WorldWideScience

Sample records for highest degree held

  1. Degree program changes and curricular flexibility: Addressing long held beliefs about student progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, George Dante

    In higher education and in engineering education in particular, changing majors is generally considered a negative event - or at least an event with negative consequences. An emergent field of study within engineering education revolves around understanding the factors and processes driving student changes of major. Of key importance to further the field of change of major research is a grasp of large scale phenomena occurring throughout multiple systems, knowledge of previous attempts at describing such issues, and the adoption of metrics to probe them effectively. The problem posed is exacerbated by the drive in higher education institutions and among state legislatures to understand and reduce time-to-degree and student attrition. With these factors in mind, insights into large-scale processes that affect student progression are essential to evaluating the success or failure of programs. The goals of this work include describing the current educational research on switchers, identifying core concepts and stumbling blocks in my treatment of switchers, and using the Multiple Institutional Database for Investigating Engineering Longitudinal Development (MIDFIELD) to explore how those who change majors perform as a function of large-scale academic pathways within and without the engineering context. To accomplish these goals, it was first necessary to delve into a recent history of the treatment of switchers within the literature and categorize their approach. While three categories of papers exist in the literature concerning change of major, all three may or may not be applicable to a given database of students or even a single institution. Furthermore, while the term has been coined in the literature, no portable metric for discussing large-scale navigational flexibility exists in engineering education. What such a metric would look like will be discussed as well as the delimitations involved. The results and subsequent discussion will include a description of

  2. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study of emamectin benzoate in cod, Gadus morhua L., held in sea water at 9 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, O B

    2010-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of the antiparasitic agent emamectin benzoate was studied in plasma after intravenous (i.v.) injection and in plasma, muscle and skin following oral (p.o.) administration to cod, Gadus morhua, held in sea water at 9 degrees C and weighing 100-200 g. Following i.v. injection, the plasma drug concentration-time profile showed two distinct phases. The plasma distribution half-life (t(1/2)alpha) was estimated as 2.5 h, the elimination half-life (t(1/2)beta) as 216 h, the total body clearance (Cl(T)) as 0.0059 L kg(-1) h(-1) and mean residence time (MRT) as 385 h. The volume of distribution at steady state, V(d(ss)), was calculated to be 1.839 L kg(-1). Following p.o. administration the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 15 ng mL(-1), the time to peak plasma concentration (T(max)) was 89 h and t(1/2)beta was 180 h. The highest concentration in muscle (21 ng g(-1)) was measured after 7 days and t(1/2)beta was calculated to be 247 h. For skin, a peak concentration of 28 ng g(-1) at 3 days was observed and a t(1/2)beta of 235 h was determined. The bioavailability following p.o. administration was calculated to be 38%.

  3. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  4. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  5. Empowering staff and clients: comparing preferences for management models by the professional degrees held by organization administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardina, Donna; Montana, Salvador

    2011-07-01

    In this article, findings from a national survey of social service managers are described. Respondents were asked to identify theories and models of management that influenced their administrative activities. The results indicate that many of the respondents used an empowerment-oriented approach to management. Respondents were more likely to engage in management activities that focused on empowering staffthan in activities intended to increase client involvement in the political process or organizational decision making. However, when the responses of participants with MSW degrees were compared with those of non-social workers, findings indicate that social workers are more likely to engage in workplace activities that facilitate the political empowerment of clients.

  6. Highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolskij, S.

    1984-01-01

    Primary particles of cosmic radiation with highest energies cannot in view of their low intensity be recorded directly but for this purpose the phenomenon is used that these particles interact with nuclei in the atmosphere and give rise to what are known as extensive air showers. It was found that 40% of primary particles with an energy of 10 15 to 10 16 eV consist of protons, 12 to 15% of helium nuclei, 15% of iron nuclei, the rest of nuclei of other elements. Radiation intensity with an energy of 10 18 to 10 19 eV depends on the direction of incoming particles. Maximum intensity is in the direction of the centre of the nearest clustre of galaxies, minimal in the direction of the central area of our galaxy. (Ha)

  7. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  8. SINTESIS PATI SAGU IKATAN SILANG FOSFAT BERDERAJAT SUBSTITUSI FOSFAT TINGGI DALAM SUASANA ASAM [Synthesis of Cross-Linked Sago Starch Phosphate with the Highest Degree of Substitution of Phosphate Under Acidic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorion Romengga*

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked sago starch phosphate (SgP with high phosphorus contents was successfully synthesized by reacting sago with a mixture of primary and secondary sodium phosphates under acidic condition. The experimental variables investigated include pH, temperature, reaction time, and mixture rate. The physicochemical properties evaluated were moisture, swelling power, water binding capacity, transmittance (%T and percent amylose (%Am, while the pasting properties examined were pasting time, pasting temperature, viscosity at peak, final, and setback. The granule structure was observed by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the maximum degree of phosphate substitution was obtained at pH of 6.50, 40°C, 20 minutes of reaction time and 300 rpm of mixing rate. The physicochemical (%T and %Am and pasting (viscosity at peak, final, and setback properties of SgP were significantly different (P<0.01 from Sg. Structure of SgP was characterized by FT-IR and the results indicated a new absorption peak at 2362.87 cm-1 which was characterized as the phospho-diester (RO-PO3-R’ stretching vibration. In the fingerprint area, there were two new absorption peaks at 1242.05 and 989.79 cm-1 which were characterized as the P=O and C-O-P vibration, respectively. Sago granules were substantially altered after cross-linking.

  9. Catching the Highest Energy Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We briefly discuss the possible sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos and the methods for their detection. Then we present the results obtained by different experiments for detection of the highest energy neutrinos.

  10. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  11. Up to the highest peak!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    In the early hours of this morning, the beam energy was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record and the highest energy for this year’s run. Now operators will prepare the machine to make high-energy collisions later this month. CERN Operations Group leader Mike Lamont (foreground) and LHC engineer in charge Alick Macpherson in the CERN Control Centre early this morning. At 5:23 this morning, Friday 19 March, the energy of both beams in the LHC was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record. During the night, operators had tested the performance of the whole machine with two so-called ‘dry runs’, that is, without beams. Given the good overall response, beams were injected at around 3:00 a.m. and stabilized soon after. The ramp started at around 4:10 and lasted about one hour. Over the last couple of weeks, operation of the LHC at 450 GeV has become routinely reproducible. The operators were able to test and optimize the beam orbit, the beam collimation, the injection and ext...

  12. Directional clustering in highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Haim; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    An unexpected degree of small-scale clustering is observed in highest-energy cosmic ray events. Some directional clustering can be expected due to purely statistical fluctuations for sources distributed randomly in the sky. This creates a background for events originating in clustered sources. We derive analytic formulas to estimate the probability of random cluster configurations, and use these formulas to study the strong potential of the HiRes, Auger, Telescope Array and EUSO-OWL-AirWatch facilities for deciding whether any observed clustering is most likely due to nonrandom sources. For a detailed comparison to data, our analytical approach cannot compete with Monte Carlo simulations, including experimental systematics. However, our derived formulas do offer two advantages: (i) easy assessment of the significance of any observed clustering, and most importantly, (ii) an explicit dependence of cluster probabilities on the chosen angular bin size

  13. Origin of the highest energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Stanev, Todor

    2000-06-01

    Introducing a simple Galactic wind model patterned after the solar wind we show that back-tracing the orbits of the highest energy cosmic events suggests that they may all come from the Virgo cluster, and so probably from the active radio galaxy M87. This confirms a long standing expectation. Those powerful radio galaxies that have their relativistic jets stuck in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, such as 3C147, will then enable us to derive limits on the production of any new kind of particle, expected in some extensions of the standard model in particle physics. New data from HIRES will be crucial in testing the model proposed here.

  14. The highest energies in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    2006-01-01

    There are not many issues of fundamental importance which have induced so many problems for astrophysicists like the question of the origin of cosmic rays. This radiation from the outer space has an energy density comparable with that of the visible starlight or of the microwave background radiation. It is an important feature of our environment with many interesting aspects. A most conspicuous feature is that the energy spectrum of cosmic rays seems to have no natural end, though resonant photopion production with the cosmic microwave background predicts a suppression of extragalactic protons above the so-called Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz’min cutoff at about EGZK = 5 × 10"1"9 eV. In fact the highest particle energies ever observed on the Earth, stem from observations of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (E > 3 × 10"1"9 eV). But the present observations by the AGASA and HiRes Collaborations, partly a matter of debate, are origin of a number of puzzling questions, where these particles are coming from, by which gigantic acceleration mechanism they could gain such tremendous energies and how they have been able to propagate to our Earth. These questions imply serious problems of the understanding of our Universe. There are several approaches to clarify the mysteries of the highest energies and to base the observations on larger statistical accuracy. The Pierre Auger Observatory, being in installation in the Pampa Amarilla in the Province Mendoza in Argentina, is a hybrid detector, combining a large array of water Cerenkov detectors (registering charged particles generated in giant extended air showers) with measurements of the fluorescence light produced during the air shower development. This contribution will illustrate the astrophysical motivation and the current status of the experimental efforts, and sketch the ideas about the origin of these particles.

  15. Hand-held medical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-08-01

    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  16. HRD Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the growing movement toward accreditation for human resources development professionals. She covers the issue of diversity, undergraduate versus graduate degrees, and future trends. (CH)

  17. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  18. Which Kids Are at Highest Risk for Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Which Kids are at Highest Risk for Suicide? Page Content Article Body No child is immune, ... who have lost a friend or relative to suicide. Studies show that a considerable number of youth ...

  19. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  20. Highest weight representations of the quantum algebra Uh(gl∞)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.

    1997-04-01

    A class of highest weight irreducible representations of the quantum algebra U h (gl-∞) is constructed. Within each module a basis is introduced and the transformation relations of the basis under the action of the Chevalley generators are explicitly written. (author). 16 refs

  1. Exploring the cultural dimensions of the right to the highest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many international and regional human rights instruments. This right contains both freedoms and entitlements, including the freedom to control one's own health and body and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services.

  2. The highest energy cosmic rays, photons and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zas, Enrique

    1998-01-01

    In these lectures I introduce and discuss aspects of currently active fields of interest related to the production, transport and detection of high energy particles from extraterrestrial sources. I have payed most attention to the highest energies and I have divided the material according to the types of particles which will be searched for with different experimental facilities in planning: hadrons, gamma rays and neutrinos. Particular attention is given to shower development, stochastic acceleration and detection techniques

  3. Do optimally ripe blackberries contain the highest levels of metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Koron, Darinka; Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert

    2017-01-15

    Five blackberry cultivars were selected for the study ('Chester Thornless', 'Cacanska Bestrna', 'Loch Ness', 'Smoothstem' and 'Thornfree') and harvested at three different maturity stages (under-, optimal- and over-ripe). Optimally ripe and over-ripe blackberries contained significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to under-ripe fruit. 'Loch Ness' cultivar was characterized by 2.2-2.6-fold higher levels of total sugars than other cultivars and consequently, the highest sugar/acids ratio. 'Chester Thornless' stands out as the cultivar with the highest level of vitamin C in under-ripe (125.87mgkg(-1)) and optimally mature fruit (127.66mgkg(-1)). Maturity stage significantly affected the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The content of total anthocyanins increased for 43% at optimal maturity stage and cinnamic acid derivatives for 57% compared to under-ripe fruit. Over-ripe blackberries were distinguished by the highest content of total phenolics (1251-2115mg GAE kg(-1) FW) and greatest FRAP values (25.9-43.2mM TE kg(-1) FW). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  5. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Guerra; Rodrigo Munguia; Yolanda Bolea; Antoni Grau

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D) Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hyp...

  6. Robert Aymar receives one of the highest Finnish distinctions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008 Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, was awarded the decoration of Commander, first class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the President of the Republic of Finland. This decoration, one of the highest of Finland, was presented in a ceremony by the Ambassador Hannu Himanen, Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN and other international organisations in Geneva. Robert Aymar was honoured for his service to CERN, the LHC, his role in the cooperation between Finland and CERN, as well as his contribution to science in general. In his speech the ambassador underlined CERN’s efforts in the field of education, mentioning the High school teachers programme.

  7. Z-burst scenario for the highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-10-01

    The origin of highest energy cosmic rays is yet unknown. An appealing possibility is the so-called Z-burst scenario, in which a large fraction of these cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. The comparison between the observed and predicted spectra constrains the mass of the heaviest neutrino. The required neutrino mass is fairly robust against variations of the presently unknown quantities, such as the amount of relic neutrino clustering, the universal photon radio background and the extragalactic magnetic field. Considering different possibilities for the ordinary cosmic rays the required neutrino masses are determined. In the most plausible case that the ordinary cosmic rays are of extragalactic origin and the universal radio background is strong enough to suppress high energy photons, the required neutrino mass is 0.08 eV ≤ m ν ≤ 0.40 eV. The required ultrahigh energy neutrino flux should be detected in the near future by experiments such as AMANDA, RICE or the Pierre Auger Observatory. (orig.)

  8. Compatibility of Firm Positioning Strategy and Website Content: Highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evla MUTLU KESİCİ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporate websites are essential platforms through which firms introduce their goods and services on B2B and B2C level, express financial information for the stakeholders and share corporate values, purposes and activities. Due to its facilities, websites take part in firm positioning strategy. Accordingly this study aims to understand the innovation oriented positioning through corporate websites. The method applied in this study has been adapted from the 2QCV2Q Model developed by Mich and Franch (2000 to evaluate websites and top 30 firms with the highest Research and Development expenditures listed in Turkishtime (2015 have been analyzed. Within this context, this study presents a revised and updated method for the assessments of websites through positioning strategy framework. Findings indicate no direct relationship between website evaluation and R&D expenditure, though some common weaknesses have been put forward, such as information about management of the firms. Besides, publicly traded firms are recognized to facilitate websites more efficiently than non-publicly traded firms. Study contribute to both academia and practitioners as putting forward a new approach for 2QCV2Q Model and indicating the similarities and differences among the corporate websites through positioning perspective.

  9. Estimation of the center frequency of the highest modulation filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J; Füllgrabe, Christian; Sek, Aleksander

    2009-02-01

    For high-frequency sinusoidal carriers, the threshold for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation increases when the signal modulation frequency increases above about 120 Hz. Using the concept of a modulation filter bank, this effect might be explained by (1) a decreasing sensitivity or greater internal noise for modulation filters with center frequencies above 120 Hz; and (2) a limited span of center frequencies of the modulation filters, the top filter being tuned to about 120 Hz. The second possibility was tested by measuring modulation masking in forward masking using an 8 kHz sinusoidal carrier. The signal modulation frequency was 80, 120, or 180 Hz and the masker modulation frequencies covered a range above and below each signal frequency. Four highly trained listeners were tested. For the 80-Hz signal, the signal threshold was usually maximal when the masker frequency equaled the signal frequency. For the 180-Hz signal, the signal threshold was maximal when the masker frequency was below the signal frequency. For the 120-Hz signal, two listeners showed the former pattern, and two showed the latter pattern. The results support the idea that the highest modulation filter has a center frequency in the range 100-120 Hz.

  10. Kyle Cranmer receives the highest recognition from the US government

    CERN Multimedia

    Allen Mincer

    Kyle Cranmer with Clay Sell, Deputy Secretary of EnergyKyle Cranmer, who has worked on ATLAS as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a Goldhaber Fellow at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and, most recently, an Assistant Professor at New York University, has been awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). As described at the United States Department of Energy web page: "The PECASE Awards are intended to recognize some of the finest scientists and engineers who, while early in their research careers, show exceptional potential for leadership at the frontiers of scientific knowledge during the twenty-first century...The PECASE Award is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers." Kyle's work on ATLAS focuses on tools and strategies for data analysis, triggering, and searches for the Higgs.At the awards ceremony, which took place on Thursday Nov. 1st in Washington, D.C.,...

  11. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-12-18

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

  12. Academic Training - Tevatron: studying pp collisions at the highest energy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 15, 16, 17, 18 May Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 15, 16, 17 May - Council Chamber on 18 May Physics at the Tevatron B. HEINEMANN, Univ. of Liverpool, FERMILAB Physics Results from the Tevatron The Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab in the US is currently the world's highest energy collider. At the experiments CDF and D0 a broad physics programme is being pursued, ranging from flavour physics via electroweak precision measurements to searches for the Higgs boson and new particles beyond the Standard Model. In my lecture I will describe some of the highlight measurements in the flavour, electroweak and searches sectors, and the experimental techniques that are used. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/...

  13. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Guerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse-Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  14. [The gender gap in highest quality medical research - A scientometric analysis of the representation of female authors in highest impact medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendels, Michael H K; Wanke, Eileen M; Benik, Steffen; Schehadat, Marc S; Schöffel, Norman; Bauer, Jan; Gerber, Alexander; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Oremek, Gerhard M; Groneberg, David A

    2018-05-01

     The study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in high-impact medical research, analyzing the representation of female authorships from January, 2008 to September, 2017.  133 893 male and female authorships from seven high-impact medical journals were analyzed. The key methodology was the combined analysis of the relative frequency, odds ratio and citations of female authorships. The Prestige Index measures the distribution of prestigious authorships between the two genders.  35.0 % of all authorships and 34.3 % of the first, 36.1 % of the co- and 24.2 % of the last authorships were held by women. Female authors have an odds ratio of 0.97 (KI: 0.93 - 1.01) for first, 1.36 (KI: 1.32 - 1.40) for co- und 0.57 (KI: 0.54 - 0.60) for last authorships compared to male authors. The proportion of female authorships exhibits an annual growth of 1.3 % overall, with 0.5 % for first, 1.2 % for co-, and 0.8 % for last authorships. Women are underrepresented at prestigious authorship compared to men (Prestige Index = -0.38). The underrepresentation accentuates in highly competitive articles attracting the highest citation rates, namely, articles with many authors and articles that were published in highest-impact journals. Multi-author articles with male key authors are more frequently cited than articles with female key authors. The gender-specific differences in citation rates increase the more authors contribute to an article. Women publish fewer articles compared to men (39.6 % female authors are responsible for 35.0 % of the authorships) and are underrepresented at productivity levels of more than 1 article per author. Distinct differences at the country level were revealed.  High impact medical research is characterized by few female group leaders as last authors and many female researchers being first or co-authors early in their career. It is very likely that this gender-specific career dichotomy will persistent in

  15. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish undergraduate medical degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, M Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Barrio-Fernández, José Luis; Porta, Miquel; Benavides, Fernando G; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2016-01-01

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into undergraduate medical degrees. The 2nd Forum of University Teachers was held at the Rey Juan Carlos University (Madrid, 11-12 December 2014). Twenty-four university professors and lecturers from 19 Spanish universities imparting medical degrees participated in the forum. They were distributed in three working groups during three working sessions. In the first session, they were asked to identify and classify core public health competencies for medical degrees. In the second, they were asked to propose public health contents for the identified competencies. In the third session, the participants organized these contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in distinct plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the public health functions «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organised into five units: Concept of health, public health and its determinants; Epidemiology and health research; Determinants and health problems; Strategies, interventions and policies; and health systems, clinical and healthcare management. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to improve and update public health training programmes for future medical professionals. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  17. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  18. The Legacy of Manfred Held with Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    President Executive Vice President and Provost The report entitled “The Legacy of Manfred Held with Critique” contains the results of research...xxii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xxiii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Prof (Dr) Manfred Held...de choc des explosifs solides. Propellants and Explosives, 6, 63-66. [013] Held, M. (1987). Experiments of initiation of covered, but unconfined

  19. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    , empirical data relevant to the development of the degree adverb function is presented and possible relevant constructions identified. It is argued that the degree adverb function of that possibly occurs later than the historical dictionaries indicate. The degree adverb function of this is challenging...

