental AIDS most reliably indicates child health risks. Attempts to address this key question have been constrained by a lack of data allowing distinction of AIDS-specific parental death or morbidity from other causes of orphanhood and chronic illness. To examine whether household poverty, orphanhood and parental illness (by AIDS or other causes) independently or interactively predict child health, developmental and HIV-infection risks. We interviewed 6 002 children aged 10 - 17 years in 2009 - 2011, using stratified random sampling in six urban and rural sites across three South African provinces. Outcomes were child mental health risks, educational risks and HIV-infection risks. Regression models that controlled for socio-demographic co-factors tested potential impacts and interactions of poverty, AIDS-specific and other orphanhood and parental illness status. Household poverty independently predicted child mental health and educational risks, AIDS orphanhood independently predicted mental health risks and parental AIDS illness independently predicted mental health, educational and HIV-infection risks. Interaction effects of poverty with AIDS orphanhood and parental AIDS illness were found across all outcomes. No effects, or interactions with poverty, were shown by AIDS-unrelated orphanhood or parental illness. The identification of children at highest risk requires recognition and measurement of both poverty and parental AIDS. This study shows negative impacts of poverty and AIDS-specific vulnerabilities distinct from orphanhood and adult illness more generally. Additionally, effects of interaction between family AIDS and poverty suggest that, where these co-exist, children are at highest risk of all.

  6. 17-Year-Old Boy with Renal Failure and the Highest Reported Creatinine in Pediatric Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Master Sankar Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is on the rise and constitutes a major health burden across the world. Clinical presentations in early CKD are usually subtle. Awareness of the risk factors for CKD is important for early diagnosis and treatment to slow the progression of disease. We present a case report of a 17-year-old African American male who presented in a life threatening hypertensive emergency with renal failure and the highest reported serum creatinine in a pediatric patient. A brief discussion on CKD criteria, complications, and potential red flags for screening strategies is provided.

  7. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.

  8. Optimasi Penggunaan Lahan Kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti Untuk Properti Komersial Dengan Prinsip Highest and Best Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Darmawan Saputra Mahardika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Baturiti merupakan satu-satunya kecamatan di Kabupaten Tabanan yang berkembang dalam sektor ekonomi agrowisata karena lokasinya yang strategis dekat dengan berbagai obyek wisata terkenal. Dengan lokasi yang strategis, pembangunan untuk properti komersial tentu akan memberikan potensi keuntungan tinggi bagi investor yang memiliki lahan kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti. Kondisi seperti ini menyebabkan permintaan yang tinggi akan lahan, padahal ketersediaan lahan selalu berkurang. Pembangunan properti komersial di Kecamatan Baturiti perlu dioptimalisasi agar dicapai keuntungan maksimum bagi investor. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, investor yang ingin membangun di Kecamatan Baturiti memerlukan analisa untuk mendapatkan alternatif pemanfaatan lahan kosong. Lahan yang dianalisa merupakan lahan kosong belum terbangun seluas 22.175 m2 di Kecamatan Baturiti, Kabupaten Tabanan. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengetahui alternatif pendirian bangunan komersial yang memiliki nilai pasar tertinggi adalah Highest and Best Use (HBU. Dengan metode tersebut, pemilik lahan dapat mengetahui alternatif terbaik yang memenuhi syarat-syarat diijinkan secara legal, memungkinkan secara fisik, layak secara finansial, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum. Hasil yang diperoleh dari analisa Highest and Best Use ini adalah alternatif mixed-use berupa hotel dan toko souvenir dengan nilai lahan tertinggi dibandingkan alternatif lainnya sebesar Rp 7,950,714.60 per m2.

  9. Automatic orbital GTAW welding: Highest quality welds for tomorrow's high-performance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henon, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic orbital gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG welding is certain to play an increasingly prominent role in tomorrow's technology. The welds are of the highest quality and the repeatability of automatic weldings is vastly superior to that of manual welding. Since less heat is applied to the weld during automatic welding than manual welding, there is less change in the metallurgical properties of the parent material. The possibility of accurate control and the cleanliness of the automatic GTAW welding process make it highly suitable to the welding of the more exotic and expensive materials which are now widely used in the aerospace and hydrospace industries. Titanium, stainless steel, Inconel, and Incoloy, as well as, aluminum can all be welded to the highest quality specifications automatically. Automatic orbital GTAW equipment is available for the fusion butt welding of tube-to-tube, as well as, tube to autobuttweld fittings. The same equipment can also be used for the fusion butt welding of up to 6 inch pipe with a wall thickness of up to 0.154 inches.

  10. Teaching behaviors that define highest rated attending physicians: a study of the resident perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Nidhi G; Roy, Brita; Estrada, Carlos A; Centor, Robert M; Castiglioni, Analia; Willett, Lisa L; Shewchuk, Richard M; Cohen, Stuart

    2014-11-01

    Better understanding teaching behaviors of highly rated clinical teachers could improve training for teaching. We examined teaching behaviors demonstrated by higher rated attending physicians. Qualitative and quantitative group consensus using the nominal group technique (NGT) among internal medicine residents and students on hospital services (2004-2005); participants voted on the three most important teaching behaviors (weight of 3 = top rated, 1 = lowest rated). Teaching behaviors were organized into domains of successful rounding characteristics. We used teaching evaluations to sort attending physicians into tertiles of overall teaching effectiveness. Participants evaluated 23 faculty in 17 NGT sessions. Participants identified 66 distinct teaching behaviors (total sum of weights [sw] = 502). Nineteen items had sw ≥ 10, and these were categorized into the following domains: Teaching Process (n = 8; sw = 215, 42.8%), Learning Atmosphere (n = 5; sw = 145, 28.9%), Role Modeling (n = 3; sw = 74, 14.7%) and Team Management (n = 3; sw = 65, 12.9%). Attendings in the highest tertile received a larger number of votes for characteristics within the Teaching Process domain (56% compared to 39% in lowest tertile). The most effective teaching behaviors fell into two broad domains: Teaching Process and Learning Atmosphere. Highest rated attending physicians are most recognized for characteristics in the Teaching Process domain.

  11. Elevational Distribution and Ecology of Small Mammals on Tanzania's Second Highest Mountain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Stanley

    Full Text Available Mt. Meru is Tanzania's second highest mountain and the ninth highest in Africa. The distribution and abundance of small mammals on this massif are poorly known. Here we document the distribution of shrews and rodents along an elevational gradient on the southeastern versant of Mt. Meru. Five sites were sampled with elevational center points of 1950, 2300, 2650, 3000, and 3600 m, using a systematic methodology of standard traps and pitfall lines, to inventory the shrews and rodents of the slope. Ten species of mammal were recorded, comprising 2 shrew and 8 rodent species with the greatest diversity for each group at 2300 m. No species previously unrecorded on Mt. Meru was observed. Two rodent genera that occur in nearby Eastern Arc Mountains (Hylomyscus and Beamys were not recorded. The rodent Lophuromys verhageni and a recently described species of shrew, Crocidura newmarki, are the only endemic mammals on Mt. Meru, and were widespread across the elevational gradient. As in similar small mammal surveys on other mountains of Tanzania, rainfall positively influenced trap success rates for shrews, but not for rodents. This study provides new information on the local small mammal fauna of the massif, but numerous other questions remain to be explored. Comparisons are made to similar surveys of other mountains in Tanzania.

  12. A geometric quantization of the Kostant-Sekiguchi correpondence for scalar type unitary highest weight representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    For any Hermitian Lie group $G$ of tube type we give a geometric quantization procedure of certain $K_{\\mathbb{C}}$-orbits in $\\mathfrak{p}_{\\mathbb{C}}^*$ to obtain all scalar type highest weight representations. Here $K_{\\mathbb{C}}$ is the complexification of a maximal compact subgroup $K......\\subseteq G$ with corresponding Cartan decomposition $\\mathfrak{g}=\\mathfrak{k}+\\mathfrak{p}$ of the Lie algebra of $G$. We explicitly realize every such representation $\\pi$ on a Fock space consisting of square integrable holomorphic functions on its associated variety $Ass......\\"odinger model of $\\pi$ is a realization on $L^2(\\mathcal{O})$, where $\\mathcal{O}\\subseteq\\mathcal{O}^G$ is a Lagrangian submanifold. We construct an intertwining operator from the Schr\\"odinger model to the new Fock model, the generalized Segal-Bargmann transform, which gives a geometric quantization...

  13. Children with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at highest risk of second cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine N; Eriksson, Frank; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    and Oncology's protocols characterized by increasing intensity of thiopurine-based maintenance therapy. We explored the risk of second cancer in relation to protocols, risk group, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity, ALL high hyperdiploidy (HeH), and t(12;21)[ETV6/RUNX1]. RESULTS: After median 9.......5 years (interquartile range, 5.4-15.3 yrs) of follow-up, 40 of 3,591 patients had developed a second cancer, of whom 38 had non-high-risk B-cell precursor ALL. Patients with standard-risk ALL, who received the longest maintenance therapy, had the highest adjusted hazard of second cancer (hazard ratio [HR......], intermediate vs. standard risk: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.06-0.43, P patients with standard...

  14. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...

  15. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazón-Boado, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Selva, A Della; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Herrero, R Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Kopmann, A; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kümpel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Thi, T Nguyen; Nierstenhöfer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Ngoc, Dieppham; Ngoc, Dongpham; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Porter, T A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; De Grande, N Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tascau, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Waldenmaier, T; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Xu, J; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M; Kégl, B

    2007-11-09

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrated a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 6 x 10(19) electron volts and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within approximately 75 megaparsecs. We rejected the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays with at least a 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observed is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest-energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been substantially reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  16. The highest velocity and the shortest duration permitting attainment of VO2max during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p226   The severe-intensity domain has important applications for the prescription of running training and the elaboration of experimental designs. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the validity of a previously proposed model to estimate the shortest exercise duration (TLOW and the highest velocity (VHIGH at which VO2max is reached during running, and 2 to evaluate the effects of aerobic training status on these variables. Eight runners and eight physically active subjects performed several treadmill running exercise tests to fatigue in order to mathematically estimate and to experimentally determine TLOW and VHIGH. The relationship between the time to achieve VO2max and time to exhaustion (Tlim was used to estimate TLOW. VHIGH was estimated using the critical velocity model. VHIGH was assumed to be the highest velocity at which VO2 was equal to or higher than the average VO2max minus one standard deviation. TLOW was defined as Tlim associated with VHIGH. Runners presented better aerobic fitness and higher VHIGH (22.2 ± 1.9 km.h-1 than active subjects (20.0 ± 2.1 km.h-1. However, TLOW did not differ between groups (runners: 101 ± 39 s; active subjects: 100 ± 35 s. TLOW and VHIGH were not well estimated by the model proposed, with high coefficients of variation (> 6% and a low correlation coefficient (r<0.70, a fact reducing the validity of the model. It was concluded that aerobic training status positively affected only VHIGH. Furthermore, the model proposed presented low validity to estimate the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain (i.e., VHIGH, irrespective of the subjects’ training status.

  17. Failure of ETV in patients with the highest ETV success scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaris, Thomas J; Nazar, Ryan; Middlebrook, Emily; Gonda, David D; Jea, Andrew; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a surgical alternative to placing a CSF shunt in certain patients with hydrocephalus. The ETV Success Score (ETVSS) is a reliable, simple method to estimate the success of the procedure by 6 months of postoperative follow-up. The highest score is 90, estimating a 90% chance of the ETV effectively treating hydrocephalus without requiring a shunt. Treatment with ETV fails in certain patients, despite their being the theoretically best candidates for the procedure. In this study the authors attempted to identify factors that further predicted success in patients with the highest ETVSSs. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of all patients treated with ETV at 3 institutions. Demographic, radiological, and clinical data were recorded. All patients by definition were older than 1 year, had obstructive hydrocephalus, and did not have a prior shunt. Failure of ETV was defined as the need for a shunt by 1 year. The ETV was considered a success if the patient did not require another surgery (either shunt placement or a repeat endoscopic procedure) by 1 year. A statistical analysis was performed to identify factors associated with success or failure. RESULTS Fifty-nine patients met the entry criteria for the study. Eleven patients (18.6%) required further surgery by 1 year. All of these patients received a shunt. The presenting symptom of lethargy statistically correlated with success (p = 0.0126, odds ratio [OR] = 0.072). The preoperative radiological finding of transependymal flow (p = 0.0375, OR 0.158) correlated with success. A postoperative larger maximum width of the third ventricle correlated with failure (p = 0.0265). CONCLUSIONS The preoperative findings of lethargy and transependymal flow statistically correlated with success. This suggests that the best candidates for ETV are those with a relatively acute elevation of intracranial pressure. Cases without these findings may represent the failures in this

  18. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  19. Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2005-08-30

    Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

  20. Unique insights into the nanoworld. A unique highest-power microscope provides access to the world of atoms; Einzigartige Einblicke in die Nanowelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    With the best electron microscopes of our time in the Ernst Ruska center (ER-C) researchers can map the arrangement of atoms in a material and study very detailedly. This is for the progress in material science and nanotechnology deciding, then the interplay of the atoms determines the properties of materials and components. The ER-C, which is operated commonly by the Juelich Research Center and by the RWTH Aachen, has now supplemented its device park by an Europe-widely unique highest-power microscope: PICO corrects beside the spherical aberration yet a further lens error - the chromatic aberration - and reaches so a record resolution of 50 billionth millimeters.

  1. High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and calculations of the highest bound levels of {{\\rm{D}}}_{2}^{+} below the first dissociation threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Maximilian; Merkt, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Pulsed-field ionization zero-kinetic-energy photoelectron spectra of D2 have been recorded from the intermediate \\bar{{{H}}}{}1{{{Σ }}}g+ state to determine the positions of bound rovibronic levels of {{{D}}}2+ located within 1400 cm-1 of the D+ + D(1s) dissociation threshold. The ion-pair character of the \\bar{{{H}}} intermediate state resulted in large changes {{Δ }}N={N}+-N of the rotational quantum number upon photoionization, which enabled the observation of levels of {{{D}}}2+ with rotational quantum number {N}+ as high as 10. The experimental data cover a range of levels within which the usual hierarchy of timescales of the electronic, vibrational and rotational motions is inverted. The term values of these levels with respect to the X {}1{{{Σ }}}g+(v=0,N=0) rovibronic ground state of D2 and the energy intervals of the ionic states, measured with an accuracy of typically 0.11 cm-1 and 0.02 cm-1, respectively, are compared with positions calculated ab initio at various degrees of approximation, starting from the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and successively including adiabatic, nonadiabatic, relativistic and radiative corrections. The comparison shows that the accuracy of the photoelectron-spectroscopic measurement is sufficient to reveal the effects of the adiabatic, nonadiabatic, relativistic and radiative corrections on the absolute term values. Comparing our calculations, which rely on an approximate evaluation of the nonadiabatic corrections based on effective R-dependent reduced masses, with the theoretical results for {N}+≤slant 5 by Moss (1993 J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 89 3851) and for {N}+≤slant 8 by Wolniewicz and Orlikowski (1991 Mol. Phys. 74 103) enables the quantification of the errors introduced by our approximative treatment of the nonadiabatic corrections. Improved rotational term values of the \\bar{{{H}}}(v=12) level were also derived.

  2. 41 CFR 102-38.220 - What must we do when the highest bids received have the same bid amount?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... highest bids received have the same bid amount? 102-38.220 Section 102-38.220 Public Contracts and... do when the highest bids received have the same bid amount? When the highest bids received have the same bid amount, you must consider other factors of the sale (e.g., timely removal of the property...

  3. The flora of the highest building in Poland (the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Galera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the Palace of Culture and Science, which is the highest office building in Poland, was analysed. The exterior horizontal surfaces of the building (roofs, terraces, stairs could be regarded as polyhemerobic habitats. A total of 111 species of vascular plants (native species - 65% and 6 species of bryophytes were recorded from an area of 16 500 m2. It was found that the flora was relatively rich in species, of which some occurred in considerable quantities (over 1000 individuals of such species as: Eragrostis minor, Sagina procumbens, Chaenarrhinum minus were encountered. Moreover anemochorous species dominated (85% in the flora of the Palace. Thermophilous species and species indifferent to temperature were also strongly represented. The relatively high incidence of hygrophilous species was noteworthy. With regard to life forms an increased proportion of therophytes and phanerophytes (40% and 22%, respectively was observed. No significant differences were found between the flora of roofs situated on different floors of the building. However, slight differences between - the flora of north-facing and south-facing horizontal roof surfaces were marked.

  4. Transitional care for the highest risk patients: findings of a randomised control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Hock Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions to prevent readmissions of patients at highest risk have not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to determine if a post-discharge transitional care programme can reduce readmissions of such patients in Singapore.Methods: We randomised 840 patients with two or more unscheduled readmissions in the prior 90 days and Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity of patient, Emergency department utilisation score ≥10 to the intervention programme (n = 419 or control (n = 421. Patients allocated to the intervention group received post-discharge surveillance by a multidisciplinary integrated care team and early review in the clinic. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one unscheduled readmission within 30 days after discharge.Results: We found no statistically significant reduction in readmissions or emergency department visits in patients on the intervention group compared to usual care. However, patients in the intervention group reported greater patient satisfaction (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Any beneficial effect of interventions initiated after discharge is small for high-risk patients with multiple comorbidity and complex care needs. Future transitional care interventions should focus on providing the entire cycle of care for such patients starting from time of admission to final transition to the primary care setting.Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, no NCT02325752

  5. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  6. A doctor of the highest caliber treats an illness before it happens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Mei

    2009-01-01

    "A doctor of the highest caliber treats an illness before it happens," a seemingly antiquated doctrine in traditional Chinese medicine, is enjoying surging popularity among practitioners in urban China and the United States today. In this essay, I examine how the meanings and contours of traditional Chinese medicine have shifted in recent decades as it is molded into a "preventive medicine" through translocal encounters. From the 1960s and the early 1970s, the emphasis China's socialist health care placed on preventive health among the rural poor shaped the practice of Chinese herbal medicine and especially acupuncture. This version of preventive medicine was also exported to the Third World, which China strove to champion. Since the end of the Cold War and especially during the 1990s, as China strives to "get on track with the world" (specifically, affluent nation-states, especially in North America and the European Union), traditional Chinese medicine has been rapidly commodified and reinvented as a new kind of preventive medicine tailored for cosmopolitan, middle-class lifestyles. The emergence of this radically new preventive medicine resuscitates certain stories of antiquity and continuity, emphasizing that traditional Chinese medicine has always been "preventive" while obliterating recent memories of the proletariat world and its preventive medicine.

  7. The human right to the highest attainable standard of health: new opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul

    2006-07-01

    The health and human rights communities have much in common. Recently, the international community has begun to devote more attention to the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("the right to health"). Today, this human right presents health and human rights professionals with a range of new opportunities and challenges. The right to health is enshrined in binding international treaties and constitutions. It has numerous elements, including the right to health care and the underlying determinants of health, such as adequate sanitation and safe water. It empowers disadvantaged individuals and communities. If integrated into national and international policies, it can help to establish policies that are meaningful to those living in poverty. The author introduces his work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health. By way of illustration, he briefly considers his interventions on Niger's Poverty Reduction Strategy, Uganda's neglected (or tropical or poverty-related) diseases, and the recent US-Peru trade negotiations. With the maturing of human rights, health professionals have become an indispensable part of the global human rights movement. While human rights do not provide magic solutions, they have a constructive contribution to make. The failure to use them is a missed opportunity of major proportions.

  8. Risk Adjustment, Reinsurance Improved Financial Outcomes For Individual Market Insurers With The Highest Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Cohen, Michael L; Keenan, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) reformed the individual health insurance market. Because insurers can no longer vary their offers of coverage based on applicants' health status, the ACA established a risk adjustment program to equalize health-related cost differences across plans. The ACA also established a temporary reinsurance program to subsidize high-cost claims. To assess the impact of these programs, we compared revenues to claims costs for insurers in the individual market during the first two years of ACA implementation (2014 and 2015), before and after the inclusion of risk adjustment and reinsurance payments. Before these payments were included, for the 30 percent of insurers with the highest claims costs, claims (not including administrative expenses) exceeded premium revenues by $90-$397 per enrollee per month. The effect was reversed after these payments were included, with revenues exceeding claims costs by $0-$49 per month. The risk adjustment and reinsurance programs were relatively well targeted in the first two years. While there is ongoing discussion regarding the future of the ACA, our findings can shed light on how risk-sharing programs can address risk selection among insurers-a pervasive issue in all health insurance markets. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  9. A cosmopolitan design of teacher education and a progressive orientation towards the highest good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Roth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss a Kantian conception of cosmopolitan education. It suggests that we pursue the highest good – an object of morality – in the world together, and requires that we acknowledge the value of freedom, render ourselves both efficacious and autonomous in practice, cultivate our judgment, and unselfishly co-operate in the co-ordination and fulfilment of our morally permissible ends. Now, such an accomplishment is one of the most difficult challenges, and may not be achieved in our time, if ever. In the first part of the paper I show that we, according to Kant, have to interact with each other, and comply with the moral law in the quest of general happiness, not merely personal happiness. In the second part, I argue that a cosmopolitan design of teacher education in Kantian terms can establish moral character, even though good moral character is ultimately the outcome of free choice. Such a design can do so by optimizing the freedom of those concerned to set and pursue their morally permissible ends, and to cultivate their judgment through the use of examples. This requires, inter alia, that they be enabled, and take responsibility, to think for themselves, in the position of everyone else, and consistently; and to strengthen their virtue or self-mastery to comply, in practice, with the moral law.

  10. The structure and hardness of the highest boride of tungsten, a borophene-based compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Szwacki, Nevill

    2017-06-22

    Two-dimensional systems have strengthened their position as a key materials for novel applications. Very recently, boron joined the distinguished group of elements confirmed to possess 2D allotropes, named borophenes. In this work, we explore the stability and hardness of the highest borides of tungsten, which are built of borophenes separated by metal atoms. We show that the WB3+x compounds have Vickers hardnesses approaching 40 GPa only for small values of x. The insertion of extra boron atoms is, in general, detrimental to the hardness of WB3 because it leads to the formation of quasi-planar boron sheets that are less tightly connected with the adjacent tungsten layers. Very high concentrations of boron (x ≈ 1), give rise to a soft (Vickers hardness of ~8 GPa) and unstable hP20-WB4 structure that can be considered to be built of quasi-planar boron α-sheets separated by graphitic tungsten layers. By contrast, we show that the formation of tungsten vacancies leads to structures, e.g. W0.75B3+x , with Vickers hardnesses that are not only similar in value to the experimentally reported load-independent hardnesses greater than 20 GPa, but are also less sensitive to variations in the boron content.

  11. Oxygen pathway modeling estimates high reactive oxygen species production above the highest permanent human habitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Cano

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS from the inner mitochondrial membrane is one of many fundamental processes governing the balance between health and disease. It is well known that ROS are necessary signaling molecules in gene expression, yet when expressed at high levels, ROS may cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia may alter ROS production by changing mitochondrial Po2 (PmO2. Because PmO2 depends on the balance between O2 transport and utilization, we formulated an integrative mathematical model of O2 transport and utilization in skeletal muscle to predict conditions to cause abnormally high ROS generation. Simulations using data from healthy subjects during maximal exercise at sea level reveal little mitochondrial ROS production. However, altitude triggers high mitochondrial ROS production in muscle regions with high metabolic capacity but limited O2 delivery. This altitude roughly coincides with the highest location of permanent human habitation. Above 25,000 ft., more than 90% of exercising muscle is predicted to produce abnormally high levels of ROS, corresponding to the "death zone" in mountaineering.

  12. Medical school dropout--testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit

    2011-11-01

    Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n=1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission strategy, the type of qualifying examination and the priority given to the programme on the national application forms contributed significantly to the dropout model. Social variables did not predict dropout and neither did Strategy 2 admission test scores. Selection by admission testing appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  13. Bacillus sphaericus: the highest bacterial tannase producer with potential for gallic acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Shailendra; Dutt, Kakoli; Gupta, Pritesh; Misra, Swati; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2011-06-01

    An indigenously isolated strain of Bacillus sphaericus was found to produce 1.21 IU/ml of tannase under unoptimized conditions. Optimizing the process one variable at a time resulted in the production of 7.6 IU/ml of tannase in 48 h in the presence of 1.5% tannic acid. A 9.26-fold increase in tannase production was achieved upon further optimization using response surface methodology (RSM), a statistical approach. This increase led to a production level of 11.2I U/ml in medium containing 2.0% tannic acid, 2.5% galactose, 0.25% ammonium chloride, and 0.1% MgSO(4) pH 6.0 incubated at 37°C and 100 rpm for 48 h with a 2.0% inoculum level. Scaling up tannase production in a 30-l bioreactor resulted in the production of 16.54 IU/ml after 36 h. Thus far, this tannase production is the highest reported in this bacterial strain. Partially purified tannase exhibited an optimum pH of 5.0 with activity in the pH range of 3 to 8; 50°C was the optimal temperature for activity. Efficient conversion of tannic acid to purified gallic acid (90.80%) was achieved through crystallization. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Information ranks highest: Expectations of female adolescents with a rare genital malformation towards health care services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Simoes

    Full Text Available Access to highly specialized health care services and support to meet the patient's specific needs is critical for health outcome, especially during age-related transitions within the health care system such as with adolescents entering adult medicine. Being affected by an orphan disease complicates the situation in several important respects. Long distances to dedicated institutions and scarcity of knowledge, even among medical doctors, may present major obstacles for proper access to health care services and health chances. This study is part of the BMBF funded TransCareO project examining in a mixed-method design health care provisional deficits, preferences, and barriers in health care access as perceived by female adolescents affected by the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS, a rare (orphan genital malformation.Prior to a communicative validation workshop, critical elements of MRKHS related care and support (items were identified in interviews with MRKHS patients. During the subsequent workshop, 87 persons involved in health care and support for MRKHS were asked to rate the items using a 7-point Likert scale (7, strongly agree; 1, strongly disagree as to 1 the elements' potential importance (i.e., health care expected to be "best practice", or priority and 2 the presently experienced care. A gap score between the two was computed highlighting fields of action. Items were arranged into ten separate questionnaires representing domains of care and support (e.g., online-portal, patient participation. Within each domain, several items addressed various aspects of "information" and "access". Here, we present the outcome of items' evaluation by patients (attended, NPAT = 35; respondents, NRESP = 19.Highest priority scores occurred for domains "Online-Portal", "Patient participation", and "Tailored informational offers", characterizing them as extremely important for the perception as best practice. Highest gap scores yielded domains

  15. Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of the Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Donders

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many international and regional human rights instruments. This right contains both freedoms and entitlements, including the freedom to control one's own health and body and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services. Both aspects of the right to health – freedoms and entitlements – have important cultural dimensions. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has for instance stated that the right to health implies that health facilities, goods and services must be culturally appropriate, in other words respectful of the culture of individuals and communities. At the same time, it should be noted that culture and health may have a problematic relationship. Cultural patterns, attitudes or stereotypes may severely limit the health freedoms of people or may prevent certain people from accessing health care. Furthermore, there are some cultural or traditional practices that are condoned but that are very harmful to people's health. It seems that international human rights law demands respect for the cultural dimensions of the right to health, while at the same time requiring protection of the right to health against negative aspects of cultures. How does this work out in practice? What does the concept of "culturally appropriate" health goods and services mean at the national level? Who decides on what is or is not culturally appropriate? How have international supervisory bodies elaborated on the freedoms and entitlements of the right to health and the obligations for States Parties to the treaties in relation to the cultural dimensions of the right to health? This article analyses several treaty provisions and the interpretation of these provisions by the treaty monitoring bodies. Apart from several UN treaties, several regional treaties in Africa are dealt with, notably the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

  16. Information ranks highest: Expectations of female adolescents with a rare genital malformation towards health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N; Kronenthaler, Andrea; Hiltner, Hanna; Schaeffeler, Norbert; Rall, Katharina; Ueding, Esther; Rieger, Monika A; Wagner, Anke; Poesch, Leonie S; Baur, Marie-Christin; Kittel, Judith; Brucker, Sara Y

    2017-01-01

    Access to highly specialized health care services and support to meet the patient's specific needs is critical for health outcome, especially during age-related transitions within the health care system such as with adolescents entering adult medicine. Being affected by an orphan disease complicates the situation in several important respects. Long distances to dedicated institutions and scarcity of knowledge, even among medical doctors, may present major obstacles for proper access to health care services and health chances. This study is part of the BMBF funded TransCareO project examining in a mixed-method design health care provisional deficits, preferences, and barriers in health care access as perceived by female adolescents affected by the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS), a rare (orphan) genital malformation. Prior to a communicative validation workshop, critical elements of MRKHS related care and support (items) were identified in interviews with MRKHS patients. During the subsequent workshop, 87 persons involved in health care and support for MRKHS were asked to rate the items using a 7-point Likert scale (7, strongly agree; 1, strongly disagree) as to 1) the elements' potential importance (i.e., health care expected to be "best practice", or priority) and 2) the presently experienced care. A gap score between the two was computed highlighting fields of action. Items were arranged into ten separate questionnaires representing domains of care and support (e.g., online-portal, patient participation). Within each domain, several items addressed various aspects of "information" and "access". Here, we present the outcome of items' evaluation by patients (attended, NPAT = 35; respondents, NRESP = 19). Highest priority scores occurred for domains "Online-Portal", "Patient participation", and "Tailored informational offers", characterizing them as extremely important for the perception as best practice. Highest gap scores yielded domains "Tailored

  17. An Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) Hospitals, Wildfires Highest Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaine, Sabrina A; Sato, Mizuki; Jin, Yufang; Godwin, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Although many studies have delineated the variety and magnitude of impacts that climate change is likely to have on health, very little is known about how well hospitals are poised to respond to these impacts. Hypothesis/Problem The hypothesis is that most modern hospitals in urban areas in the United States need to augment their current disaster planning to include climate-related impacts. Using Los Angeles County (California USA) as a case study, historical data for emergency department (ED) visits and projections for extreme-heat events were used to determine how much climate change is likely to increase ED visits by mid-century for each hospital. In addition, historical data about the location of wildfires in Los Angeles County and projections for increased frequency of both wildfires and flooding related to sea-level rise were used to identify which area hospitals will have an increased risk of climate-related wildfires or flooding at mid-century. Only a small fraction of the total number of predicted ED visits at mid-century would likely to be due to climate change. By contrast, a significant portion of hospitals in Los Angeles County are in close proximity to very high fire hazard severity zones (VHFHSZs) and would be at greater risk to wildfire impacts as a result of climate change by mid-century. One hospital in Los Angeles County was anticipated to be at greater risk due to flooding by mid-century as a result of climate-related sea-level rise. This analysis suggests that several Los Angeles County hospitals should focus their climate-change-related planning on building resiliency to wildfires. Adelaine SA , Sato M , Jin Y , Godwin H . An assessment of climate change impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) hospitals, wildfires highest priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):556-562.

  18. Performance budgeting as the highest stage of the budget system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For some time, quite a few countries have been facing a serious crisis of public finances. This crisis fundamentally determines their everyday lives; therefore, it comes as no surprise that the changes within the field of public budgeting are labelled as priorities. In this context, the questions of advancement of the public sector management, the process of making more quality decisions about public spending and the increase in the responsibility of the budget users become particularly important. The introduction and the gradual improvement of performance budgeting is an indisputable manifestation of an effort to reform the area of financing public spending. Performance budgeting, as an advanced model of public budgeting, is a huge step forward in the direction of providing a better usage of budget funds, achieving consolidation of public finances and being more successful in meeting the public needs. As the financing of the public sector entities (organisations, institutions is closely related to their performance, performance budgeting is also, to some extent, a suitable way to eliminate the shortcomings and modify the traditional 'philosophy' underlying the operation of the public sector, to rationalise the system of public expenditures and to manage them more successfully. Performance budgeting is complex by its nature and may not easily be performed in certain segments of the public sector. In many developed countries, it has been implemented for more than half a century. Monitoring and measuring the public sector performances, the increase in the scope and the improvement in the quality of public goods and provided public services are highly ranked goals in these countries, which are highly committed to instituting a more adequate control over the public funds and innovating their budget system in the direction of attaining the highest level of development.

  19. Ribosome utilizes the minimum free energy changes to achieve the highest decoding rate and fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The performance of ribosome translation can be characterized by two factors, the translation rate and fidelity. Here, we provide analytical studies of the effect of the near-cognate tRNAs on the two factors. It is shown that the increase of the concentration of the near-cognate tRNAs relative to that of the cognate tRNA has negative effects on the ribosome translation by reducing both the translation rate and the translation fidelity. The effect of the near-cognate ternary complexes on the translation rate results mainly from the initial selection phase, whereas the proofreading phase has a minor effect. By contrast, the effect of the near-cognate ternary complexes on the fidelity results almost equally from the two phases. By using two successive phases, the initial selection and the proofreading, the ribosome can achieve higher translation fidelity than the product of the fidelity when only the initial selection is included and when only the proofreading is included, especially at the large ratio of the concentration of the near-cognate tRNAs compared to that of the cognate tRNA. Moreover, we study the changes of the free energy landscape in the tRNA decoding step. It is found that the rate constants of the tRNA decoding step measured experimentally give the minimum energy changes for the ribosomal complex to attain the optimal performance with both the highest decoding rate and fidelity and/or with the maximum value of the decoding fitness function. This suggests that the ribosome has evolved to utilize the minimum free energy changes gained from the conformational changes of the ribosome, EF-Tu, and tRNA to achieve the optimal performance in the tRNA decoding.

  20. Implications of improved measurements of the highest energy SEPs by AMS and PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, K.; Bindi, V.; Consolandi, C.; Corti, C.; Yamashiro, B.

    2017-08-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEP) are a key target of heliophysics research, not only as exemplars of particle acceleration and transport processes that are ubiquitous in astrophysical plasmas, but also as the most intense transient radiation hazard for human and robotic space explorers. SEPs are very well-observed by spacecraft covering particle energies below several hundred MeV/nucleon. Multiple missions, stretching back over decades, have yielded a fairly complete description of SEP intensity, energy spectra, and composition up to a few hundred MeV/nucleon. SEP characteristics at higher energies are, by comparison, only poorly understood due to the relative dearth of high-energy measurements. This lack of high energy measurements has contributed to a disagreement within the heliophysics community regarding the source regions and mechanisms that accelerate particles up to GeV energies. In solar cycle 24, the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) and the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) have been taking measurements of the highest energy SEPs from ∼ 100 MeV to the GeV. Since the literature has discussed SEP acceleration to GeV energies in terms of Ground Level Enhancements (GLE), we will review the findings for GLEs in solar cycle 23. We will discuss the models and theories that address acceleration up to the GeV and how AMS and PAMELA measurements have the potential to advance the current understanding of SEP acceleration physics. Lastly, only 1-2 GLEs have occurred during solar cycle 24, so we will explore a set of SEP events that were observed in the ⩾100 MeV GOES channels, most of which were also observed by PAMELA and AMS.

  1. Shuttle-Mir: The United States and Russia Share History's Highest Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Clay

    2001-01-01

    This book is an example of what may become the norm for history texts-an illustrated narrative accompanied by a CD-ROM. The text tells the story from the human side. It is based on reflections and quotes from the astronauts, cosmonauts, and team members who participated in the historic partnership. The main chapters give the perspectives of the seven U.S. astronauts living on Mir. The "STS boxes" share the Space Shuttle crews' experiences from the 11 Shuttle-Mir missions. The "Meanwhile on Earth" sections provide details of what was happening on Earth while the attention of the Program focused on the situations in space. The text reflects conventional usage; that is, temperature is given in degrees Fahrenheit, and metrics are used as appropriate. While this publication provides an accurate overview of the Shuttle-Mir Program, the reader is encouraged to explore the companion CD-ROM. It contains a complete, searchable text of the book itself plus source publications, mission data, status reports, drawings and illustrations, videos and hundreds of images, and even a virtual Shuttle-Mir children's book. Of particular interest are the Shuttle-Mir oral history transcripts and the letters written by American astronauts while they were in residence on the Russian space station. Many of the quotes in "Shuttle-Mir: The U.S. and Russia Share History's Highest Stage" came from sources located on the CD-ROM. The reader is invited to explore the Shuttle-Mir story through the words, images, and insights of those who took part in it.

  2. Organic permeable-base transistors - superb power efficiency at highest frequencies (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Markus P.; Fischer, Axel; Kaschura, Felix; Scholz, Reinhard; Lüssem, Björn; Kheradmand-Boroujeni, Bahman; Ellinger, Frank; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2016-11-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFET) are important elements in thin-film electronics, being considered for flat-panel or flexible displays, radio frequency identification systems, and sensor arrays. To optimize the devices for high-frequency operation, the channel length, defined as the horizontal distance between the source and the drain contact, can be scaled down. Here, an architecture with a vertical current flow, in particular the Organic Permeable-Base Transistors (OPBT), opens up new opportunities, because the effective transit length in vertical direction is precisely tunable in the nanometer range by the thickness of the semiconductor layer. We present an advanced OPBT, competing with best OFETs while a low-cost, OLED-like fabrication with low-resolution shadow masks is used (Klinger et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2015). Its design consists of a stack of three parallel electrodes separated by two semiconductor layers of C60 . The vertical current flow is controlled by the middle base electrode with nano-sized openings passivated by an native oxide. Using insulated layers to structure the active area, devices show an on/off ratio of 10⁶ , drive 11 A/cm² at an operation voltage of 1 V, and have a low subthreshold slope of 102 mV/decade. These OPBTs show a unity current-gain transit frequency of 2.2 MHz and off-state break-down fields above 1 MV/cm. Thus, our optimized setup does not only set a benchmark for vertical organic transistors, but also outperforms best lateral OFETs using similar low-cost structuring techniques in terms of power efficiency at high frequencies.

