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Sample records for highest reach tests

  1. Clades reach highest morphological disparity early in their evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Martin; Gerber, Sylvain; Albion Wills, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    There are few putative macroevolutionary trends or rules that withstand scrutiny. Here, we test and verify the purported tendency for animal clades to reach their maximum morphological variety relatively early in their evolutionary histories (early high disparity). We present a meta-analysis of 98 metazoan clades radiating throughout the Phanerozoic. The disparity profiles of groups through time are summarized in terms of their center of gravity (CG), with values above and below 0.50 indicating top- and bottom-heaviness, respectively. Clades that terminate at one of the "big five" mass extinction events tend to have truncated trajectories, with a significantly top-heavy CG distribution overall. The remaining 63 clades show the opposite tendency, with a significantly bottom-heavy mean CG (relatively early high disparity). Resampling tests are used to identify groups with a CG significantly above or below 0.50; clades not terminating at a mass extinction are three times more likely to be significantly bottom-heavy than top-heavy. Overall, there is no clear temporal trend in disparity profile shapes from the Cambrian to the Recent, and early high disparity is the predominant pattern throughout the Phanerozoic. Our results do not allow us to distinguish between ecological and developmental explanations for this phenomenon. To the extent that ecology has a role, however, the paucity of bottom-heavy clades radiating in the immediate wake of mass extinctions suggests that early high disparity more probably results from the evolution of key apomorphies at the base of clades rather than from physical drivers or catastrophic ecospace clearing.

  2. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  3. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Guerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse- Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  4. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Guerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse-Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  5. Testing chemical composition of highest energy comic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Nosek, D; Noskova, J; Ebr, J

    2013-01-01

    We study basic characteristics of distributions of the depths of shower maximum in air showers caused by cosmic rays with the highest energies. The consistency between their average values and widths, and their energy dependences are discussed within a simple phenomenological model of shower development independently of assumptions about detailed features of high--energy interactions. It is shown that reliable information on primary species can be derived within a partition method. We present examples demonstrating implications for the changes in mass composition of primary cosmic rays.

  6. Distance Reached in the Anteromedial Reach Test as a Function of Learning and Leg Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Nicholas P.; Rushton, Alison B.; Wright, Chris C.; Batt, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    The Anteromedial Reach Test (ART) is a new outcome measure for assessing dynamic knee stability in anterior cruciate ligament-injured patients. The effect of learning and leg length on distance reached in the ART was examined. Thirty-two healthy volunteers performed 15 trials of the ART on each leg. There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.44-0.50)…

  7. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

    dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half......Medical Education 2011: 45: 1111-1120 Context  Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent...... years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...

  8. Medical school dropout - testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta;

    2011-01-01

     years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Results  Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission...... dropout. Methods  This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n = 1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half...... took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2...

  9. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we...... methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd....... present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo...

  10. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Fernández, Alberto; Kühne, Ralph; Franco, Antonio; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-08-01

    REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-Time Fall Risk Assessment Using Functional Reach Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Williams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls are common and dangerous for survivors of stroke at all stages of recovery. The widespread need to assess fall risk in real time for individuals after stroke has generated emerging requests for a reliable, inexpensive, quantifiable, and remote clinical measure/tool. In order to meet these requests, we explore the Functional Reach Test (FRT for real-time fall risk assessment and implement the FRT function in mStroke, a real-time and automatic mobile health system for poststroke recovery and rehabilitation. mStroke is designed, developed, and delivered as an Application (App running on a hardware platform consisting of an iPad and one or two wireless body motion sensors based on different mobile health functions. The FRT function in mStroke is extensively tested on healthy human subjects to verify its concept and feasibility. Preliminary performance will be presented to justify the further exploration of the FRT function in mStroke through clinical trials on individuals after stroke, which may guide its ubiquitous exploitation in the near future.

  12. Predictive validity of the UPDRS postural stability score and the Functional Reach Test, when compared with ecologically valid reaching tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, M E; Johnson, A M; Holmes, J D; Stephenson, F F; Spaulding, S J

    2010-07-01

    Balance problems and falls are a common concern among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Falls frequently occur during daily activities such as reaching into cupboards in the kitchen or bathroom. This study compared the correlation among two standard postural stability tests - the postural stability score on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the Functional Reach Test (FRT) - and ecologically valid reaching tasks that correspond to reaching at different cupboard heights among 20 individuals with PD and 20 age-matched controls. Both the FRT and the UPDRS postural stability tests are quick measures that can be performed during the clinical examination. The FRT, but not the postural stability score, demonstrated a significant correlation with the ecologically valid reaching tasks, among individuals with PD. Furthermore the FRT scores did not correlate with the UPDRS postural stability scores, indicating that these are measuring different aspects of balance. This study suggests that the FRT score may better predict the risk of postural instability encountered during daily activities among individuals with PD.

  13. Avaliação do desempenho dos testes functional reach e lateral reach em amostra populacional brasileira Assessment of performance in the functional reach and lateral reach tests in a Brazilian population sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRM Silveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os padrões de desempenho dos testes Functional Reach e Lateral Reach em uma amostra de indivíduos saudáveis de 20 a 87 anos e verificar a influência do gênero, idade, estatura do indivíduo, peso corporal, comprimentos do braço e do pé. MÉTODO: foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal com 98 pessoas de ambos os gêneros, que residiam na capital e interior de São Paulo. Os voluntários tiveram suas medidas descritivas registradas e posteriormente foram submetidos aos testes Functional Reach e Lateral Reach. RESULTADOS: Para o FR, todas as variáveis tiveram influência, exceto o comprimento do braço (p=0,057, o peso corporal (p=0,746 e a base de suporte usada no momento da avaliação (p=0,384. As variáveis que exerceram maior influência foram o gênero (p=0,001, a idade (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the performance in the functional reach test (FR and lateral reach test (LR among a sample of healthy individuals aged 20 to 87 years and to verify the influence of gender, age, height, body weight, arm length and foot length. METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 98 people of both genders living in the city of São Paulo and other places in the State of São Paulo. The volunteers were measured and then underwent FR and LR. RESULTS: All the variables had an influence on FR, except arm length (p=0.057, body weight (p=0.746 and the support base used at the time of assessment (p=0.384. The variables exerting greatest influence were the individual's gender (p=0.001, age (p<0.001 and height (p=0.004. This analysis showed that women had less anterior and lateral functional reach than men. There was a substantial positive correlation (r=0.696 between the left and right LR findings. FR had a moderate positive correlation of 0.405 with the left LR and a substantial positive correlation of 0.614 with the right LR. For LR, the height, weight, foot length and arm length

  14. A comparison of the sit-and-reach test and the back-saver sit-and-reach test in university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Andújar, Pilar Sáinz de Baranda; Rodrñguez-Garcña, Pedro L

    2009-01-01

    ...) between the sit-and-reach test (SR) and the back-saver sit-and-reach test (BS). Seventy-six men (mean age ± SD: 23.45 ± 3.96 years) and 67 women (mean age ± SD: 23.85 ± 5.36 years) were asked to perform three trials of SR, BS left...

  15. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis. METHODS: Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language. RESULTS: By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change. CONCLUSIONS: The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  16. Experiences of the REACH testing proposals system to reduce animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katy; Stengel, Wolfgang; Casalegno, Carlotta; Andrew, David

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce animal testing, companies registering chemical substances under the EU REACH legislation must propose rather than conduct certain tests on animals. Third parties can submit 'scientifically valid information' relevant to these proposals to the Agency responsible, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), who are obliged to take the information into account. The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE) provided comments on nearly half of the 817 proposals for vertebrate tests on 480 substances published for comment for the first REACH deadline (between 1 August 2009 and 31 July 2012). The paper summarises the response by registrants and the Agency to third party comments and highlights issues with the use of read across, in vitro tests, QSAR and weight of evidence approaches. Use of existing data and evidence that testing is legally or scientifically unjustified remain the most successful comments for third parties to submit. There is a worrying conservatism within the Agency regarding the acceptance of alternative approaches and examples of where registrants have also failed to maximise opportunities to avoid testing.

  17. A comparison of the spine posture among several sit-and-reach test protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñarro, Pedro A López; Andújar, Pilar Sáinz de Baranda; García, Pedro L Rodríguez; Toro, Enrique Ortega

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the thoracic and lumbar spine posture among different sit-and-reach tests. Fifty-eight men and 47 women were asked to perform three trials of sit-and-reach test (SR), toe-touch test (TT), back-saver sit-and-reach test (BS) right and left, unilateral seated sit-and-reach test (USR) right and left, and V sit-and-reach test (VSR). Thoracic and lumbar angles were assessed with an inclinometer when subjects reached forward maximally. Women had a lower thoracic angle than men on all tests (pspine when compared to other tests (30.5 degrees in men and 32.0 degrees in women). Unilateral seated sit-and-reach test presented the lowest lumbar angle in men (24.2 degrees for right leg and 23.9 degrees for left leg) and women (23.9 degrees in both legs) and there were significant differences with respect to the other tests. Characteristics and administration procedures of tests, such us uni- or bilateral, sitting or standing, measuring with or without box, parallel or V position, and hip position influence thoracic and lumbar postures.

  18. Why does Rhinopithecus bieti prefer the highest elevation range in winter? A test of the sunshine hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Chang Quan

    Full Text Available Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti. We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1 R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100-4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500-4500 m; 2 both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3 within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4 monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding

  19. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  20. Usefulness of the jump-and-reach test in assessment of vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Hans-Joachim; Chagas, Mauro H; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Araujo, Silvia R; Campos, Carlos E; Giannetti, Marcus R

    2010-02-01

    The objective was to estimate the reliability and criterion-related validity of the Jump-and-Reach Test for the assessment of squat, countermovement, and drop jump performance of 32 male Brazilian professional volleyball players. Performance of squat, countermovement, and drop jumps with different dropping heights was assessed on the Jump-and-Reach Test and the measurement of flight time, then compared across different jump trials. The very high reliability coefficients of both assessment methods and the lower correlation coefficients between scores on the assessments indicate a very high consistency of each method but only moderate covariation, which means that they measure partly different items. As a consequence, the Jump-and-Reach Test has good ecological validity in situations when reaching height during the flight phase is critical for performance (e.g., basketball and volleyball) but only limited accuracy for the assessment of vertical impulse production with different jump techniques and conditions.

  1. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required. 2016 FRAME.

  2. REACH, non-testing approaches and the urgent need for a change in mind set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Kroese, E.D.; Tielemans, E.L.J.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Leeuwen, C.J. van

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of REACH cannot be achieved under the current risk assessment approach. A change in mind set among all the relevant stakeholders is needed: risk assessment should move away from a labor-intensive and animal-consuming approach to intelligent and pragmatic testing, by combining exposure

  3. Effects of Resistance Training on the Sit-and-Reach Test in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Santarem Jose Maria; Filho, Wilson Jacob; Marucci, Maria de Fatima Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week resistance training program on older women's flexibility (evaluated through the sit- and-reach test performed before and after the training program). Participants were compared to inactive older women. The training program resulted in significant increases in participants' flexibility, suggesting that weight…

  4. REACH, non-testing approaches and the urgent need for a change in mind set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, G.; Kroese, E.D.; Tielemans, E.L.J.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Leeuwen, C.J. van

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of REACH cannot be achieved under the current risk assessment approach. A change in mind set among all the relevant stakeholders is needed: risk assessment should move away from a labor-intensive and animal-consuming approach to intelligent and pragmatic testing, by combining exposure

  5. Testing the concurrent validity of a naturalistic upper extremity reaching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, S Y; Hengge, C R

    2016-01-01

    Point-to-point reaching has been widely used to study upper extremity motor control. We have been developing a naturalistic reaching task that adds tool manipulation and object transport to this established paradigm. The purpose of this study was to determine the concurrent validity of a naturalistic reaching task in a sample of healthy adults. This task was compared to the criterion measure of standard point-to-point reaching. Twenty-eight adults performed unconstrained out-and-back movements in three different directions relative to constant start location along midline using their nondominant arm. In the naturalistic task, participants manipulated a tool to transport objects sequentially between physical targets anchored to the planar workspace. In the standard task, participants moved a digital cursor sequentially between virtual targets, veridical to the planar workspace. In both tasks, the primary measure of performance was trial time, which indicated the time to complete 15 reaches (five cycles of three reaches/target). Two other comparator tasks were also designed to test concurrent validity when components of the naturalistic task were added to the standard task. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated minimal relationship between the naturalistic and standard tasks due to differences in progressive task difficulty. Accounting for this yielded a moderate linear relationship, indicating concurrent validity. The comparator tasks were also related to both the standard and naturalistic task. Thus, the principles of motor control and learning that have been established by the wealth of point-to-point reaching studies can still be applied to the naturalistic task to a certain extent.

  6. Computerized Functional Reach Test to Measure Balance Stability in Elderly Patients With Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scena, Silvio; Steindler, Roberto; Ceci, Moira; Zuccaro, Stefano Maria; Carmeli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Background The ability to maintain static and dynamic balance is a prerequisite for safe walking and for obtaining functional mobility. For this reason, a reliable and valid means of screening for risk of falls is needed. The functional reach test (FRT) is used in many countries, yet it does not provide some kinematic parameters such as shoulder or pelvic girdles translation. The purpose was to analyze video records measuring of distance, velocity, time length, arm direction and girdles translation while doing FRT. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted where the above variables were correlated to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) for mental status and the Tinetti balance assessment test, which have been validated, in order to computerize the FRT (cFRT) for elderly patients with neurological disorders. Eighty patients were tested and 54 were eligible to serve as experimental group. The patients underwent the MMSE, the Tinetti test and the FRT. LAB view software was used to record the FRT performances and to process the videos. The control group consisted of 51 healthy subjects who had been previously tested. Results The experimental group was not able to perform the tests as well as the healthy control subjects. The video camera provided valuable kinematic results such as bending down while performing the forward reach test. Conclusions Instead of manual measurement, we proposed to use a cheap with fair resolution web camera to accurately estimate the FRT. The kinematic parameters were correlated with Tinetti and MMSE scores. The performance values established in this study indicate that the cFRT is a reliable and valid assessment, which provides more accurate data than “manual” test about functional reach. PMID:27635176

  7. Highest Oxygen Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The world’s highest altitude Lhalu Wetland in Tibet is rebounding from past environmental damage In Lhasa, where the oxygen content is just 60 percent of that of the plain area, a place known as the "natural oxygen bar"is highly prized by residents.

  8. NORMAL VALUES AND FACTORS AFFECTING FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST IN SAUDI ARABIA SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Emara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most critical feature of motor development is the ability to balance the body in sitting or standing. Impaired balance limits a child’s ability to recover from unexpected threats to stability. The functional reach test (FRT defines the maximal distance an individual is able to reach forward beyond arm’s length in a standing position without loss of balance, taking a step, or touching the wall. The Purpose of this study was to establish the normal values for FRT in Saudi Arabia school children with typical development and to study the correlation of anthropometric measures with FRT values. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Almadinah Almonawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 280 children without disabilities aged 6 to 12 years were randomly selected. Functional reach was assessed by having subjects extend their arms to 90 degrees and reach as far forward as they could without taking a step. Reach distance was recorded by noting the beginning and final position of the subject's extended arm parallel to a yard stick attached to the wall. Three successive trials of FRT were performed and the mean of the three trials was calculated. Pearson product moment correlation was used to examine the association of FR to age, and anthropometric measures. Results: Normal mean values of FR ranged from 24.2cm to 33.95cm. Age, height and weight significantly correlate with FRT. Conclusion: The FRT is a feasible test to examine the balance of 6-12 year-old children. FRT may be useful for detecting balance impairment, change in balance performance over time.

  9. Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed that the highest energy $\\sim 10^{20}$eV cosmic ray primaries are protons, decay products of a long-lived progenitor whose high kinetic energy arises from decay of a distant (cosmological) superheavy particle, G. Such a scenario can occur in e.g. SU(15) grand unification and in some preon models, but is more generic; if true, these unusual cosmic rays provide a window into new physics.

  10. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key PointsOverall sit-and-reach

  11. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  12. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  13. The Performance of Left-Handed Participants on a Preferential Reaching Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolo, Carla M.; Roy, Eric A.; Bryden, Pamela J.; Rohr, Linda E.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has examined the distribution of preferred hand (PH) reaches in working space with right-handed participants. In one study, we examined the effects of tool position and task demands on the frequency of PH reaches with right-handers (Mamolo, Roy, Bryden, & Rohr, 2004). We found that PH reaches were at a maximum…

  14. Reaching disenfranchised youth and mobile populations in Ghana through voluntary counselling and testing services for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Susi; Ablordeppey, Joyce; Okrah, Jane; Kyei, Abigail

    2007-08-01

    This paper documents the evaluation of a 20-month project to provide voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) to a mobile population of youth surrounding the Agbogbloshie market in Accra, Ghana. The specific objectives of the evaluation were to determine: 1) to what extent targets for providing VCT services to the specified population were reached; 2) how HIV prevalence among clients compared to that of the general population; 3) to what extent former clients self-reported behaviour change; and 4) whether useful lessons could be drawn regarding fees, hours, and location of services, as well as use of peer educators to increase use of VCT services among the target population. Various methodologies, including questionnaires, focus group discussions, a review of the service statistics and an exit poll of clients were used to evaluate the project. The service statistics demonstrated that the project exceeded the life-of-project target for number of clients by nearly 40%. Prevalence for the VCT client population (aged 15-25) was higher than for the general population (aged 15-24), although the gender differentials were similar. Focus group data suggested that clients may have adopted behaviour changes as a result of VCT. Finally, focus group discussions and VCT service trends showed that the high number of clients was largely influenced by three factors: services being free, location and hours of services being convenient to the target population, and use of peer educators to promote the services. In addition, the evaluation highlighted the importance of the counselling component of VCT, even as counselling can get short-changed at the expense of HIV testing when large numbers of clients are involved. The evaluation stressed the need to appropriately remunerate peer educators for their work whenever possible. Finally, VCT programmes continue to face challenges such as: HIV stigma as a barrier to people coming to be counselled and tested; insufficient availability of

  15. Reliability of the Functional Reach Test and the influence of anthropometric characteristics on test results in subjects with hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Emerson Fachin; de Menezes, Lidiane Teles; de Sousa, Pedro Henrique Côrtes; de Araujo Barbosa, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Costa, Abraão Souza

    2012-01-01

    First designed as an alternative method of assessing balance and susceptibility to falls among elderly, the Functional Reach Test (FR) has also been used among patients with hemiparesis. Then this study aimed to describe the intra- and inter-rater and the test/re-test reliability of the FR measure in subjects with and without hemiparesis while verifying anthropometric influences on the measurements. The FR was administered to a sample of subjects with hemiparesis and to a control group that was matched by gender and age. A two-way analysis of variance was used to verify the intra-rater reliability. It was calculated using the differences between the averages of the measures obtained during single, double or triple trials. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was utilized and data plotted using the Bland-Altman method. Associations were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. In general, the intra-rater analysis did not show significant differences between the measures for the single, double or triple trials. Excellent ICC values were observed, and there were no significant associations with anthropometric parameters for the hemiparesis and control subjects. FR showed good reliability for patients with and without hemiparesis and the test measurements were not significantly associated with the anthropometric characteristics of the subjects.

  16. VALIDEZ DEL TEST SIT-AND-REACH UNILATERAL COMO CRITERIO DE EXTENSIBILIDAD ISQUIOSURAL. COMPARACIÓN CON OTROS PROTOCOLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ángel López Miñarro

    2008-01-01

    La distancia alcanzada en el sit-and-reach unilateral fue mayor que la obtenida en el sit-and-reach (p<0,001 y en el back-saver sit-and-reach (p<0,001 tanto en hombres como en mujeres. Los valores de correlación del sit-and-reach unilateral con respecto al test de elevación de pierna recta fueron moderados- bajos en varones (r=0,54 y 0,58, respectivamente en la extremidad izquierda y derecha y moderados en mujeres (r=0,73 y 0,75, respec tivamente en la extremidad izquierda y derecha. En conclusión, el test sit-and-reach unilateral presenta una moderada validez como criterio de extensibilidad isquiosural, sobre todo en las mujeres. El test sit-and-reach unilateral es preferible al test back-saver sit-and-reach porque alcanza valores de correlación más elevados con el test de elevación de pierna recta.

  17. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayorga-Vega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp, unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error, was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67, but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35. Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility.

  18. Validity of the jump-and-reach test in sub-elite adolescent handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlbauer, Thomas; Pabst, Jan; Granacher, Urs; Büsch, Dirk

    2016-08-18

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine concurrent validity of the jump-and-reach (JaR) test using the Vertec system and a criterion device (i.e., Optojump system). In separate sub-analyses, we investigated the influence of gym floor condition and athletes' sex on the validity of vertical jump height. Four hundred and forty sub-elite adolescent female (n = 222, mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) and male (n = 218, mean age: 15 ± 1 years, age range: 14-16 years) handball players performed the JaR test in gyms with region or point elastic floors. Maximal vertical jump height was simultaneously assessed using the Vertec and the Optojump system. In general, significantly higher jump heights were obtained for the Vertec compared to the Optojump system (11.2 cm, [INCREMENT]31%, Cohen´s d = 2.58). The sub-analyses revealed significantly larger jump heights for the Vertec compared to the Optojump system irrespective of gym floor condition and players' sex. The association between Optojump and Vertec-derived vertical jump height amounted to rP = 0.84, with a coefficient of determination (R) of 0.71. The sub-analyses indicated significantly larger correlations in males (rP = 0.75, R = 0.56) than in females (rP = 0.63, R = 0.40). Yet, correlations were not significantly different between region (rP = 0.83, R = 0.69) as opposed to point elastic floor (rP = 0.87, R = 0.76). Our findings indicate that the two apparatus cannot be used interchangeably. Consequently, gym floor and sex specific regression equations were provided to estimate true (Optojump system) vertical jump height from Vertec-derived data.

  19. Pilot study to test effectiveness of video game on reaching performance in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Acosta, PhD;

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Robotic systems currently used in upper-limb rehabilitation following stroke rely on some form of visual feedback as part of the intervention program. We evaluated the effect of a video game environment (air hockey on reaching in stroke with various levels of arm support. We used the Arm Coordination Training 3D system to provide variable arm support and to control the hockey stick. We instructed seven subjects to reach to one of three targets covering the workspace of the impaired arm during the reaching task and to reach as far as possible while playing the video game. The results from this study showed that across subjects, support levels, and targets, the reaching distances achieved with the reaching task were greater than those covered with the video game. This held even after further restricting the mapped workspace of the arm to the area most affected by the flexion synergy (effectively forcing subjects to fight the synergy to reach the hockey puck. The results from this study highlight the importance of designing video games that include specific reaching targets in the workspace compromised by the expression of the flexion synergy. Such video games would also adapt the target location online as a subject’s success rate increases.

  20. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A.E.; van den Berg, Sandra M.; Haerkens, Gijs M.; Koenders, Niek H.; de Leeuw, Arina J.; van Oorsouw, Roel G.; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. Purpose To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Study Design Cross-sectional, test-retest design Methods Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Results Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. Conclusion The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level of Evidence Level 2

  1. [The effect of a warm-up protocol on the sit-and-reach test score in adolescent students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Soler, María Angeles; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-06-01

    Sit-and-reach tests are often used in physical education classes for measurement of hamstring extensibility in students, without a standar protocol to perform it. To analyze the effect of a warm-up protocol based on locomotion activities and stretching in the sit-and-reach scores in adolescent students. A total of 47 teenagers students (17 boys and 30 girls) performed the sit-and-reach test before, immediately after, and 5 and 10 minutes after completing a structured warm-up. The warm-up consisted on a part of continuous running, dynamic locomotor and mobility activities as well as static stretching of lower limbs (quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors, iliopsoas and gastrocnemius), with a total duration of 8 minutes. Between measurements after warm-up, the participants remained standing without performing any exercise and/or stretching. After warm-up there was a significant improvement in the sit-and-reach score (+ 2.15 cm) (p sit-and-reach test, comprised by locomotion, dynamic activities and stretching, improves significantly the distance achieved in this test. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Up to the highest peak!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    In the early hours of this morning, the beam energy was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record and the highest energy for this year’s run. Now operators will prepare the machine to make high-energy collisions later this month. CERN Operations Group leader Mike Lamont (foreground) and LHC engineer in charge Alick Macpherson in the CERN Control Centre early this morning. At 5:23 this morning, Friday 19 March, the energy of both beams in the LHC was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record. During the night, operators had tested the performance of the whole machine with two so-called ‘dry runs’, that is, without beams. Given the good overall response, beams were injected at around 3:00 a.m. and stabilized soon after. The ramp started at around 4:10 and lasted about one hour. Over the last couple of weeks, operation of the LHC at 450 GeV has become routinely reproducible. The operators were able to test and optimize the beam orbit, the beam collimation, the injection and ext...

  3. Adapting the Get Yourself Tested Campaign to Reach Black and Latino Sexual-Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, Samantha; Friedman, Allison; Martinez, Omar; Scheinmann, Roberta; Bermudez, Dayana; Silva, Manel; Silverman, Jen; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2016-09-01

    Culturally appropriate efforts are needed to increase sexually transmitted disease (STD) testing and care among Black and Latino sexual-minority youth, who are at high risk for STDs. Get Yourself Tested, a national testing campaign, has demonstrated success among youth, but it has yet to be assessed for relevance or impact among this population. This effort included (1) formative and materials-testing research through focus groups; (2) adaptation of existing Get Yourself Tested campaign materials to be more inclusive of Black and Latino sexual-minority youth; (3) a 3-month campaign in four venues of New York City, promoting STD testing at events and through mobile testing and online and social media platforms; (4) process evaluation of outreach activities; and (5) an outcome evaluation of testing at select campaign venues, using a preexperimental design. During the 3-month campaign period, the number of STD tests conducted at select campaign venues increased from a comparable 3-month baseline period. Although testing uptake through mobile vans remained low in absolute numbers, the van drew a high-prevalence sample, with positivity rates of 26.9% for chlamydia and 11.5% for gonorrhea. This article documents the process and lessons learned from adapting and implementing a local campaign for Black and Latino sexual-minority youth. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  4. Highest weight categories and recollements

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Henning

    2015-01-01

    We provide several equivalent descriptions of a highest weight category using recollements of abelian categories. Also, we explain the connection between sequences of standard and exceptional objects.

  5. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of an instrumented functional reaching task using wireless electromyographic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Rini; Hui-Chan, Christina W Y; Wang, Edward; Bhatt, Tanvi

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the electromyographic and accelerometric data sampled from the prime movers of the dominant arm during an antigravity, within-arm's length stand-reaching task without trunk restraint. Ten healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions, approximately 7-10days apart. During each session, subjects performed 15 trials of both a flexion- and an abduction-reaching task. Surface EMG and acceleration using wireless sensors were sampled from the anterior and middle deltoid. Reliability was established using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2, k) and standard error of measurements (SEM) for electromyographic reaction time, burst duration and normalized amplitude along with peak acceleration. Results indicated high degrees of inter-trial and test-retest reliability for flexion (Cronbach's α range=0.92-0.99; ICC range=0.82-0.92) as well as abduction (Cronbach's α range=0.94-0.99; ICC range=0.81-0.94) reaching. The SEM associated with response variables for flexion and abduction ranged from 1.55-3.26% and 3.33-3.95% of means, respectively. Findings from this study revealed that electromyographic and accelerometric data collected from prime movers of the arm during the relatively functional stand-reaching task were highly reproducible. Given its high reliability and portability, the proposed test could have applications in clinical and laboratory settings to quantify upper limb function.

  6. Academic Performance of Students with the Highest and Mediocre School-leaving Grades: Does the Aptitude Test for Medical Studies (TMS) Balance Their Prognoses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadmon, Guni; Kadmon, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Die Auswahl Medizinstudierender wird in Deutschland teils zentral, teils lokal durchgeführt. Die zentrale Auswahl umfasst zwei Gruppen: Studierende mit den besten Hochschulzulassungsnoten (Abiturbeste) und Studierende mit schlechteren Abiturnoten, die erst nach einer Wartezeit von bis zu sieben Jahren nach Schulabschluss zum Studium zugelassen werden (Wartezeitquote). Studierende mit Lernschwierigkeiten sowie solche, die das Studium frühzeitig abbrechen, befinden sich in beiden Gruppen. Die hochschuleigene Studierendenauswahl (AdH) unserer Fakultät berücksichtigt das Ergebnis des Tests für Medizinische Studiengänge (TMS) und ermöglicht die leistungsbezogene Zulassung von Studierenden mit einer breiten Spannweite an Abiturnoten. Ziel: Zu untersuchen, ob die Gewichtung des TMS in der hochschuleigenen Auswahl gerechtfertigt ist, die darauf abzielt, die Zulassung potentiell leistungsschwacher Abiturbesten zu reduzieren und stattdessen die Zulassung potentiell leistungsstarker Bewerber zu fördern, die mittelmäßige Schulabgangsnoten mitbringen.Methode: Der prognostische Beitrag der Abiturpunktzahl und des TMS zur Studienleistung und zur Studienkontinuität im vorklinischen Abschnitt des Medizinstudiums wurde an zwei Studierendengruppen untersucht: Abiturbeste (Abiturnote 1,0, Abiturpunkte 823-900) und mittelmäßige Abiturienten (Abiturnoten 2,0-2,3, Abiturpunkte 689-660). Das Outcome beider Gruppen wurde im Verhältnis zu ihren TMS-Ergebnissen verglichen. Die Studie umfasste vier aufeinander folgende Kohorten. Ergebnisse: In beiden Gruppen sagte der TMS die Studienleistung (β=0,442-0,446) und die Studienkontinuität (OR=0,890-0,853) besser vorher als die Abiturnote (β=0,238-0,047; OR=1,009-0,998). Die Studienverlängerungs- und -abbruchsrate war am stärksten mit der Nicht-Teilnahme am TMS assoziiert (OR=0,230-0,380). Studierende mit mittelmäßigen Abiturnoten und TMS-Ergebnissen (standardisiertem Testwert) ≥125 erzielten ähnlich gute

  7. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Quintero, Jaime; Mueses-Marin, Hector Fabio; Montaño-Agudelo, David; Pinzón-Fernández, María Virginia; Tello-Bolívar, Inés Constanza; Alvarado-Llano, Beatriz Eugenia; Martinez-Cajas, Jorge Luis

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS) has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1) and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2). Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection. PMID:24592330

  8. HIV Testing and Counselling in Colombia: Local Experience on Two Different Recruitment Strategies to Better Reach Low Socioeconomic Status Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Galindo-Quintero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV testing rates remain very low in Colombia, with only 20% of individuals at risk ever tested. In order to tackle this issue, the Corporacion de Lucha Contra el Sida (CLS has implemented a multidisciplinary, provider-initiated, population-based HIV testing/counselling strategy named BAFI. In this report, we describe the experience of CLS at reaching populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds in 2008-2009. Two different approaches were used: one led by CLS and local health care providers (BAFI-1 and the other by CLS and community leaders (BAFI-2. Both approaches included the following: consented HIV screening test, a demographic questionnaire, self-reported HIV knowledge and behaviour questionnaires, pre- and posttest counselling, confirmatory HIV tests, clinical follow-up, access to comprehensive care and antiretroviral treatment. A total of 2085 individuals were enrolled in BAFI-1 and 363 in BAFI-2. The effectiveness indicators for BAFI-1 and BAFI-2, respectively, were HIV positive-confirmed prevalence = 0.29% and 3.86%, return rate for confirmatory results = 62.5% and 93.7%, return rate for comprehensive care = 83.3% and 92.8%, and ART initiation rate = 20% and 76.9%. Although more people were reached with BAFI-1, the community-led BAFI-2 was more effective at reaching individuals with a higher prevalence of behavioural risk factors for HIV infection.

  9. A challenge to the highest balloon altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Akita, D.; Fuke, H.; Iijima, I.; Izutsu, N.; Kato, Y.; Kawada, J.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Mizuta, E.; Namiki, M.; Nonaka, N.; Ohta, S.; Sato, T.; Seo, M.; Takada, A.; Tamura, K.; Toriumi, M.; Yamagami, T.; Yamada, K.; Yoshida, T.; Matsushima, K.; Tanaka, S.

    2012-02-01

    Development of a balloon to fly at higher altitudes is one of the most attractive challenges for scientific balloon technologies. After reaching the highest balloon altitude of 53.0 km using the 3.4 μm film in 2002, a thinner balloon film with a thickness of 2.8 μm was developed. A 5000 m3 balloon made with this film was launched successfully in 2004. However, three 60,000 m3 balloons with the same film launched in 2005, 2006, and 2007, failed during ascent. The mechanical properties of the 2.8 μm film were investigated intensively to look for degradation of the ultimate strength and its elongation as compared to the other thicker balloon films. The requirement of the balloon film was also studied using an empirical and a physical model assuming an axis-symmetrical balloon shape and the static pressure. It was found that the film was strong enough. A stress due to the dynamic pressure by the wind shear is considered as the possible reason for the unsuccessful flights. A 80,000 m3 balloon with cap films covering 9 m from the balloon top will be launch in 2011 to test the appropriateness of this reinforcement.

  10. Are the Timed Up and Go Test and Functional Reach Test Useful Predictors of Temporal and Spatial Gait Parameters in Elderly People?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadowska Dorota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aim was to analyse the relationships between the results of the Timed Up and Go (TUG test and the Functional Reach Test (FRT, and the temporal and spatial gait parameters determined with the GAITRite system.

  11. Expanding human immunodeficiency virus testing and counseling to reach tuberculosis clients' partners and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay-Quirk, C; Date, A; Bachanas, P; Baggaley, R; Getahun, H; Nelson, L; Granich, R

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have shown important increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC), diagnosis, and coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients. Expansion of HTC for partners and families are critical next steps to increase earlier HIV diagnoses and access to ART, and to achieve international goals for reduced TB and HIV-related morbidity, mortality, transmission and costs. TB and HIV programs should develop and evaluate feasible and effective strategies to increase access to HTC among the partners and families of TB patients, and ensure that newly diagnosed people living with HIV and HIV-infected TB patients who complete anti-tuberculosis treatment are successfully linked to ongoing HIV clinical care.

  12. [CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY OF SIT-AND-REACH TEST AS A MEASURE OF HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY IN OLDER WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Muyor, José María; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la disposición del raquis lumbo-sacro y la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach han sido propuestas para valorar la extensibilidad isquiosural, siendo su validez diferente en función de la población analizada. Objetivo: determinar la validez del ángulo lumbo-horizontal en flexión y la distancia alcanzada en el test sitand- reach como criterio de extensibilidad isquiosural en mujeres mayores. Metodología: un total de 120 mujeres mayores realizaron aleatoriamente los test de elevación de pierna recta (EPR) con ambas piernas y el test sit-and-reach (SR). En este último se valoró la distancia alcanzada y la disposición del raquis lumbo-sacro (L-Hfx) al alcanzar la posición de máxima flexión del tronco. Resultados y discusión: los valores medios en el EPR fueron 81,70 ± 13,83º y 82,10 ± 14,36º en las piernas izquierda y derecha, respectivamente. La media del EPR de ambas piernas fue de 81,90 ± 12,70º. La distancia media en el SR fue de -1,54 ± 8,09 cm. En el L-Hfx, el valor medio fue de 91,08º ± 9,32º. La correlación entre el test EPR medio de ambas piernas respecto a la distancia alcanzada en el test DDP y el ángulo L-Hfx fueron moderados (L-Hfx: r = -0,72, p < 0,01; SR: r = 0,70, p < 0,01). Ambas variables, de forma independiente, explicaron alrededor del 50% de la varianza (L-Hfx: R2 = 0,52; p < 0,001; SR: R2 = 0,49; p < 0,001). Conclusiones: la validez de la disposición del raquis lumbo-sacro en mujeres mayores es moderada, siendo similar a la obtenida por la distancia alcanzada en el test sit-and-reach.

  13. The Highest Redshift Relativistic Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C.C.; Stawarz, L.; Siemiginowska, A.; Harris, D.E; Schwartz, D.A.; Wardle, J.F.C.; Gobeille, D.; Lee, N.P.

    2007-12-18

    We describe our efforts to understand large-scale (10's-100's kpc) relativistic jet systems through observations of the highest-redshift quasars. Results from a VLA survey search for radio jets in {approx} 30 z > 3.4 quasars are described along with new Chandra observations of 4 selected targets.

  14. [Alternative methods to animal experiments. What can they afford in the safety testing of chemical substances under REACH?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienblum, Werner

    2008-12-01

    Alternative methods to safety studies using laboratory animals have been accepted by the OECD in areas such as local toxicity and mutagenicity. In more complex important fields, such as systemic single and repeated dose toxicity, toxicokinetics, sensitisation, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity, it is expected that the development and validation of computerised methods, testing batteries (in vitro and in silico) and tiered testing systems will need many years and have to overcome many scientific and regulatory obstacles, which makes it extremely difficult to predict the outcome and the time needed. Therefore, the validated alternative methods available will only have a limited impact on reducing the numbers of animals required under REACH. In the midterm, the strategy should be more directed towards the refinement or reduction of in vivo testing because the replacement concerning complex toxicological endpoints is at present not in sight.

  15. Validez de criterio del test sit-and-reach como medida de la extensibilidad isquiosural en piragüistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. López-Miñarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar la validez de criterio concurrente del test sit-and-reach como medida de la extensibilidad isquiosural en piragüistas, en función de la disciplina practicada (kayak o canoa, así como la validez de la inclinación pélvica evaluada mediante un Spinal Mouse. Un total de 51 canoístas y 60 kayakistas varones (media de edad: 17,53 ± 6,28 años realizaron de forma aleatoria los test de elevación de la pierna recta (EPR y sit-and-reach (SR. En este último se valoró la distancia alcanzada y la disposición del raquis torácico y lumbar, así como la inclinación pélvica mediante un Spinal Mouse. Se encontró una correlación moderada (r= 0,66-0,67 y moderada-baja (r= 0,59 entre el test SR y el test EPR en los canoístas y kayakistas, respectivamente. Las correlaciones de la inclinación pélvica con el test EPR fueron moderadas, siendo mayores en los canoístas (r= 0,68-0,71 que en los kayakistas (r= 0,57-0,63. La inclinación pélvica mostró valores más elevados de correlación respecto a la distancia alcanzada en el test SR en ambos grupos (r= 0,78 en kayakistas y r= 0,91 en canoístas. En conclusión, el test sit-and-reachno es una medida adecuada para la valoración de la extensibilidad isquiosural en piragüistas, especialmente en kayakistas. La inclinación pélvica valorada mediante un Spinal Mouse tampoco se puede considerar como una medida adecuada para la valoración de la extensibilidad isquiosural en piragüistas.

  16. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Inpatients with Psychosis (the REACH Study): Protocol for Treatment Development and Pilot Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Davis, Carter H.; Epstein-Lubow, Gary; Johnson, Jennifer E.; Mueser, Kim T.; Miller, Ivan W.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders frequently require treatment at inpatient hospitals during periods of acute illness for crisis management and stabilization. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a “third wave” cognitive-behavioral intervention that employs innovative mindfulness-based strategies, has shown initial efficacy in randomized controlled trials for improving acute and post-discharge outcomes in patients with psychosis when studied in acute-care psychiatric hospitals in the U.S. However, the intervention has not been widely adopted in its current form because of its use of an individual-only format and delivery by doctoral-level research therapists with extensive prior experience using ACT. The aim of the Researching the Effectiveness of Acceptance-based Coping during Hospitalization (REACH) Study is to adapt a promising acute-care psychosocial treatment for inpatients with psychosis, and to pilot test its effectiveness in a routine inpatient setting. More specifically, we describe our plans to: (a) further develop and refine the treatment and training protocols, (b) conduct an open trial and make further modifications based on the experience gained, and (c) conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial in preparation for a future fully-powered clinical trial testing the effectiveness of ACT. PMID:28475123

  17. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past ... scans showed that their brains' outer mantle, or cortex, thickens more rapidly during childhood, reaching its peak ...

  18. Testing whether humans have an accurate model of their own motor uncertainty in a speeded reaching task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    Full Text Available In many motor tasks, optimal performance presupposes that human movement planning is based on an accurate internal model of the subject's own motor error. We developed a motor choice task that allowed us to test whether the internal model implicit in a subject's choices differed from the actual in isotropy (elongation and variance. Subjects were first trained to hit a circular target on a touch screen within a time limit. After training, subjects were repeatedly shown pairs of targets differing in size and shape and asked to choose the target that was easier to hit. On each trial they simply chose a target - they did not attempt to hit the chosen target. For each subject, we tested whether the internal model implicit in her target choices was consistent with her true error distribution in isotropy and variance. For all subjects, movement end points were anisotropic, distributed as vertically elongated bivariate Gaussians. However, in choosing targets, almost all subjects effectively assumed an isotropic distribution rather than their actual anisotropic distribution. Roughly half of the subjects chose as though they correctly estimated their own variance and the other half effectively assumed a variance that was more than four times larger than the actual, essentially basing their choices merely on the areas of the targets. The task and analyses we developed allowed us to characterize the internal model of motor error implicit in how humans plan reaching movements. In this task, human movement planning - even after extensive training - is based on an internal model of human motor error that includes substantial and qualitative inaccuracies.

  19. Effects of Peripheral Vestibular Dysfunction on Dynamic Postural Stability Measured by the Functional Reach Test and Timed Up and Go Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Toshiko; Kamogashira, Teru; Fujimoto, Chisato; Kinoshita, Makoto; Egami, Naoya; Sugasawa, Keiko; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Shinichi

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of vestibular function on dynamic postural stability assessed by the functional reach test (FRT) and the timed up and go test (TUG). Retrospective study. Tertiary referral center. The FRT and TUG were performed in 399 patients with dizziness. The effects of peripheral vestibular dysfunction assessed by the caloric test and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) to air-conducted sound (500 Hz, tone burst) on the results of FRT and TUG were analyzed. Neither FRT nor TUG scores showed significant differences in relation to the results of the caloric test ( P > .3). The FRT scores in patients who showed abnormal cVEMP responses on both sides were significantly smaller than those in patients who showed normal cVEMP responses ( P < .01). The TUG scores in patients who showed abnormal cVEMP responses on both sides were significantly greater than those in patients who showed normal cVEMP responses ( P < .05). The vestibulo-spinal reflex mediated by the saccule and its afferents is one of the factors that influence the maintenance of dynamic postural stability as measured by FRT and TUG.

  20. Perspectives for tests of neutrino mass generation at the GeV scale: Experimental reach versus theoretical predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Rasmus W

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the parameter space reach of future experiments searching for heavy neutral leptons (HNLs) at the GeV scale in terms of neutrino mass models with three HNL generations. We focus on two classes of models: Generic assumptions (such as random mass matrices or the Casas-Ibarra parameterization) and flavor symmetry-generated models. We demonstrate that the generic approaches lead to comparable parameter space predictions, which tend to be at least partially within the reach of future experiments. On the other hand, specific flavor symmetry models yield more refined predictions, some of these can be more clearly excluded. We also highlight the importance to measure the flavor-dependent couplings of the HNLs as a model discriminator, and we clarify the impact of assumptions frequently used in the literature to show the parameter space reach for the active-sterile mixings.

  1. Global grid for Big Bang research reaches milestone One major test remains as grid project prepares to go live next year

    CERN Multimedia

    Weiss, Todd R

    2006-01-01

    "A huge 100,000-PC grid-computing network being built to help research the origin of the universe passed the third of four major tests recently when it reached a data-transfer milestone, with up to 1GB/sec. of physics data sent over the global grid"(1.5 page)

  2. Using the Functional Reach Test for Probing the Static Stability of Bipedal Standing in Humanoid Robots Based on the Passive Motion Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Zenzeri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the static stability of a computational architecture, based on the Passive Motion Paradigm, for coordinating the redundant degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during whole-body reaching movements in bipedal standing. The analysis is based on a simulation study that implements the Functional Reach Test, originally developed for assessing the danger of falling in elderly people. The study is carried out in the YARP environment that allows realistic simulations with the iCub humanoid robot.

  3. Proposal of how to update the standard information requirements in REACH, PPPR and BPR – a testing strategy for identification of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla

    This presentation is based on a project prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) for the Danish EPA. The project aim to provide a science based input to the on-going work in EU with regard to endocrine disruptors, i.e. the development of criteria for identification, REACH...... review on EDs and the revised strategy for the future work on endocrine disruptors, focusing on adequate detection of substances with endocrine disrupting properties under various legislative frameworks, including REACH (EC No 1907/2006), the Plant Protection Products Regulation (PPPR) (EC No 1107....../2009) and the Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) (EC No 528/2012). There are currently no specific information requirements or testing strategies with regard to endocrine disruption in REACH and other relevant legislations. However, in relation to biocides and recently also to plant protection products, indications...

  4. Highest weight sl_2-categorifications I: crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Losev, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    We define highest weight categorical actions of sl_2 on highest weight categories and show that basically all known examples of categorical sl_2-actions on highest weight categories (including rational and polynomial representations of general linear groups, parabolic categories O of type $A$, categories O for cyclotomic Rational Cherednik algebras) are highest weight in our sense. Our main result is an explicit combinatorial description of (the labels of) the crystal on the set of simple objects. A new application of this is to determining the supports of simple modules over the cyclotomic Rational Cherednik algebras starting from their labels.

  5. Highest weight representations of quantum current algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Albeverio, Sergio A; Albeverio, Sergio; Fei, Shao Ming

    1994-01-01

    We study the highest weight and continuous tensor product representations of q-deformed Lie algebras through the mappings of a manifold into a locally compact group. As an example the highest weight representation of the q-deformed algebra sl_q(2,\\Cb) is calculated in detail.

  6. Testing for reach-scale adjustments of hydraulic variables to soluble and insoluble strata: Buckeye Creek and Greenbrier River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Gregory S.; Wohl, Ellen E.; Foster, Julie A.; Boyer, Douglas G.

    2003-11-01

    An open question exists as to whether channel geometries and hydraulics are adjusted in bedrock streams with stable, concave profiles in a manner analogous to alluvial rivers. As a test of this problem, a comparison was undertaken of channel geometries and hydraulics among reaches with substrates that are of high mechanical resistance, but of variable chemical resistance. Reaches were selected from Buckeye Creek and Greenbrier River, West Virginia, USA because these streams flow over sandstones, limestones, and shales. The limestones have Selby rock resistance scores similar to those of the sandstones. A total of 13 reaches consisting of between 6 and 26 cross sections were surveyed in the streams. HEC-RAS was used to estimate unit stream power ( ω) and shear stress ( τ) for each reach. The reaches were selected to evaluate the null hypothesis that that ω and τ are equal atop soluble versus insoluble bedrock. Hypothesis tests consisted of paired t-tests and simultaneous, multiple comparisons. Geomorphic setting was included for Greenbrier River because previous studies have suggested that bedrock streams are intimately coupled with hillslopes. Holding geomorphic setting constant, three separate comparisons of ω and τ reveal that these variables are lowest atop soluble substrates in Greenbrier River (significance ≤0.05) and that changes in ω and τ are mediated by changes in channel geometry. Similarly, headwater reaches of Buckeye Creek developed atop shale and sandstone boulders are statistically distinguishable from downstream reaches wherein corrosion of limestone is the primary means of incision. However, comparisons in each stream reveal that channel geometries, ω and τ, are not strictly controlled by bed solubility. For constant substrate solubility along the Greenbrier River, ω and τ are consistently higher where a bedrock cutbank is present or coarse, insoluble sediment enters the channel. The latter is also associated with locally high values

  7. Tectonics, Climate and Earth's highest peaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Jörg; Prasicek, Günther; Hergarten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Prominent peaks characterized by high relief and steep slopes are among the most spectacular morphological features on Earth. In collisional orogens they result from the interplay of tectonically driven crustal thickening and climatically induced destruction of overthickened crust by erosional surface processes. The glacial buzz-saw hypothesis proposes a superior status of climate in limiting mountain relief and peak altitude due to glacial erosion. It implies that peak altitude declines with duration of glacial occupation, i.e., towards high latitudes. This is in strong contrast with high peaks existing in high latitude mountain ranges (e.g. Mt. St. Elias range) and the idea of peak uplift due to isostatic compensation of spatially variable erosional unloading an over-thickened orogenic crust. In this study we investigate landscape dissection, crustal thickness and vertical strain rates in tectonically active mountain ranges to evaluate the influence of erosion on (latitudinal) variations in peak altitude. We analyze the spatial distribution of serval thousand prominent peaks on Earth extracted from the global ETOPO1 digital elevation model with a novel numerical tool. We compare this dataset to crustal thickness, thickening rate (vertical strain rate) and mean elevation. We use the ratios of mean elevation to peak elevation (landscape dissection) and peak elevation to crustal thickness (long-term impact of erosion on crustal thickness) as indicators for the influence of erosional surface processes on peak uplift and the vertical strain rate as a proxy for the mechanical state of the orogen. Our analysis reveals that crustal thickness and peak elevation correlate well in orogens that have reached a mechanically limited state (vertical strain rate near zero) where plate convergence is already balanced by lateral extrusion and gravitational collapse and plateaus are formed. On the Tibetan Plateau crustal thickness serves to predict peak elevation up to an altitude

  8. AstroParticle Physics at the Highest Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Olinto, Angela V

    2012-01-01

    Recent international efforts have brought us closer to unveiling the century old mystery of the origin of cosmic rays. Cosmic ray, gamma ray, and neutrino observatories are reaching the necessary sensitivity to study the highest energy cosmic accelerators and to begin the use of cosmic particles to study particle interactions above laboratory energies. The number of known gamma-ray sources has increased by orders of magnitude. Possible cosmic ray sources have narrowed down with the confirmation of an ankle and the GZK-like spectral feature at the highest energies. Anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays at intermediate energies show a complex local neighborhood of the Galaxy. At the highest energies the dawn of particle astronomy is still challenging while composition related measurements point to a change in the composition or the interaction of cosmic rays at ultrahigh energies. A clear resolution of the ultrahigh energy mystery calls for a significant increase in statistics of...