  20. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  1. [Public health competencies and contents in pharmacy degree programs in Spanish universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Bosch, Félix

    2015-01-01

    To identify public health core competencies and contents in pharmacy degrees at a meeting of public health lecturers in pharmacy degrees from various public and private universities. The first Meeting of the Forum of University Teaching Staff in Pharmacy Degrees was held at the Faculty of Medicine in the Complutense University, Madrid, Spain on the 19(th) and 20(th) of November 2013. The meeting was attended by 17 lecturers. Participants brought their own teaching programs and were given two previous studies on public health competencies for analysis of public health contents and competencies in pharmacy degrees. Working groups were formed and the results were shared. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the following functions: "Assessment of the population's health needs" and "Developing health policies". The final program included basic contents organized into 8 units: Concept of Public Health, Demography, Epidemiological Method, Environment and Health, Food Safety, Epidemiology of Major Health Problems, Health Promotion and Education, and Health Planning and Management. Representation of almost all the Spanish Pharmacy Faculties and the consensus reached in the description of competences and program contents will greatly improve the quality of teaching in this area. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programmes of Veterinary Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davó-Blanes, María Del Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Huerta, Belén

    2017-04-19

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into the Veterinary Medicine degree training. The 3rd Forum of University Professors of Public Health was held at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Cordoba (12-13 January 2016). Forty-two university professors and lecturers from nine Spanish universities with veterinary degrees participated in the forum. They were divided into five working groups during three working sessions to identify and classify core public health competencies for the Veterinary Medicine degree, propose public health contents for the identified competencies and organize such contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in different plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the following public health functions: «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organized into five units: 1) Fundamentals of public health; 2) Study and research in public health; 3) Production, animal health and environment; 4) Food security; and 5) Health education. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to update public health training programmes for future veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  4. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  5. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  6. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  7. A new derivation of the highest-weight polynomial of a unitary lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Chau, Huu-Tai; P Van, Isacker

    2000-01-01

    A new method is presented to derive the expression of the highest-weight polynomial used to build the basis of an irreducible representation (IR) of the unitary algebra U(2J+1). After a brief reminder of Moshinsky's method to arrive at the set of equations defining the highest-weight polynomial of U(2J+1), an alternative derivation of the polynomial from these equations is presented. The method is less general than the one proposed by Moshinsky but has the advantage that the determinantal expression of the highest-weight polynomial is arrived at in a direct way using matrix inversions. (authors)

  8. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  9. The Highest Good and the Practical Regulative Knowledge in Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Thiago Klein

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I defend three different points: first, that the concept of highest good is derived from an a priori but subjective argument, namely a maxim of pure practical reason; secondly, that the theory regarding the highest good has the validity of a practical regulative knowledge; and thirdly, that the practical regulative knowledge can be understood as the same “holding something to be true” as Kant attributes to hope and believe.

  10. Marine Bioinorganic Chemistry Workshop Held in Heron Island on 28 June - 2nd July 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-09

    Vilter, H. Phytochemistry, 1984, 23, 1387-1390. 2. Vilter, H. Botanica Marina, 1983, 26, 451-455. 3. Wever, R., Plat, H. and De Boer, E., Biochim. Biophys...and DSc (1977) Vf degrees from the University of Melbourne, where he held teaching and research positions. His major research interests involve the

  11. 27 CFR 19.349 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines... of Spirits § 19.349 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When spirits of less than 190 degrees of proof or wines are mingled in a tank, the proprietor shall gauge the spirits or wines in the tank and...

  12. Special Report: Top 100 Degree Producers. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Data on the colleges and universities producing the highest numbers of minority master's, doctoral, and first professional degrees in 1996-1997 are presented. Rankings are organized by degree level, ethnic group (African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, Native American), discipline group, and overall graduation rate. Breakouts are also…

  13. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q"2's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q"2 values of 3.5 GeV"2 to the highest values of Q"2=250 GeV"2. To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35< Q"2 GeV"2 region. The fits including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.

  14. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  15. Degrees of democraticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bergström

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342

  16. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-03-01

    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  17. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The

  18. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in Madeira (Portugal): the highest prevalence in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Carla; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Pereira, Conceição; Brehm, António; Spínola, Hélder

    2009-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common genetic disease which affects both lung and liver. Early diagnosis can help asymptomatic patients to adjust their lifestyle choices in order to reduce the risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The determination of this genetic deficiency prevalence in Madeira Island (Portugal) population is important to clarify susceptibility and define the relevance of performing genetic tests for AAT on individuals at risk for COPD. Two hundred samples of unrelated individuals from Madeira Island were genotyped for the two most common AAT deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Mediated Site-Directed Mutagenesis. Our results show one of the highest frequencies for both mutations when compared to any already studied population in the world. In fact, PI*S mutation has the highest prevalence (18%), and PI*Z mutation (2.5%) was the third highest worldwide. The frequency of AAT deficiency genotypes in Madeira (PI*ZZ, PI*SS, and PI*SZ) is estimated to be the highest in the world: 41 per 1000. This high prevalence of AAT deficiency on Madeira Island reveals an increased genetic susceptibility to COPD and suggests a routine genetic testing for individuals at risk.

  19. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.; Litvak, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  20. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  1. Highest manageable level of radioactivity in the waste storage facilities of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.; Lennartsson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This project presents and discusses an investigation of the highest level of radioactivity possible to handle in the waste storage facilities. The amount of radioactivity, about 0.1% of the fuel inventory, is the same in both of the cases but the amount of water is very different. The hypothetical accident was supposed to be damage of the reactor fuel caused by loss of coolant. (K.A.E.)

  2. Highest cited papers published in Neurology India: An analysis for the years 1993-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Paritosh; Subeikshanan, V; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S

    2016-01-01

    The highest cited papers published in a journal provide a snapshot of the clinical practice and research in that specialty and/or region. The aim of this study was to determine the highest cited papers published in Neurology India and analyze their attributes. This study was a citation analysis of all papers published in Neurology India since online archiving commenced in 1993. All papers published in Neurology India between the years 1993-2014 were listed. The number of times each paper had been cited up till the time of performing this study was determined by performing a Google Scholar search. Published papers were then ranked on the basis of total times cited since publication and the annual citation rate. Statistical Techniques: Simple counts and percentages were used to report most results. The mean citations received by papers in various categories were compared using the Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance, as appropriate. All analyses were carried out on SAS University Edition (SAS/STAT®, SAS Institute Inc, NC, USA) and graphs were generated on MS Excel 2016. The top papers on the total citations and annual citation rate rank lists pertained to basic neuroscience research. The highest cited paper overall had received 139 citations. About a quarter of the papers published had never been cited at all. The major themes represented were vascular diseases and infections. The highest cited papers reflect the diseases that are of major concern in India. Certain domains such as trauma, allied neurosciences, and basic neuroscience research were underrepresented.

  3. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  4. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  5. Eyebrow hairs from actinic keratosis patients harbor the highest number of cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ines; Lehmann, Mandy D; Kogosov, Vlada; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo

    2013-04-24

    Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (pAK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK.

  6. Growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in egg products held at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S E; Chou, C C

    2000-07-01

    Growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in steamed eggs and scrambled eggs held at different temperatures (5, 18, 22, 37, 55, and 60 degrees C) were investigated in the present study. Among the holding temperatures tested, both pathogens multiplied best at 37 degrees C followed by 22, 18, and 5 degrees C. In general, E. coli O157:H7 grew better in the egg products than L. monocytogenes did at all the storage temperatures tested except at 5 degrees C. E. coli O157:H7 did not grow in steamed eggs and scrambled eggs held at 5 degrees C. L. monocytogenes showed a slight population increase of approximately 0.6 to 0.9 log CFU/g in these egg products at the end of the 36-h storage period at 5 degrees C. The population of both pathogens detected in the egg products was affected by the initial population, holding temperature, and length of the holding period. It was also noted that L. monocytogenes was more susceptible than E. coli O157:H7 in steamed eggs held at 60 degrees C. After holding at 60 degrees C for 1 h, no detectable viable cells of L. monocytogenes with a population reduction of 5.4 log CFU/g was observed in steamed eggs, whereas a lower population reduction of only approximately 0.5 log CFU/ml was noted for E. coli O157:H7.

  7. Eyebrow hairs from actinic keratosis patients harbor the highest number of cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Methods Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. Results The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (p< 0.001) and 37% of normal skin (28/75, median 4 types) (p< 0.001), respectively. A total of 228 HPV infections were found in eyebrow hairs compared to only 92 HPV infections in AK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Conclusions Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK. PMID:23618013

  8. 17-Year-Old Boy with Renal Failure and the Highest Reported Creatinine in Pediatric Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Master Sankar Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is on the rise and constitutes a major health burden across the world. Clinical presentations in early CKD are usually subtle. Awareness of the risk factors for CKD is important for early diagnosis and treatment to slow the progression of disease. We present a case report of a 17-year-old African American male who presented in a life threatening hypertensive emergency with renal failure and the highest reported serum creatinine in a pediatric patient. A brief discussion on CKD criteria, complications, and potential red flags for screening strategies is provided.

  9. Observations of the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    EGRET has extended the highest energy observations of gamma-ray bursts to GeV gamma rays. Such high energies imply the fireball that is radiating the gamma-rays has a bulk Lorentz factor of several hundred. However, EGRET only detected a few gamma-ray bursts. GLAST will likely detect several hundred bursts and may extend the maximum energy to a few 100 GeV. Meanwhile new ground based detectors with sensitivity to gamma-ray bursts are beginning operation, and one recently reported evidence for TeV emission from a burst

  10. Addressing the Highest Risk: Environmental Programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Elaine E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08

    Report topics: Current status of cleanup; Shift in priorities to address highest risk; Removal of above-ground waste; and Continued focus on protecting water resources. Partnership between the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos Site Office, DOE Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico Environment Department, and contractor staff has enabled unprecedented cleanup progress. Progress on TRU campaign is well ahead of plan. To date, have completed 130 shipments vs. 104 planned; shipped 483 cubic meters of above-ground waste (vs. 277 planned); and removed 11,249 PE Ci of material at risk (vs. 9,411 planned).

  11. Automatic orbital GTAW welding: Highest quality welds for tomorrow's high-performance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henon, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic orbital gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG welding is certain to play an increasingly prominent role in tomorrow's technology. The welds are of the highest quality and the repeatability of automatic weldings is vastly superior to that of manual welding. Since less heat is applied to the weld during automatic welding than manual welding, there is less change in the metallurgical properties of the parent material. The possibility of accurate control and the cleanliness of the automatic GTAW welding process make it highly suitable to the welding of the more exotic and expensive materials which are now widely used in the aerospace and hydrospace industries. Titanium, stainless steel, Inconel, and Incoloy, as well as, aluminum can all be welded to the highest quality specifications automatically. Automatic orbital GTAW equipment is available for the fusion butt welding of tube-to-tube, as well as, tube to autobuttweld fittings. The same equipment can also be used for the fusion butt welding of up to 6 inch pipe with a wall thickness of up to 0.154 inches.

  12. Optimasi Penggunaan Lahan Kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti Untuk Properti Komersial Dengan Prinsip Highest and Best Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Darmawan Saputra Mahardika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Baturiti merupakan satu-satunya kecamatan di Kabupaten Tabanan yang berkembang dalam sektor ekonomi agrowisata karena lokasinya yang strategis dekat dengan berbagai obyek wisata terkenal. Dengan lokasi yang strategis, pembangunan untuk properti komersial tentu akan memberikan potensi keuntungan tinggi bagi investor yang memiliki lahan kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti. Kondisi seperti ini menyebabkan permintaan yang tinggi akan lahan, padahal ketersediaan lahan selalu berkurang. Pembangunan properti komersial di Kecamatan Baturiti perlu dioptimalisasi agar dicapai keuntungan maksimum bagi investor. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, investor yang ingin membangun di Kecamatan Baturiti memerlukan analisa untuk mendapatkan alternatif pemanfaatan lahan kosong. Lahan yang dianalisa merupakan lahan kosong belum terbangun seluas 22.175 m2 di Kecamatan Baturiti, Kabupaten Tabanan. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengetahui alternatif pendirian bangunan komersial yang memiliki nilai pasar tertinggi adalah Highest and Best Use (HBU. Dengan metode tersebut, pemilik lahan dapat mengetahui alternatif terbaik yang memenuhi syarat-syarat diijinkan secara legal, memungkinkan secara fisik, layak secara finansial, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum. Hasil yang diperoleh dari analisa Highest and Best Use ini adalah alternatif mixed-use berupa hotel dan toko souvenir dengan nilai lahan tertinggi dibandingkan alternatif lainnya sebesar Rp 7,950,714.60 per m2.

  13. A novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yukun; Ye, Fuxing; Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The plasma sprayed coatings are stacked by splats, which are regarded generally as the elementary units of coating. Many researchers have focused on the morphology and formation mechanism of splat. However, a novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects is proposed according to the nanohardness of splat in this paper. The effectiveness of this novel method was examined by experiments. Firstly, the microstructure of splats and coating, meanwhile the 3D topography of the splats were observed by SEM (SU1510) and video microscope (VHX-2000). Secondly, the nanohardness of splats was evaluated by nanoindentation (NHT) in order to be compared with microhardness of coating measured by microhardness tester (HV-1000A). The results show that the nanohardness of splats with diameter of 70 μm, 100 μm and 140 μm were in the scope of 11∼12 GPa while the microhardness of coating were in the range of 8∼9 GPa. Because the splats had not micro-defects such as pores and cracks in the nanohardness evaluated nano-zone, the nanohardness of the splats can be utilized to predict the highest hardness of coating without micro-defects. This method indicates the maximum of sprayed coating hardness and will reduce the test number to get high hardness coating for better wear resistance.

  14. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  15. Strategies for Pursuing a Master's Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia M; McIntosh, Constance E; Mensik, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Health care has become very complex and is in a constant state of change. As a result of the evolving change and increasing complexity, a more educated nursing workforce is needed (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010). It is now becoming necessary for registered nurses to earn an advanced degree to work at the highest level of their practice authority (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010.). Preparing to reenter college may be an overwhelming prospect for some registered nurses seeking an advanced degree. However, there are some simple strategies that may help sort out the many degree options, financial obligations, decisions about brick and mortar versus online learning, commitment to degree completion, and changing career paths. This article will provide the registered nurse valuable information that will assist in the exciting process of returning to college.

  16. Analisa Highest and Best Use Pada Lahan Kosong Di Jemur Gayungan II Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finda Virgitta Faradiany

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan bisnis properti di Surabaya yang semakin pesat, mengakibatkan permintaan terhadap lahan semakin tinggi. Namun fakta di lapangan menampakkan hal yang sebaliknya karena ternyata masih terdapat lahan-lahan yang dibiarkan kosong tidak dimanfaatkan oleh pemiliknya. Kondisi yang demikian memerlukan efisiensi dan optimalisasi penggunaan lahan dengan mendirikan sebuah properti komersial yang memberikan keuntungan bagi pemilik serta lingkungan sekitarnya.Lahan “X” seluas 1786 m2 berlokasi di Jl. Jemur Gayungan II merupakan lahan kosong yang terletak di dekat daerah perkantoran dan berpotensi dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial. Penentuan nilai lahan “X” bergantung pada penggunaan lahan. Metode penilaian yang digunakan adalah analisa penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik atau Highest and Best Use (HBU yang secara legal diijinkan, secara fisik memungkinkan, layak secara finansial dan memiliki produktifitas maksimum. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan alternatif yang menghasilkan nilai lahan tertinggi dan produktivitas maksimum adalah hotel. Nilai lahan yang didapatkan sebesar Rp 9.722.718/m2 dengan produktivitas meningkat sebesar 486%.

  17. Failure of ETV in patients with the highest ETV success scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaris, Thomas J; Nazar, Ryan; Middlebrook, Emily; Gonda, David D; Jea, Andrew; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a surgical alternative to placing a CSF shunt in certain patients with hydrocephalus. The ETV Success Score (ETVSS) is a reliable, simple method to estimate the success of the procedure by 6 months of postoperative follow-up. The highest score is 90, estimating a 90% chance of the ETV effectively treating hydrocephalus without requiring a shunt. Treatment with ETV fails in certain patients, despite their being the theoretically best candidates for the procedure. In this study the authors attempted to identify factors that further predicted success in patients with the highest ETVSSs. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of all patients treated with ETV at 3 institutions. Demographic, radiological, and clinical data were recorded. All patients by definition were older than 1 year, had obstructive hydrocephalus, and did not have a prior shunt. Failure of ETV was defined as the need for a shunt by 1 year. The ETV was considered a success if the patient did not require another surgery (either shunt placement or a repeat endoscopic procedure) by 1 year. A statistical analysis was performed to identify factors associated with success or failure. RESULTS Fifty-nine patients met the entry criteria for the study. Eleven patients (18.6%) required further surgery by 1 year. All of these patients received a shunt. The presenting symptom of lethargy statistically correlated with success (p = 0.0126, odds ratio [OR] = 0.072). The preoperative radiological finding of transependymal flow (p = 0.0375, OR 0.158) correlated with success. A postoperative larger maximum width of the third ventricle correlated with failure (p = 0.0265). CONCLUSIONS The preoperative findings of lethargy and transependymal flow statistically correlated with success. This suggests that the best candidates for ETV are those with a relatively acute elevation of intracranial pressure. Cases without these findings may represent the failures in this

  18. The highest velocity and the shortest duration permitting attainment of VO2max during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p226   The severe-intensity domain has important applications for the prescription of running training and the elaboration of experimental designs. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the validity of a previously proposed model to estimate the shortest exercise duration (TLOW and the highest velocity (VHIGH at which VO2max is reached during running, and 2 to evaluate the effects of aerobic training status on these variables. Eight runners and eight physically active subjects performed several treadmill running exercise tests to fatigue in order to mathematically estimate and to experimentally determine TLOW and VHIGH. The relationship between the time to achieve VO2max and time to exhaustion (Tlim was used to estimate TLOW. VHIGH was estimated using the critical velocity model. VHIGH was assumed to be the highest velocity at which VO2 was equal to or higher than the average VO2max minus one standard deviation. TLOW was defined as Tlim associated with VHIGH. Runners presented better aerobic fitness and higher VHIGH (22.2 ± 1.9 km.h-1 than active subjects (20.0 ± 2.1 km.h-1. However, TLOW did not differ between groups (runners: 101 ± 39 s; active subjects: 100 ± 35 s. TLOW and VHIGH were not well estimated by the model proposed, with high coefficients of variation (> 6% and a low correlation coefficient (r<0.70, a fact reducing the validity of the model. It was concluded that aerobic training status positively affected only VHIGH. Furthermore, the model proposed presented low validity to estimate the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain (i.e., VHIGH, irrespective of the subjects’ training status.

  19. Hand-held and automated breast ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Kimme-Smith, C.

    1985-01-01

    The book is a guide for physicians and technologists who use US as an adjunct to mammography; it carefully outlines the pros and cons of US of the breast and its role in the diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. After an introduction that discusses the philosophy of breast US, the chapters cover the physics of US and instrumentation (both hand-held transducers as well as automated water path scanners), then proceed to a discussion of the normal breast. Sections on benign disorders, malignant lesions, and pitfalls of diagnosis are followed by quiz cases

  20. Preparing Norfolk Area Students for America's Second Highest Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    The nonprofit Elizabeth River Project located in Hampton Roads, Virginia was awarded a 3-year national NOAA Environmental Literacy award 2016-2019 to teach 21,000 K-12 youth how to help restore one of the most polluted rivers on the Chesapeake Bay and to help create a resilient community that is facing impacts from the rising seas and changing climate. Through a community collaboration, partners are also creating perhaps the nation's first Youth Resilience Strategy with a vision, goals, best practices and resources on engaging youth to help create resilient cities facing environmental and economic changes. During Year 1, 7,000 elementary students held field investigations aboard the floating classroom Learning Barge and at Paradise Creek Nature Park and helped restore wetland restoration sites. Students performed inquiry based investigations, learned stewardship actions to help create resilience and showed a 40% increase in knowledge. Year 1 best practices in teaching resilience include youth: getting out of the classroom, discovering how rain water travels, performing bioblitzes and water quality testing, engaging in hands-on GreenSTEM activities, using investigation tools, creating innovative solutions to retain and reuse rain water, creating art and voicing their opinions on creating a resilient community.Lessons learned include developing engaging inquiry questions based on creating a resilient community. These included: "What are the impact of rising tides?", "How can sea level rise affect river animals?", "How can we be safe and prepare for extreme weather and flooding as the sea level rises?", "How has the way people worked with the Elizabeth River changed?", "How could sea level rise affect the Elizabeth River's water quality?", "How hot might the air temperature get by 2050 and what can we do to keep it cooler?", "What does this park show us about sea level rise and other ways our climate is changing?", "How do trees help make our park and community

  1. Land Subsidence International Symposium held in Venice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third International Symposium on Land Subsidence was held March 18-25, 1984, in Venice, Italy. Sponsors were the Ground-Water Commission of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS), the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Italian National Research Council (CNR), the Italian Regions of Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, the Italian Municipalities of Venice, Ravenna, and Modena, the Venice Province, and the European Research Office. Cosponsors included the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMFE), and the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID).Organized within the framework of UNESCO's International Hydrological Program, the symposium brought together over 200 international interdisciplinary specialists in the problems of land subsidence due to fluid and mineral withdrawal. Because man's continuing heavy development of groundwater, gas, oil, and minerals is changing the natural regime and thus causing more and more subsiding areas in the world, there had been sufficient new land subsidence occurrence, problems, research, and remedial measures since the 1976 Second International Symposium held in Anaheim, California, to develop a most interesting program of nearly 100 papers from about 30 countries. The program consisted of papers covering case histories of fluid and mineral withdrawal, engineering theory and analysis, karst “sink-hole”-type subsidence, subsidence due to dewatering of organic deposits or due to application of water (hydrocompaction), instrumentation, legal, socioeconomic, and environmental effects of land subsidence, and remedial works.

  2. 27 CFR 46.207 - Articles held in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles held in bond. 46... Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Inventories § 46.207 Articles held in bond. If the dealer is a manufacturer or an export warehouse proprietor and holds articles in TTB bond on April 1, 2009, the floor...