  3. Children of Senegal River Basin show the highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ever observed worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common intestinal protist found in human feces and considered an emerging parasite with a worldwide distribution. Because of its potential impact in public health, we reinforced the picture of Blastocystis sp. prevalence and molecular subtype distribution in Africa by performing the first survey of this parasite in Senegal. Methods Stool samples from 93 symptomatic presenting with various gastrointestinal disorders or asymptomatic children living in three villages of the Senegal River Basin were tested for the presence of Blastocystis sp. by non-quantitative and quantitative PCR using primer pairs targeting the SSU rDNA gene. Positive samples were subtyped to investigate the frequency of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in our cohort and the distribution of subtypes in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups of children. Results By the use of molecular tools, all 93 samples were found to be positive for Blastocystis sp. indicating a striking parasite prevalence of 100%. Mixed infections by two or three subtypes were identified in eight individuals. Among a total of 103 subtyped isolates, subtype 3 was most abundant (49.5%) followed by subtype 1 (28.2%), subtype 2 (20.4%) and subtype 4 (1.9%). Subtype 3 was dominant in the symptomatic group while subtypes 1 and 2 were detected with equal frequency in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The distribution of subtypes was compared with those available in other African countries and worldwide. Comparison confirmed that subtype 4 is much less frequently detected or absent in Africa while it is commonly found in Europe. Potential sources of Blastocystis sp. infection including human-to-human, zoonotic, and waterborne transmissions were also discussed. Conclusions The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in our Senegalese population was the highest prevalence ever recovered worldwide for this parasite by reaching 100%. All cases were caused by subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 with a

  4. Impact of Po Valley emissions on the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabrieli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2009, we conducted the first extensive glaciological survey of Alto dell'Ortles, the uppermost glacier of Mt. Ortles (3905 m a.s.l., the highest summit of the Eastern European Alps. This section of the Alps is located in a rain shadow and is characterized by the lowest precipitation rate in the entire Alpine arc. Mt. Ortles offers a unique opportunity to test deposition mechanisms of chemical species that until now were studied only in the climatically-different western sector. We analyzed snow samples collected on Alto dell'Ortles from a 4.5 m snow-pit at 3830 m a.s.l., and we determined a large suite of trace elements and ionic compounds that comprise the atmospheric deposition over the past two years.

    Trace element concentrations measured in snow samples are extremely low with mean concentrations at pg g−1 levels. Only Al and Fe present median values of 1.8 and 3.3 ng g−1, with maximum concentrations of 21 and 25 ng g−1. The median crustal enrichment factor (EFc values for Be, Rb, Sr, Ba, U, Li, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ga and V are lower than 10 suggesting that these elements originated mainly from soil and mineral aerosol. EFc higher than 100 are reported for Zn (118, Ag (135, Bi (185, Sb (401 and Cd (514, demonstrating the predominance of non-crustal depositions and suggesting an anthropogenic origin.

    Our data show that the physical stratigraphy and the chemical signals of several species were well preserved in the uppermost snow of the Alto dell'Ortles glacier. A clear seasonality emerges from the data as the summer snow is more affected by anthropogenic and marine contributions while the winter aerosol flux is dominated by crustal sources. For trace elements, the largest mean EFc seasonal variations are displayed by V (with a factor of 3.8, Sb (3.3, Cu (3.3, Pb (2.9, Bi (2.8, Cd (2.1, Zn (1.9, Ni (1.8, Ag (1.8, As (1.7 and Co (1.6.

    When trace species ratios in local

  5. Consumer Airfare Report: Table 5 - Detailed Fare Information For Highest and Lowest Fare Markets Under 750 Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides detailed fare information for highest and lowest fare markets under 750 miles. For a more complete explanation, please read the introductory information at...

  6. High-resolution electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, John C H

    2013-01-01

    This new fourth edition of the standard text on atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) retains previous material on the fundamentals of electron optics and aberration correction, linear imaging theory (including wave aberrations to fifth order) with partial coherence, and multiple-scattering theory. Also preserved are updated earlier sections on practical methods, with detailed step-by-step accounts of the procedures needed to obtain the highest quality images of atoms and molecules using a modern TEM or STEM electron microscope. Applications sections have been updated - these include the semiconductor industry, superconductor research, solid state chemistry and nanoscience, and metallurgy, mineralogy, condensed matter physics, materials science and material on cryo-electron microscopy for structural biology. New or expanded sections have been added on electron holography, aberration correction, field-emission guns, imaging filters, super-resolution methods, Ptychography, Ronchigrams, tomogr...

  7. High-resolution spectroscopic view of planet formation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regály, Zsolt; Kiss, Laszlo; Sándor, Zsolt; Dullemond, Cornelis P.

    2011-11-01

    Theories of planet formation predict the birth of giant planets in the inner, dense, and gas-rich regions of the circumstellar disks around young stars. These are the regions from which strong CO emission is expected. Observations have so far been unable to confirm the presence of planets caught in formation. We have developed a novel method to detect a giant planet still embedded in a circumstellar disk by the distortions of the CO molecular line profiles emerging from the protoplanetary disk's surface. The method is based on the fact that a giant planet significantly perturbs the gas velocity flow in addition to distorting the disk surface density. We have calculated the emerging molecular line profiles by combining hydrodynamical models with semianalytic radiative transfer calculations. Our results have shown that a giant Jupiter-like planet can be detected using contemporary or future high-resolution near-IR spectrographs such as VLT/CRIRES or ELT/METIS. We have also studied the effects of binarity on disk perturbations. The most interesting results have been found for eccentric circumprimary disks in mid-separation binaries, for which the disk eccentricity - detectable from the asymmetric line profiles - arises from the gravitational effects of the companion star. Our detailed simulations shed new light on how to constrain the disk kinematical state as well as its eccentricity profile. Recent findings by independent groups have shown that core-accretion is severely affected by disk eccentricity, hence detection of an eccentric protoplanetary disk in a young binary system would further constrain planet formation theories.

  8. Ultrahigh-resolution CT and DR scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBianca, Frank A.; Gupta, Vivek; Zou, Ping; Jordan, Lawrence M.; Laughter, Joseph S.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Sebes, Jeno I.

    1999-05-01

    A new technique called Variable-Resolution X-ray (VRX) detection that dramatically increases the spatial resolution in computed tomography (CT) and digital radiography (DR) is presented. The technique is based on a principle called 'projective compression' that allows the resolution element of a CT detector to scale with the subject or field size. For very large (40 - 50 cm) field sizes, resolution exceeding 2 cy/mm is possible and for very small fields, microscopy is attainable with resolution exceeding 100 cy/mm. Several effects that could limit the performance of VRX detectors are considered. Experimental measurements on a 16-channel, CdWO4 scintillator + photodiode test array yield a limiting MTF of 64 cy/mm (8(mu) ) in the highest-resolution configuration reported. Preliminary CT images have been made of small anatomical specimens and small animals using a storage phosphor screen in the VRX mode. Measured detector resolution of the CT projection data exceeds 20 cy/mm (less than 25 (mu) ); however, the final, reconstructed CT images produced thus far exhibit 10 cy/mm (50 (mu) ) resolution because of non-flatness of the storage phosphor plates, focal spot effects and the use of a rudimentary CT reconstruction algorithm. A 576-channel solid-state detector is being fabricated that is expected to achieve CT image resolution in excess of that of the 26-channel test array.

  9. Spatial resolution limits of an optical profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creath, Katherine

    1990-07-01

    Interferometric optical profilers have a spatial resolution which is either limited by the detector array sample spacing and element size or by the optical resolution of the system. To test the working spatial resolution of an optical profiler a sinsusoidal grating with 300 lines/mm was measured using an optical profiler at lOx 2Ox 40x and 200x with detector arrays having element-to-element spacings of 6. 8 j. tm and 40 tm. The highest magnification gave the greatest and most accurate depth for the grating for all of the detectors. At 40x as long as there were more than about 8 sample points per cycle as there were with the two smaller detector spacings the grating depth can be measured quite accurately. With fewer points the peak-to-valley height measurement of the grating is too low even though the optical resolution of the system is sufficient enough to resolve the grating. The results of this work show that for accurate representation of surface heights containing high frequency structures oversampling is desirable. Summary The spatial resolution of an interferometric optical proffler depends upon both the optical resolution of the system and the characteristics of the detector array used to sample the image. The limiting resolution wifi be the larger of the optical and detector resolution. One means of defining optical resolution is the Sparrow criterion which states that the image of two points is just

  10. Near-IR responsive nanostructures for nanobiophotonics: emerging impacts on nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; Swihart, Mark T; Prasad, Paras N

    2016-04-01

    Nanobiophotonics is an emerging field at the intersection of nanoscience, photonics, and biotechnology. Harnessing interactions of light with nanostructures enables new types of bioimaging, sensing, and light-activated therapy which can make a major impact on nanomedicine. Low penetration through tissue limits the use of visible light in nanomedicine. Near infrared (NIR) light (~780-1100 nm) can penetrate significantly further, enabling free-space delivery into deep tissues. This review focuses on interactions of NIR light with nanostructures to produce three effects: direct photoactivation, photothermal effects, and photochemical effects. Applications of direct photoactivation include bioimaging and biosensing using NIR-emitting quantum dots, materials with localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the NIR, and upconverting nanoparticles. Two key nanomedicine applications using photothermal effects are photothermal therapy (PTT), and photoacoustic (PA) imaging. For photochemical effects, we present the latest advances in in-situ upconversion and upconverting nanostructures for NIR activation of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Nanobiophotonics is a relatively new field applying light for the interactions with nanostructures, which can be used in bioimaging, sensing, and therapy. As near infrared (NIR) light (~780-1100 nm) can have better tissue penetration, its clinical potential is far greater. In this review, the authors discussed the latest research on the applications of NIR light in imaging and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Study of GaAsSb Nanowires by Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Near IR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    the ce b and absen uite a few efects canno re minimal i hell NWs w ed well fa f 4.5 er of cture wins, and s cap oplet ntral ce of NWs t be... barrier caused by the pinning of the Fermi level in the NW at the surface states. For the shell of 70, the I-V curve is non-symmetric. There was...lowering the barrier . This in turn enables enhanced tunneling of the charge carriers leading to more linear and symmetric I-V behavior, consistent with

  12. Ag nanoparticles enhanced near-IR emission from Er3+ ions doped glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jiani; Xu, Tiefeng; Wu, Yi; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shixun; Xu, Yinsheng

    2013-10-01

    Vitreous materials containing rare-earth (RE) ions and metallic nanoparticles (NPs) attract considerable interest because the presence of the NPs may lead to an intensification of luminescence. In this work, the characteristics of 1.54 μm luminescence for the Er3+ ions doped bismuthate glasses containing Ag NPs were studied under 980 nm excitation. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of Ag NPs appears from 500 to 1500 nm. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) image reveals that the Ag NPs are dispersed homogeneously with the size from 2 to 7 nm. The strength parameters Ωt(t = 2, 4, 6), spontaneous emission probability (A), radiative lifetime (τ) and stimulated emission section (σem) of Er3+ ions were calculated by the Judd-Ofelt theory. When the glass contains 0.2 wt% AgCl, the 1.54 μm fluorescence intensity of Er3+ reaches a maximum value, which is 7.2 times higher than that of glass without Ag NPs. The Ag NPs embedded glasses show significantly fluorescence enhancement of Er3+ ions by local field enhancement from SPR.

  13. Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-08-24

    The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

  14. Near-IR TRGB Distance Modulus of Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Jung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The JHKs magnitudes of the red giant branch tip (TRGB and the distance moduli of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined from the nearinfrared luminosity functions (LFs of the resolved stars in the galaxy. Applying a Savitzky-Golay filtering, we derived the second derivatives of the LFs, and estimated the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB as mJ = 19.1, mH = 18.4, and mKs = 18:0. The mean values of the theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB were measured by using the Yonsei-Yale isochrones with a metallicity range of -2.1 < [Fe/H] < -0.5 and age of 12 Gyr. The derived values of near-infrared TRGB distance moduli for IC 1613 are (m-M = 24.12±0:25, 24.20±0.44, and 24.00±0.52 for J;H, and Ks bands, respectively.

  15. Optical changes of dentin in the near-IR as a function of mineral content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Rhett A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2017-02-01

    The optical properties of human dentin can change markedly due to aging, friction from opposing teeth, and acute trauma, resulting in the formation of transparent or sclerotic dentin with increased mineral density. The objective of this study was to determine the optical attenuation coefficient of human dentin tissues with different mineral densities in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions from 1300-2200 nm using NIR transillumination and optical coherence tomography (OCT). N=50 dentin samples of varying opacities were obtained by sectioning whole extracted teeth into 150 μm transverse sections at the cemento-enamel junction or the apical root. Transillumination images were acquired with a NIR camera and attenuation measurements were acquired at various NIR wavelengths using a NIR sensitive photodiode. Samples were imaged with transverse microradiography (gold standard) in order to determine the mineral density of each sample.

  16. Near-IR trigonometric parallaxes of nearby stars in the Galactic plane using the VVV survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamín, J. C.; Mendez, R. A.; Smart, R. L.; Jara, R.; Kurtev, R.; Gromadzki, M.; Villanueva, V.; Minniti, D.; Smith, L. C.; Lucas, P. W.

    2018-01-01

    We used VVV multi-epoch KS band observations, over a ˜ 5 years baseline to obtain milli and sub-milli arcsec precision astrometry for a sample of 18 previously known high proper motion sources, including precise parallaxes for the first time. Five of these systems are most likely very low mass stars (VLMS) belonging to the galactic halo based on their tangential velocities. This proves the capability of the VVV project to measure high precision trigonometric parallaxes for VLMS up to distances of ˜ 400 pc reaching farther than most other ground based surveys or space missions for these types of stars.

  17. Engineering of near IR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles for in vivo detection of colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Sarit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of near-infrared (NIR fluorescence imaging techniques has gained great interest for early detection of cancer because water and other intrinsic biomolecules display negligible absorption or autofluorescence in this region. Novel fluorescent nanoparticles with potential to improve neoplasm detection sensitivity may prove to be a valuable tool in early detection of colon tumors. Methods The present study describes the synthesis and use of NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles as a diagnostic tool for detection of colon cancer. These fluorescent nanoparticles were prepared by a precipitation process of human serum albumin (HSA in aqueous solution in the presence of a carboxylic acid derivative of the NIR dye IR-783 (CANIR. Tumor-targeting ligands such as peanut agglutinin (PNA, anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies (anti-CEA and tumor associated glycoprotein-72 monoclonal antibodies (anti-TAG-72 were covalently conjugated to the albumin nanoparticles via the surface carboxylate groups by using the carbodiimide activation method. Results and discussion Leakage of the encapsulated dye into PBS containing 4% HSA or human bowel juice was not detected. This study also demonstrates that the encapsulation of the NIR fluorescent dye within the HSA nanoparticles reduces the photobleaching of the dye significantly. Specific colon tumor detection in a mouse model was demonstrated for PNA, anti-CEA and anti-TAG-72 conjugated NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles. These bioactive NIR fluorescent albumin nanoparticles also detected invisible tumors that were revealed as pathological only subsequent to histological analysis. Conclusions These results may suggest a significant advantage of NIR fluorescence imaging using NIR fluorescent nanoparticles over regular colonoscopy. In future work we plan to broaden this study by encapsulating cancer drugs, such as paclitaxel and doxorubicin, within these biodegradable NIR fluorescent HSA nanoparticles, in order to use them for both detection as well as therapy of colon cancer and others.

  18. Genetic variant near IRS1 is associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rung, Johan; Cauchi, Stéphane; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified common variants that only partially explain the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Using genome-wide association data from 1,376 French individuals, we identified 16,360 SNPs nominally associated with T2D and studied these SNPs in an independent...

  19. Near-IR TRGB Distance to Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy NGC 147

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the distance modulus of nearby dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 147 estimated from the Tip of Red-giant Branch (TRGB method applying to the color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions in the near-infrared JHK bands. Apparent magnitudes of TRGBs in each band are obtained by applying Savitzky-Golay filter to the luminosity functions, and the theoretical absolute magnitudes are estimated from Yonsei-Yale isochrones. The derived values of distance modulus to NGC 147 are (m-M=23.69±0.12, 23.78±0.17, and 23.85±0.22 for J, H, and K bands, respectively. Distance modulus in bolometric magnitude is also derived as (m-M=23.87±0.11. We compare the derived values of the TRGB distance modulus to NGC 147 in the near-infrared bands with the previous results in other bands.

  20. Statistical inference for classification of RRIM clone series using near IR reflectance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Faridatul Aima; Madzhi, Nina Korlina; Hashim, Hadzli; Abdullah, Noor Ezan; Khairuzzaman, Noor Aishah; Azmi, Azrie Faris Mohd; Sampian, Ahmad Faiz Mohd; Harun, Muhammad Hafiz

    2015-08-01

    RRIM clone is a rubber breeding series produced by RRIM (Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia) through "rubber breeding program" to improve latex yield and producing clones attractive to farmers. The objective of this work is to analyse measurement of optical sensing device on latex of selected clone series. The device using transmitting NIR properties and its reflectance is converted in terms of voltage. The obtained reflectance index value via voltage was analyzed using statistical technique in order to find out the discrimination among the clones. From the statistical results using error plots and one-way ANOVA test, there is an overwhelming evidence showing discrimination of RRIM 2002, RRIM 2007 and RRIM 3001 clone series with p value = 0.000. RRIM 2008 cannot be discriminated with RRIM 2014; however both of these groups are distinct from the other clones.

  1. Assessment of cavitation in artificial approximal dental lesions with near-IR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Bitewing radiography is still considered state-of-the-art diagnostic technology for assessing cavitation within approximal carious dental lesions, even though radiographs cannot resolve cavitated surfaces but instead are used to measure lesion depth in order to predict cavitation. Clinicians need new technologies capable of determining whether approximal carious lesions have become cavitated because not all lesions progress to cavitation. Assessing lesion cavitation from near-infrared (NIR) imaging methods holds great potential due to the high transparency of enamel in the NIR region from λ=1300-1700-nm, which allows direct visualization and quantified measurements of enamel demineralization. The objective of this study was to measure the change in lesion appearance between non-cavitated and cavitated lesions in artificially generated lesions using NIR imaging modalities (two-dimensional) at λ=1300-nm and λ=1450-nm and cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) (thee-dimensional) λ=1300-nm. Extracted human posterior teeth with sound proximal surfaces were chosen for this study and imaged before and after artificial lesions were made. A high speed dental hand piece was used to create artificial cavitated proximal lesions in sound samples and imaged. The cavitated artificial lesions were then filled with hydroxyapatite powder to simulate non-cavitated proximal lesions.

  2. Optical/Near-IR spatially resolved study of the H II galaxy Tol 02★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Campos, A.; Terlevich, E.; Rosa-González, D.; Terlevich, R.; Telles, E.; Díaz, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    The main goal of this study is to characterize the stellar populations in very low-metallicity galaxies. We have obtained broad U, B, R, I, J, H, K, intermediate Strömgren y and narrow H α and [O III] deep images of the Wolf-Rayet, blue compact dwarf, H II galaxy Tol 02. We have analysed the low surface brightness component, the stellar cluster complexes and the H II regions. The stellar populations in the galaxy have been characterized by comparing the observed broad-band colours with those of single stellar population models. The main results are consistent with Tol 02 being formed by a 1.5 Gyr old disc component at the centre of which a group of eight massive (>104 M⊙) stellar cluster clumps is located. Six of these clumps are 10 Myr old and their near-infrared colours suggest that their light is dominated by Red Supergiant (RSG) stars, the other two are young Wolf-Rayet cluster candidates of ages 3 and 5 Myr, respectively. 12 H II regions in the star-forming region of the galaxy are also identified. These are immersed in a diffuse H α and [O III] emission that spreads towards the north and south covering the old stellar disc. Our spatial-temporal analysis shows that star formation is more likely stochastic and simultaneous within short time-scales. The mismatch between observations and models cannot be attributed alone to a mistreat of the RSG phase and still needs to be further investigated.

  3. Highly Efficient Near-IR Photoluminescence of Er3+ Immobilized in Mesoporous SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract SiO2 mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15 with the incorporation of erbium ions is studied as a novel type of nanoscopic composite photoluminescent material in this paper. To enhance the photoluminescence efficiency, two schemes have been used for the incorporation of Er3+ where (1 Er3+ is ligated with bis-(perfluoromethylsulfonyl-aminate (PMS forming Er(PMSx-SBA-15 and (2 Yb3+ is codoped with Er3+ forming Yb-Er-SBA-15. As high as 11.17 × 10−21cm2 of fluorescent cross section at 1534 nm and 88 nm of “effective bandwidth” have been gained. It is a 29.3% boost in fluorescent cross section compared to what has been obtained in conventional silica. The upconversion coefficient in Yb-Er-SBA-15 is relatively small compared to that in other ordinary glass hosts. The increased fluorescent cross section and lowered upconversion coefficient could benefit for the high-gain optical amplifier. Finally, the Judd–Ofelt theory has also been used for the analyses of the optical spectra of Er(PMSx-SBA-15.

  4. Engineering meter-scale laser resistant coatings for the near IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Adams, J J; Shirk, M D; Norton, M A; Weiland, T L

    2005-08-26

    Laser resistant coatings are needed for beam steering (mirrors), pulse switching (polarizers), and high transport efficiency on environmental barriers (windows/lenses) on large laser systems. A range of defects limit the exposure fluence of these coatings. By understanding the origin and damage mechanisms for these defects, the deposition process can be optimized to realize coatings with greater laser resistance. Electric field modeling can provide insight into which defects are most problematic. Laser damage growth studies are useful for determining a functional laser damage criteria. Mitigation techniques such as micro-machining with a single-crystal diamond cutting tool or short pulse laser ablation using the burst technique can be used to arrest growth in damage sites to extend optic lifetime.

  5. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Zillikens, M Carola; Stančákova, Alena

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ∼2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed up the 14...

  6. Detection Method of Skin Region by Near-IR Spectrum Multi-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kunihito; Andoh, Michinori; Kojima, Shinichi

    Many active safety technologies for the driver support system are developing. Most of the traffic accidents are caused by driver's inattentive or drowsy. We are developing a driver support system that protects from traffic accidents by these causes. Our purpose is to detect the driver's face region by using a camera. A lot of face detection methods are proposed, but there is not a technique addressing every environment inside the car. For example, skin color segmentation can not detect the skin region in the night, because it has to light up the driver by bright light. In this paper, we propose a skin detection method by the unique reflection characteristics of the materials. Our method is very simple algorithm. We developed a skin detection system, and confirmed effectiveness by the evaluation experiment in indoor environment, and showed the effectiveness by a driving experiment in the night.

  7. Simultaneous multicolour optical and near-IR transit photometry of GJ 1214b with SOFIA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angerhausen, D.; Dreyer, L. L.; Placek, B.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Eigmueller, Ph.; Godolt, M.; Kitzmann, D.; Mallonn, M.; Becklin, E. E.; Collins, P.; Dunham, D.; Grenfell, J.L.; Hamilton, R. T.; Kabáth, Petr; Logsdon, J. M.; Mandell, A.; Mandushev, G.; McElwain, M.; McLean, I.S.; Pfueller, E.; Rauer, H.; Savage, M.; Shenoy, S.; Vacca, W. D.; Van Cleve, J. E.; Wiedemann, M.; Wolf, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 608, December (2017), A120/1-A120/12 E-ISSN 1432-0746 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : hubble- space -telescope * light curves * transmission spectrum Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  8. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES IN THE FOURIER TRANSFORM-IMAGING SPECTROMETERS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Artiukhina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers basic model parameters of a static imaging Fourier spectrometer for Earth remote sensing from space. Design of the imaging spectrometer model has been developed and images have been obtained in the paper. The images have made it possible to determine such parameters as ratio of signal/ noise, frequency/contrast characteristic and spectral coincidence of reconstructed images.

  9. Perylene-fused BODIPY dye with near-IR absorption/emission and high photostability

    KAUST Repository

    Jiao, Chongjun

    2011-02-18

    A N-annulated perylene unit was successfully fused to the meso-and β-positions of a boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core. The newly synthesized BODIPY dye 1b exhibits intensified near-infrared (NIR) absorption and the longest emission maximum ever observed for all BODIPY derivatives. In addition, this dye possesses excellent solubility and photostability, beneficial to practical applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  10. In vivo near-IR imaging of occlusal lesions at 1310 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Lee, Chulsung; Kang, Hobin; Chan, Kenneth H.

    2011-03-01

    Several in vitro studies have demonstrated the potential for transillumination imaging and optical coherence tomography operating at 1310-nm for imaging caries lesions on tooth proximal and occlusal surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated that lesions on proximal surfaces could be imaged in vivo using NIR transillumination and that PS-OCT can be used in vivo to measure early demineralization on tooth buccal and occlusal surfaces. In this paper we report the first in vivo measurements using OCT and NIR imaging of occlusal lesions that have been scheduled for restoration. Occlusal lesions were chosen that were scheduled for restoration based on conventional diagnosis that consists of visual and tactile examination. Occlusal lesions were visible in the NIR. OCT looks promising for confirming the lateral spread of occlusal caries under the dentinal-enamel junction adjacent to fissures. These studies suggest that both near infrared transillumination imaging at 1310-nm and OCT provide valuable information about the severity of caries lesions.

  11. Utilizing Near-IR Tunable Laser Absorption Spectroscopy to Study Detonation and Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    3 2.1 Rotating Detonation Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.1 Previous & Current ...Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.2.2 Current Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 III...Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy TDM-TDLAS Time-Devision Multiplexed Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy VCSEL Vertical Cavity

  12. Near-IR Transmission Spectrum of HAT-P-32b using HST/WFC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, M.; Morello, G.; Tsiaras, A.; Zingales, T.; Tinetti, G.

    2017-07-01

    We report here the analysis of the near-infrared transit spectrum of the hot Jupiter HAT-P-32b, which was recorded with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. HAT-P-32b is one of the most inflated exoplanets discovered, making it an excellent candidate for transit spectroscopic measurements. To obtain the transit spectrum, we have adopted different analysis methods, both parametric and non-parametric (Independent Component Analysis, ICA), and compared the results. The final spectra are all consistent within 0.5σ. The uncertainties obtained with ICA are larger than those obtained with the parametric method by a factor of ˜1.6-1.8. This difference is the trade-off for higher objectivity due to the lack of any assumption about the instrument systematics compared to the parametric approach. The ICA error bars are therefore worst-case estimates. To interpret the spectrum of HAT-P-32b we used { T }-REx, our fully Bayesian spectral retrieval code. As for other hot Jupiters, the results are consistent with the presence of water vapor ({{log}{{H}}}2{{O}}=-{3.45}-1.65+1.83), clouds (top pressure between 5.16 and 1.73 bar). Spectroscopic data over a broader wavelength range are needed to de-correlate the mixing ratio of water vapor from clouds and identify other possible molecular species in the atmosphere of HAT-P-32b.

  13. NLTE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-RESOLUTION H -BAND SPECTRA. I. NEUTRAL SILICON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junbo; Shi, Jianrong; Liu, Chao [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Pan, Kaike [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende, E-mail: sjr@bao.ac.cn [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-12-20

    We investigated the reliability of our silicon atomic model and the influence of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) on the formation of neutral silicon (Si i) lines in the near-infrared (near-IR) H -band. We derived the differential Si abundances for 13 sample stars with high-resolution H -band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), as well as from optical spectra, both under local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE) and NLTE conditions. We found that the differences between the Si abundances derived from the H -band and from optical lines for the same stars are less than 0.1 dex when the NLTE effects are included, and that NLTE reduces the line-to-line scatter in the H -band spectra for most sample stars. These results suggest that our Si atomic model is appropriate for studying the formation of H -band Si lines. Our calculations show that the NLTE corrections of the Si i H -band lines are negative, i.e., the final Si abundances will be overestimated in LTE. The corrections for strong lines depend on surface gravity, and tend to be larger for giants, reaching ∼−0.2 dex in our sample, and up to ∼−0.4 dex in extreme cases of APOGEE targets. Thus, the NLTE effects should be included in deriving silicon abundances from H -band Si i lines, especially for the cases where only strong lines are available.

  14. Sub-Airy disk angular resolution with high dynamic range in the near-infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richichi A.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Lunar occultations (LO are a simple and effective high angular resolution method, with minimum requirements in instrumentation and telescope time. They rely on the analysis of the diffraction fringes created by the lunar limb. The diffraction phenomen occurs in space, and as a result LO are highly insensitive to most of the degrading effects that limit the performance of traditional single telescope and long-baseline interferometric techniques used for direct detection of faint, close companions to bright stars. We present very recent results obtained with the technique of lunar occultations in the near-IR, showing the detection of companions with very high dynamic range as close as few milliarcseconds to the primary star. We discuss the potential improvements that could be made, to increase further the current performance. Of course, LO are fixed-time events applicable only to sources which happen to lie on the Moon’s apparent orbit. However, with the continuously increasing numbers of potential exoplanets and brown dwarfs beign discovered, the frequency of such events is not negligible. I will list some of the most favorable potential LO in the near future, to be observed from major observatories.

  15. Resolution of slit-lamp microscopy photography using various cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yufeng; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Huicheng; Karp, Carol L; Zhong, Jianguang; Tao, Aizhu; Shao, Yilei; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the resolutions of slit-lamp microscopy photography using various cameras. Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Healthy subjects were imaged with these adapted cameras through slit-lamp microscopy. A total of 8 cameras, including 6 custom-mounted slit-lamp cameras and 2 commercial slit-lamp cameras, were tested with standard slit-lamp microscopy devices for imaging of the eye. Various magnifications were used during imaging. A standard resolution test plate was used to test the resolutions at different magnifications. These outcomes were compared with commercial slit-lamp cameras. The main measurements included the display spatial resolutions, image spatial resolutions, and ocular resolutions. The outcome also includes the relationships between resolution and the pixel density of the displays and images. All cameras were successfully adapted to the slit-lamp microscopy, and high-quality ocular images were obtained. Differences in the display spatial resolutions were found among cameras [analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pcameras using the high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) compared with others, including cameras in smart phones. The display resolutions of smart phone displays were greater than cameras with video graphics array displays. The display spatial resolutions were found as a function of display pixel density (r>0.95, P0.85, Pcameras (ANOVA, P0.98, P0.85, Pcamera yielded the highest image spatial resolution. However, the ocular resolution through binocular viewing of the slit-lamp microscopy was found to have the highest resolution compared with the display and image spatial resolutions of all of the cameras. Several cameras can be adapted with slit-lamp microscopy for ophthalmic imaging, yielding various display and image spatial resolutions. However, the resolution seemed to not be as good as ocular viewing through the slit-lamp biomicroscope.

  16. Crowdsourced online dispute resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimov, D.V.

    2017-01-01

    Solving disputes often takes a considerable amount of time and money. That holds for everyone involved. A new type of dispute resolution called Crowdsourced Online Dispute Resolution (CODR) seems to have the potential to offer a cheap, fast, and democratic dispute resolution procedure. Since it is

  17. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q{sup 2}'s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luszczak, A. [Cracow Univ. of Technology (Poland); Kowalski, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q{sup 2} values of 3.5 GeV{sup 2} to the highest values of Q{sup 2}=250 GeV{sup 2}. To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35

  18. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Image Resolution in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennycook, S. J.; Lupini, A.R.

    2008-06-26

    Digital images captured with electron microscopes are corrupted by two fundamental effects: shot noise resulting from electron counting statistics and blur resulting from the nonzero width of the focused electron beam. The generic problem of computationally undoing these effects is called image reconstruction and for decades has proved to be one of the most challenging and important problems in imaging science. This proposal concerned the application of the Pixon method, the highest-performance image-reconstruction algorithm yet devised, to the enhancement of images obtained from the highest-resolution electron microscopes in the world, now in operation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. Tenth Grade Students' Time Using a Computer as a Predictor of the Highest Level of Education Attempted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Adam John

    2014-01-01

    As computing technology continued to grow in the lives of secondary students from 2002 to 2006, researchers failed to identify the influence using computers would have on the highest level of education students attempted. During the early part of the century schools moved towards increasing the usage of computers. Numerous stakeholders were unsure…

  1. Gender, Ethnicity, and Highest Degree Earned as Salary Determinants for Senior Student Affairs Officers at Public Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.; Walker, David A.; Robinson, Daniel C.

    2002-01-01

    The 1999-2000 NASPA Salary Survey was used to examine effects of gender, ethnicity, and highest degree earned on mean salaries of senior student affairs officers at four-year public institutions. Found that degree attainment and ethnicity significantly affected salaries, while gender did not, although women and people of color were not represented…

  2. Using prevention and resocialization to foster personal development towards the highest values in cases of social pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesław Cekiera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the topic of approaches to personal development that aim at achieving the highest possible level. Such approaches are considered here in the context of Kazimierz Dąbrowski “Theory of Positive Disintegration” (TPD. The shaping of the personality is accomplished by the dynamic integration and disintegration of the individual, and also by considering his/her five levels of development. The first level is called the stage of primary integration, whilst harmonious secondary integration refers to the highest level of development itself. The discovery of the highest level of personal value in one’s progress is one of the most effective stages in protecting the individual from any unacceptable moral or ethical standards present in society. It is also effective in the resocialisation of cases involving social pathology. Each person has the task of promoting their personal values to the highest level of development. When the individual conclusively fulfils this task, he/she reaches an optimal stage of harmoniousness and peacefulness.

  3. High resolution telescope including an array of elemental telescopes aligned along a common axis and supported on a space frame with a pivot at its geometric center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbert, Massie A.; Yale, Oster

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employes speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by a electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  4. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure...

  5. abour Dispute Resolution System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA). Even though the Labour. Relations Act 66/95 (LRA) has brought statutory dispute resolution within reach of the ordinary worker, it might actually have compounded the problems relating to dispute resolution in the country. The high rate of individual unfair dismissal cases ...

  6. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  7. OSIS: remote sensing code for estimating aerosol optical properties in urban areas from very high spatial resolution images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Colin; Briottet, Xavier; Santer, Richard

    2011-10-01

    The achievement of new satellite or airborne remote sensing instruments enables the more precise study of cities with metric spatial resolutions. For studies such as the radiative characterization of urban features, knowledge of the atmosphere and particularly of aerosols is required to perform first an atmospheric compensation of the remote sensing images. However, to our knowledge, no efficient aerosol characterization technique adapted both to urban areas and to very high spatial resolution images has yet been developed. The goal of this paper is so to present a new code to characterize aerosol optical properties, OSIS, adapted to urban remote sensing images of metric spatial resolution acquired in the visible and near-IR spectral domains. First, a new aerosol characterization method based on the observation of shadow/sun transitions is presented, offering the advantage to avoid the assessment of target reflectances. Its principle and the modeling of the signal used to solve the retrieval equation are then detailed. Finally, a sensitivity study of OSIS from synthetic images simulated by the radiative transfer code AMARTIS v2 is also presented. This study has shown an intrinsic precision of this tool of Δτ(a)=0.1.τ(a) ± (0.02 + 0.4.τ(a)) for retrieval of aerosol optical thicknesses. This study shows that OSIS is a powerful tool for aerosol characterization that has a precision similar to satellite products for the aerosol optical thicknesses retrieval and that can be applied to every very high spatial resolution instrument, multispectral or hyperspectral, airborne or satellite.

  8. Compact high-resolution echelle-AOTF NIR spectrometer for atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, Oleg I.; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Vinogradov, Imant I.; Kalinnikov, Yurii K.; Nevejans, D.; Neefs, E.; Le Barbu, T.; Durry, G.

    2017-11-01

    A new concept of a high-resolution near-IR spectrometer consisting of an echelle grating combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for separation of diffraction orders, is developed for space-borne studies of planetary atmospheres. A compact design with no moving parts within the mass budget of 3-5 kg allows to reach the resolving power λ/Δλ of 20000-30000. Only a small piece of spectrum in high diffraction orders can be measured at a time, but thanks to flexibility of the AOTF electrical tuning, such pieces of spectrum can be measured randomly and rapidly within the spectral range. This development can be used for accurate measurements of important atmospheric gases, such as CO2 in terrestrial atmosphere, isotopic ratios and minor gases. A spectrometer, based on this principle, SOIR (Solar Occultation InfraRed) is being built for Venus Express (2005) ESA mission. Instruments based on this principle have high potential for the studies of the Earth, in particular for measurements of isotopes of water in the lower atmosphere, either in solar occultation profiling (tangent altitude solar glint for integral quantities of the components. Small size of hardware makes them ideal for micro-satellites, which are now agile enough to provide necessary pointing for solar occultation or glint observations. Also, the atmosphere of Mars has never been observed at local scales with such a high spectral resolution. A laboratory prototype consisting of 275-mm echelle spectrometer with Hamamatsu InGaAs 512-pixel linear array and the AOTF has demonstrated λ/Δλ≍30000 in the spectral range of 1-1.7 μm. The next set up, covering the spectral ranges of 1-1.7 μm and 2.3-4.3 μm, and the Venus Express SOIR are briefly discussed.