  9. The Highest State of Being and Knowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    This paper identifies the most influential paradigmatic individuals in human history, Socrates, Confucius, Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, and Baha'u'llah, and presents their individual conceptions of the highest state of being and knowing, comparing the commonalities of those conceptualizations. Each proposes a state that might be described as…

  10. Astrophysics at the Highest Energy Frontiers

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    2002-01-01

    I discuss recent advances being made in the physics and astrophysics of cosmic rays and cosmic gamma-rays at the highest observed energies as well as the related physics and astrophysics of very high energy cosmic neutrinos. I also discuss the connections between these topics.

  11. Addressing Academic Dishonesty among the Highest Achievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Angela D.; Murdock, Tamera B.; Grotewiel, Morgan M.

    2017-01-01

    Although research shows that higher-achieving students report engaging in cheating behaviors less frequently than lower-achieving students, the cheating rates among this population are still startling. Certain aspects of the context of being a high-achieving student support academic dishonesty. We investigate integrity among the highest achievers…

  12. The Highest & Lowest Reliability Achievable with Redundancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Peter W.

    1977-01-01

    -dependent, it is difficult to assess the reliability of the system. The paper describes the ¿-transformation by which the highest and lowest reliability achievable can be determined for a configuration using components with specified reliabilities. As a by-product we become able to pinpoint the statistical relationships...

  13. Highest Weight Categories For Number Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Pilkington, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of a stratified exact category in the context of number rings and corresponding Galois groups. BGG reciprocity and duality are proven for these categories making them highest weight categories. The strong connections between the structure of the category and ramification in the ring are explored.

  14. Longevity and Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Frampton, Paul H; Ng, Y J; Frampton, Paul H.; Keszthelyi, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    It is proposed that the highest energy $\\sim 10^{20}$eV cosmic ray primaries are protons, decay products of a long-lived progenitor which has propagated from typically $\\sim 100$Mpc. Such a scenario can occur in e.g. SU(15) grand unification and in some preon models, but is more generic; if true, these unusual cosmic rays provide a window into new physics.

  15. Longevity and Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul H.; Keszthelyi, Bettina; Ng, Y. Jack

    It is proposed that the highest energy ~1020 eV cosmic ray primaries are protons which are decay products of a superheavy particle, G. The protons may be decay products either directly of a nearby (galactic) G or of a long-lived intermediate particle X which arises from decay of a distant (cosmological) G, then decays in or near our Galaxy. Such scenarios can occur in e.g. SU(15) grand unification and in some preon models.

  16. [Highest mosquito records (Diptera: Culicidae) in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Juan-Carlos; Del Ventura, Fabiola; Zorrilla, Adriana; Liria, Jonathan

    2010-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are holometabolous insects with aquatic immature stages, which use a broad variety of larval habitats, from ground water bodies to Phytothelmata (water deposits in plants) and artificial deposits. The availability of breeding sites often determines the upper limits of mosquito ranges. We built a database with 9,607 records with 432 localities, 19 genera and 254 species. The Andean mountains have 77% of the highest mosquito records including Aedes euris with record at 3,133 m, followed by three species of Anopheles--subgenera Kerteszia--with the upper limit of 2,680 m. Wyeomyia bicornis and Culex daumastocampa at 2,550 m were the highest records in the Central-Coastal cordillera, while the highest record in Pantepui was Wyeomyia zinzala at 2,252 m. The species associated with phytothelmata (Bromeliaceae and Sarraceniaceae) represent 60% of the records. The upper limits of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles (Kerteszia) species could represent the theoretical limit for transmission of filariasis or arboviruses, by Culex, and malaria by Anopheles (Kerteszia) in Venezuela. Similarly, a vector of Dengue, Aedes aegypti, has not been not recorded above 2,000 m.

  17. THE PEOPLE FROM THE WORLD'S Highest Railway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Seven years ago,China Railway 18th Bureau Group Co.Ltd was appointed to build the world's highest railway,namely Tanggula part (5072 metres above sea level) of Qinghai-Tibet Railway.In August of 2005,Liu Zhijun,the Minister for China Railways, announced that a link had been completed in the line at Tanggula Station.From here on,China Railway was to realize its dream-a railway at the summit of the world,through the efforts of Chinese workers in China Railway system.

  18. The cost-effectiveness in the use of HIV counselling and testing-mobile outreaches in reaching men who have sex with men (MSM in northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedu Ifekandu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men who have sex with men (MSM are at increased risk of HIV and other STI infections in Nigeria. This is because MSM are afraid to seek medical help because the healthcare workers in various facilities are afraid of the consequences if they provide services for MSM citing the law as a reason not to intervene. MSM in northern states of Nigeria are facing double-jeopardy because the few international partners working in MSM in Nigeria are pulling out of these volatile areas because of the fear of attacks by the Boko Haram and the Nigerian law enforcement agencies. Objectives: The intervention was conducted to promote affordable and sustainable HIV care and treatment for MSM in Nigeria. Methods: This intervention was conducted in the Boko Haram ravaged cities of Kano and Maiduguri (North-East Nigeria. Twenty MSM-key influencers from the two cities were identified and trained on HIV counselling and testing, caregivers, case managers and on initiation process for ARV treatment for new HIV+MSM as well as ethical considerations. Results: The mean age of the key influencers was 24 years +/−SD. Each of the trained 20 key influencers reached 20 MSM-peer with condom promotion, HCT, referral to identified MSM-community health centers and follow-up/caregiving within the space of one month. The project was able to reach 400 MSM in the two cities. 89% of the peers consented to HCT. HIV prevalence among the participants was at 18%. The project recorded ARV-successful referral to healthcare facilities for the respondents that tested positive. The key influencers have been following up for ARV-adherence. Conclusions: Use of community members should be promoted for sustainability and ownership. It also helps in eradicating socio-cultural barrier to HIV intervention for MSM. Moreover, this proves to be one of the safest and affordable methods of reaching MSM in Nigeria in this ugly time of legalization of homophobia in the country's constitution.

  19. Gaze-centered coding of proprioceptive reach targets after effector movement: Testing the impact of online information, time of movement, and target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja

    2017-01-01

    In previous research, we demonstrated that spatial coding of proprioceptive reach targets depends on the presence of an effector movement (Mueller & Fiehler, Neuropsychologia, 2014, 2016). In these studies, participants were asked to reach in darkness with their right hand to a proprioceptive target (tactile stimulation on the finger tip) while their gaze was varied. They either moved their left, stimulated hand towards a target location or kept it stationary at this location where they received a touch on the fingertip to which they reached with their right hand. When the stimulated hand was moved, reach errors varied as a function of gaze relative to target whereas reach errors were independent of gaze when the hand was kept stationary. The present study further examines whether (a) the availability of proprioceptive online information, i.e. reaching to an online versus a remembered target, (b) the time of the effector movement, i.e. before or after target presentation, or (c) the target distance from the body influences gaze-centered coding of proprioceptive reach targets. We found gaze-dependent reach errors in the conditions which included a movement of the stimulated hand irrespective of whether proprioceptive information was available online or remembered. This suggests that an effector movement leads to gaze-centered coding for both online and remembered proprioceptive reach targets. Moreover, moving the stimulated hand before or after target presentation did not affect gaze-dependent reach errors, thus, indicating a continuous spatial update of positional signals of the stimulated hand rather than the target location per se. However, reaching to a location close to the body rather than farther away (but still within reachable space) generally decreased the influence of a gaze-centered reference frame.

  20. Study on the groundwater exploitation test in the Yellow River lower reaches--A case study on the north suburb waterworks of Zhengzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zisheng; LIN Xueyu; SHI Qinzhou; Gnansounou Raoul; DU Xinqiang

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the studies on groundwater resources potential of the Yellow River (YR) terrace in Zhengzhou area, China. The main aim of the research was to resolve water shortage problems induced by recent but frequent drying ups of the YR in its lower reaches. Geologic explorations and grouped-pumping tests were conducted in the area. Based on collected data a groundwater flow net was established. The buried depth of groundwater level and water bearing potential of the aquifers were evaluated.Conventional method was used to determine recharge of the groundwater by lateral infiltration of the YR in pumping patterns. The results show that the study region has a high water bearing potential and offers conditions for the construction of large water works. However, only limited recharge by lateral infiltration from the river is available when developing large scale groundwater exploitation in the riverside of the YR.Environmental impacts induced by embankment stability of the Great dyke of the YR could be minimized or eliminated by appropriate engineering methods.

  1. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  2. The highest limiting Z in the extended periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Y. K.; Bhagwat, A.; Gupta, M.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of finding the highest limiting Z in the extended periodic table is discussed. The upper limit suggested by the atomic many body theory at Z = 172 may be reached much earlier due to nuclear instabilities. Therefore, an extensive set of calculations based on the relativistic mean field formulation are carried out for the ground state properties of nuclei with Z = 100 to 180 and N/Z ratio ranging from 1.19 to 2.70. This choice of Z and N extends far beyond the corresponding values of all the known heavy to superheavy elements. To facilitate the analysis of the huge quantity of calculated results, various filters depending upon the pairing energies, one and two nucleon separation energies, binding energy per particle (BE/A) and α-decay plus fission half lives, are introduced. The limiting value of Z is found to be 146. For the specific filter with {BE}/A = 5.5 MeV a few nuclei with Z = 180 also appear. No evidence for the limiting Z value 172 is found. We stress the need to bridge the atomic and nuclear findings and to arrive at an acceptable limiting value of highest Z (or rather combination of Z and N) of the extended periodic table.

  3. Global reach and engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Popular culture reflects both the interests of and the issues affecting the general public. As concerns regarding climate change and its impacts grow, is it permeating into popular culture and reaching that global audience?

  4. Reaching affects saccade trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipper, S P; Howard, L A; Paul, M A

    2001-01-01

    The pre-motor theory suggests that, when attention is oriented to a location, the motor systems that are involved in achieving current behavioural goals are activated. For example, when a task requires accurate reaching, attention to a location activates the motor circuits controlling saccades and manual reaches. These actions involve separate neural systems for the control of eye and hand, but we believe that the selection processes acting on neural population codes within these systems are similar and can affect each other. The attentional effect can be revealed in the subsequent movement. The present study shows that the path the eye takes as it saccades to a target is affected by whether a reach to the target is also produced. This effect is interpreted as the influence of a hand-centred frame used in reaching on the spatial frame of reference required for the saccade.

  5. Testing REACH draft technical guidance notes for conducting chemical safety assessments-the experience of a downstream user of a preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Anne Lill; Ovrebø, Steinar; Hylland, Ketil

    2008-07-01

    The goal of REACH is the safe use of chemicals. This study examines the efficiency and usefulness of two draft technical guidance notes in the REACH Interim Project 3.2-2 for the development of the chemical safety report and exposure scenarios. A case study was carried out for a paint system for protection of structural steel. The focuses of the study were risk assessment of preparations based on Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) and on effective and accurate communication in the supply chain. Exposure scenarios and generic descriptions of uses, risk management measures, and exposure determinants were developed. The study showed that communication formats, software tools, and guidelines for chemical risk assessment need further adjustment to preparations and real-life situations. Web platforms may simplify such communication. The downstream formulator needs basic substance data from the substance manufacturer during the pre-registration phase to develop exposure scenarios for preparations. Default values need to be communicated in the supply chain because these were critical for the derivation of applicable risk management demands. The current guidelines which rely on the available toxicological knowledge are insufficient to advise downstream users on how to develop exposure scenarios for preparations.

  6. Origin of the highest energy cosmic rays observed

    CERN Document Server

    Biermann, P L; Medina-Tanco, G A; Stanev, T

    2000-01-01

    Introducing a simple Galactic wind model patterned after the solar wind we show that back-tracing the orbits of the highest energy cosmic events suggests that they may all come from the Virgo cluster, and so probably from the active radio galaxy M87. This confirms a long standing expectation. Those powerful radio galaxies that have their relativistic jets stuck in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, such as 3C147, will then enable us to derive limits on the production of any new kind of particle, expected in some extensions of the standard model in particle physics. New data from HIRES will be crucial in testing the model proposed here.

  7. Reaching for the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  8. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  9. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  10. Reaching into Pictorial Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volcic, Robert; Vishwanath, Dhanraj; Domini, Fulvio

    2014-02-01

    While binocular viewing of 2D pictures generates an impression of 3D objects and space, viewing a picture monocularly through an aperture produces a more compelling impression of depth and the feeling that the objects are "out there", almost touchable. Here, we asked observers to actually reach into pictorial space under both binocular- and monocular-aperture viewing. Images of natural scenes were presented at different physical distances via a mirror-system and their retinal size was kept constant. Targets that observers had to reach for in physical space were marked on the image plane, but at different pictorial depths. We measured the 3D position of the index finger at the end of each reach-to-point movement. Observers found the task intuitive. Reaching responses varied as a function of both pictorial depth and physical distance. Under binocular viewing, responses were mainly modulated by the different physical distances. Instead, under monocular viewing, responses were modulated by the different pictorial depths. Importantly, individual variations over time were minor, that is, observers conformed to a consistent pictorial space. Monocular viewing of 2D pictures thus produces a compelling experience of an immersive space and tangible solid objects that can be easily explored through motor actions.

  11. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  12. Reaching for the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Dorothy Givens

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Mae Jemison is the world's first woman astronaut of color who continues to reach for the stars. Jemison was recently successful in leading a team that has secured a $500,000 federal grant to make interstellar space travel a reality. The Dorothy Jemison Foundation for Excellence (named after Jemison's mother) was selected in June by the Defense…

  13. Increased Uptake of HCV Testing through a Community-Based Educational Intervention in Difficult-to-Reach People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the ANRS-AERLI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Roux

    Full Text Available The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing.The national multisite intervention study ANRS-AERLI consisted in assessing the impact of an injection-centered face-to-face educational session offered in volunteer harm reduction (HR centers ("with intervention" compared with standard HR centers ("without intervention". The study included 271 PWID interviewed on three occasions: enrolment, 6 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received at least one face-to-face educational session during the first 6 months.The primary outcome of this analysis was reporting to have been tested for HCV during the previous 6 months. Statistical analyses used a two-step Heckman approach to account for bias arising from the non-randomized clustering design. This approach identified factors associated with HCV testing during the previous 6 months.Of the 271 participants, 127 and 144 were enrolled in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. For the present analysis, we selected 114 and 88 participants eligible for HCV testing in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 44% of participants reported having being tested for HCV during the previous 6 months at enrolment and 85% at 6 months or 12 months. In the control group, these percentages were 51% at enrolment and 78% at 12 months. Multivariable analyses showed that participants who received at least one educational session during follow-up were more likely to report HCV testing, compared with those who did not

  14. Increased Uptake of HCV Testing through a Community-Based Educational Intervention in Difficult-to-Reach People Who Inject Drugs: Results from the ANRS-AERLI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Perrine; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Ndiaye, Khadim; Debrus, Marie; Protopopescu, Camélia; Le Gall, Jean-Marie; Haas, Aurélie; Mora, Marion; Spire, Bruno; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Carrieri, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Aims The community-based AERLI intervention provided training and education to people who inject drugs (PWID) about HIV and HCV transmission risk reduction, with a focus on drug injecting practices, other injection-related complications, and access to HIV and HCV testing and care. We hypothesized that in such a population where HCV prevalence is very high and where few know their HCV serostatus, AERLI would lead to increased HCV testing. Methods The national multisite intervention study ANRS-AERLI consisted in assessing the impact of an injection-centered face-to-face educational session offered in volunteer harm reduction (HR) centers (“with intervention”) compared with standard HR centers (“without intervention”). The study included 271 PWID interviewed on three occasions: enrolment, 6 and 12 months. Participants in the intervention group received at least one face-to-face educational session during the first 6 months. Measurements The primary outcome of this analysis was reporting to have been tested for HCV during the previous 6 months. Statistical analyses used a two-step Heckman approach to account for bias arising from the non-randomized clustering design. This approach identified factors associated with HCV testing during the previous 6 months. Findings Of the 271 participants, 127 and 144 were enrolled in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Of the latter, 113 received at least one educational session. For the present analysis, we selected 114 and 88 participants eligible for HCV testing in the control and intervention groups, respectively. In the intervention group, 44% of participants reported having being tested for HCV during the previous 6 months at enrolment and 85% at 6 months or 12 months. In the control group, these percentages were 51% at enrolment and 78% at 12 months. Multivariable analyses showed that participants who received at least one educational session during follow-up were more likely to report HCV testing

  15. Solar Hydrogen Reaching Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongé Jan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly vast research efforts are devoted to the development of materials and processes for solar hydrogen production by light-driven dissociation of water into oxygen and hydrogen. Storage of solar energy in chemical bonds resolves the issues associated with the intermittent nature of sunlight, by decoupling energy generation and consumption. This paper investigates recent advances and prospects in solar hydrogen processes that are reaching market readiness. Future energy scenarios involving solar hydrogen are proposed and a case is made for systems producing hydrogen from water vapor present in air, supported by advanced modeling.

  16. Offering Self-Sampling Kits for HPV Testing to Reach Women Who Do Not Attend in the Regular Cervical Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, Marc; Castle, Philip E

    2015-05-01

    In 2016, the Netherlands will switch, as first European country, from cytology-based to HPV-based cervical cancer screening, with cytology triage for those with a positive HPV test. The new Dutch program includes sending self-sampling devices to women who do not respond to an invitation to have a cervical sample taken by their general practitioner. The cost-effectiveness of this additional strategy will depend on its capacity to recruit nonscreened women and in particular those at increased risk of cervical (pre)cancer, the possible switch of previous responders to self-sampling, the accuracy and cost of the HPV assay-self-sampler combination, and the compliance of women being self-sample HPV-positive with further follow-up. Validated PCR-based assays, detecting high-risk HPV DNA, are as accurate on self-samples as on clinician-collected samples. On the contrary, HPV assays, based on signal amplification, are less sensitive and specific on self-samples. The introduction of self-sampling strategies should be carefully prepared and evaluated in pilot studies integrated in well-organized settings before general rollout. Opt-in procedures involving a request for a self-sampler may reduce response rates. Therefore, an affordable device that can be included with the invitation to all nonattendees may yield a stronger effect on participation.

  17. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign-Research Steps, Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobey, Lauren N; Koenig, Harold F; Brown, Nicole A; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-09-13

    The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV) intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2) and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082) were conducted in intervention counties (IC) and one control county. Participants were female (86%-100%) with 1-2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH) campaign was created/delivered daily August-October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators). Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12%) and interpretation of intended messages (60%) vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively). Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  18. Reaching Low-Income Mothers to Improve Family Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Food Hero Social Marketing Campaign—Research Steps, Development and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren N. Tobey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to create/test a social marketing campaign to increase fruit/vegetable (FV intake within Oregon Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP eligible families. Focus groups (n = 2 and pre/post campaign phone surveys (n = 2082 were conducted in intervention counties (IC and one control county. Participants were female (86%–100% with 1–2 children at home. Mean FV intake/without juice was 3.1 servings/day; >50% preferred the Internet for delivery of healthy eating information. Participants reported time/financial burdens, low household FV variety and desirability of frozen/canned FV, and acceptance of positive messages. A Food Hero (FH campaign was created/delivered daily August–October 2009 to mothers through multiple channels (e.g., grocery stores, online, educators. Results showed that the IC had better FH name recall (12% and interpretation of intended messages (60% vs. control (3%, 23%, respectively. Compared to controls, the IC were less likely to report healthy food preparation as time consuming or a FV rich diet expensive, and it was easier to get their family to eat fruit. Results did not vary based on county/household characteristics. The FH campaign increased FH awareness and positive FV beliefs. A longer campaign with FV assessments will increase understanding of the target audience, and allow for campaign refinement.

  19. Westar reaches critical crossroads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-01

    Westar Mining Ltd. has applied for court protection until September 30, 1992 to gain time to draw up a final reorganization plan. The Companies' Creditors Arrangement Act is a federal statute that allows a business to restructure financially without having to declare bankruptcy. Normal trade terms with suppliers are usually maintained during this period. The company is struggling under the effects of falling coal prices, a high Canadian dollar and a high debt burden. Changes in work practices at the company's Balmer mine are a major part of the restructuring. An agreement must be reached with the United Mineworkers of America and other stakeholders or the Balmer mine will close permanently. Employees have been locked out since May 1, 1992 when union members rejected the company's final offer.

  20. Which Kids Are at Highest Risk for Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Which Kids are at Highest Risk for Suicide? Page Content Article Body No child is immune, ... who have lost a friend or relative to suicide. Studies show that a considerable number of youth ...

  1. MOC: Reducing Favorable Balance, 2007's Highest Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuang

    2007-01-01

    @@ When attending the National Working Conference on Commerce on January 15th, Mr. Bo Xilai, the Minister of Commerce, said that the highest priority for China's international trade in 2007 is to reduce the favorable balance.

  2. Reaching Fleming's dicrimination bound

    CERN Document Server

    Gruebl, Gebhard

    2012-01-01

    Any rule for identifying a quantum system's state within a set of two non-orthogonal pure states by a single measurement is flawed. It has a non-zero probability of either yielding the wrong result or leaving the query undecided. This also holds if the measurement of an observable $A$ is repeated on a finite sample of $n$ state copies. We formulate a state identification rule for such a sample. This rule's probability of giving the wrong result turns out to be bounded from above by $1/n\\delta_{A}^{2}$ with $\\delta_{A}=|_{1}-_{2}|/(\\Delta_{1}A+\\Delta_{2}A).$ A larger $\\delta_{A}$ results in a smaller upper bound. Yet, according to Fleming, $\\delta_{A}$ cannot exceed $\\tan\\theta$ with $\\theta\\in(0,\\pi/2) $ being the angle between the pure states under consideration. We demonstrate that there exist observables $A$ which reach the bound $\\tan\\theta$ and we determine all of them.

  3. UX-15 Reaches LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The creation of the world's largest sandstone cavern, not a small feat! At the bottom, cave-in preventing steel mesh can be seen clinging to the top of the tunnel. The digging of UX-15, the cavern that will house ATLAS, reached the upper ceiling of LEP on October 10th. The breakthrough which took place nearly 100 metres underground occurred precisely on schedule and exactly as planned. But much caution was taken beforehand to make the LEP breakthrough clean and safe. To prevent the possibility of cave-ins in the side tunnels that will eventually be attached to the completed UX-15 cavern, reinforcing steel mesh was fixed into the walls with bolts. Obviously no people were allowed in the LEP tunnels below UX-15 as the breakthrough occurred. The area was completely evacuated and fences were put into place to keep all personnel out. However, while personnel were being kept out of the tunnels below, this has been anything but the case for the work taking place up above. With the creation of the world's largest...

  4. A review of the status of alternative approaches to animal testing and the development of integrated testing strategies for assessing the toxicity of chemicals under REACH--a summary of a DEFRA-funded project conducted by Liverpool John Moores University and FRAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindon, Christina; Combes, Robert; Cronin, Mark T D; Roberts, David W; Garrod, John

    2006-03-01

    Liverpool John Moores University and FRAME were recently awarded a DEFRA tender to conduct a review of the status of alternative approaches to animal testing, and to recommend further research with regard to the forthcoming European Union REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals) system for the safety testing and risk assessment of chemicals. The outcome of the project is summarised, including the prospects for in vitro and in silico testing, areas where reduction and refinement could be applied, and how decision-tree integrated testing strategies could be used to reduce the number of animals needed to fulfil the testing requirements of the REACH system. This paper is a prelude to a series of individual papers on detailed suggestions for applying non-animal methods to each of the major toxicity endpoints in REACH.

  5. Compact muon solenoid magnet reaches full field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Scientist of the U.S. Department of Energy in Fermilab and collaborators of the US/CMS project announced that the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet has reached full field in tests at CERN. (1 apge)

  6. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: the highest energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Neto, João R T de Mello

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are the highest energy messengers of the present universe, with energies up to $10^{20}$ eV. Studies of astrophysical particles (nuclei, electrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. The primary particles interact in the atmosphere and generate extensive air showers. Analysis of those showers enables one not only to estimate the energy, direction and most probable mass of the primary cosmic particles, but also to obtain information about the properties of their hadronic interactions at an energy more than one order of magnitude above that accessible with the current highest energy human-made accelerator. In this contribution we will review the state-of-the-art in UHECRs detection. We will present the leading experiments Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and discuss the cosmic ray energy spectrum, searches for directional anisotropy, studies of mass composition, the determ...

  7. Exploring the cultural dimensions of the right to the highest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many ... and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services. ... It seems that international human rights law demands respect for the cultural ...

  8. China's Power Consumption Highest Ever in 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Chinese power consumption increased by some 15 percent in 2003, reaching a level of 1,844.4 billion KWH. In early 2003, newly built power capacity installations failed to meet rapidly growing power consumption demands, resulting in power shortages in certain regions that by the third quarter of the year became

  9. On designated-weight Boolean functions with highest algebraic immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic immunity has been considered as one of cryptographically significant properties for Boolean functions. In this paper, we study ∑d-1 i=0 (ni)-weight Boolean functions with algebraic immunity achiev-ing the minimum of d and n - d + 1, which is highest for the functions. We present a simpler sufficient and necessary condition for these functions to achieve highest algebraic immunity. In addition, we prove that their algebraic degrees are not less than the maximum of d and n - d + 1, and for d = n1 +2 their nonlinearities equalthe minimum of ∑d-1 i=0 (ni) and ∑ d-1 i=0 (ni). Lastly, we identify two classes of such functions, one having algebraic degree of n or n-1.

  10. Irreducible Cartesian tensors of highest weight, for arbitrary order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    A closed form expression is presented for the irreducible Cartesian tensor of highest weight, for arbitrary order. Two proofs are offered, one employing bookkeeping of indices and, after establishing the connection with the so-called natural tensors and their projection operators, the other one employing purely coordinate-free tensor manipulations. Some theorems and formulas in the published literature are generalized from SO(3) to SO(n), for dimensions n ≥ 3.

  11. Some Rigidity Results for Highest Order Local Cohomology Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad T.Dibaei; Siamak Yassemi

    2007-01-01

    Let R be a commutative Noetherian ring,a an ideal of R,and M a finitely generated R-module of finite Krull dimension n.We describe the (finite) sets Assn (H n/a (M))and Attr(H n/a(M)) of primes associated and attached to the highest local cohomologymodule H n/a (M) in terms of the local formal behaviour of a.

  12. Ultra high energy cosmic rays: the highest energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello Neto, João R. T.

    2016-04-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are the highest energy messengers of the present universe, with energies up to 1020 eV. Studies of astrophysical particles (nuclei, electrons, neutrinos and photons) at their highest observed energies have implications for fundamental physics as well as astrophysics. The primary particles interact in the atmosphere and generate extensive air showers. Analysis of those showers enables one not only to estimate the energy, direction and most probable mass of the primary cosmic particles, but also to obtain information about the properties of their hadronic interactions at an energy more than one order of magnitude above that accessible with the current highest energy human-made accelerator. In this contribution we will review the state-of-the-art in UHECRs detection. We will present the leading experiments Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and discuss the cosmic ray energy spectrum, searches for directional anisotropy, studies of mass composition, the determination of the number of shower muons (which is sensitive to the shower hadronic interactions) and the proton-air cross section.

  13. Reach preparation enhances visual performance and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfs, Martin; Lawrence, Bonnie M; Carrasco, Marisa

    2013-10-19

    We investigated the impact of the preparation of reach movements on visual perception by simultaneously quantifying both an objective measure of visual sensitivity and the subjective experience of apparent contrast. Using a two-by-two alternative forced choice task, observers compared the orientation (clockwise or counterclockwise) and the contrast (higher or lower) of a Standard Gabor and a Test Gabor, the latter of which was presented during reach preparation, at the reach target location or the opposite location. Discrimination performance was better overall at the reach target than at the opposite location. Perceived contrast increased continuously at the target relative to the opposite location during reach preparation, that is, after the onset of the cue indicating the reach target. The finding that performance and appearance do not evolve in parallel during reach preparation points to a distinction with saccade preparation, for which we have shown previously there is a parallel temporal evolution of performance and appearance. Yet akin to saccade preparation, this study reveals that overall reach preparation enhances both visual performance and appearance.

  14. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  15. Spatial Games Based on Pursuing the Highest Average Payoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Han-Xin; WANG Bing-Hong; WANG Wen-Xu; RONG Zhi-Hai

    2008-01-01

    We propose a strategy updating mechanism based on pursuing the highest average payoff to investigate the prisoner's dilemma game and the snowdrift game. We apply the new rule to investigate cooperative behaviours on regular, small-world, scale-free networks, and find spatial structure can maintain cooperation for the prisoner's dilemma game. In the snowdrift game, spatial structure can inhibit or promote cooperative behaviour which depends on payoff parameter. We further study cooperative behaviour on scale-free network in detail. Interestingly, non-monotonous behaviours observed on scale-free network with middle-degree individuals have the lowest cooperation level. We also find that large-degree individuals change their strategies more frequently for both games.

  16. On the Origin of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a new estimation of the photodisintegration and propagation of ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHCR) nuclei in intergalactic space. The critical interactions for photodisintegration and energy loss of UHCR nuclei occur with photons of the infrared background radiation (IBR). We have reexamined this problem making use of a new determination of the IBR based on empirical data, primarily from IRAS galaxies, and also collateral information from TeV gamma-ray observations of two nearby BL Lac objects. Our results indicate that a 200 EeV Fe nucleus can propagate apx. 100 Mpc through the IBR. We argue that it is possible that the highest energy cosmic rays observed may be heavy nuclei.

  17. The Theoretical Highest Frame Rate of Silicon Image Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Goji Etoh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The frame rate of the digital high-speed video camera was 2000 frames per second (fps in 1989, and has been exponentially increasing. A simulation study showed that a silicon image sensor made with a 130 nm process technology can achieve about 1010 fps. The frame rate seems to approach the upper bound. Rayleigh proposed an expression on the theoretical spatial resolution limit when the resolution of lenses approached the limit. In this paper, the temporal resolution limit of silicon image sensors was theoretically analyzed. It is revealed that the limit is mainly governed by mixing of charges with different travel times caused by the distribution of penetration depth of light. The derived expression of the limit is extremely simple, yet accurate. For example, the limit for green light of 550 nm incident to silicon image sensors at 300 K is 11.1 picoseconds. Therefore, the theoretical highest frame rate is 90.1 Gfps (about 1011 fps

  18. Integrable highest weight modules over affine superalgebras and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kac, V G

    1994-01-01

    In the first part of the paper we give the denominator identity for all simple finite-dimensional Lie super algebras \\frak g\\/ with a non-degenerate invariant bilinear form. We give also a character and (super) dimension formulas for all finite-dimensional irreducible \\frak g\\/-modules of atypicality \\leq 1\\/ . In the second part of the paper we give the denominator identity for the affine superalgebras \\hat{\\frak g}\\/ associated to \\frak g\\/. Specializations of this identity give almost all old and many new formulas for the number of representations of an integer as sums of squares and sums of triangular numbers. At the end, we introduce the notion of an integrable \\hat{\\frak g}\\/-module and give a classification of irreducible integrable highest weight \\hat{\\frak g}\\/-modules.

  19. Robert Aymar receives one of the highest Finnish distinctions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008 Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, was awarded the decoration of Commander, first class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the President of the Republic of Finland. This decoration, one of the highest of Finland, was presented in a ceremony by the Ambassador Hannu Himanen, Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN and other international organisations in Geneva. Robert Aymar was honoured for his service to CERN, the LHC, his role in the cooperation between Finland and CERN, as well as his contribution to science in general. In his speech the ambassador underlined CERN’s efforts in the field of education, mentioning the High school teachers programme.

  20. Highest average burnups achieved by MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damy, Margaret A.; Terremoto, Luis A.A.; Silva, Jose E.R.; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Castanheira, Myrthes; Teodoro, Celso A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear (CEN)]. E-mail: madamy@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Different nuclear fuels were employed in the manufacture of plate type at IPEN , usually designated as Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements. These fuel elements were used at the IEA-R1 research reactor. This work describes the main characteristics of these nuclear fuels, emphasizing the highest average burn up achieved by these fuel elements. (author)

  1. Real Estate Development, Highest and Best Use and Real Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bravi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this work is to connect the Real Options Theory (ROT with the real estate investment framework. A great deal of theoretical work exist today; it begun with Merton (1973 and Black & Sholes (1973 and provided new insights into capital budgeting decision-making and new models, used today by corporate managers and practitioners too. Unfortunately, the ROT is not widely used by appraisers respect to the traditional DCF model, even though the developers behaviour gives evidence to the model. It is important to remember that the real estate investments are characterized by irreversible decision and by various sources of risk and uncertainty about future returns, especially when the development process is very long. The flexibility in the real estate investment is related to the alternative uses embedded in the land – traditionally interpreted through the Highest and Best Use approach – and to the characteristics of the building. In fact, the value of vacant land should reflect not only the value based on best immediate use, but also its option value, if the development is delayed and the land is converted into best alternative use in the future. This is also true for the redeveloped urban lands. In brief, this work shows the limits of the traditional analysis (Discounted Cash Flow Model to capture flexibility in the real estate investment and presents an application – an industrial urban area – implemented by the real option approach within a backward risk-neutral valuation process.

  2. Academic Training - Tevatron: studying pp collisions at the highest energy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 15, 16, 17, 18 May Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 15, 16, 17 May - Council Chamber on 18 May Physics at the Tevatron B. HEINEMANN, Univ. of Liverpool, FERMILAB Physics Results from the Tevatron The Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab in the US is currently the world's highest energy collider. At the experiments CDF and D0 a broad physics programme is being pursued, ranging from flavour physics via electroweak precision measurements to searches for the Higgs boson and new particles beyond the Standard Model. In my lecture I will describe some of the highlight measurements in the flavour, electroweak and searches sectors, and the experimental techniques that are used. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/...

  3. Income Inequality by Highest Attained Education in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Brázdilová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Income distribution strongly affects the value of risk-of poverty, what could explain small values of poverty rate in the Czech Republic. Therefore it is important to examine the level of income inequality in society and find out the socio-economic characteristics of people affecting the overall income inequality. The factor showing the biggest influence on the income level is education, so it is meaningful to examine the relationship between income inequality and poverty rate of each group of people by their highest attained education. One appropriate approach is quantification of each group’s contribution to the overall income differentiation by decomposition of some income inequality indicators. This decomposition enables also to identify the reason the value of each contribution according to various aspects, such as the group size or total volume of groups incomes. The development of overall income inequality in the last year is a necessary condition for the prediction in the future, so the trends of time series of some inequality indicators were analyzed. The whole analysis enables to complete a view on income level and its inequality in the society, which are important indicators measuring the living standards of people.

  4. Kyle Cranmer receives the highest recognition from the US government

    CERN Multimedia

    Allen Mincer

    Kyle Cranmer with Clay Sell, Deputy Secretary of EnergyKyle Cranmer, who has worked on ATLAS as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a Goldhaber Fellow at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and, most recently, an Assistant Professor at New York University, has been awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). As described at the United States Department of Energy web page: "The PECASE Awards are intended to recognize some of the finest scientists and engineers who, while early in their research careers, show exceptional potential for leadership at the frontiers of scientific knowledge during the twenty-first century...The PECASE Award is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers." Kyle's work on ATLAS focuses on tools and strategies for data analysis, triggering, and searches for the Higgs.At the awards ceremony, which took place on Thursday Nov. 1st in Washington, D.C.,...

  5. Z-Burst Scenario for the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Fodor, Z; Ringwald, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The origin of highest energy cosmic rays is yet unknown. An appealing possibility is the so-called Z-burst scenario, in which a large fraction of these cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. The comparison between the observed and predicted spectra constrains the mass of the heaviest neutrino. The required neutrino mass is fairly robust against variations of the presently unknown quantities, such as the amount of relic neutrino clustering, the universal photon radio background and the extragalactic magnetic field. Considering different possibilities for the ordinary cosmic rays the required neutrino masses are determined. In the most plausible case that the ordinary cosmic rays are of extragalactic origin and the universal radio background is strong enough to suppress high energy photons, the required neutrino mass is 0.08 eV < m_nu < 0.40 eV. The required ultrahigh energy neutrino flux should be detected in th...

  6. Formation of the Black Holes in the Highest Redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, J

    2004-01-01

    The recent discovery of luminous quasars up to a redshift z=6.43 has renewed interest into the formation of black holes massive enough to power the quasars. If black holes grow by Eddington-limited gas accretion with a radiative efficiency of at least 10%, the time required to grow from a stellar black hole to ~10^9 Msun is ~10^9 years, close to the age of the universe at z=6. Black hole mergers may accelerate the rate of mass growth, but can also completely eject black holes from halo centers owing to the gravitational wave recoil effect. Recently, Haiman concluded that black hole ejections likely do not allow black holes to grow to ~10^9 Msun by z=6.43. We reexamine this problem and show that, by using a different relation between halo velocity dispersion and escape velocity, and taking into account the dependence of the gravitational wave recoil velocity on the mass ratio of the merging black holes and spins, black hole masses could reach ~10^9 Msun as early as z=9 starting from stellar seeds without super...

  7. Pro gaming tips Halo Reach

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    ABOUT THE BOOK Halo Reach is the latest installment, and goes back to Halo's roots in more ways than one. Set around one of the most frequently referenced events in the Haloverse-The Fall of Reach-Reach puts you in the shoes of Noble 6, an unnamed Spartan, fighting a doomed battle to save the planet. Dual-wielding's gone, health is back, and equipment now takes the form of different "classes," with different weapon loadouts and special abilities (such as sprinting, cloaking, or flight). If you're reading this guide, you're either new to the Halo franchise and looking to get a leg up on all

  8. Late Quaternary sackungen in the highest mountains of the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Mentlík, Pavel; Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Règis; Zondervan, Albert

    2017-03-01

    Sackungen represents a common mode of deep-seated rock-slope failures in alpine landscapes, but proof of their temporal and causal relationship to extrinsic factors such as climatic changes, glacier retreat or seismic activity remains elusive. Based on the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) dating of 18 sackung scarps supported by one radiocarbon-dated scarp, we reconstructed the post-glacial chronology of sackungen in the Tatra Mts. (central Europe, Slovakia and Poland), the highest part of the Carpathians. The obtained ages (∼15.7-4.3 ka) indicate that sackungen post-date the regional LGM and some of them originated soon after the glacier withdrawal from adjacent valleys. Furthermore, systematic decrease of scarp ages with their increasing altitude suggests a direct link between sackung origin and post-LGM glacier thinning. However, substantial lag (>5 ka) of some sackungen in respect to glacier retreat implies complex relationships between sackung onset and deglaciation where retreat of glaciers acted predominantly as a preparatory, not a triggering factor during the genesis of these slope deformations. They originated either as a consequence of stress relaxation within the rock mass lasting several ka or alternatively could be triggered by climatic processes or seismicity. Indeed, a significant part of sackung activity took place during predominantly warmer and more humid periods, with some dates coinciding with the Bølling-Allerød chronozone, but especially with the onset of the Holocene and the Holocene Climatic Optimum. Earthquake triggering is less probable, as the Tatra Mts. lack significant modern and historic seismic activity and there is no geomorphic evidence of fault offsets on the Late Quaternary landforms. In concert with other recent studies, we propose that large rock slope failures in high mountains seldom react immediately to glacier withdrawal, but could display temporal delay lasting up to several millennia.

  9. Lunar Probe Reaches Deep Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's second lunar probe, Chang'e-2, has reached an orbit 1.5 million kilometers from Earth for an additional mission of deep space exploration, the State Administration for Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense announced.

  10. Children of Senegal River Basin show the highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ever observed worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safadi, Dima; Gaayeb, Lobna; Meloni, Dionigia; Cian, Amandine; Poirier, Philippe; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Delbac, Frédéric; Dabboussi, Fouad; Delhaes, Laurence; Seck, Modou; Hamze, Monzer; Riveau, Gilles; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2014-03-25

    Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common intestinal protist found in human feces and considered an emerging parasite with a worldwide distribution. Because of its potential impact in public health, we reinforced the picture of Blastocystis sp. prevalence and molecular subtype distribution in Africa by performing the first survey of this parasite in Senegal. Stool samples from 93 symptomatic presenting with various gastrointestinal disorders or asymptomatic children living in three villages of the Senegal River Basin were tested for the presence of Blastocystis sp. by non-quantitative and quantitative PCR using primer pairs targeting the SSU rDNA gene. Positive samples were subtyped to investigate the frequency of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in our cohort and the distribution of subtypes in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups of children. By the use of molecular tools, all 93 samples were found to be positive for Blastocystis sp. indicating a striking parasite prevalence of 100%. Mixed infections by two or three subtypes were identified in eight individuals. Among a total of 103 subtyped isolates, subtype 3 was most abundant (49.5%) followed by subtype 1 (28.2%), subtype 2 (20.4%) and subtype 4 (1.9%). Subtype 3 was dominant in the symptomatic group while subtypes 1 and 2 were detected with equal frequency in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The distribution of subtypes was compared with those available in other African countries and worldwide. Comparison confirmed that subtype 4 is much less frequently detected or absent in Africa while it is commonly found in Europe. Potential sources of Blastocystis sp. infection including human-to-human, zoonotic, and waterborne transmissions were also discussed. The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in our Senegalese population was the highest prevalence ever recovered worldwide for this parasite by reaching 100%. All cases were caused by subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 with a predominance of subtype 3. More than half of

  11. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in Madeira (Portugal): the highest prevalence in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Carla; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Pereira, Conceição; Brehm, António; Spínola, Hélder

    2009-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common genetic disease which affects both lung and liver. Early diagnosis can help asymptomatic patients to adjust their lifestyle choices in order to reduce the risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The determination of this genetic deficiency prevalence in Madeira Island (Portugal) population is important to clarify susceptibility and define the relevance of performing genetic tests for AAT on individuals at risk for COPD. Two hundred samples of unrelated individuals from Madeira Island were genotyped for the two most common AAT deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Mediated Site-Directed Mutagenesis. Our results show one of the highest frequencies for both mutations when compared to any already studied population in the world. In fact, PI*S mutation has the highest prevalence (18%), and PI*Z mutation (2.5%) was the third highest worldwide. The frequency of AAT deficiency genotypes in Madeira (PI*ZZ, PI*SS, and PI*SZ) is estimated to be the highest in the world: 41 per 1000. This high prevalence of AAT deficiency on Madeira Island reveals an increased genetic susceptibility to COPD and suggests a routine genetic testing for individuals at risk.

  12. Stellar Chemical Abundances: In Pursuit of the Highest Achievable Precision

    CERN Document Server

    Bedell, M; Bean, J; Ramirez, I; Leite, P; Asplund, M

    2014-01-01

    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epoc...

  13. Stellar chemical abundances: in pursuit of the highest achievable precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedell, Megan; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Meléndez, Jorge; Leite, Paulo [Departamento de Astronomia do IAG/USP, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Ramírez, Ivan [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1206 (United States); Asplund, Martin, E-mail: mbedell@oddjob.uchicago.edu [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    The achievable level of precision on photospheric abundances of stars is a major limiting factor on investigations of exoplanet host star characteristics, the chemical histories of star clusters, and the evolution of the Milky Way and other galaxies. While model-induced errors can be minimized through the differential analysis of spectrally similar stars, the maximum achievable precision of this technique has been debated. As a test, we derive differential abundances of 19 elements from high-quality asteroid-reflected solar spectra taken using a variety of instruments and conditions. We treat the solar spectra as being from unknown stars and use the resulting differential abundances, which are expected to be zero, as a diagnostic of the error in our measurements. Our results indicate that the relative resolution of the target and reference spectra is a major consideration, with use of different instruments to obtain the two spectra leading to errors up to 0.04 dex. Use of the same instrument at different epochs for the two spectra has a much smaller effect (∼0.007 dex). The asteroid used to obtain the solar standard also has a negligible effect (∼0.006 dex). Assuming that systematic errors from the stellar model atmospheres have been minimized, as in the case of solar twins, we confirm that differential chemical abundances can be obtained at sub-0.01 dex precision with due care in the observations, data reduction, and abundance analysis.

  14. The Reach of the Arts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan; W.P. Knulst

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Het bereik van de kunsten. The reach of the arts (Het bereik van de kunsten) is the fourth study in a series which periodically analyses the status of cultural participation, reading and use of other media. The series, Support for culture (Het culturele draagvlak) is sponsored by th

  15. New Tests of Lorentz Invariance Following from Observations of the Highest Energy Cosmic Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Stecker, F W; Glashow, Sheldon L.

    2001-01-01

    We use the recent reanalysis of multi-TeV gamma-ray observations of Mrk 501 to constrain the Lorentz invariance breaking parameter involving the maximum electron velocity. Our limit is two orders of magnitude better than that obtained from the maximum observed cosmic-ray electron energy.

  16. Environmental Degradation, Disproportionality, and the Double Diversion: Reaching out, Reaching ahead, and Reaching beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenburg, William R.

    2006-01-01

    Rather than seeking ivory-tower isolation, members of the Rural Sociological Society have always been distinguished by a willingness to work with specialists from a broad range of disciplines, and to work on some of the world's most challenging problems. What is less commonly recognized is that the willingness to reach beyond disciplinary…

  17. Priority setting in the REACH system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Rudén, Christina

    2006-04-01

    Due to the large number of chemicals for which toxicological and ecotoxicological information is lacking, priority setting for data acquisition is a major concern in chemicals regulation. In the current European system, two administrative priority-setting criteria are used, namely novelty (i.e., time of market introduction) and production volume. In the proposed Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) system, the novelty criterion is no longer used, and production volume will be the main priority-setting criterion for testing requirements, supplemented in some cases with hazard indications obtained from QSAR modelling. This system for priority setting has severe weaknesses. In this paper we propose that a multicriteria system should be developed that includes at least three additional criteria: chemical properties, results from initial testing in a tiered system, and voluntary testing for which efficient incentives can be created. Toxicological and decision-theoretical research is needed to design testing systems with validated priority-setting mechanisms.

  18. Sampling hard to reach populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugier, J; Sargeant, M

    1997-10-01

    Studies on 'hidden populations', such as homeless people, prostitutes and drug addicts, raise a number of specific methodological questions usually absent from research involving known populations and less sensitive subjects. This paper examines the advantages and limitations of nonrandom methods of data collection such as snowball sampling. It reviews the currently available literature on sampling hard to reach populations and highlights the dearth of material currently available on this subject. The paper also assesses the potential for using these methods in nursing research. The sampling methodology used by Faugier (1996) in her study of prostitutes, HIV and drugs is used as a current example within this context.