  3. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  4. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be operated at high potential...

  5. THE IMPACT OF FREQUENCY STANDARDS ON COHERENCE IN VLBI AT THE HIGHEST FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioja, M.; Dodson, R. [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Asaki, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hartnett, J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Tingay, S., E-mail: maria.rioja@icrar.org [ICRAR, Curtin University, Perth (Australia)

    2012-10-01

    We have carried out full imaging simulation studies to explore the impact of frequency standards in millimeter and submillimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), focusing on the coherence time and sensitivity. In particular, we compare the performance of the H-maser, traditionally used in VLBI, to that of ultra-stable cryocooled sapphire oscillators over a range of observing frequencies, weather conditions, and analysis strategies. Our simulations show that at the highest frequencies, the losses induced by H-maser instabilities are comparable to those from high-quality tropospheric conditions. We find significant benefits in replacing H-masers with cryocooled sapphire oscillator based frequency references in VLBI observations at frequencies above 175 GHz in sites which have the best weather conditions; at 350 GHz we estimate a 20%-40% increase in sensitivity over that obtained when the sites have H-masers, for coherence losses of 20%-10%, respectively. Maximum benefits are to be expected by using co-located Water Vapor Radiometers for atmospheric correction. In this case, we estimate a 60%-120% increase in sensitivity over the H-maser at 350 GHz.

  6. Exchange Interactions on the Highest-Spin Reported Molecule: the Mixed-Valence Fe42 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Daniel; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2016-04-01

    The finding of high-spin molecules that could behave as conventional magnets has been one of the main challenges in Molecular Magnetism. Here, the exchange interactions, present in the highest-spin molecule published in the literature, Fe42, have been analysed using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory. The system with a total spin value S = 45 is formed by 42 iron centres containing 18 high-spin FeIII ferromagnetically coupled and 24 diamagnetic low-spin FeII ions. The bridging ligands between the two paramagnetic centres are two cyanide ligands coordinated to the diamagnetic FeII cations. Calculations were performed using either small Fe4 or Fe3 models or the whole Fe42 complex, showing the presence of two different ferromagnetic couplings between the paramagnetic FeIII centres. Finally, Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for the whole system were carried out in order to compare the experimental and simulated magnetic susceptibility curves from the calculated exchange coupling constants with the experimental one. This comparison allows for the evaluation of the accuracy of different exchange-correlation functionals to reproduce such magnetic properties.

  7. Analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada Lahan Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaluddin Akmaluddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laju pertumbuhan penduduk dan tingkat perekonomian yang semakin meningkat di  kota-kota besar seperti Surabaya, bertolak belakang dengan  ketersediaan lahan yang terbatas. Selayaknya properti yang akan dibangun di atas suatu lahan dapat memberikan manfaat yang maksimal serta efisien agar hasilnya dapat dirasakan demi pembangunan wilayah tersebut. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perhitungan  penggunaan yang paling memungkinkan dan diizinkan dari suatu tanah kosong atau tanah yang  sudah dibangun, dimana secara fisik dimungkinkan, didukung atau dibenarkan oleh peraturan, layak secara keuangan dan menghasilkan nilai tertinggi. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada lahan di Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya seluas 1.150 m2 yang direncanakan akan dibangun hotel. Lahan tersebut berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial seperti hotel, apartemen, perkantoran dan pertokoan. Analisis tersebut menggunakan tinjauan terhadap aspek fisik, legal, finansial dan produktivitas maksimumnya. Dari hasil penelitian ini didapatkan alternatif properti komersial hotel yang memiliki penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik pada pemanfaatan lahan dengan nilai lahan Rp. 67.069.980,31/ m2.

  8. Analisa Alternatif Revitalisasi Pasar Gubeng Masjid Surabaya dengan Metode Highest And Best Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Swalia Mustika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam era globalisasi ini banyak bermunculan pasar-pasar modern yang dibangun dengan segala kelebihan dan fasilitasnya. Munculnya pasar-pasar modern membuat keberadaan pasar tradisional tersudut, tidak terkecuali Pasar Gubeng Masjid Surabaya. Namun keberadaan pasar yang strategis yaitu dekat dengan perkantoran, hotel dan pusat perbelanjaan, serta stasiun kereta api membuat pasar tersebut memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi properti yang memberikan nilai lahan tertinggi dan terbaik. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan analisa Highest and Best Use (HBU yang dapat memberikan masukan untuk melakukan investasi terbaik. Analisa HBU ini menggunakan empat kriteria yaitu secara fisik dimungkinkan, secara legal diizinkan , secara finansial layak, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum. Alternatif yang memiliki produktivitas maksimum tersebut dapat dijadikan sebagai nilai lahan tertinggi dan terbaik pada lahan Pasar Gubeng Masjid Surabaya. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan alternatif yang menghasilkan nilai lahan tertinggi dan produktivitas maksimum adalah alternatif pengembangan multi use pasar dengan pusat perbelanjaan.. Nilai lahan yang didapatkan sebesar Rp 46.946.524,-/m2 dengan produktivitas meningkat sebesar 312%.

  9. Transitional care for the highest risk patients: findings of a randomised control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Hock Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions to prevent readmissions of patients at highest risk have not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to determine if a post-discharge transitional care programme can reduce readmissions of such patients in Singapore. Methods: We randomised 840 patients with two or more unscheduled readmissions in the prior 90 days and Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity of patient, Emergency department utilisation score ≥10 to the intervention programme (n = 419 or control (n = 421. Patients allocated to the intervention group received post-discharge surveillance by a multidisciplinary integrated care team and early review in the clinic. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one unscheduled readmission within 30 days after discharge. Results: We found no statistically significant reduction in readmissions or emergency department visits in patients on the intervention group compared to usual care. However, patients in the intervention group reported greater patient satisfaction (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Any beneficial effect of interventions initiated after discharge is small for high-risk patients with multiple comorbidity and complex care needs. Future transitional care interventions should focus on providing the entire cycle of care for such patients starting from time of admission to final transition to the primary care setting. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, no NCT02325752

  10. Transitional care for the highest risk patients: findings of a randomised control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Hock Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions to prevent readmissions of patients at highest risk have not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to determine if a post-discharge transitional care programme can reduce readmissions of such patients in Singapore.Methods: We randomised 840 patients with two or more unscheduled readmissions in the prior 90 days and Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity of patient, Emergency department utilisation score ≥10 to the intervention programme (n = 419 or control (n = 421. Patients allocated to the intervention group received post-discharge surveillance by a multidisciplinary integrated care team and early review in the clinic. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one unscheduled readmission within 30 days after discharge.Results: We found no statistically significant reduction in readmissions or emergency department visits in patients on the intervention group compared to usual care. However, patients in the intervention group reported greater patient satisfaction (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Any beneficial effect of interventions initiated after discharge is small for high-risk patients with multiple comorbidity and complex care needs. Future transitional care interventions should focus on providing the entire cycle of care for such patients starting from time of admission to final transition to the primary care setting.Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, no NCT02325752

  11. Measurement of radon concentration in dwellings in the region of highest lung cancer incidence in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoliana, B.; Rohmingliana, P.C.; Sahoo, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of radon exhalation from soil and its concentration in indoor is found to be helpful in many investigations such as health risk assessment and others as radiation damage to bronchial cells which eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. The fact that Aizawl District, Mizoram, India has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in Age Adjusted Rate (AAR) in India as declared by Population Based Cancer Registry Report 2008 indicates the need for quantification of radon and its anomalies attached to it. Measurement of radon concentration had been carried out inside the dwellings in Aizawl district, Mizoram. A time integrated method of measurement was employed by using a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) type (LR-115 films) kept in a twin cup dosimeter for measurement of concentration of radon and thoron. The dosimeters were suspended over bed rooms or living rooms in selected dwellings. They were deployed for a period of about 120 days at a time in 63 houses which were selected according to their place of location viz. fault region, places where fossil remains were found and geologically unidentified region. After the desired period of exposure, the detectors were retrieved and chemically etched which were then counted by using a spark counter. The recorded nuclear tract densities are then converted into air concentrations of Radon and Thoron

  12. A System with a Choice of Highest-Bidder-First and FIFO Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Bodas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Service systems using a highest-bidder-first (HBF policy have been studied in queueing literature for various applications and in economics literature to model corruption. Such systems have applications in modern problems like scheduling jobs in cloud computing scenarios or placement of ads on web pages. However, using a HBF service is like using a spot market and may not be preferred by many users. For such users, it may be good to provide a simple scheduler, e.g., a FIFO service. Further, in some situations it may even be necessary that a free service queue operates alongside a HBF queue. Motivated by such a scenario, we propose and analyze a service system with a FIFO server and a HBF server in parallel. Arriving customers are from a heterogeneous population with different valuations of their delay costs. They strategically choose between FIFO and HBF service; if HBF is chosen, they also choose the bid value to optimize an individual cost. We characterize the Wardrop equilibrium in such a system and analyze the revenue to the server. We see that when the total capacity is fixed and is shared between the FIFO and HBF servers, revenue is maximised when the FIFO capacity is non zero. However, if the FIFO server is added to an HBF server, then the revenue decreases with increasing FIFO capacity. We also discuss the case when customers are allowed to balk.

  13. A cosmopolitan design of teacher education and a progressive orientation towards the highest good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Roth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss a Kantian conception of cosmopolitan education. It suggests that we pursue the highest good – an object of morality – in the world together, and requires that we acknowledge the value of freedom, render ourselves both efficacious and autonomous in practice, cultivate our judgment, and unselfishly co-operate in the co-ordination and fulfilment of our morally permissible ends. Now, such an accomplishment is one of the most difficult challenges, and may not be achieved in our time, if ever. In the first part of the paper I show that we, according to Kant, have to interact with each other, and comply with the moral law in the quest of general happiness, not merely personal happiness. In the second part, I argue that a cosmopolitan design of teacher education in Kantian terms can establish moral character, even though good moral character is ultimately the outcome of free choice. Such a design can do so by optimizing the freedom of those concerned to set and pursue their morally permissible ends, and to cultivate their judgment through the use of examples. This requires, inter alia, that they be enabled, and take responsibility, to think for themselves, in the position of everyone else, and consistently; and to strengthen their virtue or self-mastery to comply, in practice, with the moral law.

  14. Oxygen pathway modeling estimates high reactive oxygen species production above the highest permanent human habitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Cano

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS from the inner mitochondrial membrane is one of many fundamental processes governing the balance between health and disease. It is well known that ROS are necessary signaling molecules in gene expression, yet when expressed at high levels, ROS may cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia may alter ROS production by changing mitochondrial Po2 (PmO2. Because PmO2 depends on the balance between O2 transport and utilization, we formulated an integrative mathematical model of O2 transport and utilization in skeletal muscle to predict conditions to cause abnormally high ROS generation. Simulations using data from healthy subjects during maximal exercise at sea level reveal little mitochondrial ROS production. However, altitude triggers high mitochondrial ROS production in muscle regions with high metabolic capacity but limited O2 delivery. This altitude roughly coincides with the highest location of permanent human habitation. Above 25,000 ft., more than 90% of exercising muscle is predicted to produce abnormally high levels of ROS, corresponding to the "death zone" in mountaineering.

  15. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches. PMID:26212024

  16. Medical school dropout--testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit

    2011-11-01

    Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n=1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission strategy, the type of qualifying examination and the priority given to the programme on the national application forms contributed significantly to the dropout model. Social variables did not predict dropout and neither did Strategy 2 admission test scores. Selection by admission testing appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  17. Extreme Markup: The Fifty US Hospitals With The Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2015-06-01

    Using Medicare cost reports, we examined the fifty US hospitals with the highest charge-to-cost ratios in 2012. These hospitals have markups (ratios of charges over Medicare-allowable costs) approximately ten times their Medicare-allowable costs compared to a national average of 3.4 and a mode of 2.4. Analysis of the fifty hospitals showed that forty-nine are for profit (98 percent), forty-six are owned by for-profit hospital systems (92 percent), and twenty (40 percent) operate in Florida. One for-profit hospital system owns half of these fifty hospitals. While most public and private health insurers do not use hospital charges to set their payment rates, uninsured patients are commonly asked to pay the full charges, and out-of-network patients and casualty and workers' compensation insurers are often expected to pay a large portion of the full charges. Because it is difficult for patients to compare prices, market forces fail to constrain hospital charges. Federal and state governments may want to consider limitations on the charge-to-cost ratio, some form of all-payer rate setting, or mandated price disclosure to regulate hospital markups. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  18. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

  19. Highest-order optical phonon-mediated relaxation in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, Yasuaki; Nomura, Mitsuhiro; Okuno, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Shinji; Takita, K.

    2003-01-01

    The highest 19th-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-mediated relaxation was observed in photoluminescence excitation spectra of CdTe self-assembled quantum dots grown in ZnTe. Hot excitons photoexcited highly in the ZnTe barrier layer are relaxed into the wetting-layer state by emitting multiple LO phonons of the barrier layer successively. Below the wetting-layer state, the LO phonons involved in the relaxation are transformed to those of interfacial Zn x Cd 1-x Te surrounding CdTe quantum dots. The ZnTe-like and CdTe-like LO phonons of Zn x Cd 1-x Te and lastly acoustic phonons are emitted in the relaxation into the CdTe dots. The observed main relaxation is the fast relaxation directly into CdTe quantum dots and is not the relaxation through either the wetting-layer quantum well or the band bottom of the ZnTe barrier layer. This observation shows very efficient optical phonon-mediated relaxation of hot excitons excited highly in the ZnTe conduction band through not only the ZnTe extended state but also localized state in the CdTe quantum dots reflecting strong exciton-LO phonon interaction of telluride compounds

  20. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  1. Inversion degree and saturation magnetization of different nanocrystalline cobalt ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concas, G.; Spano, G.; Cannas, C.; Musinu, A.; Peddis, D.; Piccaluga, G.

    2009-01-01

    The inversion degree of a series of nanocrystalline samples of CoFe 2 O 4 ferrites has been evaluated by a combined study, which exploits the saturation magnetization at 4.2 K and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples, prepared by sol-gel autocombustion, have different thermal history and particle size. The differences observed in the saturation magnetization of these samples are explained in terms of different inversion degrees, as confirmed by the analysis of the components in the Moessbauer spectra. It is notable that the inversion degrees of the samples investigated are set among the highest values reported in the literature.

  2. Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cortés-Castell

    Full Text Available To analyse the association in newborns between blood levels of phenylalanine and feeding method and gestational age.This observational, cross-sectional study included a sample of 11,829 infants between 2008 and 2013 in a Spanish region. Data were recorded on phenylalanine values, feeding method [breast, formula, mixed (breast plus formula, or partial or fully intravenous feeding], gestational age in weeks (<32, 32-37, ≥37, gender and days since birth at the moment of blood collection. Outcomes were [phenylalanine] and [phenylalanine] ≥95th percentile. Associations were analysed using multivariate models [linear (means difference and logistic regression (adjusted odds ratios].Higher phenylalanine values were associated with lower gestational age (p<0.001 and with intravenous feeding (p<0.001.The degree of prematurity and intravenous feeding influenced the plasma concentration of phenylalanine in the newborn. Caution should be taken in [phenylalanine] for newborns with intravenous feeding, monitoring them carefully. Very preterm infants given the recommended amount of amino acids should also be strictly monitored. These findings should be taken into consideration and call for adapting the amounts to the needs of the infant.

  3. Information ranks highest: Expectations of female adolescents with a rare genital malformation towards health care services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Simoes

    Full Text Available Access to highly specialized health care services and support to meet the patient's specific needs is critical for health outcome, especially during age-related transitions within the health care system such as with adolescents entering adult medicine. Being affected by an orphan disease complicates the situation in several important respects. Long distances to dedicated institutions and scarcity of knowledge, even among medical doctors, may present major obstacles for proper access to health care services and health chances. This study is part of the BMBF funded TransCareO project examining in a mixed-method design health care provisional deficits, preferences, and barriers in health care access as perceived by female adolescents affected by the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS, a rare (orphan genital malformation.Prior to a communicative validation workshop, critical elements of MRKHS related care and support (items were identified in interviews with MRKHS patients. During the subsequent workshop, 87 persons involved in health care and support for MRKHS were asked to rate the items using a 7-point Likert scale (7, strongly agree; 1, strongly disagree as to 1 the elements' potential importance (i.e., health care expected to be "best practice", or priority and 2 the presently experienced care. A gap score between the two was computed highlighting fields of action. Items were arranged into ten separate questionnaires representing domains of care and support (e.g., online-portal, patient participation. Within each domain, several items addressed various aspects of "information" and "access". Here, we present the outcome of items' evaluation by patients (attended, NPAT = 35; respondents, NRESP = 19.Highest priority scores occurred for domains "Online-Portal", "Patient participation", and "Tailored informational offers", characterizing them as extremely important for the perception as best practice. Highest gap scores yielded domains

  4. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to

  5. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  6. Nonlinear Analysis to Detect if Excellent Nursing Work Environments Have Highest Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalicchio, Giuseppe; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Bruyneel, Luk

    2017-09-01

    To detect potentially nonlinear associations between nurses' work environment and nurse staffing on the one hand and nurse burnout on the other hand. A cross-sectional multicountry study for which data collection using a survey of 33,731 registered nurses in 12 European countries took place during 2009 to 2010. A semiparametric latent variable model that describes both linear and potentially nonlinear associations between burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) and work environment (Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index: managerial support for nursing, doctor-nurse collegial relations, promotion of care quality) and staffing (patient-to-nurse ratio). Similar conclusions are reached from linear and nonlinear models estimating the association between work environment and burnout. For staffing, an increase in the patient-to-nurse ratio is associated with an increase in emotional exhaustion. At about 15 patients per nurse, no further increase in emotional exhaustion is seen. Absence of evidence for diminishing returns of improving work environments suggests that continuous improvement and achieving excellence in nurse work environments pays off strongly in terms of lower nurse-reported burnout rates. Nurse staffing policy would benefit from a larger number of studies that identify specific minimum as well as maximum thresholds at which inputs affect nurse and patient outcomes. Nurse burnout is omnipresent and has previously been shown to be related to worse patient outcomes. Additional increments in characteristics of excellent work environments, up to the highest possible standard, correspond to lower nurse burnout. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  7. Lost opportunities in HIV prevention: programmes miss places where exposures are highest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild F; Siziya, Seter; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77%) but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women). Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority. PMID:18218124

  8. How to identify the person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev D.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current version of the resolution of the RF Supreme Court Plenum of June 10, 2010 N 12, clarifying the provisions of the law on liability for crimes committed by a person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy (Part 4 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, is criticized. Evaluative character of the considered aggravating circumstance doesn’t allow to develop clear criteria for identifying the leaders of the criminal environment. Basing on the theory provisions and court practice, the authors suggest three criteria. The first criterion is specific actions including: establishment and leadership of the criminal association (criminal organization; coordinating criminal acts; creating sustainable links between different organized groups acting independently; dividing spheres of criminal influence, sharing criminal income and other criminal activities, indicating person’s authority and leadership in a particular area or in a particular sphere of activity. The second is having money, valuables and other property obtained by criminal means, without the person’s direct participation in their acquisition; transferring money, valuables and other property to that person systematically, without legal grounds (unjust enrichment; spending that money, valuables and other property to carry out criminal activities (crimes themselves and conditions of their commission. The third is international criminal ties manifested in committing one of the crimes under Part 1 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, if this crime is transnational in nature; ties with extremist and (or terrorist organizations, as well as corruption ties. The court may use one or several of these criteria.

  9. Analisa Penggunaan Tertinggi dan Terbaik (Highest and Best Use Analysis pada Lahan Pasar Turi Lama Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida Herradiyanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasar  Turi  merupakan  pasar  yang  telah lama  menjadi  ikon  perdagangan  tidak  hanya  di Surabaya,  namun  juga  di  Indonesia  Timur.  Kebakaran hebat yang terjadi pada Juli 2007 telah menghanguskan bangunan Pasar Turi. Aktivitas perdagangan di tempat tersebut  otomatis  terhenti.  Hingga saat ini, lahan Pasar Turi  Tahap  III  atau  yang  biasa  disebut  Pasar  Turi Lama  masih  terbengkalai.  Padahal,  lahan  seluas  16281 m2tersebut terletak di wilayah sentra perdagangan dan cocok  untuk  dikembangkan  menjadi properti komersial seperti perkantoran, pertokoan, rumah toko (ruko, danpasar tradisional. Salah  satu  cara  untuk  menentukan  penggunaan lahan Pasar Turi Lama adalah dengan metode Highest and  Best  Use  (HBU.  HBU  adalah  suatu  metode  untuk menentukan  penggunaan  aset  yang  memberikan peruntukan  paling  optimal sehingga dapat memberikan nilai  lahan  tertinggi.  Kriteria  HBU  yaitu  diijinkan secara  legal,  memungkinkan  secara  fisik,  layak  secara finansial, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum.Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan alternatif pertokoan sebagai  alternatif  penggunaan  lahan  terbaik  dengan nilai  lahan  tertinggi  yaitu  sebesar  Rp27.994.695,78/m2dengan produktivitas maksimum sebesar  124%.