  9. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sanz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”, emotion (“fear”, setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind” and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family” were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain

  10. Highest volcanoes on terrestrial planets and dwarf-planets adorn the deepest depressions of their respective bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    Four highest volcanoes of the inner solar system tower above four largest and deepest hemispheric depressions of the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Vesta. Of course, this is not a mere coincidence; behind of this fundamental fact stays an equally fundamental planetary regulation. The wave planetology based on elliptical keplerian orbits of cosmic bodies evoking their wave warping shows that the fundamental wave 1 inevitably produces hemispheric tectonic dichotomy. One hemisphere rises, the opposite falls. The uprising half increases its planetary radius and space and thus is intensively cut by numerous faults and rifts. The antipodean subsiding half decreases its radius and space and thus is intensively compacted and affected by folds and faults. Forming extra material finds its way out in form of volcanic ridges and volcanoes. The strongest compaction caused by the wave 1 subsidence produces most voluminous eruptions. That is why the relation exists between the largest and deepest hemispheric basins and the highest basic volcanoes having mantle roots [1-4]. On the Earth's Pacific Ocean floor stay the Hawaiian volcanoes; on the lunar Procellarum Ocean occurs Crater Copernicus (erroneously taken as an impact feature); Martian Vastitas Borealis is adorned with Olympus Mons; Vestan Reasilvia Basin (obviously tectonic not impact feature) has the central mountain -the highest volcanic peak in the Solar system (Fig. 1-4). A regular row of increasing heights of these largest volcanoes extends in the outward direction. A study of the dwarf-planet Ceres only begins(DAWN project). Already the first distant images of this globe about 950 km in diameter have shown that it is, as was predicted [5], tectonically two-faced or dichotomous body (Fig. 5, 6). It seems that on its relatively even subsided hemisphere there are some elevated locations often bright white in color (Fig. 6). They could represent prominent "edifices" covered with frozen ices -degassing traces [6].

  11. The Idea of a Highest Divine Principle — Founding Reason and Spirituality. A Necessary Concept of a Comparative Philosophy?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Bickmann

    2012-01-01

    By reference to the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Neo-Platonic philosophical traditions (and then to German Idealism, including Husserl and Heidegger), I will indicate the way in which the concept of reason—on the one side—depends on the horizon of spirituality (by searching for the ultimate ground within us and the striving for the highest good); and inversely—how far the idea of the divine or our spiritual self may be deepened, understood and transmitted by reference to reason and rationality...

  12. Too Exhausted to Perform at the Highest Level? On the Importance of Self-control Strength in Educational Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Englert; Alafia Zavery; Alex Bertrams

    2017-01-01

    In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations), individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group). Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an important predictor of performance and behavior in educational contexts. According to the strength model, all self-control acts are based on one global e...

  13. New solutions of the hamiltonian and diffeomorphism constraints of quantum gravity from a highest weight loop representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, V.; Navarro-Salas, J.

    1991-04-01

    We introduce a highest weight type representation of the Rovelli-Smolin algebra of loop observables for quantum gravity. In terms of this representation, new solutions of the hamiltonian and diffeomorphism constraints are given. Assuming the locality of the quantum hamiltonian constraint we show that any functional depending on the generalized link class of the disjoint union of arbitrary simple loops is a solution. Finally we argue that this is the general solution in the irreducible representation space. On leave of absence from the Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia, and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC, Burjassot, Spain.

  14. Diabetes mellitus: The long way of standardization of HbA1c to the level of highest metrological order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c measurements are used in clinical studies and for the management of diabetic patients. Various efforts were made to standardize the HbA1c measurements with consensus standards and standards based on a reference measurement procedure with external calibration. According to ISO 17511 a standard should meet highest accuracy possible, have a defined uncertainty of measurement and the calibration should be traceable to SI units. For HbA1c this has been realized using a LC-ID-MS procedure based on the existing reference measurement procedure.

  15. Presentation and verification of a simple mathematical model foridentification of the areas behind noise barrierwith the highest performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monazzam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Traffic noise barriers are the most important measure to control the environmental noise pollution. Diffraction from top edge of noise barriers is the most important path of indirect sound wave moves towards receiver.Therefore, most studies are focused on  improvement of this kind.   Methods   T-shape profile barriers are one of the most successful barrier among many different profiles. In this investigation the theory of destructive effect of diffracted waves from real edge of barrier and the wave diffracted from image of the barrier with phase difference of radians is used. Firstly a simple mathematical representation of the zones behind rigid and absorbent T- shape barriers with the highest insertion loss using the destructive effect of indirect path via barrier  image is introduced and then two different profile reflective and absorption barrier is used for  verification of the introduced model   Results   The results are then compared with the results of a verified two dimensional boundary element method at 1/3 octave band frequencies and in a wide field behind those barriers. Avery good agreement between the results has been achieved. In this method effective height is used for any different profile barriers.   Conclusion   The introduced model is very simple, flexible and fast and could be used for choosing the best location of profile rigid and absorptive barriers to achieve the highest  performance.  

  16. The Idea of a Highest Divine Principle — Founding Reason and Spirituality. A Necessary Concept of a Comparative Philosophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bickmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By reference to the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Neo-Platonic philosophical traditions (and then to German Idealism, including Husserl and Heidegger, I will indicate the way in which the concept of reason—on the one side—depends on the horizon of spirituality (by searching for the ultimate ground within us and the striving for the highest good; and inversely—how far the idea of the divine or our spiritual self may be deepened, understood and transmitted by reference to reason and rationality. But whereas philosophical analysis aims at the universal dimensions of spirituality or the divine (as in Plato's idea of the 'highest good', the Aristotelian 'Absolute substance', the 'Oneness of the One' (Plotinus and the Neo-Platonists or the Hegelian 'Absolute spirit',—Comparative Theology may preserve the dimension of spirituality or divinity in its individuality and specifity. Comparative Theology mediates between the universality of the philosophical discourse and the uniqueness of our individual experience (symbolized by a sacred person—such as Jesus, Brahman, Buddha or Mohammed by reflecting and analyzing our religious experiences and practices. Religion may lose its specificity by comparative conceptual analysis within the field of philosophy, but Comparative Theology may enhance the vital dimensions of the very same spiritual experience by placing them in a comparative perspective.

  17. Extreme groundwater levels caused by extreme weather conditions - the highest ever measured groundwater levels in Middle Germany and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Kramer, Stefanie; Koch, Thomas; Seifert, Sven; Monninkhoff, Bertram; Pfützner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions during the years 2009 - 2011 in combination with changes in the regional water management and possible impacts of climate change led to maximum groundwater levels in large areas of Germany in 2011. This resulted in extensive water logging, with problems especially in urban areas near rivers, where water logging produced huge problems for buildings and infrastructure. The acute situation still exists in many areas and requires the development of solution concepts. Taken the example of the Elbe-Saale-Region in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt, were a pilot research project was carried out, the analytical situation, the development of a management tool and the implementation of a groundwater management concept are shown. The central tool is a coupled water budget - groundwater flow model. In combination with sophisticated multi-scale parameter estimation, a high resolution groundwater level simulation was carried out. A decision support process with a very intensive stakeholder interaction combined with high resolution simulations enables the development of a management concept for extreme groundwater situations in consideration of sustainable and environmentally sound solutions mainly on the base of passive measures.

  18. Resolution exchange simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Edward; Ytreberg, F Marty; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2006-01-20

    We extend replica-exchange simulation in two ways and apply our approaches to biomolecules. The first generalization permits exchange simulation between models of differing resolution--i.e., between detailed and coarse-grained models. Such "resolution exchange" can be applied to molecular systems or spin systems. The second extension is to "pseudoexchange" simulations, which require little CPU usage for most levels of the exchange ladder and also substantially reduce the need for overlap between levels. Pseudoexchanges can be used in either replica or resolution exchange simulations. We perform efficient, converged simulations of a 50-atom peptide to illustrate the new approaches.

  19. LHCb VELO Tracking Resolutions

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The excellent tracking performance of the Vertex Locator (VELO) at LHCb is presented. The resolutions it achieves on single hits, impact parameters, and primary vertex positions are shown, with particular attention paid to measurement of impact parameters.

  20. High Resolution Elevation Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset contains contours generated from high resolution data sources such as LiDAR. Generally speaking this data is 2 foot or less contour interval.

  1. Retrieval of Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Variations Using Ground-Based High Resolution Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High resolution Fourier transform near IR solar spectra are used to estimate the column-averaged dry-air mole fraction (DMF of CO2 and CH4 variations in the atmosphere. The preliminary retrieval results for CO2 and CH4 variations in the area of Hefei, China, are presented, and the underlying error sources are also analyzed. Both a forward analysis and an inversion algorithm are included in the retrieval. The forward analysis uses the modeled atmospheric transmittance to line-by-line (LBL convolute the instrument line shape function. The influences of the temperature, pressure, humidity, and a priori gases are considered in the atmospheric transmittance model. The inversion algorithm is based on the nonlinear iterative and nonlinear least squares spectral fitting, which is used to obtain VCDCO2 and VCDCH4 (which represent vertical column density of CO2 and CH4, resp.. Furthermore, the VCDO2 is also retrieved for converting the VCDs into DMFs. DMFs are final products of data analysis. The inversion results can clearly resolve the tiny variations of CO2 and CH4 under strong atmospheric background. Spectral fitting residuals for both VCDCO2 and VCDCH4 are less than 0.5%. Finally, CO2 and CH4 diurnal variations are investigated based on a typical observation. About 2 ppm amplitude for DMFCO2 diurnal variations and less than 15 ppb amplitude for DMFCH4 are observed.

  2. EXISTENCE AS «THE HIGHEST PERFECTION AMONG OF ALL PERFECTIONS» IN THOMAS AQUINE’S PHILOSOPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. KOVREVSKAYA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a tradition in the history of philosophy to perceive the concept of being (esse in the language of Thomas Aquinas mainly as actuality, real existence without paying proper attention to the texts, where being is described as «the highest perfection» and «the perfection of all perfections», that is especially in the latest works of Thomas Aquinas. The «existential» interpretation of Aquinas is also incorrect. Being in Thomas Aquinas is a complex, multilevel and analogical concept. It is applied to the world, man and God not in the same meaning, but analogically. Being in minimum is merely exist-ing, universal connection of all and everything, universal world base. Being in maxi-mum is the absolute plenitude and perfection of the Creator.

  3. The highest achievements of Ukrainian powerlifting at international events during its origin and formation (1981-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Stetsenko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to conduct a comparative analysis of performance of national teams in major international competitions in various stages of formation and development of the Ukrainian powerlifting. Material : analysis protocols World and European championships for men and women, juniors and juniors, boys and girls, the veterans. Results : the highest achievement systematized members of national teams of Ukraine. The data Ukrainian competitions for the period from 1989 to 2012. The largest number of participants recorded in 2001 (575 athletes. Oscillatory nature of the dynamics set number of wins Ukrainian athletes at different stages of development of the Ukrainian powerlifting. Noted that there are changes in the number pattern gold awards in conjunction with the number of participants of Ukrainian championships. Conclusion : experts recommend using the data analysis process of fundamental laws of modern development of the sport. Creatively to predict future trends and prospects in powerlifting.

  4. Impact of thermal frequency drift on highest precision force microscopy using quartz-based force sensors at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pielmeier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM the stability of the eigenfrequency of the force sensor is of key importance for highest precision force measurements. Here, we study the influence of temperature changes on the resonance frequency of force sensors made of quartz, in a temperature range from 4.8–48 K. The sensors are based on the qPlus and length extensional principle. The frequency variation with temperature T for all sensors is negative up to 30 K and on the order of 1 ppm/K, up to 13 K, where a distinct kink appears, it is linear. Furthermore, we characterize a new type of miniaturized qPlus sensor and confirm the theoretically predicted reduction in detector noise.

  5. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  6. Ultra high resolution tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, W.S.

    1994-11-15

    Recent work and results on ultra high resolution three dimensional imaging with soft x-rays will be presented. This work is aimed at determining microscopic three dimensional structure of biological and material specimens. Three dimensional reconstructed images of a microscopic test object will be presented; the reconstruction has a resolution on the order of 1000 A in all three dimensions. Preliminary work with biological samples will also be shown, and the experimental and numerical methods used will be discussed.

  7. Contact with HIV prevention services highest in gay and bisexual men at greatest risk: cross-sectional survey in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV in the UK and new HIV prevention strategies are needed. In this paper, we examine what contact MSM currently have with HIV prevention activities and assess the extent to which these could be utilised further. Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure™ oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh in April/May 2008. 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate; 1318 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. Results 82.5% reported some contact with HIV prevention activities in the past 12 months, 73.1% obtained free condoms from a gay venue or the Internet, 51.1% reported accessing sexual health information (from either leaflets in gay venues or via the Internet, 13.5% reported talking to an outreach worker and 8.0% reported participating in counselling on sexual health or HIV prevention. Contact with HIV prevention activities was associated with frequency of gay scene use and either HIV or other STI testing in the past 12 months, but not with sexual risk behaviours. Utilising counselling was also more likely among men who reported having had an STI in the past 12 months and HIV-positive men. Conclusions Men at highest risk, and those likely to be in contact with sexual health services, are those who report most contact with a range of current HIV prevention activities. Offering combination prevention, including outreach by peer health workers, increased uptake of sexual health services delivering behavioural and biomedical interventions, and supported by social marketing to ensure continued community engagement and support, could be the way forward. Focused investment in the needs of those at highest risk, including those diagnosed HIV-positive, may generate a prevention dividend in the long

  8. The Mass Elevation Effect of the Central Andes and Its Implications for the Southern Hemisphere's Highest Treeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the highest treelines in the world is at 4810 m above sea level on the Sajama Volcano in the central Andes. The climatological cause of that exceptionally high treeline position is still unclear. Although it has been suggested that the mass elevation effect (MEE explains the upward shift of treelines in the Altiplano region, the magnitude of MEE has not yet been quantified for that region. This paper defines MEE as the air temperature difference in summer at the same elevation between the inner mountains/plateaus (Altiplano and the free atmosphere above the adjacent lowlands of the Andean Cordillera. The Altiplano air temperature was obtained from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly temperature database, and the air temperature above the adjacent lowlands was interpolated based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 1 data set. We analyzed the mean air temperature differences for January, July, and the warm months from October to April. The air temperature was mostly higher on the Altiplano than over the neighboring lowlands at the same altitude. The air temperature difference increased from the outer Andean east-facing slope to the interior of the Altiplano in summer, and it increased from high latitudes to low latitudes in winter. The mean air temperature in the Altiplano in summer is approximately 5 K higher than it is above the adjacent lowlands at the same mean elevation, averaging about 3700 m above sea level. This upward shift of isotherms in the inner part of the Cordillera enables the treeline to climb to 4810 m, with shrub-size trees reaching even higher. Therefore, the MEE explains the occurrence of one of the world’s highest treelines in the central Andes.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  10. Identifying Hemodialysis Patients With the Highest Risk of Staphylococcus aureus Endogenous Infection Through a Simple Nasal Sampling Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Paul O; Gagnaire, Julie; Haddar, Cyrille H; Grattard, Florence; Thibaudin, Damien; Afiani, Aida; Cazorla, Céline; Carricajo, Anne; Mariat, Christophe; Alamartine, Eric; Lucht, Frédéric; Garraud, Olivier; Pozzetto, Bruno; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth; Berthelot, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to Staphylococcus aureus intermittent nasal carriers, persistent ones have the highest risk of infection. This study reports the usefulness of a simple nasal sampling algorithm to identify the S. aureus nasal carriage state of hemodialysis patients (HPs) and their subsequent risk of infection.From a cohort of 85 HPs, 76 were screened for S. aureus nasal carriage once a week during a 10-week period. The S. aureus nasal load was quantified by using either culture on chromogenic medium or fully automated real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Molecular typing was used to compare strains from carriage and infection.The algorithm based on quantitative cultures was able to determine the status of S. aureus nasal carriage with a sensitivity of 95.8%, a specificity of 94.2%, a positive predictive value of 88.5%, and a negative predictive value of 98.0%. Of note, the determination of the S. aureus carriage state was obtained on the first nasal sample for all the 76 HPs, but 1 (98.7%). The algorithm based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay directly from the specimen yielded similar performances. During the 1-year follow-up after the last sampling episode, HPs classified as persistent nasal carriers with the algorithm were found to have a higher risk of S. aureus infection than those classified as nonpersistent carriers (P < 0.05), especially for infections of endogenous origin (P < 0.001).This simple algorithm is reliable for determining the S. aureus nasal carriage status in clinical practice and could contribute to characterize at an early stage of take-up patients with the highest risk of S. aureus infection.

  11. Dynamic systemic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulsombat, Morakot; Zhang, Yan; Ramström, Olof

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic Systemic Resolution is a powerful technique for selecting optimal constituents from dynamic systems by applying selection pressures, either externally by addition of target entities, or internally within the system constraints. This concept is a subset of Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry, and the dynamic systems are generally based on reversible covalent interactions between a range of components where the systems are maintained under thermodynamic control. In the present chapter, the concept will be described in detail, and a range of examples will be given for both selection classes. For external pressure generation, target enzymes, in aqueous and/or organic solution, have been used to demonstrate the resolution processes. In a first example, a dynamic transthiolesterification system was generated in aqueous solution at neutral pH, and resolved by hydrolysis using serine hydrolases (cholinesterases). In organic solution, lipase-catalyzed acylation was chosen to demonstrate asymmetric resolution in different dynamic systems, generating chiral ester and amide structures. By use of such biocatalysts, the optimal constituents were selectively chosen and amplified from the dynamic systems in one-pot processes. In internal selection pressure resolution, self-transformation and crystallization-induced diastereomeric resolution have been successfully used to challenge dynamic systems. The technique was, for example, used to identify the best diastereomeric substrate from a large and varied dynamic system in a single resolution reaction.

  12. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  13. Which drugs are associated with highest risk for being arrested for driving under the influence? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Gjerde, Hallvard

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between drug type and arrest for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using a case-control design. A DUID arrest is in most cases related to aberrant or risky driving and might therefore be regarded as a proxy for a drug related traffic crash. The 'cases' were 2738 drivers arrested on suspicion of drugged driving from April 2008 to March 2009 with blood alcohol concentrations below the legal limit of 0.2g/L; 794 were arrested due to involvement in road traffic crashes, whereas 1944 were arrested for other reasons, mainly dangerous driving, suspected impairment when stopped in traffic controls, or because of phone calls to the police from other road users or observers. The 'controls' were 9375 random drivers in normal traffic, also with alcohol concentrations below this limit. Blood samples from 'cases' and oral fluid samples from 'controls' were analyzed for 15 drugs that have legislative concentration limits in Norway, in addition to two other commonly detected psychoactive drugs. The most prevalent illicit drug in the control group was tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; 0.58%), which was also commonly found in samples from drivers arrested due to road crash (15.6%) or arrested for other reasons (21.8%). Amphetamine/methamphetamine was most prevalent among arrested drivers involved in crashes (30.6%) and drivers arrested for other reasons (56.9%), whereas only 0.18% of the control group was positive for amphetamine/methamphetamine. The single-use substances which gave highest OR for police arrest were amphetamine/methamphetamine, alprazolam, clonazepam and oxazepam. The majority of the alprazolam and clonazepam findings were probably due to non-therapeutic use of medicinal drugs purchased on the illegal market. Combinations of two or more drugs yielded higher ORs than the use of single substances; combinations of amphetamine/methamphetamine and benzodiazepines gave the highest

  14. BAYESIAN HIGHEST POSTERIOR DENSITY INTERVALS FOR THE AVAILABILITY OF A SYSTEM WITH A 'REST-PERIOD' FOR THE REPAIR FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S.S. Yadavalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper Bayesian estimation for the steady state availability of a one-unit system with a rest-period for the repair facility is studied. The assumption is that the repair facility takes rest with probability p after each repair completion and the facility does not take the same with probability (l - p. The prior information is assumed to be vague and the Jeffreys' prior is used for the unknown parameters in the system. Gibbs sampling is used to derive the posterior distribution of the availability and subsequently the highest posterior density (HPD intervals. A numerical example illustrates these results.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In .hierdie artikel word die Bayes-beraming van die ewewigstoestandsbeskikbaarheid van 'n steise1 wat afwisselend gebruik word, voorgestel. Daar word veronderstel dat die herstelfasiliteit na voltooiing van clke herstel Of 'n rustydperk binnegaan of nie. Die rustydperk sal geneem word met waarskynlikheid p en die waarskynlikheid dat daar nie 'n rustydperk genccm word nie, is (l - p. Jeffrey se a priori-verdeling word vir die onbekende parameters in die stelsel aanvaar. Gibbs-steekproefneming word gcbruik om die a posterioriverdeling van die beskikbaarheid en daarna die hoogste a posteriori-digtheidsintervalle (HPD afte lei. 'n Numeriese voorbeeld illustreer hierdic resultate .

  15. [Archivos de Bronconeumología: among the 3 Spanish medical journals with the highest national impact factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Castellano Gómez, M; Simó Meléndez, R; Navarro Molina, C

    2004-12-01

    Citation analysis elucidates patterns of information consumption within professional communities. The aim of this study was to analyze the citations of 87 Spanish medical journals by calculating their impact factors and immediacy indices for 2001, and to estimate the importance of Archivos de Bronconeumología within the framework of Spanish medicine. Eighty-seven Spanish medical journals were included. All were listed in the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Español) and in at least one of the following databases: MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, or Science Citation Index. References to articles from 1999 through 2001 in citable articles from 2001 were analyzed. Using the method of the Institute for Scientific Information, we calculated the national impact factor and immediacy index for each journal. The journals with the highest national impact factors were Revista Española de Quimioterapia (0.894), Medicina Clínica (0.89), and Archivos de Bronconeumología (0.732). The self-citation percentage of Archivos de Bronconeumología was 18.3% and the immediacy index was 0.033. The impact factor obtained by Archivos de Bronconeumología confirms its importance in Spanish medicine and validates its inclusion as a source journal in Science Citation Index and Journal Citation Report.

  16. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  17. Too Exhausted to Perform at the Highest Level? On the Importance of Self-control Strength in Educational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Chris; Zavery, Alafia; Bertrams, Alex

    2017-01-01

    In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations), individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group). Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an important predictor of performance and behavior in educational contexts. According to the strength model, all self-control acts are based on one global energy pool whose capacity is assumed to be limited. After having performed a first act of self-control, this resource can become temporarily depleted which negatively affects subsequent self-control. In such a state of ego depletion, individuals tend to display impaired concentration and academic performance, fail to meet academic deadlines, or even disengage from their duties. In this mini-review, we report recent studies on ego depletion which have focused on children as well as adults in educational settings, derive practical implications for how to improve self-control strength in the realm of education and instruction, and discuss limitations regarding the assumptions of the strength model of self-control.

  18. Spinach or amaranth may represent highest residue of thiophanate-methyl with open field application on six leaf vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Yu, Chuanshan; Pan, Canping

    2013-04-01

    To select representative crop among leaf vegetables which may contain the highest residue after fungicide uses, open field applications with thiophanate-methyl on six crops including pakchoi, rape, crown daisy, amaranth, spinach and lettuce were designed and conducted. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring was used to simultaneously determine thiophanate methyl and its metabolite carbendazim residue in various samples. The limit of quantification for thiophanate methyl and carbendazim were established in the range of 0.005-0.01 mg kg(-1) for all samples. It was shown that recoveries ranged from 67.8 % to 102.3 % for thiophanate methyl, and 72.0 %-112.6 % for carbendazim at spiked levels of 0.01-0.1 mg kg(-1). It's found that thiophanate methyl converts to carbendazim very quickly. In supervised field trials, the half-lives of thiophanate methyl in six leaf vegetables were in the range of 1.26-2.65 days, and the half-lives of carbendazim were in the range of 2.53-4.28 days. It was also found that thiophanate methyl residue in spinach and amaranth was higher than others after application. It's recommended that spinach or amaranth can be selected as representative crop in leaf vegetables in study of systemic fungicides with similarity as thiophanate methyl.

  19. Solving The Longstanding Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At the Highest Microscopic Level - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    A 2011 DOE-NP Early Career Award (ECA) under Field Work Proposal (FWP) SCW1158 supported the project “Solving the Long-Standing Problem of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions at the Highest Microscopic Level” in the five-year period from June 15, 2011 to June 14, 2016. This project, led by PI S. Quaglioni, aimed at developing a comprehensive and computationally efficient framework to arrive at a unified description of structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. Specifically, the project had three main goals: 1) arriving at the accurate predictions for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; 2) realizing a comprehensive description of clustering and continuum effects in exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and 3) achieving fundamental understanding of the role of the 3N force in nuclear reactions and nuclei at the drip line.

  20. Too Exhausted to Perform at the Highest Level? On the Importance of Self-control Strength in Educational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Englert

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform at the highest level in educational settings (e.g., students in testing situations, individuals often have to control their impulses or desires (e.g., to study for an upcoming test or to prepare a course instead of spending time with the peer group. Previous research suggests that the ability to exert self-control is an important predictor of performance and behavior in educational contexts. According to the strength model, all self-control acts are based on one global energy pool whose capacity is assumed to be limited. After having performed a first act of self-control, this resource can become temporarily depleted which negatively affects subsequent self-control. In such a state of ego depletion, individuals tend to display impaired concentration and academic performance, fail to meet academic deadlines, or even disengage from their duties. In this mini-review, we report recent studies on ego depletion which have focused on children as well as adults in educational settings, derive practical implications for how to improve self-control strength in the realm of education and instruction, and discuss limitations regarding the assumptions of the strength model of self-control.

  1. Who jumps the highest? Anthropometric and physiological correlations of vertical jump in youth elite female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Gkoudas, Konstantinos; Afonso, José; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Knechtle, Beat; Kasabalis, Stavros; Kasabalis, Athanasios; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas; Torres-Luque, Gema

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of vertical jump (Abalakov jump [AJ]) with anthropometric and physiological parameters in youth elite female volleyball players. Seventy-two selected volleyball players from the region of Athens (age 13.3±0.7 years, body mass 62.0±7.2 kg, height 171.5±5.7 cm, body fat 21.2±4.5%), classified into quartiles according to AJ performance (group A, 21.4-26.5 cm; group B, 26.8-29.9 cm; group C, 30.5-33.7 cm; group D, 33.8-45.9 cm), performed a series of physical fitness tests. AJ was correlated with anthropometric (age at peak height velocity [APHV]: r=0.38, Pstrength: r=0.50, Pstrength, SJ, CMJ and 30-s Bosco Test (Pstrength, SJ, CMJ, performance in the Bosco Test, and Pmean in the WAnT, was older and lighter than groups A, B, and C (Pmuscle strength and power on AJ. Also, there was indication that volleyball players that jumped the highest were those who matured later than others.

  2. AN OVERVIEW OF TRAINING METHODS THAT PROMOTE THE HIGHEST LIPID OXIDATION DURING AND AFTER A SINGLE EXERCISE SESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Purkart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that physical activity is the most effective way to increase lipid oxidation, its effects are influenced by several factors. The goal of this review was to identify the most effective methods that facilitate the highest lipid oxidation during and after a single exercise session. For this purpose, the available scientific literature was examined using PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases up to June 2013 with the following keywords: excess post exercise oxygen consumption, exercise fatty acid, energy expenditure exercise and interval training. From the identified 48,583 potentially relevant references, 172 of them met all the required criteria. It was found out that prolonged (> 30 min moderate intensity (55 − 70 % VO2max exercise such as walking, jogging or cycling is the most effective way to increase lipid oxidation during and after a single exercise session. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise is supposed to be as effective as traditional exercise with continuous endurance, with the main effect on lipid oxidation after the session and similar long-term metabolic adaptations. However, more research is still needed to compare the effects of regular resistance exercise with traditional endurance and high-intensity interval exercise. Finally, nutrition is also a significant factor since food rich in fat and low in carbohydrates promotes greater lipid oxidation.

  3. ACHIEVEMENT OF THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK AND THE SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Urosevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health at work involves the exercise of such working conditions that take certain measures and activities in order to protect the life and health of employees. The interest of society, of all stakeholders and every individual is to achieve the highest level of safety and health at work, to unwanted consequences such as injuries, occupational diseases and diseases related to work are reduced to a minimum, and to create the conditions work in which employees have a sense of satisfaction in the performance of their professional duties. Textile industry is a sector with higher risk, because the plants of textile industry prevailing unfavorable microclimate conditions: high air temperature and high humidity, and often insufficient illumination of rooms and increased noise. The whole line of production in the textile industry, there is a risk of injury, the most common with mechanical force, or gaining burns from heat or chemicals. All of these factors are present in the process of production and processing of textiles and the same may affect the incidence of occupational diseases of workers, absenteeism, reduction of their working capacity and productivity. With the progress of the textile industry production increases in the number of hazardous and harmful substances that may pose a potential danger to the employee in this branch of the economy as well as the harmful impact on the environment. Therefore, it is important to give special attention to these problems.

  4. Scientific output of Brazilian dermatologists during the last 25 years in the five highest impact factor journals in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mariane Da Cas de Aquim; Carneiro, Marília Gabriela Linné Netto; Utzig, Joyce Benck; Kaled Neta, Eleolina Lara; Pachnicki, Majenna Andrade; Silva de Castro, Caio César

    2012-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative scientific output of Brazilian dermatologists in journals of high impact factor is little known. To describe the scientific output of dermatologists from Brazilian institutions in journals of high impact factor. The five journals with the highest impact factor in dermatology were analyzed. All articles produced from Brazilian institutions between 1986 and 2010 were compiled and the following aspects were analyzed: position of Brazilian researchers in the list of authors, selected theme, experimental design, studied disease, area of interest and year of publication. Seventy-four articles written with the participation of Brazilian dermatologists have been identified. Upon grouping the articles in five-year periods, an important increase was observed in the Brazilian production from the year 2006 onwards. The dermatologists were placed as second authors in the majority of cases (53.66%). According to the selected theme to be studied, the majority of the articles had a laboratory focus (45.95%). The majority of the articles reported cross-sectional studies or non-controlled clinical trials (both at 17.57%), and pemphigus foliaceus was the most studied disease (29.73%). The increase in the number of publications by Brazilian dermatologists over the last years is encouraging, but it is still small in comparison to the total number of articles published in these five periodicals.

  5. Pleistocene climatic oscillations rather than recent human disturbance influence genetic diversity in one of the world's highest treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanling; Lachmuth, Susanne; Gallegos, Silvia C; Kessler, Michael; Ramsay, Paul M; Renison, Daniel; Suarez, Ricardo; Hensen, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Biological responses to climatic change usually leave imprints on the genetic diversity and structure of plants. Information on the current genetic diversity and structure of dominant tree species has facilitated our general understanding of phylogeographical patterns. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs), we compared genetic diversity and structure of 384 adults of P. tarapacana with those of 384 seedlings across 32 forest sites spanning a latitudinal gradient of 600 km occurring between 4100 m and 5000 m a.s.l. in Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), one of the world's highest treeline species endemic to the central Andes. Moderate to high levels of genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation were detected in both adults and seedlings, with levels of genetic diversity and differentiation being almost identical. Four slightly genetically divergent clusters were identified that accorded to differing geographical regions. Genetic diversity decreased from south to north and with increasing precipitation for adults and seedlings, but there was no relationship to elevation. Our study shows that, unlike the case for other Andean treeline species, recent human activities have not affected the genetic structure of P. tarapacana, possibly because its inhospitable habitat is unsuitable for agriculture. The current genetic pattern of P. tarapacana points to a historically more widespread distribution at lower altitudes, which allowed considerable gene flow possibly during the glacial periods of the Pleistocene epoch, and also suggests that the northern Argentinean Andes may have served as a refugium for historical populations. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  7. Digital camera resolution and proximal caries detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapayasatok, S; Janhom, A; Verochana, K; Pramojanee, S

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries detection from digitized film images captured by a digital camera at different resolution settings. Twenty-five periapical radiographs of 50 premolar and 25 molar teeth were photographed using a digital camera, Sony Cyber-shot, DSC-S75 at three different resolution settings: 640 x 480, 1280 x 960 and 1600 x 1200. Seventy-five digital images were transferred to a computer, saved and opened using ACDSee software. In addition, a PowerPoint slide was made from each digital image. Five observers scored three groups of images (the films, the displayed 1:1 digital images on the ACDSee software, and the PowerPoint slides) for the existence of proximal caries using a 5-point confidence scale, and the depth of caries on a 4-point scale. Ground sections of the teeth were used as the gold standard. Az values under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each group of images and at different resolutions were compared using the Friedman and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Mean different values between the lesions' depth interpreted by the observers and that of the gold standard were analysed. Films showed the highest Az values. Only the 1280 x 960 images on the ACDSee software showed no significant difference of the Az value from the films (P=0.28). The digital images from three resolution settings on the PowerPoint slides showed no significant differences, either among each other or between them and the films. For caries depth, the 1280 x 960 images showed lower values of mean difference in enamel lesions compared with the other two resolution groups. This study showed that in order to digitize conventional films, it was not necessary to use the highest camera resolution setting to achieve high diagnostic accuracy for proximal caries detection. The 1280 x 960 resolution setting of the digital camera demonstrated comparable diagnostic accuracy with film and was adequate for digitizing radiographs for caries

  8. The highest red flood of the Niger River ever recorded at Niamey: climate change or land use change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descroix, L.; Genthon, P.; Amogu, O.; Rajot, J.; Sighomnou, D.

    2011-12-01

    During the summer of 2010, the middle Niger River valley suffered from a severe flood. The water reached its highest level ever recorded during a monsoon, inundating an area of about 3.1 sq.km in the city of Niamey where some 5,000 people lost their homes. Data on rainfall, on the runoff of the tributaries of the Niger River near Niamey and on Land Use Changes since the 50s in this region will be shown and analyzed. It is shown that although there was a partial recovery after the severe droughts of the 1970's and 1980's, rainfall was not the main causative factor of this exceptional flood: the annual rainfall amount for 2010 was below that of 20 other rainy seasons in the middle Niger Basin since 1950, and neither the monthly rainfall distribution, nor the rainfall amount distribution of events changed significantly in the last few decades. Rather, the Niger River's right bank tributaries have shown a sharp increase in runoff since the 1970's, which is still ongoing, and has resulted in an evolution of the Niger River's hydrograph at Niamey during the rainy season. We show that this is due to an increase of bare soils and crusted soil areas as a consequence of human pressure and/or of non reversible effects of the drought. Changes in connectivity such as endorheism bursting events caused an increase in catchment area. Policy makers should be aware of the effect of human pressure, mainly cropping and grazing, on the hydrological regimes of Sahelian rivers.

  9. Investigation of Behçet’s Disease and Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Frequency: The Highest Prevalence in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Yalçın; Seçkin, Havva Yıldız; Kalkan, Göknur; Takcı, Zennure; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Demir, Selim; Şahin, Şafak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet’s Disease (BD). Aims: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent. In the first stage, the individuals, who were selected in random order, were invited to a Family Physician Unit at a certain date and time. The dermatological examinations of the volunteering individuals were performed by only 3 dermatology specialists. In the second stage, those individuals who had symptoms of BD were invited to our hospital, and the Pathergy Test and eye examinations were performed. Results: The annual prevalence of RAS was determined as 10.84%. The annual prevalence was determined to be higher in women than in men (p=0.000). It was observed that the prevalence was at the peak level in the 3rd decade, and then decreased proportionally in the following decades (p=0.000). It was also observed that the aphtha recurrence decreased in the following decades (p=0.048). The Behçet’s prevalence was found to be 0.60%. The prevalence in women was found to be higher than in men (0.86% female, 0.14% male; p=0.022). Conclusion: While the RAS prevalence ratio was at an average value when compared with the other societies; the BD prevalence was found as the highest ratio in the world according to the literature. PMID:27606133

  10. HTLV-1 is predominantly sexually transmitted in Salvador, the city with the highest HTLV-1 prevalence in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Nunes

    Full Text Available Salvador is the city with the highest number of HTLV-1 infected individuals in Brazil, yet the main route of HTLV-1 transmission is unknown.To investigate the association of syphilis infection as a proxy for sexual transmission of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of this city.A cross sectional population-based study was conducted with 3,451 serum samples obtained by a representative simple random sampling. Data on gender, age, income, and years of education were collected by questionnaire and the presence of HTLV, HIV and Treponema pallidum infection was determined by serology. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effect of the potential explanatory variables to HTLV-1 infection and Odds Ratios (OR and 95% CI were calculated.The majority of studied individuals were female (56.4%, had less than 7 years of education (55.3% and earned two or less minimum wages (52.0%. The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 1.48% (51/3,451; 95% CI: 1.10%- 1.94%, which increased with age. Only three persons younger than 17 (3/958; 0.31%; CI 95% 0.06-0.91 years were infected by HTLV-1. Among the 45 syphilis positives, 12 (26.7% were HTLV positive, while among 21 HIV positives, only one (4.8% was HTLV positive. HTLV-1 infection was found to be associated with syphilis infection (ORADJUSTED 36.77; 95% CI 14.96-90.41.The data presented herein indicate that horizontal transmission between adults is the main route of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of Salvador and that this is likely to occur through sexual contact.

  11. Lyman alpha emission in nearby star-forming galaxies with the lowest metallicities and the highest [OIII]/[OII] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The Lyman alpha line of hydrogen is the strongest emission line in galaxies and the tool of predilection for identifying and studying star-forming galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, especially in the early universe. However, it has become clear over the years that not all of the Lyman alpha radiation escapes, due to its resonant scattering on the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and absorption by dust. Although our knowledge of the high-z universe depends crucially on that line, we still do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms behind the production, radiative transfer and escape of Lyman alpha in galaxies. We wish here to investigate these mechanisms by studying the properties of the ISM in a unique sample of 8 extreme star-forming galaxies (SFGs) that have the highest excitation in the SDSS spectral data base. These dwarf SFGs have considerably lower stellar masses and metallicities, and higher equivalent widths and [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios compared to all nearby SFGs with Lyman alpha emission studied so far with COS. They are, however, very similar to the dwarf Lyman alpha emitters at redshifts 3-6, which are thought to be the main sources of reionization in the early Universe. By combining the HST/COS UV data with data in the optical range, and using photoionization and radiative transfer codes, we will be able to study the properties of the Lyman alpha in these unique objects, derive column densities of the neutral hydrogen N(HI) and compare them with N(HI) obtained from the HeI emission-line ratios in the optical spectra. We will derive Lyman alpha escape fractions and indirectly Lyman continuum escape fractions.

  12. High-resolution gulf water skin temperature estimation using TIR/ASTER

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; ManiMurali, R.; Mahender, K.

    Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is the highest-resolution multi-spectral thermal infrared (TIR) sensor currently available on a polar-orbiting spacecraft which allows surface temperature estimation, at a...