  19. How to reach library users who cannot reach libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Ljuić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ways of getting library activities closer to the individuals or groups of users who have difficulties to or cannot visit the library themselves. The author presents the services offered by the Maribor Public Library and discusses how one of the basic human rights – the right to the access of cultural goods, knowledge and information - is exercised also through library activities. By enabling access to library material and information, public libraries help to fulfill basic human rights and thus raise the quality of living in a social environment. The following forms of library activities are presented in the article: »distance library« – borrowing books at home, in hospital, station for the bibliobus for disabled users, »mobile collections« in the institutions where users, due to their age or illness, have difficulties in accessing or even cannot reach library materials and information by themselves.

  20. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  1. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; García, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PȩKala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-04-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ˜6 × 1019 eV and AGN at a distance less than ˜75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest-energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen Zatsepin Kuz’min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  2. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration, The Pierre auger

    2007-12-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [1]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and AGN at a distance less than {approx} 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. Severe sensorimotor neuropathy after intake of highest dosages of vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdynia, Hans-Jürgen; Müller, Timo; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Kühnlein, Peter; Otto, Markus; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C

    2008-02-01

    We illustrate a white caucasian patient with a severe sensorimotor neuropathy due to vitamin B6 hypervitaminosis. The patient used the pendulum to calculate his daily metabolic demands and ingested 9.6g pyridoxine/day. To our knowledge, this is the highest dosage of vitamin B6 administered to humans over prolonged periods of time ever reported in the medical literature. The unique aspect of this case is the muscle weakness and motor findings on electrophysiological testing in what is suggested by the literature to be a pure sensory neuronopathy.

  4. Reach Envelope of Human Extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jingzhou(杨景周); ZHANG Yunqing(张云清); CHEN Liping(陈立平); ABDEL-MALEK Karim

    2004-01-01

    Significant attention in recent years has been given to obtain a better understanding of human joint ranges, measurement, and functionality, especially in conjunction with commands issued by the central nervous system. While researchers have studied motor commands needed to drive a limb to follow a path trajectory, various computer algorithms have been reported that provide adequate analysis of limb modeling and motion. This paper uses a rigorous mathematical formulation to model human limbs, understand their reach envelope, delineate barriers therein where a trajectory becomes difficult to control, and help visualize these barriers. Workspaces of a typical forearm with 9 degrees of freedom, a typical finger modeled as a 4- degree-of-freedom system, and a lower extremity with 4 degrees of freedom are discussed. The results show that using the proposed formulation, joint limits play an important role in distinguishing the barriers.

  5. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jung; Andersen, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual object, e.g., playing the piano following sheet music or moving following verbal directions. So far it has not been directly tested whether and how PRR represents reach goals in such cognitive, nonlocational conditions, and knowing the encoding properties in various task conditions would help in designing a reach goal decoder for prosthetic applications. To address this issue, we examined the macaque PRR under two reach conditions: reach goal determined by the stimulus location (direct) or shape (symbolic). For the same goal, the spiking activity near reach onset was indistinguishable between the two tasks, and thus a reach goal decoder trained with spiking activity in one task performed perfectly in the other. In contrast, the LFP activity at 20-40 Hz showed small but significantly enhanced reach goal tuning in the symbolic task, but its spatial preference remained the same. Consequently, a decoder trained with LFP activity performed worse in the other task than in the same task. These results suggest that LFP decoders in PRR should take into account the task context (e.g., locational vs. nonlocational) to be accurate, while spike decoders can robustly provide reach goal information regardless of the task context in various prosthetic applications.

  6. Olefins and chemical regulation in Europe: REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Mike; Banton, Marcy; Erler, Steffen; Moore, Nigel; Semmler, Klaus

    2015-11-05

    REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) is the European Union's chemical regulation for the management of risk to human health and the environment (European Chemicals Agency, 2006). This regulation entered into force in June 2007 and required manufacturers and importers to register substances produced in annual quantities of 1000 tonnes or more by December 2010, with further deadlines for lower tonnages in 2013 and 2018. Depending on the type of registration, required information included the substance's identification, the hazards of the substance, the potential exposure arising from the manufacture or import, the identified uses of the substance, and the operational conditions and risk management measures applied or recommended to downstream users. Among the content developed to support this information were Derived No-Effect Levels or Derived Minimal Effect Levels (DNELs/DMELs) for human health hazard assessment, Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for environmental hazard assessment, and exposure scenarios for exposure and risk assessment. Once registered, substances may undergo evaluation by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) or Member State authorities and be subject to requests for additional information or testing as well as additional risk reduction measures. To manage the REACH registration and related activities for the European olefins and aromatics industry, the Lower Olefins and Aromatics REACH Consortium was formed in 2008 with administrative and technical support provided by Penman Consulting. A total of 135 substances are managed by this group including 26 individual chemical registrations (e.g. benzene, 1,3-butadiene) and 13 categories consisting of 5-26 substances. This presentation will describe the content of selected registrations prepared for 2010 in addition to the significant post-2010 activities. Beyond REACH, content of the registrations may also be relevant to other European activities, for

  7. Health campaign channels: tradeoffs among reach, specificity, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooler, C; Chaffee, S H; Flora, J A; Roser, C

    1998-03-01

    Stanford University's Five-City Multifactor Risk Reduction Project (FCP) was a 14-year trial of community-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction through integrated programs of community organization and mass media health promotion. The project was launched in 1978 in 5 central California cities, including Monterey, Salinas, Modesto, and San Luis Obispo. TV public service announcements (PSAs), TV shows, booklets, printed tip sheets with brief health suggestions on 7 topics, and newspaper coverage were the types of mass media approaches used in the FCP. These strategies are compared with regard to reach, specificity, and impact for a 5-year study period from 1979/80. Reach is measured as the number of messages intervention community residents remembered, specificity was assessed by examining whether the campaign differentially reached people who were already knowledgeable and practicing cardiovascular disease risk reduction, and impact is defined as the amount of knowledge gained during the course of the campaign. Reach was highest for tip sheets, while specificity was highest for booklets followed by TV programs. Newspaper messages had the most impact, followed by booklets and TV PSAs, tip sheets, and TV programs. Communication channels varied according to reach, specificity, and impact, with each criterion being distinct. No channel was optimal for all 3 of the outcome measures.

  8. The TeV blazar Markarian 421 at the highest spatial resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Blasi, M G; Giroletti, M; Orienti, M; Giovannini, G; Cotton, W; Edwards, P G; Fuhrmann, L; Krichbaum, T P; Kovalev, Y Y; Jorstad, S; Marscher, A; Kino, M; Paneque, D; Perez-Torres, M A; Piner, B G; Sokolovsky, K V

    2013-01-01

    We report the results obtained for the AGN Markarian 421 by model-fitting the data in the visibility plane, studing the proper motion of jet components, the light curve, and the spectral index of the jet features. We compare the radio data with optical light curves obtained at the Steward Observatory, considering also the optical polarization information. Mrk 421 has a bright nucleus and a one-sided jet extending towards the north-west for a few parsecs. The model-fits show that brightness distribution is well described using 6-7 circular Gaussian components, four of which are reliably identified at all epochs; all components are effectively stationary except for component D, at ~0.4 mas from the core, whose motion is however subluminal. Analysis of the light curve shows two different states, with the source being brighter and more variable in the first half of 2011 than in the second half. The highest flux density is reached in February. A comparison with the optical data reveals an increase of the V magnitu...

  9. How Do Chinese Enterprises Look at REACH?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The new European REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization of Chemicals) regulation has come into force. As soon as the REACH white paper was issued, Chinese enterprises started to research the possible impacts of REACH and prepare to cope with them. How then do these Chinese enterprises look at REACH? Following are views of some Chinese enterprises exporting chemical products to the European Union.

  10. Variabilidade da frequência cardíaca e carga máxima atingida no teste de esforço físico dinâmico em homens idosos Heart rate variability and maximum workload reached in the dynamic physical exertion test in elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suenimeire Vieira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Um dos benefícios promovidos pelo exercício físico parece ser a melhora da modulação do sistema nervoso autônomo sobre o coração. No entanto, o papel da atividade física como um fator determinante da variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC não está bem estabelecido. Desta forma, o objetivo do estudo foi verificar se há correlação entre a frequência cardíaca de repouso e a carga máxima atingida no teste de esforço físico com os índices de VFC em homens idosos. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 18 homens idosos com idades entre 60 e 70 anos. Foram feitas as seguintes avaliações: a teste de esforço máximo em cicloergômetro utilizando-se o protocolo de Balke para avaliação da capacidade aeróbia; b registro da frequência cardíaca (FC e dos intervalos R-R durante 15 minutos na condição de repouso em decúbito dorsal. Após a coleta, os dados foram analisados no domínio do tempo, calculando-se o índice RMSSD, e no domínio da frequência, calculando-se os índices de baixa frequência (BF, alta frequência (AF e razão BF/AF. Para verificar se existe associação entre a carga máxima atingida no teste de esforço e os índices de VFC foi aplicado o teste de correlação de Pearson (p 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Os índices de variabilidade da frequência cardíaca temporal e espectrais estudados não são indicadores do nível de capacidade aeróbia de homens idosos avaliados em cicloergômetro.INTRODUCTION: One of the benefits provided by regular physical activities seems to be the improvement of cardiac autonomic nervous system modulation. However, the role of physical activity as a determinant factor of the heart rate variability (HRV is not well-established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify whether there was a correlation between resting heart rate and maximum workload reached in an exercise test with HRV indices in elderly men. METHODS: A study was carried out with 18 elderly men between the ages of

  11. The highest inhibition coefficient of phenol biodegradation using an acclimated mixed culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Mojtaba; Sharifi Abdar, Payman; Borghei, S Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In this study a membrane biological reactor (MBR) was operated at 25 ± 1 °C and pH = 7.5 ± 0.5 to treat synthetic wastewater containing high phenol concentrations. Removal efficiencies of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were evaluated at four various hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 24, 12, 8, and 4 hours. The removal rate of phenol (5.51 kg-Phenol kg-VSS(-1) d(-1)), observed at HRT of 4 h, was the highest phenol degradation rate in the literature. According to COD tests, there were no significant organic matter in the effluent, and phenol was degraded completely by mixed culture. Substrate inhibition was calculated from experimental growth parameters using the Haldane, Yano, and Edward equations. The results show that the Haldane equation is fitted to the experimental data in an excellent manner. Kinetic parameters were derived by nonlinear regression with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.974. The values for Haldane constants μmax, Ks, and Ki were 0.3085 h(-1), 416 mg L(-1) and 1,886 mg L(-1), respectively. The Ki value is the highest value obtained for mixed cultures degrading phenol under batch conditions.

  12. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, J; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argiro, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Backer, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa-Ademarlaudo, F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Ben Zvi, S; Bérat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohaov, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceico, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; De Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; De Mello-Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; De Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipi, A; Fleck, ccI; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; Garca, B; Garca Gamez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, i G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gomez Berisso, M; Gmez Herrero, R; Gonalves, P; Goncalvesdo Amaral, M; González, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Gora, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutirrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Horandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kgl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Le Brun, P; Lee, J; Leiguide Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; López-Aguera, A; LozanoBahilo, J; Luna Garca, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Mancenido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martinez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, ii J A J; Matthiae, Giorgio; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostaf, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, a S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Noka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pkala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Diep Pham Ngoc Dong Pham Ngoc; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Porter, T A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivi`re, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodríguez, G; Rodrguez Fras, D; Rodríguez-Martino, J; RodrigueziiRojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouill-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovnek, P; Schussler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, i G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smialkowski, A; Smda, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suárez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Tacu, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tom, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valds Galicia, J F; Valino, I; Valore, e L; vanden Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberi, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, cM; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczynska, B; Wilczynski, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2007-01-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) \\cite{science}. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ~ 6x10^{19}$ eV and AGN at a distance less than ~ 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified {\\em a priori}, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz'min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin d...

  13. Predictors of the highest long-term care expenditures in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashiwagi Masayo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan, as the number of elderly covered by the Long-term Care Insurance (LTCI system has increased, demand for long-term care services has increased substantially and consequently growing expenditures are threatening the sustainability of the system. Understanding the predictive factors associated with long-term care expenditures among the elderly would be useful in developing future strategies to ensure the sustainability of the system. We report a set of predictors of the highest long-term care expenditures in a cohort of elderly persons who received consecutive long-term care services during a year in a Japanese city. Methods Data were obtained from databases of the LTC insurer of City A in Japan. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the predictors of the highest long-term care expenditures. We used a simplified model that focused on the effects of disability status and type of services used, while controlling for several relevant factors. Goodness of fit, a multicollinearity test, and logistic regression diagnostics were carried out for the final model. Results The study cohort consisted of 862 current users of LTCI system in city A. After controlling for gender and income, age, increased utilization rate of benefits, decline in functional status, higher care needs level and institutional care were found to be associated with the highest LTCI expenditures. An increased utilization rate of benefits (OR = 24.2 was a strong main effect predictors of the high LTC expenditures. However, a significant interaction between institutional care and high care need level was found, providing evidence of the combined effect of the two covariates. Conclusions Beyond to confirm that disability status of elderly persons is the main factor driving the demand of LTC services and consequently the expenditures, we showed that changes in utilization rate of benefits -a specific insurance factor- and the use of institutional care

  14. Correlation of the Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Extragalactic Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Bohácová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Boratav, M.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazón-Boado, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clark, P. D. J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Cronin, J.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Vega, G.; de Mello Junior, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Facal San Luis, P.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fernández, A.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fonte, R.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Kopmann, A.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kümpel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Le Brun, P.; Lee, J.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Malek, M.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Monnier Ragaigne, D.; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, E.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nguyen Thi, T.; Nierstenhöfer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pçkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Ngoc, DiepPham; Ngoc, DongPham; Pham Thi, T. N.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Porter, T. A.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Rídky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodríguez Frías, D.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; Smetniansky De Grande, N.; Smialkowski, A.; Smída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torresi, D.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Tunnicliffe, V.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walker, P.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Xu, J.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2007-11-01

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrated a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 6 × 1019 electron volts and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within ~75 megaparsecs. We rejected the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays with at least a 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observed is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest-energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been substantially reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  15. Effect of ensemble generalization on the highest-occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue

    CERN Document Server

    Kraisler, Eli; Kümmel, Stephan; Kronik, Leeor

    2015-01-01

    There are several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional in density-functional theory that accurately predict total energy-related properties of many-electron systems, such as binding energies, bond lengths, and crystal structures. Other approximations are designed to describe potential-related processes, such as charge transfer and photoemission. However, the development of a functional which can serve the two purposes simultaneously is a long-standing challenge. Trying to address it, we employ in the current work the ensemble generalization procedure proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 126403 (2013). Focusing on the prediction of the ionization potential via the highest occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue, we examine a variety of exchange-correlation approximations: the local spin-density approximation, semi-local generalized gradient approximations, and global and local hybrid functionals. Results for a test set of 26 diatomic molecules and single atoms are presented. We find that the aforementioned...

  16. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez, C; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; Benzvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazón-Boado, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Cronin, J; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; De Mitri, I; de Souza, V; Del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Selva, A Della; Fratte, C Delle; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; Dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Duvernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Fernández, A; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Albarracin, F Gomez; Berisso, M Gómez; Herrero, R Gómez; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovsky, M; Huege, T; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Kopmann, A; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kümpel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Malek, M; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, E; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Thi, T Nguyen; Nierstenhöfer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Ngoc, Dieppham; Ngoc, Dongpham; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Porter, T A; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Rídky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; De Grande, N Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H

    2007-11-01

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrated a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above 6 x 10(19) electron volts and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within approximately 75 megaparsecs. We rejected the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays with at least a 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observed is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest-energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been substantially reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  17. Correlation of the highest energy cosmic rays with nearby extragalactic objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; /Balseiro Inst., San Carlos de Bariloche /Buenos Aires, CONICET /CNEA, Buenos Aires /Pierre Auger Observ. /La Plata U. /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo U.

    2007-11-01

    Using data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory during the past 3.7 years, we demonstrate that there is a correlation between the arrival directions of cosmic rays with energy above {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) lying within {approx} 75 Mpc. We reject the hypothesis of an isotropic distribution of these cosmic rays at over 99% confidence level from a prescribed a priori test. The correlation we observe is compatible with the hypothesis that the highest energy particles originate from nearby extragalactic sources whose flux has not been significantly reduced by interaction with the cosmic background radiation. AGN or objects having a similar spatial distribution are possible sources.

  18. A Hybrid Model Approach for Achieving the Highest Level of Matching Between the “Print and Original” in the Sheet-Fed Offset Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendrakumar Anayath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to explore an optimized hybrid system through dual measurement approach of contrast measurement method and CIE L*a*b* measurement method to arrive a logical interface for achieving the highest matching between the print and original in sheet fed offset printing process. The work was started with the detailed study of contrast measurement, CIE L*a*b* measurement method, visual and computational intelligence based assessment and control. The master was designed in such a way that value of density and other values can be measured easily in effective way. X-Rite eXact instrument is used for capturing the readings, the 10 standard observers were selected initially by manual method and finally by using on line Fransworth-Munsell 100 Hue Colour Vision Test and visual assessments and judgement were done on X-Rite’s Macbeth Lighting Booth and their visual assessments are recorded, analyzed and represented. All the parameters like Paper, Ink, Measuring Conditions and Measuring Instruments etc. were maintained in compliance with ISO specifications. After the analysis of data, the study reached to the following main conclusion i.e. It is observed that almost in all the cases, preference of the Standard Observers are for Delta E Value leading to the higher contrast value instead of Minimum Delta E with less contrast value. Therefore the dual approach of “Hybrid System” will help us to arrive at the most convincing, measurable and perceptually acceptable print result which will be the highest (closest match to the original by clubbing the best of “CIE Lab, Contrast Method and Standard Observers Visual Perception” as there are positives and negatives in all these three when one approaches individually. The objective of this paper was to develop a dual measurement approach of CIE Lab & Contrast to arrive at a logical inference for the highest level of matching between the original and print in the sheet fed offset printing.

  19. Speeded reaching movements around invisible obstacles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd E Hudson

    Full Text Available We analyze the problem of obstacle avoidance from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective using an experimental task in which reaches around a virtual obstacle were made toward targets on an upright monitor. Subjects received monetary rewards for touching the target and incurred losses for accidentally touching the intervening obstacle. The locations of target-obstacle pairs within the workspace were varied from trial to trial. We compared human performance to that of a Bayesian ideal movement planner (who chooses motor strategies maximizing expected gain using the Dominance Test employed in Hudson et al. (2007. The ideal movement planner suffers from the same sources of noise as the human, but selects movement plans that maximize expected gain in the presence of that noise. We find good agreement between the predictions of the model and actual performance in most but not all experimental conditions.

  20. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - NCWAP [ds158

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - NCWAP - Reach Summary [ds158] shapefile contains in-stream habitat survey data summarized to the stream reach level. It is a derivative of the...

  1. Toxicity of Fatty Acid Autoxidation Products: Highest Anti-Microbial Toxicity in the Initial Oxidative Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorma Matikainen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The autoxidation-degradation processes of polyunsaturated fatty acids give rise to toxic products, and the relative toxicity at different stages of the process is of great interest. We report here that when methyl α-linolenate is exposed to sunlight and air, its antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria (as measured by agar diffusion reaches its maximum during the early oxidative phase when addition of oxygen occurs and the mass increases drastically. Before exposure, the activity is minimal or zero, but it increases rapidly during the first days of the test, simultaneously with the increase of the mass of the material, and begins to decrease while the mass is still increasing and before the mass begins to decrease due to degradation and formation of volatile compounds. Thus, the products formed during the degradation phase of the process are far less toxic to the test organisms than the compounds formed at the early stages when addition of oxygen occurs with maximal rate.

  2. Highest cited papers published in Neurology India: An analysis for the years 1993–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritosh Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The highest cited papers reflect the diseases that are of major concern in India. Certain domains such as trauma, allied neurosciences, and basic neuroscience research were underrepresented.

  3. Designing a power plant with highest efficiency: results from SFB 561

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dieter Bohn

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Collaborative Research Centre (SFB) 561 "thermally highly loaded, porous and cooled multi-layer systems for combined cycle power plants" is to expand the current technological and scientific knowledge on power plants in order to achieve total efficiencies of 65% in a combined cycle power plant in the year 2025. Therefore, the aero-thermomechanical, structural-mechanical, materials' scientific and production fundamentals for the development of steam and gas turbine components that are able to withstand highest thermal loads are being worked out within this SFB. This means for the gas turbine that combustion chamber outlet temperatures of 1520℃ at 1.7MPa are to be attained. In order to control these high temperatures, it is not only required to develop new materials' solutions, including thermal barrier coatings, but also to apply improved cooling techniques, as for example effusion cooling. This novel cooling concept is to be realised through open-porous structures. These structures can consist of drilled open-porous multi-layer systems or open-porous metallic foams. The development of graded multi-layer systems is also extremely important, as the grading will enable the use of coolant in dependence of the requirements. The live steam parameters in the high pressure turbine are expected to be increased up to approximately 700℃ with pressure of 30MPa. These elevated steam parameters can be encountered with Ni-base alloys, but this is a costly alternative, associated with many manufacturing difficulties. Therefore, the SFB proposes cooling the highly loaded turbines instead, as this would necessitate the application of far less Ni-base alloys. To protect the thermally highly loaded casing, a sandwich material consisting of two thin face sheets with a core of a woven wire mesh is used to cover the walls of the steam turbine casing.The current state of the research shows that by utilising innovative cooling technologies a total efficiency of 65% can be

  4. Effect of ensemble generalization on the highest-occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor [Department of Materials and Interfaces, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth 76100 (Israel); Schmidt, Tobias; Kümmel, Stephan [Theoretical Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2015-09-14

    There are several approximations to the exchange-correlation functional in density-functional theory, which accurately predict total energy-related properties of many-electron systems, such as binding energies, bond lengths, and crystal structures. Other approximations are designed to describe potential-related processes, such as charge transfer and photoemission. However, the development of a functional which can serve the two purposes simultaneously is a long-standing challenge. Trying to address it, we employ in the current work the ensemble generalization procedure proposed by Kraisler and Kronik [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 126403 (2013)]. Focusing on the prediction of the ionization potential via the highest occupied Kohn-Sham eigenvalue, we examine a variety of exchange-correlation approximations: the local spin-density approximation, semi-local generalized gradient approximations, and global and local hybrid functionals. Results for a test set of 26 diatomic molecules and single atoms are presented. We find that the aforementioned ensemble generalization systematically improves the prediction of the ionization potential, for various systems and exchange-correlation functionals, without compromising the accuracy of total energy-related properties. We specifically examine hybrid functionals. These depend on a parameter controlling the ratio of semi-local to non-local functional components. The ionization potential obtained with ensemble-generalized functionals is found to depend only weakly on the parameter value, contrary to common experience with non-generalized hybrids, thus eliminating one aspect of the so-called “parameter dilemma” of hybrid functionals.

  5. Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to MUC3 component of cultured intestinal epithelial cells with highest affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jugal Kishore; Mahapatra, Rajani Kanta; Patro, Shubhransu; Goswami, Chandan; Suar, Mrutyunjay

    2016-04-01

    Lactobacillus strains have been shown to adhere to the mucosal components of intestinal epithelial cells. However, established in vitro adhesion assays have several drawbacks in assessing the adhesion of new Lactobacillus strains. The present study aimed to compare the adhesion of four different Lactobacillus strains and select the most adherent microbe, based on in silico approach supported by in vitro results. The mucus-binding proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. brevis and L. fermentum were identified and their capacities to interact with intestinal mucin were compared by molecular docking analysis. Lactobacillus acidophilus had the maximal affinity of binding to mucin with predicted free energy of -6.066 kcal mol(-1) Further, in vitro experimental assay of adhesion was performed to validate the in silico results. The adhesion of L. acidophilus to mucous secreting colon epithelial HT-29 MTX cells was highest at 12%, and it formed biofilm with maximum depth (Z = 84 μm). Lactobacillus acidophilus was determined to be the most adherent strain in the study. All the Lactobacillus strains tested in this study, displayed maximum affinity of binding to MUC3 component of mucus as compared to other gastrointestinal mucins. These findings may have importance in the design of probiotics and health care management.

  6. Proprioceptive body illusions modulate the visual perception of reaching distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Petroni

    Full Text Available The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide-without engaging in explicit action-whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas.

  7. Proprioceptive Body Illusions Modulate the Visual Perception of Reaching Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Agustin; Carbajal, M. Julia; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiology of reaching has been extensively studied in human and non-human primates. However, the mechanisms that allow a subject to decide—without engaging in explicit action—whether an object is reachable are not fully understood. Some studies conclude that decisions near the reach limit depend on motor simulations of the reaching movement. Others have shown that the body schema plays a role in explicit and implicit distance estimation, especially after motor practice with a tool. In this study we evaluate the causal role of multisensory body representations in the perception of reachable space. We reasoned that if body schema is used to estimate reach, an illusion of the finger size induced by proprioceptive stimulation should propagate to the perception of reaching distances. To test this hypothesis we induced a proprioceptive illusion of extension or shrinkage of the right index finger while participants judged a series of LEDs as reachable or non-reachable without actual movement. Our results show that reach distance estimation depends on the illusory perceived size of the finger: illusory elongation produced a shift of reaching distance away from the body whereas illusory shrinkage produced the opposite effect. Combining these results with previous findings, we suggest that deciding if a target is reachable requires an integration of body inputs in high order multisensory parietal areas that engage in movement simulations through connections with frontal premotor areas. PMID:26110274

  8. A formula on linear complexity of highest coordinate sequences from maximal periodic sequences over Galois rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Lei; SUN Nigang

    2006-01-01

    Using a polynomial expression of the highest coordinate map, we deduce an exact formula on the linear complexity of the highest coordinate sequence derived from a maximal periodic sequence over an arbitrary Galois ring of characteristic p2 , where p is a prime. This generalizes the known result of Udaya and Siddiqi for the case that the Galois ring is Z4.

  9. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low $Q^2$'s

    CERN Document Server

    Luszczak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low $x$ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from $Q^2$ values of 3.5 GeV$^2$ to the highest values of $Q^2 =$ 250 GeV$^2$.

  10. Collaboration for Nondestructive Testing Education — Extending the Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Brian; Schmerr, Lester

    2003-03-01

    The development of NDT related educational materials has been the focus of the North Central Collaboration for NDT Education for the past four years. The Collaboration was started as a National Science Foundation (NSF) Advanced Technology Education (ATE) program and united a number of community colleges and Iowa State University. The Collaboration developed advanced teaching methods and new materials that have allowed students to learn NDT concepts better and in less time. These materials have been made available over the Internet and have been well received. The Collaboration has recently received a second NSF ATE grant to develop an Internet site that will serve as a national focal point for NDT. In this phase of activities, the collaboration will develop a coordinated, multi-level approach that 1) promotes NDT as a career field to students, teachers and counselors in junior and senior high schools, 2) serves as an educational resource for students and instructors of two-year NDT programs and their graduates who are working in the industry, and 3) supplies educational materials that will allow educators in other technology programs (such as manufacturing and welding) to introduce their students to NDT methods. This paper will review the current activities of the Collaboration.

  11. Concept of REACH and impact on evaluation of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

    2008-01-01

    Industrial chemicals have been in use for many decades and new products are regularly invented and introduced to the market. Also for decades, many different chemical laws have been introduced to regulate safe handling of chemicals in different use patterns. The patchwork of current regulation in the European Union is to be replaced by the new regulation on industrial chemical control, REACH. REACH stands for registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals. REACH entered force on June 1, 2007. REACH aims to overcome limitations in testing requirements of former regulation on industrial chemicals to enhance competitiveness and innovation with regard to manufacture safer substances and to promote the development of alternative testing methods. A main task of REACH is to address data gaps regarding the properties and uses of industrial chemicals. Producers, importers, and downstream users will have to compile and communicate standard information for all chemicals. Information sets to be prepared include safety data sheets (SDS), chemical safety reports (CSR), and chemical safety assessments (CSA). These are designed to guarantee adequate handling in the production chain, in transport and in use and to prevent the substances from being released to and distributed within the environment. Another important aim is to identify the most harmful chemicals and to set incentives to substitute them with safer alternatives. On one hand, REACH will have substantial impact on the basic understanding of the evaluation of chemicals. However, the toxicological sciences can also substantially influence the workability of REACH that supports the transformation of data to the information required to understand and manage acceptable and non acceptable risks in the use of industrial chemicals. The REACH regulation has been laid down in the main document and 17 Annexes of more than 849 pages. Even bigger technical guidance documents will follow and will inform about the rules for

  12. Parallel explicit and implicit control of reaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Mazzoni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control or attentively (explicit control. Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD. These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes.

  13. A new derivation of the highest-weight polynomial of a unitary lie algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Chau, Huu-Tai; P Van, Isacker [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    2000-07-01

    A new method is presented to derive the expression of the highest-weight polynomial used to build the basis of an irreducible representation (IR) of the unitary algebra U(2J+1). After a brief reminder of Moshinsky's method to arrive at the set of equations defining the highest-weight polynomial of U(2J+1), an alternative derivation of the polynomial from these equations is presented. The method is less general than the one proposed by Moshinsky but has the advantage that the determinantal expression of the highest-weight polynomial is arrived at in a direct way using matrix inversions. (authors)

  14. Highest and best use of agricultural land in multifunctional land market evidence from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Reed_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11118 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Reed_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 The Highest and Best Use of agricultural... Valuations based on Highest and Best Use (HBU) • Highest profit or satisfaction for “typical” buyer at specific point in time • Characteristics of subject property guide decision of HBU • Choice of HBU implies acceptance of set of relevant value...

  15. What can be learnt from an ecotoxicity database in the framework of the REACh regulation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henegar, Adina; Mombelli, Enrico [Unite Modeles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pandard, Pascal [Unite Expertise et Essais en Ecotoxicologie (EXES), INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Pery, Alexandre R.R., E-mail: alexandre.pery@ineris.fr [Unite Modeles pour l' Ecotoxicologie et la Toxicologie (METO), INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2011-01-01

    Since REACh applies in all of EU, special emphasis has been put on the reduction of systematic ecotoxicity testing. In this context, it is important to extract a maximum of information from existing ecotoxicity databases in order to propose alternative methods aimed at replacing and reducing experimental testing. Consequently, we analyzed a database of new chemicals registered in France and Europe during the last twenty years reporting aquatic ecotoxicity data with respect to three trophic levels (i.e., Algae EC50 72 h, Daphnia EC50 48 h and Fish LC50 96 h). In order to ensure the relevance of the comparison between these three experimental tests, we performed a stringent data selection based on the pertinence and quality of available ecotoxicological information. At the end of this selection, less than 5% of the initial number of chemicals was retained for subsequent analysis. Such an analysis showed that fish was the least sensitive trophic level, whereas Daphnia had the highest sensitivity. Moreover, thanks to an analysis of the relative sensitivity of trophic levels, it was possible to establish that respective correction factors of 50 and 10 would be necessary if only one or two test values were available. From a physicochemical point of view, it was possible to characterize two significant correlations relating the sensitivity of the aforementioned trophic levels with the chemical structure of the retained substances. This analysis showed that algae displayed a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing acid fragments whereas fish presented a higher sensitivity towards chemicals containing aromatic ether fragments. Overall, our work suggests that statistical analysis of historical data combined with data yielded by the REACh regulation should permit the derivation of robust safety factors, testing strategies and mathematical models. These alternative methods, in turn, could allow a replacement and reduction of ecotoxicological testing. - Research

  16. Impact assessment of climate change and human activities on annual highest water level of Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-fang HU; Yin-tang WANG

    2009-01-01

    The annual highest water level of Taihu Lake (Zm) is very significant for flood management in the Taihu Basin. This paper first describes the inter-annual and intra-annual traits of Zm from 1956 to 2000. Then, using the Mann-Kenall (MK) and Spearman (SP) nonparametric tests, the long-term change trends of area precipitation and pan evaporation in the Taihu Basin are determined. Meanwhile, using the Morlet wavelet transformation, the fluctuation patterns and change points of precipitation and pan evaporation are analyzed. Also, human activities in the Taihu Basin are described, including land use change and hydraulic project construction. Finally, the relationship between Zm, the water level of Taihu Lake 30 days prior to the day of Zm (Z0), and the 30-day total precipitation and pan evaporation prior to the day of Zm (P and E0, respectively) is described based on multi-linear regression equations. The relative influence of climate change and human activities on the change of Zm is quantitatively ascertained. The results demonstrate that: (1) Zm was distinctly higher during the 1980-2000 period than during the 1956-1979 period, and the 30 days prior to the day of Zm are the key phase influencing Zm every year; (2) P increased significantly at a confidence level of 95% during the 1956-2000 period, while the reverse was true for E0; (3) The relationship between Zm, P and E0 distinctly changed after 1980; (4) Climate change and human activities together caused frequent occurrences of high Zm after 1980; (5) Climate change caused a substantially greater Zm difference between the 1956-1979 and 1980-2000 periods than human activities. Climate change, as represented by P and E0, was the dominant factor raising Zm, with a relative influence ratio of 83.6%, while human activities had a smaller influence ratio of 16.4%.

  17. Improving exposure scenario definitions within REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne

    instruments to support a precautionary chemicals management system and to protect receptor’s health have also been increasing. Since 2007, the European Union adopted REACH (the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals): REACH makes industry responsible for assessing...... the different background exposure between two countries allows in fact the definition of a common framework for improving exposure scenarios within REACH system, for monitoring environmental health, and for increasing degree of circularity of resource and substance flows. References 1. European Commission...

  18. Reach capacity in older women submitted to flexibility training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elciana de Paiva Lima Vieira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of flexibility training on the maximum range of motion levels and reach capacity of older women practitioners of aquatic exercises of the Prev-Quedas project. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention (IG, n = 25, which were submitted to flexibility training program and control (CG, n = 21, in which older women participated only in aquatic exercises. Flexibility training lasted three months with weekly frequency of two days, consisting of stretching exercises involving trunk and lower limbs performed after aquatic exercises. The stretching method used was passive static. Assessment consisted of the functional reach, lateral and goniometric tests. Statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Shapiro-Wilk normality, ANCOVA, Pearson and Spearman correlations. Significant results for GI in gains of maximum range of motion for the right hip joint (p = 0.0025, however, the same result was not observed in other joints assessed, and there was no improvement in functional and lateral reach capacity for both groups. Significant correlations between reach capacity and range of motion in the trunk, hip and ankle were not observed. Therefore, flexibility training associated with the practice of aquatic exercises promoted increased maximum range of motion only for the hip joint; however, improvement in the reach capacity was not observed. The practice of aquatic exercises alone did not show significant results.

  19. Hanford Reach - Ringold Russian Knapweed Treatment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Increase the diversity of the seed mix on approximately 250 acres in the Ringold Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument (Monument) treated with aminopyralid as...

  20. 1. REACHING THE UNREACHED.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Expanded Program on Immunisation (EPI) training in. Zambia and critically analyses ... excellence in skills such as sport, music or dance, so it is ... only improve through reaching every child both physically and in .... Non-verbal communication.

  1. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  2. Reaching the Overlooked Student in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esslinger, Keri; Esslinger, Travis; Bagshaw, Jarad

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the use of live action role-playing, or "LARPing," as a non-traditional activity that has the potential to reach students who are not interested in traditional physical education.

  3. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  4. Impact of the REACH II and REACH VA Dementia Caregiver Interventions on Healthcare Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Zhu, Carolyn W; Kaplan, Erin K; Zuber, Jeffrey K; Waters, Teresa M

    2017-05-01

    Examine caregiver and care recipient healthcare costs associated with caregivers' participation in Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH II or REACH VA) behavioral interventions to improve coping skills and care recipient management. RCT (REACH II); propensity-score matched, retrospective cohort study (REACH VA). Five community sites (REACH II); 24 VA facilities (REACH VA). Care recipients with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) and their caregivers who participated in REACH II study (analysis sample of 110 caregivers and 197 care recipients); care recipients whose caregivers participated in REACH VA and a propensity matched control group (analysis sample of 491). Previously collected data plus Medicare expenditures (REACH II) and VA costs plus Medicare expenditures (REACH VA). There was no increase in VA or Medicare expenditures for care recipients or their caregivers who participated in either REACH intervention. For VA care recipients, REACH was associated with significantly lower total VA costs of care (33.6%). VA caregiver cost data was not available. In previous research, both REACH II and REACH VA have been shown to provide benefit for dementia caregivers at a cost of less than $5/day; however, concerns about additional healthcare costs may have hindered REACH's widespread adoption. Neither REACH intervention was associated with additional healthcare costs for caregivers or patients; in fact, for VA patients, there were significantly lower healthcare costs. The VA costs savings may be related to the addition of a structured format for addressing the caregiver's role in managing complex ADRD care to an existing, integrated care system. These findings suggest that behavioral interventions are a viable mechanism to support burdened dementia caregivers without additional healthcare costs. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. The Highest Expected Reward Decoding for HMMs with Application to Recombination Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Nánási, Michal; Brejová, Broňa

    2010-01-01

    Hidden Markov models are traditionally decoded by the Viterbi algorithm which finds the highest probability state path in the model. In recent years, several limitations of the Viterbi decoding have been demonstrated, and new algorithms have been developed to address them \\citep{Kall2005,Brejova2007,Gross2007,Brown2010}. In this paper, we propose a new efficient highest expected reward decoding algorithm (HERD) that allows for uncertainty in boundaries of individual sequence features. We demonstrate usefulness of our approach on jumping HMMs for recombination detection in viral genomes.

  6. Notes on highest weight modules of the elliptic algebra A$_{q,p}$ (sl$_{2}$)

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O E; Jimbo, M; Kedem, R; Miwa, T; Yan, H

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a construction of highest weight modules for the recently defined elliptic algebra {\\cal A}_{q,p}(\\widehat{sl}_2), and make several conjectures concerning them. The modules are generated by the action of the components of the operator L on the highest weight vectors. We introduce the vertex operators \\Phi and \\Psi^* through their commutation relations with the L-operator. We present ordering rules for the L- and \\Phi-operators and find an upper bound for the number of linearly independent vectors generated by them, which agrees with the known characters of \\widehat{sl}_2-modules.

  7. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reported that they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership......PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether...... the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector...

  8. REACH. Analytical characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.; Forbes, S.; Gennart, J.P.; Gimeno Cortes, M.J.; Hovius, H.; King, D.; Kleise, H.; Martinez Martin, C.; Montanari, L.; Pinzuti, M.; Pollack, H.; Ruggieri, P.; Thomas, M.; Walton, A.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2012-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to summarise the findings of the scientific and technical work undertaken by CONCAWE to assess the feasibility and potential benefit of characterising petroleum UVCB substances (Substances of Unknown or Variable Composition, Complex reaction products or Biological Materials) beyond the recommendations issued by CONCAWE for the substance identification of petroleum substances under REACH. REACH is the European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use (EC 1907/2006). It deals with the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances. The report is based on Member Company experience of the chemical analysis of petroleum UVCB substances, including analysis in support of REACH registrations undertaken in 2010. This report is structured into four main sections, namely: Section 1 which provides an introduction to the subject of petroleum UVCB substance identification including the purpose of the report, regulatory requirements, the nature of petroleum UVCB substances, and CONCAWE's guidance to Member Companies and other potential registrants. Section 2 provides a description of the capabilities of each of the analytical techniques described in the REACH Regulation. This section also includes details on the type of analytical information obtained by each technique and an evaluation of what each technique can provide for the characterisation of petroleum UVCB substances. Section 3 provides a series of case studies for six petroleum substance categories (low boiling point naphthas, kerosene, heavy fuel oils, other lubricant base oils, residual aromatic extracts and bitumens) to illustrate the value of the information derived from each analytical procedure, and provide an explanation for why some techniques are not scientifically necessary. Section 4 provides a summary of the conclusions reached from the technical investigations undertaken by CONCAWE Member Companies, and summarising the

  9. President of Howard U. Was Highest-Paid in 1994-95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Kit

    1996-01-01

    Data from federal tax returns for 1994-95 filed by 479 of the nation's universities and colleges revealed the largest compensation package for college presidents was over $800,000. Most of the highest-paid were at research or doctoral institutions. Some received no pay or donated it to their college or religious order. Controversies over…

  10. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The c

  11. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The c

  12. The Ideal of Relations of a Ring of Highest Weight Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaoqiang Deng; Zixin Hou

    2001-01-01

    We use the slice method and some computer algebra programs to determine the ideal of relations of the ring of highest weight vectors of the action of Om and GL3 on the algebra of complex polynomials on Cm,3 with m ≥ 6.

  13. Irreducible Highest Weight Representations Of The Simple n-Lie Algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Balibanu, Dana

    2010-01-01

    A. Dzhumadil'daev classified all irreducible finite dimensional representations of the simple n-Lie algebra. Using a slightly different approach, we obtain in this paper a complete classification of all irreducible, highest weight modules, including the infinite-dimensional ones. As a corollary we find all primitive ideals of the universal enveloping algebra of this simple n-Lie algebra.

  14. Health systems and the right to the highest attainable standard of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Paul; Backman, Gunilla

    2008-01-01

    The right to the highest attainable standard of health should be the cornerstone of any consideration of health and human rights. The content of this fundamental human right is now sufficiently well understood to be applied in an operational, systematic, and sustained manner. At the heart of the right to the highest attainable standard of health lies an effective and integrated health system, encompassing medical care and the underlying determinants of health, which is responsive to national and local priorities and accessible to all. Yet in many countries, health systems are failing and collapsing, giving rise to an extremely grave human rights problem. This article outlines the general approach of the right to the highest attainable standard of health toward the strengthening of health systems. It identifies some of the key right-to-health features of a health system, such as transparency, participation, equity and equality, a comprehensive national health plan, a minimum "basket" of health-related services and facilities, disaggregated data, monitoring and accountability, and so on. This general approach has to be consistently and systematically applied across the "building blocks" that together constitute a functioning health system. By way of illustration, the article applies this approach to one of these "building blocks:" leadership, governance, and stewardship. There are numerous health movements and approaches, including health equity, primary health care, social determinants, and so on. All are very important. But it is misconceived to regard human rights as yet another approach with the same status as the others. Like ethics, the right to the highest attainable standard of health is not optional--and, like ethics, it recurs throughout all other approaches. The right to the highest attainable standard of health is the only perspective that is both underpinned by universally recognized moral values and reinforced by legal obligations.

  15. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  16. Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1990-01-01

    Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

  17. REACH. Electricity Units, Post-Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gene; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this postsecondary student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of electricity. The instructional units focus on electricity fundamentals, electric motors, electrical components, and controls and installation.…

  18. Reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; McDonnell, P.E.; Entink, R.K.; Tielemans, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) by (i) studying interassessor agreement of the resulting exposure estimates generated by the ART mechanistic model, (ii) studying interassessor agreement per model parameters of the ART mechanistic model

  19. Reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, J.; Fransman, W.; McDonnell, P.E.; Entink, R.K.; Tielemans, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) by (i) studying interassessor agreement of the resulting exposure estimates generated by the ART mechanistic model, (ii) studying interassessor agreement per model parameters of the ART mechanistic

  20. Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David; Drewes, Line

    The conference report Guiding Warfare to Reach Sustainable Peace constitutes the primary outcome of the conference It is based on excerpts from the conference presenters and workshop discussions. Furthermore, the report contains policy recommendations and key findings, with the ambition of develo...

  1. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  2. Science Experiments: Reaching Out to Our Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maureen; Tschirhart, Lori; Wright, Stephanie; Barrett, Laura; Parsons, Matthew; Whang, Linda

    2008-01-01

    As more users access library services remotely, it has become increasingly important for librarians to reach out to their user communities and promote the value of libraries. Convincing the faculty and students in the sciences of the value of libraries and librarians can be a particularly "hard sell" as more and more of their primary…

  3. The REACH Youth Program Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Health Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Believing in the value of using video documentaries and data as learning tools, members of the REACH technical assistance team collaborated to develop this toolkit. The learning toolkit was designed using and/or incorporating components of the "Engaging Youth in Community Change: Outcomes and Lessons Learned from Sierra Health Foundation's…

  4. The Mass Elevation Effect of the Central Andes and Its Implications for the Southern Hemisphere's Highest Treeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the highest treelines in the world is at 4810 m above sea level on the Sajama Volcano in the central Andes. The climatological cause of that exceptionally high treeline position is still unclear. Although it has been suggested that the mass elevation effect (MEE explains the upward shift of treelines in the Altiplano region, the magnitude of MEE has not yet been quantified for that region. This paper defines MEE as the air temperature difference in summer at the same elevation between the inner mountains/plateaus (Altiplano and the free atmosphere above the adjacent lowlands of the Andean Cordillera. The Altiplano air temperature was obtained from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly temperature database, and the air temperature above the adjacent lowlands was interpolated based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 1 data set. We analyzed the mean air temperature differences for January, July, and the warm months from October to April. The air temperature was mostly higher on the Altiplano than over the neighboring lowlands at the same altitude. The air temperature difference increased from the outer Andean east-facing slope to the interior of the Altiplano in summer, and it increased from high latitudes to low latitudes in winter. The mean air temperature in the Altiplano in summer is approximately 5 K higher than it is above the adjacent lowlands at the same mean elevation, averaging about 3700 m above sea level. This upward shift of isotherms in the inner part of the Cordillera enables the treeline to climb to 4810 m, with shrub-size trees reaching even higher. Therefore, the MEE explains the occurrence of one of the world’s highest treelines in the central Andes.

  5. Experimental test of the postulate that continuous columnar pinning centers produce the highest J{sub c}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Roy [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)]. E-mail: weinstein@uh.edu; Gandini, Alberto [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Sawh, Ravi-Persad [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Mayes, Bill [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Parks, Drew [Texas Center for Superconductivity and Advanced Materials, and Physics Department, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States)

    2004-10-18

    Continuous columnar pinning centers, created by energetic ions, have been usefully studied theoretically and experimentally to investigate vortex physics in high T{sub c} superconductors. However, along the way, in error, their discontinuities have been downplayed, and they have been anointed as the way to produce high J{sub c}.

  6. Impact of Po Valley emissions on the highest glacier of the Eastern European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabrieli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In June 2009, we conducted the first extensive glaciological survey of Alto dell'Ortles, the uppermost glacier of Mt. Ortles (3905 m a.s.l., the highest summit of the Eastern European Alps. This section of the Alps is located in a rain shadow and is characterized by the lowest precipitation rate in the entire Alpine arc. Mt. Ortles offers a unique opportunity to test deposition mechanisms of chemical species that until now were studied only in the climatically-different western sector. We analyzed snow samples collected on Alto dell'Ortles from a 4.5 m snow-pit at 3830 m a.s.l., and we determined a large suite of trace elements and ionic compounds that comprise the atmospheric deposition over the past two years.

    Trace element concentrations measured in snow samples are extremely low with mean concentrations at pg g−1 levels. Only Al and Fe present median values of 1.8 and 3.3 ng g−1, with maximum concentrations of 21 and 25 ng g−1. The median crustal enrichment factor (EFc values for Be, Rb, Sr, Ba, U, Li, Al, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ga and V are lower than 10 suggesting that these elements originated mainly from soil and mineral aerosol. EFc higher than 100 are reported for Zn (118, Ag (135, Bi (185, Sb (401 and Cd (514, demonstrating the predominance of non-crustal depositions and suggesting an anthropogenic origin.

    Our data show that the physical stratigraphy and the chemical signals of several species were well preserved in the uppermost snow of the Alto dell'Ortles glacier. A clear seasonality emerges from the data as the summer snow is more affected by anthropogenic and marine contributions while the winter aerosol flux is dominated by crustal sources. For trace elements, the largest mean EFc seasonal variations are displayed by V (with a factor of 3.8, Sb (3.3, Cu (3.3, Pb (2.9, Bi (2.8, Cd (2.1, Zn (1.9, Ni (1.8, Ag (1.8, As (1.7 and Co (1.6.