  10. Risk of influenza transmission in a hospital emergency department during the week of highest incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Esteve, Miguel; Bautista-Rentero, Daniel; Zanón-Viguer, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the risk of influenza transmission in patients coming to a hospital emergency department during the week of highest incidence and to analyze factors associated with transmission. Retrospective observational analysis of a cohort of patients treated in the emergency room during the 2014-2015 flu season. The following variables were collected from records: recorded influenza diagnosis, results of a rapid influenza confirmation test, point of exposure (emergency department, outpatient clinic, or the community), age, sex, flu vaccination or not, number of emergency visits, time spent in the waiting room, and total time in the hospital. We compiled descriptive statistics and performed bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of a Poisson regression to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs. The emergency department patients had a RR of contracting influenza 3.29 times that of the communityexposed population (95% CI, 1.53-7.08, P=.002); their risk was 2.05 times greater than that of outpatient clinic visitors (95% CI, 1.04-4.02, P=.036). Emergency patients under the age of 15 years had a 5.27 greater risk than older patients (95% CI, 1.59-17.51; P=.007). The RR of patients visiting more than once was 11.43 times greater (95% CI, 3.58-36.44; P<.001). The risk attributable to visiting the emergency department risk was 70.5%, whereas risk attributable to community exposure was 2%. The risk of contracting influenza is greater for emergency department patients than for the general population or for patients coming to the hospital for outpatient clinic visits. Patients under the age of 15 years incur greater risk.

  11. CAS Accelerator Physics held in Erice, Italy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Superconductivity for Accelerators, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 24 April-4 May, 2013.   Photo courtesy of Alessandro Noto, Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture. Following a handful of summary lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of superconductivity, the course covered a wide range of topics related to superconductivity and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful with 94 participants representing 23 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Belorussia, Canada, China, India, Japan and the United States (for the first time a young Ethiopian lady, studying in Germany, attended this course). The programme comprised 35 lectures, 3 seminars and 7 hours of case study. The case studies were p...

  12. Set our Master's degrees free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Rachael

    2010-04-01

    Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.

  13. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  14. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelli

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  15. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  16. The system Cu-Rh-S at 900 degrees, 700 degrees, 540 degrees and 500 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2007-01-01

    Phase relations in the dry condensed system Cu-Rh-S were determined at 900, 700, 540 and 500 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, the system contains digenite, four rhodium sulfides (Rh17S15, Rh3S4, Rh2S3 and RhS similar to 3), three ternary sulfides (CuRh2S4, CuxRhS3+x and a fibrous sulfide in the range...

  17. Consumer Airfare Report: Table 5 - Detailed Fare Information For Highest and Lowest Fare Markets Under 750 Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides detailed fare information for highest and lowest fare markets under 750 miles. For a more complete explanation, please read the introductory information at...

  18. Hand-held optical fuel pin scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1987-01-01

    A portable, hand-held apparatus is described for optically scanning indicia imprinted about a planar end face of an article having an outer wall surface, the apparatus comprising: a supporting frame; light detector means fixed to the frame for digitizing light patterns directed thereto; indexing means on the frame for engaging the planar end face and locating the end face in a preselected focal plane on the frame. The indexing means has an inner wall surface complementary to the article wall surface for disposition thereabout and terminates in an end portion beyond the planar end face. The inner wall surface has a radially inwardly extending shoulder spaced from the end portion and engageable with the planar end face; light means directed onto the preselected focal plane; optical means mounted on the frame about a central axis, the optical means being optically interposed between the indexing means and the light detector means for directing reflected light from the preselected focal plane to the light detector means and including a dove prism centrally aligned along the central axis; and means for selectively rotating the dove prism relative to the frame about the central axis to thereby rotate the image from the focal plane as transmitted to the light detector means

  19. Empowering Staff and Clients: Comparing Preferences for Management Models by the Professional Degrees Held by Organization Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardina, Donna; Montana, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    In this article, findings from a national survey of social service managers are described. Respondents were asked to identify theories and models of management that influenced their administrative activities. The results indicate that many of the respondents used an empowerment-oriented approach to management. Respondents were more likely to…

  20. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  1. Special Degree Programs for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuing Education for Adults, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Briefly describes Bachelor of Liberal Studies programs at six colleges and universities, the Master of Liberal Studies program at Boston University, and the Master of Engineering degree at the University of California at Los Angeles, as well as programs being conducted on a graduate level by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for government and industrial…

  2. Astronautics Degrees for Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  3. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  4. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; FAJARDO PEÑA, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263

  5. 9 CFR 354.126 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 354.126 Section 354.126 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Inspection § 354.126 Carcasses held for further examination. Each carcass, including all parts thereof, in...

  6. 9 CFR 381.77 - Carcasses held for further examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses held for further examination. 381.77 Section 381.77 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Carcasses and Parts § 381.77 Carcasses held for further examination. Each carcass, including all parts...

  7. Highest weight generating functions for hyperKähler T{sup ⋆}(G/H) spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ramgoolam, Sanjaye [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-05

    We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function.

  8. Influence of sports games classes in specialized sections on formation of healthy lifestyle at students of the highest educational institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, M.; Galimova, A.; Alshuvayli, Kh.; Altuvayni, A.

    2018-01-01

    In modern society, the problem of formation of healthy lifestyle at youth, in particular, at students of the highest educational institutions is very relevant. Sport is a good mean for motivation, in this case – sports games. Purpose: to reveal consequences of participation in sports games and influence of these actions on healthy lifestyle of students of the highest educational institutions, to designate a role of classes in the sections, specializing in preparation for sports games in this ...

  9. A hand-held sensor for analyses of local distributions of magnetic fields and losses

    CERN Document Server

    Krismanic, G; Baumgartinger, N

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes a novel sensor for non-destructive analyses of local field and loss distributions in laminated soft magnetic cores, such as transformer cores. It was designed for rapid information on comparative local degrees of inhomogeneity, e.g., for the estimation of local building factors. Similar to a magnifying glass with handle, the compact hand-held sensor contains extremely sharp needle electrodes for the detection of the induction vector B as well as double-field coils for the vector H. Losses P are derived from the Poynting law. Applied to inner -- or also outer -- core regions, the sensor yields instantaneous computer displays of local H, B, and P.

  10. Degree-based graph construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

    2009-01-01

    Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

  11. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  12. Protograph LDPC Codes with Node Degrees at Least 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present protograph codes with a small number of degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. The iterative decoding threshold for proposed rate 1/2 codes are lower, by about 0.2 dB, than the best known irregular LDPC codes with degree at least 3. The main motivation is to gain linear minimum distance to achieve low error floor. Also to construct rate-compatible protograph-based LDPC codes for fixed block length that simultaneously achieves low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance. We start with a rate 1/2 protograph LDPC code with degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. Higher rate codes are obtained by connecting check nodes with degree-2 non-transmitted nodes. This is equivalent to constraint combining in the protograph. The condition where all constraints are combined corresponds to the highest rate code. This constraint must be connected to nodes of degree at least three for the graph to have linear minimum distance. Thus having node degree at least 3 for rate 1/2 guarantees linear minimum distance property to be preserved for higher rates. Through examples we show that the iterative decoding threshold as low as 0.544 dB can be achieved for small protographs with node degrees at least three. A family of low- to high-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  13. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  15. Portable Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor for the Transuranics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale D. Russell, William B. Knowlton, Ph.D.; Russel Hertzog, Ph.D

    2005-11-25

    sensitive detector for uranium. Millimeter scale electrodes, operated by a hand-held instrument assembled in this lab and operated in the voltammetric mode, were transported to the DOE-Nevada test site (Las Vegas, NV) where field detection and quantitation of plutonium, uranium, and a mixture of these two elements was also demonstrated. Several probe designs were prepared, built and tested including probes with movable protective windows. A miniature, battery powered potentiostat was designed, built and demonstrated for use in a hand-held field portable instrument. This work was performed largely by undergraduates who gained valuable research experience, and many of them have continued on to graduate schools. In addition, they all gained exposure to and appreciation for national security research, in particular non-proliferation research. Four graduate students participated and one earned the MS degree on this project.

  16. The Development of a Program of Study for a Bachelor's Degree in Early Childhood Education in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez Valladares, Melissa Dilieth

    2017-01-01

    Presently, the highest degree a person interested in teaching at the early childhood level in Belize is the Associate's Degree in Early Childhood Education. The purpose of this project was to design a program of undergraduate coursework in the area of teacher preparation that will meet university qualifications for a Bachelor's Degree in Early…

  17. Planar real polynomial differential systems of degree n > 3 having a weak focus of high order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llibre, J.; Rabanal, R.

    2008-06-01

    We construct planar polynomial differential systems of even (respectively odd) degree n > 3, of the form linear plus a nonlinear homogeneous part of degree n having a weak focus of order n 2 -1 (respectively (n 2 -1)/2 ) at the origin. As far as we know this provides the highest order known until now for a weak focus of a polynomial differential system of arbitrary degree n. (author)

  18. Persistence of Women in Online Degree-Completion Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Müller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although online courses at postsecondary institutions promise adults access, flexibility, and convenience, many barriers to online learning remain. This article presents findings from a qualitative case study, which explored the phenomenon of undergraduate and graduate women learners’ persistence in online degree-completion programs at a college in the Northeast of the United States. Research questions asked why women learners persisted or failed to persist, and how factors supporting or hindering persistence influenced learners. Interviews with a purposeful sample of 20 participants revealed the complexity of variables affecting learners’ persistence to graduation. Findings suggested that multiple responsibilities, insufficient interaction with faculty, technology, and coursework ranked highest as barriers to women’s persistence. Strong motivation to complete degrees, engagement in the learning community, and appreciation for the convenience of an online degree-completion option facilitated persistence.

  19. The availability of relatively cheap hand-held Global Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    conditions, so the approach failed to produce results ... Hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers provide opportunities for detailed and rapid mapping of features ..... TICKELL, W. L. N. 1968 — The biology of the great albatrosses,.

  20. An Intelligent Hand-Held Microsurgical Instrument for Improved Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ang, Wei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the development and initial experimental results of the first prototype of Micron, an active hand-held instrument to sense and compensate physiological tremor and other unwanted...

  1. Plans for Hand-Held/Portable Oil Assessment Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbansky, Edward

    2005-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Oil Analysis Program, the JOAP TSC conducted a market study, assembled a plan of action, and prepared a worksheet for the evaluation of portable or hand-held oil assessment devices...

  2. Historical Data for Average Processing Time Until Hearing Held

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides historical data for average wait time (in days) from the hearing request date until a hearing was held. This dataset includes data from fiscal...

  3. [The importance of master's degree and doctorate degree in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Mendoza-Barrera, Germán Eduardo; Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Alcántara-Medina, Stefany; Macías-Huerta, Nain Abraham; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree that can be obtained in universities. Graduate Education Program in Medicine in Mexico is divided into 2 major categories: Medical Specialty and Master studies/Doctor of Philosophy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of master's degrees and Doctor of Philosophy in general surgery. A literature search in PubMed and Medline among others, from 1970 to 2015 with subsequent analysis of the literature reviews found. The physicians who conducted doctoral studies stand out as leaders in research, teaching and academic activities. Dual training with a doctorate medical specialty is a significant predictor for active participation in research projects within the best educational institutions. It is important to study a PhD in the education of doctors specialising in surgery, who show more training in teaching, research and development of academic activities. Currently, although there is a little proportion of students who do not finish the doctoral program, the ones who do are expected to play an important role in the future of medical scientific staff. It has been shown that most doctors with Doctor of Philosophy have wide range of career options. The importance of doctoral studies in the formation of general surgery is due to various reasons; the main one being comprehensively training physician scientists who can develop in clinical, teaching and research. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of an Interferometric Phased Array Trigger for Balloon-Borne Detection of the Highest Energy Cosmic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieregg, Abigail

    Through high energy neutrino astrophysics, we explore the structure and evolution of the universe in a unique way and learn about the physics inside of astrophysical sources that drives the acceleration of the highest energy particles. Neutrinos travel virtually unimpeded through the universe, making them unique messenger particles for cosmic sources and carrying information about very distant sources that would otherwise be unavailable. The highest energy neutrinos (E>10^{18} eV), created as a by-product of the interaction of the highest energy cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background, are an important tool for determining the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays and still await discovery. Balloon-borne and ground-based experiments are poised to discover these ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmogenic neutrinos by looking for radio emission from two different types of neutrino interactions: particle cascades induced by neutrinos in glacial ice, and extensive air showers in the atmosphere induced by the charged-particle by-product of tau neutrinos interacting in the earth. These impulsive radio detectors are also sensitive to radio emission from extensive air showers induced directly by UHE cosmic rays. Balloon-borne experiments are especially well-suited for discovering the highest energy neutrinos, and are the only way to probe the high energy cutoff of the sources themselves to reveal the astrophysics that drives the central engines inside the most energetic accelerators in the universe. Balloon platforms offer the chance to monitor extremely large volumes of ice and atmosphere, but with a higher energy threshold compared to ground-based observatories, since the neutrino interaction happens farther from the detector. This tradeoff means that the sensitivity of balloon-borne experiments, such as the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) or the ExaVolt Antenna, is optimized for discovery of the highest energy neutrinos. We are developing an

  5. Ground-state energies and highest occupied eigenvalues of atoms in exchange-only density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Harbola, Manoj K.; Krieger, J. B.; Sahni, Viraht

    1989-11-01

    The exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density-functional theory has recently been interpreted as the work required to move an electron against the electric field of its Fermi-Coulomb hole charge distribution. In this paper we present self-consistent results for ground-state total energies and highest occupied eigenvalues of closed subshell atoms as obtained by this formalism in the exchange-only approximation. The total energies, which are an upper bound, lie within 50 ppm of Hartree-Fock theory for atoms heavier than Be. The highest occupied eigenvalues, as a consequence of this interpretation, approximate well the experimental ionization potentials. In addition, the self-consistently calculated exchange potentials are very close to those of Talman and co-workers [J. D. Talman and W. F. Shadwick, Phys. Rev. A 14, 36 (1976); K. Aashamar, T. M. Luke, and J. D. Talman, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 443 (1978)].

  6. Magnetic field control of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain wall resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Roya, E-mail: royamajidi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.

  7. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  8. 360-degree videos: a new visualization technique for astrophysical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher M. P.

    2017-11-01

    360-degree videos are a new type of movie that renders over all 4π steradian. Video sharing sites such as YouTube now allow this unique content to be shared via virtual reality (VR) goggles, hand-held smartphones/tablets, and computers. Creating 360° videos from astrophysical simulations is not only a new way to view these simulations as you are immersed in them, but is also a way to create engaging content for outreach to the public. We present what we believe is the first 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the central parsec of the Galactic centre. We also describe how to create such movies, and briefly comment on what new science can be extracted from astrophysical simulations using 360° videos.

  9. Predictors of Associate's Degree Completion in Engineering and Engineering Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reys-Nickel, Lynsey L.

    The purpose of this ex post facto study was to describe completers and non-completers of associate's degree programs in engineering and engineering technologies and determine whether and to what extent completion in these programs is a function of selected student-related variables and institutional variables. Data from the 2004/2009 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS: 04/09) of associate's degree completers and non-completers in engineering and engineering technologies were accessed and analyzed through PowerStats, a web-based data analysis tool from National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Descriptive data indicated that, proportionally, engineering and engineering technologies completers were mostly White, married, middle income, employed part-time, enrolled full-time, did not hold a high school diploma or certificate, completed Trigonometry/Algebra II, had a father who's highest education level was an associate's degree, but did not know their mother's highest level of education, completed remedial coursework, and started college with the goal of earning an associate's degree. While more males enrolled in the programs, males and females demonstrated similar completion rates, proportionally--with females showing a slightly higher percentage of completion. Results from the logistic regression further indicated that the variables significant to completion in associate's degree programs in engineering and engineering technologies were gender and enrollment size. Findings suggested that female students were more likely to earn the degree, and that the larger the institution, the more likely the student would become a completer. However, since a major limitation of the study was the small weighted sample size, the results of the study are inconclusive in terms of the extent to which the findings can be generalized to the population of students in associate's degree programs in engineering and engineering technologies. This study fills a

  10. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atweh, Lamya A.; Dodd, Nicholas A.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Chu, Zili D. [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Pednekar, Amol [Philips Healthcare, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  11. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Camila; Zamberlan, Federico; Erowid, Earth; Erowid, Fire; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2018-01-01

    Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”), emotion (“fear”), setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind”) and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family”) were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain physiology. PMID

  12. Relation of average and highest solvent vapor concentrations in workplaces in small to medium enterprises and large enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Hirohiko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Samoto, Hajime; Fukui, Yoshinari; Okamoto, Satoru; Moriguchi, Jiro; Ezaki, Takafumi; Takada, Shiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2006-04-01

    The present study was initiated to examine the relationship between the workplace concentrations and the estimated highest concentrations in solvent workplaces (SWPs), with special references to enterprise size and types of solvent work. Results of survey conducted in 1010 SWPs in 156 enterprises were taken as a database. Workplace air was sampled at > or = 5 crosses in each SWP following a grid sampling strategy. An additional air was grab-sampled at the site where the worker's exposure was estimated to be highest (estimated highest concentration or EHC). The samples were analyzed for 47 solvents designated by regulation, and solvent concentrations in each sample were summed up by use of additiveness formula. From the workplace concentrations at > or = 5 points, geometric mean and geometric standard deviations were calculated as the representative workplace concentration (RWC) and the indicator of variation in workplace concentration (VWC). Comparison between RWC and EHC in the total of 1010 SWPs showed that EHC was 1.2 (in large enterprises with>300 employees) to 1.7 times [in small to medium (SM) enterprises with enterprises and large enterprises, both RWC and EHC were significantly higher in SM enterprises than in large enterprises. Further comparison by types of solvent work showed that the difference was more marked in printing, surface coating and degreasing/cleaning/wiping SWPs, whereas it was less remarkable in painting SWPs and essentially nil in testing/research laboratories. In conclusion, the present observation as discussed in reference to previous publications suggests that RWC, EHC and the ratio of EHC/WRC varies substantially among different types of solvent work as well as enterprise size, and are typically higher in printing SWPs in SM enterprises.

  13. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sanz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”, emotion (“fear”, setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind” and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family” were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain

  14. Communication: The highest frequency hydrogen bond vibration and an experimental value for the dissociation energy of formic acid dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollipost, F.; Larsen, René Wugt; Domanskaya, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    The highest frequency hydrogen bond fundamental of formic acid dimer, ν24 (Bu), is experimentally located at 264 cm−1. FTIR spectra of this in-plane bending mode of (HCOOH)2 and band centers of its symmetric D isotopologues (isotopomers) recorded in a supersonic slit jet expansion are presented...... thermodynamics treatment of the dimerization process up to room temperature. We obtain D0 = 59.5(5) kJ/mol as the best experimental estimate for the dimer dissociation energy at 0 K. Further improvements have to wait for a more consistent determination of the room temperature equilibrium constant....

  15. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB (physical-technical Federal institution) - research institute and highest technical authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klages, H.

    1976-01-01

    The PTB Braunschweig and Berlin is a Federal institution for the natural sciences and engineering and the highest technical authority for measurements. It is subject to the directions of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs. Its main tasks are representation, maintenance and development of physical units and, in connection with this, research, examinations, and granting permissions for calibration measuring equipment, as well as examinations of building types and permissions. The types of measuring equipment are represented. Many examinations are carried out on a voluntary basis. The advisory activities and the PTB's publications are also reported on. An organizational plan informs of the structure of the PTB. (orig.) [de

  16. The Licancabur Project: Exploring the Limits of Life in the Highest Lake on Earth as an Analog to Martian Paleolakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; McKay, C. P.; Friedmann, I.; Diaz, G. Chong; Demergasso, C.; Kisse, K.; Grigorszky, I.; Friedmann, R. Ocampo; Hock, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Licancabur volcano (6017 m) hosts the highest and one of the least explored lakes in the world in its summit crater. It is located 22 deg.50 min. South / 67 deg.53 min. West at the boundary of Chile and Bolivia in the High-Andes. In a freezing environment, the lake located in volcano-tectonic environment combines low-oxygen, low atmospheric pressure due to altitude, and high-UV radiation (see table). However, its bottom water temperature remains above 0 C year-round. These conditions make Licancabur a unique analog to Martian paleolakes considered high-priority sites for the search for life on Mars.

  17. Potential need for re-definition of the highest priority recovery action in the Krsko SAG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Basic, I.