  13. Conflict Resolution Automation and Pilot Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Brandt, Summer L.; Bacon, Paige; Kraut, Josh; Nguyen, Jimmy; Minakata, Katsumi; Raza, Hamzah; Rozovski, David; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared pilot situation awareness across three traffic management concepts. The Concepts varied in terms of the allocation of traffic avoidance responsibility between the pilot on the flight deck, the air traffic controllers, and a conflict resolution automation system. In Concept 1, the flight deck was equipped with conflict resolution tools that enable them to fully handle the responsibility of weather avoidance and maintaining separation between ownship and surrounding traffic. In Concept 2, pilots were not responsible for traffic separation, but were provided tools for weather and traffic avoidance. In Concept 3, flight deck tools allowed pilots to deviate for weather, but conflict detection tools were disabled. In this concept pilots were dependent on ground based automation for conflict detection and resolution. Situation awareness of the pilots was measured using online probes. Results showed that individual situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, where the pilots were most engaged, and lowest in Concept 3, where automation was heavily used. These findings suggest that for conflict resolution tasks, situation awareness is improved when pilots remain in the decision-making loop.

  14. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg

    of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  15. Bank Resolution in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    of taxpayer assistance. A holding company structure in which the public parent holds unsecured term debt sufficient to cover losses at an operating financial subsidiary would facilitate a “Single Point of Entry” resolution procedure that would minimize knock-on effects from the failure of a systemically...

  16. Effects of NMR spectral resolution on protein structure calculation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Tikole

    Full Text Available Adequate digital resolution and signal sensitivity are two critical factors for protein structure determinations by solution NMR spectroscopy. The prime objective for obtaining high digital resolution is to resolve peak overlap, especially in NOESY spectra with thousands of signals where the signal analysis needs to be performed on a large scale. Achieving maximum digital resolution is usually limited by the practically available measurement time. We developed a method utilizing non-uniform sampling for balancing digital resolution and signal sensitivity, and performed a large-scale analysis of the effect of the digital resolution on the accuracy of the resulting protein structures. Structure calculations were performed as a function of digital resolution for about 400 proteins with molecular sizes ranging between 5 and 33 kDa. The structural accuracy was assessed by atomic coordinate RMSD values from the reference structures of the proteins. In addition, we monitored also the number of assigned NOESY cross peaks, the average signal sensitivity, and the chemical shift spectral overlap. We show that high resolution is equally important for proteins of every molecular size. The chemical shift spectral overlap depends strongly on the corresponding spectral digital resolution. Thus, knowing the extent of overlap can be a predictor of the resulting structural accuracy. Our results show that for every molecular size a minimal digital resolution, corresponding to the natural linewidth, needs to be achieved for obtaining the highest accuracy possible for the given protein size using state-of-the-art automated NOESY assignment and structure calculation methods.

  17. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  18. Efavirenz Has the Highest Anti-Proliferative Effect of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors against Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hecht

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention and therapy in HIV-1-infected patients will play an important role in future. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI Efavirenz and Nevirapine are cytotoxic against cancer cells in vitro. As other NNRTIs have not been studied so far, all clinically used NNRTIs were tested and the in vitro toxic concentrations were compared to drug levels in patients to predict possible anti-cancer effects in vivo.Cytotoxicity was studied by Annexin-V-APC/7AAD staining and flow cytometry in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and Panc-1 and confirmed by colony formation assays. The 50% effective cytotoxic concentrations (EC50 were calculated and compared to the blood levels in our patients and published data.The in vitro EC50 of the different drugs in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells were: Efavirenz 31.5 μmol/l (= 9944 ng/ml, Nevirapine 239 μmol/l (= 63,786 ng/ml, Etravirine 89.0 μmol/l (= 38,740 ng/ml, Lersivirine 543 μmol/l (= 168,523 ng/ml, Delavirdine 171 μmol/l (= 78,072 ng/ml, Rilpivirine 24.4 μmol/l (= 8941 ng/ml. As Efavirenz and Rilpivirine had the highest cytotoxic potential and Nevirapine is frequently used in HIV-1 positive patients, the results of these three drugs were further studied in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and confirmed with colony formation assays. 205 patient blood levels of Efavirenz, 127 of Rilpivirine and 31 of Nevirapine were analyzed. The mean blood level of Efavirenz was 3587 ng/ml (range 162-15,363 ng/ml, of Rilpivirine 144 ng/ml (range 0-572 ng/ml and of Nevirapine 4955 ng/ml (range 1856-8697 ng/ml. Blood levels from our patients and from published data had comparable Efavirenz levels to the in vitro toxic EC50 in about 1 to 5% of all patients.All studied NNRTIs were toxic against cancer cells. A low percentage of patients taking Efavirenz reached in vitro cytotoxic blood levels. It can be speculated that in HIV-1 positive patients having high Efavirenz blood levels pancreatic

  19. A New Orally Active, Aminothiol Radioprotector-Free of Nausea and Hypotension Side Effects at Its Highest Radioprotective Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soref, Cheryl M. [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Hacker, Timothy A. [Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Physiology Core, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fahl, William E., E-mail: fahl@oncology.wisc.edu [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: A new aminothiol, PrC-210, was tested for orally conferred radioprotection (rats, mice; 9.0 Gy whole-body, which was otherwise lethal to 100% of the animals) and presence of the debilitating side effects (nausea/vomiting, hypotension/fainting) that restrict use of the current aminothiol, amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721). Methods and Materials: PrC-210 in water was administered to rats and mice at times before irradiation, and percent-survival was recorded for 60 days. Subcutaneous (SC) amifostine (positive control) or SC PrC-210 was administered to ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and retching/emesis responses were recorded. Intraperitoneal amifostine (positive control) or PrC-210 was administered to arterial cannulated rats to score drug-induced hypotension. Results: Oral PrC-210 conferred 100% survival in rat and mouse models against an otherwise 100% lethal whole-body radiation dose (9.0 Gy). Oral PrC-210, administered by gavage 30-90 min before irradiation, conferred a broad window of radioprotection. The comparison of PrC-210 and amifostine side effects was striking because there was no retching or emesis in 10 ferrets treated with PrC-210 and no induced hypotension in arterial cannulated rats treated with PrC-210. The tested PrC-210 doses were the ferret and rat equivalent doses of the 0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) PrC-210 dose in mice. The human equivalent of this mouse 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose would likely be the highest PrC-210 dose used in humans. By comparison, the mouse 0.5 MTD amifostine dose, 400 {mu}g/g body weight (equivalent to the human amifostine dose of 910 mg/m{sup 2}), when tested at equivalent ferret and rat doses in the above models produced 100% retching/vomiting in ferrets and 100% incidence of significant, progressive hypotension in rats. Conclusions: The PrC-210 aminothiol, with no detectable nausea/vomiting or hypotension side effects in these preclinical models, is a logical candidate for human drug development to use in healthy

  20. Aerosol deposition (trace elements and black carbon) over the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps during the last centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertò, Michele; Barbante, Carlo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Gabrielli, Paolo; Spolaor, Andrea; Dreossi, Giuliano; Laj, Paolo; Zanatta, Marco; Ginot, Patrick; Fain, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores are an archive of a wide variety of climatic and environmental information from the past, retaining them for hundreds of thousands of years. Anthropogenic pollutants, trace elements, heavy metals and major ions, are preserved as well providing insights on the past atmospheric circulations and allowing evaluating the human impact on the environment. Several ice cores were drilled in glaciers at mid and low latitudes, as in the European Alps. The first ice cores drilled to bedrock in the Eastern Alps were retrieved during autumn 2011 on the "Alto dell`Ortles glacier", the uppermost glacier of the Ortles massif (3905m, South Tirol, Italy), in the frame of the "Ortles Project". A preliminary dating of the core suggests that it should cover at least 300-400 years. Despite the summer temperature increase of the last decades this glacier still contain cold ice. Indeed, O and H isotopes profiles well describe the atmospheric warming as well as the low temperatures recorded during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Moreover, this glacier is located close to densely populated and industrialized areas and can be used for reconstructing for the first time past and recent air pollution and the human impact in the Eastern European Alps. The innermost part of the core is under analysis by means of a "Continuous Flow Analysis" system. This kind of analysis offers a high resolution in data profiles. The separation between the internal and the external parts of the core avoid any kind of contamination. An aluminum melting head melts the core at about 2.5 cm min-1. Simultaneous analyses of conductivity, dust concentration and size distribution (from 0.8 to 80 μm), trace elements with Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS, Agilent 7500) and refractory black carbon (rBC) with the Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies) are performed. A fraction of the melt water is collected by an auto-sampler for further analysis. The analyzed elements

  1. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    and aerial imaging to medical image processing, to facial image analysis, text image analysis, sign and number plates reading, and biometrics recognition, to name a few. This has resulted in many research papers, each developing a new super-resolution algorithm for a specific purpose. The current...... comprehensive survey provides an overview of most of these published works by grouping them in a broad taxonomy. For each of the groups in the taxonomy, the basic concepts of the algorithms are first explained and then the paths through which each of these groups have evolved are given in detail, by mentioning...... the contributions of different authors to the basic concepts of each group. Furthermore, common issues in super-resolution algorithms, such as imaging models and registration algorithms, optimization of the cost functions employed, dealing with color information, improvement factors, assessment of super...

  2. ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Irina IONESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative dispute resolution (ADR includes dispute resolution processes and techniques that act as a means for disagreeing parties to come to an agreement short of litigation. It is a collective term for the ways that parties can settle disputes, with (or without the help of a third party. Despite historic resistance to ADR by many popular parties and their advocates, ADR has gained widespread acceptance among both the general public and the legal profession in recent years. In fact, some courts now require some parties to resort to ADR of some type, before permitting the parties' cases to be tried. The rising popularity of ADR can be explained by the increasing caseload of traditional courts, the perception that ADR imposes fewer costs than litigation, a preference for confidentiality, and the desire of some parties to have greater control over the selection of the individual or individuals who will decide their dispute. Directive 2013/11/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on alternative dispute resolution for consumer disputes and amending Regulation (EC No 2006/2004 and Directive 2009/22/EC (hereinafter „Directive 2013/11/EU” aims to ensure a high level of consumer protection and the proper functioning of the internal market by ensuring that complaints against traders can be submitted by consumers on a voluntary basis, to entities of alternative disputes which are independent, impartial, transparent, effective, simple,quick and fair. Directive 2013/11/EU establishes harmonized quality requirements for entities applying alternative dispute resolution procedure (hereinafter "ADR entity" to provide the same protection and the same rights of consumers in all Member States. Besides this, the present study is trying to present broadly how are all this trasposed in the romanian legislation.

  3. Do high-resolution convection-permitting experiments on Europe need to be driven by high resolution global runs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthou, Segolene; Chan, Steven; Kendon, Elizabeth; Roberts, Malcolm; Lee, Robert; Vanniere, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Challenges of getting appropriate climate-change scenarios over Europe both come from having a good representation of the synoptic systems reaching Europe and having a good-enough representation of local and orographic processes in Europe. Therefore we perform both the evaluation of the driving global model and its dynamical downscaling with a 2.2km regional model on the present day period, in the perspective of using this configuration in a future climate scenario. 20-year long atmosphere-only simulations with the Unified Model of the Met Office were run at different global resolutions (130km, 60km and 25km) and the highest resolution was chosen to give the boundaries of a European-wide convection permitting simulation with a 2.2km resolution. The synoptic situation of the different global resolutions are comparable in terms of latitudinal distribution of the jets and weather regimes but there is consistent improvement in the frequency of storms reaching Europe at 25km resolution. High resolution global runs therefore mainly show added value in the high-frequency synoptic drivers. Compared to high resolution precipitation datasets, the 25km resolution is showing good representation of winter precipitation distribution, although with too many days of moderate precipitation in Western Europe. It shows a dry bias in summer, consistent with a mean jet too north.

  4. Resolution Enhancement of Multilook Imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbraith, Amy E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.

  5. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nanocrystalline objects.

  6. High-resolution neutron imaging of laser imploded DT targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disdier, L. E-mail: laurent.disdier@cea.fr; Rouyer, A.; Wilson, D.C.; Fedotoff, A.; Stoeckl, C.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Garconnet, J.-P.; Seka, W

    2002-08-21

    Using a penumbral technique with a biconical aperture we have obtained neutron images with the highest spatial resolution ever achieved. Implosions at the Omega laser of deuterium-tritium-filled glass microballoons with 2.5 and 4.2 {mu}m thick walls produced images with full-width at half-maximums of 78 and 62 {mu}m recorded with a resolution of 60 and 45 {mu}m, respectively. Image sizes are in good agreement with calculations when the effects of noise are included. Higher geometrical spatial resolution and a new deconvolution technique improve the previous measurements of Ress et al. (Science 241 (1988) 956) obtained with a 80 {mu}m resolution.

  7. High-resolution neutron imaging of laser imploded DT targets

    CERN Document Server

    Disdier, L; Wilson, D C; Fedotoff, A; Stoeckl, C; Bourgade, J L; Glebov, V Yu; Garconnet, J P; Seka, W

    2002-01-01

    Using a penumbral technique with a biconical aperture we have obtained neutron images with the highest spatial resolution ever achieved. Implosions at the Omega laser of deuterium-tritium-filled glass microballoons with 2.5 and 4.2 mu m thick walls produced images with full-width at half-maximums of 78 and 62 mu m recorded with a resolution of 60 and 45 mu m, respectively. Image sizes are in good agreement with calculations when the effects of noise are included. Higher geometrical spatial resolution and a new deconvolution technique improve the previous measurements of Ress et al. (Science 241 (1988) 956) obtained with a 80 mu m resolution.

  8. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  9. LHCb VELO tracking resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, M. T.; LHCb VELO Group

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to make precision measurements of mesons and baryons containing b and c quarks. Many analyses performed using data from LHCb examine properties of particles and anti-particles as a function of proper decay time. Precise measurements of production and decay vertices are thus essential. The Vertex Locator (VELO) subdetector of LHCb performs this task. The excellent performance of the VELO with respect to the resolutions it achieves on single hits, impact parameters, and primary vertex positions is presented, with particular attention paid to measurement of impact parameters.

  10. Resolution of praziquantel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Woelfle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Praziquantel remains the drug of choice for the worldwide treatment and control of schistosomiasis. The drug is synthesized and administered as a racemate. Use of the pure active enantiomer would be desirable since the inactive enantiomer is associated with side effects and is responsible for the extremely bitter taste of the pill. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified two resolution approaches toward the production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer. One approach starts with commercially available praziquantel and involves a hydrolysis to an intermediate amine, which is resolved with a derivative of tartaric acid. This method was discovered through an open collaboration on the internet. The second method, identified by a contract research organisation, employs a different intermediate that may be resolved with tartaric acid itself. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both resolution procedures identified show promise for the large-scale, economically viable production of praziquantel as a single enantiomer for a low price. Additionally, they may be employed by laboratories for the production of smaller amounts of enantiopure drug for research purposes that should be useful in, for example, elucidation of the drug's mechanism of action.

  11. Visible, Very Near IR and Short Wave IR Hyperspectral Drone Imaging System for Agriculture and Natural Water Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, H.; Akujärvi, A.; Holmlund, C.; Ojanen, H.; Kaivosoja, J.; Nissinen, A.; Niemeläinen, O.

    2017-10-01

    The accurate determination of the quality parameters of crops requires a spectral range from 400 nm to 2500 nm (Kawamura et al., 2010, Thenkabail et al., 2002). Presently the hyperspectral imaging systems that cover this wavelength range consist of several separate hyperspectral imagers and the system weight is from 5 to 15 kg. In addition the cost of the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) cameras is high (  50 k€). VTT has previously developed compact hyperspectral imagers for drones and Cubesats for Visible and Very near Infrared (VNIR) spectral ranges (Saari et al., 2013, Mannila et al., 2013, Näsilä et al., 2016). Recently VTT has started to develop a hyperspectral imaging system that will enable imaging simultaneously in the Visible, VNIR, and SWIR spectral bands. The system can be operated from a drone, on a camera stand, or attached to a tractor. The targeted main applications of the DroneKnowledge hyperspectral system are grass, peas, and cereals. In this paper the characteristics of the built system are shortly described. The system was used for spectral measurements of wheat, several grass species and pea plants fixed to the camera mount in the test fields in Southern Finland and in the green house. The wheat, grass and pea field measurements were also carried out using the system mounted on the tractor. The work is part of the Finnish nationally funded DroneKnowledge - Towards knowledge based export of small UAS remote sensing technology project.

  12. VISIBLE, VERY NEAR IR AND SHORT WAVE IR HYPERSPECTRAL DRONE IMAGING SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL WATER APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The accurate determination of the quality parameters of crops requires a spectral range from 400 nm to 2500 nm (Kawamura et al., 2010, Thenkabail et al., 2002. Presently the hyperspectral imaging systems that cover this wavelength range consist of several separate hyperspectral imagers and the system weight is from 5 to 15 kg. In addition the cost of the Short Wave Infrared (SWIR cameras is high (~ 50 k€. VTT has previously developed compact hyperspectral imagers for drones and Cubesats for Visible and Very near Infrared (VNIR spectral ranges (Saari et al., 2013, Mannila et al., 2013, Näsilä et al., 2016. Recently VTT has started to develop a hyperspectral imaging system that will enable imaging simultaneously in the Visible, VNIR, and SWIR spectral bands. The system can be operated from a drone, on a camera stand, or attached to a tractor. The targeted main applications of the DroneKnowledge hyperspectral system are grass, peas, and cereals. In this paper the characteristics of the built system are shortly described. The system was used for spectral measurements of wheat, several grass species and pea plants fixed to the camera mount in the test fields in Southern Finland and in the green house. The wheat, grass and pea field measurements were also carried out using the system mounted on the tractor. The work is part of the Finnish nationally funded DroneKnowledge – Towards knowledge based export of small UAS remote sensing technology project.

  13. Development of fibre laser systems for ring-down and intracavity gas spectroscopy in the near-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, George; Shields, Peter; Culshaw, Brian

    2004-08-01

    We describe our progress in the development of intracavity systems with erbium fibre lasers using ring-down or intracavity laser absorption spectroscopy. Ring-down times have been extended out to several milliseconds and digital signal processing techniques introduced for removal of unwanted spectral components from the data and for display of the attenuation history. The theoretical sensitivity limits for intracavity absorption spectroscopy are discussed for a three-level laser, taking into account ground state absorption, and about three orders of magnitude enhancement in effective path length is expected. A detailed analysis has been performed on the relaxation oscillations induced during the transient operation of the laser with the aim of monitoring laser parameters and for the future development of an interrogation system for the capture of modal spectra in the presence of intracavity absorbers.

  14. Optical and near-IR observations of the faint and fast 2008ha-like supernova 2010ae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Hsiao, E.; Valenti, S.; Taddia, F.; Rivera-Thorsen, T. J.; Leloudas, G.; Maeda, K.; Pastorello, A.; Phillips, M. M.; Pignata, G.; Baron, E.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, G.; Hamuy, M.; Höflich, P.; Morrell, N.; Prieto, J. L.; Benetti, S.; Campillay, A.; Haislip, J. B.; LaClutze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Reichart, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive set of optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectroscopy is presented for the faint and fast 2008ha-like supernova (SN) 2010ae. Contingent on the adopted value of host extinction, SN 2010ae reached a peak brightness of -13.8 > MV > -15.3 mag, while modeling of the UVOIR light curve suggests it produced 0.003-0.007 M⊙ of 56Ni, ejected 0.30-0.60 M⊙ of material, and had an explosion energy of 0.04-0.30 × 1051 erg. The values of these explosion parameters are similar to the peculiar SN 2008ha -for which we also present previously unpublished early phase optical and NIR light curves - and places these two transients at the faint end of the 2002cx-like SN population. Detailed inspection of the post-maximum NIR spectroscopic sequence indicates the presence of a multitude of spectral features, which are identified through SYNAPPS modeling to be mainly attributed to Co ii. Comparison with a collection of published and unpublished NIR spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe, reveals that a Co ii footprint is ubiquitous to this subclass of transients, providing a link to Type Ia SNe. A visual-wavelength spectrum of SN 2010ae obtained at +252 days past maximum shows a striking resemblance to a similar epoch spectrum of SN 2002cx. However, subtle differences in the strength and ratio of calcium emission features, as well as diversity among similar epoch spectra of other 2002cx-like SNe indicates a range of physical conditions of the ejecta, highlighting the heterogeneous nature of thispeculiar class of transients. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (ESO Programs 082.A-0526, 084.D-0719, 088.D-0222, 184.D-1140, and 386.D-0966); the Gemini Observatory, Cerro Pachon, Chile (Gemini Programs GS-2010A-Q-14 and GS-2010A-Q-38); the Magellan 6.5 m telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory; and the SOAR telescope.Tables 1-5 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgReduced spectra are available as FITS files at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A146

  15. Photoacoustic Optical Properties at UV, VIS, and near IR Wavelengths for Laboratory Generated and Winter Time Ambient Urban Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, M.; Arnott, W. P.; Zaveri, R. A.; Song, C.; Moosmuller, H.; Liu, L.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Chen, L.-W.A.; Green, M. C.; Watson, J. G.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present the laboratory and ambient photoacoustic (PA) measurement of aerosol light absorption coefficients at ultraviolet wavelength (i.e., 355 nm) and compare with measurements at 405, 532, 870, and 1047 nm. Simultaneous measurements of aerosol light scattering coefficients were achieved by the integrating reciprocal nephelometer within the PA's acoustic resonator. Absorption and scattering measurements were carried out for various laboratory generated aerosols, including salt, incense, and kerosene soot to evaluate the instrument calibration and gain insight on the spectral dependence of aerosol light absorption and scattering. Ambient measurements were obtained in Reno, Nevada, between 18 December 2009 and 18 January 2010. The measurement period included days with and without strong ground level temperature inversions, corresponding to highly polluted (freshly emitted aerosols) and relatively clean (aged aerosols) conditions. Particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured and analyzed with other tracers of traffic emissions. The temperature inversion episodes caused very high concentration of PM (sub 2.5) and PM( sub 10) (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers, respectively) and gaseous pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The diurnal change of absorption and scattering coefficients during the polluted (inversion) days increased approximately by a factor of two for all wavelengths compared to the clean days. The spectral variation in aerosol absorption coefficients indicated a significant amount of absorbing aerosol from traffic emissions and residential wood burning. The analysis of single scattering albedo (SSA), Angstrom exponent of absorption (AEA), and Angstrom exponent of scattering (AES) for clean and polluted days provides evidences that the aerosol aging and coating process is suppressed by strong temperature inversion under cloudy conditions. In general, measured UV absorption coefficients were found to be much larger for biomass burning aerosol than for typical ambient aerosols.

  16. Application of Near-IR Absorption Porphyrin Dyes Derived from Click Chemistry as Third-Order Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Yongsheng; Liang, Pengxia; Yang, Zhou; Wang, Dong; Cao, Hui; He, Wanli; Yang, Huai; Yu, Lian

    2016-02-01

    Recently, third-order nonlinear properties of porphyrins and porphyrin polymers and coordination compounds have been extensively studied in relation to their use in photomedicine and molecular photonics. A new functionalized porphyrin dye containing electron-rich alkynes was synthesized and further modified by formal [2+2] click reactions with click reagents tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and 7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The photophysical properties of these porphyrin dyes, as well as the click reaction, were studied by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In particular, third-order nonlinear optical properties of the dyes, which showed typical d-π-A structures, were characterized by Z-scan techniques. In addition, the self-assembly properties were investigated through the phase-exchange method, and highly organized morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of the click post-functionalization on the properties of the porphyrins were studied, and these functionalized porphyrin dyes represent an interesting set of candidates for optoelectronic device components.

  17. Selective removal of demineralized enamel using a CO2 laser coupled with near-IR reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Henry; Chan, Kenneth H.; Saltiel, Daniel; Fried, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Detection and diagnosis of early dental caries lesions can be difficult due to variable tooth coloration, staining of the teeth and poor contrast between sound and demineralized enamel. These problems can be overcome by using near-infrared (NIR) imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated that lasers can be integrated with NIR imaging devices, allowing image-guided ablation. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that NIR light at 1500 - 1700 nm can be used to guide a 9.3-μm CO2 laser for the selective ablation of early demineralization on tooth occlusal surfaces. The occlusal surfaces of ten sound human molars were used in this in-vitro study. Shallow simulated caries lesions of varying depth and position were produced on tooth occlusal surfaces using a demineralization solution. Sequential NIR reflectance images at 1500 - 1700 nm were used to guide the laser for selective ablation of the lesion areas. Digital microscopy and polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) were used to assess the selectivity of removal. This study demonstrates that high contrast NIR reflectance images can be used for the image-guided laser ablation of early demineralization from tooth occlusal surfaces.

  18. Quantum yields of the photodissociation of HbO2 in the visible and near IR spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamilov, S. A.; Esman, S. S.; Asimov, M. M.; Gisbrecht, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of the laser radiation effect on the oxyhemoglobin in blood vessels and its dependence on the wavelength of the irradiation are investigated. In vivo experimental measurements of the quantum yield of the laser-induced photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin in cutaneous blood vessels in the visible spectral range are presented. The spectral effectiveness of the photodissociation approximately correlates with their absorption spectrum and the transmission spectrum of skin tissue. Different aspects of biomedical application of this phenomenon are discussed. Non-invasive three-wavelength technique for determination of oxyhemoglobin concentrations in blood is also developed.

  19. Flexible attosecond beamline for high harmonic spectroscopy and XUV/near-IR pump probe experiments requiring long acquisition times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S. J.; Manschwetus, B.; Billon, M.; Böttcher, M.; Bougeard, M.; Breger, P.; Géléoc, M.; Gruson, V.; Huetz, A.; Lin, N.; Picard, Y. J.; Ruchon, T.; Salières, P.; Carré, B.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the versatile features of the attosecond beamline recently installed at CEA-Saclay on the PLFA kHz laser. It combines a fine and very complete set of diagnostics enabling high harmonic spectroscopy (HHS) through the advanced characterization of the amplitude, phase, and polarization of the harmonic emission. It also allows a variety of photo-ionization experiments using magnetic bottle and COLTRIMS (COLd Target Recoil Ion Momentum Microscopy) electron spectrometers that may be used simultaneously, thanks to a two-foci configuration. Using both passive and active stabilization, special care was paid to the long term stability of the system to allow, using both experimental approaches, time resolved studies with attosecond precision, typically over several hours of acquisition times. As an illustration, applications to multi-orbital HHS and electron-ion coincidence time resolved spectroscopy are presented.

  20. Near-IR Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy in surgery and medicine: detection of renal stones and bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Shuming; Redd, Douglas C. B.; Li, Yunzhi; Yu, Nai-Teng

    1992-06-01

    Tissue diagnosis and characterization are critically important to the development and applications of laser-based therapeutic procedures in urology (viz., laser lithotripsy and bladder cancer treatment). Recently, we demonstrated for the first time that the new technique of near-infrared laser excited Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy can readily differentiate various types of renal stones and bladder cancer from normal kidney/bladder tissues. It has thus become possible to develop an FT-Raman-based fiberoptic sensor for clinical use in laser lithotripsy and bladder cancer treatment. The future development of such a diagnostic modality will allow a surgeon/physician to take real-time Raman spectra of urinary calculi or cancerous tissue via a flexible fiberoptic probe.

  1. Integrated fiber optic incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy detector for near-IR absorption measurements of nanoliter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anthony L; Renzi, Ronald F; Fruetel, Julia A; Bambha, Ray P

    2012-05-10

    An integrated fiber-optic sensor is described that uses incoherent broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy for sensitive detection of aqueous samples in nanoliter volumes. Absorption was measured in a 100 µm gap between the ends of two short segments of multimode graded-index fiber that were integrated into a capillary using a precision machined V-grooved fixture that allowed for passive fiber alignment. The other ends of the fibers were coated with dielectric mirrors to form a 9.5 cm optical resonator. Light from a fiber-coupled superluminescent diode was directly coupled into one end of the cavity, and transmission was measured using a fiber-coupled silicon photodiode. Dilute aqueous solutions of near infrared dye were used to determine the minimum detectable absorption change of 2.4×10(-4) under experimental conditions in which pressure fluctuations limited performance. We also determined that the absolute minimum detectable absorption change would be 1.6×10(-5) for conditions of constant pressure in which absorption measurement is limited by electronic and optical noise. Tolerance requirements for alignment are also presented.

  2. Optical, Near-IR, and X-Ray Observations of SN 2015J and Its Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Saxton, R.; Testa, V.; Strafella, F.; Read, A.; Licchelli, D.; Ingrosso, G.; Convenga, F.; Boutsia, K.

    2017-12-01

    SN 2015J was discovered on 2015 April 27th and is classified as an SN IIn. At first, it appeared to be an orphan SN candidate, I.e., without any clear identification of its host galaxy. Here, we present an analysis of the observations carried out by the VLT 8 m class telescope with the FORS2 camera in the R band and the Magellan telescope (6.5 m) equipped with the IMACS Short-Camera (V and I filters) and the FourStar camera (Ks filter). We show that SN 2015J resides in what appears to be a very compact galaxy, establishing a relation between the SN event and its natural host. We also present and discuss archival and new X-ray data centered on SN 2015J. At the time of the supernova explosion, Swift/XRT observations were made and a weak X-ray source was detected at the location of SN 2015J. Almost one year later, the same source was unambiguously identified during serendipitous observations by Swift/XRT and XMM-Newton, clearly showing an enhancement of the 0.3-10 keV band flux by a factor ≃ 30 with respect to the initial state. Swift/XRT observations show that the source is still active in the X-rays at a level of ≃ 0.05 counts s-1. The unabsorbed X-ray luminosity derived from the XMM-Newton slew and SWIFT observations, {L}x≃ 5× {10}41 erg s-1, places SN 2015J among the brightest young supernovae in X-rays. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA, with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under program ID 298.D-5016(A), and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. We also acknowledge the use of public data from the Swift data archive.

  3. NEAR-IR TWO PHOTON MICROSCOPY IMAGING OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES FUNCTIONALIZED WITH ISOLATED SENSITIZED Yb(III) CENTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapadula, Giuseppe; Bourdolle, Adrien; Allouche, Florian; Conley, Matthew P.; Maron, Laurent; Lukens, Wayne W.; Guyot, Yannick; Andraud, Chantal; Brasselet, Sophie; Copé; ret, Christophe; Maury, Olivier; Andersen, Richard A.

    2013-01-12

    Bright nano objects emitting in the near infrared with a maximal cross section of 41.4 x 103 GM (Goppert Mayer), were prepared by implanting ca. 180 4,4 diethylaminostyryl 2,2 bipyridine (DEAS) Yb(III) complexes on the surface of 12 nm silica nanoparticles. The surface complexes ([DEAS Ln SiO2], Ln =Y,Yb) were characterized using IR, solid state NMR, UV Vis, EXAFS spectroscopies in combination with the preparation and characterization of similar molecular analogues by analytical techniques (IR, solution NMR, UV Vis, X ray crystallography) as well as DFT calculations. Starting from the partial dehydroxylation of the silica at 700 C on high vacuum having 0.8 OH.nm 2, the grafting of Ln(N(SiMe3)2)3 generate ≤SiO Ln(N(SiMe3)2)2, which upon thermal step and coordination of the DEAS chromophore yields (≤SiO)3Ln(DEAS). Surface and molecular analogues display similar properties, in terms of DEAS binding constants absorption maxima and luminescence properties (intense emission band assigned to a ligand centered CT fluorescence and life time) in the solid state, consistent with the molecular nature of the surface species. The densely functionalized nanoparticles can be dispersed via ultra-sonication in small ca. 15-20 nm aggregates (1 to 6 elementary particles) that were detected using two photon microscopy imaging at 720 nm excitation, making them promising nano objects for bio imaging.

  4. Preparation of Uncapped CdSe x Te1- x Nanocrystals with Strong Near-IR Tunable Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaohua; Tan, Guolong; Murowchick, James B.; Wisner, Clarissa; Leventis, Nickolas; Xia, Ting; Chen, Xiaobo; Peng, Zhonghua

    2013-12-01

    Semiconducting nanocrystals with near-infrared (NIR) photosensitivity are appealing materials for application as photodetectors and in medical diagnostics. Herein, we report the preparation of composition-tunable, uncapped CdSe x Te1- x ( x = 0 to 1) nanocrystals by simple mechanical alloying. The resulting ternary CdSe x Te1- x ( x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) nanocrystals with average sizes smaller than 10 nm have zincblende crystal structure, instead of the wurtzite structure commonly obtained by wet chemical routes, and show strong NIR absorption even beyond 1400 nm. While a linear relationship between the lattice parameter and the chemical composition (Se/Te ratio) is observed, indicating the formation of homogeneous alloys, the bandgap energy of the three ternary samples is found to be substantially lower than that of binary CdSe or CdTe nanocrystals, and lower than any ternary CdSeTe reported so far. Existence of a small number of tellurium metal defects in the CdSe x Te1- x ( x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) nanocrystals is confirmed by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Both the optical bowing effect and tellurium metal-induced defects of the mechanically alloyed samples are believed to cause the strong NIR photosensitivity.

  5. Centers of near-IR luminescence in bismuth-doped TlCl and CsI crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, V O; Plotnichenko, V G; Dianov, E M

    2013-04-22

    A comparative first-principles study of possible bismuth-related centers in TlCl and CsI crystals is performed and the results of computer modeling are compared with the experimental data. The calculated spectral properties of the bismuth centers suggest that the IR luminescence in TlCl:Bi is most likely caused by Bi(+)···V(Cl)(-) centers (Bi(+) ion in thallium site and a negatively charged chlorine vacancy in the nearest anion site). On the contrary, Bi(+) substitutional ions and Bi(2)(+) dimers are most likely responsible for the IR luminescence in CsI:Bi.

  6. The brown dwarf atmosphere monitoring (BAM) project. I. The largest near-IR monitoring survey of L and T dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. A.; Rajan, A.; Patience, J.

    2014-06-01

    Using the SofI instrument on the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope, we have conducted an extensive near-infrared monitoring survey of an unbiased sample of 69 brown dwarfs spanning the L0 to T8 spectral range, with at least one example of each spectral type. Each target was observed for a 2-4 h period in the Js-band, and the median photometric precision of the data is ~0.7%. A total of 14 brown dwarfs were identified as variables with min-to-max amplitudes ranging from 1.7% to 10.8% over the observed duration. All variables satisfy a statistical significance threshold with a p-value ≤5% based on comparison with a median reference star light curve. Approximately half of the variables show pure sinusoidal amplitude variations similar to 2MASSJ2139+0220, and the remainder show multi-component variability in their light curves similar to SIMPJ0136+0933. It has been suggested that the L-T transition should be a region of a higher degree of variability if patchy clouds are present, and this survey was designed to test the patchy cloud model with photometric monitoring of both the L-T transition and non-transition brown dwarfs. The measured frequency of variables is 13+10-4% across the L7-T4 spectral range, indistinguishable from the frequency of variables of the earlier spectral types (30+11-8%), the later spectral types (13+10-4%), or the combination of all non-transition region brown dwarfs (22+7-5%). The variables are not concentrated in the transition, in a specific colour, or in binary systems. Of the brown dwarfs previously monitored for variability, only ~60% maintained the state of variability (variable or constant), with the remaining switching states. The 14 variables include 9 newly identified variables that will provide important systems for follow-up multi-wavelength monitoring to further investigate brown dwarf atmosphere physics. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at La Silla Observatory under programme ID 188.C-0493.Tables 1, 2, and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgLight curves (target and references) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A111

  7. A new mechanism to explain the near-IR variability of the transitional disk of GM Aur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, E.; álvarez-Meraz, R.; Rendón, F.

    2017-10-01

    An ubiquitous feature of stellar systems, particularly of transitional disks, is their variability across the full range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The contribution to the near-infrared region of the spectrum comes mainly from the inner region of the disk, where gas and dust are heated to extremely high temperatures. We present a new physical mechanism that can explain the near-infrared variability of some transitional disks. The main process is the intermittent formation of a sublimation wall due to an instability between the magnetic field of the star and the innermost disk region. When the wall is present, it contributes to the spectrum but also shadows part of the material beyond its location. Using this mechanism, we present a model to explain the near-infrared variability of the transitional disk around GM Aur.

  8. Near-IR telecommunication diode laser based double-pass QEPAS sensor for atmospheric CO2 detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Dong, L.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, H.; Ma, W.; Zhang, L.; Yin, W.; Jia, S.

    2015-12-01

    A novel double pass quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor for atmospheric CO2 detection is developed by use of a 1.5 μm telecommunication diode laser. A low-cost high-reflection concave mirror is positioned behind a traditional QEPAS based acoustic detection module to enhance the absorption optical path and improve the detection sensitivity. The obtained minimum detection limit is 29 ppmV for 1 s averaging time which corresponds to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient (NNEA, 1σ) of 2.\\text{2}× {{10}-9} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-1}\\centerdot \\text{W}\\centerdot \\text{H}{{\\text{z}}-\\frac{1{2}}} . With a 247 s averaging time, it demonstrates an ultimate detectable sensitivity of 1.74 ppmV.

  9. Civil Engineering Dispute Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J

    2001-01-01

    Construction work on the civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. A dispute resolution procedure has been included in the contract, whereby a Panel of Adjudicators may be called upon to make a decision in the case of a difference or dispute between the parties. The aim of this paper is to present CERN's first experience of civil engineering Adjudication arising from problems encountered with the ground freezing technique employed to allow construction of two new shafts.