    When trace species ratios in local

  7. Annihilator varieties, highest derivatives, Whittaker functionals, and rank for unitary representations of GL(n,R)

    CERN Document Server

    Gourevitch, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study irreducible unitary representations of GL(n,R) and prove a number of results. Our first result establishes a precise connection between the annihilator of a representation and the existence of degenerate Whittaker functionals, for both smooth and K-finite vectors, thereby generalizing results of Kostant, Matumoto and others. Our second result relates the annihilator to the sequence of highest derivatives, as defined in this setting by one of the authors. Based on those results, we suggest a new notion of rank of a smooth admissible representation of GL(n,R), which for unitarizable representations refines Howe's notion of rank. Our third result computes the highest derivatives for (almost) all unitary representations in terms of the Vogan classification. We also indicate briefly the analogous results over complex and p-adic fields.

  8. Interlaminar Stresses by Refined Beam Theories and the Sinc Method Based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemp, Wesley C. H.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Tessler, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Computation of interlaminar stresses from the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory was performed using the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. The Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative was proposed as an efficient method for determining through-the-thickness variations of interlaminar stresses from one- and two-dimensional analysis by integration of the equilibrium equations of three-dimensional elasticity. However, the use of traditional equivalent single layer theories often results in inaccuracies near the boundaries and when the lamina have extremely large differences in material properties. Interlaminar stresses in symmetric cross-ply laminated beams were obtained by solving the higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory and the refined zigzag theory with the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative. Interlaminar stresses and bending stresses from the present approach were compared with a detailed finite element solution obtained by ABAQUS/Standard. The results illustrate the ease with which the Sinc method based on Interpolation of Highest Derivative can be used to obtain the through-the-thickness distributions of interlaminar stresses from the beam theories. Moreover, the results indicate that the refined zigzag theory is a substantial improvement over the Timoshenko beam theory due to the piecewise continuous displacement field which more accurately represents interlaminar discontinuities in the strain field. The higher-order shear and normal deformable beam theory more accurately captures the interlaminar stresses at the ends of the beam because it allows transverse normal strain. However, the continuous nature of the displacement field requires a large number of monomial terms before the interlaminar stresses are computed as accurately as the refined zigzag theory.

  9. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  10. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  11. MultiCASE Expert Systems and the REACH Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiakhov, Roustem D; Klopman, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article is a review of the MultiCASE Inc. software and expert systems and their use to assess acute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and other health effects. It is demonstrated that MultiCASE expert systems satisfy the guidelines of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) principles and that the portfolio of available endpoints closely overlaps with the list of tests required by REACH.

  12. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  13. A Bayesian self-clustering analysis of the highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Khanin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) are protons and atomic nuclei that flow into our Solar system and reach the Earth with energies of up to ~10^21 eV. The sources of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with E >~ 10^19 eV remain unknown, although there are theoretical reasons to think that at least some come from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). One way to assess the different hypotheses is by analysing the arrival directions of UHECRs, in particular their self-clustering. We have developed a fully Bayesian approach to analyzing the self-clustering of points on the sphere, which we apply to the UHECR arrival directions. The analysis is based on a multi-step approach that enables the application of Bayesian model comparison to cases with weak prior information. We have applied this approach to the 69 highest energy events recorded by the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), which is the largest current UHECR data set. We do not detect self-clustering, but simulations show that this is consistent with the AGN-sourced model for a dat...

  14. Scattering mechanisms of highest-mobility InAs /AlxGa1 -xSb quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirky, T.; Mueller, S.; Lehner, Ch. A.; Fält, S.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.; Wegscheider, W.

    2017-03-01

    We study molecular beam epitaxially grown undoped AlxGa1 -xSb /InAs/AlSb quantum wells with different buffer and barrier designs and varying quantum well width. The highest mobilities were achieved with Al0.33Ga0.67Sb buffers and lower barriers and a quantum well width of 24 nm. These quasi-single-interface InAs/AlSb quantum well devices reached a gate-tuned mobility of 2.4 ×106cm2 /V s at a density of 1 ×1012cm-2 and 1.3 K. In Hall bar devices boundary scattering is found to strongly influence the mobility determination in this mobility regime. Ionized background impurity scattering at low electron densities, device boundary scattering at intermediate electron densities, and intersubband scattering at high electron densities were identified as the most likely dominant scattering processes. Ringlike structures in the Landau fan can be explained using a single-particle model of crossing Landau levels.

  15. The influence of object identity on obstacle avoidance reaching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, A M; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijnens, C M; Dijkerman, H C

    2014-07-01

    When reaching for target objects, we hardly ever collide with other objects located in our working environment. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that the introduction of non-target objects into the workspace alters both spatial and temporal parameters of reaching trajectories. Previous studies have shown the influence of spatial object features (e.g. size and position) on obstacle avoidance movements. However, obstacle identity may also play a role in the preparation of avoidance responses as this allows prediction of possible negative consequences of collision based on recognition of the obstacle. In this study we test this hypothesis by asking participants to reach towards a target as quickly as possible, in the presence of an empty or full glass of water placed about half way between the target and the starting position, at 8 cm either left or right of the virtual midline. While the spatial features of full and empty glasses of water are the same, the consequences of collision are clearly different. Indeed, when there was a high chance of collision, reaching trajectories veered away more from filled than from empty glasses. This shows that the identity of potential obstacles, which allows for estimating the predicted consequences of collision, is taken into account during obstacle avoidance.

  16. 17-Year-Old Boy with Renal Failure and the Highest Reported Creatinine in Pediatric Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Master Sankar Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is on the rise and constitutes a major health burden across the world. Clinical presentations in early CKD are usually subtle. Awareness of the risk factors for CKD is important for early diagnosis and treatment to slow the progression of disease. We present a case report of a 17-year-old African American male who presented in a life threatening hypertensive emergency with renal failure and the highest reported serum creatinine in a pediatric patient. A brief discussion on CKD criteria, complications, and potential red flags for screening strategies is provided.

  17. Past the Highest-Weight, and What You Can Find There

    CERN Document Server

    Semikhatov, A M

    1997-01-01

    The properties of highest-weight representations of the N=2 superconformal algebra in two dimensions can be considerably simplified when re-expressed in terms of relaxed ^sl(2) representations. This applies to the appearance of submodules and hence, of singular vectors, and to the structure of the embedding diagrams and the BGG-type resolution. I also discuss the realization of these representations in the bosonic string, where the generalized DDK prescription amounts to the requirement that the representations have a charged singular vector, and the role of the fermionic screening operator.

  18. On heavy Majorana neutrinos as a source of the highest energy cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Palle, D

    2002-01-01

    Cosmic ray events beyond the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off represent a great challenge for particle physics and cosmology. We show that the physics of heavy Majorana neutrinos, well defined by their masses, cross sections and lifetimes, could explain the highest energy cosmic rays as a consequence of the galactic annihilation of heavy neutrinos as cold dark matter particles. Galactic nuclei accelerators, colliding neutron stars (black holes) or shocks from the collapsed objects could produce ultra high energy cosmic rays as heavy neutrinos beyond the mass threshold at an arbitrary cosmic distance. We comment and also analyse the DAMA results with regard to heavy neutrinos as galactic halo CDM particles.

  19. GRB 070714B - Discovery of the Highest Spectroscopically Confirmed Short Burst Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J F; Levan, A J; Nysewander, M; Tanvir, N R; Dahlen, T; Bersier, D; Peér, A

    2008-01-01

    Gemini Nod & Shuffle spectroscopy on the host of the short GRB 070714B shows a single emission line at 7167 angstroms which, based on a grizJHK photometric redshift, we conclude is the 3727 angstrom [O II] line. This places the host at a redshift of z=.923 exceeding the previous record for the highest spectroscopically confirmed short burst redshift of z=.546 held by GRB 051221. This dramatically moves back the time at which we know short bursts were being formed, and suggests that the present evidence for an old progenitor population may be observationally biased.

  20. Does Galactic Magnetic Field Disturb the Correlation of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays with their Sources?

    CERN Document Server

    Takami, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    The propagation trajectories of the highest energy cosmic rays can be deflected by Galactic magnetic field (GMF) and expected correlation between their arrival directions and the positions of their sources can be disturbed. In order to explore whether the possible correlation is disturbed or not, we simulate the arrival distribution of the highest energy protons (HEPs) with energies above $6 \\times 10^{19}$ eV taking 4 different GMF models into account and investigate the cross-correlation between the protons and sources assumed in the simulation. We show that the error of cross-correlation function adopted in this study is sufficiently small by accumulating 200 events. We also find that the correlation is not disturbed largely in many cases after 200 events accumulation and positive signals of the correlation are significantly expected at angular scale of 3-5$^{\\circ}$. Only in the cases of the northern sky with axisymmetric spiral structures of GMF, the cross-correlation functions are consistent with no cor...

  1. On the Accretion Rates and Radiative Efficiencies of the Highest Redshift Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the accretion rates onto the super-massive black holes powering 20 of the highest-redshift quasars, at z>5.8, including the quasar with the highest redshift known to date -- ULAS J1120 at z=7.09. The analysis is based on the observed (rest-frame) optical luminosities and reliable "virial" estimates of the BH masses (M_BH) of the sources, and utilizing scaling relations derived from thin accretion disk theory. The mass accretion rates through the postulated disks cover a wide range, dM_disk/dt~4-190 Msol/yr, with most of the objects (80%) having dM_disk/dt~10-65 Msol/yr. By combining our estimates of dM_disk/dt with conservative estimates of the bolometric luminosities of the quasars in our sample, we investigate which alternative values of \\eta\\ best account for all the available data. We find that the vast majority of quasars (~85%) can be explained with radiative efficiencies in the range \\eta~0.03-0.3. In particular, we find conservative estimates of \\eta>0.14 for ULAS J1120 and SDSS J0100 (at ...

  2. Region-specific differences in colorectal cancer: Slovakia and Hungary have highest incidence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simko, V; Ginter, E

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological data on colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibit high incidence in Central East Europe. Hungary, Slovakia and Croatia represent the lead. For decades it was the Czech Republic but it attained the fourth rank after the mid-2000. Remarkably, the Ashkenazi Jews who imigrated to the USA from Central Europe have the highest incidence of CRC among US minorities. They also have high incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a risk for CRC. Notably, countries surrounding the Central European focus of CRC, Austria, Germany, Poland, Romania, Ukraine and Russia have substantially lower incidence. CRC in Central Europe has higher incidence than CRC among the highest at-risk cohort in the USA, the elderly blacks. Research and the genome wide screening identified genetic mutations associated with CRC in Ashkenazis from Central Europe. Some risk factors for CRC are non genotypic as evidenced by wide variation in CRC incidence in the course of only a few decades. Recent trends offer hope that identification of the non-innate pathogenic mechanisms would potentially reduce the burden of this third most lethal malignancy (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 40).

  3. Optimasi Penggunaan Lahan Kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti Untuk Properti Komersial Dengan Prinsip Highest and Best Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Darmawan Saputra Mahardika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Baturiti merupakan satu-satunya kecamatan di Kabupaten Tabanan yang berkembang dalam sektor ekonomi agrowisata karena lokasinya yang strategis dekat dengan berbagai obyek wisata terkenal. Dengan lokasi yang strategis, pembangunan untuk properti komersial tentu akan memberikan potensi keuntungan tinggi bagi investor yang memiliki lahan kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti. Kondisi seperti ini menyebabkan permintaan yang tinggi akan lahan, padahal ketersediaan lahan selalu berkurang. Pembangunan properti komersial di Kecamatan Baturiti perlu dioptimalisasi agar dicapai keuntungan maksimum bagi investor. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, investor yang ingin membangun di Kecamatan Baturiti memerlukan analisa untuk mendapatkan alternatif pemanfaatan lahan kosong. Lahan yang dianalisa merupakan lahan kosong belum terbangun seluas 22.175 m2 di Kecamatan Baturiti, Kabupaten Tabanan. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengetahui alternatif pendirian bangunan komersial yang memiliki nilai pasar tertinggi adalah Highest and Best Use (HBU. Dengan metode tersebut, pemilik lahan dapat mengetahui alternatif terbaik yang memenuhi syarat-syarat diijinkan secara legal, memungkinkan secara fisik, layak secara finansial, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum. Hasil yang diperoleh dari analisa Highest and Best Use ini adalah alternatif mixed-use berupa hotel dan toko souvenir dengan nilai lahan tertinggi dibandingkan alternatif lainnya sebesar Rp 7,950,714.60 per m2.

  4. High pressure effects revisited for the cuprate superconductor family with highest critical temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Ayako; Takeshita, Nao; Terakura, Chieko; Tokura, Yoshinori

    2015-12-01

    How to enhance the superconducting critical temperature (Tc) has been a primary issue since the discovery of superconductivity. The highest Tc reported so far is 166 K in HgBa2Ca2Cu3O8+δ (Hg1223) at high pressure of 23 GPa, as determined with the reduction onset, but not zero, of resistivity. To clarify the possible condition of the real maximum Tc, it is worth revisiting the effects of pressure on Tc in the highest Tc family. Here we report a systematic study of the pressure dependence of Tc in HgBa2CaCu2O6+δ (Hg1212) and Hg1223 with the doping level from underdoped to overdoped. The Tc with zero resistivity is probed with a cubic-anvil-type apparatus that can produce hydrostatic pressures. Variation, not only increase but also decrease, of Tc in Hg1212 and Hg1223 with pressure strongly depends on the initial doping levels. In particular, we confirm a maximum Tc of 153 K at 22 GPa in slightly underdoped Hg1223.

  5. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.

  6. Reaching Diverse Audiences through NOAO Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompea, Stephen M.; Sparks, R. T.; Walker, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    NOAO education programs are designed to reach diverse audiences. Examples described in this poster include the Hands-On Optics Project nationwide, an extension of the Hands-On Optics program at Boys and Girls Clubs in Arizona and in Hawaii, a professional development program for Navajo and Hopi teachers, a number of programs for the Tohono O'odham Nation, and a project collecting and reviewing Spanish language astronomy materials. Additionally NOAO is also involved in several local outreach projects for diverse and underserved audiences.

  7. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  8. Extended-reach wells tap outlying reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazzal, G. (Eastman Teleco, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is being used to exploit fields and reserves that are located far from existing platforms. Effective wellbore placement from fewer platforms can reduce development costs, maximize production and increase reserve recovery. Six wells drilled offshore in the US, North Sea and Australia illustrate how to get the most economic benefit from available infrastructure. These wells are divided into three categories by depth (shallow, medium and deep). Vertical depth of these wells range from 963 to 12,791 ft TVD and displacements range from 4,871 to 23,917 ft. Important factors for successful extended-reach drilling included: careful, comprehensive pre-planning; adequate cuttings removal in all sections; hole stability in long, exposed intervals; torque and drag modeling of drilling BHAs, casing and liners; buoyancy-assisted casing techniques where appropriate; critical modifications to drilling rig and top drive, for medium and deep ERD; modified power swivels for shallow operations; drill pipe rubbers or other casing protection during extended periods of drill string rotation; heavy-wall casting across anticipated high-wear areas; survey accuracy and frequency; sound drilling practices and creativity to accomplish goals and objectives. This paper reviews the case history of these sites and records planning and design procedures.

  9. Napa River Restoration Project: Rutherford Reach Completion and Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Restoration Project: Rutherford Reach Completion/Oakville to Oak Knoll, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  10. Which are the highest peaks in the US Arctic? Fodar settles the debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matt; DesLauriers, Kit

    2016-06-01

    Though an outstanding achievement for their time, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the eastern Alaskan Arctic nonetheless contain significant errors, and in this paper we address one of them. Specifically, USGS maps of different scale made in the late 1950s alternate between Mt. Chamberlin and Mt. Isto as the tallest peak in the US Arctic. Given that many of the peaks here are close in height and covered with glaciers, recent climate change may also have changed their height and their order. We resolved these questions using fodar, a new airborne photogrammetric technique that utilizes structure-from-motion (SfM) software and requires no ground control, and validated it using GPS measurements on the peaks as well as airborne lidar. Here we show that Mt. Chamberlin is currently the third tallest peak and that the order and elevations of the five tallest mountains in the US Arctic are Mt. Isto (2735.6 m), Mt. Hubley (2717.6 m), Mt. Chamberlin (2712.3 m), Mt. Michelson (2698.1 m), and an unnamed peak (2694.9 m); these heights are relative to the NAVD88 GEOID12A vertical datum. We find that it is indeed plausible that this ranking has changed over time and may continue to change as summit glaciers continue to shrink, though Mt. Isto will remain the highest under current climate trends. Mt. Isto is also over 100 m taller than the highest peak in Arctic Canada, making it the highest peak in the North American Arctic. Fodar elevations compared to within a few centimeters of our ground-based GPS measurements of the peaks made a few days later and our complete validation assessment indicates a measurement uncertainty of better than ±20 cm (95 % RMSE). By analyzing time series of fodar maps, we were able to detect topographic change on the centimeter level on these steep slopes, indicating that fodar can be used to measure mountain snow packs for water resource availability or avalanche danger, glacier volume change, and slope subsidence, as

  11. On the Accretion Rates and Radiative Efficiencies of the Highest-redshift Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Volonteri, Marta; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2017-02-01

    We estimate the accretion rates onto the supermassive black holes that power 20 of the highest-redshift quasars, at z≳ 5.8, including the quasar with the highest redshift known to date—ULAS J1120 at z = 7.09. The analysis is based on the observed (rest-frame) optical luminosities and reliable “virial” estimates of the BH masses of the quasars, and utilizes scaling relations derived from thin accretion disk theory. The mass accretion rates through the postulated disks cover a wide range, {\\dot{M}}{disk}≃ 4{--}190 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1, with most of the objects (80%) having {\\dot{M}}{disk}≃ 10{--}65 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1, confirming the Eddington-limited nature of the accretion flows. By combining our estimates of {\\dot{M}}{disk} with conservative, lower limits on the bolometric luminosities of the quasars, we investigate which alternative values of η best account for all the available data. We find that the vast majority of quasars (∼85%) can be explained with radiative efficiencies in the range η ≃ 0.03{--}0.3, with a median value close to the commonly assumed η = 0.1. Within this range, we obtain conservative estimates of η ≳ 0.14 for ULAS J1120 and SDSS J0100 (at z = 6.3), and of ≳ 0.19 for SDSS J1148 (at z=6.41; assuming their BH masses are accurate). The implied accretion timescales are generally in the range {t}{acc}\\equiv {M}{BH}/{\\dot{M}}{BH}≃ 0.1{--}1 {Gyr}, suggesting that most quasars could have had ∼ 1{--}10 mass e-foldings since BH seed formation. Our analysis therefore demonstrates that the available luminosities and masses for the highest-redshift quasars can be explained self-consistently within the thin, radiatively efficient accretion disk paradigm. Episodes of radiatively inefficient, “super-critical” accretion may have occurred at significantly earlier epochs (i.e., z≳ 10).

  12. 0,1 distribution in the highest level sequences of primitive sequences over Z2e

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Shuqin(

    2003-01-01

    [1]Ward, M., The arithmetical theory of linear recurring sequences, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc, 1933, 35(6):600-628.[2]Dai Zongduo, Binary sequences derived from ML-sequences over rings I: Periods and minimal polynomials,Journal of Cryptology, 1992, 5: 193-207.[3]Dai, Z. D., Beth, T., Gollman, D., Lower bounds for the linear complexity of sequences over residue rings, Advances in Cryptology-Eurocrypt's 90, Spring-Verlag LNCS 19991, 473: 189-195.[4]Zeng Kencheng, Dai Zongduo, Huang Minqiang, Injectiveness of mappings from ring sequences to their sequences of the significant bits, Symposium on Theoretical Problems of Cryptology, State Key Laboratory of Information Security, Beijing, China, June 1995, 132-141.[5]Boztas, S., Hammons, A. R., Kumar, P. V., 4-phase sequences with near-optimum correlation properties, IEEE. Trans. Inform. Theory, 1992, 38: 1101-1113.[6]Kuzmin, A. S., Nechaev, A. A., A construction of noise stable codes using linear recurrents over Galois rings,Russian Math. Surveys, 1992, 47: 189-190.[7]Qi Wenfeng, Zhou Jinjun, Distribution of 0 and 1 in highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e, Science in China, Ser. A, 1997, 40(6): 606-611.[8]Qi Wenfeng, Zhou Jinjun, Distribution of 0 and 1 in highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e (Ц),Chinese Science Bulletin, 1998, 43(8): 633-635.[9]Zhu Fengxiang, Qi Wenfeng, Distribution of 0 and 1 in the highest level of primitive sequences over Z2e,Advances in Cryptology-CHINACRYPT' 2000, Beijing: Science Press, 2000, 1-5.[10]Kamlovski, O. V., Kuzmin, A. S., Distribution of elements on cycles of linear recurrents sequences over Galois rings, Russian Math. Surveys, 1998, 53(2): 392-393.[11]Kumar, P. V., Helleseth, T., Calderbank, A. R., An upper bound for Weil exponential sums over Galois rings and applications, IEEE. Trans. Infor. Theory, 1995, 41:456-468.

  13. [Trends in the AIDS epidemic in groups at highest risk in Brazil, 1980-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Júnior, Aristides; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; Souza Júnior, Paulo Borges de

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to present the trends in the AIDS epidemic in the population groups at highest risk in Brazil. Discriminant analysis was used to reclassify cases with unknown risk into one of the three groups: IDU (injecting drug users), MSM (men who have sex with men), and heterosexuals. AIDS incidence rates by gender and exposure category were estimated for the period 1980-2004. In 1980-1988, 63.6% of AIDS cases were homosexual or bisexual males and 10% were females. Since 1988, there has been a decrease in the proportion of MSM and an increase in the other categories. Despite the incidence trends observed by exposure category, when the incidence rates were compared, the risk was much higher among MSM as compared to heterosexuals. Analysis of the AIDS epidemic dynamics in Brazil emphasizes the importance of MSM and male IDU as higher-risk groups.

  14. Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital of Cyclopentanone by Binary (e, 2e) Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-Feng; NING Chuan-Gang; DENG Jing-Kang; REN Xue-Guang; SU Guo-Lin; YANG Tie-Cheng; HUANG Yan-Ru

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report the first measurements of the momentum profiles of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the complete valence shell binding energy spectra of cyclopentanone with impact energies of 600 and 1200 eV by a binary (e, 2e) spectrometer. The experimental momentum profiles of the HOMO orbital are compared with the theoretical momentum distribution calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory methods with various basis sets. However, none of these calculations gives a completely satisfactory description of the momentum distributions of the HOMO 7b2. The inadequacy of the calculations could result in the intensity difference of the second maximum at p ~l.2a.u. between the experiment and the theory. The discrepancy between experimental and theoretical data in the low-momentum region is explained with the distorted wave effect.

  15. Analisa Highest and Best Use Pada Lahan Kosong Di Jemur Gayungan II Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finda Virgitta Faradiany

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan bisnis properti di Surabaya yang semakin pesat, mengakibatkan permintaan terhadap lahan semakin tinggi. Namun fakta di lapangan menampakkan hal yang sebaliknya karena ternyata masih terdapat lahan-lahan yang dibiarkan kosong tidak dimanfaatkan oleh pemiliknya. Kondisi yang demikian memerlukan efisiensi dan optimalisasi penggunaan lahan dengan mendirikan sebuah properti komersial yang memberikan keuntungan bagi pemilik serta lingkungan sekitarnya.Lahan “X” seluas 1786 m2 berlokasi di Jl. Jemur Gayungan II merupakan lahan kosong yang terletak di dekat daerah perkantoran dan berpotensi dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial. Penentuan nilai lahan “X” bergantung pada penggunaan lahan. Metode penilaian yang digunakan adalah analisa penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik atau Highest and Best Use (HBU yang secara legal diijinkan, secara fisik memungkinkan, layak secara finansial dan memiliki produktifitas maksimum. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan alternatif yang menghasilkan nilai lahan tertinggi dan produktivitas maksimum adalah hotel. Nilai lahan yang didapatkan sebesar Rp 9.722.718/m2 dengan produktivitas meningkat sebesar 486%.

  16. Reach and get capability in a computing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ann M [Albuquerque, NM; Osbourn, Gordon C [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-05

    A reach and get technique includes invoking a reach command from a reach location within a computing environment. A user can then navigate to an object within the computing environment and invoke a get command on the object. In response to invoking the get command, the computing environment is automatically navigated back to the reach location and the object copied into the reach location.

  17. Reaching Consensus by Allowing Moments of Indecision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenkeson, A.; Swami, A.

    2015-10-01

    Group decision-making processes often turn into a drawn out and costly battle between two opposing subgroups. Using analytical arguments based on a master equation description of the opinion dynamics occurring in a three-state model of cooperatively interacting units, we show how the capability of a social group to reach consensus can be enhanced when there is an intermediate state for indecisive individuals to pass through. The time spent in the intermediate state must be relatively short compared to that of the two polar states in order to create the beneficial effect. Furthermore, the cooperation between individuals must not be too low, as the benefit to consensus is possible only when the cooperation level exceeds a specific threshold. We also discuss how zealots, agents that remain in one state forever, can affect the consensus among the rest of the population by counteracting the benefit of the intermediate state or making it virtually impossible for an opposition to form.

  18. Morphodynamics of a pseudomeandering gravel bar reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdy, J.; Billi, P.

    2002-01-01

    A large number of rivers in Tuscany have channel planforms, which are neither straight nor what is usually understood as meandering. In the typical case, they consist of an almost straight, slightly incised main channel fringed with large lateral bars and lunate-shaped embayments eroded into the former flood plain. In the past, these rivers have not been recognised as an individual category and have often been considered to be either braided or meandering. It is suggested here that this type of river planform be termed pseudomeandering. A typical pseudomeandering river (the Cecina River) is described and analysed to investigate the main factors responsible for producing this channel pattern. A study reach (100×300 m) was surveyed in detail and related to data on discharge, channel changes after floods and grain-size distribution of bed sediments. During 18 months of topographic monitoring, the inner lateral bar in the study reach expanded and migrated towards the concave outer bank which, concurrently, retreated by as much as 25 m. A sediment balance was constructed to analyse bar growth and bank retreat in relation to sediment supply and channel morphology. The conditions necessary to maintain the pseudomeandering morphology of these rivers by preventing them from developing a meandering planform, are discussed and interpreted as a combination of a few main factors such as the flashy character of floods, sediment supply (influenced by both natural processes and human impact), the morphological effects of discharges with contrasting return intervals and the short duration of flood events. Finally, the channel response to floods with variable sediment transport capacity (represented by bed shear stress) is analysed using a simple model. It is demonstrated that bend migration is associated with moderate floods while major floods are responsible for the development of chute channels, which act to suppress bend growth and maintain the low sinuosity configuration of

  19. MEPHISTO spectromicroscope reaches 20 nm lateral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Perfetti, Luca; Gilbert, B.; Fauchoux, O.; Capozi, M.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.; Tonner, B. P.

    1999-03-01

    The recently described tests of the synchrotron imaging photoelectron spectromicroscope MEPHISTO (Microscope à Emission de PHotoélectrons par Illumination Synchrotronique de Type Onduleur) were complemented by further resolution improvements and tests, which brought the lateral resolution down to 20 nm. Images and line plot profiles demonstrate such performance.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF RADON CONCENTRATION IN DWELLINGS IN THE REGION OF HIGHEST LUNG CANCER INCIDENCE IN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoliana, B; Rohmingliana, P C; Sahoo, B K; Mishra, R; Mayya, Y S

    2016-10-01

    Indoor radon/thoron concentration has been measured in Aizawl district, Mizoram, India, which has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in India. Simultaneously, radon flux emanated from the surrounding soil of the dwellings was observed in selected places. The annual average value of concentration of radon(thoron) of Aizawl district is 48.8(22.65) Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 1.25(1.58). Measured radon flux from the soil has an average value of 22.6 mBq m(-2) s(-1) These results were found to be much below the harmful effect or action level as indicated by the World Health Organisation. On the other hand, food habit and high-level consumption of tobacco and its products in the district have been found to increase the risk of lung cancer incidence in the district. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Risk Adjustment, Reinsurance Improved Financial Outcomes For Individual Market Insurers With The Highest Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Paul D; Cohen, Michael L; Keenan, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) reformed the individual health insurance market. Because insurers can no longer vary their offers of coverage based on applicants' health status, the ACA established a risk adjustment program to equalize health-related cost differences across plans. The ACA also established a temporary reinsurance program to subsidize high-cost claims. To assess the impact of these programs, we compared revenues to claims costs for insurers in the individual market during the first two years of ACA implementation (2014 and 2015), before and after the inclusion of risk adjustment and reinsurance payments. Before these payments were included, for the 30 percent of insurers with the highest claims costs, claims (not including administrative expenses) exceeded premium revenues by $90-$397 per enrollee per month. The effect was reversed after these payments were included, with revenues exceeding claims costs by $0-$49 per month. The risk adjustment and reinsurance programs were relatively well targeted in the first two years. While there is ongoing discussion regarding the future of the ACA, our findings can shed light on how risk-sharing programs can address risk selection among insurers-a pervasive issue in all health insurance markets.

  2. Highest redshift neutral hydrogen image in emission: A CHILES detection of a starbursting spiral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min Su; Momjian, Emmanuel; CHILES Team

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of gas accretion, processing, and removal across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the VLA, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe HI from z=0 to z=0.5. The full survey consists of 1002 hours of observing time, giving us the sensitivity to image HI in 300 galaxies in the COSMOS field. Here, we report the highest redshift HI detection to date, the LIRG COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z=0.376 with the first 178 hours of CHILES data. While the optical image shows it to be a large undisturbed spiral, the HI distribution is very extended and offset from the optical center. This could be evidence for interactions with companions or accretion fueling the starburst. In addition, we present follow-up LMT CO observations that reveal it to be gas-rich in molecular hydrogen. This is the first study of the HI and CO for a galaxy beyond the local Universe, which will enable us to start exploring the ISM of LIRGs at higher redshift.

  3. Extreme Markup: The Fifty US Hospitals With The Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2015-06-01

    Using Medicare cost reports, we examined the fifty US hospitals with the highest charge-to-cost ratios in 2012. These hospitals have markups (ratios of charges over Medicare-allowable costs) approximately ten times their Medicare-allowable costs compared to a national average of 3.4 and a mode of 2.4. Analysis of the fifty hospitals showed that forty-nine are for profit (98 percent), forty-six are owned by for-profit hospital systems (92 percent), and twenty (40 percent) operate in Florida. One for-profit hospital system owns half of these fifty hospitals. While most public and private health insurers do not use hospital charges to set their payment rates, uninsured patients are commonly asked to pay the full charges, and out-of-network patients and casualty and workers' compensation insurers are often expected to pay a large portion of the full charges. Because it is difficult for patients to compare prices, market forces fail to constrain hospital charges. Federal and state governments may want to consider limitations on the charge-to-cost ratio, some form of all-payer rate setting, or mandated price disclosure to regulate hospital markups. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada Lahan Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaluddin Akmaluddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laju pertumbuhan penduduk dan tingkat perekonomian yang semakin meningkat di  kota-kota besar seperti Surabaya, bertolak belakang dengan  ketersediaan lahan yang terbatas. Selayaknya properti yang akan dibangun di atas suatu lahan dapat memberikan manfaat yang maksimal serta efisien agar hasilnya dapat dirasakan demi pembangunan wilayah tersebut. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perhitungan  penggunaan yang paling memungkinkan dan diizinkan dari suatu tanah kosong atau tanah yang  sudah dibangun, dimana secara fisik dimungkinkan, didukung atau dibenarkan oleh peraturan, layak secara keuangan dan menghasilkan nilai tertinggi. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada lahan di Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya seluas 1.150 m2 yang direncanakan akan dibangun hotel. Lahan tersebut berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial seperti hotel, apartemen, perkantoran dan pertokoan. Analisis tersebut menggunakan tinjauan terhadap aspek fisik, legal, finansial dan produktivitas maksimumnya. Dari hasil penelitian ini didapatkan alternatif properti komersial hotel yang memiliki penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik pada pemanfaatan lahan dengan nilai lahan Rp. 67.069.980,31/ m2.

  5. The Impact of Frequency Standards on Coherence in VLBI at the Highest Frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Rioja, M; Asaki, Y; Hartnett, J; Tingay, S

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out full imaging simulation studies to explore the impact of frequency standards in millimeter and sub-millimeter Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), focusing on the coherence time and sensitivity. In particular, we compare the performance of the H-maser, traditionally used in VLBI, to that of ultra-stable cryocooled sapphire oscillators over a range of observing frequencies, weather conditions and analysis strategies. Our simulations show that at the highest frequencies, the losses induced by H-maser instabilities are comparable to those from high quality tropospheric conditions. We find significant benefits in replacing H-masers with cryocooled sapphire oscillator based frequency references in VLBI observations at frequencies above 175 GHz in sites which have the best weather conditions; at 350 GHz we estimate a 20-40% increase in sensitivity, over that obtained when the sites have H-masers, for coherence losses of 20-10%, respectively. Maximum benefits are to be expected by using colo...

  6. Transitional care for the highest risk patients: findings of a randomised control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Hock Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions to prevent readmissions of patients at highest risk have not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to determine if a post-discharge transitional care programme can reduce readmissions of such patients in Singapore.Methods: We randomised 840 patients with two or more unscheduled readmissions in the prior 90 days and Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity of patient, Emergency department utilisation score ≥10 to the intervention programme (n = 419 or control (n = 421. Patients allocated to the intervention group received post-discharge surveillance by a multidisciplinary integrated care team and early review in the clinic. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one unscheduled readmission within 30 days after discharge.Results: We found no statistically significant reduction in readmissions or emergency department visits in patients on the intervention group compared to usual care. However, patients in the intervention group reported greater patient satisfaction (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Any beneficial effect of interventions initiated after discharge is small for high-risk patients with multiple comorbidity and complex care needs. Future transitional care interventions should focus on providing the entire cycle of care for such patients starting from time of admission to final transition to the primary care setting.Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, no NCT02325752

  7. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

  8. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loidl, Verena; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Ballert, Carolina; Coenen, Michaela; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla

    2016-04-12

    Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO) as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  9. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  10. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  11. A System with a Choice of Highest-Bidder-First and FIFO Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Bodas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Service systems using a highest-bidder-first (HBF policy have been studied in queueing literature for various applications and in economics literature to model corruption. Such systems have applications in modern problems like scheduling jobs in cloud computing scenarios or placement of ads on web pages. However, using a HBF service is like using a spot market and may not be preferred by many users. For such users, it may be good to provide a simple scheduler, e.g., a FIFO service. Further, in some situations it may even be necessary that a free service queue operates alongside a HBF queue. Motivated by such a scenario, we propose and analyze a service system with a FIFO server and a HBF server in parallel. Arriving customers are from a heterogeneous population with different valuations of their delay costs. They strategically choose between FIFO and HBF service; if HBF is chosen, they also choose the bid value to optimize an individual cost. We characterize the Wardrop equilibrium in such a system and analyze the revenue to the server. We see that when the total capacity is fixed and is shared between the FIFO and HBF servers, revenue is maximised when the FIFO capacity is non zero. However, if the FIFO server is added to an HBF server, then the revenue decreases with increasing FIFO capacity. We also discuss the case when customers are allowed to balk.

  12. The flora of the highest building in Poland (the Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Galera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The flora of the Palace of Culture and Science, which is the highest office building in Poland, was analysed. The exterior horizontal surfaces of the building (roofs, terraces, stairs could be regarded as polyhemerobic habitats. A total of 111 species of vascular plants (native species - 65% and 6 species of bryophytes were recorded from an area of 16 500 m2. It was found that the flora was relatively rich in species, of which some occurred in considerable quantities (over 1000 individuals of such species as: Eragrostis minor, Sagina procumbens, Chaenarrhinum minus were encountered. Moreover anemochorous species dominated (85% in the flora of the Palace. Thermophilous species and species indifferent to temperature were also strongly represented. The relatively high incidence of hygrophilous species was noteworthy. With regard to life forms an increased proportion of therophytes and phanerophytes (40% and 22%, respectively was observed. No significant differences were found between the flora of roofs situated on different floors of the building. However, slight differences between - the flora of north-facing and south-facing horizontal roof surfaces were marked.

  13. Poverty Eradication in Fragile Places: Prospects for Harvesting the Highest Hanging Fruit by 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Milante

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the range of likely and potential progress on poverty eradication in fragile states to 2030. Using the International Futures model and recently released 2011 International Comparison Program data, this paper calculates current (2015 poverty for a US$1.90 poverty line, and subsequently runs three scenarios. The estimates suggest that there are 485 million poor in fragile states in 2015, a 33.5 per cent poverty rate. This paper’s Base Case scenario results in a forecasted 22.8 per cent poverty rate in fragile states by 2030. The most optimistic scenario yields a 13.1 per cent poverty rate for this group of countries (257 million. An optimistic scenario reflecting political constraints in fragile states yields a 19.1 per cent poverty rate (376 million. Even under the most optimistic circumstances, fragile states will almost certainly be home to hundreds of millions of poor in 2030, suggesting that the world must do things dramatically differently if we are to reach the high hanging fruit and truly ‘leave no one behind’ in the next fifteen years of development.

  14. A Bayesian analysis of the 69 highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Khanin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The origins of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain an open question. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate the arrival directions of the UHECRs with catalogs of potential sources, but no definite conclusion has been reached. We report a Bayesian analysis of the 69 events from the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), that aims to determine the fraction of the UHECRs that originate from known AGNs in the Veron-Cety & Veron (VCV) catalog, as well as AGNs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT), galaxies from the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), and an additional volume-limited sample of 17 nearby AGNs. The study makes use of a multi-level Bayesian model of UHECR injection, propagation and detection. We find that for reasonable ranges of prior parameters, the Bayes factors disfavour a purely isotropic model. For fiducial values of the model parameters, we report 68% credible intervals for the fraction of source originating UHECRs of 0.09+0.05-0.04, 0.25+0.09-0.08, 0.24+0.12-0....

  15. A Bayesian analysis of the 69 highest energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanin, Alexander; Mortlock, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    The origins of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) remain an open question. Several attempts have been made to cross-correlate the arrival directions of the UHECRs with catalogues of potential sources, but no definite conclusion has been reached. We report a Bayesian analysis of the 69 events, from the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO), that aims to determine the fraction of the UHECRs that originate from known AGNs in the Veron-Cety & Verson (VCV) catalogue, as well as AGNs detected with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift-BAT), galaxies from the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS), and an additional volume-limited sample of 17 nearby AGNs. The study makes use of a multilevel Bayesian model of UHECR injection, propagation and detection. We find that for reasonable ranges of prior parameters the Bayes factors disfavour a purely isotropic model. For fiducial values of the model parameters, we report 68 per cent credible intervals for the fraction of source originating UHECRs of 0.09^{+0.05}_{-0.04}, 0.25^{+0.09}_{-0.08}, 0.24^{+0.12}_{-0.10}, and 0.08^{+0.04}_{-0.03} for the VCV, Swift-BAT and 2MRS catalogues, and the sample of 17 AGNs, respectively.

  16. Continental reach: The Westcoast Energy story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, P. C.

    2002-07-01

    A historical account is given of the spectacular success that was Westcoast Energy Inc., a Canadian natural gas giant that charted a wilderness pipeline from natural gas fields in Canada's sub-arctic solitude. The beginning of the company is traced to an event in 1934 when near the bank of the Pouce Coupe River, close to the Alberta-British Columbia border, Frank McMahon, a solitary wildcatter and the eventual founder of the company, first sighted the fiery inferno of a runaway wildcat well, drilled by geologists of the Imperial Oil Company during their original search for the Canadian petroleum basin's motherlode. It was on this occasion in 1934 that McMahon first conceived a geological profile that connected the gas-bearing sandstone of Pouce Coupe with the reservoir rock of the biggest natural gas field of Alberta, and a pipeline from this sandstone storehouse across the rugged heart of British Columbia to Vancouver, and south into the United States. It took the better part of a quarter century to realize the dream of that pipeline which, in due course, turned out to be only the first step towards reaching the top rank of Canadian corporations in operational and financial terms, and becoming one of only a handful in terms of a story that became a Canadian corporate legend. By chronicling the lives and contributions of the company's founder and senior officials over the years, the book traces the company's meteoric rise from a gleam in its founder's eye to a cautious regional utility, and to the aggressive Canadian adventurer that went on to burst the boundaries of its Pacific Coast world, until the continental reach of its operations and interests run from Canada's Pacific shoreline to its Atlantic basins and Mexico's Campeche Bay to Alaska's Prudhoe Bay. The company's independent existence came to an end in 2002 when Westcoast Energy, by then a $15 billion operation, was acquired by Duke Energy Limited of North

  17. New symmetry of intended curved reaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Elizabeth B

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Movement regularities are inherently present in automated goal-directed motions of the primate's arm system. They can provide important signatures of intentional behaviours driven by sensory-motor strategies, but it remains unknown if during motor learning new regularities can be uncovered despite high variability in the temporal dynamics of the hand motions. Methods We investigated the conservation and violation of new movement regularity obtained from the hand motions traced by two untrained monkeys as they learned to reach outwardly towards spatial targets while avoiding obstacles in the dark. The regularity pertains to the transformation from postural to hand paths that aim at visual goals. Results In length-minimizing curves the area enclosed between the Euclidean straight line and the curve up to its point of maximum curvature is 1/2 of the total area. Similar trend is found if one examines the perimeter. This new movement regularity remained robust to striking changes in arm dynamics that gave rise to changes in the speed of the reach, to changes in the hand path curvature, and to changes in the arm's postural paths. The area and perimeter ratios characterizing the regularity co-varied across repeats of randomly presented targets whenever the transformation from posture to hand paths was compliant with the intended goals. To interpret this conservation and the cases in which the regularity was violated and recovered, we provide a geometric model that characterizes arm-to-hand and hand-to-arm motion paths as length minimizing curves (geodesics in a non-Euclidean space. Whenever the transformation from one space to the other is distance-metric preserving (isometric the two symmetric ratios co-vary. Otherwise, the symmetric ratios and their co-variation are violated. As predicted by the model we found empirical evidence for the violation of this movement regularity whenever the intended goals mismatched the actions. This

  18. Why and how to make a REACH registration of combustion ash; Moejligheter vid REACH-registrering av energiaskor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loevgren, Linnea; Wik, Ola

    2009-10-15

    will have the possibility to leave the waste legislation and be covered by the chemical legislation in becoming a product or an article. It is not know in detail how far the chemical legislation will reach for material having end-of-waste criteria. Currently, end-of-waste criteria have not yet been initiated for ashes. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvaardsverket) is currently elaborating end-of-waste criteria for the use of material in construction works. Recovering waste is according to REACH identical with manufacturing. A chemical substance, preparation/mixture or article manufactured from waste, i.e. via a recovering operation will have to follow chemical legislation. The enterprise responsible for the recovering operation is the legal entity responsible to follow REACH for the manufactured material. One example of recovering ash into a chemical substance is the manufacturing of cement when ash is the raw material. It is the responsibility of the cement plant to have its substance or product REACH-registered before manufactured and provided to a third party. The waste legislation, instead of the chemical legislation, applies when the waste recovering operation does not results in manufacturing of a substance, preparation or article provided to a third party and the waste has a use at the end of its life cycle. This is identified as late recovery. The waste legislation applies during the life cycle of the waste in such cases. Examples in Sweden are ashes used in landfill sealing and covering layers and in roads or soil stabilization. Use of ashes in constructions is covered by the Constructions Product Directive (2008/98/EC), CPD, irrespective if it is identified as a waste or a chemical product. The CPD harmonizes only testing and CE-marking of construction products. Chemical safety requirements originate from national legislation which in many cases is based on chemical regulation. Standardized testing methods to measure emitted hazardous

  19. Important ATLAS Forward Calorimeter Milestone Reached

    CERN Multimedia

    Loch, P.

    The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter working group has reached an important milestone in the production of their detectors. The mechanical assembly of the first electromagnetic module (FCal1C) has been completed at the University of Arizona on February 25, 2002, only ten days after the originally scheduled date. The photo shows the University of Arizona FCal group in the clean room, together with the assembled FCal1C module. The module consists of a stack of 18 round copper plates, each about one inch thick. Each plate is about 90 cm in diameter, and has 12260 precision-drilled holes in it, to accommodate the tube/rod electrode assembly. The machining of the plates, which was done at the Science Technology Center (STC) at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada, required high precision to allow for easy insertion of the electrode copper tube. The plates have been carefully cleaned at the University of Arizona, to remove any machining residue and metal flakes. This process alone took about eleven weeks. Exactly 122...

  20. LEP Dismantling Reaches Half-Way Stage

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    LEP's last superconducting module leaves its home port... Just seven months into the operation, LEP dismantling is forging ahead. Two of the eight arcs which form the tunnel have already been emptied and the last of the accelerator's radiofrequency (RF) cavities has just been raised to the surface. The 160 people working on LEP dismantling have reason to feel pleased with their progress. All of the accelerator's 72 superconducting RF modules have already been brought to the surface, with the last one being extracted on 2nd May. This represents an important step in the dismantling process, as head of the project, John Poole, explains. 'This was the most delicate part of the project, because the modules are very big and they could only come out at one place', he says. The shaft at point 1.8 through which the RF cavity modules pass is 18 metres in diameter, while each module is 11.5 metres long. Some modules had to travel more than 10 kilometres to reach the shaft. ... is lifted up the PM 1.8 shaft, after a m...

  1. CAST reaches milestone but keeps on searching

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Courier (september 2011 issue)

    2011-01-01

    After eight years of searching for the emission of a dark matter candidate particle, the axion, from the Sun, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) has fulfilled its original physics programme.   Members of the CAST collaboration in July, together with dipole-based helioscope. CAST, the world’s most sensitive axion helioscope, points a recycled prototype LHC dipole magnet at the Sun at dawn and dusk, looking for the conversion of axions to X-rays. It incorporates four state-of-the-art X-ray detectors: three Micromegas detectors and a pn-CCD imaging camera attached to a focusing X-ray telescope that was recovered from the German space programme (see CERN Courier April 2010).  Over the years, CAST has operated with the magnet bores - the location of the axion conversion - in different conditions: first in vacuum, covering axion masses up to 20 meV/c2, and then with a buffer gas (4He and later 3He) at various densities, finally reaching the goal of 1.17 eV/c2 on 22 ...

  2. Media perspective - new opportunities for reaching audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haswell, Katy

    2007-08-01

    The world of media is experiencing a period of extreme and rapid change with the rise of internet television and the download generation. Many young people no longer watch standard TV. Instead, they go on-line, talking to friends and downloading pictures, videos, music clips to put on their own websites and watch/ listen to on their laptops and mobile phones. Gone are the days when TV controllers determined what you watched and when you watched it. Now the buzzword is IPTV, Internet Protocol Television, with companies such as JOOST offering hundreds of channels on a wide range of subjects, all of which you can choose to watch when and where you wish, on your high-def widescreen with stereo surround sound at home or on your mobile phone on the train. This media revolution is changing the way organisations get their message out. And it is encouraging companies such as advertising agencies to be creative about new ways of accessing audiences. The good news is that we have fresh opportunities to reach young people through internet-based media and material downloaded through tools such as games machines, as well as through the traditional media. And it is important for Europlanet to make the most of these new and exciting developments.

  3. Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of the Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Donders

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many international and regional human rights instruments. This right contains both freedoms and entitlements, including the freedom to control one's own health and body and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services. Both aspects of the right to health – freedoms and entitlements – have important cultural dimensions. The UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights has for instance stated that the right to health implies that health facilities, goods and services must be culturally appropriate, in other words respectful of the culture of individuals and communities. At the same time, it should be noted that culture and health may have a problematic relationship. Cultural patterns, attitudes or stereotypes may severely limit the health freedoms of people or may prevent certain people from accessing health care. Furthermore, there are some cultural or traditional practices that are condoned but that are very harmful to people's health. It seems that international human rights law demands respect for the cultural dimensions of the right to health, while at the same time requiring protection of the right to health against negative aspects of cultures. How does this work out in practice? What does the concept of "culturally appropriate" health goods and services mean at the national level? Who decides on what is or is not culturally appropriate? How have international supervisory bodies elaborated on the freedoms and entitlements of the right to health and the obligations for States Parties to the treaties in relation to the cultural dimensions of the right to health? This article analyses several treaty provisions and the interpretation of these provisions by the treaty monitoring bodies. Apart from several UN treaties, several regional treaties in Africa are dealt with, notably the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

  4. How to identify the person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev D.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current version of the resolution of the RF Supreme Court Plenum of June 10, 2010 N 12, clarifying the provisions of the law on liability for crimes committed by a person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy (Part 4 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, is criticized. Evaluative character of the considered aggravating circumstance doesn’t allow to develop clear criteria for identifying the leaders of the criminal environment. Basing on the theory provisions and court practice, the authors suggest three criteria. The first criterion is specific actions including: establishment and leadership of the criminal association (criminal organization; coordinating criminal acts; creating sustainable links between different organized groups acting independently; dividing spheres of criminal influence, sharing criminal income and other criminal activities, indicating person’s authority and leadership in a particular area or in a particular sphere of activity. The second is having money, valuables and other property obtained by criminal means, without the person’s direct participation in their acquisition; transferring money, valuables and other property to that person systematically, without legal grounds (unjust enrichment; spending that money, valuables and other property to carry out criminal activities (crimes themselves and conditions of their commission. The third is international criminal ties manifested in committing one of the crimes under Part 1 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, if this crime is transnational in nature; ties with extremist and (or terrorist organizations, as well as corruption ties. The court may use one or several of these criteria.