    2005-01-01

    Replacement of old SG (Steam Generators) [7] and the characteristic of new ones throws the question of proper accident management strategy, which leans on philosophy that repair and recovery actions have first priority. In the current NPP Krsko SAMGs (Severe Accident Management Guidelines), water supply to the SG has priority over re-injection water into the core. NPP Krsko reconsidered the highest priority of SAG-1 (inject water to the SG), against the WOG (Westinghouse Owners Group) generic approach (inject water into the core) and potential revision of Severe Accident Phenomenology Evaluations using MAAP (Modular accident Analysis Program) 4.0.5 code. (author)

  18. Highest recorded electrical conductivity and microstructure in polypropylene-carbon nanotubes composites and the effect of carbon nanofibers addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrera, C. A.; Pérez-González, J.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Romero-Partida, N.; Flores-Vela, A.; Cabañas-Moreno, J. G.

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, numerous investigations have been devoted to the preparation of polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) nanocomposites having enhanced properties, and in particular, high electrical conductivities (> 1 S cm-1). The present work establishes that the highest electrical conductivity in PP/MWCNT nanocomposites is limited by the amount of nanofiller content which can be incorporated in the polymer matrix, namely, about 20 wt%. This concentration of MWCNT in PP leads to a maximum electrical conductivity slightly lower than 8 S cm-1, but only by assuring an adequate combination of dispersion and spatial distribution of the carbon nanotubes. The realization of such an optimal microstructure depends on the characteristics of the production process of the PP/MWCNT nanocomposites; in our experiments, involving composite fabrication by melt mixing and hot pressing, a second re-processing cycle is shown to increase the electrical conductivity values by up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the MWCNT content of the nanocomposite. A modest increase of the highest electrical conductivity obtained in nanocomposites with 21.5 wt% MWCNT content has been produced by the combined use of carbon nanofibers (CNF) and MWCNT, so that the total nanofiller content was increased to 30 wt% in the nanocomposite with PP—15 wt% MWCNT—15 wt%CNF.

  19. Presentation and verification of a simple mathematical model foridentification of the areas behind noise barrierwith the highest performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monazzam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Traffic noise barriers are the most important measure to control the environmental noise pollution. Diffraction from top edge of noise barriers is the most important path of indirect sound wave moves towards receiver.Therefore, most studies are focused on  improvement of this kind.   Methods   T-shape profile barriers are one of the most successful barrier among many different profiles. In this investigation the theory of destructive effect of diffracted waves from real edge of barrier and the wave diffracted from image of the barrier with phase difference of radians is used. Firstly a simple mathematical representation of the zones behind rigid and absorbent T- shape barriers with the highest insertion loss using the destructive effect of indirect path via barrier  image is introduced and then two different profile reflective and absorption barrier is used for  verification of the introduced model   Results   The results are then compared with the results of a verified two dimensional boundary element method at 1/3 octave band frequencies and in a wide field behind those barriers. Avery good agreement between the results has been achieved. In this method effective height is used for any different profile barriers.   Conclusion   The introduced model is very simple, flexible and fast and could be used for choosing the best location of profile rigid and absorptive barriers to achieve the highest  performance.  

  20. The Idea of a Highest Divine Principle — Founding Reason and Spirituality. A Necessary Concept of a Comparative Philosophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bickmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By reference to the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Neo-Platonic philosophical traditions (and then to German Idealism, including Husserl and Heidegger, I will indicate the way in which the concept of reason—on the one side—depends on the horizon of spirituality (by searching for the ultimate ground within us and the striving for the highest good; and inversely—how far the idea of the divine or our spiritual self may be deepened, understood and transmitted by reference to reason and rationality. But whereas philosophical analysis aims at the universal dimensions of spirituality or the divine (as in Plato's idea of the 'highest good', the Aristotelian 'Absolute substance', the 'Oneness of the One' (Plotinus and the Neo-Platonists or the Hegelian 'Absolute spirit',—Comparative Theology may preserve the dimension of spirituality or divinity in its individuality and specifity. Comparative Theology mediates between the universality of the philosophical discourse and the uniqueness of our individual experience (symbolized by a sacred person—such as Jesus, Brahman, Buddha or Mohammed by reflecting and analyzing our religious experiences and practices. Religion may lose its specificity by comparative conceptual analysis within the field of philosophy, but Comparative Theology may enhance the vital dimensions of the very same spiritual experience by placing them in a comparative perspective.

  1. Reflux and Belching After 270 Degree Versus 360 Degree Laparoscopic Posterior Fundoplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Joris A.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Hazebroek, Eric J.; Broeders, Ivo A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Smout, André J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in effects of 270 degrees (270 degrees LPF) and 360 degrees laparoscopic posterior fundoplication (360 degrees LPF) on reflux characteristics and belching. Background: Three hundred sixty degrees LPF greatly reduces the ability of the stomach to vent ingested

  2. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies...

  3. How Adult Online Graduates Portray Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…

  4. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components

  5. Attentionally splitting the mass distribution of hand-held rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, G; Turvey, M T

    1991-08-01

    Two experiments on the length-perception capabilities of effortful or dynamic touch differed only in terms of what the subject intended to perceive, while experimental conditions and apparatus were held constant. In each trial, a visually occluded rod was held as still as possible by the subject at an intermediate position. For two thirds of the trials, a weight was attached to the rod above or below the hand. In Experiment 1, in which the subject's task was to perceive the distance reachable with the portion of the rod forward of the hand, perceived extent was a function of the first moment of the mass distribution associated with the forward portion of the rod, and indifferent to the first moment of the entire rod. In Experiment 2, in which the task was to perceive the distance reachable with the entire rod if it was held at an end, the pattern of results was reversed. These results indicate the capability of selective sensitivity to different aspects of a hand-held object's mass distribution, without the possibility of differential exploration specific to these two tasks. Results are discussed in relation to possible roles of differential information, intention, and self-organization in the explanations of selective perceptual abilities.

  6. Attitudes held by Setswana L1-speaking university students toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respondents believed that their L1 had limitations in wider society; and that it had prestige, albeit a covert one. Generally, they held favourable attitudes toward their L1. Further comprehensive research needs to be done to explore these new variables, as well as to explore their statistical significance in language attitude ...

  7. China Wind Power 2010 Will Be Held Soon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China Wind Power 2010 (CWP) will be held on October 13 in the New Venue of the China International Exhibition Center (New CIEC). The exhibition is hosted by the Global Wind Energy Council, Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association and the Chinese Wind Energy Association.

  8. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, LM

    2005-02-21

    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  9. The voltage optimization of a four-element lens used on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry for highest energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.; Martínez, G.; Madesis, I.; Laoutaris, A.; Dimitriou, A.; Fernández-Martín, M.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the voltage settings for the four-element injection lens of an HDA. • The two well-known approaches, BEM and FDM, in charged particle optics were used. • We tested optimal lens voltages from simulation on the actual experimental setup. • The measured FWHM were well modeled using realistic source parameters. • The results are helpful to experimenters. - Abstract: The methodology and results of a detailed four-element lens optimization analysis based on electron trajectory numerical simulations are presented for a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA), whose entry aperture size is determined by the injection lens itself and is therefore virtual. Trajectory calculations were performed using both the boundary-element method (BEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM) and results from these two different approaches were benchmarked against each other, to probe and confirm the accuracy of our results. Since the first and last electrode are held at fixed potentials, the two intermediate adjustable lens electrode voltages were varied over the entire available voltage space in a direct, systematic, brute-force approach, while minima in beam spot size on the 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) at the exit of the HDA were investigated using a beam shaping approach. Lens voltages demonstrating improved energy resolution for the combined lens/HDA/PSD spectrograph system were sought with and without pre-retardation. The optimal voltages were then tested experimentally on the modeled HDA system using a hot-wire electron gun. The measured energy resolution was found to be in good overall agreement with our simulations, particularly at the highest resolution (∼0.05%) working conditions. These simulations also provide a detailed insight to the distinctive trajectory optics and positions of the first and second image planes, when the PSD has to be placed some distance away from the HDA exit plane, and is therefore not at the ideal optics

  10. The voltage optimization of a four-element lens used on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry for highest energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, O., E-mail: omersise@sdu.edu.tr [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Martínez, G. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Madesis, I. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Laoutaris, A. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Department of Applied Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR, 15780 Athens (Greece); Dimitriou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Fernández-Martín, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zouros, T.J.M. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • We investigate the voltage settings for the four-element injection lens of an HDA. • The two well-known approaches, BEM and FDM, in charged particle optics were used. • We tested optimal lens voltages from simulation on the actual experimental setup. • The measured FWHM were well modeled using realistic source parameters. • The results are helpful to experimenters. - Abstract: The methodology and results of a detailed four-element lens optimization analysis based on electron trajectory numerical simulations are presented for a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA), whose entry aperture size is determined by the injection lens itself and is therefore virtual. Trajectory calculations were performed using both the boundary-element method (BEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM) and results from these two different approaches were benchmarked against each other, to probe and confirm the accuracy of our results. Since the first and last electrode are held at fixed potentials, the two intermediate adjustable lens electrode voltages were varied over the entire available voltage space in a direct, systematic, brute-force approach, while minima in beam spot size on the 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) at the exit of the HDA were investigated using a beam shaping approach. Lens voltages demonstrating improved energy resolution for the combined lens/HDA/PSD spectrograph system were sought with and without pre-retardation. The optimal voltages were then tested experimentally on the modeled HDA system using a hot-wire electron gun. The measured energy resolution was found to be in good overall agreement with our simulations, particularly at the highest resolution (∼0.05%) working conditions. These simulations also provide a detailed insight to the distinctive trajectory optics and positions of the first and second image planes, when the PSD has to be placed some distance away from the HDA exit plane, and is therefore not at the ideal optics

  11. Who jumps the highest? Anthropometric and physiological correlations of vertical jump in youth elite female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Gkoudas, Konstantinos; Afonso, José; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Knechtle, Beat; Kasabalis, Stavros; Kasabalis, Athanasios; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas; Torres-Luque, Gema

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of vertical jump (Abalakov jump [AJ]) with anthropometric and physiological parameters in youth elite female volleyball players. Seventy-two selected volleyball players from the region of Athens (age 13.3±0.7 years, body mass 62.0±7.2 kg, height 171.5±5.7 cm, body fat 21.2±4.5%), classified into quartiles according to AJ performance (group A, 21.4-26.5 cm; group B, 26.8-29.9 cm; group C, 30.5-33.7 cm; group D, 33.8-45.9 cm), performed a series of physical fitness tests. AJ was correlated with anthropometric (age at peak height velocity [APHV]: r=0.38, Pvolleyball players that jumped the highest were those who matured later than others.

  12. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezziddin, Samer; Sabet, Amir; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Xun, Sunny; Matthies, Alexander; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    131 I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci) 131 I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131 I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131 I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90 Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment

  13. Impact of thermal frequency drift on highest precision force microscopy using quartz-based force sensors at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pielmeier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM the stability of the eigenfrequency of the force sensor is of key importance for highest precision force measurements. Here, we study the influence of temperature changes on the resonance frequency of force sensors made of quartz, in a temperature range from 4.8–48 K. The sensors are based on the qPlus and length extensional principle. The frequency variation with temperature T for all sensors is negative up to 30 K and on the order of 1 ppm/K, up to 13 K, where a distinct kink appears, it is linear. Furthermore, we characterize a new type of miniaturized qPlus sensor and confirm the theoretically predicted reduction in detector noise.

  14. Analysis of the highest transverse energy events seen in the UAl detector at the Spp-barS collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The first full solid angle analysis is presented of large transverse energy events in pp-bar collisions at the CERN collider. Events with transverse energies in excess of 200 GeV at √s = 630 GeV are studied for any non-standard physics and quantitatively compared with expectations from perturbative QCD Monte Carlo models. A corrected differential cross section is presented. A detailed examination is made of jet profiles, event jet multiplicities and the fraction of the transverse energy carried by the two jets with the highest transverse jet energies. There is good agreement with standard theory for events with transverse energies up to the largest observed values (approx. √s/2) and the analysis shows no evidence for any non-QCD mechanism to account for the event characteristics. (author)

  15. A common founder mutation in FANCA underlies the world's highest prevalence of Fanconi anemia in Gypsy families from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, Elsa; Casado, José A; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Bueren, Juan A; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard; Dasí, Angeles; Estella, Jesús M; Muñoz, Arturo; Ortega, Juan J; de Winter, Johan; Joenje, Hans; Schindler, Detlev; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hodgson, Shirley V; Mathew, Christopher G; Surrallés, Jordi

    2005-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Here we have identified Spanish Gypsies as the ethnic group with the world's highest prevalence of FA (carrier frequency of 1/64-1/70). DNA sequencing of the FANCA gene in 8 unrelated Spanish Gypsy FA families after retroviral subtyping revealed a homozygous FANCA mutation (295C>T) leading to FANCA truncation and FA pathway disruption. This mutation appeared specific for Spanish Gypsies as it is not found in other Gypsy patients with FA from Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, and Ireland. Haplotype analysis showed that Spanish Gypsy patients all share the same haplotype. Our data thus suggest that the high incidence of FA among Spanish Gypsies is due to an ancestral founder mutation in FANCA that originated in Spain less than 600 years ago. The high carrier frequency makes the Spanish Gypsies a population model to study FA heterozygote mutations in cancer.

  16. Analysis of the highest transverse energy events seen in the UA1 detector at the Spanti pS collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albajar, C.; Bezaguet, A.; Cennini, P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first full solid angle analysis of large transverse energy events in panti p collisions at the CERN collider. Events with transverse energies in excess of 200 GeV at √s=630 GeV are studied for any non-standard physics and quantitatively compared with expectations from perturbative QCD Monte Carlo models. A corrected differential cross section is presented. A detailed examination is made of jet profiles, event jet multiplicities and the fraction of the transverse energy carried by the two jets with the highest transverse jet energies. There is good agreement with standard theory for events with transverse energies up to the largest observed values (≅ √s/2) and the analysis shows no evidence for any non-QCD mechanism to account for the event characteristics. (orig.)

  17. The Mass Elevation Effect of the Central Andes and Its Implications for the Southern Hemisphere's Highest Treeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the highest treelines in the world is at 4810 m above sea level on the Sajama Volcano in the central Andes. The climatological cause of that exceptionally high treeline position is still unclear. Although it has been suggested that the mass elevation effect (MEE explains the upward shift of treelines in the Altiplano region, the magnitude of MEE has not yet been quantified for that region. This paper defines MEE as the air temperature difference in summer at the same elevation between the inner mountains/plateaus (Altiplano and the free atmosphere above the adjacent lowlands of the Andean Cordillera. The Altiplano air temperature was obtained from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly temperature database, and the air temperature above the adjacent lowlands was interpolated based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 1 data set. We analyzed the mean air temperature differences for January, July, and the warm months from October to April. The air temperature was mostly higher on the Altiplano than over the neighboring lowlands at the same altitude. The air temperature difference increased from the outer Andean east-facing slope to the interior of the Altiplano in summer, and it increased from high latitudes to low latitudes in winter. The mean air temperature in the Altiplano in summer is approximately 5 K higher than it is above the adjacent lowlands at the same mean elevation, averaging about 3700 m above sea level. This upward shift of isotherms in the inner part of the Cordillera enables the treeline to climb to 4810 m, with shrub-size trees reaching even higher. Therefore, the MEE explains the occurrence of one of the world’s highest treelines in the central Andes.

  18. Contact with HIV prevention services highest in gay and bisexual men at greatest risk: cross-sectional survey in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV in the UK and new HIV prevention strategies are needed. In this paper, we examine what contact MSM currently have with HIV prevention activities and assess the extent to which these could be utilised further. Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure™ oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh in April/May 2008. 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate; 1318 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. Results 82.5% reported some contact with HIV prevention activities in the past 12 months, 73.1% obtained free condoms from a gay venue or the Internet, 51.1% reported accessing sexual health information (from either leaflets in gay venues or via the Internet, 13.5% reported talking to an outreach worker and 8.0% reported participating in counselling on sexual health or HIV prevention. Contact with HIV prevention activities was associated with frequency of gay scene use and either HIV or other STI testing in the past 12 months, but not with sexual risk behaviours. Utilising counselling was also more likely among men who reported having had an STI in the past 12 months and HIV-positive men. Conclusions Men at highest risk, and those likely to be in contact with sexual health services, are those who report most contact with a range of current HIV prevention activities. Offering combination prevention, including outreach by peer health workers, increased uptake of sexual health services delivering behavioural and biomedical interventions, and supported by social marketing to ensure continued community engagement and support, could be the way forward. Focused investment in the needs of those at highest risk, including those diagnosed HIV-positive, may generate a prevention dividend in the long

  19. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  20. Casualty Risk From Tornadoes in the United States is Highest in Urbanized Areas Across the Mid South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, T.; Elsner, J.

    2017-12-01

    Risk factors for tornado casualties are well known. Less understood is how and to what degree these determinants, after controlling for strength and urban density, vary spatially and temporally. Here we fit models to casualty counts from all casualty-producing tornadoes since 1995 in order to quantify the interactions between urbanization and energy on casualty rates. Results from the models show that the more urbanized areas of the Mid South are substantively and significantly more vulnerable to casualties from tornadoes than elsewhere in the country. Casualty rates are significantly higher on the weekend for tornadoes in this region. Night and day casualty rates are similar regardless of where they occur. Higher vulnerability to casualties from tornadoes occurring in more urbanized areas correspond significantly with greater percentages of elderly people. Many of the micro cities in the Mid South are threatened by tornadoes annually and this threat might potentially be exacerbated by climate change.

  1. INFLUENCE OF CELLULOSE POLYMERIZATION DEGREE AND CRYSTALLINITY ON KINETICS OF CELLULOSE DEGRADATION

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Jasiukaitytė-Grojzdek,; Matjaž Kunaver,; Ida Poljanšek

    2012-01-01

    Cellulose was treated in ethylene glycol with p-toluene sulfonic acid monohydrate as a catalyst at different temperatures. At the highest treatment temperature (150 °C) liquefaction of wood pulp cellulose was achieved and was dependant on cellulose polymerization degree (DP). Furthermore, the rate of amorphous cellulose weight loss was found to increase with cellulose degree of polymerization, while the rate of crystalline cellulose weight loss was reciprocal to the size of the crystallites. ...

  2. Diploma to degree 1976 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The debate on degree education for radiographers began in earnest in the mid-1970s. Initially the debate hinged around whether a degree education was necessary for radiographers. One argument was that it was felt that a degree would separate academic and clinical training but eventually when degrees were introduced practical skills were assessed formally for the first time; something that had not been achieved with the Diploma of the College of Radiographers (DCR). The DCR itself became a barrier to degree education as the College of Radiographers (CoR) insisted that it was the only qualification recognised for state registration and as such would have to remain embedded as a distinct qualification within a degree. A major breakthrough came when the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) recognised the DCR at the same level as an ordinary degree. Around the same time the CoR published its Degree Rationale which announced a change in policy by not insisting that the DCR was sacrosanct. Developments followed rapidly and the first honours degree in radiography was validated in 1989 despite opposition from scientific officers at the Department of Health. Degrees were approved for state registration and radiography became a graduate profession by 1993 following years of debate and after overcoming opposition from both within and external to the profession.

  3. ACHIEVEMENT OF THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK AND THE SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Urosevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health at work involves the exercise of such working conditions that take certain measures and activities in order to protect the life and health of employees. The interest of society, of all stakeholders and every individual is to achieve the highest level of safety and health at work, to unwanted consequences such as injuries, occupational diseases and diseases related to work are reduced to a minimum, and to create the conditions work in which employees have a sense of satisfaction in the performance of their professional duties. Textile industry is a sector with higher risk, because the plants of textile industry prevailing unfavorable microclimate conditions: high air temperature and high humidity, and often insufficient illumination of rooms and increased noise. The whole line of production in the textile industry, there is a risk of injury, the most common with mechanical force, or gaining burns from heat or chemicals. All of these factors are present in the process of production and processing of textiles and the same may affect the incidence of occupational diseases of workers, absenteeism, reduction of their working capacity and productivity. With the progress of the textile industry production increases in the number of hazardous and harmful substances that may pose a potential danger to the employee in this branch of the economy as well as the harmful impact on the environment. Therefore, it is important to give special attention to these problems.

  4. Density functional theory, comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis of Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, K.; Gunasekaran, S.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra of Linezolid have been recorded in the regions 4,000-400 and 4,000-100 cm-1, respectively. Utilizing the observed Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound have been carried out. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, have been calculated by density functional theory with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) levels. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of Linezolid is reported. Mulliken's net charges have also been calculated. Ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using time-dependent density functional method. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis and several thermodynamic properties have been performed by the density functional theoretical method.