  10. High Time Resolution Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.

  11. Lexical ambiguity resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, S.; Cottrell, G.; Tanenhaus, M.

    1987-01-01

    This book collects much of the best research currently available on the problem of lexical ambiguity resolution in the processing of human language. When taken out of context, sentences are usually ambiguous. When actually uttered in a dialogue or written in text, these same sentences often have unique interpretations. The inherent ambiguity of isolated sentences, becomes obvious in the attempt to write a computer program to understand them. Different views have emerged on the nature of context and the mechanisms by which it directs unambiguous understanding of words and sentences. These perspectives are represented and discussed. Eighteen original papers from a valuable source book for cognitive scientists in AI, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology, or theoretical linguistics.

  12. The variable stellar wind of Rigel probed at high spatial and spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesneau, O.; Kaufer, A.; Stahl, O.; Colvinter, C.; Spang, A.; Dessart, L.; Prinja, R.; Chini, R.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Luminous BA-type supergiants are the brightest stars in the visible that can be observed in distant galaxies and are potentially accurate distance indicators. The impact of the variability of the stellar winds on the distance determination remains poorly understood. Aims: Our aim is to probe the inhomogeneous structures in the stellar wind using spectro-interferometric monitoring. Methods: We present a spatially resolved, high-spectral resolution (R = 12 000) K-band temporal monitoring of the bright supergiant β Orionis (Rigel, B8 Iab) using AMBER at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Rigel was observed in the Brγ line and its nearby continuum once per month over 3 months in 2006-2007, and 5 months in 2009-2010. These unprecedented observations were complemented by contemporaneous optical high-resolution spectroscopy. We analyse the near-IR spectra and visibilities with the 1D non-LTE radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. The differential and closure phase signals are evidence of asymmetries that are interpreted as perturbations of the wind. Results: A systematic visibility decrease is observed across the Brγ line indicating that at a radius of about 1.25 R∗ the photospheric absorption is filled by emission from the wind. During the 2006-2007 period the Brγ and likely the continuum forming regions were larger than in the 2009-2010 epoch. Using CMFGEN we infer a mass-loss rate change of about 20% between the two epochs. We also find time variations in the differential visibilities and phases. The 2006-2007 period is characterised by noticeable variations in the differential visibilities in Doppler position and width and by weak variations in differential and closure phase. The 2009-2010 period is much quieter with virtually no detectable variations in the dispersed visibilities but a strong S-shaped signal is observed in differential phase coinciding with a strong ejection event discernible in the optical spectra. The differential phase signal

  13. Vermont Highest Priority Connectivity Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Act 174 requires plans to identify potential areas for the development and siting of renewable energy resources and areas that are unsuitable for siting those...

  14. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  15. Ambient atomic resolution atomic force microscopy with qPlus sensors: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastl, Daniel S

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an enormous tool to observe nature in highest resolution and understand fundamental processes like friction and tribology on the nanoscale. Atomic resolution in highest quality was possible only in well-controlled environments like ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) or controlled buffer environments (liquid conditions) and more specified for long-term high-resolution analysis at low temperatures (∼4 K) in UHV where drift is nearly completely absent. Atomic resolution in these environments is possible and is widely used. However, in uncontrolled environments like air, with all its pollutants and aerosols, unspecified thin liquid films as thin as a single molecular water-layer of 200 pm or thicker condensation films with thicknesses up to hundred nanometer, have been a problem for highest resolution since the invention of the AFM. The goal of true atomic resolution on hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic samples was reached recently. In this manuscript we want to review the concept of ambient AFM with atomic resolution. The reader will be introduced to the phenomenology in ambient conditions and the problems will be explained and analyzed while a method for scan parameter optimization will be explained. Recently developed concepts and techniques how to reach atomic resolution in air and ultra-thin liquid films will be shown and explained in detail, using several examples. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:50-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Tele-AAC Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kate; Boisvert, Michelle K; Doneski-Nicol, Janis; Gutmann, Michelle L; Hall, Nerissa C; Morelock, Cynthia; Steele, Richard; Cohn, Ellen R

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide. Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation); determine the communication competence levels achieved by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders' perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability); maximize Tele-AAC's capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions.

  17. Tele-AAC Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Anderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1.3% of all people, or about 4 million Americans, cannot rely on their natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Telepractice offers a potentially cost-effective service delivery mechanism to provide clinical AAC services at a distance to the benefit of underserved populations in the United States and worldwide.  Tele-AAC is a unique cross-disciplinary clinical service delivery model that requires expertise in both telepractice and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC systems.  The Tele-AAC Working Group of the 2012 ISAAC Research Symposium therefore drafted a resolution underscoring the importance of identifying and characterizing the unique opportunities and constraints of Tele-AAC in all aspects of service delivery. These include, but are not limited to: needs assessments; implementation planning; device/system procurement, set-up and training; quality assurance, client progress monitoring, and follow-up service delivery. Tele-AAC, like other telepractice applications, requires adherence to the ASHA Code of Ethics and other policy documents, and state, federal, and international laws, as well as a competent technological infrastructure. The Working Group recommends that institutions of higher education and professional organizations provide training in Tele-AAC service provision. In addition, research and development are needed to create validity measures across Tele-AAC practices (i.e., assessment, implementation, and consultation; determine the communication competence levels achieved  by Tele-AAC users; discern stakeholders’  perceptions of Tele-AAC services (e.g., acceptability and viability; maximize Tele-AAC’s capacity to engage multiple team members in AAC assessment and ongoing service; identify the limitations and barriers of Tele-AAC provision; and develop potential solutions. 

  18. Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. II. Super-resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In tomosynthesis, super-resolution has been demonstrated using reconstruction planes parallel to the detector. Super-resolution allows for subpixel resolution relative to the detector. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical model that generalizes super-resolution to oblique reconstruction planes.Methods: In a digital tomosynthesis system, a sinusoidal test object is modeled along oblique angles (i.e., “pitches”) relative to the plane of the detector in a 3D divergent-beam acquisition geometry. To investigate the potential for super-resolution, the input frequency is specified to be greater than the alias frequency of the detector. Reconstructions are evaluated in an oblique plane along the extent of the object using simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection (FBP). By comparing the amplitude of the reconstruction against the attenuation coefficient of the object at various frequencies, the modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated to determine whether modulation is within detectable limits for super-resolution. For experimental validation of super-resolution, a goniometry stand was used to orient a bar pattern phantom along various pitches relative to the breast support in a commercial digital breast tomosynthesis system.Results: Using theoretical modeling, it is shown that a single projection image cannot resolve a sine input whose frequency exceeds the detector alias frequency. The high frequency input is correctly visualized in SBP or FBP reconstruction using a slice along the pitch of the object. The Fourier transform of this reconstructed slice is maximized at the input frequency as proof that the object is resolved. Consistent with the theoretical results, experimental images of a bar pattern phantom showed super-resolution in oblique reconstructions. At various pitches, the highest frequency with detectable modulation was determined by visual inspection of the bar patterns. The dependency of the highest

  19. Quantitative super-resolution microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harkes, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Super-Resolution Microscopy is an optical fluorescence technique. In this thesis we focus on single molecule super-resolution, where the position of single molecules is determined. Typically these molecules can be localized with a 10 to 30nm precision. This technique is applied in four different

  20. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    reactant, atoms-in-molecule, orbital, and local resolutions. In this paper ... resolution, i.e., the mutually polarized reactants before the charge-transfer among them. ..... and Komorowski L 2005 Int. J. Quantum Chem. 101. 703. 23. (a) Meneses L, Tiznado W, Contreras R and Fuen- tealba P 2004 Chem. Phys. Lett. 383 181. 24.

  1. "Planar" Tautologies Hard for Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantchev, Stefan; Riis, Søren

    2001-01-01

    We prove exponential lower bounds on the resolution proofs of some tautologies, based on rectangular grid graphs. More specifically, we show a 2Ω(n) lower bound for any resolution proof of the mutilated chessboard problem on a 2n×2n chessboard as well as for the Tseitin tautology (G. Tseitin, 196...

  2. Super resolution volume rendering hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Marco; Smit, Jaap; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Jeroen

    1995-01-01

    The resolution obtained in volume rendering is greatly increased over known methods through the introduction of super resolution techniques which make it possible to enlarge the view o f the dataset without the introduction of unnecessary positional, gradient and opacity errors. In this paper our

  3. Super-resolution Phase Tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Depeursinge, Christian

    2013-04-21

    Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) yields reconstructed complex wavefields. It allows synthesizing the aperture of a virtual microscope up to 2π, offering super-resolution phase images. Live images of micro-organisms and neurons with resolution less than 100 nm are presented.

  4. High Resolution Global View of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Io, the most volcanic body in the solar system is seen in the highest resolution obtained to date by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. There are rugged mountains several kilometers high, layered materials forming plateaus, and many irregular depressions called volcanic calderas. Several of the dark, flow-like features correspond to hot spots, and may be active lava flows. There are no landforms resembling impact craters, as the volcanism covers the surface with new deposits much more rapidly than the flux of comets and asteroids can create large impact craters. The picture is centered on the side of Io that always faces away from Jupiter; north is to the top.Color images acquired on September 7, 1996 have been merged with higher resolution images acquired on November 6, 1996 by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The color is composed of data taken, at a range of 487,000 kilometers, in the near-infrared, green, and violet filters and has been enhanced to emphasize the extraordinary variations in color and brightness that characterize Io's face. The high resolution images were obtained at ranges which varied from 245,719 kilometers to 403,100 kilometers.Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  5. Enhanced High Resolution RBS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Thomas J.; Hass, James A.; Klody, George M.

    2011-06-01

    Improvements in full spectrum resolution with the second NEC high resolution RBS system are summarized. Results for 50 Å TiN/HfO films on Si yielding energy resolution on the order of 1 keV are also presented. Detector enhancements include improved pulse processing electronics, upgraded shielding for the MCP/RAE detector, and reduced noise generated from pumping. Energy resolution measurements on spectra front edge coupled with calculations using 0.4mStr solid angle show that beam energy spread at 400 KeV from the Pelletron® accelerator is less than 100 eV. To improve user throughput, magnet control has been added to the automatic data collection. Depth profiles derived from experimental data are discussed. For the thin films profiled, depth resolutions were on the Angstrom level with the non-linear energy/channel conversions ranging from 100 to 200 eV.

  6. Education Pays Off! On Transition to Work for 25 Year Olds in Norway with Upper Secondary Education or Lower as Their Highest Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Eifred

    2017-01-01

    In this article we examine the relationship between educational level and position in the labour market at age 25 for those who have completed upper secondary education or lower as their highest educational level. Whilst completion of upper secondary education is widely regarded as being important, we find that early and lasting work experience…

  7. Flexible electrofluorochromic devices with the highest contrast ratio based on aggregation-enhanced emission (AEE)-active cyanotriphenylamine-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hung-Ju; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2013-10-28

    Flexible electrofluorochromic devices were prepared from two electrochromic and AEE-active (AEE: aggregation-enhanced emission) cyanoarylamine-containing high-performance polymers, exhibiting the highest contrast ratio (If/If0) of 151.9 at a low working potential.

  8. Clouds and Hazes in Saturn's North Polar Vortex: New Results from Cassini/VIMS High-Spatial Resolution Spectral Imagery on the First Grand Finale Pass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Fry, Patrick M.; Momary, Thomas W.; Brown, Robert H.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Clark, Roger Nelson; Nicholson, Philip D.; Sotin, Christophe

    2017-10-01

    High-spatial-resolution spectral images of Saturn's polar region obtained during the first Grand Finale pass on April 26, 2017 by the Cassini/Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) reveal a variety of cloud/haze structures exhibiting distinctively different colors in the near-infrared, corresponding to a variety of cloud compositions, altitudes and thicknesses. Two spectral images in particular, obtained from altitudes of 110,000 km and 69,600 km above the cloudtops - corresponding to VIMS pixel resolutions of 55 and 34 km, some five times better than has been obtained by VIMS on any previous orbit - reveal small (~ 200 km across) discrete clouds remarkably enhanced in 3-micron absorption compared to nearby features, indicating enhanced ammonia and/or perhaps ammonia hydrosulfide or water ice absorptions. The ~2000-km-wide eye of the vortex in which these discrete ammonia/water ice clouds are embedded is surprisingly dark, exhibiting reflectivities less than one-third of those displayed by the small discrete clouds at all near-IR continuum wavelengths. However, at 5 microns, this contrast is reversed with the vortex eye emanating eight times the thermal flux of the embedded clouds. Taken together, the small reflectivity and large 5-micron thermal transmission indicate that the eye is an optically-thin haze/cloud region, nearly devoid of aerosols. From a dynamical point of view, the stark contrast between the reflectively dark, nearly-aerosol-free polar "eye" - indicative of downwelling processes - and the clouds of 3-micron absorbers embedded within it - indicative of powerful upwelling of materials from the depths of Saturn perhaps 50-200 km below - is puzzling, revealing that a remarkable range of vertical dynamical processes occur in Saturn's north polar region over relatively small spatial scales. Quantitative results for these various clouds, including their compositional characteristics, altitudes, mass loading, and wavelength-dependent opacities will be

  9. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  10. Search for water vapor in the high-resolution transmission spectrum of HD 189733b in the visible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allart, R.; Lovis, C.; Pino, L.; Wyttenbach, A.; Ehrenreich, D.; Pepe, F.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Ground-based telescopes equipped with state-of-the-art spectrographs are able to obtain high-resolution transmission and emission spectra of exoplanets that probe the structure and composition of their atmospheres. Various atomic and molecular species, such as Na, CO, H2O have been already detected in a number of hot Jupiters. Molecular species have been observed only in the near-infrared while atomic species have been observed in the visible. In particular, the detection and abundance determination of water vapor bring important constraints to the planet formation process. Aims: We aim to search for water vapor in the atmosphere of the exoplanet HD 189733b using a high-resolution transmission spectrum in the visible obtained with HARPS. Methods: We used the atmospheric transmission code Molecfit to correct for telluric absorption features. Then we computed the high-resolution transmission spectrum of the planet using three transit datasets. We finally searched for water vapor absorption in the water band around 6500 Å using a cross-correlation technique that combines the signal of 600-900 individual lines. Results: Telluric features are corrected to the noise level. We place a 5-σ upper limit of 100 ppm on the strength of the 6500 Å water vapor band. The 1-σ precision of 20 ppm on the transmission spectrum demonstrates that space-like sensitivity can be achieved from the ground, even for a molecule that is a strong telluric absorber. Conclusions: This approach opens new possibilites for the detection of various atomic and molecular species with future instruments such as ESPRESSO at the VLT. Extrapolating from our results, we show that only one transit with ESPRESSO would be sufficient to detect water vapor on HD 189733b-like hot Jupiter with a cloud-free atmosphere. Upcoming near-IR spectrographs will be even more efficient and sensitive to a wider range of molecular species. Moreover, the detection of the same molecular species in different bands (e

  11. Super-resolution biomolecular crystallography with low-resolution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Gunnar F; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T

    2010-04-22

    X-ray diffraction plays a pivotal role in the understanding of biological systems by revealing atomic structures of proteins, nucleic acids and their complexes, with much recent interest in very large assemblies like the ribosome. As crystals of such large assemblies often diffract weakly (resolution worse than 4 A), we need methods that work at such low resolution. In macromolecular assemblies, some of the components may be known at high resolution, whereas others are unknown: current refinement methods fail as they require a high-resolution starting structure for the entire complex. Determining the structure of such complexes, which are often of key biological importance, should be possible in principle as the number of independent diffraction intensities at a resolution better than 5 A generally exceeds the number of degrees of freedom. Here we introduce a method that adds specific information from known homologous structures but allows global and local deformations of these homology models. Our approach uses the observation that local protein structure tends to be conserved as sequence and function evolve. Cross-validation with R(free) (the free R-factor) determines the optimum deformation and influence of the homology model. For test cases at 3.5-5 A resolution with known structures at high resolution, our method gives significant improvements over conventional refinement in the model as monitored by coordinate accuracy, the definition of secondary structure and the quality of electron density maps. For re-refinements of a representative set of 19 low-resolution crystal structures from the Protein Data Bank, we find similar improvements. Thus, a structure derived from low-resolution diffraction data can have quality similar to a high-resolution structure. Our method is applicable to the study of weakly diffracting crystals using X-ray micro-diffraction as well as data from new X-ray light sources. Use of homology information is not restricted to X

  12. Medium-resolution échelle spectroscopy of the Red Square Nebula, MWC 922

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehres, N.; Ochsendorf, B. B.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Cox, N. L. J.; Kaper, L.; Bally, J.; Snow, T. P.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Medium-resolution échelle spectra of the Red Square Nebula surrounding the star MWC 922 are presented. The spectra have been obtained in 2010 and 2012 using the X-shooter spectrograph mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Paranal, Chile. The spectrum covers a wavelength range between 300 nm-2.5 μm and shows that the nebula is rich in emission lines. Aims: We aim to identify the emission lines and use them as a tool to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the nebula. The emission lines are also used to put constraints on the structure of the nebula and on the nature of the central stars. Methods: We analyzed and identified emission lines that indicated that the Red Square Nebula consists of a low density bipolar outflow, eminent in the broad emission component seen in [Fe II], as well as in P Cygni line profiles indicative of fast outflowing material. The narrow component in the [Fe II] lines is most likely formed in the photosphere of a surrounding disk. Some of the emission lines show a pronounced double peaked profile, such as Ca II, indicating an accretion disk in Keplerian rotation around the central star. [O I] emission lines are formed in the neutral atomic zone separating the ionized disk photosphere from the molecular gas in the interior of the disk, which is prominent in molecular CO emission in the near-IR. [N II] and [S II] emission clearly originates in a low density but fairly hot (7 000-10 000 K) nebular environment. H I recombination lines trace the extended nebula as well as the photosphere of the disk. Results: These findings put constraints on the evolution of the central objects in MWC 922. The Red Square shows strong similarities to the Red Rectangle Nebula, both in morphology and in its mid-IR spectroscopic characteristics. As for the Red Rectangle, the observed morphology of the nebula reflects mass-loss in a binary system. Specifically, we attribute the biconical morphology and the associated rung

  13. Phenyl Groups Result in the Highest Benzene Storage and Most Efficient Desulfurization in a Series of Isostructural Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Wen; Yang, Guang-Sheng; Tang, Yu-Jia; Li, Shun-Li; Zhang, Shu-Ran; Su, Zhong-Min; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2015-06-26

    A series of isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (MOFs; NENU-511-NENU-514), which all have high surface areas and strong adsorption capacities, have been successfully constructed by using mixed ligands. NENU-513 has the highest benzene capacity of 1687 mg g(-1) at 298 K, which ranks as the top MOF material among those reported up to now. This NENU series has been used for adsorptive desulfurization because of its permanent porosity. The results indicate that this series has a higher adsorptive efficiency in the removal of organosulfur compounds than other MOF materials, especially NENU-511, which has the highest adsorptive efficiency in the ambient atmosphere. This study proves that the design and synthesis of targeted MOFs with higher surface areas and with functional groups present is an efficient method to enhance benzene-storage capacity and the adsorption of organosulfur compounds. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Other 2N - 2 parameters solutions of the NLS equation and 2N + 1 highest amplitude of the modulus of the N th order AP breather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we construct new deformations of the Akhmediev-Peregrine (AP) breather of order N (or APN breather) with 2N-2 real parameters. Other families of quasirational solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation are obtained. We evaluate the highest amplitude of the modulus of the AP breather of order N; we give the proof that the highest amplitude of the APN breather is equal to 2N+1. We get new formulas for the solutions of the NLS equation, which are different from these already given in previous works. New solutions for the order 8 and their deformations according to the parameters are explicitly given. We simultaneously get triangular configurations and isolated rings. Moreover, the appearance for certain values of the parameters and of new configurations of concentric rings are underscored.

  15. Influence of the highest occupied molecular orbital energy level of the donor material on the effectiveness of the anode buffer layer in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernede, J.C.; Leriche, P.; Roncali, J. [UNAM, Moltech Anjou, CNRS, UMR 6200, Groupe Systemes Conjugues Lineaires, Angers (France); Cattin, L. [UNAM, Institut Jean Rouxel (IMN), UMR 6502, Nantes (France); Djobo, S. Ouro; Morsli, M. [Universite de Nantes, LAMP, EA 3825, Faculte des Sciences et des Techniques, Nantes (France); Kanth, S.R.B.; Patil, S. [Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (India); Godoy, A. [University San Sebastian, Prog. Bachiller, Cs. Biolog. Qcas, Bellavista (Chile); Diaz, F.R.; Del Valle, M.A. [University Catolica Chile, Fac. Quimica, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-08-15

    Efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells based on organic electron donor/organic electron acceptor junctions can be strongly improved when the transparent conductive Anode is coated with a Buffer Layer (ABL). Here, the effects of a metal (gold) or oxide (molybdenum oxide) ABL are reported, as a function of the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) of different electron donors. The results indicate that a good matching between the work function of the anode and the highest occupied molecular orbital of the donor material is the major factor limiting the hole transfer efficiency. Indeed, gold is efficient as ABL only when the HOMO of the organic donor is close to its work function {phi}{sub Au}. Therefore we show that the MoO{sub 3} oxide has a wider field of application as ABL than gold. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis.Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language.By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change.The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  17. Supported rhodium catalysts for ammonia-borane hydrolysis. Dependence of the catalytic activity on the highest occupied state of the single rhodium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Xiao; Qiu, Jianxiang; Li, Aowen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zeng, Jie [Hefei National Lab. for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Lab. of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui(China); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Hu, Zhenpeng [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Si, Rui [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-04-18

    Supported metal nanocrystals have exhibited remarkable catalytic performance in hydrogen generation reactions, which is influenced and even determined by their supports. Accordingly, it is of fundamental importance to determine the direct relationship between catalytic performance and metal-support interactions. Herein, we provide a quantitative profile for exploring metal-support interactions by considering the highest occupied state in single-atom catalysts. The catalyst studied consisted of isolated Rh atoms dispersed on the surface of VO{sub 2} nanorods. It was observed that the activation energy of ammonia-borane hydrolysis changed when the substrate underwent a phase transition. Mechanistic studies indicate that the catalytic performance depended directly on the highest occupied state of the single Rh atoms, which was determined by the band structure of the substrates. Other metal catalysts, even with non-noble metals, that exhibited significant catalytic activity towards NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} hydrolysis were rationally designed by adjusting their highest occupied states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. War Powers Resolution: Presidential Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2009-01-01

    .... One issue concerns the division of war powers between the President and Congress, whether the use of armed forces falls within the purview of the congressional power to declare war and the War Powers Resolution (WPR...

  19. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  20. High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0341 TITLE: High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen J. Riederer, Ph.D...Resolution Prostate MRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0341 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen J. Riederer E-Mail...overall purpose of this project is to develop improved means using MRI for detecting prostate cancer with the potential for differentiating disease

  1. High-resolution neutron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikerov, V.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhitnik, I.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ignat`ev, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Isakov, A.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korneev, V.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Krutov, V.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzin, S.V. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oparin, S.N. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pertsov, A.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podolyak, E.R. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sobel`man, I.I. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tindo, I.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tukarev, B.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., RAN, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A neutron tomography technique with a coordinate resolution of several tens of micrometers has been developed. Our results indicate that the technique resolves details with dimensions less than 100 {mu}m and measures a linear attenuation of less than {approx} 0.1 cm{sup -1}. Tomograms can be reconstructed using incomplete data. Limits on the resolution of the restored pattern are analyzed, and ways to improve the sensitivity of the technique are discussed. (orig.).

  2. Enhanced Contention Resolution Aloha - ECRA

    OpenAIRE

    Clazzer, Federico; Kissling, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Random Access (RA) Medium Access (MAC) protocols are simple and effective when the nature of the traffic is unpredictable and random. In the following paper, a novel RA protocol called Enhanced Contention Resolution ALOHA (ECRA) is presented. This evolution, based on the previous Contention Resolution ALOHA (CRA) protocol, exploits the nature of the interference in unslotted Aloha-like channels for trying to resolve most of the partial collision that can occur there. I...

  3. Estimating uncertainty in resolution tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goncalves, DP

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available frequencies yields a biased estimate, and we provide an improved estimator. An application illustrates how the results derived can be incorporated into a larger un- certainty analysis. ? 2006 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. H20851DOI: 10....1117/1.2202914H20852 Subject terms: resolution testing; USAF 1951 test target; resolution uncertainity. Paper 050404R received May 20, 2005; revised manuscript received Sep. 2, 2005; accepted for publication Sep. 9, 2005; published online May 10, 2006. 1...

  4. Frequency resolution and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R S; Wood, E J; Fernandes, M

    1982-02-01

    Future scientific and diagnostic interest in frequency resolution requires an evaluation of the different methods that are available to measure it. We compared three methods: (1) pure-tone thresholds in broadband noise, (2) pure-tone thresholds in the presence of a fixed pure-tone masker and (3) psychoacoustical tuning curves. We additionally obtained estimates of temporal integration and of speech intelligibility in noise. Three subject groups were tested: 10 normals, 13 subjects with a noise-induced hearing loss and 18 subjects with a cochlear hearing loss but no history of noise exposure. Generally the three measures of frequency resolution show moderate agreement with each other. Poor frequency resolution is invariably associated with a pure-tone threshold loss. Temporal integration appears unrelated either to the pure-tone threshold loss or frequency resolution. Some of the measures of frequency resolution display significant correlation with speech intelligibility in noise. However, since both variables are correlated with pure-tone threshold loss the exact relationship between frequency resolution and speech intelligibility cannot be clearly established.

  5. Single Image Super Resolution via Sparse Reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Dijk, J.; Schutte, K.

    2012-01-01

    High resolution sensors are required for recognition purposes. Low resolution sensors, however, are still widely used. Software can be used to increase the resolution of such sensors. One way of increasing the resolution of the images produced is using multi-frame super resolution algorithms.

  6. Resolution analysis of archive films for the purpose of their optimal digitization and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2017-09-01

    With recent high demand for ultra-high-definition (UHD) content to be screened in high-end digital movie theaters but also in the home environment, film archives full of movies in high-definition and above are in the scope of UHD content providers. Movies captured with the traditional film technology represent a virtually unlimited source of UHD content. The goal to maintain complete image information is also related to the choice of scanning resolution and spatial resolution for further distribution. It might seem that scanning the film material in the highest possible resolution using state-of-the-art film scanners and also its distribution in this resolution is the right choice. The information content of the digitized images is however limited, and various degradations moreover lead to its further reduction. Digital distribution of the content in the highest image resolution might be therefore unnecessary or uneconomical. In other cases, the highest possible resolution is inevitable if we want to preserve fine scene details or film grain structure for archiving purposes. This paper deals with the image detail content analysis of archive film records. The resolution limit in captured scene image and factors which lower the final resolution are discussed. Methods are proposed to determine the spatial details of the film picture based on the analysis of its digitized image data. These procedures allow determining recommendations for optimal distribution of digitized video content intended for various display devices with lower resolutions. Obtained results are illustrated on spatial downsampling use case scenario, and performance evaluation of the proposed techniques is presented.

  7. Comparison of switch to the highest dose of rosuvastatin vs. add-on nicotinic acid vs. add-on fenofibrate for mixed dyslipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kei, A; Liberopoulos, E N; Mikhailidis, D P; Elisaf, M

    2013-05-01

    Use of a statin at a standard dose may be insufficient for the treatment of mixed dyslipidaemia. Whether switch to the highest dose of rosuvastatin (40 mg) or add-on nicotinic acid (NA) or fenofibrate is more efficacious remains unknown. This was a prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) study. We recruited 100 patients with mixed dyslipidaemia who were treated with a statin at a standard dose but had not achieved lipid targets. Patients were randomised to switch to the highest approved dose of rosuvastatin (40 mg), add-on extended release nicotinic acid (ER-NA)/l-aropiprant (LRPT) or to add-on micronised fenofibrate for 3 months. The primary end-point was the change in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels. Ninety patients completed the study. Non-HDL-C decreased in all groups (by 23, 24 and 7% in the rosuvastatin, ER-NA/LRPT and fenofibrate group, respectively, p add-on fenofibrate group. Add-on ER-NA/LRPT was associated with the greatest HDL-C increase, while add-on ER-NA/LRPT and add-on fenofibrate were associated with the greatest triglyceride decrease. Twenty-four per cent of patients initially randomised to add-on ER-NA/LRPT dropped out because of side effects. In conclusion, switch to the highest dose of rosuvastatin and add-on ER-NA/LRPT may be better options compared with add-on fenofibrate for the management of patients with mixed dyslipidaemia not on treatment goals with a statin at a standard dose. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. A Hybrid Model Approach for Achieving the Highest Level of Matching Between the “Print and Original” in the Sheet-Fed Offset Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrakumar Anayath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to explore an optimized hybrid system through dual measurement approach of contrast measurement method and CIE L*a*b* measurement method to arrive a logical interface for achieving the highest matching between the print and original in sheet fed offset printing process. The work was started with the detailed study of contrast measurement, CIE L*a*b* measurement method, visual and computational intelligence based assessment and control. The master was designed in such a way that value of density and other values can be measured easily in effective way. X-Rite eXact instrument is used for capturing the readings, the 10 standard observers were selected initially by manual method and finally by using on line Fransworth-Munsell 100 Hue Colour Vision Test and visual assessments and judgement were done on X-Rite’s Macbeth Lighting Booth and their visual assessments are recorded, analyzed and represented. All the parameters like Paper, Ink, Measuring Conditions and Measuring Instruments etc. were maintained in compliance with ISO specifications. After the analysis of data, the study reached to the following main conclusion i.e. It is observed that almost in all the cases, preference of the Standard Observers are for Delta E Value leading to the higher contrast value instead of Minimum Delta E with less contrast value. Therefore the dual approach of “Hybrid System” will help us to arrive at the most convincing, measurable and perceptually acceptable print result which will be the highest (closest match to the original by clubbing the best of “CIE Lab, Contrast Method and Standard Observers Visual Perception” as there are positives and negatives in all these three when one approaches individually. The objective of this paper was to develop a dual measurement approach of CIE Lab & Contrast to arrive at a logical inference for the highest level of matching between the original and print in the sheet fed offset printing.

  9. Adult Cigarette Smokers at Highest Risk for Concurrent Alternative Tobacco Product Use Among a Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Lei, Yang; Yu, Qing; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-04-01

    Rates of alternative tobacco product use (ATPs; eg, cigars, cigarillos, pipes) among cigarette smokers are on the rise but little is known about the subgroups at highest risk. This study explored interactions between demographic, tobacco, and psychosocial factors to identify cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use from a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of adult smokers across the full smoking spectrum (nondaily, daily light, daily heavy). Two-thousand three-hundred seventy-six adult cigarette smokers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Quotas ensured equal recruitment of African American (AA), white (W), Hispanic/Latino (H) as well as daily and nondaily smokers. Classification and Regression Tree modeling was used to identify subgroups of cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use. 51.3% were Cig+ATP smokers. Alcohol for men and age, race/ethnicity, and discrimination for women increased the probability of ATP use. Strikingly, 73.5% of men screening positive for moderate to heavy drinking and 62.2% of younger (≤45 years) African American/Hispanic/Latino women who experienced regular discrimination were Cig+ATP smokers. Screening for concurrent ATP use is necessary for the continued success of tobacco cessation efforts especially among male alcohol users and racial/ethnic minority women who are at greatest risk for ATP use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Multicontrast MR imaging at 7T in multiple sclerosis: highest lesion detection in cortical gray matter with 3D-FLAIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilsdonk, I D; de Graaf, W L; Soriano, A Lopez; Zwanenburg, J J; Visser, F; Kuijer, J P A; Geurts, J J G; Pouwels, P J W; Polman, C H; Castelijns, J A; Luijten, P R; Barkhof, F; Wattjes, M P

    2013-04-01

    7T MR imaging has led to improved detection and classification of cortical MS lesions, mainly based on T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequences. Depiction of cortical GM by using the recommended MS imaging protocol has not yet been investigated at 7T. We aimed to investigate prospectively which recommended sequence for clinical use has the highest value at 7T, in terms of GM and WM lesion detection. Thirty-seven patients with MS (mean age, 43.8 years; 25 women) and 7 healthy controls (mean age, 40.4 years; 5 women) underwent multicontrast 7T MR imaging including the recommended clinical 2D-T2WI, 3D-T1WI, 3D-FLAIR, and GM-specific 3D-DIR. Lesions were scored and categorized anatomically by 3 raters, in consensus. The value of sequences was evaluated lesion-wise and patient-wise (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). At 7T, 3D-FLAIR detected the highest number of total cortical GM lesions (217), 89% more than 3D-DIR and 87% and 224% more than 2D-T2WI and 3D-T1WI. Patient-wise analysis showed that this difference between 3D-FLAIR and 3D-DIR was statistically significant (P3D-FLAIR also detected the highest number of total WM lesions (2605), but the difference with 3D-DIR and 3D-T1WI was not significant. When using recommended clinical sequences at 7T, the best way to detect cortical GM lesions is with 3D-FLAIR and not by GM-specific 3D-DIR or by conventional 2D-T2WI and 3D-T1WI sequences.

  11. The first cytogenetic description of Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 from Northern Sardinia reveals the highest diploid chromosome number among sphaerodactylid geckos (Sphaerodactylidae, Squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gornung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a sphaerodactylid gecko Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 was assembled for the first time in this species. It is made of 2n = 42 gradually decreasing in size chromosomes, the highest chromosome number so far acknowledged in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The second chromosome pair of the karyotype appears slightly heteromorphic in the male individual. Accordingly, FISH with a telomeric probe revealed an uneven distribution of telomeric repeats on the two homologues of this pair, which may be indicative of an XY sex-determination system in the species, to be further investigated.

  12. Time resolution of resistive plate chambers investigated with 10 MeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paradela, C., E-mail: carlos.paradela@usc.es [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Casarejos, E. [Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain); Duran, I. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    The time resolution of double-gap timing resistive plate chambers (tRPC) has been measured with 10 MeV electron bunches of variable intensity. The use of electrons delivered in bunches of a few picoseconds was an attempt to mimic the energy deposition of heavy ions in the tRPC gas gap. The measurements show a clear dependence of the time resolution with the number of electrons per bunch, reaching 21 ps (standard deviation) for the highest beam intensity. The signal charge distribution and the time resolution are compared to data obtained with the same detectors for cosmic rays and {sup 238}U ions at 1 AGeV.

  13. Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Section on High Resolution Optical Imaging (HROI) develops novel technologies for studying biological processes at unprecedented speed and resolution. Research...

  14. On the Derivation of Highest-Order Compact Finite Difference Schemes for the One- and Two-Dimensional Poisson Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Settle, Sean O.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to answer the question, What are the highest-order five- or nine-point compact finite difference schemes? To answer this question, we present several simple derivations of finite difference schemes for the one- and two-dimensional Poisson equation on uniform, quasi-uniform, and nonuniform face-to-face hyperrectangular grids and directly prove the existence or nonexistence of their highest-order local accuracies. Our derivations are unique in that we do not make any initial assumptions on stencil symmetries or weights. For the one-dimensional problem, the derivation using the three-point stencil on both uniform and nonuniform grids yields a scheme with arbitrarily high-order local accuracy. However, for the two-dimensional problem, the derivation using the corresponding five-point stencil on uniform and quasi-uniform grids yields a scheme with at most second-order local accuracy, and on nonuniform grids yields at most first-order local accuracy. When expanding the five-point stencil to the nine-point stencil, the derivation using the nine-point stencil on uniform grids yields at most sixth-order local accuracy, but on quasi- and nonuniform grids yields at most fourth- and third-order local accuracy, respectively. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  15. Predictors of in vitro fertilization outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone levels ≥ 12 IU/L: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina N Huang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors predictive of outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels ≥ 12 IU/L on basal testing, undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF.A prospective cohort study was conducted at Stanford University Hospital in the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Center for 12 months. Women age 21 to 43 undergoing IVF with highest FSH levels on baseline testing were included. Donor/Recipient and frozen embryo cycles were excluded from this study. Prognostic factors evaluated in association with clinical pregnancy rates were type of infertility diagnosis and IVF stimulation parameters.The current study found that factors associated with clinical pregnancy were: increased number of mature follicles on the day of triggering, number of oocytes retrieved, number of Metaphase II oocytes if intracytoplasmic sperm injection was done, and number of embryos developed 24 hours after retrieval.Our findings suggest that it would be beneficial for women with increased FSH levels to attempt a cycle of IVF. Results of ovarian stimulation, especially embryo quantity appear to be the best predictors of IVF outcomes and those can only be obtained from a cycle of IVF. Therefore, increased basal FSH levels should not discourage women from attempting a cycle of IVF.

  16. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  17. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  18. Influence of the meteorological spatial resolution on Radon-222 backward modelling with FLEXPART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.; Vargas, A.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main important origins of uncertainties in atmospheric transport modelling comes from the meteorological input fields. Currently, operational analysis from the ECMWF, one of the reference sources of meteorological inputs used for modelling, are provided with horizontal spatial resolutions from 2 degrees down to 0.2 degrees, and also with different vertical and temporal resolutions. In this work it has been studied how the increase in spatial resolution of the ECMWF fields would affect the dispersion calculations of Radon-222. Backward modelling has been done with the widely used Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPARTv6.2.Simulated radon concentration time series were compared with measurements at a station located in the outskirts of Barcelona (Spain). Results show relevant differences and better agreement is achieved when using the highest resolution fields. This study shows that if good model performance is desired, it is advisable to use ECMWF with 0.2 deg resolution despite the increase in computational dema

  19. X-ray optics high-energy-resolution applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shvyd’ko, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    The generation of radiation with well-defined frequency and wavelength, and the ability to precisely determine these quantities, are of fundamental importance in physics and other natural sciences Monochromatic radiation enables both very accurate structure determinations and studies of the dynamics of living and non-living matter It is crucial for the realization of standards of time and length, for the determination of fundamental constants, and for many other aspects of basic research Bragg backscattering from perfect crystals is a tool for creating, manipulating, and analyzing x-rays with highest spectral purity It has the unique feature of selecting x-rays with narrow spectral bandwidth This book describes the theoretical foundations and principles of x-ray crystal optics with high spectral resolution Various experimental studies and applications are presented and the author also addresses the development of instrumentation, such as high-resolution x-ray monochromators, analyzers, wavelength meters, reso...