  5. An Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) Hospitals, Wildfires Highest Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelaine, Sabrina A; Sato, Mizuki; Jin, Yufang; Godwin, Hilary

    2017-10-01

    Introduction Although many studies have delineated the variety and magnitude of impacts that climate change is likely to have on health, very little is known about how well hospitals are poised to respond to these impacts. Hypothesis/Problem The hypothesis is that most modern hospitals in urban areas in the United States need to augment their current disaster planning to include climate-related impacts. Using Los Angeles County (California USA) as a case study, historical data for emergency department (ED) visits and projections for extreme-heat events were used to determine how much climate change is likely to increase ED visits by mid-century for each hospital. In addition, historical data about the location of wildfires in Los Angeles County and projections for increased frequency of both wildfires and flooding related to sea-level rise were used to identify which area hospitals will have an increased risk of climate-related wildfires or flooding at mid-century. Only a small fraction of the total number of predicted ED visits at mid-century would likely to be due to climate change. By contrast, a significant portion of hospitals in Los Angeles County are in close proximity to very high fire hazard severity zones (VHFHSZs) and would be at greater risk to wildfire impacts as a result of climate change by mid-century. One hospital in Los Angeles County was anticipated to be at greater risk due to flooding by mid-century as a result of climate-related sea-level rise. This analysis suggests that several Los Angeles County hospitals should focus their climate-change-related planning on building resiliency to wildfires. Adelaine SA , Sato M , Jin Y , Godwin H . An assessment of climate change impacts on Los Angeles (California USA) hospitals, wildfires highest priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):556-562.

  6. Lost opportunities in HIV prevention: programmes miss places where exposures are highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siziya Seter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77% but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women. Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority.

  7. Implications of improved measurements of the highest energy SEPs by AMS and PAMELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, K.; Bindi, V.; Consolandi, C.; Corti, C.; Yamashiro, B.

    2017-08-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEP) are a key target of heliophysics research, not only as exemplars of particle acceleration and transport processes that are ubiquitous in astrophysical plasmas, but also as the most intense transient radiation hazard for human and robotic space explorers. SEPs are very well-observed by spacecraft covering particle energies below several hundred MeV/nucleon. Multiple missions, stretching back over decades, have yielded a fairly complete description of SEP intensity, energy spectra, and composition up to a few hundred MeV/nucleon. SEP characteristics at higher energies are, by comparison, only poorly understood due to the relative dearth of high-energy measurements. This lack of high energy measurements has contributed to a disagreement within the heliophysics community regarding the source regions and mechanisms that accelerate particles up to GeV energies. In solar cycle 24, the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) and the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) have been taking measurements of the highest energy SEPs from ∼ 100 MeV to the GeV. Since the literature has discussed SEP acceleration to GeV energies in terms of Ground Level Enhancements (GLE), we will review the findings for GLEs in solar cycle 23. We will discuss the models and theories that address acceleration up to the GeV and how AMS and PAMELA measurements have the potential to advance the current understanding of SEP acceleration physics. Lastly, only 1-2 GLEs have occurred during solar cycle 24, so we will explore a set of SEP events that were observed in the ⩾100 MeV GOES channels, most of which were also observed by PAMELA and AMS.

  8. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  9. Observing the Non-Thermal Universe with the Highest Energy Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Brenda L.; HAWC, VERITAS, CTA

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical sources of relativistic particles radiate gamma rays to such high energies that they can be detected from the ground. The existence of high energy gamma rays implies that even higher energy particles are being accelerated placing strong constraints on these non-thermal accelerators. Within our galaxy, TeV gamma rays have been detected from supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebula, x-ray binaries and some yet to be identified sources in the Galactic plane. In addition, these gamma rays have sufficient energy to be attenuated by the interaction with infrared photons producing an electron-positron pair. Thus the spectrum of gamma rays can also constrain the infrared photon density, which for distant extragalactic sources is a direct probe of cosmology. The known extragalactic TeV sources are primarily the blazer class of active galactic nuclei. And TeV gamma rays might even be produced by annihilating dark matter.The US currently supports two ground-based gamma-ray observatories—HAWC and VERITAS—and NSF is developing a prototype for the international Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. The HAWC (High Altitude Water Cherenkov) observatory just began operation of the full detector in March 2015 and with its wide field of view scans ~2/3 of the sky each day for TeV sources. VERITAS (Very EneRgetic Imaging Telescope Array System) is an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes that follows individual sources to produce lightcurves and spectra from 85 GeV to > 30 TeV. The combination of both a survey and pointed observatory is very complementary with a broad scientific reach that includes the study of extragalactic and Galactic objects as well as the search for astrophysical signatures of dark matter and the measurement of cosmic rays. I will present the current view of the TeV sky and the latest results from HAWC and VERITAS as well as plans for CTA.

  10. Planning of the Extended Reach well Dieksand 2; Planung der Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, U.; Berners, H. [RWE-DEA AG, Hamburg (Germany). Drilling Team Mittelplate und Dieksand; Hadow, A.; Klop, G.; Sickinger, W. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstdorf (Germany); Sudron, K.

    1998-12-31

    The Mittelplate oil field is located 7 km offshore the town of Friedrichskoog. Reserves are estimated at 30 million tonnes of oil. At a production rate of 2,500 t/d, it will last about 33 years. The transport capacity of the offshore platform is limited, so that attempts were made to enhance production by constructing the extended reach borehole Dieksand 2. Details are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Erdoelfeld Mittelplate liegt am suedlichen Rand des Nationalparks Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, ca. 7000 m westlich der Ortschaft Friedrichskoog. Die gewinnbaren Reserven betragen ca. 30 Millionen t Oel. Bei einer Foerderkapazitaet von 2.500 t/Tag betraegt die Foerderdauer ca. 33 Jahre. Aufgrund der begrenzten Transportkapazitaeten von der Insel, laesst sich durch zusaetzliche Bohrungen von der kuenstlichen Insel Mittelplate keine entscheidende Erhoehung der Foerderkapazitaet erzielen. Ab Sommer 1996 wurde erstmals die Moeglichkeit der Lagerstaettenerschliessung von Land untersucht. Ein im Mai 1997 in Hamburg etabliertes Drilling Team wurde mit der Aufgabe betraut, die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 zu planen und abzuteufen. Die Planungsphasen fuer die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 wurden aufgezeigt. Die fuer den Erfolg einer Extended Reach Bohrung wichtigen Planungsparameter wurden erlaeutert. Es wurden Wege gezeigt, wie bei diesem Projekt technische und geologische Risiken in der Planung mit beruecksichtigt und nach Beginn der Bohrung weiter bearbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)

  11. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  12. String 2 reaches the home straight

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    String 2 has entered its second phase of operation. With the addition of three more dipole magnets, this test chain now represents one complete LHC cell in the regular part of the arc. The main magnets have achieved nominal current and have embarked on an experimental programme which will continue until the end of the year.

  13. ”They don’t mean it badly – It’s just their way of communicating”: A qualitative study of how LIFO can help a team and its members to reach their highest potential

    OpenAIRE

    Mowinckel, Siri

    2012-01-01

    Teamwork is an essential part of everyday life for many people in today's society. The team members who take part in various teams are essential for the team’s effectiveness. In this thesis I will look at the benefits a company can experience in teamwork through the use of the LIFO® method. To investigate this I have chosen to use a qualitative approach, by interviewing three people from a large transportation company, on how they experienced that LIFO® has contributed to better teamwork.The ...

  14. Subcellular immunocytochemical analysis detects the highest concentrations of glutathione in mitochondria and not in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechmann, B; Mauch, F; Sticher, L; Müller, M

    2008-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant and redox buffer with multiple roles in plant metabolism. Glutathione biosynthesis is restricted to the cytosol and the plastids and the product is distributed to the various organelles by unknown mechanisms. In the present study immunogold cytochemistry based on anti-glutathione antisera and transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the relative concentration of glutathione in different organelles of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root cells. Glutathione-specific labelling was detected in all cellular compartments except the apoplast and the vacuole. The highest glutathione content was surprisingly not found in plastids, which have been described before as a major site of glutathione accumulation, but in mitochondria which lack the capacity for glutathione biosynthesis. Mitochondria of both leaf and root cells contained 7-fold and 4-fold, respectively, higher glutathione levels than plastids while the density of glutathione labelling in the cytosol, nuclei, and peroxisomes was intermediate. The accuracy of the glutathione labelling is supported by two observations. First, pre-adsorption of the anti-glutathione antisera with glutathione reduced the density of the gold particles in all organelles to background levels. Second, the overall glutathione-labelling density was reduced by about 90% in leaves of the glutathione-deficient Arabidopsis mutant pad2-1 and increased in transgenic plants with enhanced glutathione accumulation. Hence, there was a strong correlation between immunocytochemical and biochemical data of glutathione accumulation. Interestingly, the glutathione labelling of mitochondria in pad2-1 remained very similar to wild-type plants thus suggesting that the high mitochondrial glutathione content is maintained in a situation of permanent glutathione-deficiency at the expense of other glutathione pools. High and constant levels of glutathione in mitochondria appear to be particularly

  15. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

    2014-04-01

    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  16. Spiking and LFP activity in PRR during symbolically instructed reaches

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The spiking activity in the parietal reach region (PRR) represents the spatial goal of an impending reach when the reach is directed toward or away from a visual object. The local field potentials (LFPs) in this region also represent the reach goal when the reach is directed to a visual object. Thus PRR is a candidate area for reading out a patient's intended reach goals for neural prosthetic applications. For natural behaviors, reach goals are not always based on the location of a visual obj...

  17. Modeling study of seated reach envelopes based on spherical harmonics with consideration of the difficulty ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaozhi; Ren, Jindong; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Qun; Liu, Honghao

    2017-04-01

    Reach envelopes are very useful for the design and layout of controls. In building reach envelopes, one of the key problems is to represent the reach limits accurately and conveniently. Spherical harmonics are proved to be accurate and convenient method for fitting of the reach capability envelopes. However, extensive study are required on what components of spherical harmonics are needed in fitting the envelope surfaces. For applications in the vehicle industry, an inevitable issue is to construct reach limit surfaces with consideration of the seating positions of the drivers, and it is desirable to use population envelopes rather than individual envelopes. However, it is relatively inconvenient to acquire reach envelopes via a test considering the seating positions of the drivers. In addition, the acquired envelopes are usually unsuitable for use with other vehicle models because they are dependent on the current cab packaging parameters. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct reach envelopes for real vehicle conditions based on individual capability data considering seating positions. Moreover, traditional reach envelopes provide little information regarding the assessment of reach difficulty. The application of reach envelopes will improve design quality by providing difficulty-rating information about reach operations. In this paper, using the laboratory data of seated reach with consideration of the subjective difficulty ratings, the method of modeling reach envelopes is studied based on spherical harmonics. The surface fitting using spherical harmonics is conducted for circumstances both with and without seat adjustments. For use with adjustable seat, the seating position model is introduced to re-locate the test data. The surface fitting is conducted for both population and individual reach envelopes, as well as for boundary envelopes. Comparison of the envelopes of adjustable seat and the SAE J287 control reach envelope shows that the latter

  18. A story about the discovery of the largest glacier and the highest peak in heart of the Pamirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tells a story how the “blank spot” at the Pamirs center was puzzled out. In 1878, a small party of explorers headed by V.D. Oshanin had found here a big glacier about 30–40 km long and named it for Fedchenko. In 1884–85, known investigator G.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo made his important proposal about orographic structure of the Pamirs central part. In 1890, expedition headed by topographer N.I. Kosinenko investigated the lower part of the Fedchenko Glacier and, for the first time, saw a separate high peak. In 1916, astronomer Ya.I. Belyaev had put on a map a great pyramidal summit but he had mistaken it for the Garmo Peak well known to local Tadzhiks (Fig. 2.In 1927, N.L. Korzhenevsky published a chart of arrangement of ridges near sources of the river Muksu (Fig. 3 that became a basis for work of the Tadzhik-Pamir expedition of 1928–1932. In 1928, Ya.I. Belyaev determined a true length of the Fechenko Glacier that was 70 km, and geodesist I.G. Dorofeevmapped the whole basin of this glacier (Fig. 4 including also a high irregular truncated pyramid of 7495 m in height (as he believed. But earlier this summit was identified as known the Garmo Peak. And only in 1932, it was established that definitions made by Dorofeev in 1928 were related to this highest peak of the Pamirs and also of the whole Soviet Union. The chart of real Central Pamir orography constructed by I.G. Dorofeev is presented in the paper together with his letter addressed to the author (Fig. 5.Thus, the “Garmo peaks” which were observed by the above mentioned explorers were actually three different summits. One of them does tower on the north of the “knot being puzzled out” and reaches 7495 m, and namely this “one-tooth” peak was repeatedly seen by N.V. Krylenko from valleys Gando and Garmo. It was named then the Stalin peak, and later – the peak of Communism. Another one is located in 18 km southward, and this peak is actually the true Garmo Peak 6595 m

  19. Odonata diversity of the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eighty six species of Odonata are recorded from the middle and lower reaches of the Red River basin. Archineura hetaerinoides is recorded from China for the first time. Five genera and five species are new to Yunnan Province. Among the six types of odonate habitats, forest streams have the highest species diversity whereas ponds have the most species shared with other habitats. Both of these two habitats are important in biodiversity conservation and need urgent protection.

  20. Abdominal obesity has the highest impact on metabolic profile in an overweight African population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, L. N.; Witte, D. R.; Mwaniki, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the association between different anthropometric parameters and metabolic profile in an overweight, adult, black Kenyan population. Methods: An opportunity sample of 245 overweight adult Kenyans (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2) was analysed. A score...... anthropometric variables tested, WC and VAT thickness had the strongest negative association with the metabolic profile (β = 0.17 (0.09; 0.24) and 0.15 (0.08; 0.23), respectively). Conclusions: WC and VAT thickness were the strongest anthropometric predictors for the metabolic profile in overweight adult Kenyans...

  1. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  2. Highest Resolution Image of Dust and Sand Yet Acquired on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for Figure 1Click on image for Figure 2Click on image for Figure 3 This mosaic of four side-by-side microscope images (one a color composite) was acquired by the Optical Microscope, a part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Taken on the ninth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 9 (June 3, 2008), the image shows a 3 millimeter (0.12 inch) diameter silicone target after it has been exposed to dust kicked up by the landing. It is the highest resolution image of dust and sand ever acquired on Mars. The silicone substrate provides a sticky surface for holding the particles to be examined by the microscope. Martian Particles on Microscope's Silicone Substrate In figure 1, the particles are on a silcone substrate target 3 millimeters (0.12 inch) in diameter, which provides a sticky surface for holding the particles while the microscope images them. Blow-ups of four of the larger particles are shown in the center. These particles range in size from about 30 microns to 150 microns (from about one one-thousandth of an inch to six one-thousandths of an inch). Possible Nature of Particles Viewed by Mars Lander's Optical Microscope In figure 2, the color composite on the right was acquired to examine dust that had fallen onto an exposed surface. The translucent particle highlighted at bottom center is of comparable size to white particles in a Martian soil sample (upper pictures) seen two sols earlier inside the scoop of Phoenix's Robotic Arm as imaged by the lander's Robotic Arm Camera. The white particles may be examples of the abundant salts that have been found in the Martian soil by previous missions. Further investigations will be needed to determine the white material's composition and whether translucent particles like the one in

  3. A Systematic Study to Optimize SiPM Photo-Detectors for Highest Time Resolution in PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S.; Frisch, B.; Hillemanns, H.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Pauwels, K.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a systematic study of time resolution made with three different commercial silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-025P, S10931-050P, and S10931-100P) and two LSO scintillating crystals. This study aimed to determine the optimum detector conditions for highest time resolution in a prospective time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) system. Measurements were based on the time over threshold method in a coincidence setup using the ultrafast amplifier-discriminator NINO and a fast oscilloscope. Our tests with the three SiPMs of the same area but of different SPAD sizes and fill factors led to best results with the Hamamatsu type of 50×50×μm2 single-pixel size. For this type of SiPM and under realistic geometrical PET scanner conditions, i.e., with 2×2×10×mm3 LSO crystals, a coincidence time resolution of 220 ±4 ps FWHM could be achieved. The results are interpreted in terms of SiPM photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark noise, and photon yield.

  4. Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? Technical Appendix. NCEE 2011-4016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazerman, Steven; Max, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This appendix describes the methods and provides further detail to support the evaluation brief, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers?" (Contains 8 figures, 6 tables and 5 footnotes.) [For the main report, "Do Low-Income Students Have Equal Access to the Highest-Performing Teachers? NCEE…

  5. The multiple process model of goal-directed reaching revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Digby; Lyons, James; Hayes, Spencer J; Burkitt, James J; Roberts, James W; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Hansen, Steve; Bennett, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Recently our group forwarded a model of speed-accuracy relations in goal-directed reaching. A fundamental feature of our multiple process model was the distinction between two types of online regulation: impulse control and limb-target control. Impulse control begins during the initial stages of the movement trajectory and involves a comparison of actual limb velocity and direction to an internal representation of expectations about the limb trajectory. Limb-target control involves discrete error-reduction based on the relative positions of the limb and the target late in the movement. Our model also considers the role of eye movements, practice, energy optimization and strategic behavior in limb control. Here, we review recent work conducted to test specific aspects of our model. As well, we consider research not fully incorporated into our earlier contribution. We conclude that a slightly modified and expanded version of our model, that includes crosstalk between the two forms of online regulation, does an excellent job of explaining speed, accuracy, and energy optimization in goal-directed reaching.

  6. Optimization of frequency lowering algorithms for getting the highest speech intelligibility improvement by hearing loss simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıöz, Umut; Günel, Banu

    2015-06-01

    High frequency hearing loss is a growing problem for both children and adults. To overcome this impairment, different frequency lowering methods (FLMs) were tried from 1930s, however no satisfaction was provided up to now. In this study, for getting higher speech intelligibility, eight combinations of FLMs which were designed originally were tried with simulated sounds onto normal hearing subjects. These improvements were calculated by the difference with standard hearing aid method, amplification. High frequency hearing loss was simulated with the combined suprathreshold effects. An offline study was carried out for each subject for determining the significant methods used in modified rhyme test (MRT) (Subjective measure for intelligibility). Significant methods were determined according to their speech intelligibility index (SII) (Objective measure for intelligibility). All different cases were tried under four noisy environments and a noise free environment. Twelve hearing impaired subjects were simulated by hearing loss simulation (HLS). MRT was developed for Turkish language as a first time. As the results of improvements, total 71 cases were statistically significant for twelve subjects. Eighty-three percent success of FLMs was achieved against amplification for being an alternative method of amplification in noisy environments. For four subjects, all significant methods gave higher improvements than amplification. As conclusion, specific method recommendations for different noisy environments were done for each subject for getting more speech intelligibility.

  7. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond D Semlitsch

    Full Text Available We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  8. Intermediate pond sizes contain the highest density, richness, and diversity of pond-breeding amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semlitsch, Raymond D; Peterman, William E; Anderson, Thomas L; Drake, Dana L; Ousterhout, Brittany H

    2015-01-01

    We present data on amphibian density, species richness, and diversity from a 7140-ha area consisting of 200 ponds in the Midwestern U.S. that represents most of the possible lentic aquatic breeding habitats common in this region. Our study includes all possible breeding sites with natural and anthropogenic disturbance processes that can be missing from studies where sampling intensity is low, sample area is small, or partial disturbance gradients are sampled. We tested whether pond area was a significant predictor of density, species richness, and diversity of amphibians and if values peaked at intermediate pond areas. We found that in all cases a quadratic model fit our data significantly better than a linear model. Because small ponds have a high probability of pond drying and large ponds have a high probability of fish colonization and accumulation of invertebrate predators, drying and predation may be two mechanisms driving the peak of density and diversity towards intermediate values of pond size. We also found that not all intermediate sized ponds produced many larvae; in fact, some had low amphibian density, richness, and diversity. Further analyses of the subset of ponds represented in the peak of the area distribution showed that fish, hydroperiod, invertebrate density, and canopy are additional factors that drive density, richness and diversity of ponds up or down, when extremely small or large ponds are eliminated. Our results indicate that fishless ponds at intermediate sizes are more diverse, produce more larvae, and have greater potential to recruit juveniles into adult populations of most species sampled. Further, hylid and chorus frogs are found predictably more often in ephemeral ponds whereas bullfrogs, green frogs, and cricket frogs are found most often in permanent ponds with fish. Our data increase understanding of what factors structure and maintain amphibian diversity across large landscapes.

  9. The Development of Trunk Control and its Relation to Reaching in Infancy: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya eRachwani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of reaching is crucially dependent on the progressive control of the trunk, yet their interrelation has not been addressed in detail. Previous studies on seated reaching evaluated infants during fully supported or unsupported conditions; however, trunk control is progressively developed, starting from the cervical/thoracic followed by the lumbar/pelvic regions for the acquisition of independent sitting. Providing external trunk support at different levels to test the effects of controlling the upper and lower regions of the trunk on reaching provides insight into the mechanisms by which trunk control impacts reaching in infants. Ten healthy infants were recruited at 2.5 months of age and tested longitudinally, until 8 months. During the reaching test, infants were placed in an upright seated position and an adjustable support device provided trunk fixation at pelvic and thoracic levels. Kinematic and electromyographic data were collected. Results showed that prior to independent sitting, postural instability was higher when infants were provided with pelvic compared to thoracic support. Associated reaches were more circuitous, less smooth and less efficient. Associated with this instability, there was increased postural muscle activity and arm muscle co-activation. Differences between levels of support were not observed once infants acquired independent sitting. These results suggest that trunk control is acquired in a segmental sequence across the development of upright sitting, and it is tightly correlated with reaching performance.

  10. ERF1 -- Enhanced River Reach File 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's River Reach File 1 (RF1)to ensure the hydrologic integrity of the digital reach traces and to quantify the mean water time of...

  11. A New Orally Active, Aminothiol Radioprotector-Free of Nausea and Hypotension Side Effects at Its Highest Radioprotective Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soref, Cheryl M. [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Hacker, Timothy A. [Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Physiology Core, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fahl, William E., E-mail: fahl@oncology.wisc.edu [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: A new aminothiol, PrC-210, was tested for orally conferred radioprotection (rats, mice; 9.0 Gy whole-body, which was otherwise lethal to 100% of the animals) and presence of the debilitating side effects (nausea/vomiting, hypotension/fainting) that restrict use of the current aminothiol, amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721). Methods and Materials: PrC-210 in water was administered to rats and mice at times before irradiation, and percent-survival was recorded for 60 days. Subcutaneous (SC) amifostine (positive control) or SC PrC-210 was administered to ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and retching/emesis responses were recorded. Intraperitoneal amifostine (positive control) or PrC-210 was administered to arterial cannulated rats to score drug-induced hypotension. Results: Oral PrC-210 conferred 100% survival in rat and mouse models against an otherwise 100% lethal whole-body radiation dose (9.0 Gy). Oral PrC-210, administered by gavage 30-90 min before irradiation, conferred a broad window of radioprotection. The comparison of PrC-210 and amifostine side effects was striking because there was no retching or emesis in 10 ferrets treated with PrC-210 and no induced hypotension in arterial cannulated rats treated with PrC-210. The tested PrC-210 doses were the ferret and rat equivalent doses of the 0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) PrC-210 dose in mice. The human equivalent of this mouse 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose would likely be the highest PrC-210 dose used in humans. By comparison, the mouse 0.5 MTD amifostine dose, 400 {mu}g/g body weight (equivalent to the human amifostine dose of 910 mg/m{sup 2}), when tested at equivalent ferret and rat doses in the above models produced 100% retching/vomiting in ferrets and 100% incidence of significant, progressive hypotension in rats. Conclusions: The PrC-210 aminothiol, with no detectable nausea/vomiting or hypotension side effects in these preclinical models, is a logical candidate for human drug development to use in healthy

  12. Reaching hard-to-reach individuals: Nonselective versus targeted outbreak response vaccination for measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Andrea; Hurtado, Northan; Grais, Rebecca F; Ferrari, Matthew

    2014-01-15

    Current mass vaccination campaigns in measles outbreak response are nonselective with respect to the immune status of individuals. However, the heterogeneity in immunity, due to previous vaccination coverage or infection, may lead to potential bias of such campaigns toward those with previous high access to vaccination and may result in a lower-than-expected effective impact. During the 2010 measles outbreak in Malawi, only 3 of the 8 districts where vaccination occurred achieved a measureable effective campaign impact (i.e., a reduction in measles cases in the targeted age groups greater than that observed in nonvaccinated districts). Simulation models suggest that selective campaigns targeting hard-to-reach individuals are of greater benefit, particularly in highly vaccinated populations, even for low target coverage and with late implementation. However, the choice between targeted and nonselective campaigns should be context specific, achieving a reasonable balance of feasibility, cost, and expected impact. In addition, it is critical to develop operational strategies to identify and target hard-to-reach individuals.

  13. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing...... of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception...... was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive...

  14. Parallel high-performance grid computing: capabilities and opportunities of a novel demanding service and business class allowing highest resource efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepper, Nick; Ettig, Ramona; Dickmann, Frank; Stehr, Rene; Grosveld, Frank G; Wedemann, Gero; Knoch, Tobias A

    2010-01-01

    Especially in the life-science and the health-care sectors the huge IT requirements are imminent due to the large and complex systems to be analysed and simulated. Grid infrastructures play here a rapidly increasing role for research, diagnostics, and treatment, since they provide the necessary large-scale resources efficiently. Whereas grids were first used for huge number crunching of trivially parallelizable problems, increasingly parallel high-performance computing is required. Here, we show for the prime example of molecular dynamic simulations how the presence of large grid clusters including very fast network interconnects within grid infrastructures allows now parallel high-performance grid computing efficiently and thus combines the benefits of dedicated super-computing centres and grid infrastructures. The demands for this service class are the highest since the user group has very heterogeneous requirements: i) two to many thousands of CPUs, ii) different memory architectures, iii) huge storage capabilities, and iv) fast communication via network interconnects, are all needed in different combinations and must be considered in a highly dedicated manner to reach highest performance efficiency. Beyond, advanced and dedicated i) interaction with users, ii) the management of jobs, iii) accounting, and iv) billing, not only combines classic with parallel high-performance grid usage, but more importantly is also able to increase the efficiency of IT resource providers. Consequently, the mere "yes-we-can" becomes a huge opportunity like e.g. the life-science and health-care sectors as well as grid infrastructures by reaching higher level of resource efficiency.

  15. Proprioceptive recalibration arises slowly compared to reach adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbib, Basel; Henriques, Denise Y P; Cressman, Erin K

    2016-08-01

    When subjects reach in a novel visuomotor environment (e.g. while viewing a cursor representing their hand that is rotated from their hand's actual position), they typically adjust their movements (i.e. bring the cursor to the target), thus reducing reaching errors. Additionally, research has shown that reaching with altered visual feedback of the hand results in sensory changes, such that proprioceptive estimates of hand position are shifted in the direction of the visual feedback experienced (Cressman and Henriques in J Neurophysiol 102:3505-3518, 2009). This study looked to establish the time course of these sensory changes. Additionally, the time courses of implicit sensory and motor changes were compared. Subjects reached to a single visual target while seeing a cursor that was either aligned with their hand position (50 trials) or rotated 30° clockwise relative to their hand (150 trials). Reach errors and proprioceptive estimates of felt hand position were assessed following the aligned reach training trials and at seven different times during the rotated reach training trials by having subjects reach to the target without visual feedback, and provide estimates of their hand relative to a visual reference marker, respectively. Results revealed a shift in proprioceptive estimates throughout the rotated reach training trials; however, significant sensory changes were not observed until after 70 trials. In contrast, results showed a greater change in reaches after a limited number of reach training trials with the rotated cursor. These findings suggest that proprioceptive recalibration arises more slowly than reach adaptation.

  16. Reach/frequency for printed media: Personal probabilities or models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    The author evaluates two different ways of estimating reach and frequency of plans for printed media. The first assigns reading probabilities to groups of respondents and calculates reach and frequency by simulation. the second estimates parameters to a model for reach/frequency. It is concluded...

  17. Using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to evaluate the location reliability of the highest-skin dose area detected by treatment planning in radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Meng, Fan-Yun; Lu, Tsung-Hsien; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Acute skin reaction during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer is an inevitable process, and its severity is related to the skin dose. A high-skin dose area can be speculated based on the isodose distribution shown on a treatment planning. To determine whether treatment planning can reflect high-skin dose location, 80 patients were collected and their skin doses in different areas were measured using a thermoluminescent dosimeter to locate the highest-skin dose area in each patient. We determined whether the skin dose is consistent with the highest-dose area estimated by the treatment planning of the same patient. The χ(2) and Fisher exact tests revealed that these 2 methods yielded more consistent results when the highest-dose spots were located in the axillary and breast areas but not in the inframammary area. We suggest that skin doses shown on the treatment planning might be a reliable and simple alternative method for estimating the highest skin doses in some areas. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of Behçet’s Disease and Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Frequency: The Highest Prevalence in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Yalçın; Seçkin, Havva Yıldız; Kalkan, Göknur; Takcı, Zennure; Önder, Yalçın; Çıtıl, Rıza; Demir, Selim; Şahin, Şafak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet’s Disease (BD). Aims: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent. In the first stage, the individuals, who were selected in random order, were invited to a Family Physician Unit at a certain date and time. The dermatological examinations of the volunteering individuals were performed by only 3 dermatology specialists. In the second stage, those individuals who had symptoms of BD were invited to our hospital, and the Pathergy Test and eye examinations were performed. Results: The annual prevalence of RAS was determined as 10.84%. The annual prevalence was determined to be higher in women than in men (p=0.000). It was observed that the prevalence was at the peak level in the 3rd decade, and then decreased proportionally in the following decades (p=0.000). It was also observed that the aphtha recurrence decreased in the following decades (p=0.048). The Behçet’s prevalence was found to be 0.60%. The prevalence in women was found to be higher than in men (0.86% female, 0.14% male; p=0.022). Conclusion: While the RAS prevalence ratio was at an average value when compared with the other societies; the BD prevalence was found as the highest ratio in the world according to the literature. PMID:27606133

  19. Highest trkB mRNA expression in the entorhinal cortex among hippocampal subregions in the adult rat: contrasting pattern with BDNF mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, W; Hashimoto, T; Li, Y X; Okuno, H; Miyashita, Y

    1998-11-20

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, TrkB, regulate synaptic functions in the hippocampus of the adult rodent. In previous studies, in situ hybridization methods have been used to evaluate regional differences in BDNF and trkB mRNA expression levels in hippocampal subregions. However, these studies have failed to reach consensus regarding the regional differences in the mRNA expression levels. In the present study, we quantitated mRNA expression levels using two different methods, ribonuclease protection assays and a quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction technique, in four hippocampal subregions: the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and CA1. These two methods yielded the same results. We found that BDNF and trkB mRNA expression levels did not covary in the four subregions. BDNF and full length trkB (trkB FL) mRNA in the entorhinal cortex and the DG show contrasting expression patterns. The expression level of BDNF mRNA was highest in the DG among the hippocampal subregions and low in the entorhinal cortex and the CA1, whereas the trkB FL mRNA expression level was highest in the entorhinal cortex, low in the DG and lowest in the CA3. These results suggest regional differences in BDNF/TrkB signaling for maintenance and modifiability of neuronal connections in the hippocampal formation.

  20. Changes in context and perception of maximum reaching height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Day, Brian M

    2014-01-01

    Successfully performing a given behavior requires flexibility in both perception and behavior. In particular, doing so requires perceiving whether that behavior is possible across the variety of contexts in which it might be performed. Three experiments investigated how (changes in) context (ie point of observation and intended reaching task) influenced perception of maximum reaching height. The results of experiment 1 showed that perceived maximum reaching height more closely reflected actual reaching ability when perceivers occupied a point of observation that was compatible with that required for the reaching task. The results of experiments 2 and 3 showed that practice perceiving maximum reaching height from a given point of observation improved perception of maximum reaching height from a different point of observation, regardless of whether such practice occurred at a compatible or incompatible point of observation. In general, such findings show bounded flexibility in perception of affordances and are thus consistent with a description of perceptual systems as smart perceptual devices.

  1. Reaching Nutritional Adequacy Does Not Necessarily Increase Exposure to Food Contaminants: Evidence from a Whole-Diet Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Tangui; Vieux, Florent; Perignon, Marlène; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Micard, Valérie; Darmon, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    Dietary guidelines are designed to help meet nutritional requirements, but they do not explicitly or quantitatively account for food contaminant exposures. In this study, we aimed to test whether dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy were compatible with acceptable exposure to food contaminants. Data from the French national dietary survey were linked with food contaminant data from the French Total Diet Study to estimate the mean intake of 204 representative food items and mean exposure to 27 contaminants, including pesticides, heavy metals, mycotoxins, nondioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds. For each sex, 2 modeled diets that departed the least from the observed diet were designed: 1) a diet respecting only nutritional recommendations (NUT model), and 2) a diet that met nutritional recommendations without exceeding Toxicological Reference Values (TRVs) and observed contaminant exposures (NUTOX model). Food, nutrient, and contaminant contents in observed diets and NUT and NUTOX diets were compared with the use of paired t tests. Mean observed diets did not meet all nutritional recommendations, but no contaminant was over 48% of its TRV. Achieving all the nutrient recommendations through the NUT model mainly required increases in fruit, vegetable, and fish intake and decreases in meat, cheese, and animal fat intake. These changes were associated with significantly increased dietary exposure to some contaminants, but without exceeding 57% of TRVs. The highest increases were found for NDL-PCBs (from 26% to 57% of TRV for women). Reaching nutritional adequacy without exceeding observed contaminant exposure (NUTOX model) was possible but required further departure from observed food quantities. Based on a broad range of nutrients and contaminants, this first assessment of compatibility between nutritional adequacy and toxicological exposure showed that reaching nutritional adequacy might increase exposure to food

  2. The Highest Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of the arrival directions of cosmic rays have not revealed their sources. High energy neutrino telescopes attempt to resolve the problem by detecting neutrinos whose directions are not scrambled by magnetic fields. The key issue is whether the neutrino flux produced in cosmic ray accelerators is detectable. It is believed that the answer is affirmative, both for the galactic and extragalactic sources, provided the detector has kilometer-scale dimensions. We revisit the case for kilometer-scale neutrino detectors in a model-independent way by focussing on the energetics of the sources. The real breakthrough though has not been on the theory but on the technology front: the considerable technical hurdles to build such detectors have been overcome. Where extragalactic cosmic rays are concerned an alternative method to probe the accelerators consists in studying the arrival directions of neutrinos produced in interactions with the microwave background near the source, i.e. within a GZK radius. Their ...

  3. Postural control during standing reach in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Ling; Yeh, Chun-Fu; Howe, Tsu-Hsin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dynamic postural control of children with Down syndrome (DS). Specifically, we compared postural control and goal-directed reaching performance between children with DS and typically developing children during standing reach. Standing reach performance was analyzed in three main phases using the kinematic and kinetic data collected from a force plate and a motion capture system. Fourteen children with DS, age and gender matched with fourteen typically developing children, were recruited for this study. The results showed that the demand of the standing reach task affected both dynamic postural control and reaching performance in children with DS, especially in the condition of beyond arm's length reaching. More postural adjustment strategies were recruited when reaching distance was beyond arm's length. Children with DS tended to use inefficient and conservative strategies for postural stability and reaching. That is, children with DS perform standing reach with increased reaction and execution time and decreased amplitudes of center of pressure displacements. Standing reach resembled functional balance that is required in daily activities. It is suggested to be considered as a part of strength and balance training program with graded task difficulty.

  4. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  5. When could global warming reach 4°C?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Richard A; Collins, Matthew; Hemming, Deborah L; Jones, Chris D; Lowe, Jason A; Sanderson, Michael G

    2011-01-13

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) assessed a range of scenarios of future greenhouse-gas emissions without policies to specifically reduce emissions, and concluded that these would lead to an increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.6°C and 6.9°C by the end of the twenty-first century, relative to pre-industrial. While much political attention is focused on the potential for global warming of 2°C relative to pre-industrial, the AR4 projections clearly suggest that much greater levels of warming are possible by the end of the twenty-first century in the absence of mitigation. The centre of the range of AR4-projected global warming was approximately 4°C. The higher end of the projected warming was associated with the higher emissions scenarios and models, which included stronger carbon-cycle feedbacks. The highest emissions scenario considered in the AR4 (scenario A1FI) was not examined with complex general circulation models (GCMs) in the AR4, and similarly the uncertainties in climate-carbon-cycle feedbacks were not included in the main set of GCMs. Consequently, the projections of warming for A1FI and/or with different strengths of carbon-cycle feedbacks are often not included in a wider discussion of the AR4 conclusions. While it is still too early to say whether any particular scenario is being tracked by current emissions, A1FI is considered to be as plausible as other non-mitigation scenarios and cannot be ruled out. (A1FI is a part of the A1 family of scenarios, with 'FI' standing for 'fossil intensive'. This is sometimes erroneously written as A1F1, with number 1 instead of letter I.) This paper presents simulations of climate change with an ensemble of GCMs driven by the A1FI scenario, and also assesses the implications of carbon-cycle feedbacks for the climate-change projections. Using these GCM projections along with simple climate-model projections, including uncertainties in carbon

  6. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q{sup 2}'s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luszczak, A. [Cracow Univ. of Technology (Poland); Kowalski, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q{sup 2} values of 3.5 GeV{sup 2} to the highest values of Q{sup 2}=250 GeV{sup 2}. To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35

  7. Reach/frequency for printed media: Personal probabilities or models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    that, in order to prevent bias, ratings per group must be used as reading probabilities. Nevertheless, in most cases, the estimates are still biased compared with panel data, thus overestimating net ´reach. Models with the same assumptions as with assignments of reading probabilities are presented......The author evaluates two different ways of estimating reach and frequency of plans for printed media. The first assigns reading probabilities to groups of respondents and calculates reach and frequency by simulation. the second estimates parameters to a model for reach/frequency. It is concluded...

  8. Reach Scale Sediment Balance of Goodwin Creek Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L.; Garcia, T.; Ye, S.; Harman, C. J.; Hassan, M. A.; Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Several reaches of Goodwin Creek, an experimental watershed within the Mississippi river basin, were analyzed for the period 1977-2007 in terms of long-term trends in sediment gain and loss in each reach, the relation of input and output to within-reach sediment fluxes, and the impacts of land use and bank erosion on reach sediment dynamics. Over the period 1977-2007, degradational and aggradational reaches were identified indicating slight vertical adjustment along the mainstream. Lateral adjustment was the main response of the channel to changes in flow and sediment regimes. Event-based sediment load was estimated using suspended concentration data, bedload transport rate, and changes in cross-sectional data. Bank erosion was estimated using cross-sectional data and models. The spatial and temporal patterns of within-reach sediment dynamics correspond closely with river morphology and also reflect basin conditions over the last three decades; thus they are conditioned by coeval trends in climate, hydrology, and land use. The sediment exchange within the mainstream was calculated by the development of reach sediment balances that reveal complex spatial and temporal patterns of sediment dynamics. Sediment load during the rising limb of the hydrograph was slightly higher than those estimated for the falling limb indicating the relative importance of sediment supply on reach sediment dynamic in the basin. Cumulative plots of sediment exchange reveal that major changes in within reach sediment storage are associated with large floods or major inputs from bank erosion.

  9. Underachievement Leading to Downgrading at the Highest Level of Secondary Education in the Netherlands: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates downgrading from the highest level of secondary education in The Netherlands. "Downgrading" is defined as continuation of secondary education at a lower level. We conduct a longitudinal case study of downgrading in the first 3 years of a secondary school. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses are…

  10. Nueva política europea en productos químicos. REACH New European policy on chemical products. REACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vargas Marcos

    2005-12-01

    Regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH. This proposal creates a European Chemicals Agency and establishes the REACH system with the following elements:Registration requires industry to obtain relevant information on their substances and to use data to manage them safely.Evaluation provides confidence that industry is meeting its obligations and prevents unnecessary testing.Authorisation of substances with properties of very high concern (CMRs, PBTs, endocrine disrupters for particular uses.Restriction as a safety net to manage risks that have not been addressed previously in the system.This system will provide information in several phases in order to know and reduce the risks derived from use of around 30,000 chemical substances that are manufactured/imported in the European Union in quantities over one ton per year. The information will be saved in a database after validation and may be used to establish a causal relationship between the environmental factors and the negative effects on health associated to the production and use of chemical products.

  11. Reaching men: at work and in social settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E T

    1991-06-01

    Targeting men with the message of AIDS prevention is vital because men are the major sexual decision makers in developing countries; reaching them at work and social settings is an effective way to intervene. Men who work as truckers, police, miners and other migrant workers, soldiers and seamen are highly mobile, spend time away from home and are likely to engage in high risk behavior. A targeted intervention operated by the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) with the assistance of AIDSTECH has trained peer educators, usually barmaids, bar owners and health workers, to talk to transport workers driving between Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Zambia. Thousands of AIDS prevention posters, stickers and flyers, and 130,000 condoms per month have been distributed. KAP surveys have been conducted on the project by graduate students from University of Dar es Salaam. Condom distribution points were opened in offices of 2 major trucking companies, a fat in Tanzania where condoms are only supplied by medical outlets. AIDSTECH has also helped set up AIDS interventions for the Ghana Armed Forces, involving HIV testing, condom distribution and education. The military is a conducive milieu for communicating AIDS health messages because of the authoritarian structure.

  12. Milestone reached for the Big Wheels of the Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Sandro Palestini

    The assembly and integration of the Big Wheels sectors of the Muon Spectrometer is reaching its conclusion, with only a few sectors of Wheel TGC-A-3 remaining on the assembly stations in building 180. The six trigger chambers (TGCs) wheels and two precision chambers wheels (MDTs) contain in total 104 sectors, which were assembled, equipped with detectors and fully tested over a period of two years. The few remaining Big Wheel sectors still stored in building 180 Most of the sectors left building 180 over the last twelve months, and form the six Wheels currently installed in the ATLAS detector. The remaining two will be installed before the end of the summer. The commitment of the personnel from the many teams who contributed to different parts of the project was essential to its success. In particular, teams coming from countries of different traditions and languages, such as China, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Russia and USA contributed and collaborated very effectively to the timely completion of the p...

  13. Consumer exposure modelling under REACH: Assessing the defaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, J; Neisel, F; Heinemeyer, G; Kaiser, E; Schneider, K

    2015-07-01

    Consumer exposure to chemicals from products and articles is rarely monitored. Since an assessment of consumer exposure has become particularly important under the European REACH Regulation, dedicated modelling approaches with exposure assessment tools are applied. The results of these tools are critically dependent on the default input values embedded in the tools. These inputs were therefore compiled for three lower tier tools (ECETOC TRA (version 3.0), EGRET and REACT)) and benchmarked against a higher tier tool (ConsExpo (version 4.1)). Mostly, conservative input values are used in the lower tier tools. Some cases were identified where the lower tier tools used less conservative values than ConsExpo. However, these deviations only rarely resulted in less conservative exposure estimates compared to ConsExpo, when tested in reference scenarios. This finding is mainly due to the conservatism of (a) the default value for the thickness of the product layer (with complete release of the substance) used for the prediction of dermal exposure and (b) the complete release assumed for volatile substances (i.e. substances with a vapour pressure ⩾10Pa) for inhalation exposure estimates. The examples demonstrate that care must be taken when changing critical defaults in order to retain conservative estimates of consumer exposure to chemicals.

  14. Assessment of Suited Reach Envelope in an Underwater Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han; Benson, Elizabeth; Bernal, Yaritza; Jarvis, Sarah; Meginnis, Ian; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Predicting the performance of a crewmember in an extravehicular activity (EVA) space suit presents unique challenges. The kinematic patterns of suited motions are difficult to reproduce in gravity. Additionally, 3-D suited kinematics have been practically and technically difficult to quantify in an underwater environment, in which crewmembers are commonly trained and assessed for performance. The goal of this study is to develop a hardware and software system to predictively evaluate the kinematic mobility of suited crewmembers, by measuring the 3-D reach envelope of the suit in an underwater environment. This work is ultimately aimed at developing quantitative metrics to compare the mobility of the existing Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) to newly developed space suit, such as the Z-2. The EMU has been extensively used at NASA since 1981 for EVA outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The Z-2 suit is NASA's newest prototype space suit. The suit is comprised of new upper torso and lower torso architectures, which were designed to improve test subject mobility.

  15. Reaching the Students: A New Approach to Enhancing Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, B. J.; Burnham, C. C.

    2002-05-01

    Most NSF supported programs directed at improving science literacy among university students who are not majoring in SMET normally target instruction in introductory science or math classes. Unfortunately these efforts seldom reach the vast majority of students at a university because students can fulfil their science requirement by taking several other classes or class sections that are not impacted by the NSF program. Ideally it would be desirable to address the issues of science literacy and science anxiety among non-science majors in a single class that is required of essentially all undergraduates. We describe such a program which is being tested at NMSU. The targeted class is the university's freshman level English class. The idea behind this effort is to provide students with the skills they will need to be successful in their science classes in a less threatening humanities environment. We describe the problems that this approach raises, suggest solutions to these problems, and then discuss the overall status of this effort.

  16. [How do Prevention Projects Reach their Target Groups? Results of a Survey with Prevention Projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I

    2015-12-01

     The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.  A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored.  38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy.  The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Communication: The highest frequency hydrogen bond vibration and an experimental value for the dissociation energy of formic acid dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollipost, F.; Larsen, René Wugt; Domanskaya, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    . Comparison to earlier studies at room temperature reveals the large influence of thermal excitation on the band maximum. Together with three Bu combination states involving hydrogen bond fundamentals and with recent progress for the Raman-active modes, this brings into reach an accurate statistical...

  18. Should these potential CMR substances have been registered under REACH?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev; Dybdahl, Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    (Q)SAR models were applied to screen around 68,000 REACH pre-registered substances for CMR properties (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction). Predictions from 14 relevant models were combined to reach overall calls for C, M and R. Combining predictions may reduce “noise” and increase...

  19. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode controlled systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Singh; K E Holé

    2004-02-01

    Conventionally, the parameters of a sliding mode controller (SMC) are selected so as to reduce the time spent in the reaching mode. Although, an upper bound on the time to reach (reaching time) the sliding surface is easily derived, performance guarantee in the state/error space needs more consideration. This paper addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order nonlinear systems. It is shown that this controller imposes a bounding second-order error-dynamics, and thus guarantees robust performance during the reaching phase. The choice of the controller parameters based on the time to reach a desirable level of output tracking error (OTE), rather than on the reaching time is proposed. Using the Lyapunov theory, it is shown that parameter selections, based on the reaching time criterion, may need substantially larger time to achieve the OTE. Simulation results are presented for a nonlinear spring-massdamper system. It is seen that parameter selections based on the proposed OTE criterion, result in substantially quicker tracking, while using similar levels of control effort.