  5. New hybrid magnet system for structure research at highest magnetic fields and temperatures in the millikelvin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeibidl, Peter; Ehmler, Hartmut; Tennant, Alan; Bird, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Helmholtz Centre Berlin (HZB) is a user facility for the study of structure and dynamics with neutrons and synchrotron radiation with special emphasis on experiments under extreme conditions. Neutron scattering is uniquely suited to study magnetic properties on a microscopic length scale, because neutrons have comparable wavelengths and, due to their magnetic moment, they interact with the atomic magnetic moments. At HZB a dedicated instrument for neutron scattering at extreme magnetic fields and low temperatures is under construction, the Extreme Environment Diffractometer ExED. It is projected according to the time-of-flight principle for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering and for the special geometric constraints of analysing samples in a high field magnet. The new hybrid magnet will not only allow for novel experiments, it will be at the forefront of development in magnet technology itself. With a set of superconducting and resistive coils a maximum field above 30 T will be possible. To compromise between the needs of the magnet design for highest fields and the concept of the neutron instrument, the magnetic field will be generated by means of a coned, resistive inner solenoid and a superconducting outer solenoid with horizontal field orientation. To allow for experiments down to Millikelvin Temperatures the installation of a 3 He or a dilution cryostat with a closed cycle precooling stage is foreseen.

  6. Pleistocene climatic oscillations rather than recent human disturbance influence genetic diversity in one of the world's highest treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanling; Lachmuth, Susanne; Gallegos, Silvia C; Kessler, Michael; Ramsay, Paul M; Renison, Daniel; Suarez, Ricardo; Hensen, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Biological responses to climatic change usually leave imprints on the genetic diversity and structure of plants. Information on the current genetic diversity and structure of dominant tree species has facilitated our general understanding of phylogeographical patterns. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs), we compared genetic diversity and structure of 384 adults of P. tarapacana with those of 384 seedlings across 32 forest sites spanning a latitudinal gradient of 600 km occurring between 4100 m and 5000 m a.s.l. in Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), one of the world's highest treeline species endemic to the central Andes. Moderate to high levels of genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation were detected in both adults and seedlings, with levels of genetic diversity and differentiation being almost identical. Four slightly genetically divergent clusters were identified that accorded to differing geographical regions. Genetic diversity decreased from south to north and with increasing precipitation for adults and seedlings, but there was no relationship to elevation. Our study shows that, unlike the case for other Andean treeline species, recent human activities have not affected the genetic structure of P. tarapacana, possibly because its inhospitable habitat is unsuitable for agriculture. The current genetic pattern of P. tarapacana points to a historically more widespread distribution at lower altitudes, which allowed considerable gene flow possibly during the glacial periods of the Pleistocene epoch, and also suggests that the northern Argentinean Andes may have served as a refugium for historical populations. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  7. A Systematic Study to Optimize SiPM Photo-Detectors for Highest Time Resolution in PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S.; Frisch, B.; Hillemanns, H.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Pauwels, K.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a systematic study of time resolution made with three different commercial silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-025P, S10931-050P, and S10931-100P) and two LSO scintillating crystals. This study aimed to determine the optimum detector conditions for highest time resolution in a prospective time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) system. Measurements were based on the time over threshold method in a coincidence setup using the ultrafast amplifier-discriminator NINO and a fast oscilloscope. Our tests with the three SiPMs of the same area but of different SPAD sizes and fill factors led to best results with the Hamamatsu type of 50×50×μm2 single-pixel size. For this type of SiPM and under realistic geometrical PET scanner conditions, i.e., with 2×2×10×mm3 LSO crystals, a coincidence time resolution of 220 ±4 ps FWHM could be achieved. The results are interpreted in terms of SiPM photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark noise, and photon yield.

  8. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  9. Compressive sensing-based wideband capacitance measurement with a fixed sampling rate lower than the highest exciting frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Ren, Ying; Sun, Shijie; Cao, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an under-sampling method for wideband capacitance measurement was proposed by using the compressive sensing strategy. As the excitation signal is sparse in the frequency domain, the compressed sampling method that uses a random demodulator was adopted, which could greatly decrease the sampling rate. Besides, four switches were used to replace the multiplier in the random demodulator. As a result, not only the sampling rate can be much smaller than the signal excitation frequency, but also the circuit’s structure is simpler and its power consumption is lower. A hardware prototype was constructed to validate the method. In the prototype, an excitation voltage with a frequency up to 200 kHz was applied to a capacitance-to-voltage converter. The output signal of the converter was randomly modulated by a pseudo-random sequence through four switches. After a low-pass filter, the signal was sampled by an analog-to-digital converter at a sampling rate of 50 kHz, which was three times lower than the highest exciting frequency. The frequency and amplitude of the signal were then reconstructed to obtain the measured capacitance. Both theoretical analysis and experiments were carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed method and to evaluate the performance of the prototype, including its linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, accuracy and stability within a given measurement range. (paper)

  10. [Archivos de Bronconeumología: among the 3 Spanish medical journals with the highest national impact factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Castellano Gómez, M; Simó Meléndez, R; Navarro Molina, C

    2004-12-01

    Citation analysis elucidates patterns of information consumption within professional communities. The aim of this study was to analyze the citations of 87 Spanish medical journals by calculating their impact factors and immediacy indices for 2001, and to estimate the importance of Archivos de Bronconeumología within the framework of Spanish medicine. Eighty-seven Spanish medical journals were included. All were listed in the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Español) and in at least one of the following databases: MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, or Science Citation Index. References to articles from 1999 through 2001 in citable articles from 2001 were analyzed. Using the method of the Institute for Scientific Information, we calculated the national impact factor and immediacy index for each journal. The journals with the highest national impact factors were Revista Española de Quimioterapia (0.894), Medicina Clínica (0.89), and Archivos de Bronconeumología (0.732). The self-citation percentage of Archivos de Bronconeumología was 18.3% and the immediacy index was 0.033. The impact factor obtained by Archivos de Bronconeumología confirms its importance in Spanish medicine and validates its inclusion as a source journal in Science Citation Index and Journal Citation Report.

  11. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-09-18

    The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2-1.7, p < 0.001), and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2-2.9, p < 0.001), and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3-6.2, p < 0.001) and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9-9.8, p < 0.001) areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years.

  12. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2–1.7, p < 0.001, and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2–2.9, p < 0.001, and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3–6.2, p < 0.001 and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9–9.8, p < 0.001 areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years.

  13. Solving The Longstanding Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At the Highest Microscopic Level - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    A 2011 DOE-NP Early Career Award (ECA) under Field Work Proposal (FWP) SCW1158 supported the project “Solving the Long-Standing Problem of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions at the Highest Microscopic Level” in the five-year period from June 15, 2011 to June 14, 2016. This project, led by PI S. Quaglioni, aimed at developing a comprehensive and computationally efficient framework to arrive at a unified description of structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. Specifically, the project had three main goals: 1) arriving at the accurate predictions for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; 2) realizing a comprehensive description of clustering and continuum effects in exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and 3) achieving fundamental understanding of the role of the 3N force in nuclear reactions and nuclei at the drip line.

  14. Two Clock Transitions in Neutral Yb for the Highest Sensitivity to Variations of the Fine-Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Marianna S.; Porsev, Sergey G.; Sanner, Christian; Ye, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new frequency standard based on a 4 f146 s 6 p P0 3 -4 f136 s25 d (J =2 ) transition in neutral Yb. This transition has a potential for high stability and accuracy and the advantage of the highest sensitivity among atomic clocks to variation of the fine-structure constant α . We find its dimensionless α -variation enhancement factor to be K =-15 , in comparison to the most sensitive current clock (Yb+ E 3 , K =-6 ), and it is 18 times larger than in any neutral-atomic clocks (Hg, K =0.8 ). Combined with the unprecedented stability of an optical lattice clock for neutral atoms, this high sensitivity opens new perspectives for searches for ultralight dark matter and for tests of theories beyond the standard model of elementary particles. Moreover, together with the well-established 1S0-3P0 transition, one will have two clock transitions operating in neutral Yb, whose interleaved interrogations may further reduce systematic uncertainties of such clock-comparison experiments.

  15. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Gonnet, Jorge; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-09-30

    There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects. A total of 3.3 ha of alpine meadows and 13.4 ha of alpine steppe were disturbed by trails. Trails through meadows resulted in greater soil loss, more exposed soil and rock and less vegetation than trails through steppe vegetation. Trampling also affected the composition of meadow and steppe vegetation with declines in sedges, herbs, grasses and shrubs on trails. These results highlight how visitor use can result in substantial cumulative damage to areas of high conservation value in the Andes. With unregulated use of trails and increasing visitation, park agencies need to limit the further spread of informal trails and improve the conservation of plant communities in Aconcagua Provincial Park and other popular parks in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hand-held electronic data collection and procedure environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.; Doniz, K.

    1996-01-01

    As part of a CANDU Owners Group project, AECL has developed a hand-held electronic data collection and procedure environment. Integral to this environment is the C omputerized Procedure Engine . The development of the CPE allows operators, maintainers, and technical support staff to execute virtually any type of station procedure on a general-purpose PC-compatible hand-held computer. There are several advantages to using the computerized procedures: less paper use and handling, reduction in human error, reduction in rework in the field, an increase in procedural compliance, and immediate availability of data to download to databases and plant information systems. The paper describes: the advantages of using computerized procedures, why early forms of computerized procedures were inadequate, the features that the C omputerized Procedure Engine o ffers to the user, the streamlined life cycle of a computerized procedure, and field experience. The paper concludes that computerized procedures are ready for pilot applications at stations. (author)

  17. Public Librarians with the Highest Retention Rate are More Likely to Choose their Entire Career Path in Public Libraries. A Review of: Noh, Y. (2010. A study analyzing the career path of librarians. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(4, 329–346.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazi Torabi

    2011-06-01

    below in Table 1.In order to investigate the career movement path of librarians, participants were asked to identify their current job position plus the first three positions before the current position. Each position equals one phase in the librarians’ career path analysis. The jobs were broadly categorized into public libraries, university libraries, special libraries, schools and school libraries, database and content builders, library automation system developers, MARC companies, agencies, Internet portals, library supply companies, and others.Main Results – The data obtained from those items italicized in Table 1 were used to compare factors influencing the career movement path of chief librarians in public libraries and librarians. The survey results on differences in gender show that most chief librarians (58.9% were men compare to women (41.1%, while the ratio of women to men librarians is 2:5. Therefore, it is more likely that male librarians decide to become chief librarians. Analyzing the age of respondents indicates that it takes 20 years of library experience before one becomes a chief librarian. Survey results on differences in the final academic degree between librarians and chief librarians show that more librarians (96.7% held higher graduate degree compare to chief librarians (87.6% (results calculated form Table 7 - p. 333. Likewise, there are more librarians who studied library and information science (83.3% compare to chief librarians (55.9% (Table 8. Comparing the type of certificates held by two groups, it is evident that 26.7% of chief librarians do not have any library related certificates compare to 5.9% of librarians. The survey results suggest that both librarians and chief librarians make effort to increase their knowledge and skills. While librarians spend more time to improve operational aptitude and personal management, chief librarians identify themselves as hard working individuals.The study conducted a simple analysis on factors

  18. Interactive topology optimization on hand-held devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an interactive topology optimization application designed for hand-held devices running iOS or Android. The TopOpt app solves the 2D minimum compliance problem with interactive control of load and support positions as well as volume fraction. Thus, it is possible to change......OS devices from the Apple App Store, at Google Play for the Android platform, and a web-version can be run from www.topopt.dtu.dk....

  19. Guidance of attention by information held in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Marissa Ortiz; Rich, Anina N

    2013-05-01

    Information held in working memory (WM) can guide attention during visual search. The authors of recent studies have interpreted the effect of holding verbal labels in WM as guidance of visual attention by semantic information. In a series of experiments, we tested how attention is influenced by visual features versus category-level information about complex objects held in WM. Participants either memorized an object's image or its category. While holding this information in memory, they searched for a target in a four-object search display. On exact-match trials, the memorized item reappeared as a distractor in the search display. On category-match trials, another exemplar of the memorized item appeared as a distractor. On neutral trials, none of the distractors were related to the memorized object. We found attentional guidance in visual search on both exact-match and category-match trials in Experiment 1, in which the exemplars were visually similar. When we controlled for visual similarity among the exemplars by using four possible exemplars (Exp. 2) or by using two exemplars rated as being visually dissimilar (Exp. 3), we found attentional guidance only on exact-match trials when participants memorized the object's image. The same pattern of results held when the target was invariant (Exps. 2-3) and when the target was defined semantically and varied in visual features (Exp. 4). The findings of these experiments suggest that attentional guidance by WM requires active visual information.

  20. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  1. Chemical Changes In Shortfin Scad (Decapterus Macrosoma) at Chilled (4 degree Celcius) and Frozen (-18 degree Celcius) Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazilah Fazilin Juhari; Norizzah Abd Rashid; Seng, C.C.; Anida Yusoff; Emilia Azrina Mohd Bakri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical changes in muscle tissue of shortfin scad during storage at chilled (4 degree Celcius) and frozen (-18 degree Celcius) conditions for 18 days. The chemical changes were monitored every three days for Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), Peroxide value (PV), Total Volatile Base Nitrogen (TVBN) and Trimethylamine (TMA) content. Results show that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in peroxide and TBA values between chilled and frozen shortfin scad starting from day 3. The highest PV values occured in chilled and frozen shortfin scad at day 12 (1.57 mEq/ kg and 1.13 mEq/ kg, respectively), and then decreased due to decomposition of hydroperoxides to secondary products such as aldehydes, alcohols and ketones. In contrast, TBA reached the highest values at day 15 for both chilled and frozen shortfin scad. For TVBN content, only the chilled sample shows significant increased (p<0.05) with storage time. The TVBN values declined significantly (p<0.05) for frozen shortfin scad. The TMA values for both chilled and frozen shortfin scad increased during storage. However, the TMA values increased at a faster rate in chilled compared to frozen shortfin scad. Based on the PV, TBA, TVBN and TMA values, chilled shortfin scad undergoes spoilage at a faster rate compared to the frozen shortfin scad. (author)

  2. A story about the discovery of the largest glacier and the highest peak in heart of the Pamirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tells a story how the “blank spot” at the Pamirs center was puzzled out. In 1878, a small party of explorers headed by V.D. Oshanin had found here a big glacier about 30–40 km long and named it for Fedchenko. In 1884–85, known investigator G.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo made his important proposal about orographic structure of the Pamirs central part. In 1890, expedition headed by topographer N.I. Kosinenko investigated the lower part of the Fedchenko Glacier and, for the first time, saw a separate high peak. In 1916, astronomer Ya.I. Belyaev had put on a map a great pyramidal summit but he had mistaken it for the Garmo Peak well known to local Tadzhiks (Fig. 2.In 1927, N.L. Korzhenevsky published a chart of arrangement of ridges near sources of the river Muksu (Fig. 3 that became a basis for work of the Tadzhik-Pamir expedition of 1928–1932. In 1928, Ya.I. Belyaev determined a true length of the Fechenko Glacier that was 70 km, and geodesist I.G. Dorofeevmapped the whole basin of this glacier (Fig. 4 including also a high irregular truncated pyramid of 7495 m in height (as he believed. But earlier this summit was identified as known the Garmo Peak. And only in 1932, it was established that definitions made by Dorofeev in 1928 were related to this highest peak of the Pamirs and also of the whole Soviet Union. The chart of real Central Pamir orography constructed by I.G. Dorofeev is presented in the paper together with his letter addressed to the author (Fig. 5.Thus, the “Garmo peaks” which were observed by the above mentioned explorers were actually three different summits. One of them does tower on the north of the “knot being puzzled out” and reaches 7495 m, and namely this “one-tooth” peak was repeatedly seen by N.V. Krylenko from valleys Gando and Garmo. It was named then the Stalin peak, and later – the peak of Communism. Another one is located in 18 km southward, and this peak is actually the true Garmo Peak 6595 m

  3. Binding of higher alcohols onto Mn(12) single-molecule magnets (SMMs): access to the highest barrier Mn(12) SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Christos; Redler, Gage; Data, Saiti; Abboud, Khalil A; Hill, Stephen; Christou, George

    2010-02-15

    Two new members of the Mn(12) family of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(Bu(t)OH)(H(2)O)(3)].2Bu(t)OH (3.2Bu(t)OH) and [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(C(5)H(11)OH)(4)] (4) (C(5)H(11)OH is 1-pentanol), are reported. They were synthesized from [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CMe)(16)(H(2)O)(4)].2MeCO(2)H.4H(2)O (1) by carboxylate substitution and crystallization from the appropriate alcohol-containing solvent. Complexes 3 and 4 are new members of the recently established [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(solv)(4)] (solv = H(2)O, alcohols) family of SMMs. Only one bulky Bu(t)OH can be accommodated into 3, and even this causes significant distortion of the [Mn(12)O(12)] core. Variable-temperature, solid-state alternating current (AC) magnetization studies were carried out on complexes 3 and 4, and they established that both possess an S = 10 ground state spin and are SMMs. However, the magnetic behavior of the two compounds was found to be significantly different, with 4 showing out-of-phase AC peaks at higher temperatures than 3. High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) studies were carried out on single crystals of 3.2Bu(t)OH and 4, and these revealed that the axial zero-field splitting constant, D, is very different for the two compounds. Furthermore, it was established that 4 is the Mn(12) SMM with the highest kinetic barrier (U(eff)) to date. The results reveal alcohol substitution as an additional and convenient means to affect the magnetization relaxation barrier of the Mn(12) SMMs without major change to the ligation or oxidation state.

  4. Investigation of Behçet's Disease and Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Frequency: The Highest Prevalence in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Baş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet’s Disease (BD. Aims: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent. In the first stage, the individuals, who were selected in random order, were invited to a Family Physician Unit at a certain date and time. The dermatological examinations of the volunteering individuals were performed by only 3 dermatology specialists. In the second stage, those individuals who had symptoms of BD were invited to our hospital, and the Pathergy Test and eye examinations were performed. Results: The annual prevalence of RAS was determined as 10.84%. The annual prevalence was determined to be higher in women than in men (p=0.000. It was observed that the prevalence was at the peak level in the 3rd decade, and then decreased proportionally in the following decades (p=0.000. It was also observed that the aphtha recurrence decreased in the following decades (p=0.048. The Behçet’s prevalence was found to be 0.60%. The prevalence in women was found to be higher than in men (0.86% female, 0.14% male; p=0.022. Conclusion: While the RAS prevalence ratio was at an average value when compared with the other societies; the BD prevalence was found as the highest ratio in the world according to the literature.

  5. Where do the highest energy CR's come from? and How does the Milky Way affect their arrival directions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronberg Philipp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “grand magnetic design” for the Milky Way disk clearly emerges within ~1.5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane near the Sun [1], and reveals a pitch angle of −5.5°. directed inward from the Solar tangential. This pitch angle can be expected to differ for Galactic disc locations other than ours. Above ~1.5 kpc, the field geometry is completely different, and its 3-D structure is not yet completely specified. However it appears that the UHECR (> 5 · 1019 eV propagation to us is not much affected by the halo field, at least for protons. I discuss new multi-parameter analyses of UHECR deflections which provide a conceptual “template” for future interpretations of energy-species-direction data from AUGER, HiRes etc., and their successors [2]. I show how the strength and structure of the cosmologically nearby intergalactic magnetic field, BIGM, is now well-estimated out to D ~5 Mpc from the Milky Way: − 20nG. These are the first VHECR data-based estimates of BIGM on nearby supragalactic scales, and are also important for understanding and modeling CR propagation in the more distant Universe. CR Acceleration to the highest energies is probably a natural accompanying phenomenon of Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH-associated jets and lobes [3]. I briefly describe what we know about magnetic configurations in these candidate sites for UHECR acceleration, and the first direct estimate of an extragalactic Poynting flux current, ~3 · 1018 Amperes [4, 5]. This number connects directly to SMBH accretion disk physics, and leads directly to ideas of how VHECR acceleration in jets and lobes, possibly involving magnetic reconnection, is likely to be common in the Universe. It remains to be fully understood.

  6. Identification of multiple sclerosis patients at highest risk of cognitive impairment using an integrated brain magnetic resonance imaging assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, T; Vaneckova, M; Sormani, M P; Krasensky, J; Sobisek, L; Dusankova, J Blahova; Seidl, Z; Havrdova, E; Kalincik, T; Benedict, R H B; Horakova, D

    2017-02-01

    While impaired cognitive performance is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), it has been largely underdiagnosed. Here a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening algorithm is proposed to identify patients at highest risk of cognitive impairment. The objective was to examine whether assessment of lesion burden together with whole brain atrophy on MRI improves our ability to identify cognitively impaired MS patients. Of the 1253 patients enrolled in the study, 1052 patients with all cognitive, volumetric MRI and clinical data available were included in the analysis. Brain MRI and neuropsychological assessment with the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis were performed. Multivariable logistic regression and individual prediction analysis were used to investigate the associations between MRI markers and cognitive impairment. The results of the primary analysis were validated at two subsequent time points (months 12 and 24). The prevalence of cognitive impairment was greater in patients with low brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) (3.5 ml) than in patients with high BPF (>0.85) and low T2-LV (patients predicted cognitive impairment with 83% specificity, 82% negative predictive value, 51% sensitivity and 75% overall accuracy. The risk of confirmed cognitive decline over the follow-up was greater in patients with high T2-LV (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and low BPF (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.7). The integrated MRI assessment of lesion burden and brain atrophy may improve the stratification of MS patients who may benefit from cognitive assessment. © 2016 EAN.