  20. RESOLUTION

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    Research without a budget = Europe without a future !   Noting that the CERN Management has submitted to the Member States for the Finance Committee meeting on 25th August 2010 a budget for 2011 and a medium-term plan (MTP) for the period 2012-2015; Deploring the fact that, on the Member States’ request, this plan proposes a reduction of resources of 478 million Swiss francs over the period 2011–2015, compared to the initial proposal by the Management, which corresponded even then to the minimum needed to exploit the machines and experiments; Recalling that, following a decision by Council in 1996, CERN has suffered an annual budget cut of 100 million Swiss francs; Considering that this approach equates to an abandonment by the Member States of the European Union of a policy agreed upon in Barcelona in 2003 to invest 3% of their GDP in R&D by 2010, and today they can barely manage 1.85%; Considering that these budget cuts imposed on CERN compromise not on...

  1. The calculation of the highest leak level of water pipe lines region at PDAM Tirta Kahuripan using fuzzy C-means and ArcGIS method analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwatiningtyas, D.; Ambarsari, E. W.; Mariko, S.

    2017-07-01

    Water is a basic necessity for human's life. Water, which is distributed to the public, should in decent condition, healthy, and protected from metal pollutants. In Indonesia, it is handled by a government institution, commonly is PDAM (Indonesian regional water utility company). A PDAM Tirta Kahuripan handles water distribution in Bogor area and part of Depok cities. Based on data, PDAM Tirta Kahuripan had approximately more than 46 % water loss, due to geological factor, human activity, etc. Therefore in this paper, we try to make a decision system of water loss at PDAM pipelines, using cluster Fuzzy C - Means method analysis. Then, mapped into ArcGIS software. Based on this method, we can be determine the region which shows the most water loss and also identify the highest leaks level from water pipelines at PDAM Tirta Kahuripan.

  2. The Largest Paracentric Inversion, The Highest Rate Of Recombinant Spermatozoa. Case Report: 46,Xy, Inv(2(Q21.2Q37.3 And Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Yapan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of inversions involving euchromatic regions are at risk of having unbalanced offspring due to meiotic crossover. In carriers, recombination can occur during gametogenesis and cause genetically unbalanced sperm and subsequently unbalanced embryos. Here we present segregation analysis results of an infertile male with 46,XY,inv(2 (q21.2q37.3 using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH on sperm cells. This is the largest paracentric inversion (PAI reported so far in a meiotic segregation analysis study. Sperm FISH revealed 28.0% recombinant spermatozoa rate for chromosome 2, which was the highest rate in PAI carriers in the literature. Our results indicate a clear correlation between the size of the inverted segment and the frequency of the recombinant spermatozoa. The results of the FISH analysis with the information of unbalanced spermatozoa rate can provide accurate counseling on the genetic risk of infertility.

  3. High-Resolution Structure of Viruses from Random Snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution to at best 1/30th of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to 1/100th of the object diameter, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic resolution. Combined with the previously demonstrated capability to operate at ultralow signal, our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and...

  4. Parallel high-performance grid computing: capabilities and opportunities of a novel demanding service and business class allowing highest resource efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepper, Nick; Ettig, Ramona; Dickmann, Frank; Stehr, Rene; Grosveld, Frank G; Wedemann, Gero; Knoch, Tobias A

    2010-01-01

    Especially in the life-science and the health-care sectors the huge IT requirements are imminent due to the large and complex systems to be analysed and simulated. Grid infrastructures play here a rapidly increasing role for research, diagnostics, and treatment, since they provide the necessary large-scale resources efficiently. Whereas grids were first used for huge number crunching of trivially parallelizable problems, increasingly parallel high-performance computing is required. Here, we show for the prime example of molecular dynamic simulations how the presence of large grid clusters including very fast network interconnects within grid infrastructures allows now parallel high-performance grid computing efficiently and thus combines the benefits of dedicated super-computing centres and grid infrastructures. The demands for this service class are the highest since the user group has very heterogeneous requirements: i) two to many thousands of CPUs, ii) different memory architectures, iii) huge storage capabilities, and iv) fast communication via network interconnects, are all needed in different combinations and must be considered in a highly dedicated manner to reach highest performance efficiency. Beyond, advanced and dedicated i) interaction with users, ii) the management of jobs, iii) accounting, and iv) billing, not only combines classic with parallel high-performance grid usage, but more importantly is also able to increase the efficiency of IT resource providers. Consequently, the mere "yes-we-can" becomes a huge opportunity like e.g. the life-science and health-care sectors as well as grid infrastructures by reaching higher level of resource efficiency.

  5. Quantitative Doppler in musculoskeletal ultrasonography - suboptimal performance of both experienced and in-training sonographers in selection of the highest Doppler signal image from cine-loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghea, Florian; Vlad, Violeta; Palanciuc, Lavinia; Micu, Mihaela; Bojinca, Violeta; Vreju, Florentin; Enache, Luminita; Copotoiu, Monica; Kosevoi, Alexandra; Serban, Teodora; Stanciu, Denisa; Abobului, Mihai; Borangiu, Andreea; Berghea, Camelia Elena; Balanescu, Andra Rodica; Ionescu, Ruxandra

    2017-05-10

    Doppler ultrasonography assessment is mandatory nowadays for the complete description of rheumatic disease activity. Initially it was performed in semi quantitative way but recently the (fully) quantitative assessment is gaining more interest. In quantitative assessment, the ratio between total colorized and total pixels (CTR) is computed for the whole image or just for the region of interest (ROI). The frame with the highest amount of Doppler signal (also called worst case scenario image - WCSI) is usually the only one analyzed. The technique requires a very precise identification of WCSI from a certain number of consecutive frames, captured from the same position of the US probe, (and in most cases this is done manually). Our study examined the ability of both experienced and in-training sonographers to identify WCSI using a computerized analytical system as the gold standard. The study analyzed 480 frame selections done in two distinct exercises. The WCSI and other 3 images with a 5%, 10% and respectively 20% lower level of CTR compared with WCSI were packed in one selection. All frames emerging from the same video clip were randomly presented to six experienced and six in training sonographers; the request was to select the frame with the highest CTR (WCSI) from each package (twenty packages in total). A similar exercise was performed with CTRs decreasing in steps of 2%. In the first exercise the WCSI was correctly identified in 79.1% cases and in 67% of cases in the 2nd exercise. The interobserver agreement between experienced and in-trainer evaluators for the 1st exercise was 0.78 and 0.4 in the 2nd exercise. Using computerized analysis as the gold standard, we demonstrated a large heterogeneity across sonographers regarding their ability to identify the best Doppler image even from a small group of frames.

  6. Age of the Mt. Ortles ice cores, the Tyrolean Iceman and glaciation of the highest summit of South Tyrol since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo; Bertagna, Giuliano; Bertó, Michele; Binder, Daniel; Carton, Alberto; Carturan, Luca; Cazorzi, Federico; Cozzi, Giulio; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Davis, Mary; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Dinale, Roberto; Dragà, Gianfranco; Dreossi, Giuliano; Festi, Daniela; Frezzotti, Massimo; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Galos, Stephan P.; Ginot, Patrick; Heidenwolf, Petra; Jenk, Theo M.; Kehrwald, Natalie; Kenny, Donald; Magand, Olivier; Mair, Volkmar; Mikhalenko, Vladimir; Lin, Ping Nan; Oeggl, Klaus; Piffer, Gianni; Rinaldi, Mirko; Schotterer, Ulrich; Schwikowski, Margit; Seppi, Roberto; Spolaor, Andrea; Stenni, Barbara; Tonidandel, David; Uglietti, Chiara; Zagorodnov, Victor; Zanoner, Thomas; Zennaro, Piero

    2016-11-01

    In 2011 four ice cores were extracted from the summit of Alto dell'Ortles (3859 m), the highest glacier of South Tyrol in the Italian Alps. This drilling site is located only 37 km southwest from where the Tyrolean Iceman, ˜ 5.3 kyrs old, was discovered emerging from the ablating ice field of Tisenjoch (3210 m, near the Italian-Austrian border) in 1991. The excellent preservation of this mummy suggested that the Tyrolean Iceman was continuously embedded in prehistoric ice and that additional ancient ice was likely preserved elsewhere in South Tyrol. Dating of the ice cores from Alto dell'Ortles based on 210Pb, tritium, beta activity and 14C determinations, combined with an empirical model (COPRA), provides evidence for a chronologically ordered ice stratigraphy from the modern glacier surface down to the bottom ice layers with an age of ˜ 7 kyrs, which confirms the hypothesis. Our results indicate that the drilling site has continuously been glaciated on frozen bedrock since ˜ 7 kyrs BP. Absence of older ice on the highest glacier of South Tyrol is consistent with the removal of basal ice from bedrock during the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum (6-9 kyrs BP), the warmest interval in the European Alps during the Holocene. Borehole inclinometric measurements of the current glacier flow combined with surface ground penetration radar (GPR) measurements indicate that, due to the sustained atmospheric warming since the 1980s, an acceleration of the glacier Alto dell'Ortles flow has just recently begun. Given the stratigraphic-chronological continuity of the Mt. Ortles cores over millennia, it can be argued that this behaviour has been unprecedented at this location since the Northern Hemisphere Climatic Optimum.

  7. Entity resolution for uncertain data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayat, N.; Akbarinia, R.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Valduriez, P.

    2012-01-01

    Entity resolution (ER), also known as duplicate detection or record matching, is the problem of identifying the tuples that represent the same real world entity. In this paper, we address the problem of ER for uncertain data, which we call ERUD. We propose two different approaches for the ERUD

  8. African Journal on Conflict Resolution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the field of dealing with conflict. The African Journal on Conflict Resolution (AJCR) publishes the writings of a wide range of African and international authors in the field, but emphasis has deliberately been kept on African writers and ...

  9. Limits to Drift Chamber Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS (A Large Toroidal LHC Apparatus) will be a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider that will be operational at CERN in the year 2004. The ATLAS muon spectrometer aims for a momentum resolution of 10% for a transverse momentum of pT=1TeV. The precision tracking devices in the muon system will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs) with a single wire resolution of 1100 chambers covering an area of ≈ 2500m2. The high counting rates in the spectrometer as well as the aim for excellent spatial resolution and high efficiency put severe constraints on the MDT operating parameters. This work describes a detailed study of all the resolution limiting factors in the ATLAS environment. A ’full chain’ simulation of the MDT response to photons and charged particles as well as quantitative comparisons with measurements was performed. The good agreement between simulation and measurements resulted in a profound understanding of the drift chamber processes and the individual contributions to the spat...

  10. Ambiguity Resolution in Lateralized Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayadre, Manar; Kurzon, Dennis; Peleg, Orna; Zohar, Eviatar

    2015-01-01

    We examined ambiguity resolution in reading in Arabic. Arabic is an abjad orthography and is morphologically similar to Hebrew. However, Arabic literacy occurs in a diglossic context, and its orthography is more visually complex than Hebrew. We therefore tested to see whether hemispheric differences will be similar or different from previous…

  11. Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A. [Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-4206 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a 3D x-ray imaging modality in which tomographic sections of the breast are generated from a limited range of tube angles. Because oblique x-ray incidence shifts the image of an object in subpixel detector element increments with each increasing projection angle, it is demonstrated that DBT is capable of super-resolution (i.e., subpixel resolution). Methods: By convention, DBT reconstructions are performed on planes parallel to the breast support at various depths of the breast volume. In order for resolution in each reconstructed slice to be comparable to the detector, the pixel size should match that of the detector elements; hence, the highest frequency that can be resolved in the plane of reconstruction is the alias frequency of the detector. This study considers reconstruction grids with much smaller pixelation to visualize higher frequencies. For analytical proof of super-resolution, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a high frequency sinusoidal input is calculated using both simple backprojection (SBP) and filtered backprojection. To study the frequency spectrum of the reconstruction, its Fourier transform is also determined. The experimental feasibility of super-resolution was investigated by acquiring images of a bar pattern phantom with frequencies higher than the detector alias frequency. Results: Using analytical modeling, it is shown that the central projection cannot resolve frequencies exceeding the detector alias frequency. The Fourier transform of the central projection is maximized at a lower frequency than the input as evidence of aliasing. By contrast, SBP reconstruction can resolve the input, and its Fourier transform is correctly maximized at the input frequency. Incorporating filters into the reconstruction smoothens pixelation artifacts in the spatial domain and reduces spectral leakage in the Fourier domain. It is also demonstrated that the existence of super-resolution

  12. Debris Disk Structure and Morphology as Revealed by Aggressive STIS Multi-Roll Coronagraphy: A New Look at Some Old Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Carol A; Kuchner, Marc; Woodgate, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    We present new imaging results from a well-selected sample of II circumstellar debris disks, all with HST pedigree, using STIS visible-light 6-roll PSF-template subtracted coronagraphy (PSFTSC). These new observations, pushing HST to its highest levels of coronagraphic performance, simultaneously probe both the interior regions of these debris systems, with inner working distances morphologies strongly suggestive of ISM wind interactions), HD 181327 & HDI07146 (close to face-on with respectively narrow and broad debris rings), and MP Mus (a "mature" proto-planetary disk hosted by a cTTS). All of our objects were previously observed in the near-IR with inferior spatial resolution and imaging efficacy, but with NICMOS r = 0.3" inner working angle (IWA) comparable to STIS multi-roll coronagraphy. The combination of new optical and existing near-IR imaging can strongly constrain the dust properties, thus enabling an assessment of grain processing and planetesimal populations. These results will directly inform upon the posited planet formation mechanisms that occur after the approximately 10 My epoch of gas depletion, a time in our solar system when giant planets were migrating and terrestrial planets were forming, and directly test theoretical models of these processes. These observations lmiquely probe both into the interior regions of these systems and are sensitive to and spatially resolve low surface-brightness (SB) material at large stellocentric distances with spatial resolution comparable to ACS and with augmenting NICMOS near-IR disk photometry in hand.

  13. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  14. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  15. High-Resolution Data for a Low-Resolution World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Brendan Williams [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-10

    In the past 15 years, the upper section of Cañon de Valle has been severely altered by wildfires and subsequent runoff events. Loss of root structures on high-angle slopes results in debris flow and sediment accumulation in the narrow canyon bottom. The original intent of the study described here was to better understand the changes occurring in watershed soil elevations over the course of several post-fire years. An elevation dataset from 5 years post-Cerro Grande fire was compared to high-resolution LiDAR data from 14 years post-Cerro Grande fire (also 3 years post-Las Conchas fire). The following analysis was motivated by a problematic comparison of these datasets of unlike resolution, and therefore focuses on what the data reveals of itself. The objective of this study is to highlight the effects vegetation can have on remote sensing data that intends to read ground surface elevation.

  16. Trends in AIDS Deaths, New Infections and ART Coverage in the Top 30 Countries with the Highest AIDS Mortality Burden; 1990–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Hersh, Bradley; Williams, Brian; Montaner, Julio; Young, Benjamin; Zuniga, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, mortality and transmission. We assess the impact of expanded HIV treatment for the prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and simulate four treatment scenarios for Nigeria and South Africa. Methods For 1990–2013, we used the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) database to examine trends in AIDS deaths, HIV incidence and prevalence, ART coverage, annual AIDS death rate, AIDS death-to-treatment and HIV infections to treatment ratios for the top 30 countries with the highest AIDS mortality burden and compare them with data from high-income countries. We projected the 1990–2020 AIDS deaths for Nigeria and South Africa using four treatment scenarios: 1) no ART; 2) maintaining current ART coverage; 3) 90% ART coverage based on 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines by 2020; and 4) reaching the United Nations 90-90-90 Target by 2020. Findings In 2013, there were 1.3 million (1.1 million–1.6 million) AIDS deaths in the top 30 countries representing 87% of global AIDS deaths. Eight countries accounted for 58% of the global AIDS deaths; Nigeria and South Africa accounted for 27% of global AIDS deaths. The highest death rates per 1000 people living with HIV were in Central African Republic (91), South Sudan (82), Côte d’Ivoire (75), Cameroon (72) and Chad (71), nearly 8–10 times higher than the high-income countries. ART access in 2013 has averted as estimated 1,051,354 and 422,448 deaths in South Africa and Nigeria, respectively. Increasing ART coverage in these two countries to meet the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 could avert 2.2 and 1.2 million deaths, respectively. Interpretation Over the past decade the expansion of access to ART averted millions of deaths. Reaching the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 will prevent additional morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Despite progress

  17. Trends in AIDS Deaths, New Infections and ART Coverage in the Top 30 Countries with the Highest AIDS Mortality Burden; 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Hersh, Bradley; Williams, Brian; Montaner, Julio; Young, Benjamin; Zuniga, José M

    2015-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, mortality and transmission. We assess the impact of expanded HIV treatment for the prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and simulate four treatment scenarios for Nigeria and South Africa. For 1990-2013, we used the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) database to examine trends in AIDS deaths, HIV incidence and prevalence, ART coverage, annual AIDS death rate, AIDS death-to-treatment and HIV infections to treatment ratios for the top 30 countries with the highest AIDS mortality burden and compare them with data from high-income countries. We projected the 1990-2020 AIDS deaths for Nigeria and South Africa using four treatment scenarios: 1) no ART; 2) maintaining current ART coverage; 3) 90% ART coverage based on 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines by 2020; and 4) reaching the United Nations 90-90-90 Target by 2020. In 2013, there were 1.3 million (1.1 million-1.6 million) AIDS deaths in the top 30 countries representing 87% of global AIDS deaths. Eight countries accounted for 58% of the global AIDS deaths; Nigeria and South Africa accounted for 27% of global AIDS deaths. The highest death rates per 1000 people living with HIV were in Central African Republic (91), South Sudan (82), Côte d'Ivoire (75), Cameroon (72) and Chad (71), nearly 8-10 times higher than the high-income countries. ART access in 2013 has averted as estimated 1,051,354 and 422,448 deaths in South Africa and Nigeria, respectively. Increasing ART coverage in these two countries to meet the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 could avert 2.2 and 1.2 million deaths, respectively. Over the past decade the expansion of access to ART averted millions of deaths. Reaching the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 will prevent additional morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Despite progress, high-burden countries will need to accelerate access

  18. Stratification of Highest-Risk Patients with Chronic Skin Ulcers in a Stanford Retrospective Cohort Includes Diabetes, Need for Systemic Antibiotics, and Albumin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Amir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nonsurgical skin wounds such as venous stasis and diabetic ulcers have been associated with a number of comorbid conditions; however, the strength of these associations has not been compared. We utilized the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE system to identify a cohort of 637 patients with chronic skin ulcers. Preliminary analysis ( showed that 49.7% of the patients had a poor prognosis such as amputation or a nonhealing ulcer for at least a year. Factors significantly associated ( with these outcomes included diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, peripheral neuropathy, peripheral arterial disease, and need for systemic antibiotics. Patients with poor outcomes also tended to have lower hemoglobin levels (, higher WBC levels (, and lower albumin levels (. On multivariate analysis, however, only diabetes mellitus (OR 5.87, 1.36–25.3, need for systemic antibiotics (OR 3.88, 1.06–14.2, and albumin levels (0.20 per unit, 0.07–0.60 remained significant independent predictors of poor wound-healing outcomes. These data identify patients at the highest risk for poor wound-healing and who may benefit the most from more aggressive wound care and treatment.

  19. Which luteal phase support is better for each IVF stimulation protocol to achieve the highest pregnancy rate? A superiority randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Esposito, Federica; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Angioni, Stefano; Litta, Pietro; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles generate abnormalities in luteal-phase sex steroid concentrations and this represent an important limiting factor to achieve a good pregnancy rate. Although there are evidences about the usefulness of luteal phase support (LPS) after IVF cycles, no consensus exist about the best dose and way of progesterone (PG) administration, the advantages of estradiol (E2) supplementation and which IVF protocol could benefit from one more than other LPS scheme. Aim of the study was to assess the best LPS (low-dose PG, high-dose PG, high-dose PG and E2 supplementation) to achieve the highest clinical/ongoing pregnancy rate according to stimulation protocol, E2 at ovulation induction, endometrial thickness at pick-up and women's age. We conducted a randomized trial on 360 women undergoing IVF (180 treated by long-GnRH agonist, 90 by short-GnRH agonist and 90 by short-GnRH antagonist protocol) and stimulated by recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone alone. Our data demonstrated that high-dose PG is better than low-dose to increase both clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate. E2 supplementation are mandatory in case of short-GnRH antagonist protocol and strongly suggested in all protocols when E2max 35 years, the real advantages of E2 supplementation remain debatable and require further confirmation.

  20. Docemur Docemus: Peer-Assisted Learning Improves the Knowledge Gain of Tutors in the Highest Quartile of Achievement but Not Those in the Lowest Quartile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Claire L; Conneely, John B; Zilbert, Nathan; Hennessy, Martina; Schofield, Susie; Reynolds, John V

    2015-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) is a form of collaborative learning where members of a peer group act as teachers for each other. A reciprocal PAL program was designed to investigate whether there were differential gains in knowledge acquisition among tutors compared with tutees. Bayesian statistical analysis was used to quantitatively assess the effect of tutor status on performance in a knowledge-based examination. Subgroup analysis according to student achievement and question difficulty was performed. Final year undergraduate medical students in a 5-year degree program (n = 126). The overall probability of getting a correct answer on the knowledge examination was 49.7%. For questions on topics where a student had acted as a tutor this improved to 57.3%. However, students who performed in the upper quartile had a greater percentage gain in the probability of a correct answer in topics that they had taught vs students who performed in the lowest quartile. There was demonstrable overall knowledge gain associated with acting as a tutor in a PAL program but the greatest gain occurred in students of highest academic ability. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in the highest parts of the Czech Flysch Carpathians: Evolutionary model based on kinematic analysis, electrical imaging and trenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Tábořík, Petr; Klimeš, Jan; Komárková, Veronika; Hradecký, Jan; Šťastný, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) played an important role during the Quaternary evolution of mountain ridges formed by anisotropic flysch rocks of the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC). Four DSGSD-affected ridges in the highest part of the Czech sector of the OWC have been subjected to multidisciplinary investigation involving mapping, structural and kinematic analysis, geoelectrical imaging, trenching and dating. All the studied DSGSDs are strongly predisposed by regional structural fabric given by the intersection of bedding planes, joint sets and faults. Performed research suggests high diversity of mechanisms leading to the origin of individual DSGSDs. The area of a single DSGSD can be affected by various types of movements such as sackung, lateral spreading, toppling or incipient sliding. Electrical imaging and trenching revealed that besides these mechanisms, anisotropic flysch massifs formed by thick-bedded sandstones are strongly exposed to subsurface opening of air-filled voids related to widened crevices. Such a process is driven by deep-seated creep and translational sliding of sandstone beds upon plastic claystones whose strength has been reduced to residual values of the angle of internal friction. Performed radiocarbon and OSL dating revealed that some of the studied DSGSDs originated in the Holocene period, particularly in the Atlantic and Subboreal chronozones.

  2. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  3. Effective resolution in ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesiello, Patrick; Soufflet, Yves; Capet, Xavier; Jouanno, Julien; Lemarie, Florian

    2014-05-01

    The increase of model resolution naturally leads to the representation of a wider energy spectrum. As a result, in recent years, the understanding of oceanic submesoscale dynamics has significantly improved. Also, the ubiquity of upper ocean frontal dynamics driving a direct energy cascade is now acknowledged. In the forward cascade framework, numerical and physical closures are more consistent in principle, but dissipation in submesoscale models remains dominated by numerical constraints rather than physical ones. Therefore, effective resolution can be defined by its numerical dissipation range, which is a function of the model numerical filters (assuming that dispersive numerical modes are efficiently removed). The COMODO project gathers the whole French ocean modeling community in order to assess current numerical methods and guide the development of future models. Within this framework, we present an idealized ACC-type Jet case, which provides a controllable test of a model capacity at resolving submesoscale dynamics. We compare analyses performed on simulations from two models, ROMS and NEMO, at different mesh sizes (from 20 to 1 km). Through a spectral decomposition of kinetic energy and its budget terms, we identify the characteristics of turbulent cascade, numerical dissipation, and effective resolution. It shows that numerical dissipation appears in different parts of a model, especially in spatial advection-diffusion schemes for momentum equations (KE dissipation) and tracer equations (APE dissipation) and in the time stepping algorithms.

  4. High-resolution gamma imaging; Imagerie gamma haute resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmentier, M.; Pousse, A.; Tamba, N.; Chavanelle, J.; Bakkali, A.; Kastler, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Lab. Imagerie et Ingenierie pour la Sante, Faculte de Medecine, 25 - Besancon (France)

    2004-01-01

    Gamma imaging involves two-dimensional images of the volume distribution of a radioactive tracer previously injected into the organ under functional exploration. Our Besancon laboratory developed a gamma imager with a spatial resolution three or four times higher than a classic device, which is very useful for functional explorations on small animal, as recently demonstrated by work on myocyte apoptosis and necrosis scintigraphy in the rat. We expect progress in this promising medical imaging technology to be driven by developments in scintillating crystals and position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes, and by medical demand in applications such as early detection of breast cancer. (authors)

  5. First Results of the Expedition to the Highest Lake on Earth: Studying a Martian Paleolake in Bolivia and the Survival Strategies Developed by Living Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; McKay, C. P.; Friedmann, I.; Diaz, D. Chong; Demergasso, C.; Kisse, K.; Grigorszky, I.; Friedmann, R. Ocampo; Murbach, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 16th and November 9th 2002, the first NASA Ames DDF Licancabur multidisciplinary expedition initiated the investigation of the biology and environment for life in the highest lake on Earth located at the summit of the Licancabur volcano (6017 m/20,056 ft) at the boundary of Chile and Bolivia. The low oxygen, low atmospheric pressure, high-UV radiation, average temperature, volcano-tectonic and hydrothermal environment make the site a close analog to Martian paleolakes 3.5 billion years ago. The overall goal of the project is to understand through a series of high altitude scientific expeditions what strategies life is using to defend itself against killer-level UV radiation and environmental extreme conditions at this altitude. Several other lakes are located at 4300 m at the foot of the Licancabur volcano (hereafter named laguna Blanca and Laguna Verde). They were also investigated using identical experiments and methods as for the summit lake in order to compare the results and better understand the evolution of survival strategies at transitioning elevations. The lagunas are geothermally heated and many springs provide water at various temperatures. Sources of heat are also suspected for the summit lake as its surface water temperature was measured during the successful ascent at +6 C in a -9 C ambient crater environment (with a wind chill factor of -25 C with a wind blowing almost constantly). Results of this project are expected to provide critical keys to help searching and identifying potential sites for life (extant/extinct) on Mars and developing instruments, experiments and technologies for future missions.

  6. Spinach or amaranth contains highest residue of metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin on six leaf vegetables upon open field application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Zhang, Fengzu; Deng, Kailin; Yu, Chuanshan; Liu, Shaowen; Zhao, Pengyue; Pan, Canping

    2013-03-06

    To select representative leaf vegetables which may contain the highest residue, field experiments of metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin on six crops including pakchoi, rape, crown daisy, amaranth, spinach, and lettuce were designed and conducted. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatograph and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring was used to simultaneously determine metalaxyl and fluazifop-P-butyl residue in various samples, and a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector was used to detect chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin. The limits of quantification (LOQ) of metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin were in the range of 0.001-0.01 mg kg(-1) for all samples, and the average recoveries of all pesticides ranged from 67.6 to 119.1% at spiked levels of 0.01-0.1 mg kg(-1). In supervised field trials, the half-lives of metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin were in the range of 1.11-3.79 days, 1.11-2.27 days, 1.13-5.17 days, and 1.77-6.24 days. It was also found that all pesticide residues in spinach and/or amaranth were higher than others after application. It is recommended that spinach or amaranth can be selected as a representative crop of leaf vegetables in studying systemic fungicide, insecticides, and herbicides with similarity as metalaxyl, fluazifop-P-butyl, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalothrin.

  7. Deep-seated landslides affecting monoclinal flysch morphostructure: Evaluation of LiDAR-derived topography of the highest range of the Czech Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Břežný, Michal; Pánek, Tomáš

    2017-05-01

    The recent launch of national-scale LiDAR-derived topographic data provides an opportunity for (re)evaluating the geomorphic imprint of landslides in forested mountains. A LiDAR-based inventory of deep-seated landslides (DSLs) in the highest part of Czech Outer Western Carpathians (Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts.) reveals that nearly 20% of the territory is affected by ancient DSLs. Rather than the topography itself, we show that the geological characteristics of flysch rocks control the density, scaling relationships and morphometry of DSLs. They reveal a strong tendency to clustering in areas with favourable structural conditions, such as cataclinal slopes of individual monoclinal ridges formed by thick-bedded sandstones. In comparison with high-mountain areas and regions dominated by weaker lithology (e.g., claystone-dominated flysch), sandstone-dominated monoclinal structure of the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts. features predominantly short-travelled DSLs that are arrested on slopes and thus reveal a higher slope gradient than non-landslide terrain. Finally, we propose a conceptual model for the evolution of DSLs on monoclinal flysch morphostructures, particularly where coherent sandstone caps overlie weak claystone/siltstone-dominated flysch. In these conditions, we distinguish between "low" and "high" monoclinal ridges, where the former is capped by relatively thin sandstones overlying claystone formations and sandstones predominate in the structure of the latter. We show that the density of DSLs on the cataclinal/dip slopes is similar on both types of monoclinal ridges, but that major differences exist in the evolution of anaclinal/escarpment slopes. Here, low monoclinal ridges are highly affected by DSLs, but escarpments of high monoclinal ridges are nearly devoid of any DSLs.

  8. Benefits & risks of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians – A population with the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease & diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (risk of a MACE. In addition to preventing myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and death, primary prevention with statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254

  9. Local character of the highest antiferromagnetic temperature of Ce systems in Sc-rich CeTi1 -xScxGe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereni, J. G.; Pedrazzini, P.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Chacoma, A.; Encina, S.; Gruner, T.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.

    2015-05-01

    The highest antiferromagnetic (AFM) temperature in Ce based compounds has been reported for CeScGe with TN=47 K , but its local or itinerant nature has not been deeply investigated yet. In order to shed more light into this unusually high ordering temperature we have investigated structural, magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of CeTi1 -xScxGe alloys within the range of stability of the CeScSi-type structure: 0.25 ≤x ≤1 . Along this concentration range, this strongly anisotropic system presents a complex magnetic phase diagram with a continuous modification of its magnetic behavior, from ferromagnetism for 0.25 ≤x ≤0.50 (with 7 K≤TC≤16 K ) to AFM for 0.60 ≤x ≤1 (with 19 K≤TN≤47 K ). The onset of the AFM phase is associated to a metamagnetic transition with a critical field increasing from Hcr=0 at x ≈0.55 to ≈6 T at x =1 , coincident with an increasing contribution of the first excited crystal electric field doublet. At a critical point xcr≈0.65 a second transition appears at TL≤TN . In contrast to observations in itinerant systems like CeRh2Si2 or CeRh3B2 , no evidences for significant hybridization of the 4 f electrons at large Sc contents were found. Therefore, the exceptionally large TN of CeScGe can be attributed to an increasing Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between Ce double layers as Sc content grows.

  10. Individual indicators of appropriate hypnotic level during propofol anesthesia: highest alpha power and effect-site concentrations of propofol at loss of response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hongling; Mohamed, Hassan Mamdouh Hassan; Takashina, Masaki; Mori, Takahiko; Fujino, Yuji; Hagihira, Satoshi

    2017-08-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms vary widely among individuals, this decreases the usefulness of BIS™ monitors for assessing the effects of propofol. Practically, anesthesia is only seen as too deep when evidence of burst-suppression is seen. We designed an experiment to help towards better assessment of individual anesthetic needs. First, to mark the Ce (effect-site concentration) of propofol at loss of response to calling name and gently shaking shoulders (LOR), we defined Ce-LOR. To mark the transient power increase in the alpha range (9-14 Hz), common to all patients, when propofol concentration gradually increases, we defined Ce-alpha as the highest recorded alpha power for Ce. We also defined Ce-OBS as the Ce of propofol at initial observation of burst-suppression. Then we tried to predict Ce-LOR and Ce-alpha from Ce-OBS, vice versa, and considered the significance of these parameters. We enrolled 26 female patients (age 33-65) who were undergoing scheduled mastectomy. During anesthesia, we recorded all raw EEG packets as well as EEG-derived parameters on a computer from BIS-XP™ monitor. Propofol was infused using a TCI pump. Target concentration was adjusted so that Ce of propofol was gradually increased. We obtained the following regression equation; Ce-alpha or Ce-OBS = Ce-LOR × 0.87 + 1.06 + dummy × 0.83 (for Ce-alpha dummy = 0, and for Ce-OBS = 1; adjusted r = 0.90, p < 2.2e-16) by ANCOVA. At Ce-alpha, BIS was 50.2 ± 7.7. Ce-alpha and Ce-OBS could be estimated from Ce-LOR. Based on Ce-LOR it is possible to manage the hypnotic level of individual patients.

  11. Injury recurrence is lower at the highest professional football level than at national and amateur levels: does sports medicine and sports physiotherapy deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Martin; Waldén, Markus; Ekstrand, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Previous injury is a well-documented risk factor for football injury. The time trends and patterns of recurrent injuries at different playing levels are not clear. To compare recurrent injury proportions, incidences and patterns between different football playing levels, and to study time trends in recurrent injury incidence. Time-loss injuries were collected from injury surveillance of 43 top-level European professional teams (240 team-seasons), 19 Swedish premier division teams (82 team-seasons) and 10 Swedish amateur teams (10 team-seasons). Recurrent injury was defined as an injury of the same type and at the same site as an index injury within the preceding year, with injury 2 months as a delayed recurrence. Seasonal trend for recurrent injury incidence, expressed as the average annual percentage of change, was analysed using linear regression. 13 050 injuries were included, 2449 (18.8%) being recurrent injuries, with 1944 early (14.9%) and 505 delayed recurrences (3.9%). Recurrence proportions were highest in the second half of the competitive season for all cohorts. Recurrence proportions differed between playing levels, with 35.1% in the amateur cohort, 25.0% in the Swedish elite cohort and 16.6% in the European cohort (χ(2) overall effect, pplaying level, and recurrent injury incidence has decreased over the past decade. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super-Resolution Algorithm Super-Resolution Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-26

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/5514--17-9692 High Resolution Bathymetry Estimation Improvement with Single Image Super...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources...gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate

  13. The rise and fall of breakpoint reuse depending on genome resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background During evolution, large-scale genome rearrangements of chromosomes shuffle the order of homologous genome sequences ("synteny blocks") across species. Some years ago, a controversy erupted in genome rearrangement studies over whether rearrangements recur, causing breakpoints to be reused. Methods We investigate this controversial issue using the synteny block's for human-mouse-rat reported by Bourque et al. and a series of synteny blocks we generated using Mauve at resolutions ranging from coarse to very fine-scale. We conducted analyses to test how resolution affects the traditional measure of the breakpoint reuse rate. Results We found that the inversion-based breakpoint reuse rate is low at fine-scale synteny block resolution and that it rises and eventually falls as synteny block resolution decreases. By analyzing the cycle structure of the breakpoint graph of human-mouse-rat synteny blocks for human-mouse and comparing with theoretically derived distributions for random genome rearrangements, we showed that the implied genome rearrangements at each level of resolution become more “random” as synteny block resolution diminishes. At highest synteny block resolutions the Hannenhalli-Pevzner inversion distance deviates from the Double Cut and Join distance, possibly due to small-scale transpositions or simply due to inclusion of erroneous synteny blocks. At synteny block resolutions as coarse as the Bourque et al. blocks, we show the breakpoint graph cycle structure has already converged to the pattern expected for a random distribution of synteny blocks. Conclusions The inferred breakpoint reuse rate depends on synteny block resolution in human-mouse genome comparisons. At fine-scale resolution, the cycle structure for the transformation appears less random compared to that for coarse resolution. Small synteny blocks may contain critical information for accurate reconstruction of genome rearrangement history and parameters. PMID:22151330

  14. VT Hydrography Dataset - High Resolution NHD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Vermont Hydrography Dataset (VHD) is compliant with the local resolution (also known as High Resolution) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)...

  15. Super-resolution imaging in live cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cox, Susan

    Over the last twenty years super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has gone from proof-of-concept experiments to commercial systems being available in many labs, improving the resolution achievable...

  16. Conjugated polymers based on benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene with low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital energy levels for organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shengqiang; Stuart, Andrew C; Liu, Shubin; You, Wei

    2009-07-01

    Fusing bithiophene units with a benzo moiety, benzo[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene (BDT), was projected by theoretical calculations to lower the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of the resulting polymers compared with that of the bithiophene unit, which would enhance the open circuit voltage of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells fabricated from BDT-based polymers blended with PCBM. The homopolymer of BDT (HMPBDT) and alternating copolymer of BDT with 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (PBDT-BT) were therefore synthesized and fully characterized. Both the homopolymer (HMPBDT) and the copolymer (PBDT-BT) were experimentally confirmed to have low HOMO energy levels (-5.70 eV for HMPBDT and -5.34 eV for PBDT-BT). Introducing the acceptor moiety (2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) successfully lowered the optical band gap of the copolymer from 2.31 eV (HMPBDT) to 1.78 eV (PBDT-BT). Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices were fabricated from blends of these structurally related polymers with PBCM to investigate the photovoltaic performances. The optimized device of HMPBDT:PCBM (1:3, 180 nm) exhibited an improved open circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.76 V, a short circuit current (J(sc)) of 0.34 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 0.40, offering an overall efficiency of 0.10%. The observed large phase separation of the thin film by AFM and the large band gap were accountable for the small current. The optimized device of PBDT-BT:PCBM (1:3, 55 nm) demonstrated a better efficiency of 0.6%, with V(oc) = 0.72 V, J(sc) = 2.06 mA/cm(2), and FF = 0.42. The much improved current was attributed to the lower bandgap and better film morphology. However, the low hole mobility limited the thickness of the PBDT-BT:PCBM film, making inaccessible the thicker film which would utilize more light and enhance the current. Further improvements are expected if the mobility and film morphology can be improved by the new materials design, together with low band gap and low HOMO energy level.