  20. Trends in AIDS Deaths, New Infections and ART Coverage in the Top 30 Countries with the Highest AIDS Mortality Burden; 1990–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Hersh, Bradley; Williams, Brian; Montaner, Julio; Young, Benjamin; Zuniga, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, mortality and transmission. We assess the impact of expanded HIV treatment for the prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and simulate four treatment scenarios for Nigeria and South Africa. Methods For 1990–2013, we used the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) database to examine trends in AIDS deaths, HIV incidence and prevalence, ART coverage, annual AIDS death rate, AIDS death-to-treatment and HIV infections to treatment ratios for the top 30 countries with the highest AIDS mortality burden and compare them with data from high-income countries. We projected the 1990–2020 AIDS deaths for Nigeria and South Africa using four treatment scenarios: 1) no ART; 2) maintaining current ART coverage; 3) 90% ART coverage based on 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines by 2020; and 4) reaching the United Nations 90-90-90 Target by 2020. Findings In 2013, there were 1.3 million (1.1 million–1.6 million) AIDS deaths in the top 30 countries representing 87% of global AIDS deaths. Eight countries accounted for 58% of the global AIDS deaths; Nigeria and South Africa accounted for 27% of global AIDS deaths. The highest death rates per 1000 people living with HIV were in Central African Republic (91), South Sudan (82), Côte d’Ivoire (75), Cameroon (72) and Chad (71), nearly 8–10 times higher than the high-income countries. ART access in 2013 has averted as estimated 1,051,354 and 422,448 deaths in South Africa and Nigeria, respectively. Increasing ART coverage in these two countries to meet the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 could avert 2.2 and 1.2 million deaths, respectively. Interpretation Over the past decade the expansion of access to ART averted millions of deaths. Reaching the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 will prevent additional morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Despite progress

  1. Direct measurements of the height of Ulugh Muztagh, reputedly the highest peak in the Kunlun, northern Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Peter; Bates, Robert H.; Burchfield, B. C.; Clinch, Nicholas B.; Minmin, Huang; K'uangyi, Liang; Schoening, Pete; Shuji, Wang; Ziyun, Zhao

    By using a Magnavox Geoceiver to measure a base elevation of one temporary benchmark, a Cubic Precision Uniranger to measure distances between this and two other temporary benchmarks, and a Kern (Model T-2) theodolite to measure angles among these sites and peaks in the Ulugh Muztagh area, we measure the elevation of Ulugh Muztagh and three neighboring peaks. Our measured height of 6985 ±7 m (1 σ) is very different from the widely accepted value of 7723 m obtained by Littledale in 1895 but is similar to that of 6973 m listed on some Chinese maps. This revised elevation indicates that Ulugh Muztagh is not the highest mountain outside of the Himalaya-Karakorum chain and may not be the highest in the Kunlun chain.

  2. An investigation of the neural circuits underlying reaching and reach-to-grasp movements: from planning to execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eBegliomini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental evidence suggests the existence of a sophisticated brain circuit specifically dedicated to reach-to-grasp planning and execution, both in human and non human primates (Castiello, 2005. Studies accomplished by means of neuroimaging techniques suggest the hypothesis of a dichotomy between a reach-to-grasp circuit, involving the intraparietal area (AIP, the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv - Castiello and Begliomini, 2008; Filimon, 2010 and a reaching circuit involving the medial intraparietal area (mIP and the Superior Parieto-Occipital Cortex (SPOC (Culham et al., 2006. However, the time course characterizing the involvement of these regions during the planning and execution of these two types of movements has yet to be delineated. A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study has been conducted, including reach-to grasp and reaching only movements, performed towards either a small or a large stimulus, and Finite Impulse Response model (FIR - Henson, 2003 was adopted to monitor activation patterns from stimulus onset for a time window of 10 seconds duration. Data analysis focused on brain regions belonging either to the reaching or to the grasping network, as suggested by Castiello & Begliomini (2008.Results suggest that reaching and grasping movements planning and execution might share a common brain network, providing further confirmation to the idea that the neural underpinnings of reaching and grasping may overlap in both spatial and temporal terms (Verhagen et al., 2013.

  3. Local character of the highest antiferromagnetic Ce-system CeTi{1-x}Sc{x} Ge

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The highest antiferromagnetic (AFM) temperature in Ce based compounds has been reported for CeScGe with Tn=47K, but its local or itinerant nature was not deeply investigated yet. In order to shed more light into this unusually high ordering temperature we have investigated structural, magnetic, transport and thermal properties of CeTi{1-x}Sc{x}Ge alloys within the range of stability of the CeScSi-type structure: 0.25

  4. Spinon basis for ($\\widehat{s}\\widehat{l}^{2}$)$_{k}$ integrable highest weight modules and new character formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Bouwknegt, P G; Schoutens, K; Bouwknegt, Peter; Ludwig, Andreas W W; Schoutens, Kareljan

    1995-01-01

    In this note we review the spinon basis for the integrable highest weight modules of sl2^ at levels k\\geq1, and give the corresponding character formula. We show that our spinon basis is intimately related to the basis proposed by Foda et al. in the principal gradation of the algebra. This gives rise to new identities for the q-dimensions of the integrable modules.

  5. The impact of REACH on classification for human health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, J; Bunke, D; Jenseit, W; Heidorn, C

    2014-11-01

    The REACH Regulation represents a major piece of chemical legislation in the EU and requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to assess the safety of their substances. The classification of substances for their hazards is one of the crucial elements in this process. We analysed the effect of REACH on classification for human health endpoints by comparing information from REACH registration dossiers with legally binding, harmonised classifications. The analysis included 142 chemicals produced at very high tonnages in the EU, the majority of which have already been assessed in the past. Of 20 substances lacking a harmonised classification, 12 chemicals were classified in REACH registration dossiers. More importantly, 37 substances with harmonised classifications for human health endpoints had stricter classifications in registration dossiers and 29 of these were classified for at least one additional endpoint not covered by the harmonised classification. Substance-specific analyses suggest that one third of these additional endpoints emerged from experimental studies performed to fulfil information requirements under REACH, while two thirds resulted from a new assessment of pre-REACH studies. We conclude that REACH leads to an improved hazard characterisation even for substances with a potentially good data basis.

  6. Interference of Different Types of Seats on Postural Control System during a Forward-Reaching Task in Individuals with Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho; Takara, Kelly; Metring, Nathalia Lopes; Reis, Julia Guimaraes; Cliquet, Alberto, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the influence of different types of wheelchair seats on paraplegic individuals' postural control using a maximum anterior reaching test. Balance evaluations during 50, 75, and 90% of each individual's maximum reach in the forward direction using two different cushions on seat (one foam and one gel) and a no-cushion condition…

  7. Investigating the highest melting temperature materials: A laser melting study of the TaC-HfC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillos-Barraza, Omar; Manara, Dario; Boboridis, K.; Watkins, Tyson; Grasso, Salvatore; Jayaseelan, Daniel D.; Konings, Rudy J. M.; Reece, Michael J.; Lee, William E.

    2016-12-01

    TaC, HfC and their solid solutions are promising candidate materials for thermal protection structures in hypersonic vehicles because of their very high melting temperatures (>4000 K) among other properties. The melting temperatures of slightly hypostoichiometric TaC, HfC and three solid solution compositions (Ta1‑xHfxC, with x = 0.8, 0.5 and 0.2) have long been identified as the highest known. In the current research, they were reassessed, for the first time in the last fifty years, using a laser heating technique. They were found to melt in the range of 4041–4232 K, with HfC having the highest and TaC the lowest. Spectral radiance of the hot samples was measured in situ, showing that the optical emissivity of these compounds plays a fundamental role in their heat balance. Independently, the results show that the melting point for HfC0.98, (4232 ± 84) K, is the highest recorded for any compound studied until now.

  8. Predictors of in vitro fertilization outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone levels ≥ 12 IU/L: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina N Huang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors predictive of outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels ≥ 12 IU/L on basal testing, undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF.A prospective cohort study was conducted at Stanford University Hospital in the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Center for 12 months. Women age 21 to 43 undergoing IVF with highest FSH levels on baseline testing were included. Donor/Recipient and frozen embryo cycles were excluded from this study. Prognostic factors evaluated in association with clinical pregnancy rates were type of infertility diagnosis and IVF stimulation parameters.The current study found that factors associated with clinical pregnancy were: increased number of mature follicles on the day of triggering, number of oocytes retrieved, number of Metaphase II oocytes if intracytoplasmic sperm injection was done, and number of embryos developed 24 hours after retrieval.Our findings suggest that it would be beneficial for women with increased FSH levels to attempt a cycle of IVF. Results of ovarian stimulation, especially embryo quantity appear to be the best predictors of IVF outcomes and those can only be obtained from a cycle of IVF. Therefore, increased basal FSH levels should not discourage women from attempting a cycle of IVF.

  9. 50 years sets with positive reach - a survey -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Thäle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to summarize results on various aspects of sets with positive reach, which are up to now not available in such a compact form. After recalling briefly the results before 1959, sets with positive reach and their associated curvature measures are introduced. We develop an integral and current representation of these curvature measures and show how the current representation helps to prove integralgeometric formulas, such as the principal kinematic formula. Also random sets with positive reach and random mosaics (or the more general random cell-complexes with general cell shape are considered.

  10. REACH Basics for Chinese Producers of Electric Household Appliances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dr.Klaus W.Mehl

    2008-01-01

    The following article explains the EU chemical regulation "REACH', explicates the requirements that Chinese producers are facing, and shows how they can fulfill the requirements and secure their access to the EU market. The consequences of failing to fulfill REACH requirements are given in REACH Article 5: No data, no market: ... substances ... in articles ... shall not be ... placed on the market unless they have been registered In other words: Without registration of chemicals Chinese producers of electric household appliances may loose their EU market.

  11. Highest Vaccine Uptake after School-Based Delivery - A County-Level Evaluation of the Implementation Strategies for HPV Catch-Up Vaccination in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moa Rehn

    Full Text Available The Swedish school-based vaccination programme offers HPV vaccine to girls born ≥1999 in 5-6th grade. In 2012, all counties introduced free-of-charge catch-up vaccination campaigns targeting girls born 1993-1998. Varying vaccine uptake in the catch-up group by December 2012 suggested that some implementation strategies were more successful than others. In order to inform future vaccination campaigns, we assessed the impact of different implementation strategies on the county-level catch-up vaccine uptake.We conducted an ecological study including all Swedish counties (n = 21, asking regional health offices about the information channels they used and where vaccination of the catch-up target group took place in their counties. The uptake of ≥1 dose by 30 September 2014 was estimated using data from the voluntary national vaccination register. We investigated associations between counties' catch-up vaccine uptake, information channels and vaccination settings by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using negative binomial regression models.County level catch-up vaccine uptake varied between 49-84%. All counties offered vaccination through primary health care settings. Apart from this eight (34% also offered the vaccine in some of their schools, four (19% in all their schools, and two (10% in other health care centres. The information channels most frequently used were: information at the national on-line health care consulting web-page (100%, letter/invitations (90%, and advertisement (81%. Counties offering vaccination to girls in all schools and counties offering vaccination in some of their schools, reached higher vaccine uptake compared to counties not offering vaccination in any of their schools (all schools adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, some schools adjusted IRR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3.Counties offering HPV vaccination to catch-up groups in schools reached the highest vaccine uptake. No information

  12. Poor shape perception is the reason reaches-to-grasp are visually guided online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Lim; Crabtree, Charles E; Norman, J Farley; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2008-08-01

    Both judgment studies and studies of feedforward reaching have shown that the visual perception of object distance, size, and shape are inaccurate. However, feedback has been shown to calibrate feedfoward reaches-to-grasp to make them accurate with respect to object distance and size. We now investigate whether shape perception (in particular, the aspect ratio of object depth to width) can be calibrated in the context of reaches-to-grasp. We used cylindrical objects with elliptical cross-sections of varying eccentricity. Our participants reached to grasp the width or the depth of these objects with the index finger and thumb. The maximum grasp aperture and the terminal grasp aperture were used to evaluate perception. Both occur before the hand has contacted an object. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated whether perceived shape is recalibrated by distorted haptic feedback. Although somewhat equivocal, the results suggest that it is not. In Experiment 3, we tested the accuracy of feedforward grasping with respect to shape with haptic feedback to allow calibration. Grasping was inaccurate in ways comparable to findings in shape perception judgment studies. In Experiment 4, we hypothesized that online guidance is needed for accurate grasping. Participants reached to grasp either with or without vision of the hand. The result was that the former was accurate, whereas the latter was not. We conclude that shape perception is not calibrated by feedback from reaches-to-grasp and that online visual guidance is required for accurate grasping because shape perception is poor.

  13. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly effortless, we adjust our movements to continuously changing environments. After initiation of a goal-directed movement, the motor command is under constant control of sensory feedback loops. The main sensory signals contributing to movement control are vision and proprioception. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive feedback for online reaching control, and demonstrate that distinct cortical areas process proprioceptive-only and multi-sensory information for fast feedback corrections.

  14. The Substitution Principle within the REACH Regulation: Nuclear Receptor-Bound Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the REACH Regulation (EC/1907/2006, the substitution principle for chemicals classified as Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC for either human health or environmental risks has been implemented in order to support their replacement by suitable alternatives. Considering the thousands of chemicals to be tested within the frame of REACH, animal testing by internationally-accepted guidelines sounds unreasonable in terms of the required time, costs as well ethical issues. Hence, REACH recommended also the use of alternative methods to animal experimentation although no validated in silico or in vitro tools were available when regulation entried into force. To search for suitable alternatives to SVHC having an Endocrine Disruptor (ED-like Mode-of-Action (MoA by means of an integrated, tiered in silico-in vitro approach, the EU-granted project LIFE-EDESIA (contract no. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000633 is combining computational-based tools and cell-based bioassays, in order to develop a no-animal testing procedure to screen for chemicals having less or no toxicity in terms of endocrine disruption-like activities. A general view of the no-animal testing approach implementing REACH and the substitution principle will be given, emphasising ligand-nuclear receptor (NR assessment by molecular docking (one of the LIFE-EDESIA in silico approaches and the use of clinical biomarkers in in vitro toxicology to detect ED-like adverse effects in cell-based bioassays.

  15. How to Reach and Teach English Language Learners: Practical Strategies to Ensure Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrja, Rachel Carrillo

    2011-01-01

    This book provides practical strategies and tools for assessing and teaching even the most hard to reach English language learners across the content areas. Syrja offers educators the latest information on working with ELLs (including using formative assessments) and provides a wealth of classroom-tested models and measures. These tools have…

  16. A comparative survey of chemistry-driven in silico methods to identify hazardous substances under REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nendza, M.; Gabbert, S.G.M.; Kühne, R.; Lombardo, A.; Roncaglioni, A.; Benfenati, E.; Benigi, R.; Bossa, C.; Strempel, S.; Scheringer, M.; Fernandez, A.; Rallo, R.; Giralt, F.; Dimitrov, S.; Mekenyan, O.; Bringezu, F.; Schüürmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an inventory of in silico screening tools to identify substance properties of concern under the European chemicals’ legislation REACH. The objective is to support the selection and implementation of appropriate tools as building blocks within integrated testing strategies (ITS).

  17. Multimodal decoding and congruent sensory information enhance reaching performance in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Anna Corbett

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI paralyzes muscles of the hand and arm, making it difficult to perform activities of daily living. Restoring the ability to reach can dramatically improve quality of life for people with cervical SCI. Any reaching system requires a user interface to decode parameters of an intended reach, such as trajectory and target. A challenge in developing such decoders is that often few physiological signals related to the intended reach remain under voluntary control, especially in patients with high cervical injuries. Furthermore, the decoding problem changes when the user is controlling the motion of their limb, as opposed to an external device. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits of combining disparate signal sources to control reach in people with a range of impairments, and to consider the effect of two feedback approaches. Subjects with cervical SCI performed robot-assisted reaching, controlling trajectories with either shoulder electromyograms (EMGs or EMGs combined with gaze. We then evaluated how reaching performance was influenced by task-related sensory feedback, testing the EMG-only decoder in two conditions. The first involved moving the arm with the robot, providing congruent sensory feedback through their remaining sense of proprioception. In the second, the subjects moved the robot without the arm attached, as in applications that control external devices. We found that the multimodal decoding algorithm worked well for all subjects, enabling them to perform straight, accurate reaches. The inclusion of gaze information, used to estimate target location, was especially important for the most impaired subjects. In the absence of gaze information, congruent sensory feedback improved performance. These results highlight the importance of proprioceptive feedback, and suggest that multi-modal decoders are likely to be most beneficial for highly impaired subjects and in tasks where such

  18. Reaching and Teaching: A Study in Audience Targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ellen M.; Welch, Diane T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project conducted by the Texas Agricultural Extension Service to market the Family Day Home Care Providers Program to an unknown clientele. Discusses the problems involved in identifying and reaching the target audience. (JOW)

  19. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - North Coast [ds63

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The shapefile is based on habitat unit level data summarized at the stream reach level. The database represents salmonid stream habitat surveys from 645 streams of...

  20. Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Helping the Library Reach Out to the Future Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Encouraging future medical researchers: (l-r) NLM Director Dr. Donald ...

  1. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye (Secale cereale), among...

  2. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Waterbodies (polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the POLYGON waterbody features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes...

  3. Reach tracking reveals dissociable processes underlying cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Christopher D; Moher, Jeff; Sobel, David M; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-07-01

    The current study uses reach tracking to investigate how cognitive control is implemented during online performance of the Stroop task (Experiment 1) and the Eriksen flanker task (Experiment 2). We demonstrate that two of the measures afforded by reach tracking, initiation time and reach curvature, capture distinct patterns of effects that have been linked to dissociable processes underlying cognitive control in electrophysiology and functional neuroimaging research. Our results suggest that initiation time reflects a response threshold adjustment process involving the inhibition of motor output, while reach curvature reflects the degree of co-activation between response alternatives registered by a monitoring process over the course of a trial. In addition to shedding new light on fundamental questions concerning how these processes contribute to the cognitive control of behavior, these results present a framework for future research to investigate how these processes function across different tasks, develop across the lifespan, and differ among individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Birth Defects from Zika More Far-Reaching Than Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162538.html Birth Defects From Zika More Far-Reaching Than Thought Studies found greater ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika's ability to damage the infant brain may be ...

  5. Monitoring Weather Station Fire Rehabilitation Treatments: Hanford Reach National Monument

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Weather Station Fire (July, 2005) burned across 4,918 acres in the Saddle Mountain Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument, which included parts of the...

  6. PNW River Reach Files -- 1:100k Watercourses (arcs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This feature class includes the ARC features from the 2001 version of the PNW River Reach files Arc/INFO coverage. Separate, companion feature classes are also...

  7. Optical technologies in extended-reach access networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Elaine; Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2009-01-01

    The merging of access and metro networks has been proposed as a solution to lower the unit cost of customer bandwidth. This paper reviews some of the recent advances and challenges in extended-reach optical access networks....

  8. Hanford Reach - Strategic Control of Phragmites Within Saddle Mountain Lakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Saddle Lakes Fire of 2015 burned 14,200 acres of habitat on Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge, part of the Hanford Reach National Monument. Within the...

  9. Hanford Reach - Snively Basin Rye Field Rehabilitation 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Snively Basin area of the Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) within the Hanford Reach National Monument was historically used to farm cereal rye, among other...

  10. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-06-14

    Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience auditory hallucinations. Women, people

  11. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging Web-based social media as a method of engaging people who experience auditory hallucinations and to evaluate their attitudes toward using social media platforms as a resource for Web-based support and technology-based treatment. Methods We used Facebook advertisements to recruit individuals who experience auditory hallucinations to complete an 18-item Web-based survey focused on issues related to auditory hallucinations and technology use in American adults. We systematically tested multiple elements of the advertisement and survey layout including image selection, survey pagination, question ordering, and advertising targeting strategy. Each element was evaluated sequentially and the most cost-effective strategy was implemented in the subsequent steps, eventually deriving an optimized approach. Three open-ended question responses were analyzed using conventional inductive content analysis. Coded responses were quantified into binary codes, and frequencies were then calculated. Results Recruitment netted N=264 total sample over a 6-week period. Ninety-seven participants fully completed all measures at a total cost of $8.14 per participant across testing phases. Systematic adjustments to advertisement design, survey layout, and targeting strategies improved data quality and cost efficiency. People were willing to provide information on what triggered their auditory hallucinations along with strategies they use to cope, as well as provide suggestions to others who experience

  12. Highest volcanoes on terrestrial planets and dwarf-planets adorn the deepest depressions of their respective bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    Four highest volcanoes of the inner solar system tower above four largest and deepest hemispheric depressions of the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Vesta. Of course, this is not a mere coincidence; behind of this fundamental fact stays an equally fundamental planetary regulation. The wave planetology based on elliptical keplerian orbits of cosmic bodies evoking their wave warping shows that the fundamental wave 1 inevitably produces hemispheric tectonic dichotomy. One hemisphere rises, the opposite falls. The uprising half increases its planetary radius and space and thus is intensively cut by numerous faults and rifts. The antipodean subsiding half decreases its radius and space and thus is intensively compacted and affected by folds and faults. Forming extra material finds its way out in form of volcanic ridges and volcanoes. The strongest compaction caused by the wave 1 subsidence produces most voluminous eruptions. That is why the relation exists between the largest and deepest hemispheric basins and the highest basic volcanoes having mantle roots [1-4]. On the Earth's Pacific Ocean floor stay the Hawaiian volcanoes; on the lunar Procellarum Ocean occurs Crater Copernicus (erroneously taken as an impact feature); Martian Vastitas Borealis is adorned with Olympus Mons; Vestan Reasilvia Basin (obviously tectonic not impact feature) has the central mountain -the highest volcanic peak in the Solar system (Fig. 1-4). A regular row of increasing heights of these largest volcanoes extends in the outward direction. A study of the dwarf-planet Ceres only begins(DAWN project). Already the first distant images of this globe about 950 km in diameter have shown that it is, as was predicted [5], tectonically two-faced or dichotomous body (Fig. 5, 6). It seems that on its relatively even subsided hemisphere there are some elevated locations often bright white in color (Fig. 6). They could represent prominent "edifices" covered with frozen ices -degassing traces [6].

  13. New solutions of the hamiltonian and diffeomorphism constraints of quantum gravity from a highest weight loop representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, V.; Navarro-Salas, J.

    1991-04-01

    We introduce a highest weight type representation of the Rovelli-Smolin algebra of loop observables for quantum gravity. In terms of this representation, new solutions of the hamiltonian and diffeomorphism constraints are given. Assuming the locality of the quantum hamiltonian constraint we show that any functional depending on the generalized link class of the disjoint union of arbitrary simple loops is a solution. Finally we argue that this is the general solution in the irreducible representation space. On leave of absence from the Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia, and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia - CSIC, Burjassot, Spain.

  14. Diabetes mellitus: The long way of standardization of HbA1c to the level of highest metrological order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c measurements are used in clinical studies and for the management of diabetic patients. Various efforts were made to standardize the HbA1c measurements with consensus standards and standards based on a reference measurement procedure with external calibration. According to ISO 17511 a standard should meet highest accuracy possible, have a defined uncertainty of measurement and the calibration should be traceable to SI units. For HbA1c this has been realized using a LC-ID-MS procedure based on the existing reference measurement procedure.

  15. Diagnosis of brain death: confirmatory tests after clinical test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yingying; Yang Qinglin; Liu Gang; Zhang Yan; Ye Hong; Gao Daiquan; Zhang Yunzhou

    2014-01-01

    Background The brain death confirmation tests occupy a different position in each country's diagnostic criteria (or guideline); the choices of tests are also different.China brain death criteria include clinical judgment and confirmation tests.This study aimed to confirm the preferred confirmatory test and complementary confirmatory tests.Methods We did a clinical brain death determination on deep coma patients,and then divided them into brain death group and non-brain death group.According to the Chinese standards for determining brain death,both the groups accepted confirmatory tests including electroencephalograph (EEG),somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP),and transcranial Doppler (TCD).The sensitivity,specificity,false positive rate,and false negative rate were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the confirmatory tests.Results Among the 131 cases of patients,103 patients met the clinical criteria of brain death.Respiratory arrest provocation test was performed on 44 cases and 32 cases (73%) successfully completed and confirmed that they have no spontaneous breathing.Of the three confirmation tests,EEG had the highest completion rate (98%) and good sensitivity (83%) and specificity (97%); TCD had followed completion rate (54%) and not good sensitivity (73%) and specificity (75%); SEP had the lowest completion rate (49%),good sensitivity (100%),and not good specificity (78%).After the combination of SEP or TCD with EEG,the specificity can increase to 100%.Conclusions The completion rate of respiratory arrest provocation test remains a problem in the clinical diagnosis of brain death.If the test cannot be completed,whether to increase a confirmatory test is debatable.SEP had an ideal sensitivity,and the specificity will reach 100% after combining with TCD or EEG.When a confirmed test was uncertain,we suggest increasing another confirmatory test.

  16. Opportunities-to-Learn at Home: Profiles of Students With and Without Reaching Science Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Whitford, Melinda

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between opportunity-to-learn (OTL) at home and students' attainment of science proficiency. The data set used was the 2006 PISA science US national sample. Data mining was used to create patterns of association between home OTL variables and student attainment of science proficiency. It was found that students who failed to reach science proficiency are characterized by having fewer than 100 books at home; these students are also found to take out-of-school individual or group lessons with their teachers or with other teachers. On the other hands, students who reached science proficiency are characterized by having more than 100 books at home, not taking any out-of-school lessons, and having a highest parent level of graduate education. In addition to the above common characteristics, other home characteristics (e.g. computer and internet at home and language spoke at home) are also identified in profiles of students who have reached science proficiency. We explain the above findings in terms of current social-cultural theories. We finally discuss implications of the above findings for future studies and for improving science education policy and practice.

  17. Memory-guided reaching in a patient with visual hemiagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Sonja; Rennig, Johannes; Himmelbach, Marc

    2016-06-01

    The two-visual-systems hypothesis (TVSH) postulates that memory-guided movements rely on intact functions of the ventral stream. Its particular importance for memory-guided actions was initially inferred from behavioral dissociations in the well-known patient DF. Despite of rather accurate reaching and grasping movements to visible targets, she demonstrated grossly impaired memory-guided grasping as much as impaired memory-guided reaching. These dissociations were later complemented by apparently reversed dissociations in patients with dorsal damage and optic ataxia. However, grasping studies in DF and optic ataxia patients differed with respect to the retinotopic position of target objects, questioning the interpretation of the respective findings as a double dissociation. In contrast, the findings for reaching errors in both types of patients came from similar peripheral target presentations. However, new data on brain structural changes and visuomotor deficits in DF also questioned the validity of a double dissociation in reaching. A severe visuospatial short-term memory deficit in DF further questioned the specificity of her memory-guided reaching deficit. Therefore, we compared movement accuracy in visually-guided and memory-guided reaching in a new patient who suffered a confined unilateral damage to the ventral visual system due to stroke. Our results indeed support previous descriptions of memory-guided movements' inaccuracies in DF. Furthermore, our data suggest that recently discovered optic-ataxia like misreaching in DF is most likely caused by her parieto-occipital and not by her ventral stream damage. Finally, multiple visuospatial memory measurements in HWS suggest that inaccuracies in memory-guided reaching tasks in patients with ventral damage cannot be explained by visuospatial short-term memory or perceptual deficits, but by a specific deficit in visuomotor processing.

  18. 'Reaching the hard to reach' - lessons learned from the VCS (voluntary and community Sector. A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Beverley

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The notion 'hard to reach' is a contested and ambiguous term that is commonly used within the spheres of social care and health, especially in discourse around health and social inequalities. There is a need to address health inequalities and to engage in services the marginalized and socially excluded sectors of society. Methods This paper describes a pilot study involving interviews with representatives from eight Voluntary and Community Sector (VCS organisations. The purpose of the study was to explore the notion of 'hard to reach' and perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to accessing services for 'hard to reach' groups from a voluntary and community sector perspective. Results The 'hard to reach' may include drug users, people living with HIV, people from sexual minority communities, asylum seekers, refugees, people from black and ethnic minority communities, and homeless people although defining the notion of the 'hard to reach' is not straight forward. It may be that certain groups resist engaging in treatment services and are deemed hard to reach by a particular service or from a societal stance. There are a number of potential barriers for people who may try and access services, including people having bad experiences in the past; location and opening times of services and how services are funded and managed. A number of areas of commonality are found in terms of how access to services for 'hard to reach' individuals and groups could be improved including: respectful treatment of service users, establishing trust with service users, offering service flexibility, partnership working with other organisations and harnessing service user involvement. Conclusions If health services are to engage with groups that are deemed 'hard to reach' and marginalised from mainstream health services, the experiences and practices for engagement from within the VCS may serve as useful lessons for service improvement for

  19. The Idea of a Highest Divine Principle — Founding Reason and Spirituality. A Necessary Concept of a Comparative Philosophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bickmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By reference to the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Neo-Platonic philosophical traditions (and then to German Idealism, including Husserl and Heidegger, I will indicate the way in which the concept of reason—on the one side—depends on the horizon of spirituality (by searching for the ultimate ground within us and the striving for the highest good; and inversely—how far the idea of the divine or our spiritual self may be deepened, understood and transmitted by reference to reason and rationality. But whereas philosophical analysis aims at the universal dimensions of spirituality or the divine (as in Plato's idea of the 'highest good', the Aristotelian 'Absolute substance', the 'Oneness of the One' (Plotinus and the Neo-Platonists or the Hegelian 'Absolute spirit',—Comparative Theology may preserve the dimension of spirituality or divinity in its individuality and specifity. Comparative Theology mediates between the universality of the philosophical discourse and the uniqueness of our individual experience (symbolized by a sacred person—such as Jesus, Brahman, Buddha or Mohammed by reflecting and analyzing our religious experiences and practices. Religion may lose its specificity by comparative conceptual analysis within the field of philosophy, but Comparative Theology may enhance the vital dimensions of the very same spiritual experience by placing them in a comparative perspective.

  20. Single Performance Optimization of Micro Metal Injection Molding for the Highest Green Strength by Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.I Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro metal injection molding is drawing attention recently as one the most cost effective processes in powder metallurgy to produce small-scale intricate part and competitive cost for mass production of micro components where it is greatly influenced by injection parameter. Thus, this paper investigated the optimization of highest green strength which plays an important characteristic in determining the successful of micro MIM. Stainless steel SS 316L was used with composite binder, which consists of PEG and PMMA while SA works as a surfactant. Feedstock with 61.5% with several injection parameters were optimized which highly significant through screening experiment such as injection pressure(A, injection temperature(B, mold temperature(C, injection time(D and holding time(E. Besides that, interaction effects between injection pressure, injection temperature and mold temperature were also considered to optimize in the Taguchi’s orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N-larger is better for green strength was also presented in this paper. Result shows that interaction between injection temperature and mold temperature (BxC give highest significant factor followed by interaction between injection pressure and injection temperature (AxB. Single factor that also contributes to significant optimization are mold temperature(C, injection time (D and injection pressure (A. Overall, this study shows that Taguchi method would be among the best method to solve the problem with minimum number of trials.

  1. Concepts within reach: Action performance predicts action language processing in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rutvik H; Herter, Troy; Riccardi, Nicholas; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between the brain's conceptual or semantic and sensory-motor systems remains controversial. Here, we tested manual and conceptual abilities of 41 chronic stroke patients in order to examine their relationship. Manual abilities were assed through a reaching task using an exoskeleton robot. Semantic abilities were assessed with implicit as well as explicit semantic tasks, for both verbs and nouns. The results show that that the degree of selective impairment for action word processing was predicted by the degree of impairment in reaching performance. Moreover, the implicit semantic measures showed a correlation with a global reaching parameter, while the explicit semantic similarity judgment task predicted performance in action initiation. These results suggest that action concepts are dynamically grounded through motoric simulations, and that more details are simulated for more explicit semantic tasks. This is evidence for a close and causal relationship between sensory-motor and conceptual systems of the brain.

  2. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Chang, Gia-Hsin; Tsao, Min-Jen

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced propriospinal excitation from hand muscles to wrist flexors during reach-to-grasp in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Burke, David; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    In humans, propriospinal neurons located at midcervical levels receive peripheral and corticospinal inputs and probably participate in the control of grip tasks, but their role in reaching movements, as observed in cats and primates, is still an open question. The effect of ulnar nerve stimulation on flexor carpi radialis (FCR) motor evoked potential (MEP) was tested during reaching tasks and tonic wrist flexion. Significant MEP facilitation was observed at the end of reach during reach-to-grasp but not during grasp, reach-to-point, or tonic contractions. MEP facilitation occurred at a longer interstimulus interval than expected for convergence of corticospinal and afferent volleys at motoneuron level and was not paralleled by a change in the H-reflex. These findings suggest convergence of the two volleys at propriospinal level. Ulnar-induced MEP facilitation was observed when conditioning stimuli were at 0.75 motor response threshold (MT), but not 1 MT. This favors an increased excitability of propriospinal neurons rather than depression of their feedback inhibition, as has been observed during tonic power grip tasks. It is suggested that the ulnar-induced facilitation of FCR MEP during reach may be due to descending activation of propriospinal neurons, assisting the early recruitment of large motoneurons for rapid movement. Because the feedback inhibitory control is still open, this excitation can be truncated by cutaneous inputs from the palmar side of the hand during grasp, thus assisting movement termination. It is concluded that the feedforward activation of propriospinal neurons and their feedback control may be involved in the internal model, motor planning, and online adjustments for reach-to-grasp movements in humans.

  4. Opposed optimal strategies of weighting somatosensory inputs for planning reaching movements toward visual and proprioceptive targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Jean; Saradjian, Anahid H; Lebar, Nicolas; Guillaume, Alain; Mouchnino, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral studies have suggested that the brain uses a visual estimate of the hand to plan reaching movements toward visual targets and somatosensory inputs in the case of somatosensory targets. However, neural correlates for distinct coding of the hand according to the sensory modality of the target have not yet been identified. Here we tested the twofold hypothesis that the somatosensory input from the reaching hand is facilitated and inhibited, respectively, when planning movements toward somatosensory (unseen fingers) or visual targets. The weight of the somatosensory inputs was assessed by measuring the amplitude of the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) resulting from vibration of the reaching finger during movement planning. The target sensory modality had no significant effect on SEP amplitude. However, Spearman's analyses showed significant correlations between the SEPs and reaching errors. When planning movements toward proprioceptive targets without visual feedback of the reaching hand, participants showing the greater SEPs were those who produced the smaller directional errors. Inversely, participants showing the smaller SEPs when planning movements toward visual targets with visual feedback of the reaching hand were those who produced the smaller directional errors. No significant correlation was found between the SEPs and radial or amplitude errors. Our results indicate that the sensory strategy for planning movements is highly flexible among individuals and also for a given sensory context. Most importantly, they provide neural bases for the suggestion that optimization of movement planning requires the target and the reaching hand to both be represented in the same sensory modality. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Stability of Phase Relationships While Coordinating Arm Reaches with Whole Body Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy S Bakker

    Full Text Available The human movement repertoire is characterized by the smooth coordination of several body parts, including arm movements and whole body motion. The neural control of this coordination is quite complex because the various body parts have their own kinematic and dynamic properties. Behavioral inferences about the neural solution to the coordination problem could be obtained by examining the emerging phase relationship and its stability. Here, we studied the phase relationships that characterize the coordination of arm-reaching movements with passively-induced whole-body motion. Participants were laterally translated using a vestibular chair that oscillated at a fixed frequency of 0.83 Hz. They were instructed to reach between two targets that were aligned either parallel or orthogonal to the whole body motion. During the first cycles of body motion, a metronome entrained either an in-phase or an anti-phase relationship between hand and body motion, which was released at later cycles to test phase stability. Results suggest that inertial forces play an important role when coordinating reaches with cyclic whole-body motion. For parallel reaches, we found a stable in-phase and an unstable anti-phase relationship. When the latter was imposed, it readily transitioned or drifted back toward an in-phase relationship at cycles without metronomic entrainment. For orthogonal reaches, we did not find a clear difference in stability between in-phase and anti-phase relationships. Computer simulations further show that cost models that minimize energy expenditure (i.e. net torques or endpoint variance of the reach cannot fully explain the observed coordination patterns. We discuss how predictive control and impedance control processes could be considered important mechanisms underlying the rhythmic coordination of arm reaches and body motion.

  6. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domellöf, Erik; Barbu-Roth, Marianne; Rönnqvist, Louise; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Fagard, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated manual performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored object-oriented behavioral strategies and side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left and right). Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and hand opening prior to grasping. Additionally, assessments of hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings regarding infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal path. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  7. Spatial task context makes short-latency reaches prone to induced Roelofs illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh eTaghizadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual localization of an object is often more prone to illusions than an immediate visuomotor action towards that object. The induced Roelofs effect (IRE probes the illusory influence of task-irrelevant visual contextual stimuli on the processing of task-relevant visuospatial instructions during movement preparation. In the IRE, the position of a task-irrelevant visual object induces a shift in the localization of a visual target when subjects indicate the position of the target by verbal response, key-presses or delayed pointing to the target (‘perception’ tasks, but not when immediately pointing or reaching towards it without instructed delay (‘action’ tasks. This discrepancy was taken as evidence for the dual-visual-stream or perception-action hypothesis, but was later explained by a phasic distortion of the egocentric spatial reference frame which is centered on subjective straight-ahead and used for reach planning. Both explanations critically depend on delayed movements to explain the IRE for action tasks. Here we ask: first, if the IRE can be observed for short-latency reaches; second, if the IRE in fact depends on a distorted egocentric frame of reference. Human subjects were tested in new versions of the IRE task in which the reach goal had to be localized with respect to another object, i.e., in an allocentric reference frame. First, we found an IRE even for immediate reaches in our allocentric task, but not for an otherwise similar egocentric control task. Second, the IRE depended on the position of the task-irrelevant frame relative to the reference object, not relative to subjective straight-ahead. We conclude that the IRE for reaching does not mandatorily depend on prolonged response delays, nor does it depend on motor planning in an egocentric reference frame. Instead, allocentric encoding of a movement goal is sufficient to make immediate reaches susceptible to IRE, underlining the context dependence of

  8. Infant manual performance during reaching and grasping for objects moving in depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eDomellöf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have observed investigated manual asymmetries performance in infants when reaching and grasping for objects moving in directions other than across the fronto-parallel plane. The present preliminary study explored manual object-oriented behavioral strategies and hand side preference in 8- and 10-month-old infants during reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth from three positions (midline, and 27° diagonally from the left, and right, midline. Effects of task constraint by using objects of three different types and two sizes were further examined for behavioral strategies and . The study also involved measurements of hand position opening prior to grasping., and Additionally, assessments of general hand preference by a dedicated handedness test were performed. Regardless of object starting position, the 8-month-old infants predominantly displayed right-handed reaches for objects approaching in depth. In contrast, the older infants showed more varied strategies and performed more ipsilateral reaches in correspondence with the side of the approaching object. Conversely, 10-month-old infants were more successful than the younger infants in grasping the objects, independent of object starting position. The findings support the possibility of a shared underlying mechanism regarding for infant hand use strategies when reaching and grasping for horizontally objects moving in depth are similar to those from earlier studies using objects moving along a horizontal pathand vertically moving objects. Still, initiation times of reaching onset were generally long in the present study, indicating that the object motion paths seemingly affected how the infants perceived the intrinsic properties and spatial locations of the objects, possibly with an effect on motor planning. Findings are further discussed in relation to future investigations of infant reaching and grasping for objects approaching in depth.

  9. 论书法艺术创作的最高境界%The Highest State of Art Calligraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张巨纲

    2011-01-01

    对于书法艺术创作人们都想要达到最高境界,这种境界便是无我(忘我)之境。但这需要一个象禅家由疑而参,参而了悟,方上"自立门户:能进入彻悟之境。尤其是急躁的现代艺术家,急功近利的心态使他们急于想在艺术语言书法艺术的创作与",这无可厚非。但要在艺术上真正"自立门户"却绝非易事。只有艺术家经过"脱胎换骨"的渐修而顿悟艺道之妙,才能由技进于道之后返归于朴的最高境界,达到书法艺术创造的最高境界——"无我(忘我)之境"。%People of calligraphy art all want to achieve the highest level,this realm is without me(ecstasy) of the environment.But this requires a Zen home by the suspect and as ginseng,ginseng and awareness,on the side "live on their own: to enter a deep understanding of the environment,especially impatient of modern artists,a quick profit so that they are anxious to language in art creation and art of calligraphy",this is understandable.But the art really want to" live on their own " is not easy.Only the artist through the "reborn" in gradual and wonderful epiphany arts Road to the technological progress in park road,after the return attributed to the highest level,to create the highest state of the art of calligraphy-"No I(ecstasy) of the environment.

  10. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    The accomplishment of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual...... fulfil one or more of the criteria (e.g. CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (authorisation). The paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results of the actual substitutions. Keywords: REACH, chemicals, substitution, printing industry....

  11. Child immunization coverage in rural hard-to-reach Haor areas of Bangladesh: possible alternative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Jasim; Larson, Charles P; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Khan, Azharul Islam; Quaiyum, Md Abdul; Chandra Saha, Nirod

    2009-01-01

    This article assessed the status of childhood vaccination coverage and the possibility of using selected alternative vaccination strategies in rural hard-to-reach haor (low lying) areas of Bangladesh. Data were collected through survey, in-depth interviews, group discussion, and observations of vaccination sessions. Complete immunization coverage among 12- to 23-month-old children was found to be significantly lower in study areas when compared with the national coverage levels. The study identified reasons for low complete immunization coverage in hard-to-reach areas, including irregular/cancelled extended program on immunization (EPI) sessions, less time spent in EPI spots by field staff, and absence of any alternative strategy for remote areas. The findings indicated that the existing service delivery strategy is not sufficient to improve immunization coverage in hard-to-reach areas. However, most of the strategies assessed are considered possible to implement by health care providers in hard-to-reach areas. The study suggested that before implementing alternative strategies in hard-to-reach areas, feasibility and effectiveness of the possible strategies need to be tested to identify evidence-based strategies.

  12. Integration of QSAR models for bioconcentration suitable for REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gissi, Andrea [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Dipartimento di Farmacia — Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Nicolotti, Orazio; Carotti, Angelo; Gadaleta, Domenico [Dipartimento di Farmacia — Scienze del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Bari “Aldo Moro”, via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Lombardo, Anna [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio, E-mail: benfenati@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) models can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce animal test required by REACH. In particular, some endpoints such as bioconcentration factor (BCF) are easier to predict and many useful models have been already developed. In this paper we describe how to integrate two popular BCF models to obtain more reliable predictions. In particular, the herein presented integrated model relies on the predictions of two among the most used BCF models (CAESAR and Meylan), together with the Applicability Domain Index (ADI) provided by the software VEGA. Using a set of simple rules, the integrated model selects the most reliable and conservative predictions and discards possible outliers. In this way, for the prediction of the 851 compounds included in the ANTARES BCF dataset, the integrated model discloses a R{sup 2} (coefficient of determination) of 0.80, a RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 0.61 log units and a sensitivity of 76%, with a considerable improvement in respect to the CAESAR (R{sup 2} = 0.63; RMSE = 0.84 log units; sensitivity 55%) and Meylan (R{sup 2} = 0.66; RMSE = 0.77 log units; sensitivity 65%) without discarding too many predictions (118 out of 851). Importantly, considering solely the compounds within the new integrated ADI, the R{sup 2} increased to 0.92, and the sensitivity to 85%, with a RMSE of 0.44 log units. Finally, the use of properly set safety thresholds applied for monitoring the so called “suspicious” compounds, which are those chemicals predicted in proximity of the border normally accepted to discern non-bioaccumulative from bioaccumulative substances, permitted to obtain an integrated model with sensitivity equal to 100%. - Highlights: • Applying two independent QSAR models for bioconcentration factor increases the prediction. • The concordance of the models is an important component of the integration. • The measurement of the applicability domain improves the

  13. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezziddin Samer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 131I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci 131I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment.

  14. The highest achievements of Ukrainian powerlifting at international events during its origin and formation (1981-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to conduct a comparative analysis of performance of national teams in major international competitions in various stages of formation and development of the Ukrainian powerlifting. Material : analysis protocols World and European championships for men and women, juniors and juniors, boys and girls, the veterans. Results : the highest achievement systematized members of national teams of Ukraine. The data Ukrainian competitions for the period from 1989 to 2012. The largest number of participants recorded in 2001 (575 athletes. Oscillatory nature of the dynamics set number of wins Ukrainian athletes at different stages of development of the Ukrainian powerlifting. Noted that there are changes in the number pattern gold awards in conjunction with the number of participants of Ukrainian championships. Conclusion : experts recommend using the data analysis process of fundamental laws of modern development of the sport. Creatively to predict future trends and prospects in powerlifting.

  15. Tailoring the highest occupied molecular orbital level of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) hole transport layers in organic multilayer heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ran [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeong Jin; Hong, Young Joon, E-mail: shink@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: yjhong@sejong.ac.kr [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Hybrid Materials Research Center, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Sungjin; Shin, Koo, E-mail: shink@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: yjhong@sejong.ac.kr [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Sunae [Graphene Research Institute, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Won Kook [Materials and Life Science Research Division, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Hwarang-ro 14-gil, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-11

    We report the tailoring of the electronic structure of poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) using a mixture layer of polyaniline:poly(p-styrenesulfonic acid) (PANI:PSS) in organic multilayer PVK/PANI:PSS/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):PSS heterojunctions. The overall electronic structure of the PVK overlayer was systematically down-shifted while the work function of PANI:PSS increased as a function of the PSS-to-PANI weight ratio for the ratio range from 1 to 11 in the PANI:PSS film. The down-shift in the highest occupied molecular orbital of PVK markedly reduced the hole injection barrier from PVK to quantum-dot (QD) layers in QD-light emitting diode (QD-LED) structures, resulting in superior electrical and electroluminescent characteristics for QD-LEDs. The influences of PANI:PSS thickness on the electronic structure of PVK and the performance of QD-LEDs are also discussed.

  16. A Generalized KdV Equation of Neglecting the Highest-Order Infinitesimal Term and Its Exact Traveling Wave Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a generalized KdV equation of neglecting the highest order infinitesimal term, which is an important water wave model. Some exact traveling wave solutions such as singular solitary wave solutions, semiloop soliton solutions, dark soliton solutions, dark peakon solutions, dark loop-soliton solutions, broken loop-soliton solutions, broken wave solutions of U-form and C-form, periodic wave solutions of singular type, and broken wave solution of semiparabola form are obtained. By using mathematical software Maple, we show their profiles and discuss their dynamic properties. Investigating these properties, we find that the waveforms of some traveling wave solutions vary with changes of certain parameters.

  17. Impact of thermal frequency drift on highest precision force microscopy using quartz-based force sensors at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pielmeier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM the stability of the eigenfrequency of the force sensor is of key importance for highest precision force measurements. Here, we study the influence of temperature changes on the resonance frequency of force sensors made of quartz, in a temperature range from 4.8–48 K. The sensors are based on the qPlus and length extensional principle. The frequency variation with temperature T for all sensors is negative up to 30 K and on the order of 1 ppm/K, up to 13 K, where a distinct kink appears, it is linear. Furthermore, we characterize a new type of miniaturized qPlus sensor and confirm the theoretically predicted reduction in detector noise.