  7. Lyman alpha emission in nearby star-forming galaxies with the lowest metallicities and the highest [OIII]/[OII] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The Lyman alpha line of hydrogen is the strongest emission line in galaxies and the tool of predilection for identifying and studying star-forming galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, especially in the early universe. However, it has become clear over the years that not all of the Lyman alpha radiation escapes, due to its resonant scattering on the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and absorption by dust. Although our knowledge of the high-z universe depends crucially on that line, we still do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms behind the production, radiative transfer and escape of Lyman alpha in galaxies. We wish here to investigate these mechanisms by studying the properties of the ISM in a unique sample of 8 extreme star-forming galaxies (SFGs) that have the highest excitation in the SDSS spectral data base. These dwarf SFGs have considerably lower stellar masses and metallicities, and higher equivalent widths and [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios compared to all nearby SFGs with Lyman alpha emission studied so far with COS. They are, however, very similar to the dwarf Lyman alpha emitters at redshifts 3-6, which are thought to be the main sources of reionization in the early Universe. By combining the HST/COS UV data with data in the optical range, and using photoionization and radiative transfer codes, we will be able to study the properties of the Lyman alpha in these unique objects, derive column densities of the neutral hydrogen N(HI) and compare them with N(HI) obtained from the HeI emission-line ratios in the optical spectra. We will derive Lyman alpha escape fractions and indirectly Lyman continuum escape fractions.

  8. Can All Doctors Be Like This? Seven Stories of Communication Transformation Told by Physicians Rated Highest by Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisse, Tom; Tallman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The top predictors of patient satisfaction with clinical visits are the quality of the physician-patient relationship and the communications contributing to their relationship. How do physicians improve their communication, and what effect does it have on them? This article presents the verbatim stories of seven high-performing physicians describing their transformative change in the areas of communication, connection, and well-being. Data for this study are based on interviews from a previous study in which a 6-question set was posed, in semistructured 60-minute interviews, to 77 of the highest-performing Permanente Medical Group physicians in 4 Regions on the "Art of Medicine" patient survey. Transformation stories emerged spontaneously during the interviews, and so it was an incidental finding when some physicians identified that they were not always high performing in their communication with patients. Seven different modes of transformation in communication were described by these physicians: a listening tool, an awareness course, finding new meaning in clinical practice, a technologic tool, a sudden insight, a mentor observation, and a physician-as-patient experience. These stories illustrate how communication skills can be learned through various activities and experiences that transform physicians into those who are highly successful communicators. All modes result in a change of state-a new way of seeing, of being-and are not just a new tool or a new practice, but a change in state of mind. This state resulted in a marked change of behavior, and a substantial improvement of communication and relationship.

  9. Quantifying metabolic heterogeneity in head and neck tumors in real time: 2-DG uptake is highest in hypoxic tumor regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C Nakajima

    Full Text Available Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of treatment failure due to the presence of a subset of resistant tumor cells. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC xenograft model and a real-time fluorescence imaging approach, we tested the hypothesis that tumors are metabolically heterogeneous, and that tumor hypoxia alters patterns of glucose uptake within the tumor.Cal33 cells were grown as xenograft tumors (n = 16 in nude mice after identification of this cell line's metabolic response to hypoxia. Tumor uptake of fluorescent markers identifying hypoxia, glucose import, or vascularity was imaged simultaneously using fluorescent molecular tomography. The variability of intratumoral 2-deoxyglucose (IR800-2-DG concentration was used to assess tumor metabolic heterogeneity, which was further investigated using immunohistochemistry for expression of key metabolic enzymes. HNSCC tumors in patients were assessed for intratumoral variability of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG uptake in clinical PET scans.IR800-2-DG uptake in hypoxic regions of Cal33 tumors was 2.04 times higher compared to the whole tumor (p = 0.0001. IR800-2-DG uptake in tumors containing hypoxic regions was more heterogeneous as compared to tumors lacking a hypoxic signal. Immunohistochemistry staining for HIF-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, and ATP synthase subunit 5β confirmed xenograft metabolic heterogeneity. We detected heterogeneous (18F-FDG uptake within patient HNSCC tumors, and the degree of heterogeneity varied amongst tumors.Hypoxia is associated with increased intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. (18F-FDG PET scans may be used to stratify patients according to the metabolic heterogeneity within their tumors, which could be an indicator of prognosis.

  10. Degrees of polarization for a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Soto, L L; Soederholm, J; Yustas, E C; Klimov, A B; Bjoerk, G

    2006-01-01

    Unpolarized light is invariant with respect to any SU(2) polarization transformation. Since this fully characterizes the set of density matrices representing unpolarized states, we introduce the degree of polarization of a quantum state as its distance to the set of unpolarized states. We discuss different candidates of distance, and show that they induce fundamentally different degrees of polarization

  11. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  12. Current Trends in Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Elaine Grant

    This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…

  13. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  14. Meson degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)

  15. Efavirenz Has the Highest Anti-Proliferative Effect of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors against Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hecht

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention and therapy in HIV-1-infected patients will play an important role in future. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI Efavirenz and Nevirapine are cytotoxic against cancer cells in vitro. As other NNRTIs have not been studied so far, all clinically used NNRTIs were tested and the in vitro toxic concentrations were compared to drug levels in patients to predict possible anti-cancer effects in vivo.Cytotoxicity was studied by Annexin-V-APC/7AAD staining and flow cytometry in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and Panc-1 and confirmed by colony formation assays. The 50% effective cytotoxic concentrations (EC50 were calculated and compared to the blood levels in our patients and published data.The in vitro EC50 of the different drugs in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells were: Efavirenz 31.5 μmol/l (= 9944 ng/ml, Nevirapine 239 μmol/l (= 63,786 ng/ml, Etravirine 89.0 μmol/l (= 38,740 ng/ml, Lersivirine 543 μmol/l (= 168,523 ng/ml, Delavirdine 171 μmol/l (= 78,072 ng/ml, Rilpivirine 24.4 μmol/l (= 8941 ng/ml. As Efavirenz and Rilpivirine had the highest cytotoxic potential and Nevirapine is frequently used in HIV-1 positive patients, the results of these three drugs were further studied in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and confirmed with colony formation assays. 205 patient blood levels of Efavirenz, 127 of Rilpivirine and 31 of Nevirapine were analyzed. The mean blood level of Efavirenz was 3587 ng/ml (range 162-15,363 ng/ml, of Rilpivirine 144 ng/ml (range 0-572 ng/ml and of Nevirapine 4955 ng/ml (range 1856-8697 ng/ml. Blood levels from our patients and from published data had comparable Efavirenz levels to the in vitro toxic EC50 in about 1 to 5% of all patients.All studied NNRTIs were toxic against cancer cells. A low percentage of patients taking Efavirenz reached in vitro cytotoxic blood levels. It can be speculated that in HIV-1 positive patients having high Efavirenz blood levels pancreatic

  16. A New Orally Active, Aminothiol Radioprotector-Free of Nausea and Hypotension Side Effects at Its Highest Radioprotective Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soref, Cheryl M. [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Hacker, Timothy A. [Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Physiology Core, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fahl, William E., E-mail: fahl@oncology.wisc.edu [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: A new aminothiol, PrC-210, was tested for orally conferred radioprotection (rats, mice; 9.0 Gy whole-body, which was otherwise lethal to 100% of the animals) and presence of the debilitating side effects (nausea/vomiting, hypotension/fainting) that restrict use of the current aminothiol, amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721). Methods and Materials: PrC-210 in water was administered to rats and mice at times before irradiation, and percent-survival was recorded for 60 days. Subcutaneous (SC) amifostine (positive control) or SC PrC-210 was administered to ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and retching/emesis responses were recorded. Intraperitoneal amifostine (positive control) or PrC-210 was administered to arterial cannulated rats to score drug-induced hypotension. Results: Oral PrC-210 conferred 100% survival in rat and mouse models against an otherwise 100% lethal whole-body radiation dose (9.0 Gy). Oral PrC-210, administered by gavage 30-90 min before irradiation, conferred a broad window of radioprotection. The comparison of PrC-210 and amifostine side effects was striking because there was no retching or emesis in 10 ferrets treated with PrC-210 and no induced hypotension in arterial cannulated rats treated with PrC-210. The tested PrC-210 doses were the ferret and rat equivalent doses of the 0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) PrC-210 dose in mice. The human equivalent of this mouse 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose would likely be the highest PrC-210 dose used in humans. By comparison, the mouse 0.5 MTD amifostine dose, 400 {mu}g/g body weight (equivalent to the human amifostine dose of 910 mg/m{sup 2}), when tested at equivalent ferret and rat doses in the above models produced 100% retching/vomiting in ferrets and 100% incidence of significant, progressive hypotension in rats. Conclusions: The PrC-210 aminothiol, with no detectable nausea/vomiting or hypotension side effects in these preclinical models, is a logical candidate for human drug development to use in healthy

  17. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  18. The part of the solar spectrum with the highest influence on the formation of SOA in the continental boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between nucleation events and spectral solar irradiance was analysed using two years of data collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland. We analysed the data in two different ways. In the first step we calculated ten nanometer average values from the irradiance measurements between 280 and 580 nm and explored if any special wavelengths groups showed higher values on event days compared to a spectral reference curve for all the days for 2 years or to reference curves for every month. The results indicated that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 340 nm is higher on event days in winter (February and March compared to the monthly reference graph but quantitative much smaller than in spring or summer. By building the ratio between the average values of different event classes and the yearly reference graph we obtained peaks between 1.17 and 1.6 in the short wavelength range (300--340 nm. In the next step we included number concentrations of particles between 3 and 10 nm and calculated correlation coefficients between the different wavelengths groups and the particles. The results were quite similar to those obtained previously; the highest correlation coefficients were reached for the spectral irradiance groups 3--5 (300--330 nm with average values for the single event classes around 0.6 and a nearly linear decrease towards higher wavelengths groups by 30%. Both analyses indicate quite clearly that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 330 or 340 nm is the most important solar spectral radiation for the formation of newly formed aerosols. In the end we introduce a photochemical mechanism as one possible pathway how short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of SOA by calculating the production rate of excited oxygen. This mechanism shows in which way short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of new particles even though the

  19. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  20. A hand-held robotic device for peripheral intravenous catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuoqi; Davies, Brian L; Caldwell, Darwin G; Barresi, Giacinto; Xu, Qinqi; Mattos, Leonardo S

    2017-12-01

    Intravenous catheterization is frequently required for numerous medical treatments. However, this process is characterized by a high failure rate, especially when performed on difficult patients such as newborns and infants. Very young patients have small veins, and that increases the chances of accidentally puncturing the catheterization needle directly through them. In this article, we present the design, development and experimental evaluation of a novel hand-held robotic device for improving the process of peripheral intravenous catheterization by facilitating the needle insertion procedure. To our knowledge, this design is the first hand-held robotic device for assisting in the catheterization insertion task. Compared to the other available technologies, it has several unique advantages such as being compact, low-cost and able to reliably detect venipuncture. The system is equipped with an electrical impedance sensor at the tip of the catheterization needle, which provides real-time measurements used to supervise and control the catheter insertion process. This allows the robotic system to precisely position the needle within the lumen of the target vein, leading to enhanced catheterization success rate. Experiments conducted to evaluate the device demonstrated that it is also effective to deskill the task. Naïve subjects achieved an average catheterization success rate of 88% on a 1.5 mm phantom vessel with the robotic device versus 12% with the traditional unassisted system. The results of this work prove the feasibility of a hand-held assistive robotic device for intravenous catheterization and show that such device has the potential to greatly improve the success rate of these difficult operations.

  1. Adaptive RF front-ends for hand-held applications

    CERN Document Server

    van Bezooijen, Andre; van Roermund, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The RF front-end - antenna combination is a vital part of a mobile phone because its performance is very relevant to the link quality between hand-set and cellular network base-stations. The RF front-end performance suffers from changes in operating environment, like hand-effects, that are often unpredictable. ""Adaptive RF Front-Ends for Hand-Held Applications"" presents an analysis on the impact of fluctuating environmental parameters. In order to overcome undesired behavior two different adaptive control methods are treated that make RF frond-ends more resilient: adaptive impedance control,

  2. Special Year held at the University of Maryland

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    The papers in this volume reflect the richness and diversity of the subject of dynamics. Some are lectures given at the three conferences (Ergodic Theory and Topological Dynamics, Symbolic Dynamics and Coding Theory and Smooth Dynamics, Dynamics and Applied Dynamics) held in Maryland between October 1986 and March 1987; some are work which was in progress during the Special Year, and some are work which was done because of questions and problems raised at the conferences. In addition, a paper of John Milnor and William Thurston, versions of which had been available as notes but not yet published, is included.

  3. Absorption Related to Hand-Held Devices in Data Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    The human body has an influence on the radiation from handheld devices like smartphones, tablets and laptops, part of the energy is absorbed and the spatial distribution of the radiated part is modified. Previous studies of whole body absorp- tion have mainly been numerical or related to talk mode....... In the present paper an experimental study involving four volunteers and three different devices is performed from 0.5 to 3 GHz. The devices are a laptop, a tablet, and a smartphone all held in the lap. The 3D distribution of radiation is measured. Comparing the integrated power in the case of a person present...

  4. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  5. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  6. Career Paths for Physics Degree Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick

    Physics degree holders have a diverse set of career opportunities open to them. So what are these opportunities? Where are they employed? How much do they earn? What skills will they need? Physics degrees make up a small proportion of the degrees conferred in the US but they play an important role in meeting workforce needs at many levels. This talk will give an overview of the employment outcomes of physics bachelors, masters and PhDs. It will discuss the diverse set fields they work in and the skills they use.

  7. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 73 US institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented here are historical data for the last decade, which provide information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students

  8. 78 FR 47546 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model... Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli...

  9. 75 FR 66009 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously the Lancair... Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft Manufacturing (Previously The Lancair...-15895. Applicability (c) This AD applies to the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate...

  10. The perceptions of inquiry held by greater Houston area science supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Jon Michael

    of inquiry held by the science teachers whom they work with. Both of these implications may limit the process of integrating inquiry into the classroom. The third implication is that a rubric can be designed based on the results of this study to help determine which categories or components of inquiry the participant needs assistance with. Implications for further research include increasing the sample size, describing the effects of teaching and/or science supervisor experience on the perceptions of inquiry, determining the effects of advanced degrees on inquiry perceptions, and investigating the effects of research experience on inquiry perceptions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Subnuclear degrees of freedom in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.

    1985-03-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.

    1994-01-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)

  13. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-10-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.

  14. A hand-held beta imaging probe for FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bipin; Stack, Brendan C; Thacker, Samta; Gaysinskiy, Valeriy; Bartel, Twyla; Lowe, Val; Cool, Steven; Entine, Gerald; Nagarkar, Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Advances in radiopharmaceuticals and clinical understanding have escalated the use of intraoperative gamma probes in surgery. However, most probes on the market are non-imaging gamma probes that suffer from the lack of ancillary information of the surveyed tissue area. We have developed a novel, hand-held digital Imaging Beta Probe™ (IBP™) to be used in surgery in conjunction with beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals such as (18)FDG, (131)I and (32)P for real-time imaging of a surveyed area with higher spatial resolution and sensitivity and greater convenience than existing instruments. We describe the design and validation of a hand-held beta probe intended to be used as a visual mapping device to locate and confirm excision of (18)FDG-avid primary tumors and metastases in an animal model. We have demonstrated a device which can generate beta images from (18)FDG avid lesions in an animal model. It is feasible to image beta irradiation in animal models of cancer given (18)FDG. This technology may be applied to clinical mapping of tumors and/or their metastases in the operating room. Visual image depiction of malignancy may aid the surgeon in localization and excision of lesions of interest.

  15. Measuring thyroid uptake with hand-held radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1987-04-01

    With the use of Iodine 123, 125 and 131 and some compounds of Technetium-99 m, a fraction of the isotopes can be trapped in the thyroid of the technicians. We used the hand-held radiation contamination or survey meters of the nine (9) Nuclear medicine departments we visited to see if they were adequate for the evaluation of thyroid uptake of the users. Measurements on a neck-phanton helped us to determine a minimum detectable activity for each isotope. We were then able to check if the measurements of investigations and action levels were possible. None of the hand-held radiation monitors are completely satisfactory for the measure of thyroid uptake of the user. We discuss a class of equipment capable of measuring radiation emissions at the investigation level. Measurement at the action level is possible with meters having scintillation or proportional probes but none of them permits the discrimination in energy required for a quantitative evaluation of the radioisotopes used

  16. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, D.D.; Scharold, P.G.; Thornton, M.W.; Marquez, D.L.

    1999-01-26

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen. 15 figs.

  17. Hand held data collection and monitoring system for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brayton, D.D.; Scharold, P.G.; Thornton, M.W.; Marquez, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus and method is disclosed for a data collection and monitoring system that utilizes a pen based hand held computer unit which has contained therein interaction software that allows the user to review maintenance procedures, collect data, compare data with historical trends and safety limits, and input new information at various collection sites. The system has a means to allow automatic transfer of the collected data to a main computer data base for further review, reporting, and distribution purposes and uploading updated collection and maintenance procedures. The hand held computer has a running to-do list so sample collection and other general tasks, such as housekeeping are automatically scheduled for timely completion. A done list helps users to keep track of all completed tasks. The built-in check list assures that work process will meet the applicable processes and procedures. Users can hand write comments or drawings with an electronic pen that allows the users to directly interface information on the screen. 15 figs

  18. Constitutionality Degree of Indonesia Local Regulation in Political Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Politics of Law holds responsibility to give the surety of all regulations, including Local Regulation, for capable of reflecting the collective will of the public as the owner of the highest sovereignty. Politics of law is always working to bring together the ius constituendum and ius constitutum  at the encounter between realism and idealism. Local Regulation as subsystems of national law, is expected to serve as a guiding instrument and guard direction for development and continuous improvement of Local Government. Therefore the existence of local regulations holds a strategic role for legal certainty, which is a necessary to create a conducive business climate and stability of the country. How To Cite: Sutrisno, B. (2016. Constitutionality Degree of Indonesia Local Regulation in Political Law Perspective. Rechtsidee, 3(1, 41-52. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v3i1.131

  19. 12 CFR 745.5 - Accounts held by executors or administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by executors or administrators... § 745.5 Accounts held by executors or administrators. Funds of a decedent held in the name of the decedent or in the name of the executor or administrator of the decedent's estate and deposited in one or...

  20. 29 CFR 2520.103-11 - Assets held for investment purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or quoted on NASDAQ; (3) Assets held for investment purposes shall not... assets held for investment purposes the 1,000 shares of stock S under paragraph (b)(1) of this section... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assets held for investment purposes. 2520.103-11 Section...

  1. 75 FR 57844 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39-16438. Docket No. FAA-2010-0555... (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200...

  2. 77 FR 64767 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel... Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes...

  3. 78 FR 11567 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39...

  4. 76 FR 70040 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (type certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and... new AD: 2011-23-07 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft...

  5. 75 FR 28485 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Amendment 39... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream 100 airplanes; and Model Astra SPX and...

  6. 13 CFR 120.1850 - Will the Collateral be held by SBA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan Program) § 120.1850 Will the Collateral be held by SBA? Yes, SBA or its expressly authorized agent... all Collateral for SISMBD Loans in a custodial account. Certificates held as Collateral must be in... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Collateral be held by SBA...

  7. 20 CFR 418.3420 - How are funds held in financial institution accounts counted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are funds held in financial institution... SUBSIDIES Medicare Part D Subsidies Resources § 418.3420 How are funds held in financial institution accounts counted? (a) Owner of the account. Funds held in a financial institution account (including...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1208 - How funds held in financial institution accounts are counted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How funds held in financial institution accounts are counted. 416.1208 Section 416.1208 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... held in financial institution accounts are counted. (a) General. Funds held in a financial institution...

  9. 76 FR 6525 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... following new AD: 2011-03-04 Cessna Aircraft Company (Type Certificate Previously Held by Columbia Aircraft... the following Cessna Aircraft Company (type certificate previously held by Columbia Aircraft...

  10. Conversion degrees of resin composites using different light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Bora; Cobanoglu, Nevin; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Gunduz, Beniz

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the conversion degree of six different composite materials (Filtek Z 250, Filtek P60, Spectrum TPH, Pertac II, Clearfil AP-X, and Clearfil Photo Posterior) using three different light sources (blue light-emitting diode [LED], plasma arc curing [PAC], and conventional halogen lamp [QTH]). Composites were placed in a 2 mm thick and 5 mm diameter Teflon molds and light cured from the top using three methods: LED for 40 s, PAC for 10 s, and QTH for 40 s. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) (n=5). The results were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test. DC was significantly influenced by two variables, light source and composite (PDC values than LED (PDC values of QTH and PAC or between DC values of LED and PAC (P>.05). The highest DC was observed in the Z 250 composite specimens following photopolymerization with QTH (70%). The lowest DC was observed in Clearfil Photo Posterior composite specimens following photo-polymerization with LED (43%). The DC was found to be changing according to both light sources and composite materials used. Conventional light halogen (QTH) from light sources and Filtek Z 250 and Filtek P 60 among composite materials showed the most DC performance.