  17. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Moa; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Kühlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Wallensten, Anders; Sparén, Pär; Netterlid, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake. We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21), asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties' catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using negative binomial regression models. County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49-84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34%) also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19%) in all their schools, and two (10%) in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%), letter/invitations (90%), and advertisement (81%). Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3). Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached the highest vaccine uptake. No information

  18. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moa Rehn

    Full Text Available The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake.We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21, asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties' catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using negative binomial regression models.County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49-84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34% also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19% in all their schools, and two (10% in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%, letter/invitations (90%, and advertisement (81%. Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3.Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached the highest vaccine uptake. No information

  19. 5D.02: WHY DOES WAKAYAMA PREFECTURE HAVE THE HIGHEST RATES OF HYPERTENSION IN JAPAN? CONSIDERATION ON EXERCISE INCORPORATED INTO EVERYDAY LIFE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, M; Kaneda, M; Sasabe, S; Yamamoto, M; Ito, K; Miyai, N; Utsumi, M; Shiba, M; Arita, M

    2015-06-01

    In Japan, there are 47 prefectures with differences in topography, industrial structure, population distribution and hypertension rate as well. The authors' home prefecture of Wakayama has the highest incidence of hypertension in the nation at 25.0%. This shows 7.6 point spread compared with the prefecture with the lowest rate at 17.4%.The aim of our study is to search for the reasons of high rate of hypertension in Wakayama, and to consider effective prevention of hypertension in Wakayama as well as in Japan. Correlation analysis was performed using hypertension rate for each prefecture versus the variables of: 1. salt intake, 2. vegetable intake, 3. alcohol habits, 4. smoking habits, and 5. walking paces per day (walking), using 5% significance level. To find the social causes that impact walking, correlation analysis was performed with the variables of: 1. number of train stations, 2. vehicle ownership rate, 3. light-vehicle ownership rate, and 4. slope of habitable areas (index of steepness), versus walking, as well as hypertension rate. Lastly, with hypertension rate as the dependent variable, all aforementioned variables, adding the rate of health examination and the number of hospitals, multiple regression analysis was performed. There was a significant negative correlation between hypertension rate and walking (r = -0.440, p = 0.004). Walking was positively correlated with number of train stations (0.381, 0.008) and negatively with vehicle ownership rate (-0.424, 0.003) as well as light-vehicle ownership rate (-0.616, 0.000). Hypertension rate was most strongly affected by walking and slope. There were no significant correlations for the salt, vegetable, alcohol, smoking, rate of health examination, or number of hospitals. R2 coefficient was 0.442. It is suggested that high incidence of hypertension in Wakayama may be due to less walking habits. In the prefectures with larger mountainous areas where transportation rely on vehicle rather than train

  20. Ethylglucuronide in hair is a top predictor of impaired driving recidivism, alcohol dependence, and a key marker of the highest BAC interlock tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Paul R; Tippetts, A Scott; Yegles, Michel

    2014-01-01

    occur after interlock installation, for entry alcohol dependence, and for the highest interlock BACs recorded. Together, hEtG and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) were the top predictors of all criterion measures. By contrast, the hair-derived alcohol biomarkers hEtG and hFAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) were poorer than other alcohol biomarkers as detectors of interlock BAC test fail rates. This study showed that hEtG, an objective alternative to often unreliable self-reported past representation of drinking levels, yields crucial insight into driver alcohol-related risks early in an interlock program and is a top predictor of new recidivist events. Together with PEth, these markers would be excellent anchors in a panel for detecting alcohol consumption.

  1. High-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Uchugonova, Aisada; Breunig, Hans Georg

    2014-03-15

    An ultracompact high-resolution multiphoton cryomicroscope with a femtosecond near infrared fiber laser has been utilized to study the cellular autofluorescence during freezing and thawing of cells. Cooling resulted in an increase of the intracellular fluorescence intensity followed by morphological modifications at temperatures below -10 °C, depending on the application of the cryoprotectant DMSO and the cooling rate. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging revealed an increase of the mean lifetime with a decrease in temperature. Non-destructive, label-free optical biopsies of biomaterial in ice can be obtained with sub-20 mW mean powers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of geomorphological changes by high quality DEMs, obtained from UAVs-Structure from Motion in highest continental cliffs of Europe: A Capelada (Galicia, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Narciso, Efrén; García, Horacio; Sierra Pernas, Chema; Pérez-Alberti, Augusto

    2017-04-01

    This study analyses the geomorphological evolution of a highly dynamic coastal environment, one of the higher cliffs in Continental Europe (A Capelada, NW Spain), using Structure from Motion-Multi View Stereoscan techniques (hereafter referred to as SfM-MVS). Comparing orthoimages from the last 10 years we observed several topographical changes in one specific valley (Teixidelo). Interestingly, these changes were caused by 2 different processes: (i) heavy coastal erosion and (ii) slow complex landslides, working in opposite directions. The main challenge was obtaining high quality topographical data for quantifying the changes during the last few years using low cost-high quality techniques in remote areas. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle platforms (drones, hereafter referred to as UAVs) and SFM-MVS offer ultrahigh-density topographical data. Furthermore, the use of drones and SfM-MVS close range images requires new applications in geomorphology for understanding the workflow and limitations. In this paper we present the 2 main results: (i) a centimeter spatial resolution DEM from august 2016 was obtained using a @DJI Phantom 3 advanced model drone. The pictures were processed in Agisoft PhotoScan Pro 1.2.6 version by SfM-MVS techniques, generating a high-density point cloud (i.e. ˜2000 points/m2) with 3mm of RMSE (i.e. the point cloud was georeferenced in a geographical coordinates system using ˜40 Ground Control Points obtained from differential RTK-GPS and a Total Station network) and (ii) a DEM of Differences, which compares official freely available 2010 LiDAR data (i.e. ˜2 points/m2) with a 2016 DEM derived by UAVs-SfM, where we have observed meter-scale elevation changes (i.e. sediment and erosion processes). During this time, 75% of the sediment has been mobilized. The novel UAVs and SfM-MVS techniques prove to be great for advancing the study of geomorphological processes in remote areas.

  3. High-Resolution Infrared Imaging of Young Outflow-Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preibisch, Thomas; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd

    For a better understanding of the mechanisms by which jets and outflows from young stellar objects are generated accelerated and collimated it is essential to look as close as possible to their launching point at the disk/star boundary. High-spatial resolution is therefore of crucial importance for further progress in this field. In this contribution we present recent results from our near-infrared bispectrum speckle interferometry studies of several outflow sources. With a spatial resolution of up to 0.055'' our images have the highest spatial resolution achieved so far for these objects and exhibit previously unseen complex structures. Our results include the identification of two distinct bipolar outflow systems originating simultaneously from the protostar S140 IRS1 the detection of an episodic precessing jet from S140 IRS3 and the discovery of a micro-jet from one of the embedded sources in Mon R2 IRS3. We will also discuss the relation of the observed circumstellar structures to the jets and outflows from the young stellar objects

  4. On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.

  5. Resolution limits in imaging ladar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Lorenzo, Joseph; Kierstead, John; Pyburn, Dana; Sengupta, Sandip K.

    2006-02-01

    We introduce a new design concept of laser radar systems that combines both phase comparison and time-of-flight methods. We show from signal-to-noise ratio considerations that there is a fundamental limit to the overall resolution in three-dimensional imaging range laser radar (ladar). We introduce a new metric, volume of resolution, and we show from quantum noise considerations that there is a maximum resolution volume that can be achieved for a given set of system parameters. Consequently, there is a direct trade-off between range resolution and spatial resolution. Thus, in a ladar system, range resolution may be maximized at the expense of spatial image resolution and vice versa. We introduce resolution efficiency etar as a new figure of merit for ladar that describes system resolution under the constraints of a specific design, compared with its optimal resolution performance derived from quantum noise considerations. We analyze how the resolution efficiency could be utilized to improve the resolution performance of a ladar system. Our analysis could be extended to all ladars, regardless of whether they are imaging or scanning laser systems.

  6. Likelihood Ratio Based Mixed Resolution Facial Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Y.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for low-resolution face recognition. It is especially useful for a common situation in forensic search where faces of low resolution, e.g. on surveillance footage or in a crowd, must be compared to a high-resolution reference. This method is based on the

  7. A New High Resolution Climate Dataset for Climate Change Impacts Assessments in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komurcu, M.; Huber, M.

    2016-12-01

    Assessing regional impacts of climate change (such as changes in extreme events, land surface hydrology, water resources, energy, ecosystems and economy) requires much higher resolution climate variables than those available from global model projections. While it is possible to run global models in higher resolution, the high computational cost associated with these simulations prevent their use in such manner. To alleviate this problem, dynamical downscaling offers a method to deliver higher resolution climate variables. As part of an NSF EPSCoR funded interdisciplinary effort to assess climate change impacts on New Hampshire ecosystems, hydrology and economy (the New Hampshire Ecosystems and Society project), we create a unique high-resolution climate dataset for New England. We dynamically downscale global model projections under a high impact emissions scenario using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with three nested grids of 27, 9 and 3 km horizontal resolution with the highest resolution innermost grid focusing over New England. We prefer dynamical downscaling over other methods such as statistical downscaling because it employs physical equations to progressively simulate climate variables as atmospheric processes interact with surface processes, emissions, radiation, clouds, precipitation and other model components, hence eliminates fix relationships between variables. In addition to simulating mean changes in regional climate, dynamical downscaling also allows for the simulation of climate extremes that significantly alter climate change impacts. We simulate three time slices: 2006-2015, 2040-2060 and 2080-2100. This new high-resolution climate dataset (with more than 200 variables saved in hourly (six hourly) intervals for the highest resolution domain (outer two domains)) along with model input and restart files used in our WRF simulations will be publicly available for use to the broader scientific community to support in-depth climate

  8. High Resolution Imaging with AEOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patience, J; Macintosh, B A; Max, C E

    2001-08-27

    The U. S. Air Force Advanced Electro-Optical System (AEOS) which includes a 941 actuator adaptive optics system on a 3.7m telescope has recently been made available for astronomical programs. Operating at a wavelength of 750 nm, the diffraction-limited angular resolution of the system is 0.04 inches; currently, the magnitude limit is V {approx} 7 mag. At the distances of nearby open clusters, diffraction-limited images should resolve companions with separations as small as 4-6 AU--comparable to the Sun-Jupiter distance. The ability to study such close separations is critical, since most companions are expected to have separations in the few AU to tens of AU range. With the exceptional angular resolution of the current AEOS setup, but restricted target magnitude range, we are conducting a companion search of a large, well-defined sample of bright early-type stars in nearby open clusters and in the field. Our data set will both characterize this relatively new adaptive optics system and answer questions in binary star formation and stellar X-ray activity. We will discuss our experience using AEOS, the data analysis involved, and our initial results.

  9. Solar corona at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Zombeck, M. V. Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    The earth's surface is shielded from solar X rays almost completely by the atmosphere. It is, therefore, necessary to place X-ray detectors on rockets or orbiting satellites. Solar rays were detected for the first time in the late 1940's, using V-2 rockets. In 1960, the first true X-ray images of the sun were obtained with the aid of a simple pinhole camera. The spatial resolution of the X-ray images could be considerably improved by making use of reflective optics, operating at grazing incidence. Aspects of X-ray mirror developments are discussed along with the results obtained in coronal studies utilizing the new devices for the observation of solar X-ray emission. It is pointed out that the major achievements of the Skylab missions were due primarily to the unique opportunity to obtain data over an extended period of time. Attention is given to normal incidence X-ray optics, achievements possible by making use of high spatial resolution optics, and details of improved mirror design.

  10. Application of trajectory clustering and source attribution methods for investigating regional CO2 and CH4 concentrations at Germany's highest mountain site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giemsa, Esther; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Ries, Ludwig; Frank, Gabriele; Hachinger, Stephan; Meyer-Arnek, Julian

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) represent the most important contributors to increased radiative forcing enhancing it together by contemporary 2.65 W/m2 on the global average (IPCC 2013). The unbroken increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) has been unequivocally attributed to human emissions mainly coming from fossil fuel burning and land-use changes, while the oceans and terrestrial ecosystems slightly attenuate this rise with seasonally varying strength. Short-term fluctuations in the GHG concentrations that superimpose the seasonal cycle and the climate change driven trend reflect the presence of regional sources and sinks. A perfect place for investigating the comprehensive influence of these regional emissions is provided by the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (47.42°N, 10.98°E, 2.650m a.s.l.) situated in the eastern Alps at the southern side of Zugspitze mountain. Located just 300m below the highest peak of the German Alps, the exposed site is one of the currently 30 global core sites of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) programme and thus provides ideal conditions to study source-receptor relationships for greenhouse gases. We propose a stepwise statistical methodology for examining the relationship between synoptic-scale atmospheric transport patterns and climate gas mole fractions to finally receive a characterization of the sampling site with regard to the key processes driving CO2 and CH4 concentration levels. The first step entails a reliable radon-based filtering approach to subdivide the detected air masses according to their regional or 'background' origin. Simultaneously, a large number of ten-day back-trajectories from Schneefernerhaus every two hours over the entire study period 2011 - 2015 is calculated with the Lagrangian transport and dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al. 2005) and subjected to cluster analysis. The weather- and emission strength-related (short

  11. Reconcile: A Coreference Resolution Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, V; Cardie, C; Gilbert, N; Riloff, E; Buttler, D; Hysom, D

    2009-10-29

    Despite the availability of standard data sets and metrics, approaches to the problem of noun phrase coreference resolution are hard to compare empirically due to the different evaluation setting stemming, in part, from the lack of comprehensive coreference resolution research platforms. In this tech report we present Reconcile, a coreference resolution research platform that aims to facilitate the implementation of new approaches to coreference resolution as well as the comparison of existing approaches. We discuss Reconcile's architecture and give results of running Reconcile on six data sets using four evaluation metrics, showing that Reconcile's performance is comparable to state-of-the-art systems in coreference resolution.

  12. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  13. CD73+ regulatory T cells contribute to adenosine-mediated resolution of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrentraut, Heidi; Clambey, Eric T; McNamee, Eoin N; Brodsky, Kelley S; Ehrentraut, Stefan F; Poth, Jens M; Riegel, Ann K; Westrich, Joseph A; Colgan, Sean P; Eltzschig, Holger K

    2013-06-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar injury and uncontrolled inflammation. Since most cases of ALI resolve spontaneously, understanding the endogenous mechanisms that promote ALI resolution is important to developing effective therapies. Previous studies have implicated extracellular adenosine signaling in tissue adaptation and wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesized a functional contribution for the endogenous production of adenosine during ALI resolution. As a model, we administered intratracheal LPS and observed peak lung injury at 3 d, with resolution by d 14. Treatment with pegylated adenosine-deaminase to enhance extracellular adenosine breakdown revealed impaired ALI resolution. Similarly, genetic deletion of cd73, the pacemaker for extracellular adenosine generation, was associated with increased mortality (0% wild-type and 40% in cd73(-/-) mice; P<0.05) and failure to resolve ALI adequately. Studies of inflammatory cell trafficking into the lungs during ALI resolution revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) express the highest levels of CD73. While Treg numbers in cd73(-/-) mice were similar to controls, cd73-deficient Tregs had attenuated immunosuppressive functions. Moreover, adoptive transfer of cd73-deficient Tregs into Rag(-/-) mice emulated the observed phenotype in cd73(-/-) mice, while transfer of wild-type Tregs was associated with normal ALI resolution. Together, these studies implicate CD73-dependent adenosine generation in Tregs in promoting ALI resolution.

  14. Hydrologic Derivatives for Modeling and Analysis—A new global high-resolution database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, Kristine L.

    2017-07-17

    The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a new global high-resolution hydrologic derivative database. Loosely modeled on the HYDRO1k database, this new database, entitled Hydrologic Derivatives for Modeling and Analysis, provides comprehensive and consistent global coverage of topographically derived raster layers (digital elevation model data, flow direction, flow accumulation, slope, and compound topographic index) and vector layers (streams and catchment boundaries). The coverage of the data is global, and the underlying digital elevation model is a hybrid of three datasets: HydroSHEDS (Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales), GMTED2010 (Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010), and the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). For most of the globe south of 60°N., the raster resolution of the data is 3 arc-seconds, corresponding to the resolution of the SRTM. For the areas north of 60°N., the resolution is 7.5 arc-seconds (the highest resolution of the GMTED2010 dataset) except for Greenland, where the resolution is 30 arc-seconds. The streams and catchments are attributed with Pfafstetter codes, based on a hierarchical numbering system, that carry important topological information. This database is appropriate for use in continental-scale modeling efforts. The work described in this report was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center.

  15. Music therapy in grief resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, R

    1999-01-01

    The multifaceted nature of grief and the enormous variation in individual clients' responses to losses make it necessary for therapists to have wide background knowledge and well-developed skills in counseling and/or psychotherapy. The author describes an innovative method of facilitating grief resolution using precomposed music that is significant to the patient after a major loss. In this method, music is of equal importance with verbal processing as part of the overall therapeutic approach. Musical improvization is also used as a primary tool to reflect back to, and affirm for, the patient the affective content of his or her life story. This approach requires the therapist to have particular musical skills and a wide repertoire of genres and specific musical pieces, as well as intuition. Several clinical vignettes illustrate the application of this approach.

  16. Resolution of the Staff Council

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    You were many to attend the public information meetings organised in October and we thank you for your interest. In this decision phase of the current Five-Yearly Review of our employment conditions they provided an opportunity to review the Management proposals in detail. They were a moment of exchange also on the various topics under review, and your comments were many and very valuable. Meeting on Thursday 29th October, the Staff Council discussed once more these proposals. It considered that the "package" of proposed measures is not balanced enough in its current form. It decided to formulate additional requests to the Management, relating mainly to the effects of the introduction of the proposed new career system. The resolution adopted this morning also implies that the consultation of staff, originally foreseen next week, is postponed. The staff Council will reconvene in a special session on Thursday, 5th November to reassess its position depending on the progress made regarding its d...

  17. Resolution Of A Shadow Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, Harold E.

    1982-02-01

    The 19th century art of shadow imaging, as started by Wedgwood (1803), and as used by William Henry Fox-Talbot (1851) in England, has been revived by using a small-area electronic flash lamp and fine grain film. One immediate application has been the photographic recording of large samples of living plankton. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the resolution of the shadow system, and to describe some of the strobe light sources that are presently available. Also, a modified method of shadow photography is described where enhanced color images give interesting and, perhaps, important color effects that may be useful in the study of plankton and other semitrans-parent subjects.

  18. Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Buscalioni, R

    2016-11-13

    A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U(1)-U(0) The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as 'real' thermodynamic variablesThis article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Anaphora resolution without world knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffa Vilson J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A typical problem in the resolution of pronominal anaphora is the presence of more than one candidate for the antecedent of the pronoun. Considering two English sentences like (1 "People buy expensive cars because they offer more status" and (2 "People buy expensive cars because they want more status" we can see that the two NPs "people" and "expensive cars", from a purely syntactic perspective, are both legitimate candidates as antecedents for the pronoun "they". This problem has been traditionally solved by using world knowledge (e.g. schema theory, where, through an internal representation of the world, we "know" that cars "offer" status and people "want" status. The assumption in this paper is that the use of world knowledge does not explain how the disambiguation process works and alternative explanations should be explored. Using a knowledge poor approach (explicit information from the text rather than implicit world knowledge the study investigates to what extent syntactic and semantic constraints can be used to resolve anaphora. For this purpose, 1,400 examples of the word "they" were randomly selected from a corpus of 10,000,000 words of expository text in English. Antecedent candidates for each case were then analyzed and classified in terms of their syntactic functions in the sentence (subject, object, etc. and semantic features (+ human, + animate, etc.. It was found that syntactic constraints resolved 85% of the cases. When combined with semantic constraints the resolution rate rose to 98%. The implications of the findings for Natural Language Processing are discussed.

  20. The Medium Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS) for the Origins Space Telescope: Enabling 3-D Surveys of the Universe in the Far-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Charles Matt; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Medium-Resolution Survey Spectrometer (MRSS) is a multi-purpose wideband spectrograph being designed for the Origins Space Telescope (OST -- the NASA-funded far-IR flagship mission study being prepared for the 2020 Decadal Survey). The sensitivity possible with the combination of the actively-cooled OST telescope and new-generation far-IR direct detector arrays is outstanding; potentially offering a 10,000x improvement in speed over the Herschel, SOFIA for point-source measurements, and factor of more than 1,000,000 for spatial-spectral mapping. Massive galaxy detection rates are possible via the rest-frame mid- and far-IR spectral features, overcoming continuum confusion and reaching back to the epoch of reionization. The MRSS covers the full 30 to 670 micron band instantaneously at a resolving power (R) of 500 using 6 logarithmically-spaced grating modules. Each module couples at least 60 and up to 200 spatial beams simultaneously, enabling true 3-D spectral mapping, both for the blind extragalactic surveys and for mapping all phases of interstellar matter in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Furthermore, a high-resolution mode inserts a long-path Fourier-transform interferometer into the light path in advance of the grating backends, enabling R up to 38,000 x [100 microns / lambda], while preserving the basic grating sensitivity for line detection.Maximum scientific return with the MRSS on OST will require large arrays of direct detectors with sensitivity meeting or exceeding the photon background limit due to zodiacal and Galactic dust: NEP~3e-20 W/sqrt(Hz). The total pixel count for all 6 bands is ~200,000 pixels. These sensitive far-IR detector arrays are not provided by the kind of industrial efforts producing the the optical and near-IR detectors, but they are being developed by NASA scientists, including OST team members. We outline the rapid progress in this area, briefly highlighting a) recent low-NEP single-pixel measurements which meet the

  1. Performance optimization of ultra high-resolution recycling liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Cormier, Sylvain

    2018-01-12

    The optimization of a twin-column recycling separation process (TCRSP) for maximum resolution or maximum speed-resolution was investigated. The general optimization method was based on the construction of kinetic plots by assuming an ideal TCRSP (no efficiency loss upon recycling). For the optimization, we examined three chromatographic parameters: operation pressure (3000, 6000, 9000, and 12,000psi), column length (10, 15, and 25cm), and column inner diameter (i.d.) (2.1, 3.0, and 4.6mm). Accordingly, the highest TCRSP resolution level is expected for 25cm long columns packed with 2.5, 2.0, 1.7, and 1.6μm particles at pressures of 3000, 6000, 9000, and 12,000psi, respectively. The maximum speed-resolution performance is expected for 10cm columns packed with 3.7, 3.0, 2.6, and 2.4μm particles. 3.0mm i.d. columns are best to minimize the negative impacts of thermal and inter-column dispersion effects on the TCRSP performance. The method was illustrated for the challenging separation (selectivity factor αperformance. Further optimization of the TCRSP performance was required by reducing the inter-column sample dispersion that could cause undesirable peak tailing. A standard 2.4μL Rheodyne valve and 100μm i.d. tubes were replaced with a home-made 0.5μL low-dispersion prototype valve and 75μm i.d. perfect connection tubes. As a result, the experimental resolution factors were increased by +60% (γ-phenylbutyrolactone, 25 cycles, Rs=0.7→1.1) and +80% (deuterated benzenes, 22 cycles, Rs=1.1→2.0). Direct comparison between the experimental and the predicted TCRSP performance unambiguously demonstrated that the resolution gain was explained by the significant reduction of the peak tailing after a large number of cycles (n>20). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    shortcoming in preventing impasses is a need to have a priori information on the future demand for resources, and it is not always possible.One of ways to "struggle" against impasses when there is no a priori information on the process demand for resources is to detect deadlocks. Detection of impasses (without leading to their resolution yet is a periodical use of the algorithm which checks current distribution of resources to reveal whether there is an impasse and if it exists what processes are involved in it.The work objective is to develop methods and algorithms allowing us to minimize losses because of impasses in CS using the optimum strategy of conflict resolution. The offered approach is especially effective to eliminate deadlocks in management (control computer systems having a fixed set of programmes.The article offers a developed efficient strategy of the information processes management in multiprocessing CS, which detects and prevents impasses. The strategy is based on allocation of indivisible resources to computing processes so that losses caused by conflicts are minimized. The article studies a multi-criterion problem of indivisible resources allocation to the processes, with the optimality principle expressed by the known binary relation over set of average vectors of penalties for conflicts in each of resources. It is shown that sharing a decision theory tool and a classical one allows more efficient problem solution to eliminate deadlock. The feature of suggesting effective methods and algorithms to eliminate deadlocks is that they can be used in CS development and operation in real time. The article-given example shows that the proposed method and algorithm for the impasse resolution in multiprocessing CS are capable and promising.The offered method and algorithm provide reducing the average number of CS conflicts by 30-40 %.

  3. Correlation of findings in clinical and high resolution ultrasonography examinations of the painful shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheroli, Raphael; Kyburz, Diego; Ciurea, Adrian; Dubs, Beat; Toniolo, Martin; Bisig, Samuel Pascal; Tamborrini, Giorgio

    2015-03-01

    High resolution ultrasonography is a non-painful and non-invasive imaging technique which is useful for the assessment of shoulder pain causes, as clinical examination often does not allow an exact diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the findings of clinical examination and high resolution ultrasonography in patients presenting with painful shoulder. Non-interventional observational study of 100 adult patients suffering from unilateral shoulder pain. Exclusion criteria were shoulder fractures, prior shoulder joint surgery and shoulder injections in the past month. The physicians performing the most common clinical shoulder examinations were blinded to the results of the high resolution ultrasonography and vice versa. In order to detect pathology of the m. supraspinatus tendon, the Hawkins and Kennedy impingement test showed the highest sensitivity (0.86) whereas the Jobe supraspinatus test showed the highest specificity (0.55). To identify m. subscapularis tendon pathology the Gerber lift off test showed a sensitivity of 1, whereas the belly press test showed the higher specificity (0.72). The infraspinatus test showed a high sensitivity (0.90) and specificity (0.74). All AC tests (painful arc II(a), AC joint tenderness(b), cross body adduction stress test(c)) showed high specificities ((a)0.96, (b)0.99, (c)0.96). Evaluating the long biceps tendon, the palm up test showed the highest sensitivity (0.47) and the Yergason test the highest specificity (0.88). Knowledge of sensitivity and specificity of various clinical tests is important for the interpretation of clinical examination test results. High resolution ultrasonography is needed in most cases to establish a clear diagnosis.

  4. Correlation of findings in clinical and high resolution ultrasonography examinations of the painful shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Micheroli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: High resolution ultrasonography is a non-painful and non-invasive imaging technique which is useful for the assessment of shoulder pain causes, as clinical examination often does not allow an exact diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the fi ndings of clinical examination and high resolution ultrasonography in patients presenting with painful shoulder. Methods: Non-interventional observational study of 100 adult patients suffering from unilateral shoulder pain. Exclusion criteria were shoulder fractures, prior shoulder joint surgery and shoulder injections in the past month. The physicians performing the most common clinical shoulder examinations were blinded to the results of the high resolution ultrasonography and vice versa. Results: In order to detect pathology of the m. supraspinatus tendon, the Hawkins and Kennedy impingement test showed the highest sensitivity (0.86 whereas the Jobe supraspinatus test showed the highest specifi city (0.55. To identify m. subscapularis tendon pathology the Gerber lift off test showed a sensitivity of 1, whereas the belly press test showed the higher specifi city (0.72. The infraspinatus test showed a high sensitivity (0.90 and specifi city (0.74. All AC tests (painful arc IIa, AC joint tendernessb, cross body adduction stress testc showed high specifi cities (a0.96, b0.99, c 0.96. Evaluating the long biceps tendon, the palm up test showed the highest sensitivity (0.47 and the Yergason test the highest specifi city (0.88. Conclusion: Knowledge of sensitivity and specifi city of various clinical tests is important for the interpretation of clinical examination test results. High resolution ultrasonography is needed in most cases to establish a clear diagnosis.

  5. Conflict resolution: practical principles for surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liz; Berger, David H; Awad, Samir S; Brandt, Mary L; Martinez, George; Brunicardi, F Charles

    2008-11-01

    Historically, surgeons have had little formal training in conflict resolution; however, there has been an increasing body of evidence that poor conflict resolution skills may have an adverse impact on patient outcomes and career advancement. Furthermore, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has recognized the importance of conflict resolution skills in resident training by mandating the training of communication skills and professionalism. These skills have often been taught in other professions, and surgeons may need to acquaint themselves with the literature from those fields. Conflict resolution techniques such as the 7-step model or principle-based conflict resolution can be applied to conflict in the operating room, wards, and among colleagues. We propose a model for conflict resolution by using the basic tools of the history and physical exam, a process well known to all physicians.

  6. High-Resolution Views of the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlidas, A.; Korendyke, C.

    2003-05-01

    The study of many of the outstanding phenomena of the solar atmosphere (coronal heating, flares and coronal mass ejection) has persistently shown that observations of physical processes at ever smaller scales are needed for their understanding. Here I report on the results from the latest NRL sounding rocket payload, the Very Advanced ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT). In two successful flights, the instrument achieved 0.33 arcsecond resolution, the highest ever from a space platform. VAULT obtained spectrally pure images of the upper chromosphere/lower transition region in the Lya line (1216A). A number of space-borne and ground-based obsrvatories supported the VAULT flights. The first results from the analysis of these datasets will be presented.

  7. High resolution adaptive imaging of a single atom

    CERN Document Server

    Wong-Campos, J D; Neyenhuis, B; Mizrahi, J; Monroe, C

    2015-01-01

    We report the optical imaging of a single atom with nanometer resolution using an adaptive optical alignment technique that is applicable to general optical microscopy. By decomposing the image of a single laser-cooled atom, we identify and correct optical aberrations in the system and realize an atomic position sensitivity of $\\approx$ 0.5 nm/$\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}$ with a minimum uncertainty of 1.7 nm, allowing the direct imaging of atomic motion. This is the highest position sensitivity ever measured for an isolated atom, and opens up the possibility of performing out-of-focus 3D particle tracking, imaging of atoms in 3D optical lattices or sensing forces at the yoctonewton (10$^{-24}$ N) scale.

  8. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems

  9. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Israel; Gordon, James; Feldman, Olga; Chavarga, Alla

    2012-09-04

    Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area) may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system's contrast-sensitivity function (CSF) across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice), adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm). Also, each individual's acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA) sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. As with other sensory systems, there are marked sex differences in vision. The CSFs we measure

  10. Recognition of psychotherapy effectiveness: the APA resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda F; Norcross, John C; Vasquez, Melba J T; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2013-03-01

    In August 2012, the American Psychological Association (APA) Council of Representatives voted overwhelmingly to adopt as APA policy a Resolution on the Recognition of Psychotherapy Effectiveness. This invited article traces the origins and intentions of that resolution and its protracted journey through the APA governance labyrinth. We summarize the planned dissemination and projected results of the resolution and identify several lessons learned through the entire process.

  11. An assessment of SEVIRI imagery at different temporal resolutions and the effect on accurate dust emission mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennen, Mark; White, Kevin; Shahgedanova, Maria

    2017-04-01

    This paper compares Dust RGB products derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) data at 15 minute, 30 minute and hourly temporal resolutions. From January 2006 to December 2006, observations of dust emission point sources were observed at each temporal resolution across the entire Middle East region (38.50N; 30.00E - 10.00N; 65.50E). Previous work has demonstrated that 15-minute resolution SEVIRI data can be used to map dust sources across the Sahara by observing dust storms back through sequential images to the point of first emission (Schepanski et al., 2007; 2009; 2012). These observations have improved upon lower resolution maps, based on daily retrievals of aerosol optical depth (AOD), whose maxima can be biased by prevalent transport routes, not necessarily coinciding with sources of emissions. Based on the thermal contrast of atmospheric dust to the surface, brightness temperature differences (BTD's) in the thermal infrared (TIR) wavelengths (8.7, 10.8 and 12.0 µm) highlight dust in the scene irrespective of solar illumination, giving both increased accuracy of dust source areas and a greater understanding of diurnal emission behaviour. However, the highest temporal resolution available (15-minute repeat capture) produces 96 images per day, resulting in significantly higher data storage demands than 30 minute or hourly data. To aid future research planning, this paper investigates what effect lowering the temporal resolution has on the number and spatial distribution of the observed dust sources. The results show a reduction in number of dust emission events observed with each step decrease in temporal resolution, reducing by 17% for 30-minute resolution and 50% for hourly. These differences change seasonally, with the highest reduction observed in summer (34% and 64% reduction respectively). Each resolution shows a similar spatial distribution, with the biggest difference seen near the coastlines, where near-shore convective

  12. High-resolution infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Charles M.

    2010-08-01

    The hands and mind of an artist are intimately involved in the creative process of image formation, intrinsically making paintings significantly more complex than photographs to analyze. In spite of this difficulty, several years ago the artist David Hockney and I identified optical evidence within a number of paintings that demonstrated artists began using optical projections as early as c1425 - nearly 175 years before Galileo - as aids for producing portions of their images. In the course of our work, Hockney and I developed insights that I have been applying to a new approach to computerized image analysis. Recently I developed and characterized a portable high resolution infrared for capturing additional information from paintings. Because many pigments are semi-transparent in the IR, in a number of cases IR photographs ("reflectograms") have revealed marks made by the artists that had been hidden under paint ever since they were made. I have used this IR camera to capture photographs ("reflectograms") of hundreds of paintings in over a dozen museums on three continents and, in some cases, these reflectograms have provided new insights into decisions the artists made in creating the final images that we see in the visible.

  13. Leaf Area Index Retrieval Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rinaldi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation indices obtained from remote sensed data can be used to characterize crop canopy on a large scale using a non-destructive method. With the recent launch of the IKONOS satellite, very high spatial resolution (1 meter images are available for the detailed monitoring of ecosystems as well as for precision agriculture. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of leaf area index (LAI retrieval over agricultural area that can be obtained by empirical relationships between different spectral vegetation indices (VI and LAI measured on three different dates over the spring-summer period of 2008, in the Capitanata plain (Southern Italy. All the VIs used (NDVI, RDVI, WDVI, MSAVI and GEMI were related to the LAI through exponential regression functions, either global or crop-dependent. In the first case, LAI was estimated with comparable accuracies for all VIs employed, with a slightly higher accuracy for GEMI, which determination coefficient achieved the value of 0.697. Whereas the LAI regression functions were calculated separately for each crop, the WDVI, GEMI and RDVI vegetation indices provided the highest determination coefficients with values close to 0.90 for wheat and sugar beet, and with values close to 0.70 for tomatoes. A validation of the models was carried out with a selection of independent sampling data. The validation confirmed that WDVI and GEMI were the VIs that provided the highest LAI retrieval accuracies, with RMSE values of about to 1.1 m2 m-2. The exponential functions, calibrated and validated to calculate LAI from GEMI, were used to derive LAI maps from IKONOS high-resolution remote sensing images with good accuracy. These maps can be used as input variables for crop growth models, obtaining relevant information that can be useful in agricultural management strategies (in particular irrigation and fertilization, as well as in the application of precision farming.

  14. Ultrahigh Resolution 3-Dimensional Imaging Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposes to develop innovative instrumentation for the rapid, 3-dimensional imaging of biological tissues with cellular resolution. Our approach...

  15. Optoacoustic endoscopy with optical and acoustic resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hailong; Wissmeyer, Georg; Ovsepian, Saak V.; Buehler, Andreas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2017-03-01

    A hybrid optical and acoustic resolution optoacoustic endoscopy is proposed. Laser light is transmitted to tissue by two types of illumination for optical and acoustic resolution imaging respectively. An unfocused ultrasound detector is used for recording optoacoustic signals. The endoscopy probe attains 3.6 mm diameter and is fully encapsulated into a catheter system. We examine the performance of the hybrid endoscope with phantoms and tissue sample, which shows that the hybrid endoscopy can obtain optical resolution in superficial microscopic imaging and ultrasonic tomography reconstruction resolution when imaging at greater depths.

  16. Anesthetics impact the resolution of inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Chiang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Local and volatile anesthetics are widely used for surgery. It is not known whether anesthetics impinge on the orchestrated events in spontaneous resolution of acute inflammation. Here we investigated whether a commonly used local anesthetic (lidocaine and a widely used inhaled anesthetic (isoflurane impact the active process of resolution of inflammation.Using murine peritonitis induced by zymosan and a systems approach, we report that lidocaine delayed and blocked key events in resolution of inflammation. Lidocaine inhibited both PMN apoptosis and macrophage uptake of apoptotic PMN, events that contributed to impaired PMN removal from exudates and thereby delayed the onset of resolution of acute inflammation and return to homeostasis. Lidocaine did not alter the levels of specific lipid mediators, including pro-inflammatory leukotriene B(4, prostaglandin E(2 and anti-inflammatory lipoxin A(4, in the cell-free peritoneal lavages. Addition of a lipoxin A(4 stable analog, partially rescued lidocaine-delayed resolution of inflammation. To identify protein components underlying lidocaine's actions in resolution, systematic proteomics was carried out using nanospray-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lidocaine selectively up-regulated pro-inflammatory proteins including S100A8/9 and CRAMP/LL-37, and down-regulated anti-inflammatory and some pro-resolution peptides and proteins including IL-4, IL-13, TGF-â and Galectin-1. In contrast, the volatile anesthetic isoflurane promoted resolution in this system, diminishing the amplitude of PMN infiltration and shortening the resolution interval (Ri approximately 50%. In addition, isoflurane down-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as proteins known to be active in cell migration and chemotaxis (i.e., CRAMP and cofilin-1. The distinct impact of lidocaine and isoflurane on selective molecules may underlie their opposite actions in resolution of inflammation

  17. Monolayer resolution in Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Engineering Science; Ohshima, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Engineering Science; Nakajima, K. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Engineering Science; Fujii, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Engineering Science; Mannami, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Engineering Science; Gossmann, H.J. [AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Conditions for to obtain monolayer resolution in Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy are discussed. It is shown that both high energy resolution and the grazing angle technique are essential to achieve monolayer resolution. A 90 sector magnetic spectrometer ({delta}E/E similar 0.1%) is utilized for high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (HRBS). Energy spectra of scattered 300-keV He ions from single crystals are measured with the spectrometer at grazing exit angles. The ions scattered from successive atomic layers can be resolved as separated peaks in the energy spectra. Results of some applications of HRBS are presented. (orig.).