  18. Isolation and identification of a type strain bacteria with the highest ability to produce organophosphorus acid anhidrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Latifi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 5 Oct, 2008; Accepted 14 Feb, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: In Iran, Organ phosphorus pesticides such as chloropyrifos and diazinon are widely used in agriculture. These compounds inhibit activity of cholinesterase in nearly irreversible manner resulting in malfunction of nerve impulse transmission. This result in humans can produce illness or even death.Therefore, the present study aims to isolate various bacterial strains in specified contaminated regions. We selected one of the isolates that contain the highest OP-hydrolyzing capability for using such strain, in decontaminating environmentally harmful OP residues.Materials and methods: In this study, vast waters from chemical factories and contaminated agricultural soil samples were used for isolation of several bacterial strains that contain OPAA enzyme are capable of utilizing chloropyrifos and diazinon as a source of carbon and phosphorus by selective enrichment on mineral salt medium (MSM, which contains chloropyrifos or diazinon. One strain was selected for analysis of degradation ability with growth studies and HPLC technique and characterization by Bergey, s manual.Results: From vast water and soil, ten bacterial strains were isolated using chloropyrifos and diazinon as source of carbon and phosphorus. One of them named IHU strain4; grows most rapidly and luxuriously and displays the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, the bacterial isolate was identified as a member of the genus pseudomonas.Conclusion: From these findings, it can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain is able to utilize Organ phosphorus pesticides as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Utilization of these compounds by soil microorganisms is a crucial phenomenon by which these compounds are removed from the environment, thus, preventing environmental pollution.Results from the present study suggest that the isolated

  19. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  20. Reaching for the Horizon: Enabling 21st Century Antarctic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan-Finnemore, M.; Kennicutt, M. C., II; Kim, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programs' (COMNAP) Antarctic Roadmap Challenges(ARC) project translated the 80 highest priority Antarctic and Southern Ocean scientific questionsidentified by the community via the SCAR Antarctic Science Horizon Scan into the highest prioritytechnological, access, infrastructure and logistics needs to enable the necessary research to answer thequestions. A workshop assembled expert and experienced Antarctic scientists and National AntarcticProgram operators from around the globe to discern the highest priority technological needs includingthe current status of development and availability, where the technologies will be utilized in the Antarctic area, at what temporal scales and frequencies the technologies will be employed,and how broadly applicable the technologies are for answering the highest priority scientific questions.Secondly the logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were defined that are necessary todeliver the science in terms of feasibility including cost and benefit as determined by expected scientific return on investment. Finally, based on consideration of the science objectives and the mix oftechnologies implications for configuring National Antarctic Program logistics capabilities andinfrastructure architecture over the next 20 years were determined. In particular those elements thatwere either of a complexity, requiring long term investments to achieve and/or having an associated cost that realistically can only (or best) be achieved by international coordination, planning and partnerships were identified. Major trends (changes) in logistics, access, and infrastructure requirements were identified that allow for long-term strategic alignment of international capabilities, resources and capacity. The outcomes of this project will be reported.

  1. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sourc

  2. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  3. Reaching the Summit: Deaf Adults as Essential Partners in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne-Firl, Bridgetta

    2016-01-01

    How do we reach the summit in terms of supporting the best transition possible for each young deaf or hard of hearing individual in the United States? Should professionals who are hearing work alone to succeed with deaf and hard of hearing students? No matter how good the intention, if we want deaf and hard of hearing students to transition from…

  4. Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFord, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This brief by the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse is about reaching for the stars--stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools. Everyone knows of people who are held up as "visionaries" throughout history: Leonardo Da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, Jules Verne, Thomas Edison, Susan Anthony, or John Dewey, to name a few. The…

  5. Reaching a Moveable Visual Target: Dissociations in Brain Tumour Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiatti, Tania; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Damage to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) can lead to Optic Ataxia (OA), in which patients misreach to peripheral targets. Recent research suggested that the PPC might be involved not only in simple reaching tasks toward peripheral targets, but also in changing the hand movement trajectory in real time if the target moves. The present study…

  6. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  7. Reaching an understanding innovations in how we view reading assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Sabatini, John; O'Reilly, Tenaha

    2012-01-01

    Reaching an Understanding: Innovations in How We View Reading Assessment builds upon the editors previous book Measuring Up: Advances in How We Assess Reading Ability by representing some early attempts to apply theory to help guide the development of new assessments and measurement models.

  8. Advanced reach tool (ART) : Development of the mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fransman, W.; Tongeren, M. van; Cherrie, J.W.; Tischer, M.; Schneider, T.; Schinkel, J.; Kromhout, H.; Warren, N.; Goede, H.; Tielemans, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the mechanistic model within a collaborative project, referred to as the Advanced REACH Tool (ART) project, to develop a tool to model inhalation exposure for workers sharing similar operational conditions across different industries and locations in Europe. T

  9. Priming of Reach and Grasp Actions by Handled Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Bub, Daniel N.; Breuer, Andreas T.

    2011-01-01

    Pictures of handled objects such as a beer mug or frying pan are shown to prime speeded reach and grasp actions that are compatible with the object. To determine whether the evocation of motor affordances implied by this result is driven merely by the physical orientation of the object's handle as opposed to higher-level properties of the object,…

  10. Variation in reach-scale hydraulic conductivity of streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, M. J.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Pella, H.; Thommeret, N.; Valette, L.; Grant, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is an important control on flow within the hyporheic zone, affecting hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes essential to river ecosystem function. Despite many published field measurements, few empirical studies examine the drivers of spatial and temporal variations in streambed hydraulic conductivity. Reach-averaged hydraulic conductivity estimated for 119 surveys in 83 stream reaches across continental France, even of coarse bed streams, are shown to be characteristic of sand and finer sediments. This supports a model where processes leading to the accumulation of finer sediments within streambeds largely control hydraulic conductivity rather than the size of the coarse bed sediment fraction. After describing a conceptual model of relevant processes, we fit an empirical model relating hydraulic conductivity to candidate geomorphic and hydraulic drivers. The fitted model explains 72% of the deviance in hydraulic conductivity (and 30% using an external cross-validation). Reach hydraulic conductivity increases with the amplitude of bedforms within the reach, the bankfull channel width-depth ratio, stream power and upstream catchment erodibility but reduces with time since the last streambed disturbance. The correlation between hydraulic conductivity and time since a streambed mobilisation event is likely a consequence of clogging processes. Streams with a predominantly suspended load and less frequent streambed disturbances are expected to have a lower streambed hydraulic conductivity and reduced hyporheic fluxes. This study suggests a close link between streambed sediment transport dynamics and connectivity between surface water and the hyporheic zone.

  11. Postural control during reaching in preterm children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, JC; Begeer, C; Fock, JM; Otten, B; Stremmelaar, E; van Eykern, LA; Hadders-Algra, M

    2004-01-01

    Postural control during reaching with the dominant arm was assessed in 58 preterm children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 2 to 11 years, comprising 34 with spastic hemiplegia (17 males, 17 females) and 24 with bilateral spastic CP (bilateral CP; 15 male, 9 females). Assessments were made by multiple

  12. Perceiving Children's Behavior and Reaching Limits in a Risk Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordovil, Rita; Santos, Carlos; Barreiros, Joao

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of parents' perception of children's reaching limits in a risk scenario. A sample of 68 parents of 1- to 4-year-olds were asked to make a prior estimate of their children's behavior and action limits in a task that involved retrieving a toy out of the water. The action modes used for…

  13. LTRM Fish Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  14. Control of reaching movements by muscle synergy combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eD'avella

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Controlling the movement of the arm to achieve a goal, such as reaching for an object, is challenging because it requires coordinating many muscles acting on many joints. The central nervous system might simplify the control of reaching by directly mapping initial states and goals into muscle activations through the combination of muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation profiles. Here we review recent results from the analysis of reaching muscle patterns supporting such a control strategy. Muscle patterns for point-to-point movements can be reconstructed by the combination of a small number of time-varying muscle synergies, modulated in amplitude and timing according to movement directions and speeds. Moreover, the modulation and superposition of the synergies identified from point-to-point movements captures the muscle patterns underlying multi-phasic movements, such as reaching through a via-point or to a target whose location changes after movement initiation. Thus, the sequencing of time-varying muscle synergies might implement an intermittent controller which would allow the construction of complex movements from simple building blocks.

  15. The Internet and the Global Reach of EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuner, Christopher Barth

    , and fundamental rights. There are many examples of the EU exerting its global reach regarding the Internet, particularly in data protection law, but also in areas such as Internet governance, international agreements, and private international law. This occurs through a variety of mechanisms, including emulation...

  16. An Assessment of EU 2020 Strategy: Too Far to Reach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Mehmet Selman; Ege, Aylin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, EU adopted a new growth strategy which includes three growth priorities and five headline targets to be reached by 2020. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current performance of the EU member and candidate states in achieving these growth priorities and the overall strategy target by allocating the headline targets into the…

  17. Veterans Crisis Line: Videos About Reaching out for Help

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs and other organizations about reaching out for help. Bittersweet More Videos ... Health Administration I am A Veteran Family/Friend Active Duty/Reserve and Guard Signs of Crisis Identifying ...

  18. Development of postural adjustments during reaching in infants with CP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadders-Algra, M; van der Fits, IBM; Stremmelaar, EF; Touwen, BCL

    1999-01-01

    The development of postural adjustments during reaching movements was longitudinally studied in seven infants with cerebral palsy (CP) between 4 and 18 months of age. Five infants developed spastic hemiplegia, one spastic tetraplegia, and one spastic tetraplegia with athetosis. Each assessment consi

  19. Reaching a Representative Sample of College Students: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Gundersen, Daniel A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of a random-digit dial (RDD) cellular phone survey in order to reach a national and representative sample of college students. Methods: Demographic distributions from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey (NYAHS) were benchmarked against enrollment numbers from the Integrated Postsecondary Education…

  20. Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates from Rikers Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocsy, Agnes

    2017-01-01

    I report on the project ``Science Behind Bars: Reaching Inmates on Rikers Island'' partially funded through an APS Public Outreach and Informing the Public grant. This project involves developing leave-behind materials and setting up meetings to speak with Rikers Island inmates about science, evidence-based reasoning, and the dangers of stereotype threat. APS Mini Grant.

  1. Arctic sea ice reaches second lowest in satellite record

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xinhua reports that the blanket of sea ice that floats on the Arctic Ocean appears to have reached its lowest extent for 2011, the second lowest recorded since satellites began measuring it in 1979, according to a report released on September 15 by the University of Colorado Boulder's National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).

  2. LTRM Water Quality Sampling Strata, UMRS La Grange Reach

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set includes delineation of sampling strata for the six study reaches of the UMRR Program’s LTRM element. Separate strata coverages exist for each of the...

  3. Imaginative Play during Childhood: Required for Reaching Full Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2009-01-01

    At a brisk pace, research findings focused on children's play are finally reaching the light of day in popular media. No longer left sitting in archives of academic journals, the benefits of play to lifelong success have been touted in radio, television, magazines, and newspapers. It gives early childhood professionals a powerful, credible…

  4. Neuronal Correlates of Functional Coupling between Reach- and Grasp-Related Components of Muscle Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geed, Shashwati; McCurdy, Martha L.; van Kan, Peter L. E.

    2017-01-01

    Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand toward a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, Geed and Van Kan (2016) demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks. Importantly, transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components showed invariant spatiotemporal coupling, which provides a potential mechanism for coordinating forelimb muscles during reach-to-grasp movements. In the present study, we tested whether ensemble discharges of forelimb neurons in the cerebellar nucleus interpositus (NI) and its target, the magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a source of rubrospinal fibers, function as neuronal correlates of the transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components we identified. EFA applied to single-unit discharges of populations of NI and RNm neurons recorded while the same monkeys that were used previously performed the same reach-to-grasp tasks, revealed neuronal components in the ensemble discharges of both NI and RNm neuronal populations with characteristics broadly similar to muscle components. Subsets of NI and RNm neuronal components were strongly and significantly crosscorrelated with subsets of muscle components, suggesting that similar functional units of reach-to-grasp behavior are expressed by NI and RNm neuronal populations and forelimb muscles. Importantly, like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components, their NI and RNm

  5. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Gonnet, Jorge; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-09-30

    There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects. A total of 3.3 ha of alpine meadows and 13.4 ha of alpine steppe were disturbed by trails. Trails through meadows resulted in greater soil loss, more exposed soil and rock and less vegetation than trails through steppe vegetation. Trampling also affected the composition of meadow and steppe vegetation with declines in sedges, herbs, grasses and shrubs on trails. These results highlight how visitor use can result in substantial cumulative damage to areas of high conservation value in the Andes. With unregulated use of trails and increasing visitation, park agencies need to limit the further spread of informal trails and improve the conservation of plant communities in Aconcagua Provincial Park and other popular parks in the region.

  6. Altitudinal and seasonal variation of protective and photosynthetic pigments in leaves of the world's highest elevation trees Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. A.; Gallardo, M. G.; Boero, C.; Liberman Cruz, M.; Prado, F. E.

    2007-07-01

    In the present study we analyzed both photosynthetic and UV-B absorbing pigment variations in Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae) during two contrasting seasons (winter and summer) at two altitudes (4300 and 5000 m a.s.l.) in the Sajama volcano (Oruro, Bolivia). UV-B absorbing pigments, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids contents as well as the chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b ratio showed clear differences in both seasons. UV-B absorbing pigments, total chlorophyll and chlorophyll a contents as well as chlorophyll a/b values were higher in winter than in summer at both altitudes, while chlorophyll b content and the total chlorophyll to carotenoids ratio showed an opposite pattern. Carotenoids content exhibited not only an increase with altitude but also a significant variation between seasons, the highest value being recorded in winter. We discuss the results in relation to the radiation regime of the Sajama region rather than to the water status of the plant studied, since the latter was similar for both seasons and altitudes.

  7. Labor force projections up to 2053 for 26 EU countries, by age, sex, and highest level of educational attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Loichinger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: One expected consequence of population aging in Europe is the shrinkage of the labor force. Most existing labor force projections allow only inferences about the size and age structure of the future labor force. Objective: In comparison to existing labor force projections, which disaggregate only by age and sex, these projections include information about the highest level of educational attainment (tertiary vs. non-tertiary education, so that an additional level of heterogeneity in labor force participation is considered. This heterogeneity enters the projection methodology through population projection data as well as labor force participation data, since both components are decomposed in the three dimensions of age, sex, and education. Based on data from the European Labor Force Survey (EU LFS, three scenarios were designed to project the economically active population for 26 EU countries up to 2053. Results: Adding the educational dimension to labor force projections discloses a significant shift towards tertiary education degrees between 2008 and 2053. This educational upgrading of the European labor force is not driven by developments in a few large countries but can be expected to take place in each of the 26 analyzed countries. Conclusions: A better educated but shrinking labor force is likely to be able to alleviate some of the anticipated economic consequences of population aging. The presented projections of education-specific labor supply can serve as inputs into forecasts of economic growth that include educational differentials in labor productivity.

  8. Highest Redshift Image of Neutral Hydrogen in Emission: A CHILES Detection of a Starbursting Galaxy at z = 0.376

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ximena; Gim, Hansung B.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Yun, Min S.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Chomiuk, Laura; Hess, Kelley M.; Hunt, Lucas; Kreckel, Kathryn; Lucero, Danielle; Maddox, Natasha; Oosterloo, Tom; Pisano, D. J.; Verheijen, M. A. W.; Hales, Christopher A.; Chung, Aeree; Dodson, Richard; Golap, Kumar; Gross, Julia; Henning, Patricia; Hibbard, John; Jaffé, Yara L.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Meyer, Martin; Sanchez-Barrantes, Monica; Schiminovich, David; Wicenec, Andreas; Wilcots, Eric; Bershady, Matthew; Scoville, Nick; Strader, Jay; Tremou, Evangelia; Salinas, Ricardo; Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of the accretion, processing, and removal of gas across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen (H i) in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS H i Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe H i from z = 0 to z ˜ 0.5. Here, we report the highest redshift H i 21 cm detection in emission to date of the luminous infrared galaxy COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z = 0.376 with the first 178 hr of CHILES data. The total H i mass is (2.9 ± 1.0) × 1010 M ⊙ and the spatial distribution is asymmetric and extends beyond the galaxy. While optically the galaxy looks undisturbed, the H i distribution suggests an interaction with a candidate companion. In addition, we present follow-up Large Millimeter Telescope CO observations that show it is rich in molecular hydrogen, with a range of possible masses of (1.8-9.9) × 1010 M ⊙. This is the first study of the H i and CO in emission for a single galaxy beyond z ˜ 0.2.

  9. Solving The Longstanding Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At the Highest Microscopic Level - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    A 2011 DOE-NP Early Career Award (ECA) under Field Work Proposal (FWP) SCW1158 supported the project “Solving the Long-Standing Problem of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions at the Highest Microscopic Level” in the five-year period from June 15, 2011 to June 14, 2016. This project, led by PI S. Quaglioni, aimed at developing a comprehensive and computationally efficient framework to arrive at a unified description of structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. Specifically, the project had three main goals: 1) arriving at the accurate predictions for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; 2) realizing a comprehensive description of clustering and continuum effects in exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and 3) achieving fundamental understanding of the role of the 3N force in nuclear reactions and nuclei at the drip line.

  10. Climate change and the distribution and conservation of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyckens, G. A. E.; Christie, D. A.; Domic, A. I.; Malizia, L. R.; Renison, D.

    2016-02-01

    Climate change is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Consequently, methods for delineation, establishment and management of protected areas must consider the species' future distribution in response to future climate conditions. Biodiversity in high altitude semiarid regions may be particularly threatened by future climate change. In this study we assess the main environmental variables that best explain present day presence of the world's highest elevation woodlands in the South American Altiplano, and model how climate change may affect the future distribution of this unique ecosystem under different climate change scenarios. These woodlands are dominated by Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), a species that forms unique biological communities with important conservation value. Our results indicate that five environmental variables are responsible for 91% and 90.3% of the present and future P. tarapacana distribution models respectively, and suggest that at the end of the 21st century, there will be a significant reduction (56%) in the potential habitat for this species due to more arid conditions. Since it is predicted that P. tarapacana's potential distribution will be severely reduced in the future, we propose a new network of national protected areas across this species distribution range in order to insure the future conservation of this unique ecosystem. Based on an extensive literature review we identify research topics and recommendations for on-ground conservation and management of P. tarapacana woodlands.

  11. Colon Cancer Risk Factors in Jiashan County of Zhe-jiang Province, the Highest Incidence Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianghuiWang; ZhaoyiHe; KaiyanYao; KangChen; QilongLi

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer in Jiashan county, the highest incidence area in China and to provide a scientific basis for monitoring and prevention. METHODS With a population-based case-control study, 109 colon cancer patients with 1:7 matched controls were interviewed with uniform questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analysis of colon cancer. RESULTS High monthly pork consumption (OR=1.608), and high monthly animal fat consumption (OR=1.391) over a ten-year period, psychological depression (OR=9.887), negative emotion (OR=1.723), lower digestivetract diseases (OR=4.163), and history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives (OR=3.421) were the main risk factors of colon cancer. During that time, high monthly vegetable consumption was a protective factor for colon cancer (OR=0.422).CONCLUSIONS Colon cancer in Jiashan county was related to dietary factors. The research results support the colon cancer etiological hypothesis of "fat-bile acid" and "deficiency of dietary fibre". Psychological depression, in heritance and lower digestive tract diseases were also correlated with colon cancer.

  12. ACHIEVEMENT OF THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK AND THE SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Urosevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health at work involves the exercise of such working conditions that take certain measures and activities in order to protect the life and health of employees. The interest of society, of all stakeholders and every individual is to achieve the highest level of safety and health at work, to unwanted consequences such as injuries, occupational diseases and diseases related to work are reduced to a minimum, and to create the conditions work in which employees have a sense of satisfaction in the performance of their professional duties. Textile industry is a sector with higher risk, because the plants of textile industry prevailing unfavorable microclimate conditions: high air temperature and high humidity, and often insufficient illumination of rooms and increased noise. The whole line of production in the textile industry, there is a risk of injury, the most common with mechanical force, or gaining burns from heat or chemicals. All of these factors are present in the process of production and processing of textiles and the same may affect the incidence of occupational diseases of workers, absenteeism, reduction of their working capacity and productivity. With the progress of the textile industry production increases in the number of hazardous and harmful substances that may pose a potential danger to the employee in this branch of the economy as well as the harmful impact on the environment. Therefore, it is important to give special attention to these problems.

  13. AN OVERVIEW OF TRAINING METHODS THAT PROMOTE THE HIGHEST LIPID OXIDATION DURING AND AFTER A SINGLE EXERCISE SESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Purkart

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that physical activity is the most effective way to increase lipid oxidation, its effects are influenced by several factors. The goal of this review was to identify the most effective methods that facilitate the highest lipid oxidation during and after a single exercise session. For this purpose, the available scientific literature was examined using PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases up to June 2013 with the following keywords: excess post exercise oxygen consumption, exercise fatty acid, energy expenditure exercise and interval training. From the identified 48,583 potentially relevant references, 172 of them met all the required criteria. It was found out that prolonged (> 30 min moderate intensity (55 − 70 % VO2max exercise such as walking, jogging or cycling is the most effective way to increase lipid oxidation during and after a single exercise session. Low-volume high-intensity interval exercise is supposed to be as effective as traditional exercise with continuous endurance, with the main effect on lipid oxidation after the session and similar long-term metabolic adaptations. However, more research is still needed to compare the effects of regular resistance exercise with traditional endurance and high-intensity interval exercise. Finally, nutrition is also a significant factor since food rich in fat and low in carbohydrates promotes greater lipid oxidation.

  14. Highest Redshift Image of Neutral Hydrogen in Emission: A CHILES Detection of a Starbursting Galaxy at z=0.376

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Ximena; van Gorkom, J H; Yun, Min S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Popping, Attila; Chomiuk, Laura; Hess, Kelley M; Hunt, Lucas; Kreckel, Kathryn; Lucero, Danielle; Maddox, Natasha; Oosterloo, Tom; Pisano, D J; Verheijen, M A W; Hales, Christopher A; Chung, Aeree; Dodson, Richard; Golap, Kumar; Gross, Julia; Henning, Patricia; Hibbard, John; Jaffé, Yara L; Meyer, Jennifer Donovan; Meyer, Martin; Sanchez-Barrantes, Monica; Schiminovich, David; Wicenec, Andreas; Wilcots, Eric; Bershady, Matthew; Scoville, Nick; Strader, Jay; Tremou, Evangelia; Salinas, Ricardo; Chávez, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of accretion, processing, and removal of gas across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen (HI) in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe HI from z=0 to z~0.5. Here, we report the highest redshift HI 21-cm detection in emission to date of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z=0.376 with the first 178 hours of CHILES data. The total HI mass is $(2.9\\pm1.0)\\times10^{10}~M_\\odot$, and the spatial distribution is asymmetric and extends beyond the galaxy. While optically the galaxy looks undisturbed, the HI distribution suggests an interaction with candidate a candidate companion. In addition, we present follow-up Larg...

  15. Highest heterogeneity for cystic fibrosis: 36 mutations account for 75% of all CF chromosomes in Turkish patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Mehmet Okyay; Ninis, Vasiliki Ninidu; Dağli, Elif; Demirkol, Mübeccel; Ozkinay, Ferda; Arikan, Zeliha; Coğulu, Ozgür; Hüner, Gülden; Karakoç, Fazilet; Tolun, Aslihan

    2002-12-01

    We analyzed the CFTR locus in 83 Turkish cystic fibrosis patients to identify mutations, haplotypes, and the carrier frequency in the population. We detected 36 different mutations in 125 (75%) of the total 166 CF chromosomes. Seven novel mutations were identified: four missense (K68E, Q493P, E608G, and V1147I), two splice-site (406 -3T > C and 3849 +5G > A), and one deletion (CFTRdele17b,18). The data showed that the Turkish population has the highest genetic heterogeneity at the CFTR locus reported so far. The results of this thorough molecular analysis at the CFTR locus of a population not of European descent shows that CF is not uncommon in all such populations. The large number of mutations present, as well as the high heterogeneity in haplotypes associated with the mutations suggests that most of the mutations have persisted for a long time in the population. Consistently, the carrier frequency is assessed to be high, indicating that the disease in the population is ancient.

  16. Outcomes in the highest panel reactive antibody recipients of deceased donor kidneys under the new kidney allocation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Redfield, Robert R; Astor, Brad C; Djamali, Arjang; Kaufman, Dixon B; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2017-03-01

    Since the institution of the new kidney allocation system in December 2014, kidney transplant candidates with the highest calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA) of 99-100 have been transplanted at much higher rates. However, concerns have been raised that outcomes in these patients might be impaired due to higher immunological risk and longer cold ischemia times resulting from long-distance sharing of kidneys. Here, we compare outcomes at the University of Wisconsin between study patients with cPRA 99-100 and all other recipients of deceased donor kidneys transplanted between 12/04/2014 and 12/31/2015. All patients had at least 6 months post-transplant follow-up. The mean follow-up was 13.9±3 months in cPRA ≥99% and 12.3±3.5 months in cPRA ≤98%. There was a total of 152 transplants, 25 study patients, and 127 controls. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in delayed graft function, rejection, kidney function, graft and patient survival, or infections. We conclude that transplanting the most highly sensitized patients with kidneys shared outside their local donation service areas is associated with excellent short-term outcomes that are comparable to controls. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The tramway reaches the energy autonomy; Le tramway acquiert l'autonomie energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, J.Ch.

    2006-06-15

    The next generation of tramways and underground railways will be able to reach the next station without the need of power supply rail or overhead line. The solution will come from the use of super-capacitors and chargeable batteries or from the use of flywheel energy storage systems which will be re-charged during the station halts. This short paper presents some of these systems already at the design or testing stage. (J.S.)

  18. Impairments due to Burst-Mode Transmission in a Raman-based Long Reach PON Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo;

    2007-01-01

    A recently proposed passive-optical-network (PON) link based on distributed Raman amplification is tested with disturbing burst-mode traffic. The resulting impairments are quantified through penalty measurements on a single surviving data channel as a function of the disturbing channel power. When...... that the highly linear PON link is a promising candidate for long-reach feeder links in future, high-capacity PON systems with burst-mode traffic....

  19. Observations of improvement of reaching in five subjects with left hemiparesis.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Kinematic analysis and surface electromyography were used to study reaching by five subjects with left hemiparesis as they attempted to touch each of three targets. The targets were placed to require movement within and out of extensor synergy. Each subject was tested five times over a nine week period. Over this time, amplitude of peak velocity and sense of limb position significantly improved in the paretic arms. The increase of amplitude of peak velocity was more strongly related to a decr...

  20. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Change Management--Key Theories to Consider when Extending Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2012-01-01

    As schools, their teachers, and outside facilitators redesign jobs and incorporate technology to extend the reach of excellent teachers to more students and develop an Opportunity Culture for all, choosing the right school models is just one part of the task. The human experience--and experience in education--says that even perfect design will not…

  1. Reaching to Throw Compared to Reaching to Place: A Comparison across Individuals with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmut, Kate; Byrne, Maia; Barnett, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    When picking up an object, adults show a longer deceleration phase when the onward action has a greater precision requirement. Tailoring action in this way is thought to need forward modelling in order to predict the consequences of movement. Some evidence suggests that young children also tailor reaching in this way; however, how this skill…

  2. The independence of deficits in position sense and visually guided reaching following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukelow Sean P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have found correlations between proprioception and visuomotor function during stroke recovery, however two more recent studies have found no correlation. Unfortunately, most of the studies to date have been conducted with clinical assessments of sensation that are observer-based and have poor reliability. We have recently developed new tests to assess position sense and motor function using robotic technology. The present study was conducted to reassess the relationship between position sense and upper limb movement following stroke. Methods We assessed position sense and motor performance of 100 inpatient stroke rehabilitation subjects and 231 non-disabled controls. All subjects completed quantitative assessments of position sense (arm-position matching task and motor performance (visually-guided reaching task using the KINARM robotic device. Subjects also completed clinical assessments including handedness, vision, Purdue Pegboard, Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment-Impairment Inventory and Functional Independence Measure (FIM. Neuroimaging documented lesion localization. Fisher’s exact probability tests were used to determine the relationship between performances on the arm-position matching and visually-guided reaching task. Pearson’s correlations were conducted to determine the relationship between robotically measured parameters and clinical assessments. Results Performance by individual subjects on the matching and reaching tasks was statistically independent (Fisher’s test, P Conclusions Our data support the concept that position sense deficits are functionally relevant and point to the importance of assessing proprioceptive and motor impairments independently when planning treatment strategies.

  3. Key Design Requirements for Long-Reach Manipulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Long-reach manipulators differ from industrial robots and teleoperators typically used in the nuclear industry in that the aspect ratio (length to diameter) of links is much greater and link flexibility, as well as joint or drive train flexibility, is likely to be significant. Long-reach manipulators will be required for a variety of applications in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program. While each application will present specific functional, kinematic, and performance requirements, an approach for determining the kinematic applicability and performance characteristics is presented, with a focus on waste storage tank remediation. Requirements are identified, kinematic configurations are considered, and a parametric study of link design parameters and their effects on performance characteristics is presented.

  4. Hand preferences in preschool children: Reaching, pointing and symbolic gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochet, Hélène; Centelles, Laurie; Jover, Marianne; Plachta, Suzy; Vauclair, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Manual asymmetries emerge very early in development and several researchers have reported a significant right-hand bias in toddlers although this bias fluctuates depending on the nature of the activity being performed. However, little is known about the further development of asymmetries in preschoolers. In this study, patterns of hand preference were assessed in 50 children aged 3-5 years for different activities, including reaching movements, pointing gestures and symbolic gestures. Contrary to what has been reported in children before 3 years of age, we did not observe any difference in the mean handedness indices obtained in each task. Moreover, the asymmetry of reaching was found to correlate with that of pointing gestures, but not with that of symbolic gestures. In relation to the results reported in infants and adults, this study may help deciphering the mechanisms controlling the development of handedness by providing measures of manual asymmetries in an age range that has been so far rather neglected.

  5. Incidents when older homebound women tried to reach help quickly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eileen J; Markham, Melinda Stafford; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2013-01-01

    During a longitudinal study of the experience of reaching help quickly, 34 homebound women (ages 85 to 97) who lived alone reported 106 reach-help-quickly incidents (RHQIs). The purpose of this study was to expand knowledge about RHQIs and intentions relative to them and to compare those facets of experience for subscribers to a personal emergency response system (PERS) and non-subscribers. We used a descriptive phenomenological method to analyze interview data, discerning six types of RHQIs, including finding myself down right here, realizing that I might not be alright after falling and getting up on my own, and realizing that something I cannot explain is or could be wrong with me. Intentions were focused on self-help before help seeking. The overall phenomenon was Handling a Situation When I Am Alone at Home and Probably Need Help Quickly. Practitioners should explore intentions about handling specific types of RHQIs and offer appropriate anticipatory guidance. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Vehicle fingertip reach controls--human factors recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Hamouda, E; Mourant, R R

    1981-06-01

    Interviews were conducted with 405 drivers of cars equipped with fingertip reach controls. A high percentage of finding problems was reported when the horn was mounted on a stalk and also when the turn signal was on a right stalk. Drivers of configurations with two left stalks had a large percentage of inadvertent operation problems for the turn signal and for the headlight beam selector. A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate modes of operation for the wiper on/off, wiper speed and washer on/off functions. Subjects performed best when the wiper on/off and speed control were actuated by a rotating had switch. Subjects' reactions to stalk mounted controls were much faster than their reactions to dash mounted controls. Recommendations to eliminate finding and inadvertent operation problems associated with fingertip reach controls are given.

  7. Women's preferences for masculinity in male faces are highest during reproductive age range and lower around puberty and post-menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Saxton, Tamsin K; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M; Vukovic, Jovana; Perrett, David I; Feinberg, David R; Chenore, Todd

    2010-07-01

    Masculinity in male faces is thought to be a sign of mate quality and is associated with measures of long-term health. Previous studies have demonstrated that women's masculinity preferences change across the menstrual cycle with women preferring more masculine men during phases of the menstrual cycle where fertility is highest (i.e. the late follicular phase). Given the hormonal correlates of such preferences and that these hormones change across the life span, we tested for differences in female masculinity preferences at different ages. We compared the masculinity preferences of peri-pubescent girls and young adult women (Study 1), circum-menopausal women reporting to either be pre- or post-menopause (Study 2), and a large sample of women across a wide range of ages (Study 3). In all three studies, preferences for masculinity in male faces were highest in women who were at a reproductively active age. Preferences for masculinity were lower when females were peri-pubescent, post-menopausal, or at ages corresponding to these groups. These data support the notion that masculinity in male faces is an important trait for reproductively relevant mate choice decisions. These data also highlight a shift in female visual preferences for men that is associated with important stages of the lifespan. Visual preferences appear to track important hormonal changes associated with age; as women pass puberty their preferences shift towards facial traits associated with mate quality and as women undergo menopause their preferences for such facial traits decrease. Overall, these results demonstrate the important role of reproductive status and support the notion that preferences for male faces are tied to reproductively relevant hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Where do the highest energy CR's come from? and How does the Milky Way affect their arrival directions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronberg Philipp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “grand magnetic design” for the Milky Way disk clearly emerges within ~1.5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane near the Sun [1], and reveals a pitch angle of −5.5°. directed inward from the Solar tangential. This pitch angle can be expected to differ for Galactic disc locations other than ours. Above ~1.5 kpc, the field geometry is completely different, and its 3-D structure is not yet completely specified. However it appears that the UHECR (> 5 · 1019 eV propagation to us is not much affected by the halo field, at least for protons. I discuss new multi-parameter analyses of UHECR deflections which provide a conceptual “template” for future interpretations of energy-species-direction data from AUGER, HiRes etc., and their successors [2]. I show how the strength and structure of the cosmologically nearby intergalactic magnetic field, BIGM, is now well-estimated out to D ~5 Mpc from the Milky Way: − 20nG. These are the first VHECR data-based estimates of BIGM on nearby supragalactic scales, and are also important for understanding and modeling CR propagation in the more distant Universe. CR Acceleration to the highest energies is probably a natural accompanying phenomenon of Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH-associated jets and lobes [3]. I briefly describe what we know about magnetic configurations in these candidate sites for UHECR acceleration, and the first direct estimate of an extragalactic Poynting flux current, ~3 · 1018 Amperes [4, 5]. This number connects directly to SMBH accretion disk physics, and leads directly to ideas of how VHECR acceleration in jets and lobes, possibly involving magnetic reconnection, is likely to be common in the Universe. It remains to be fully understood.

  9. The highest-copy repeats are methylated in the small genome of the early divergent vascular plant Selaginella moellendorffii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Hui

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii is a vascular plant that diverged from the fern/seed plant lineage at least 400 million years ago. Although genomic information for S. moellendorffii is starting to be produced, little is known about basic aspects of its molecular biology. In order to provide the first glimpse to the epigenetic landscape of this early divergent vascular plant, we used the methylation filtration technique. Methylation filtration genomic libraries select unmethylated DNA clones due to the presence of the methylation-dependent restriction endonuclease McrBC in the bacterial host. Results We conducted a characterization of the DNA methylation patterns of the S. moellendorffii genome by sequencing a set of S. moellendorffii shotgun genomic clones, along with a set of methylation filtered clones. Chloroplast DNA, which is typically unmethylated, was enriched in the filtered library relative to the shotgun library, showing that there is DNA methylation in the extremely small S. moellendorffii genome. The filtered library also showed enrichment in expressed and gene-like sequences, while the highest-copy repeats were largely under-represented in this library. These results show that genes and repeats are differentially methylated in the S. moellendorffii genome, as occurs in other plants studied. Conclusion Our results shed light on the genome methylation pattern in a member of a relatively unexplored plant lineage. The DNA methylation data reported here will help understanding the involvement of this epigenetic mark in fundamental biological processes, as well as the evolutionary aspects of epigenetics in land plants.

  10. HTLV-1 is predominantly sexually transmitted in Salvador, the city with the highest HTLV-1 prevalence in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, David; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Taylor, Graham P.; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Salvador is the city with the highest number of HTLV-1 infected individuals in Brazil, yet the main route of HTLV-1 transmission is unknown. Objective To investigate the association of syphilis infection as a proxy for sexual transmission of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of this city. Methods A cross sectional population-based study was conducted with 3,451 serum samples obtained by a representative simple random sampling. Data on gender, age, income, and years of education were collected by questionnaire and the presence of HTLV, HIV and Treponema pallidum infection was determined by serology. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effect of the potential explanatory variables to HTLV-1 infection and Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. Results The majority of studied individuals were female (56.4%), had less than 7 years of education (55.3%) and earned two or less minimum wages (52.0%). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 1.48% (51/3,451; 95% CI: 1.10%– 1.94%), which increased with age. Only three persons younger than 17 (3/958; 0.31%; CI 95% 0.06–0.91) years were infected by HTLV-1. Among the 45 syphilis positives, 12 (26.7%) were HTLV positive, while among 21 HIV positives, only one (4.8%) was HTLV positive. HTLV-1 infection was found to be associated with syphilis infection (ORADJUSTED 36.77; 95% CI 14.96–90.41). Conclusion The data presented herein indicate that horizontal transmission between adults is the main route of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of Salvador and that this is likely to occur through sexual contact. PMID:28158226

  11. Binding of higher alcohols onto Mn(12) single-molecule magnets (SMMs): access to the highest barrier Mn(12) SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Christos; Redler, Gage; Data, Saiti; Abboud, Khalil A; Hill, Stephen; Christou, George

    2010-02-15

    Two new members of the Mn(12) family of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(Bu(t)OH)(H(2)O)(3)].2Bu(t)OH (3.2Bu(t)OH) and [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(C(5)H(11)OH)(4)] (4) (C(5)H(11)OH is 1-pentanol), are reported. They were synthesized from [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CMe)(16)(H(2)O)(4)].2MeCO(2)H.4H(2)O (1) by carboxylate substitution and crystallization from the appropriate alcohol-containing solvent. Complexes 3 and 4 are new members of the recently established [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(solv)(4)] (solv = H(2)O, alcohols) family of SMMs. Only one bulky Bu(t)OH can be accommodated into 3, and even this causes significant distortion of the [Mn(12)O(12)] core. Variable-temperature, solid-state alternating current (AC) magnetization studies were carried out on complexes 3 and 4, and they established that both possess an S = 10 ground state spin and are SMMs. However, the magnetic behavior of the two compounds was found to be significantly different, with 4 showing out-of-phase AC peaks at higher temperatures than 3. High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) studies were carried out on single crystals of 3.2Bu(t)OH and 4, and these revealed that the axial zero-field splitting constant, D, is very different for the two compounds. Furthermore, it was established that 4 is the Mn(12) SMM with the highest kinetic barrier (U(eff)) to date. The results reveal alcohol substitution as an additional and convenient means to affect the magnetization relaxation barrier of the Mn(12) SMMs without major change to the ligation or oxidation state.

  12. HTLV-1 is predominantly sexually transmitted in Salvador, the city with the highest HTLV-1 prevalence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, David; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Taylor, Graham P; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Barreto, Mauricio L; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Salvador is the city with the highest number of HTLV-1 infected individuals in Brazil, yet the main route of HTLV-1 transmission is unknown. To investigate the association of syphilis infection as a proxy for sexual transmission of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of this city. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted with 3,451 serum samples obtained by a representative simple random sampling. Data on gender, age, income, and years of education were collected by questionnaire and the presence of HTLV, HIV and Treponema pallidum infection was determined by serology. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effect of the potential explanatory variables to HTLV-1 infection and Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. The majority of studied individuals were female (56.4%), had less than 7 years of education (55.3%) and earned two or less minimum wages (52.0%). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 1.48% (51/3,451; 95% CI: 1.10%- 1.94%), which increased with age. Only three persons younger than 17 (3/958; 0.31%; CI 95% 0.06-0.91) years were infected by HTLV-1. Among the 45 syphilis positives, 12 (26.7%) were HTLV positive, while among 21 HIV positives, only one (4.8%) was HTLV positive. HTLV-1 infection was found to be associated with syphilis infection (ORADJUSTED 36.77; 95% CI 14.96-90.41). The data presented herein indicate that horizontal transmission between adults is the main route of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of Salvador and that this is likely to occur through sexual contact.

  13. The leading joint hypothesis for spatial reaching arm motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambike, Satyajit; Schmiedeler, James P

    2013-02-01

    The leading joint hypothesis (LJH), developed for planar arm reaching, proposes that the interaction torques experienced by the proximal joint are low compared to the corresponding muscle torques. The human central nervous system could potentially ignore these interaction torques at the proximal (leading) joint with little effect on the wrist trajectory, simplifying joint-level control. This paper investigates the extension of the LJH to spatial reaching. In spatial motion, a number of terms in the governing equation (Euler's angular momentum balance) that vanish for planar movements are non-trivial, so their contributions to the joint torque must be classified as net, interaction or muscle torque. This paper applies definitions from the literature to these torque components to establish a general classification for all terms in Euler's equation. This classification is equally applicable to planar and spatial motion. Additionally, a rationale for excluding gravity torques from the torque analysis is provided. Subjects performed point-to-point reaching movements between targets whose locations ensured that the wrist paths lay in various portions of the arm's spatial workspace. Movement kinematics were recorded using electromagnetic sensors located on the subject's arm segments and thorax. The arm was modeled as a three-link kinematic chain with idealized spherical and revolute joints at the shoulder and elbow. Joint torque components were computed using inverse dynamics. Most movements were 'shoulder-led' in that the interaction torque impulse was significantly lower than the muscle torque impulse for the shoulder, but not the elbow. For the few elbow-led movements, the interaction impulse at the elbow was low, while that at the shoulder was high, and these typically involved large elbow and small shoulder displacements. These results support the LJH and extend it to spatial reaching motion.

  14. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Household and Municipal Recycling?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gunter

    2007-01-01

    Do economists reach a conclusion on household and municipal recycling? I explore the policy judgments of published economists on recycling and find that there is no broad consensus. The mainstream recycling literature is dominated by a guided-market approach; taxes and subsidies are advocated to correct for market failures. There are two less popular but still significant approaches: a minimal government laissez faire approach and a command and control regulatory approach. Laissez faire econo...

  15. Can factitious disorder reach delusional level? A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubiel Rafał

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a patient, who has been consulted and hospitalized multiple times, due to dermatological lesions on his face. We will present his medical history and describe circumstances leading to the final diagnosis of factitious disorder. In the theoretical part we will try to answer the question, whether the extreme severity of the factitious disorders can, at some point, reach the level of delusions.

  16. Reaching consumers: How the tobacco industry uses email marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Betsy Brock; Samantha C. Carlson; Molly Moilanen; Barbara A. Schillo

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the st...

  17. Has the world economy reached its globalization limit?

    CERN Document Server

    Miskiewicz, Janusz

    2009-01-01

    The economy globalization measure problem is discussed. Four macroeconomic indices of twenty among the "richest" countries are examined. Four types of "distances" are calculated.Two types of networks are next constructed for each distance measure definition. It is shown that the globalization process can be best characterised by an entropy measure, based on entropy Manhattan distance. It is observed that a globalization maximum was reached in the interval 1970-2000. More recently a deglobalization process is observed.

  18. Using Facebook to Reach People Who Experience Auditory Hallucinations

    OpenAIRE

    Crosier, Benjamin Sage; Brian, Rachel Marie; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2016-01-01

    Background Auditory hallucinations (eg, hearing voices) are relatively common and underreported false sensory experiences that may produce distress and impairment. A large proportion of those who experience auditory hallucinations go unidentified and untreated. Traditional engagement methods oftentimes fall short in reaching the diverse population of people who experience auditory hallucinations. Objective The objective of this proof-of-concept study was to examine the viability of leveraging...

  19. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  20. Limit analysis of extended reach drilling in South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Deli; Tan Chengjin; Tang Haixiong

    2009-01-01

    Extended reach wells (ERWs), especially horizontal extended reach well with a high HD (horizontal displacement) to TVD (true vertical depth) ratio, represent a frontier technology and challenge the drilling limitations.Oil and gas reservoir in beaches or lakes and offshore can be effectively exploited by using extended reach drilling (ERD) technology.This paper focuses on the difficult technological problems encountered during exploiting the Liuhua 11-1 oil field in the South China Sea, China.Emphasis is on investigating the key subjects including prediction and control of open hole limit extension in offshore ERD, prediction of casing wear and its prevention and torque reduction, φ244.5mm casing running with floating collars to control drag force, and steerable drilling modes.The basic concept of limit extension in ERD is presented and the prediction method for open hole limit extension is given in this paper.A set of advanced drilling mechanics and control technology has been established and its practical results are verified by field cases.All those efforts may be significant for further investigating and practicing ERD limit theory and control technology in the future.

  1. Distractor interference during a choice limb reaching task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ray

    Full Text Available According to action-centered models of attention, the patterns of distractor interference that emerge in selective reaching tasks are related to the time and effort required to resolve a race for activation between competing target and non-target response producing processes. Previous studies have only used unimanual aiming tasks and, as such, only examined the effects of competition that occurs within a limb. The results of studies using unimanual aiming movements often reveal an "ipsilateral effect"--distractors on the same side of space as the effector cause greater interference than distractors on the opposite side of space. The cost of the competition when response selection is between the limbs has yet to be addressed. Participants in the present study executed reaching movements to 1 of 4 (2 left, 2 right possible target locations with and without a distractor. Participants made ipsilateral reaches (left hand to left targets, right hand to right targets. In contrast to studies using unimanual aiming movements, a "contralateral effect" was observed; distractors affording responses for the other hand (in contralateral space caused more interference than distractors affording responses for the same hand. The findings from the present research demonstrate that when certain portions of response planning must be resolved prior to response initiation, distractors that code for that dimension cause the greatest interference.

  2. Ability of youth operators to reach farm tractor controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, F A; Chang, J H; Pickett, W; Marlenga, B

    2009-06-01

    Farm tractor work is commonly assigned to young people on North American farms, where tractors account for the majority of deaths and major portions of non-fatal trauma to working youths. However, little is known about the potential mismatch between the anthropometric and physical characteristics of children and tractor characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of children of varying ages and percentiles to reach major controls on 45 tractors in common use in the US. The main study finding was that many tractor controls, especially those that are hand-operated, may not be effectively reached by the majority of youth operators aged 12 to 16 years. The study raises further serious questions about the ability of children to safely operate tractors in common use on US farms and calls for reconsideration of age guidelines for the assignment of children to tractor work on farms. This study provides novel ergonomic evidence about the ability of children to reach controls inside agricultural tractor cabins. The approach could be applied in similar situations where youths may operate other vehicles or machines. Study findings support the establishment and refinement of policies and guidelines related to youth tractor operation.

  3. Hazard and risk assessment of teratogenic chemicals under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutner, Wiebke

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a new European chemicals legislation was implemented: Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, also known as "REACH." It obliges companies to take the main responsibility for the valid information on the safe use of the chemicals they manufacture and/or place on the European market. So they must, for example, register their chemicals at the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) and submit extensive substance-related registration dossiers containing information on the substances' intrinsic hazardous properties and documentation of their risk assessment. REACH regulates the registration and evaluation process as well as the authorization and restriction procedure. In addition, classification, labeling, and packaging of chemicals apply in accordance with Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 ("CLP Regulation"). It implements almost completely the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (UN GHS) into European legislation and will fully replace the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC) and the Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC) by 2015. According to both the old and the new classification system, teratogenic chemicals are classified as developmental toxicants, with developmental toxicity falling within the hazard class of reproductive toxicity. REACH as well as the CLP Regulation provide several procedures in which reproductive toxicants take a special position because their harmful effects are considered particularly serious. Teratogenic substances are not explicitly named by these legal texts but, as they constitute as developmental toxicants a hazard differentiation of reproductive toxicity, they are implicitly always included by the provisions.

  4. Phosphorus forms and bioavailability of lake sediments in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Guangwei; QIN; Boqiang; ZHANG; Lu

    2006-01-01

    Forms of phosphorus in sediments from 25 lakes in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River were analyzed by the sequential extraction procedure. Contents and spatial distrubution of algal available phosphorus (AAP) in sediments of Lake Taihu, the third largest freshwater lake of China, were also studied. Relationships between phosphorus forms in sediment and macrophytes coverage in sample sites, as well as phosphorus forms in sediments and chlorophyal contents in lake water were discussed. Exchangeable form of phosphorus (Ex-P) in surface sediments was significantly positive correlative to total phosphorus (TP), dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) contents in the lake water. Bioavailable phosphorus (Bio-P) contents in sediments from macrophytes dominant sites were significantly lower than that in no macrophyte sites. In Lake Taihu, Ex-P content in top 3 cm sediment was highest.However, content of ferric fraction phosphorus (Fe-P) was highest in 4-10 cm. Bioavalilble phosphorus (Bio-P) contents in surface sediments positively correlated to Chlorophyll a contents in water of Lake Taihu with significant difference. Therefore, contents of Bio-P and AAP could be acted as the indicators of risks of internal release of phosphorus in the shallow lakes. It was estimated that there were 268.6 ton AAP in top 1 cm sediments in Lake Taihu. Sediment suspension caused by strong wind-induced wave disturbance could carry plenty of AAP into water in large shallow lakes like Lake Taihu.