  18. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Terra

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the multiple archive centers for the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard...

  19. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) - Aqua

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset represents multiple products archived at the multiple archive centers for the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard...

  20. Electric crosstalk impairs spatial resolution of multi-electrode arrays in retinal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R G H; Moghadam, G Khalili; Lovell, N H; Suaning, G J; Dokos, S

    2011-08-01

    Active multi-electrode arrays are used in vision prostheses, including optic nerve cuffs and cortical and retinal implants for stimulation of neural tissue. For retinal implants, arrays with up to 1500 electrodes are used in clinical trials. The ability to convey information with high spatial resolution is critical for these applications. To assess the extent to which spatial resolution is impaired by electric crosstalk, finite-element simulation of electric field distribution in a simplified passive tissue model of the retina is performed. The effects of electrode size, electrode spacing, distance to target cells, and electrode return configuration (monopolar, tripolar, hexagonal) on spatial resolution is investigated in the form of a mathematical model of electric field distribution. Results show that spatial resolution is impaired with increased distance from the electrode array to the target cells. This effect can be partly compensated by non-monopolar electrode configurations and larger electrode diameters, albeit at the expense of lower pixel densities due to larger covering areas by each stimulation electrode. In applications where multi-electrode arrays can be brought into close proximity to target cells, as presumably with epiretinal implants, smaller electrodes in monopolar configuration can provide the highest spatial resolution. However, if the implantation site is further from the target cells, as is the case in suprachoroidal approaches, hexagonally guarded electrode return configurations can convey higher spatial resolution.

  1. TAV-IR: a visible and near-IR radiometric analysis code which operates with an off-the-shelf computer animation package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Andrew C.; Mischel, Dennis P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes a new image generation software code for creating radiometrically accurate images in the visible and near-infrared wavelength band. It was developed to evaluate pilot vision through aircraft windscreens and was written to operate in conjunction with an off- the-shelf computer animation software package. This capability allows the user to take advantage of the geometric modeling and motion generation capabilities inherent within the computer animation software for scene and scenario generation while using the new image generation codes for sensor modeling. The code, called TAV-IR, uses spectral reflectance and transmittance data as a function of incidence angle to describe surface material properties and spectral illumination data to model light sources. Once the operator selects the wavelength band of interest, the spectral sampling rate and the image size, the code produces an `image cube' consisting of floating point radiometric values for each pixel and each wavelength bin modeled. This image cube is then post-processed for sensor modeling purposes and image display. The code also reads an output file from a thin-film optical coating analysis package so that the reflective and transmissive properties of coated windscreens can be modeled. An interactive image inspection and display tool with a graphical user interface was also developed. This interactive tool, called SPEC, allows image pan and zoom and permits the operator to select pixels in the scene and view the spectral data contained in the selected pixels.

  2. Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X; Vahala, K; Li, J; Diddams, S; Ycas, G; Plavchan, P; Leifer, S; Sandhu, J; Vasisht, G; Chen, P; Gao, P; Gagne, J; Furlan, E; Bottom, M; Martin, E C; Fitzgerald, M P; Doppmann, G; Beichman, C

    2016-01-27

    An important technique for discovering and characterizing planets beyond our solar system relies upon measurement of weak Doppler shifts in the spectra of host stars induced by the influence of orbiting planets. A recent advance has been the introduction of optical frequency combs as frequency references. Frequency combs produce a series of equally spaced reference frequencies and they offer extreme accuracy and spectral grasp that can potentially revolutionize exoplanet detection. Here we demonstrate a laser frequency comb using an alternate comb generation method based on electro-optical modulation, with the comb centre wavelength stabilized to a molecular or atomic reference. In contrast to mode-locked combs, the line spacing is readily resolvable using typical astronomical grating spectrographs. Built using commercial off-the-shelf components, the instrument is relatively simple and reliable. Proof of concept experiments operated at near-infrared wavelengths were carried out at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Keck-II telescope.

  3. Metal Complexes for Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy: A Cyclometallated Iridium Complex Induces Two-Photon Photosensitization of Cancer Cells under Near-IR Light

    OpenAIRE

    Mckenzie, L.; Sazanovich, I.; Baggaley, E.; Bonneau, M.; Guerchais, V.; Williams, G; Weinstein, J; Bryant, H. E.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizers (PS) which only become cytotoxic upon light-irradiation. Transition-metal complexes are highly promising PS due to long excited-state lifetimes, and high photo-stabilities. However, these complexes usually absorb higher-energy UV/Vis light, whereas the optimal tissue transparency is in the lower-energy NIR region. Two-photon excitation (TPE) can overcome this dichotomy, with simultaneous absorption of two lower-energy NI...

  4. Metal Complexes for Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy: A Cyclometallated Iridium Complex Induces Two-Photon Photosensitization of Cancer Cells under Near-IR Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Luke K; Sazanovich, Igor V; Baggaley, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Mickaële; Guerchais, Véronique; Williams, J A Gareth; Weinstein, Julia A; Bryant, Helen E

    2017-01-05

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses photosensitizers (PS) which only become cytotoxic upon light-irradiation. Transition-metal complexes are highly promising PS due to long excited-state lifetimes, and high photo-stabilities. However, these complexes usually absorb higher-energy UV/Vis light, whereas the optimal tissue transparency is in the lower-energy NIR region. Two-photon excitation (TPE) can overcome this dichotomy, with simultaneous absorption of two lower-energy NIR-photons populating the same PS-active excited state as one higher-energy photon. We introduce two low-molecular weight, long-lived and photo-stable iridium complexes of the [Ir(N^C)2 (N^N)](+) family with high TP-absorption, which localise to mitochondria and lysosomal structures in live cells. The compounds are efficient PS under 1-photon irradiation (405 nm) resulting in apoptotic cell death in diverse cancer cell lines at low light doses (3.6 J cm(-2) ), low concentrations, and photo-indexes greater than 555. Remarkably 1 also displays high PS activity killing cancer cells under NIR two-photon excitation (760 nm), which along with its photo-stability indicates potential future clinical application. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. LaB6 nanoparticles with carbon-doped silica coating for fluorescence imaging and near-IR photothermal therapy of cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, B-H; Chen, D-H

    2013-07-01

    In this study, LaB6 nanoparticles are used as a novel nanomaterial for near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy because they are cheaper than nanostructured gold, are easy to prepare and have an excellent NIR photothermal conversion property. Furthermore, the surface of LaB6 nanoparticles is coated with a carbon-doped silica (C-SiO2) shell to introduce a fluorescent property and improve stability and biocompatibility. The resulting LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles retain the excellent NIR photothermal conversion property and exhibit a bright blue emission under UV irradiation or a green emission under visible irradiation. Using a HeLa cancer cell line, it is demonstrated that LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles have no significant cytotoxicity, but their presence leads to remarkable cell death after NIR irradiation. In addition, from the observation of cellular uptake, the fluorescence labeling function of LaB6@SiO2 (LaB6 core/SiO2 shell) nanoparticles is also confirmed. These results suggest that LaB6@C-SiO2 nanoparticles may potentially serve as an efficient multifunctional nano-platform for simultaneous fluorescent imaging and NIR-triggered photothermal therapy of cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of near-IR absorbing metal-free and zinc(II phthalocyanines modified with aromatic azo groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes Özçeşmeci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal-free and zinc(II phthalocyanine complexes bearing peripheral (E-4-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yldiazenyl units have been synthesized. Novel phthalonitrile derivative required for the preparation of phthalocyanine complexes was prepared by coupling 4-aminophthalonitrile and 2-naphthol. The structures of these new compounds were characterized by using elemental analyses, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In the UV-Vis spectra a broad absorption band appears for phthalocyanine complexes at around 450–500 nm resulting from azo-group introduced onto the phthalocyanine ring. The photophysical properties of metal-free and zinc(II phthalocyanines were studied in tetrahydrofuran.

  7. Replacing effective spectral radiance by temperature in occupational exposure limits to protect against retinal thermal injury from light and near IR radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjidi, Faramarz; Behroozy, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to visible light and near infrared (NIR) radiation in the wavelength region of 380 to 1400 nm may cause thermal retinal injury. In this analysis, the effective spectral radiance of a hot source is replaced by its temperature in the exposure limit values in the region of 380-1400 nm. This article describes the development and implementation of a computer code to predict those temperatures, corresponding to the exposure limits proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Viewing duration and apparent diameter of the source were inputs for the computer code. At the first stage, an infinite series was created for calculation of spectral radiance by integration with Planck's law. At the second stage for calculation of effective spectral radiance, the initial terms of this infinite series were selected and integration was performed by multiplying these terms by a weighting factor R(λ) in the wavelength region 380-1400 nm. At the third stage, using a computer code, the source temperature that can emit the same effective spectral radiance was found. As a result, based only on measuring the source temperature and accounting for the exposure time and the apparent diameter of the source, it is possible to decide whether the exposure to visible and NIR in any 8-hr workday is permissible. The substitution of source temperature for effective spectral radiance provides a convenient way to evaluate exposure to visible light and NIR.

  8. On the biphoton excitation of the fluorescence of the bacteriochlorophyll molecules of purple photosynthetic bacteria by powerful near IR femto-picosecond pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A. Yu., E-mail: borissov@belozersky.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Belozersky Institute of Physicochemical Biology (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    The authors of a number of experimental works detected nonresonance biphoton excitation of bacteriochlorophyll molecules, which represent the main pigment in the light-absorbing natural 'antenna' complexes of photosynthesizing purple bacteria, by femtosecond IR pulses (1250-1500 nm). They believe that IR quanta excite hypothetic forbidden levels of the pigments of these bacteria in the double frequency range 625-750 nm. We propose and ground an alternative triplet mechanism to describe this phenomenon. According to our hypothesis, the mechanism of biphoton excitation of molecules by IR quanta can manifest itself specifically, through high triplet levels of molecules in the high fields induced by femtosecond-picosecond laser pulses.

  9. Vascular targeting to the SST2 receptor improves the therapeutic response to near-IR two-photon activated PDT for deep-tissue cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Jean R; Pascucci, Elizabeth M; Drobizhev, Mikhail A; Elliott, Aleisha; Rebane, Aleksander K

    2013-10-01

    Broader clinical acceptance of photodynamic therapy is currently hindered by (a) poor depth efficacy, and (b) predisposition towards establishment of an angiogenic environment during the treatment. Improved depth efficacy is being sought by exploiting the NIR tissue transparency window and by photo-activation using two-photon absorption (2PA). Here, we use two-photon activation of PDT sensitizers, untargeted and targeted to SST2 receptors or EGF receptors, to achieve deep tissue treatment. Human tumor lines, positive or negative for SST2r expression were used, as well as murine 3LL cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells. Expression of SST2 receptors on cancer cells and tumor vasculature was evaluated in vitro and frozen xenograft sections. PDT effects on tumor blood flow were followed using in vivo scanning after intravenous injection of FITC conjugated dextran 150K. Dependence of the PDT efficacy on the laser pulse duration was evaluated. Effectiveness of targeting to vascular SST2 receptors was compared to that of EGF receptors, or no targeting. Tumor vasculature stained for SST2 receptors even in tumors from SST2 receptor negative cell lines, and SST2r targeted PDT led to tumor vascular shutdown. Stretching the pulse from ~120fs to ~3ps led to loss of the PDT efficacy especially at greater depth. PDT targeted to SST2 receptors was much more effective than untargeted PDT or PDT targeted to EGF receptors. The use of octreotate to target SST2 receptors expressed on tumor vessels is an excellent approach to PDT with few recurrences and some long term cures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced broadband near-IR luminescence and gain spectra of bismuth/erbium co-doped fiber by 830 and 980 nm dual pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiancheng Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A dual 830 and 980 nm pumping scheme is proposed aiming at broadening and flattening the spectral performance of bismuth/erbium codoped multicomponent fiber (BEDF. The spectral properties of distinct Bi active centers (BACs associated with germanium (BAC-Ge, aluminium (BAC-Al, phosphorus (BAC-P and silicon (BAC-Si are characterized under single pumping of 830 and 980 nm, respectively. Based on the emission slope efficiencies of BAC-Al (∼1100 nm and BAC-Si (∼1430 nm under single pumping of 830 and 980 nm, the dual pumping scheme with the optimal pump power ratio of 25 (980 nm VS 830 nm is determined to achieve flat, ultrabroadband luminescence spectra covering the wavelength range 950-1600 nm. The dual pumping scheme is further demonstrated on the on-off gain performance of BEDF. It is found under the pump power ratio of ∼8 (980 VS 830 nm, The gain spectrum has been flattened and broadened over 300 nm (1300-1600 nm with an average gain coefficient of ∼1.5 dBm-1. The spectral coverage is approximately 1.5 and 3 times wider compared to single pumping of 830 and 980 nm pumping, respectively. The energy level diagrams of 830 and 980 nm are also constructed separately in view of the optical characteristic, which further clarifies the advantage for dual pumping. The proposed dual 830 and 980 nm pumping scheme with the multicomponent BEDF shows great potential in various broadband optical applications such as uniform ASE source, broadband amplifier and tuneable laser in NIR band.

  11. Conformational Transformations of Hemoglobin Molecules During in vivo Blood Irradiation by Low-Intensity Laser Radiation in the Red and Near IR Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.

    2014-07-01

    The effect of in vivo blood irradiation by low-intensity laser radiation on electronic-conformational interactions in hemoglobin molecules has been studied experimentally. The changes in the electronic and IR absorption spectra were followed for blood samples drawn at specific times during intravenous and supravascular irradiation, and also after dark reactions have occurred. The nature of the spectral changes observed is discussed. It is shown that the reversible photodissociation of hemoglobin-ligand complexes, initiated by blood irradiation, changes the oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin levels, which leads to changes in the electronic absorption spectra of the blood and erythrocytes, and all the conformational transitions in the hemoglobin macromolecules accompanying ligand detachment and addition are responsible for the changes in their IR spectra.

  12. On the origin of near-IR luminescence in Bi-doped materials (I). Generation of low-valence bismuth species by Bi 3+ and Bi 0 synproportionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, Alexey N.; Fattakhova, Zukhra T.; Zhigunov, Denis M.; Korchak, Vladimir N.; Sulimov, Vladimir B.

    2011-02-01

    Creation of bismuth-containing near-infrared (NIR) luminescent centers by synproportionation reaction of Bi 3+ and Bi 0 was demonstrated in borate and phosphate glasses. This finding is discussed in the light of low-valence nature of bismuth NIR-luminescent centers. The experimental data is consistent with the hypothesis of univalent Bi + (and, possible, subvalent cluster Bi ions) as a source of NIR luminescence. The dependence of Bi luminescent centers stability on oxoacidity of glass melts was discussed.

  13. Getting the Windshield DIRTY: Optical/Near-IR Survey of Old Dusty Novae to Study the Assimilation of Dust into the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornak, Jillian; Harrison, Thomas; Hoffman, Douglas; Gordon, Karl

    2011-02-01

    Dust is fundamental to astronomy from the ``dirty windshield'' of the Milky Way to forming new stars and planets. Our understanding of dust dissemination into the ISM is incomplete, but classical novae (CNe) provide windows to study dust on a convenient timescale. Observations of CNe dust imply masses larger than theoretical models predict. We suggest the error lies in ignoring filling factor and will use DIRTY to model inhomogeneous CNe dust shells. We request 2 nights on the SOAR 4.1m and 4 nights on the SMARTS 1.0m to survey dusty CNe. We require the optical data to calorimeter the central binary that is illuminating the dust, so our models can account for this source. We have extensive time coverage for three CNe outbursts and can apply these detailed models to other recent CNe observed with Spitzer. We can then extrapolate to old CNe using WISE data, allowing us to study the dust as it encounters the ISM. This project is in conjunction with a survey of Northern hemisphere CNe at Apache Point Observatory.

  14. Experimental and theoretical investigation of silver-coated ZnO nanorod arrays as antennas for the visible and near-IR spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidashev, E. M.; Lyanguzov, N. V.; Lerer, A. M.; Raspopova, E. A.

    2014-04-01

    A new design of optical antennas consisting of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods covered by a thin metal film is proposed. Arrays of highly oriented ZnO nanorods perpendicular to a substrate and covered by a thin silver film have been obtained using methods of carbothermal synthesis and magnetron sputtering. The problems of electromagnetic wave diffraction on a single metal/dielectric nanovibrator (situated at the interface of dielectrics) and on a two-dimensional periodic array of these nanovibrators have been solved. The results of calculations of the electrodynamic characteristics of optical antennas with various lengths have been compared to experimental data.

  15. Linear and nonlinear behaviour of near-IR intersubband transitions of cubic GaN/AlN multi quantum well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecker, T.; Jostmeier, T.; Rieger, T.; Neumann, E.; Pawlis, A.; Betz, M.; Reuter, D.; As, D. J.

    2017-11-01

    The linear and nonlinear behaviour of intersubband transitions of cubic GaN/AlN multi quantum well (QW) structures in the IR spectral region is investigated. In this study photoluminescence, IR absorption as well as pump-probe measurements are done. Two cubic GaN/AlN multi quantum wells with Si content of NSi 1019 cm-3 in the cubic GaN quantum wells were grown on 3C-SiC (001) substrate by radio-frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. A broad IR absorption with a FWHM of 370 meV was found with a maximum at 0.7 eV, corresponding to the intersubband transition of the multi quantum wells. The nonlinear optical measurement reveals a clear change of transmission for a pump pulse with an angle of incidence of 65°. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy measurements are used to determine the real layer thicknesses. These thickness values are exploited in the calculation with the Schrödinger-Poisson solver nextnano³. The simulated transition energies agree very well with the experimental data for the photoluminescence and the absorption measurement.

  16. A bright near-IR state of the blazar 4C 38.41 (1633+382) observed by the GASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnerero, M. I.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Velasco, S.; Gonzalez-Morales, Pedro A.

    2013-07-01

    The flat-spectrum radio quasar 4C 38.41 (1633+382) is one of the 28 blazars for which the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) performs a long-term, multiwavelength monitoring.

  17. Pulsation-induced atmospheric dynamics in M-type AGB stars. Effects on wind properties, photometric variations and near-IR CO line profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljegren, S.; Höfner, S.; Eriksson, K.; Nowotny, W.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Wind-driving in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is commonly attributed to a two-step process. First, matter in the stellar atmosphere is levitated by shock waves, induced by stellar pulsation, and second, this matter is accelerated by radiation pressure on dust, resulting in a wind. In dynamical atmosphere and wind models the effects of the stellar pulsation are often simulated by a simplistic prescription at the inner boundary. Aims: We test a sample of dynamical models for M-type AGB stars, for which we kept the stellar parameters fixed to values characteristic of a typical Mira variable but varied the inner boundary condition. The aim was to evaluate the effect on the resulting atmosphere structure and wind properties. The results of the models are compared to observed mass-loss rates and wind velocities, photometry, and radial velocity curves, and to results from 1D radial pulsation models. The goal is to find boundary conditions which give realistic atmosphere and wind properties. Methods: Dynamical atmosphere models are calculated, using the DARWIN code for different combinations of photospheric velocities and luminosity variations. The inner boundary is changed by introducing an offset between maximum expansion of the stellar surface and the luminosity and/or by using an asymmetric shape for the luminosity variation. Ninety-nine different combinations of theses two changes are tested. Results: The model atmospheres are very sensitive to the inner boundary. Models that resulted in realistic wind velocities and mass-loss rates, when compared to observations, also produced realistic photometric variations. For the models to also reproduce the characteristic radial velocity curve present in Mira stars (derived from CO Δv = 3 lines), an overall phase shift of 0.2 between the maxima of the luminosity and radial variation had to be introduced. This is a larger phase shift than is found by 1D radial pulsation models. Conclusions: We find that a group of models with different boundary conditions (29 models, including the model with standard boundary conditions) results in realistic velocities and mass-loss rates, and in photometric variations. To achieve the correct line splitting time variation a phase shift is needed.

  18. A survey of 286 Virgo cluster galaxies at optical griz and near-IR H band: surface brightness profiles and bulge-disc decompositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Courteau, Stéphane; Tully, R. Brent; Roediger, Joel

    2011-07-01

    We present and g-, r-, i-, z- and H-band surface brightness profiles and bulge-disc decompositions for a morphologically broad sample of 286 Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC) galaxies. The H-band data come from a variety of sources including our survey of 171 VCC galaxies at the University of Hawaii (UH) 2.2-m telescope, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), and another 115 galaxies from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) and GOLDMine archives. The optical data for all 286 VCC galaxies were extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images. The H-band and the SDSS griz data were analysed in a homogeneous manner using our own software, yielding a consistent set of deep, multiband surface brightness profiles for each galaxy. Average surface brightness profiles per morphological bin were created in order to characterize the variety of galaxy light profiles across the Hubble sequence. The 1D bulge-disc decomposition parameters, as well as non-parametric galaxy measures, such as effective radius, effective surface brightness and light concentration, are presented for all 286 VCC galaxies in each of the five optical/near-infrared wavebands. The profile decompositions account for bulge and disc components, spiral arms, nucleus and atmospheric blurring. The Virgo spiral galaxy bulges typically have a Sérsic index n˜ 1, while elliptical galaxies prefer n˜ 2. No galaxy spheroid requires n > 3. The light profiles for 70 per cent of the Virgo elliptical galaxies reveal the presence of both a spheroid and disc component. A more in-depth discussion of the structural parameter trends can be found in McDonald, Courteau & Tully. The data provided here should serve as a base for studies of galaxy structure and stellar populations in the cluster environment. The galaxy light profiles and bulge-disc decomposition results are available at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; ) and the author's own website ().

  19. A Low-Cost Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer (Mini-LHR) for Near-ir Measurements of CO2 and CH4 in the Atmospheric Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Emily Wilson

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) is a ground-based passive variation of a laser heterodyne radiometer that uses sunlight to measure absorption of CO2 andCH4 in the infrared. Sunlight is collected using collimation optics mounted to an AERONET sun tracker, modulated with a fiber switch and mixed with infrared laser light in a fast photoreciever.The amplitude of the resultant RF (radio frequency) beat signal correlates with the concentration of the gas in the atmospheric column.

  20. Functionalized Eu(III)-Based Nanoscale Metal-Organic Framework To Achieve Near-IR-Triggered and -Targeted Two-Photon Absorption Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianguo; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Min; Shan, Changfu; Yan, Huicheng; Wu, Wenyu; Gao, Xuan; Cheng, Bo; Liu, Weisheng; Tang, Yu

    2018-01-02

    The postsynthetic-modified nanoscale metal-organic framework (NMOF) probes selected as potential drug delivery platforms and photodynamic therapy agents to fulfill the effective and safe treatment of neoplastic diseases have attracted increasing attention recently. Herein, a Eu(III)-based NMOF probe elaborately postsynthetically modified with a β-diketonate two-photon-absorbing (TPA) ligand is rationally designed and further functionalized by assembling the photosensitizer molecule (methylene blue, MB) in the pores and a cyclic peptide targeting motif on the surface of the NMOF, which could achieve highly efficient near-infrared (NIR)-triggered and -targeted photodynamic therapy (PDT). On the basis of the luminescence resonance energy transfer process between the NMOF donor and the photosensitizer MB acceptor, the probe can achieve a high tissue-penetrable TPA-PDT effect. Thus, the NMOFs in this study play the role of not only the nanocontainer for the photosensitizer but also the energy-transfer donor. Studies in vitro show enhanced cellular uptake and satisfactory PDT effectiveness toward cancer cells compared to the free photosensitizer MB. It is highly expected that this study contributes to the development of smart luminescent diagnostic and therapeutic probes.

  1. Anesthetics Impact the Resolution of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredman, Gabrielle; Kasuga, Kie; Gelman, Simon; Serhan, Charles N.

    2008-01-01

    Background Local and volatile anesthetics are widely used for surgery. It is not known whether anesthetics impinge on the orchestrated events in spontaneous resolution of acute inflammation. Here we investigated whether a commonly used local anesthetic (lidocaine) and a widely used inhaled anesthetic (isoflurane) impact the active process of resolution of inflammation. Methods and Findings Using murine peritonitis induced by zymosan and a systems approach, we report that lidocaine delayed and blocked key events in resolution of inflammation. Lidocaine inhibited both PMN apoptosis and macrophage uptake of apoptotic PMN, events that contributed to impaired PMN removal from exudates and thereby delayed the onset of resolution of acute inflammation and return to homeostasis. Lidocaine did not alter the levels of specific lipid mediators, including pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4, prostaglandin E2 and anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4, in the cell-free peritoneal lavages. Addition of a lipoxin A4 stable analog, partially rescued lidocaine-delayed resolution of inflammation. To identify protein components underlying lidocaine's actions in resolution, systematic proteomics was carried out using nanospray-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lidocaine selectively up-regulated pro-inflammatory proteins including S100A8/9 and CRAMP/LL-37, and down-regulated anti-inflammatory and some pro-resolution peptides and proteins including IL-4, IL-13, TGF-â and Galectin-1. In contrast, the volatile anesthetic isoflurane promoted resolution in this system, diminishing the amplitude of PMN infiltration and shortening the resolution interval (Ri) ∼50%. In addition, isoflurane down-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as proteins known to be active in cell migration and chemotaxis (i.e., CRAMP and cofilin-1). The distinct impact of lidocaine and isoflurane on selective molecules may underlie their opposite actions in resolution of inflammation

  2. USGS MODERATE RESOLUTION LAND IMAGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, J. L.; Willems, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    For the past 37 years, the Landsat series of satellites has provided continuous data of the Earth’s land masses, coastal boundaries, and coral reefs creating an unprecedented comprehensive record of landscape dynamics. Landsat 5 and 7 continue to capture hundreds of images of the Earth’s surface each day. In mid-December 2008, the USGS made the entire Landsat archive available to everyone, anywhere, at anytime via the Internet at no cost to the user. The opening of the Landsat archive, the longest record of the terrestrial environment, is a revolution that will affect the future of moderate resolution Earth observations, enabling scientists to address research questions and develop operational applications that were previously cost prohibitive. In addition, the time-series data richness of the archive allows for the development of essential climate variables used to monitor the causes and consequences of lands cover change as a function of climate variability and anthropogenic influences. Landsat is unique as a single source of systematic, global land observations in terms of the number of spectral bands, global collection capacity, image quality, and the proven fidelity of its calibrated sensors. Through the Land Remote Sensing Policy Act of 1992 and the Presidential Decision Direct/NSTC-3 (1994), as amended on October 16, 2000, the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) is charged to ensure the continuity of Landsat data. To accomplish this, the USGS, in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is currently preparing for the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) in December 2012, the eighth satellite in the Landsat Program. The LDCM will ensure the continuation of the Landsat record and will consist of significant improvements in radiometric response and additional spectral bands, from which high quality data products will be generated and accessible to users at no cost.

  3. High-Resolution EUV Spectroscopy of White Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Michael P.; Wood, K. S.; Barstow, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    We compare results of high-resolution EUV spectroscopic measurements of the isolated white dwarf G191-B2B and the binary system Feige 24 obtained with the J-PEX (Joint Plasmadynamic Experiment), which was sponsored jointly by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and NASA. J-PEX delivers the world's highest resolution in EUV and does so at high effective area (e.g., more effective area in a sounding rocket than is available with Chandra at adjacent energies, but in a waveband Chandra cannot reach). The capability J-PEX represents is applicable to the astrophysics of hot plasmas in stellar coronae, white dwarfs and the ISM. G191-B2B and Feige 24 are quite distinct hot white dwarf systems having in common that they are bright in the portion of the EUV where He emission features and edges occur, hence they can be exploited to probe both the stellar atmosphere and the ISM, separating those components by model-fitting that sums over all relevant (He) spectral features in the band. There is evidence from these fits that atmospheric He is being detected but the result is more conservatively cast as a pair of upper limits. We discuss how longer duration satellite observations with the same instrumentation could increase exposure to detect atmospheric He in these and other nearby hot white dwarfs.

  4. Bright Semiconductor Scintillator for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Ovechkina, Olena E.; Miller, Stuart; Singh, Bipin; Guo, Liang; Irving, Thomas (IIT); (Rad. Monitoring)

    2011-08-16

    We report on a novel approach to produce oxygen-doped zinc telluride (ZnTe:O), a remarkable group II-VI semiconductor scintillator, fabricated in the columnar-structured or polycrystalline forms needed to fulfill the needs of many demanding X-ray and {gamma}-ray imaging applications. ZnTe:O has one of the highest conversion efficiencies among known scintillators, emission around 680 nm (which is ideally suited for CCD sensors), high density of 6.4 g/cm{sup 3}, fast decay time of {approx}1 {micro}s with negligible afterglow, and orders of magnitude higher radiation resistance compared to commonly used scintillators. These properties allow the use of ZnTe:O in numerous applications, including X-ray imaging, nuclear medicine (particularly SPECT), room temperature radioisotope identification, and homeland security. Additionally, ZnTe:O offers distinct advantages for synchrotron-based high resolution imaging due to the absence of atomic absorption edges in the low energy range, which otherwise reduce resolution due to secondary X-ray formations. We have fabricated films of ZnTe:O using a vapor deposition technique that allows large-area structured scintillator fabrication in a time- and cost-efficient manner, and evaluated its performance for small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) at an Argonne National Laboratory synchrotron beamline. Details of the fabrication and characterization of the optical, scintillation and imaging properties of the ZnTe:O films are presented in this paper.

  5. Application of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT radiation in dental implant osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neldam, Camilla Albeck; Lauridsen, Torsten; Rack, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a refined method using high-resolution synchrotron radiation microtomography (SRmicro-CT) to evaluate osseointegration and peri-implant bone volume fraction after titanium dental implant insertion. SRmicro-CT is considered gold standard evaluating bone...... microarchitecture. Its high resolution, high contrast, and excellent high signal-to-noise-ratio all contribute to the highest spatial resolutions achievable today. Using SRmicro-CT at a voxel size of 5 μm in an experimental goat mandible model, the peri-implant bone volume fraction was found to quickly increase...... to 50% as the radial distance from the implant surface increased, and levelled out to approximately 80% at a distance of 400 μm. This method has been successful in depicting the bone and cavities in three dimensions thereby enabling us to give a more precise answer to the fraction of the bone-to-implant...

  6. 20 CFR 627.481 - Audit resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit resolution. 627.481 Section 627.481 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Administrative Standards § 627.481 Audit resolution. (a...

  7. High resolution surface plasmon imaging of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berguiga, Lotfi; Roland, Thibault; Fahys, Audrey; Elezgaray, Juan; Argoul, Françoise

    2010-05-01

    We report a technique of surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) called SSPM (Scanning Surface Plasmon Microscopy) which pushes down the resolution limit to sub-micronic scales. To confirm the sensitivity and resolution of this non labeling microscopy we show images of gold and dielectric nanoparticules detected in air. The contrast mechanism is discussed versus the defocusing and versus the nature of the particules.

  8. New leads to resolutions : the family approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afraz, Marcel Cyrus

    2003-01-01

    The thesis is about the resolution of racemates, which is still the most convenient and commonly applied method to obtain optically pure products, both in the fine-chemical industry and in the laboratory. From an industrial point of view classical resolution using diastereomeric salts still

  9. A Macro Approach to International Bank Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the aftermath of the Great Financial Crisis, regulators have rushed to strengthen banking supervision and implement bank resolution regimes. While such resolution regimes are welcome to reintroduce market discipline and reduce the reliance on taxpayer-funded bailouts, the effects

  10. University Students' Perceptions of Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the perceptions of American and international students on conflict resolution, and to determine if the students were willing to participate in conflict resolution. A survey was given to 226 students at an eastern university that asked them to identify a major international conflict and whether they felt…

  11. Magnetic Resonance Lithography with Nanometer Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad AlGhannam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an approach for super-resolution optical lithography which is based on the inverse of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The technique uses atomic coherence in an ensemble of spin systems whose final state population can be optically detected. In principle, our method is capable of producing arbitrary one and two dimensional high-resolution patterns with high contrast.

  12. Conflict Resolution between Mexican Origin Adolescent Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Sarah E.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated correlates of adolescents' sibling conflict resolution strategies in 246, two-parent Mexican origin families. Specifically, we examined links between siblings' conflict resolution strategies and sibling dyad characteristics, siblings' cultural orientations and values, and sibling relationship qualities. Data were gathered during…

  13. Conflict Resolution between Friends during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anupama

    2008-01-01

    The author interviewed 74 children (ages 8.5-11.5 years) in an exploratory study of interpersonal conflict resolution between children. Results suggest that children (a) most frequently used assertion and discussion as conflict resolution strategies, (b) used more than one strategy in a single conflict, and (c) used a strategy that corresponded to…

  14. Conflict Resolution Practices of Arctic Aboriginal Peoples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendron, R.; Hille, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the conflict resolution practices of indigenous populations in the Arctic. Among the aboriginal groups discussed are the Inuit, the Aleut, and the Saami. Having presented the conflict resolution methods, the authors discuss the types of conflicts that are

  15. Conflict Resolution for the Young Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Julie

    This paper outlines a curriculum for young children that emphasizes conflict resolution and social development. It discusses the causes of violent behavior among children and describes activities and recommends children's literature on conflict resolution that can be used in the classroom. Several activities are examined, including role-playing…

  16. Axial Super-resolution Evanescent Wave Tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Pendharker, Sarang; Newman, Ward; Ogg, Stephen; Nazemifard, Neda; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Optical tomographic reconstruction of a 3D nanoscale specimen is hindered by the axial diffraction limit, which is 2-3 times worse than the focal plane resolution. We propose and experimentally demonstrate an axial super-resolution evanescent wave tomography (AxSET) method that enables the use of regular evanescent wave microscopes like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscope (TIRF) beyond surface imaging, and achieve tomographic reconstruction with axial super-resolution. Our proposed method based on Fourier reconstruction achieves axial super-resolution by extracting information from multiple sets of three-dimensional fluorescence images when the sample is illuminated by an evanescent wave. We propose a procedure to extract super-resolution features from the incremental penetration of an evanescent wave and support our theory by 1D (along the optical axis) and 3D simulations. We validate our claims by experimentally demonstrating tomographic reconstruction of microtubules in HeLa cells with an axi...

  17. AIRCRAFT CONFLICTS RESOLUTION BY COURSE MANEUVERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Харченко

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of requirements for air traffic efficiency at increasing of flights intensity determines the necessity of development of new optimization methods for aircraft conflict resolutions. The statement of problem of optimal conflict resolutions at Cooperative Air Traffic Management was done. The method for optimal aircraft conflict  resolution by course maneuvering has been  developed. The method using dynamic programming provides planning of aircraft conflict-free trajectory with minimum length. The decomposition of conflict resolution process on phases and stages, definition of states, controls and recursive  equations for generation of optimal course control program were done. Computer modeling of aircraft conflict resolution by developed method was done

  18. Hierarchical super-resolution-based inpainting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Meur, Olivier; Ebdelli, Mounira; Guillemot, Christine

    2013-10-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for examplar-based inpainting. It consists in performing first the inpainting on a coarse version of the input image. A hierarchical super-resolution algorithm is then used to recover details on the missing areas. The advantage of this approach is that it is easier to inpaint low-resolution pictures than high-resolution ones. The gain is both in terms of computational complexity and visual quality. However, to be less sensitive to the parameter setting of the inpainting method, the low-resolution input picture is inpainted several times with different configurations. Results are efficiently combined with a loopy belief propagation and details are recovered by a single-image super-resolution algorithm. Experimental results in a context of image editing and texture synthesis demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared to five state-of-the-art inpainting methods.

  19. Sensitivity of the Baltic Sea level prediction to spatial model resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Marek; Kowalewska-Kalkowska, Halina

    2017-09-01

    The three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the Baltic Sea (M3D) and its new parallel version (PM3D), developed at the Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk in Poland, was tested to establish a grid resolution adequate for the Baltic Sea level prediction. Four outputs of the M3D/PM3D, calculated with spatial resolution varying from 3 NM to 0.5 NM, were validated by comparing the results with hourly sea level readings collected at 9 Baltic gauges in 2010-2015. The spatial resolution of 1 NM applied to the Baltic Sea resulted in a distinct improvement of agreement between the calculated and observed distributions of data. An increase in the resolution to 0.5 NM in the southern Baltic Sea improved the model quality further, as indicated by the lowest variability, the highest correlation and the highest percentage of water level simulations within the range of ± 0.15 m difference relative to readings. The increase in horizontal resolution allowed to improve the fit between the observed water levels and those calculated by the PM3D in the cases of rapid sea level fluctuations, such as those registered in January 2012. The model performed slightly worse for stations with larger ranges of water level oscillations. As parallel calculations were used in the PM3D, the time necessary for computing the simulations was significantly reduced, which allowed to apply the high-resolution grid also to the operational version of the model.

  20. Resolution on the program energy-climate; Resolution sur le paquet energie-climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the resolutions proposed in the resolution proposition n. 1261 and concerning the european Commission program on the energy policies and the climate change. Twelve resolution are presented on the energy sources development, the energy efficiency, the energy economy and the carbon taxes. (A.L.B.)