  5. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  6. A structured approach to Exposure Based Waiving of human health endpoints under REACH developed in the OSIRIS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Meijster, T.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Burg, W. ter; Spaan, S.; Engelen, J. van

    2011-01-01

    Within the REACH framework, but alsowithin OECD, there is understanding that for reasons of animal welfare, costs and logistics, it is important to limit the number of tests to be conducted. Exposure-based waiving (EBW) is a potentially important element in testing strategies. This publication

  7. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  8. Access to expert stroke care with telemedicine: REACH MUSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Swanson Kazley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and rtPA can significantly reduce the long-term impact of acute ischemic stroke (AIS if given within 3 hours of symptom onset. South Carolina is located in the stroke belt and has a high rate of stroke and stroke mortality. Many small rural SC hospitals do not maintain the expertise needed to treat AIS patients with rtPA. MUSC is an academic medical center using REACH MUSC telemedicine to deliver stroke care to 15 hospitals in the state, increasing the likelihood of timely treatment with rtPA. The purpose of this study is to determine the increase in access to rtPA through the use of telemedicine for AIS in the general population and in specific segments of the population based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality.We used a retrospective cross-sectional design examining Census data from 2000 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS analysis to identify South Carolina residents that live within 30 or 60 minutes of a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC site. We include all South Carolina citizens in our analysis and specifically examine the population’s age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. Our sample includes 4,012,012 South Carolinians. The main measure is access to expert stroke care at a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC hospital within 30 or 60 minutes. We find that without REACH MUSC, only 38% of the population has potential access to expert stroke care in SC within sixty minutes given that most PSCs will maintain expert stroke coverage. REACH MUSC allows 76% of the population to be within sixty minutes of expert stroke care, and 43% of the population to be within 30 minute drive time of expert stroke care. These increases in access are especially significant for groups that have faced disparities in care and high rates of AIS. The use of telemedicine can

  9. Evaluation of a hydrological model based on Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Evaluation and discrimination of model structures is crucial to ensure an appropriate use of hydrological models. When evaluating model results by aggregating their quality in (a subset of) individual observations, overall results of this analysis sometimes conceal important detailed information about model structural deficiencies. Analyzing model results within their local (time) context can uncover this detailed information. In this research, a methodology called Bidirectional Reach (BReach) is proposed to evaluate and analyze results of a hydrological model by assessing the maximum left and right reach in each observation point that is used for model evaluation. These maximum reaches express the capability of the model to describe a subset of the evaluation data both in the direction of the previous (left) and of the following data (right). This capability is evaluated on two levels. First, on the level of individual observations, the combination of a parameter set and an observation is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Second, the behavior in a sequence of observations is evaluated by means of a tolerance degree. This tolerance degree expresses the condition for satisfactory model behavior in a data series and is defined by the percentage of observations within this series that can have non-acceptable model results. Based on both criteria, the maximum left and right reaches of a model in an observation represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. After assessing these reaches for a variety of tolerance degrees, results can be plotted in a combined BReach plot that show temporal changes in the behavior of model results. The methodology is applied on a Probability Distributed Model (PDM) of the river

  10. Development of a skilled forelimb reach task in mice and the effects of C-8 projecting cortical spinal neuron ablation in motor learning by photothermal Au nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning is measured quantitatively through many behavioral tests. Behavioral models for motor learning observe skill acquisition and performance over a period of time within rodents. One such behavioral test is the skilled forelimb reach-to-grasp test. This skilled forelimb reach-to-grasp test has been extensively used to observe motor learning in behavioral studies and is an appropriate metric that can be used to asses experiments of the motor cortex. In this study, the skilled foreli...

  11. Assessment of atherothrombosis and its treatment in Mexico: first-year data of the REACH Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Efraín; Eng-Ceceña, Luis; Ortiz-Galván, Fernando; Llamas-López, Leonardo; Rangel-Guerra, Ricardo; Alcocer-Gamba, Marco A; Bhatt, Deepak L; Gabriel Steg, P

    2010-07-01

    Atherothrombosis, a generalized and progressive process, is currently a major healthcare problem in Mexico. The worldwide Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) registry aimed to evaluate risk factors for atherosclerosis, long-term cardiovascular (CV) event rates, and current management of either patients with established symptomatic atherosclerotic disease or asymptomatic subjects with multiple risk factors for atherothrombotic disease. One-year follow-up of the global REACH database was available for 64 977 outpatients. This report includes the Mexican subregistry wherein 62 internists, cardiologists, and neurologists evaluated baseline patient characteristics, risk factors, medications, and CV event rates as primary outcomes at 1-year follow-up. Complete 1-year follow-up data were available for 837 Mexicans. We observed a high prevalence of diabetes (47.1%), hypertension (74.7%), and hypercholesterolemia (57.8%). Antiplatelet, antihypertensive and/or glucose-lowering agents, and lipid-lowering drugs were used in 87.6%, 84.1%, and 61% of patients, respectively. The all-cause mortality rate was 3.3%. The composite outcome CV death/myocardial infarction/stroke/hospitalization for atherothrombotic events was higher in the symptomatic group (14.6%) than in asymptomatic subjects with multiple risk factors (5.1%; P = 0.01), similar to Latin American results of the global REACH report. The highest CV event rate occurred among symptomatic atherothrombotic patients with 3 vascular disease locations (30.2%), followed by those with 2 (21.9%) and 1 location (13.4%; P = 0.0006). Prevalence of risk factors and CV event rates including hospitalization in Mexican atherothrombotic patients was high despite the current medication use, which suggests it is necessary to have more aggressive risk-factor management. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The assemblage characteristics of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Yalutsangpo River, the highest major river in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengzhen; Wang, Zhaoyin; Pan, Baozhu; Yu, Guoan

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of highland rivers are different from those of low altitude rivers because of the specific topography and environmental parameters associated with high altitudes. Yalutsangpo, the upper course of the Brahmaputra River, is the highest major river in the world, flowing from west to east across Tibet, China and pouring into India. Macroinvertebrates were sampled from Yalutsangpo and its tributaries, the Lhasa, Niyang, and Parlong Tsangpo Rivers, from October 2009 to June 2010, to study characters of the highland aquatic ecosystem. Altogether, 110 macroinvertebrate taxa belonging to 57 families and 102 genera were identified from the basin. The biodiversity and composition of macroinvertebrate assemblages were strongly affected by altitude gradients. Local diversity represented by taxa richness and the improved Shannon-Wiener index were high at altitudes of 3,300-3,700 m, among which suitability of habitat was higher due to the better integrated environmental conditions of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and aquatic vegetation, etc. Macroinvertebrates were grouped into shredders, scrapers, predators, collector-filterers, and collector-gatherers according to their feeding behaviors. It was found that the distributions of the functional feeding groups varied with habitat altitudes. Shredders were present at altitudes of 2,900-4,400 m, while scrapers mainly inhabited altitudes of 3,500-4,500 m, and collector-filterers preferred 3,500-4,000 m. Even though the local taxa richness was not high at each site, the taxonomic composition and density of the assemblages varied greatly among the different sites, resulting in much higher regional diversity compared to the lowland river with similar flow and substrate conditions. The regional cumulative taxa richness of Yalutsangpo decreased and more families were lost as the altitude increased. However, some families that were newly present as the altitude increased were essential for sustaining the high

  13. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  14. Methodology for qualification of wood-based ash according to REACH - prestudy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf (Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Tivegaard, Anna-Maria (SSAB Merox AB, Oxeloesund (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    The new European Union framework directive on waste is to be implemented during the year 2010. According to this directive, much of what today is regarded as waste will instead be assessed as by-products and in many cases fall under the new European union regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals). REACH applies in conjunction with the new European Union regulation CLP (Classification, Labelling and Packaging of substances and mixtures). There are introductory periods for both of these regulations, and in the case of CLP this regards transition from the present and previous rules under the dangerous substances and dangerous preparations directives (DSD and DPD, respectively). Similarly, the new framework directive on waste supersedes the previous directive and some other statements. There is a connection between the directives of waste and the rules for classification and labelling in that the classification of waste (in the categories hazardous and non-hazardous) build on (but are not identical to) the rules for labelling. Similarly, the national Swedish rules for acceptance of recycled material (waste) for use in geotechnical constructions relate to the provisions in REACH on assessment of chemical safety in the both request that the risk be assessed to be small, and that the same or similar methodologies can be applied to verify this. There is a 'reference alternative' in REACH that implies substantial testing prior to registration. Registration is the key to use of a substance even though a substance may be used as such, in a mixture, or to be released from an article. However, REACH as well as CLP contain a number of provisions for using literature data, data on similar chemicals e t c in order to avoid unnecessary testing. This especially applies to testing on humans and vertebrate animals. Vaermeforsk, through its Programme on Environmentally Friendly Use of Non-Coal Ashes has developed methodologies and

  15. Robot-assisted reaching exercise promotes arm movement recovery in chronic hemiparetic stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymer W Zev

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Providing active assistance to complete desired arm movements is a common technique in upper extremity rehabilitation after stroke. Such active assistance may improve recovery by affecting somatosensory input, motor planning, spasticity or soft tissue properties, but it is labor intensive and has not been validated in controlled trials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of robotically administered active-assistive exercise and compare those with free reaching voluntary exercise in improving arm movement ability after chronic stroke. Methods Nineteen individuals at least one year post-stroke were randomized into one of two groups. One group performed 24 sessions of active-assistive reaching exercise with a simple robotic device, while a second group performed a task-matched amount of unassisted reaching. The main outcome measures were range and speed of supported arm movement, range, straightness and smoothness of unsupported reaching, and the Rancho Los Amigos Functional Test of Upper Extremity Function. Results and discussion There were significant improvements with training for range of motion and velocity of supported reaching, straightness of unsupported reaching, and functional movement ability. These improvements were not significantly different between the two training groups. The group that performed unassisted reaching exercise improved the smoothness of their reaching movements more than the robot-assisted group. Conclusion Improvements with both forms of exercise confirmed that repeated, task-related voluntary activation of the damaged motor system is a key stimulus to motor recovery following chronic stroke. Robotically assisting in reaching successfully improved arm movement ability, although it did not provide any detectable, additional value beyond the movement practice that occurred concurrently with it. The inability to detect any additional value of robot-assisted reaching

  16. Application of chemical toxicity distributions to ecotoxicology data requirements under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E Spencer; Berninger, Jason P; Brooks, Bryan W

    2011-08-01

    The European Union's REACH regulation has further highlighted the lack of ecotoxicological data for substances in the marketplace. The mandates under REACH (registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals) to produce data and minimize testing on vertebrates present an impetus for advanced hazard assessment techniques using read-across. Research in our group has recently focused on probabilistic ecotoxicological hazard assessment approaches using chemical toxicity distributions (CTDs). Using available data for chemicals with similar modes of action or within a chemical class may allow for selection of a screening point value (SPV) for development of environmental safety values, based on a probabilistic distribution of toxicity values for a specific endpoint in an ecological receptor. Ecotoxicity data for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and surfactants in Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas were gathered from several data sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ECOTOX and Pesticides Ecotoxicity databases, the peer-reviewed literature, and the Human and Environmental Risk Assessment (HERA) project. Chemical toxicity distributions were subsequently developed, and the first and fifth centiles were used as SPVs for the development of screening-predicted no-effect concentrations (sPNECs). The first and fifth centiles of these distributions were divided by an assessment factor of 1,000, as recommended by REACH guidance. Use of screening values created using these techniques could support the processes of data dossier development and environmental exposure assessment, allowing for rigorous prioritization in testing and monitoring to fill data gaps.

  17. Background of REACH in EU regulations on evaluation of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, H; Hayes, Aw

    2008-06-01

    Industrial chemicals are needed for chemical synthesis or technical purposes. These beneficial effects are counterbalanced by the potential health risks for all who come into contact with them. The new chemical legislation of the EU, Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals (REACH) will force the responsibility of manufacturers and importers of chemical substances to gather the right information needed to decide on the right circumstances of use and control of chemical substances and products. In order to understand the roots of REACH, experiences gained with regard to existing chemicals legislation, particularly in Germany, will be reviewed. Since Council Directive 67/548/EEC all chemicals placed on the market need a set of standard information and provisions for safe transportation. This directive and its amendments (Council Directive(s) 79/831/EEC and 92/32/EEC) have established for new substances a sound information data basis for classification of dangerous properties. Under Council Regulation 793/93/EEC, regulations and administrative provisions have established the requirement to assess the risk to man and the environment of existing substances. So far, only 119 substances have been evaluated under the forces of this regulation. This separation has led to a substantial imbalance between existing substances and new substances with respect to available data needed to recognize hazards for health. The register of produced and imported chemical substances under REACH should eliminate some of this separation and will also be the key for selection of substances of very high concern by the authorization process to restrict the use and distribution accordingly.

  18. Identification of consistency in rating curve data: Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2016-04-01

    Before calculating rating curve discharges, it is crucial to identify possible interruptions in data consistency. In this research, a methodology to perform this preliminary analysis is developed and validated. This methodology, called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), evaluates in each data point results of a rating curve model with randomly sampled parameter sets. The combination of a parameter set and a data point is classified as non-acceptable if the deviation between the accompanying model result and the measurement exceeds observational uncertainty. Moreover, a tolerance degree that defines satisfactory behavior of a sequence of model results is chosen. This tolerance degree equals the percentage of observations that are allowed to have non-acceptable model results. Subsequently, the results of the classification is used to assess the maximum left and right reach for each data point of a chronologically sorted time series. This maximum left and right reach in a gauging point represent the data points in the direction of the previous respectively the following observations beyond which none of the sampled parameter sets both are satisfactory and result in an acceptable deviation. This analysis is repeated for a variety of tolerance degrees. Plotting results of this analysis for all data points and all tolerance degrees in a combined BReach plot enables the detection of changes in data consistency. Moreover, if consistent periods are detected, limits of these periods can be derived. The methodology is validated with various synthetic stage-discharge data sets and proves to be a robust technique to investigate temporal consistency of rating curve data. It provides satisfying results despite of low data availability, large errors in the estimated observational uncertainty, and a rating curve model that is known to cover only a limited part of the observations.

  19. The measurement of $\\alpha_s$ from event shapes with the DELPHI detector at the highest LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    Hadronic event shape distributions are determined from data in e+e- collisions between 183 and 207 GeV. From these the strong coupling alpha_s is extracted in O(alpha_s^2), NLLA and matched O(alpha_s^2)+NLLA theory. Hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as an analytical power ansatz are applied. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at and around M_Z allows a combined measurement of alpha_s from all DELPHI data and a test of the energy dependence of the strong coupling.

  20. Reaching a consensus: a discrete nonlinear time-varying case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburov, M.; Saburov, K.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we have considered a nonlinear protocol for a structured time-varying and synchronous multi-agent system. By means of cubic triple stochastic matrices, we present an opinion sharing dynamics of the multi-agent system as a trajectory of a non-homogeneous system of cubic triple stochastic matrices. We show that the multi-agent system eventually reaches to a consensus if either of the following two conditions is satisfied: (1) every member of the group people has a positive subjective distribution on the given task after some revision steps or (2) all entries of some cubic triple stochastic matrix are positive.

  1. Interaction torque contributes to planar reaching at slow speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshi Fumihiko

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How the central nervous system (CNS organizes the joint dynamics for multi-joint movement is a complex problem, because of the passive interaction among segmental movements. Previous studies have demonstrated that the CNS predictively compensates for interaction torque (INT which is arising from the movement of the adjacent joints. However, most of these studies have mainly examined quick movements, presumably because the current belief is that the effects of INT are not significant at slow speeds. The functional contribution of INT for multijoint movements performed in various speeds is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of INT to a planer reaching in a wide range of motion speeds for healthy subjects. Methods Subjects performed reaching movements toward five targets under three different speed conditions. Joint position data were recorded using a 3-D motion analysis device (50 Hz. Torque components, muscle torque (MUS, interaction torque (INT, gravity torque (G, and net torque (NET were calculated by solving the dynamic equations for the shoulder and elbow. NET at a joint which produces the joint kinematics will be an algebraic sum of torque components; NET = MUS - G - INT. Dynamic muscle torque (DMUS = MUS-G was also calculated. Contributions of INT impulse and DMUS impulse to NET impulse were examined. Results The relative contribution of INT to NET was not dependent on speed for both joints at every target. INT was additive (same direction to DMUS at the shoulder joint, while in the elbow DMUS counteracted (opposed to INT. The trajectory of reach was linear and two-joint movements were coordinated with a specific combination at each target, regardless of motion speed. However, DMUS at the elbow was opposed to the direction of elbow movement, and its magnitude varied from trial to trial in order to compensate for the variability of INT. Conclusion Interaction torque was important at

  2. Defining a controller architecture for the Long-Reach Manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, W.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems Dept. III

    1994-06-01

    To draft a procurement specification for the Long-Reach Manipulator (LRM), the benefits and limitations of the various robotic control system architectures available need to be determined. This report identifies and describes the advantages and potential disadvantages of using an open control system versus a closed (or proprietary) system, focusing on integration of interfaces for sensors, end effectors, tooling, and operator interfaces. In addition, the various controls methodologies of several recent systems are described. Finally, the reasons behind the recommendation to procure an open control system are discussed.

  3. Near IR observations of η Car: Reaching its critical rotation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Kazunori; Mehner, Andrea; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2016-07-01

    We report a preliminary result in the monitoring of η Carinae in JHKs bands through the “spectroscopic” event of 2014.5 at InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF) located in South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The latest photometric data, combined with the data taken with the MK-II photometer [1], show a sign of the same cyclic variation in the J-H vs. H-K diagram reported by Mehner et al.[2]. The change can still be attributed to an apparent increase in black-body temperature, potentially reaching 3,000 to 6,000K as of March 2015.

  4. Family (oikos Evangelism for reaching forward caste Hindus in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DW Fowlkes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the need for Church Planting Movements among the unreached peoples of India. Of particular concern to this study is the application of Church Planting Movement strategy to forward caste Hindus of India. It is shown that evangelizing households (family or �oikos� evangelism is a New Testament strategy and the most appropriate strategy for reaching forward caste Hindus. It is concluded that Christian disciples remaining within Hindu culture and familial systems hold the potential for the most indigenous approach to evangelizing forward caste Hindus.

  5. Optical fiber reach extended FMCW radar for remote respiratory tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Wireless monitoring of human vital signs such as breathing rate is a nonintrusive alternative to contemporary solutions relying on physical contact. To ease the installment, fiber optical transmission is used to extend the reach from the transmitter and receiver circuitry to the antenna subsystem....... In this paper, a frequency modulated carrier wave radar, operating at 25.7–26.6 GHz and utilizing optical fiber extension, was experimentally demonstrated to accurately recover the breathing rate of a human placed 1 m away from the radar antennas....

  6. The reach of INO for atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Tarak; Ghosh, Anushree; Choubey, Sandhya; Dighe, Amol

    2013-05-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will host a 50 kt magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL@INO) for the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Using the detector resolutions and efficiencies obtained by the INO collaboration from a full-detector GEANT4-based simulation, we determine the reach of this experiment for the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters ( {sin^2 {θ_{23 }}and| {\\varDelta m_{32}^2} |} ) . We also explore the sensitivity of this experiment to the octant of θ 23, and its deviation from maximal mixing.

  7. The Reach of INO for Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Thakore, Tarak; Choubey, Sandhya; Dighe, Amol

    2013-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) will host a 50 kt magnetized iron calorimeter (ICAL@INO) for the study of atmospheric neutrinos. Using the detector resolutions and efficiencies obtained by the INO collaboration from a full-detector GEANT4-based simulation, we determine the reach of this experiment for the measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mixing parameters ($\\sin^2 \\theta_{23}$ and $|\\Delta m_{32}^2 |$). We also explore the sensitivity of this experiment to the deviation of $\\theta_{23}$ from maximal mixing, and its octant.

  8. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in the highest parts of the Czech Flysch Carpathians: predisposition, structure and time constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáå.¡; Komárková, Veronika; Tábořík, Petr

    2010-05-01

    The Czech part of the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC) is mainly formed by variously bedded flysch that is susceptible to an occurrence of deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). On contrary to majority of other World's mountain regions where the DSGSDs have recently been studied, the OWC are generally aseismic, they didn't experience a postglacial deglaciation debutressing and reach only low to moderate local relief. This study deals with four structurally preconditioned mountain ridges whose ridgetop parts are spectacularly disrupted by the mass movements (Čertův mlýn Mt., Lysá hora Mt., Ondřejník Mt., Smrk Mt.). All these cases are characterized by typical morphological patterns such as tension cracks, double ridges, crevice-type caves, graben-like troughs or uphill-facing scarps. Each study area has been put through a detailed analysis including mapping, speleological research, structural analyses, paleoseismological trenching, 2D electrical resistivity tomography and radiocarbon and OSL dating. All studied DSGSDs are predisposed by mutual interactions between bedding planes, joint sets, and both normal and strike-slip faults within strongly lithologically and tectonically anisotropic flysch massifs. An orientation of gravitational morphostructures well correlates with a structural fabric of the studied region. The extensive geophysical profiling and trenching on the selected sites revealed significantly higher occurrence of the crevice-type caves and other air-filled voids within the anisotropic rock massifs than it was previously stated. Distinctive subsurface zones with extremely high resistivities (>4000 ohm.m - indicating caves) often continue outside the morphological expressions of the DSGSDs. This finding indicates that the failures initiate inside the ridges at depths mostly 10-40 m. The paleoseismological trenches applied to three sackung-like features revealed complicated inner structures involving faulted and bended strata

  9. Oral cancer preventive campaigns: are we reaching the real target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Paladino Nemoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. Results: In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%, with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years; 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. Conclusion: The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection.

  10. Techniques to extend the reach of ground based gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Sheila

    2016-03-01

    While the current generation of advanced ground based detectors will open the gravitational wave universe to observation, ground based interferometry has the potential to extend the reach of these observatories to high redshifts. Several techniques have the potential to improve the advanced detectors beyond design sensitivity, including the use of squeezed light, upgraded suspensions, and possibly new optical coatings, new test mass materials, and cryogenic suspensions. To improve the sensitivity by more than a factor of 10 compared to advanced detectors new, longer facilities will be needed. Future observatories capable of hosting interferometers 10s of kilometers long have the potential to extend the reach of gravitational wave astronomy to cosmological distances, enabling detection of binary inspirals from throughout the history of star formation.

  11. Observations of improvement of reaching in five subjects with left hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombly, C A

    1993-01-01

    Kinematic analysis and surface electromyography were used to study reaching by five subjects with left hemiparesis as they attempted to touch each of three targets. The targets were placed to require movement within and out of extensor synergy. Each subject was tested five times over a nine week period. Over this time, amplitude of peak velocity and sense of limb position significantly improved in the paretic arms. The increase of amplitude of peak velocity was more strongly related to a decrease in the discontinuity of movement (r = -0.48) than to maximal level of contraction of the prime movers (anterior deltoid: r = 0.25; biceps: r = 0.39). This finding may be a sign of learning or increased maturity of reach. These results, if replicated in a larger sample, would support therapy designed to improve learning of new sensorimotor relationships in the hemiparetic limb.

  12. Exploring REACH as a potential data source for characterizing ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; de Zwart, Dick; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    , such as the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) database. The present study explored REACH as a potential data source for LCIA based on matching reported ecotoxicity data for substances that are currently also included in the United Nations Environment Programme......Toxicity models in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) currently only characterize a small fraction of marketed substances, mostly because of limitations in the underlying ecotoxicity data. One approach to improve the current data situation in LCIA is to identify new data sources....../Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) scientific consensus model USEtox for characterizing toxicity impacts. Data are evaluated with respect to number of data points, reported reliability, and test duration, and are compared with data listed in USEtox at the level of hazardous concentration for 50...

  13. Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 {mu}R/hr and 4 to 11 {mu}R/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheff{acute e}`s F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /{mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 {mu}R/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 {mu}R/hr and a p-value of 0.1155.

  14. CP-violation reach of an electron capture neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    Orme, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article extends the work of Bernabeu and Espinoza by examining the CP-violation reach of a $^{150}$Dy electron capture beam through the variation of the two Lorentz boosts, the number of useful electron capture decays, the relative run time of each boost and the number of atmospheric backgrounds. The neutrinos are assumed to be sourced at CERN with an upgraded SPS and are directed towards a 440 kton Water Cerenkov detector located at the Canfranc laboratory. Two large `CP-coverage' choices for the boost pairings are found; a $\\delta$-symmetrical coverage for $(\\gamma_{1}, \\gamma_{2})$ = (280, 160) and an $\\delta$-asymmetric coverage for $(\\gamma_{1}, \\gamma_{2})$ = (440,150). With a nominal useful decay rate of $N_{\\rm ions} = 10^{18}$ per year, the $\\delta$-symmetric setup can rule out CP-conservation down to $\\sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} = 3\\cdot 10^{-4}$. To reach $\\sin^{2}2\\theta_{13} = 1\\cdot 10^{-3}$ for both $\\delta 0$ requires a useful decay rate of $N_{\\rm ions} = 6\\cdot 10^{17}$ per year.

  15. CP-violation reach of an electron capture neutrino beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    This article extends the work of Bernabeu and Espinoza by examining the CP-violation reach of a 150Dy electron capture beam through the variation of the two Lorentz boosts, the number of useful electron capture decays, the relative run time of each boost and the number of atmospheric backgrounds. The neutrinos are assumed to be sourced at CERN with an upgraded SPS and are directed towards a 440 kton Water Cerenkov detector located at the Canfranc laboratory. Two large ‘CP-coverage’ choices for the boost pairings are found; a δ-symmetrical coverage for ( γ 1, γ 2) = (280, 160) and an δ-asymmetric coverage for ( γ 1 , γ 2) = (440,150). With a nominal useful decay rate of N ions = 1018 ions per year, the δ-symmetric setup can rule out CP-conservation down to sin2 2 θ 13 = 3•10-4. To reach sin2 2 θ 13 =1•10-3 for both δ 0 requires a useful decay rate of N ions = 6•1017 ions per year.

  16. Reaching the hip-hop generation: Final (symposium proceedings) report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this final (closing) report is to capture the flavor of the symposium held March 1 and 2, 1993 in New York City convened by Motivational Educational Entertainment, Inc. (MEE), a black-owned communications research, consulting, and video production company based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The mission of MEE is to understand, reach, and positively affect inner-city youth. Traditional communication approaches from mainstream sources to at-risk youth often don`t account for the unique way youth communicate among themselves and how they relate to the media. This understanding, however, is crucial. To understand youth communication, the people who create and send both entertaining and educational messages to urban youth must be brought into the dialogue. The meeting in New York was intended to provide an important opportunity for senders to meet and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of their messages. In addition, the MEE symposium provided a forum for the continuing public debate about what needs to be done to reach today`s urban teens. Included in this document is a description of symposium goals/objectives, symposium activities, the reaction to and analysis of the symposium, recommendations for future MEE courses of action, and an appendix containing copies of press articles.

  17. Google Hangouts: Leveraging Social Media to Reach the Education Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Summers, Frank; McCallister, Dan; Ryer, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that educator professional development is most effective when it is sustained and/or when a follow-on component is included to support the learning process. In order to create more comprehensive learning experiences for our workshop participants, the education team at the Space Telescope Science Institute is working collaboratively with scientific staff and other experts to create a follow-on component for our professional development program. The new component utilizes video conferencing platforms, such as Google's Hangouts On Air, to provide educators with content updates and extended learning opportunities in between in-person professional development experiences. The goal is to enhance our professional development program in a cost-effective way while reaching a greater cross-section of educators. Video broadcasts go live on Google+, YouTube, and our website - thus providing access to any user with a web browser. Additionally, the broadcasts are automatically recorded and archived for future viewing on our YouTube channel. This provides educators with anywhere, anytime training that best suits their needs and schedules. This poster will highlight our new Hangouts for educators as well as our cross-departmental efforts to expand the reach of our Hubble Hangouts for the public through a targeted recruitment strategy.

  18. Fluvial geomorphology of the Middle Reach of the Huai River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bang-yi YU; Peng WU; Jue-yi SUI; Xing-ju YANG; Jin NI

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Reach of the Huai River (MRHR) flows northeast into the Hongzehu Lake. Before entering the Hongzehu Lake, the Huai River has a braided channel which is shallow and wide, and the riverbed has a negative slope. Based on the characteristics of the MRHR, this river reach can be divided into the following sections: a quasi-straight (or mildly curved) section, a bend section, and a braided section. The majority of the MRHR is quasi-straight. In this paper, several parameters are used to assess the geomorphology of the MRHR. Statistical analyses are performed to establish a relationship between the span length“L”and channel width“B”for different channel patterns. The relationship between the meandering length “S” and bankfull channel width “B” is also derived. Results indicate that the bankfull channel width “B”, the bankfull cross sectional area “A” and the average flow depth“H”are mainly dependent on the dominant discharge in the channel. A relationship is derived that describes the dependency of the curvature radius“R”on the dominant discharge“Q”, water surface slope“J”and the turning angle“α”.

  19. Bionics Solution to Learn the Arm Reaching with Collision Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorce

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a learning model that simulates the control of an anthropomorphic arm kinematics motion. The objective is to reach and grasp a static prototypic object placed behind different kinds of obstacle in size and position. The network, composed of two generic neural network modules, learns to combine multi-modal arm-related information (trajectory parameters as well as obstacle-related information (obstacle size and location. Our simulation was based on the notion of Via Point, which postulates that the motion planning that is divided into specific successive position of the arm. In order to determine these special points, an experimental protocol has been built and pertinent parameters have been integrated to the model. According to these studies, we propose an original method that takes into account the previous learning modules to determine the entire trajectory of the wrist in order to reach the same object placed behind two successive obstacles. The aim of this approach is to understand better the impact of experience in a task realisation and show that learning can be performed from previous initiation. Some results (applied to obstacle avoidance task show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. An optically trapped mirror for reaching the standard quantum limit

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Aso, Yoichi; Tsubono, Kimio

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of a mechanical oscillator driven by quantum back-action is a fundamental requirement to reach the standard quantum limit (SQL) for force measurement, in optomechanical systems. However, thermal fluctuating force generally dominates a disturbance on the oscillator. In the macroscopic scale, an optical linear cavity including a suspended mirror has been used for the weak force measurement, such as gravitational-wave detectors. This configuration has the advantages of reducing the dissipation of the pendulum (i.e., suspension thermal noise) due to a gravitational dilution by using a thin wire, and of increasing the circulating laser power. However, the use of the thin wire is weak for an optical torsional anti-spring effect in the cavity, due to the low mechanical restoring force of the wire. Thus, there is the trade-off between the stability of the system and the sensitivity. Here, we describe using a triangular optical cavity to overcome this limitation for reaching the SQL. The triangular cav...

  1. Reaching Conversation Through Play: A Qualitative Change of Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira R.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates the process of reaching conversation in the case of Anna, a 10- year-old girl, in a countryside Portuguese primary school, through neuropsychological habilitation and psychotherapy. This case identifies the theoretical and methodological concepts from Vygotsky’s cultural historical conceptualization in psychotherapy practice. Vygotsky introduced a new form of thinking in psychology, the concept of play, as a cultural and relational tool on a child’s (consciousness development. During psychotherapy, Anna progressed through the following stages: 1 not playing (deploying the toys, with no relations between them or awareness of social rules; 2 worldplay (building worlds using wooden blocks and other toys, establishing relations between the characters and their possessions; and 3 imaginary situation (with no toys. At the end of this process, she was able to talk about her issues, communicating in a more adaptive way, especially in a schooled society. When she reached conversation, Anna’s activity was also changed. Therefore, there was a qualitative change regarding her needs, motives and ways of acting and reacting to herself, others, and cultural tools or events.

  2. Recovery of Three Arctic Stream Reaches From Experimental Nutrient Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A. C.; Benstead, J. P.; Deegan, L. A.; Peterson, B. J.; Bowden, W. B.; Huryn, A. D.; Slavik, K.; Hershey, A. E.

    2005-05-01

    We examined multi-year patterns in community recovery from experimental low-concentration nutrient (N+P and P only) enrichment in three reaches of two Arctic tundra streams (Kuparuk River and Oksrukuyik Creek) on the North Slope of Alaska (USA). Rates of recovery varied among community components and depended on duration of enrichment (2 to 13 consecutive growing seasons). Biomass and C:P ratio of epilithic algae returned to reference levels rapidly (within 2 years), regardless of enrichment duration. Bryophyte cover, which increased greatly after long-term enrichment (>8 years), recovered to reference levels only after 7 years, when a storm scoured most remnant moss in the recovering reach. Persistence of bryophytes slowed recovery rates of insect taxa that had either been positively (e.g., Ephemerella, most chironomid taxa) or negatively (e.g., Orthocladius rivulorum) affected by this shift in dominant primary producer and its consequence for benthic habitat. Growth of Arctic grayling (adults and young-of-year), the top predator, returned to reference rates within two years. Recovery of these Arctic stream ecosystems from nutrient enrichment was consequently controlled largely by interactions between duration of enrichment and physical disturbance, mediated through physical habitat shifts caused by bryophytes.

  3. Livestock First Reached Southern Africa in Two Separate Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Sadr

    Full Text Available After several decades of research on the subject, we now know when the first livestock reached southern Africa but the question of how they got there remains a contentious topic. Debate centres on whether they were brought with a large migration of Khoe-speakers who originated from East Africa; or whether the livestock were traded down-the-line among hunter-gatherer communities; or indeed whether there was a long history of diverse small scale population movements in this part of the world, one or more of which 'infiltrated' livestock into southern Africa. A new analysis of the distribution of stone toolkits from a sizeable sample of sub-equatorial African Later Stone Age sites, coupled with existing knowledge of the distribution of the earliest livestock remains and ceramics vessels, has allowed us to isolate two separate infiltration events that brought the first livestock into southern Africa just over 2000 years ago; one infiltration was along the Atlantic seaboard and another entered the middle reaches of the Limpopo River Basin. These findings agree well with the latest results of genetic research which together indicate that multiple, small-scale infiltrations probably were responsible for bringing the first livestock into southern Africa.

  4. How do antimalarial drugs reach their intracellular targets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eBasore

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drugs represent the primary treatment available for human malaria, as caused by Plasmodium spp. Currently approved drugs and antimalarial drug leads generally work against parasite enzymes or activities within infected erythrocytes. To reach their specific targets, these chemicals must cross at least three membranes beginning with the host cell membrane. Uptake at each membrane may involve partitioning and diffusion through the lipid bilayer or facilitated transport through channels or carriers. Here, we review the features of available antimalarials and examine whether transporters may be required for their uptake. Our computational analysis suggests that most antimalarials have high intrinsic membrane permeability, obviating the need for uptake via transporters; a subset of compounds appear to require facilitated uptake. We also review parasite and host transporters that may contribute to drug uptake. Broad permeability channels at the erythrocyte and parasitophorous vacuolar membranes of infected cells relax permeability constraints on antimalarial drug design; however, this uptake mechanism is prone to acquired resistance as the parasite may alter channel activity to reduce drug uptake. A better understanding of how antimalarial drugs reach their intracellular targets is critical to prioritizing drug leads for antimalarial development and may reveal new targets for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Effects of an emergent vegetation patch on channel reach bathymetry and stability during repeated unsteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Kevin A.; Crowe Curran, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    While research into the interaction between in-channel vegetation, flow, and bed sediment has increased in recent years, there is still a need to understand how unsteady flows affect these processes, particularly in terms of channel bed adjustments. In this study, flume experiments tested two flood hydrograph sizes run over sand/gravel and sand/silt beds to evaluate reach scale impacts of a midchannel vegetation patch of variable stem density on channel bathymetry and stability. Alternating flood hydrographs with periods of low, steady flow created flow sequences reflective of an extended unsteady flow regime, thereby simulating time scales consisting of multiple flood events. Digital elevation models provided detailed measurements of channel change following each flood event to enable analysis over each unsteady flow sequence. The vegetation patch created characteristic channel bathymetries dependent on sediment mixture and patch density that in all cases resulted in a more variable bed structure than channels without a patch. Reach scale stability, quantified based on net volumetric bed change, only occurred with a sparse patch in the low flood sequence, corresponding with little variation in surface composition and structure. In most other cases, scour measured at the patch prevented stability at the reach scale, especially in the finer substrate. Overall, findings show that a channel may only adjust to a stable bathymetry upon addition of a midchannel vegetation patch within a limited range of flow regimes and patch stem densities, and that for the experimental conditions tested here, in-stream patches generally did not enhance reach scale bed stability.

  6. Stretch bending - the plane within the sheet where strains reach the forming limit curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, F. M.; Terrazas, O. R.; Manopulo, N.; Hora, P.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to model the angular stretch bend test, where a strip of sheet metal is locked at both ends and a tool with a radius stretches and bends the center of the strip until failure. The FEA program used in the study was Abaqus. The FEA model was verified by experimental work using a dual phase steel (DP600) and with a simplified analytical analysis. The FEA model was used to simulate the experimental test for various frictional conditions and various radii of an upward moving tool. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the concave-side rule, which states that during stretch bending the forming limit occurs when the strains on the concave surface plane of the bent sheet (i.e. bottom plane) reach the forming limit curve (FLC). The verification with experimental data indicates that the FEA model represents the process very well. Only conditions where failure occurred on or near the tooling are included in the results. The FEA simulations showed that the actual forming limit of the sheet occurs when the strains on the bottom plane of the sheet (i.e. concave side of the bend) reach the forming limit curve for high friction and small tool radii. For lower friction and for larger tool radii the actual forming limit occurs when strains on other planes in the sheet (i.e. mid planes or top surface plane) reach the forming limit curve. The implications of these results suggest that care must be taken in assessing forming operations when both stretch and bending occur. Although it is known that the FLC cannot predict the forming limit for small bend radii, the common assumption that the forming limit occurs when the strains for the middle thickness plane of the sheet reach the forming limit curve or that the concave side rule is often made. Understanding the limits of this assumption needs to be carefully and critically evaluated.

  7. Conical-Shaped Titania Nanotubes for Optimized Light Management in DSSCs Reach Back-side Illumination Efficiencies > 8%

    CERN Document Server

    So, Seulgi; Peschel, Ulf; Schmuki, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we introduce the anodic growth of conical shaped TiO2 nanotube arrays. These titania nanocones provide a scaffold for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) structures with significantly improved photon management, providing an optimized absorption profile compared with conventional cylindrical nanotube arrays. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modelling demonstrates a drastically changed power-absorption characteristic over the tube length. When used in a back-side illumination DSSC configuration, nanocone structures can reach over 60 % higher solar cell conversion efficiency than conventional tubes. The resulting {\\eta} of ca. 8 % represents one of the highest reported values for Graetzel type DSSCs used under back-side illumination.

  8. South Asian Ethnicity Is Related to the Highest Risk of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Pregnant Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Isman, Carly; Schroder, Theresa H; Li, Wangyang; Green, Tim J; Lamers, Yvonne

    2017-03-23

    Vitamin B12 (B12) adequacy during pregnancy is crucial for maternal health and optimal fetal development; however, suboptimal B12 status has been reported in pregnant Canadian women. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a sensitive indicator of B12 status. Since few studies have measured MMA during pregnancy in Canadian women, the objective of this study was to evaluate B12 status in pregnant women living in Metro Vancouver, using both plasma total B12 and MMA. We recruited a convenience sample of 320 pregnant women between 20 and 35 gestational weeks from local healthcare facilities. Plasma total B12 concentrations indicative of deficiency (B12 status (148-220 pmol/L) were found in 18% and 33% of the women, respectively. Normal plasma MMA concentration (B12 and MMA concentration, and South Asian ethnicity of B-12 deficiency and MMA concentrations. Overall, there was a high discrepancy between the prevalence of B12 inadequacy depending on the biomarker used. Independently, however, South Asian women were at particular risk for B12 deficiency, likely due to lower animal source food intake. Further study of this vulnerable group and performance testing of B12 biomarkers is warranted.

  9. Reaching is Better When You Get What You Want: Realtime Feedback of Intended Reaching Trajectory Despite an Unstable Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin eHorowitz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in human-machine interaction may help overcome the unstable and uncertain environments that cause problems in everyday living. Here we experimentally evaluated intent feedback (IF, which estimates and displays the human operator's underlying intended trajectory in real-time. IF is a filter that combines a model of the arm with position and force data to determine the intended position. Subjects performed targeted reaching motions while seeing either their actual hand position or their estimated intent as a cursor while they experienced white noise forces rendered by a robotic handle. We found significantly better reaching performance during force exposure using the estimated intent. Additionally, in a second set of subjects with a reduced modeled stiffness, IF reduced estimated arm stiffness to about half that without IF, indicating a more relaxed state of operation. While visual distortions typically degrade performance and require an adaptation period to overcome, this particular distortion immediately enhanced performance. In the future, this method could provide novel insights into the nature of control. IF might also be applied in driving and piloting applications to best follow a person's desire in unpredictable or turbulent conditions.

  10. Does Having More Options Mean Harder to Reach Consensus?

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Degang

    2016-01-01

    We generalize a binary majority-vote model on adaptive networks to a plurality-vote counterpart. When opinions are uniformly distributed in the population of voters in the initial state, it is found that having more available opinions in the initial state actually accelerate the time to consensus. In particular, we investigate the three-state plurality-vote model. While time to consensus in two state model scales exponentially with population size $N$, for finite-size system, there is a non-zero probability that either the population reaches the consensus state in a time that is very short and independent of $N$ (in the heterophily regime), or in a time that scales exponentially with $N$ but is still much faster than two-state model.

  11. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayla Dawn Stone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually-guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically-guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

  12. Reaching Quantum Supremacy with a Boson Sampling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Latmiral, Ludovico

    2015-01-01

    Boson Sampling represents a promising witness of the supremacy of quantum systems as a resource for the solution of computational problems. The classical hardness of Boson Sampling has been related to the so called Permanent-of-Gaussians Conjecture and has been extended to some generalizations such as scattershot Boson Sampling, approximate and lossy sampling under some reasonable constraints. However, it is still unclear how demanding these bounds are for a quantum experimental sampler. Starting from a state of the art analysis and focusing on the foreseeable practical conditions needed to reach quantum supremacy, we look at different techniques and present a more general and effective solution. We apply our approach to both the experimental suggestions presented to date and we eventually find in both cases a new threshold that is less error sensitive and experimentally more feasible.

  13. Study on New Approaches for extended chemical management and REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun

    2014-01-01

    For several decades, the use of chemicals has been rapidly increasing and widely spread in our daily life. To cope with this trend, the paradigm of chemical management system has changed: from hazard criteria which is based on their intrinsic hazardous properties, to the actual risk of chemicals...... which is based on both the hazard of the substance and the possible exposure level of human to the substance, and from single substance-oriented to multiple chemical (e.g. mixture toxicity)–oriented management system (EC, 2012; Moeller and Biwer, 2014). This study aims to examine the limitations...... of existing chemical regulations in view of protecting vulnerable populations from “excessive total risk” and to explore the possibilities for improvement. Firstly, the completeness of the REACH exposure scenario was reviewed with the finding that the current scenario does not take into account territorial...

  14. Reaching Nonlinear Consensus via Non-Autonomous Polynomial Stochastic Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saburov, Mansoor; Saburov, Khikmat

    2017-03-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous studies on nonlinear consensus which unifies and generalizes all previous results. We consider a nonlinear protocol for a structured time-varying synchronous multi-agent system. We present an opinion sharing dynamics of the multi-agent system as a trajectory of non-autonomous polynomial stochastic operators associated with multidimensional stochastic hyper-matrices. We show that the multi-agent system eventually reaches to a nonlinear consensus if either one of the following two conditions is satisfied: (i) every member of the group people has a positive subjective distribution on the given task after some revision steps or (ii) all entries of some multidimensional stochastic hyper-matrix are positive.

  15. QSPR prediction of physico-chemical properties for REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, J C; Rotureau, P; Fayet, G

    2013-01-01

    For registration of a chemical, European Union REACH legislation requires information on the relevant physico-chemical properties of the chemical. Predicted property values can be used when the predictions can be shown to be valid and adequate. The relevant physico-chemical properties that are amenable to prediction are: melting/freezing point, boiling point, relative density, vapour pressure, surface tension, water solubility, n-octanol-water partition coefficient, flash point, flammability, explosive properties, self-ignition temperature, adsorption/desorption, dissociation constant, viscosity, and air-water partition coefficient (Henry's law constant). Published quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) methods for all of these properties are discussed, together with relevant property prediction software, as an aid for those wishing to use predicted property values in submissions to the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA).

  16. The contributions of vision and haptics to reaching and grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Kayla D; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to provide a comprehensive outlook on the sensory (visual and haptic) contributions to reaching and grasping. The focus is on studies in developing children, normal, and neuropsychological populations, and in sensory-deprived individuals. Studies have suggested a right-hand/left-hemisphere specialization for visually guided grasping and a left-hand/right-hemisphere specialization for haptically guided object recognition. This poses the interesting possibility that when vision is not available and grasping relies heavily on the haptic system, there is an advantage to use the left hand. We review the evidence for this possibility and dissect the unique contributions of the visual and haptic systems to grasping. We ultimately discuss how the integration of these two sensory modalities shape hand preference.

  17. Reaching for the stars: SLPs shine on literacy teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskowski, Maureen; Zagaiski, Kelley

    2003-08-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who work with school-age children have the opportunity to contribute to the literacy development of specific students as well as the literacy instruction and intervention programs in their district. These efforts are made in collaboration with other professionals and parents and may be referred to as participation on literacy teams. This article describes successful literacy teams in elementary schools including the variety of possible members as well as common characteristics of successful literacy teams. We describe how SLPs participate by developing collegial relationships with their team, using best practices for literacy, and supporting children as they progress in the general curriculum. Finally, we discuss some strategies for SLPs to take stock of their own literacy team participation, identify new goals, and map out a plan to reach new heights in literacy as integral members of literacy teams.

  18. Reaching Rural Canadian Communities in the Yukon and Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laerhoven, Christa L.

    2016-10-01

    Canada is very large geographically, so many rural communities are very far from major centers. People in such communities are at a severe disadvantage when it comes to in-person interaction with science or scientists because resources tend to be directed at large population centers, where more people can be reached for the same amount of effort. While this geographic distance can be mitigated by doing outreach over the internet, there is at some level no substitute for showing up in person with e.g. meteorites in hand. Due to where various members of my family are located, I have occasion to visit Whitehorse, YT and Andrew, AB (~1.5 hour drive north-east of Edmonton) and have taken advantage of trips to these locations to do astronomy outreach in both schools and public libraries. I will discuss how I arranged school and library visits and general observations from my experience doing outreach in rural Canadian communities.

  19. Rapid Automatic Motor Encoding of Competing Reach Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Gallivan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mounting neural evidence suggests that, in situations in which there are multiple potential targets for action, the brain prepares, in parallel, competing movements associated with these targets, prior to implementing one of them. Central to this interpretation is the idea that competing viewed targets, prior to selection, are rapidly and automatically transformed into corresponding motor representations. Here, by applying target-specific, gradual visuomotor rotations and dissociating, unbeknownst to participants, the visual direction of potential targets from the direction of the movements required to reach the same targets, we provide direct evidence for this provocative idea. Our results offer strong empirical support for theories suggesting that competing action options are automatically represented in terms of the movements required to attain them. The rapid motor encoding of potential targets may support the fast optimization of motor costs under conditions of target uncertainty and allow the motor system to inform decisions about target selection.

  20. Reaching Synchronization in Networked Harmonic Oscillators With Outdated Position Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Yu, Wenwu; Cao, Jinde; Liu, Fang

    2016-07-01

    This paper studies the synchronization problem for a network of coupled harmonic oscillators by proposing a distributed control algorithm based only on delayed position states, i.e., outdated position states stored in memory. The coupling strength of the network is conveniently designed according to the absolute values and the principal arguments of the nonzero eigenvalues of the network Laplacian matrix. By analyzing a finite number of stability switches of the network with respect to the variation in the time delay, some necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for reaching synchronization in networked harmonic oscillators with positive and negative coupling strengths, respectively, and it is shown that the time delay should be taken from a set of intervals bounded by some critical values. Simulation examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.