  11. International Conference held at the University of Alberta

    CERN Document Server

    Strobeck, Curtis

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the International Conference in Population Biology held at The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada from June 22 to June 30, 1982. The Conference was sponsored by The University of Alberta and The Canadian Applied Mathematics Society, and overlapped with the summer meeting of CAMS. The main objectives of this Conference were: to bring mathematicians and biologists together so that they may interact for their mutual benefit; to bring those researchers interested in modelling in ecology and those interested in modelling in genetics together; to bring in keynote speakers in the delineated areas; to have sessions of contributed papers; and to present the opportunity for researchers to conduct workshops. With the exception of the last one, the objec­ tives were carried out. In order to lend some focus to the Conference, the following themes were adopted: models of species growth, predator-prey, competition, mutualism, food webs, dispersion, age structure, stability, evol...

  12. Hand-held spectrophotometer design for textile fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcekçi, Veysel Gökhan; Yıldız, Kazım

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hand-held spectrophotometer was designed by taking advantage of the developments in modern optoelectronic technology. Spectrophotometer devices are used to determine the color information from the optic properties of the materials. As an alternative to a desktop spectrophotometer device we have implemented, it is the first prototype, low cost and portable. The prototype model designed for the textile industry can detect the color tone of any fabric. The prototype model consists of optic sensor, processor, display floors. According to the color applied on the optic sensor, it produces special frequency information on its output at that color value. In Arduino type processor, the frequency information is evaluated by the program we have written and the color tone information between 0-255 ton is decided and displayed on the screen.

  13. Comparative Geometrical Investigations of Hand-Held Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, T. P.; Przybilla, H.-J.; Lindstaedt, M.; Tschirschwitz, F.; Misgaiski-Hass, M.

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry) as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science): DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google's Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M). The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  14. COMPARATIVE GEOMETRICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF HAND-HELD SCANNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Kersten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of hand-held scanning systems by different manufacturers are becoming available on the market. However, their geometrical performance is little-known to many users. Therefore the Laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg has carried out geometrical accuracy tests with the following systems in co-operation with the Bochum University of Applied Sciences (Laboratory for Photogrammetry as well as the Humboldt University in Berlin (Institute for Computer Science: DOTProduct DPI-7, Artec Spider, Mantis Vision F5 SR, Kinect v1 + v2, Structure Sensor and Google’s Project Tango. In the framework of these comparative investigations geometrically stable reference bodies were used. The appropriate reference data were acquired by measurement with two structured light projection systems (AICON smartSCAN and GOM ATOS I 2M. The comprehensive test results of the different test scenarios are presented and critically discussed in this contribution.

  15. Third Space Weather Summit Held for Industry and Government Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Devrie S.

    2009-12-01

    The potential for space weather effects has been increasing significantly in recent years. For instance, in 2008 airlines flew about 8000 transpolar flights, which experience greater exposure to space weather than nontranspolar flights. This is up from 368 transpolar flights in 2000, and the number of such flights is expected to continue to grow. Transpolar flights are just one example of the diverse technologies susceptible to space weather effects identified by the National Research Council's Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report (2008). To discuss issues related to the increasing need for reliable space weather information, experts from industry and government agencies met at the third summit of the Commercial Space Weather Interest Group (CSWIG) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), held 30 April 2009 during Space Weather Week (SWW), in Boulder, Colo.

  16. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career, intrinsic interest (Interest in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing. We investigated whether these motivation apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1 undergraduate (N = 989 and (2 prospective (N = 896 students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low interest in the degree. The choice of art and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples and Interest (only in undergraduate sample motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in undergraduate sample and Loafing (both samples. The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as help to improve degree programmes at universities and provide better career advice.

  17. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice.

  18. JCI Tokyo convention is held; JCI tokyo taikai wo kaisai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-10

    For 3 days on 15{approx}17 of Julies, Japan Concrete Inst. (Toyokazu Shiire chairman) held concrete technology annual meeting in the Tokyo big site in Tokyo and Ariake. Various events such as ready-mixed concrete seminar (participant: 562 person), joint seminar with the Korea concrete institute, observation were developed 20th concrete technology lecture (paper the report: 521 case participant real number: 1400 person), 12th concrete fair (exhibit: 95 case attendance number: 10150 person) center on present convention. The opinion in which the party of the first line of various quarters became heated on the direction in which the ready-mixed concrete will ought to advance based on performance definition and internationalization in the ready-mixed concrete seminar in this inside in future was exchanged. Whether it is the JIS ready-mixed concrete and whether quality audit system are necessary why. The severe order of more cheaply supplying the better concrete in the responsibility of the factory, also came out. Within the special lecture (participant: 548 person), it was an interest of the nation who obtained the time too, the fact of the president election that it does secret story especially and comes out happily heard it. In the new planning, 'the concrete which the primary school child makes' (it is introduced in this journal No. 614) was exhibited in the tip in the fair place. The figure of parent and child companion who gazed at the masterpiece which broke through the preliminary in each place was conspicuous. The still, schedule that the annual meeting in next time is held in the Sendai City on July 7{approx}9, 1999. (translated by NEDO)

  19. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H.

    2003-12-01

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust

  20. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H. [Chungman National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust.

  1. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  2. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.

  3. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  4. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  5. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    Full-disk observations taken with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, or the upgraded Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) instruments, have enough spatial resolution to resolve modes up to {iota} = 1000 if not {iota} = 1500. The inclusion of such high-degree modes (i.e., {iota} {<=} 1000) improves dramatically inferences near the surface. Unfortunately, observational and instrumental effects cause the characterization of high degree modes to be quite complicated. Indeed, the characteristics of the solar acoustic spectrum are such that, for a given order, mode lifetimes get shorter and spatial leaks get closer in frequency as the degree of a mode increases. A direct consequence of this property is that individual modes are resolved only at low and intermediate degrees. At high degrees the individual modes blend into ridges and the power distribution of the ridge defines the ridge central frequency, masking the underlying mode frequency. An accurate model of the amplitude of the peaks that contribute to the ridge power distribution is needed to recover the underlying mode frequency from fitting the ridge. We present a detailed discussion of the modeling of the ridge power distribution, and the contribution of the various observational and instrumental effects on the spatial leakage, in the context of the MDI instrument. We have constructed a physically motivated model (rather than an ad hoc correction scheme) that results in a methodology that can produce unbiased estimates of high-degree modes. This requires that the instrumental characteristics are well understood, a task that has turned out to pose a major challenge. We also present our latest results, where most of the known instrumental and observational effects that affect specifically high-degree modes were removed. These new results allow us to focus our attention on changes with solar activity. Finally, we present variations of mode

  6. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  7. Degree of Acetylization Chitosan Gonggong Snail Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiza, H.; Iskandar, I.; Aldo, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin, which is generally derived from crustacean animal waste and animal skins other sea. One marine animals that have compounds that can be processed chitin chitosan is derived from the snail Gonggong marine waters of Riau Islands province. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of chitosan from the shells of snails asetilisasi Gonggong. This research is an experimental research laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the degree of chitosan shell snail deasetilisasi Gonggong is 70.27%.

  8. Georgia Power Company's college degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Georgia Power Company's on-site college degree program for nuclear power plant personnel. In February 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement concerning engineering expertise on shift (Generic Letter 86-04), which appeared in Volume 50, Number 208 of the October 28, 1985 Federal Register. One of the options available to nuclear power plant personnel to meet the requirement was the combined senior reactor operator/shift technical adviser position. One of the methods for meeting the option included a bachelor's degree in engineering technology for an accredited institution, including course work in the physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences

  9. 360-degree videos: a new visualization technique for astrophysical simulations, applied to the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    360-degree videos are a new type of movie that renders over all 4π steradian. Video sharing sites such as YouTube now allow this unique content to be shared via virtual reality (VR) goggles, hand-held smartphones/tablets, and computers. Creating 360-degree videos from astrophysical simulations not only provide a new way to view these simulations due to their immersive nature, but also yield engaging content for outreach to the public. We present our 360-degree video of an astrophysical simulation of the Galactic center: a hydrodynamics calculation of the colliding and accreting winds of the 30 Wolf-Rayet stars orbiting within the central parsec. Viewing the movie, which renders column density, from the location of the supermassive black hole gives a unique and immersive perspective of the shocked wind material inspiraling and tidally stretching as it plummets toward the black hole. We also describe how to create such movies, discuss what type of content does and does not look appealing in 360-degree format, and briefly comment on what new science can be extracted from astrophysical simulations using 360-degree videos.

  10. Second-degree discrete Painleve equations conceal first-degree ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, A; Grammaticos, B; Joshi, N

    2010-01-01

    We examine various second-degree difference equations which have been proposed over the years and according to their authors' claims should be integrable. This study is motivated by the fact that we consider that second-degree discrete systems cannot be integrable due to the proliferation of the images (and pre-images) of the initial point. We show that in the present cases no contradiction exists. In all cases examined, we show that there exists an underlying integrable first-degree mapping which allows us to obtain an appropriate solution of the second-degree one.

  11. In-Season Yield Prediction of Cabbage with a Hand-Held Active Canopy Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rongting; Min, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2017-10-08

    Efficient and precise yield prediction is critical to optimize cabbage yields and guide fertilizer application. A two-year field experiment was conducted to establish a yield prediction model for cabbage by using the Greenseeker hand-held optical sensor. Two cabbage cultivars (Jianbao and Pingbao) were used and Jianbao cultivar was grown for 2 consecutive seasons but Pingbao was only grown in the second season. Four chemical nitrogen application rates were implemented: 0, 80, 140, and 200 kg·N·ha -1 . Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected 20, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 days after transplanting (DAT). Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between the NDVI measurements and harvested yields of cabbage. NDVI measurements obtained at 110 DAT were significantly correlated to yield and explained 87-89% and 75-82% of the cabbage yield variation of Jianbao cultivar over the two-year experiment and 77-81% of the yield variability of Pingbao cultivar. Adjusting the yield prediction models with CGDD (cumulative growing degree days) could make remarkable improvement to the accuracy of the prediction model and increase the determination coefficient to 0.82, while the modification with DFP (days from transplanting when GDD > 0) values did not. The integrated exponential yield prediction equation was better than linear or quadratic functions and could accurately make in-season estimation of cabbage yields with different cultivars between years.

  12. A versatile ultra high vacuum sample stage with six degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, A. W.; Tromp, R. M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    We describe the design and practical realization of a versatile sample stage with six degrees of freedom. The stage was designed for use in a Low Energy Electron Microscope, but its basic design features will be useful for numerous other applications. The degrees of freedom are X, Y, and Z, two tilts, and azimuth. All motions are actuated in an ultrahigh vacuum base pressure environment by piezoelectric transducers with integrated position sensors. The sample can be load-locked. During observation, the sample is held at a potential of −15 kV, at temperatures between room temperature and 1500 °C, and in background gas pressures up to 1 × 10{sup −4} Torr.

  13. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  14. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  15. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  16. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)

  17. PER PhDs & Bachelor's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the editor remarked to me that physics departments that offered a PhD with a specialization in Physics Education Research (PER) seemed to graduate more bachelor's degree recipients than those physics PhD departments that did not have the specialization. I was not convinced. That led to quite a bit of discussion between us. He compiled a…

  18. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  19. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  20. Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary

    2013-01-01

    While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…

  1. Astronautics degrees for the space industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R. F.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree programs in Astronautics combine basic science and engineering classes with specialized classes in space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available entirely through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers while earning their degrees. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. Distance learning, and particularly the introduction of webcasting, transform the organization of the graduate program and class delivery. We describe in detail the program's academic focus, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  2. Degree Audit Systems: Are They Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    A lot of various degree audit systems are available on the market and most often they have similar features such as the functionality they each provide, the technical platforms upon which they operate, their requirements for interfacing with the local SIS, the ease of use, and the level of effort required to implement and operate. However, the…

  3. Toward the Ideal Professional Master's Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Maria P.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines work accomplished at the 1998 National Communication Association Summer Conference, presenting a model for a professional master's-degree program in public relations that integrates outcomes, assessment, curriculum, and pedagogy. Outlines program outcomes, curriculum, essential curriculum-content areas, pedagogical approaches, and…

  4. Joint Supervision of Research Degrees: Second Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourner, Tom; Hughes, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of Britain's regulation that master's and doctoral degree candidates must have two or three program supervisors identifies four potential problems: fragmentation of supervisory responsibilities; conflicting advice; unproductive games; and absence of overall perspective on the thesis. Experience with an improved, team approach is…

  5. Master Degree Modules in Nanotechnologies for Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Tzanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an European project focusing on closer cooperation in the university sector and transparency of qualifications and recognition methods. It is aimed at common MSc degree level courses development for the new skills for new jobs in the multidisciplinary nanoelectronics and a new job organisation.

  6. Managing "Academic Value": The 360-Degree Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret R.; Corr, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of all universities is to create and deliver "academic value", which we define as the sum total of the contributions from the 360-degree "angles" of the academic community, including all categories of staff, as well as external stakeholders (e.g. regulatory, commercial, professional and community…

  7. Contribution to reconstruction of third degree rectovestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Abstract. The study was conducted on ten mares suffering from third degree rectovestibular laceration. Four uterine washes were performed in all cases by using diluted betadine (mixing 5ml of betadine antiseptic solution in 1 liter of sterile saline) to control vaginal and uterine infections before surgery.

  8. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  9. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  10. The Top 100: Graduate Degrees Conferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, some critics and policymakers have started to question the value of a college education given the increasing costs of attending and the commensurate high debt levels of college graduates. Past and present studies also demonstrate that the average value masks important variation by degree level and field of study. This paper focuses on…

  11. The Value of a College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although parents, high school students, and most civic leaders in this country and around the world see a college degree as important, this perspective has been attacked over the last five years. Once the Great Recession began in December 2007, there were far fewer good jobs available for new college graduates. The soaring price of college had…

  12. Electrodynamics at the highest energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2002-01-01

    At very high energies, the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections exhibit complex behavior due to the material in which the interactions occur. The cross sections in dense media can be dramatically different than for isolated atoms. This writeup discusses these in-medium effects, emphasizing how the cross section has different energy and target density dependencies in different regimes. Data from SLAC experiment E-146 will be presented to confirm the energy and density scaling. Finally, QCD analogs of the electrodynamics effects will be discussed

  13. Vermont Highest Priority Connectivity Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Act 174 requires plans to identify potential areas for the development and siting of renewable energy resources and areas that are unsuitable for siting those...

  14. Experimental Durability Testing of 4H SiC JFET Integrated Circuit Technology at 727 Degrees Centigrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liangyu; Chang, Carl W.; Lukco, Dorothy; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2016-01-01

    We have reported SiC integrated circuits (ICs) with two levels of metal interconnect that have demonstrated prolonged operation for thousands of hours at their intended peak ambient operational temperature of 500 degrees Centigrade. However, it is recognized that testing of semiconductor microelectronics at temperatures above their designed operating envelope is vital to qualification. Towards this end, we previously reported operation of a 4H-SiC JFET IC ring oscillator on an initial fast thermal ramp test through 727 degrees Centigrade. However, this thermal ramp was not ended until a peak temperature of 880 degrees Centigrade (well beyond failure) was attained. Further experiments are necessary to better understand failure mechanisms and upper temperature limit of this extreme-temperature capable 4H-SiC IC technology.Here we report on additional experimental testing of custom-packaged 4H-SiC JFET IC devices at temperatures above 500 degrees Centigrade. In one test, the temperature was ramped and then held at 727 degrees Centigrade, and the devices were periodically measured until electrical failure was observed. A 4H-SiC JFET on this chip electrically functioned with little change for around 25 hours at 727 degrees Centigrade before rapid increases in device resistance caused failure. In a second test, devices from our next generation 4H-SiC JFET ICs were ramped up and then held at 700 degrees Centigrade (which is below the maximum deposition temperature of the dielectrics). Three ring oscillators functioned for 8 hours at this temperature before degradation. In a third experiment, an alternative die attach of gold paste and package lid was used, and logic circuit operation was demonstrated for 143.5 hours at 700 degrees Centigrade.

  15. Drift from the Use of Hand-Held Knapsack Pesticide Sprayers in Boyacá (Colombian Andes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, Glenda; Feola, Giuseppe; Nuyttens, David; Diaz, Jaime

    2016-05-25

    Offsite pesticide losses in tropical mountainous regions have been little studied. One example is measuring pesticide drift soil deposition, which can support pesticide risk assessment for surface water, soil, bystanders, and off-target plants and fauna. This is considered a serious gap, given the evidence of pesticide-related poisoning in those regions. Empirical data of drift deposition of a pesticide surrogate, Uranine tracer, within one of the highest potato-producing regions in Colombia, characterized by small plots and mountain orography, is presented. High drift values encountered in this study reflect the actual spray conditions using hand-held knapsack sprayers. Comparison between measured and predicted drift values using three existing empirical equations showed important underestimation. However, after their optimization based on measured drift information, the equations showed a strong predictive power for this study area and the study conditions. The most suitable curve to assess mean relative drift was the IMAG calculator after optimization.

  16. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T O'Rourke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence

  17. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Colleen T; Hall, Margaret I; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-09-22

    Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while

  18. Pathways to a Four-Year Degree: Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; Burkum, Kurt R.; La Nasa, Steven M.

    The High School Sophomore Cohort of 1980 followed nine different pathways to a 4-year college degree. These paths were formed by a combination of different levels of academic preparation secured in high school and the first type of postsecondary institution attended. The pathway most likely to lead to a 4-year degree is one defined by acquiring…

  19. On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of

  20. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  1. Lessons Learned: Creating an Online Business Degree from a Successful On-Campus Business Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, William P.; Muraoka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The horse has left the barn. Distance education is here to stay and the number of degree programs offered online is growing rapidly. California State University Channel Islands (CI) admitted its first students in 2002, and the undergraduate and graduate degrees in business were among its first program offerings. From its inception, the…

  2. Calculation of induced current densities and specific absorption rates (SAR) for pregnant women exposed to hand-held metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, Wolfgang; Chan, Dulciana D; Casamento, Jon P; Bassen, Howard I

    2003-01-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method in combination with a well established frequency scaling method was used to calculate the internal fields and current densities induced in a simple model of a pregnant woman and her foetus, when exposed to hand-held metal detectors. The pregnant woman and foetus were modelled using a simple semi-heterogeneous model in 10 mm resolution, consisting of three different types of tissue. The model is based on the scanned shape of a pregnant woman in the 34th gestational week. Nine different representative models of hand-held metal detectors operating in the frequency range from 8 kHz to 2 MHz were evaluated. The metal detectors were placed directly on the abdomen of the computational model with a spacing of 1 cm. Both the induced current density and the specific absorption rate (SAR) are well below the recommended limits for exposure of the general public published in the ICNIRP Guidelines and the IEEE C95.1 Standard. The highest current density is 8.3 mA m -2 and the highest SAR is 26.5 μW kg -1 . Compared to the limits for the induced current density recommended in the ICNIRP Guidelines, a minimum safety factor of 3 exists. Compared to the IEEE C95.1 Standard, a safety factor of 60,000 for the specific absorption rate was found. Based on the very low specific absorption rate and an induced current density below the recommended exposure limits, significant temperature rise or nerve stimulation in the pregnant woman or in the foetus can be excluded

  3. Atelier paludisme: an international malaria training course held in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Atelier Paludisme (Malaria Workshop is an international training course organized by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, which has been held annually for the past five years. The course was designed for both young and experienced researchers, as well as for healthcare professionals, mostly from malaria-endemic countries. Its objective is to provide participants with a broad knowledge of all features of malaria, to improve their skills in project management, to break geographical isolation by using the Internet as a source of documentary information. This six-week course makes use of concepts of andragogy and problem-based learning, i.e. a relationship between participants and tutors, which promotes a process of exchange rather than the simple transmission of knowledge, where participants have to search actively for information. This approach to training, combined with the wide background and experience of those involved, creates positive dynamics and enables participants to acquire new skills, develop their critical and analytical abilities. This paper describes the course and the lessons learned from its evaluation.

  4. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Automatic feeder for small fish held in tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joeris, Leonard S.

    1965-01-01

    The Northville (Michigan) Biological Station has been a center for study of the developmental morphology of coregonid fishes. This work requires the production of numerous individual series of lake herring, lake whitefish, and several species of chubs from parent fish of positively known identity. The offspring of individual pairs or groups of fish must be held in individual tanks from the time they hatch until they reach maturity. One of the important problems in this project has been the poor growth of most fish. Though some have grown well, their growth has been less than that of the same species in nature, and a few fish from each hatch have grown very slowly. Irregularity of feeding may contribute to the slow growth of laboratory fish. The hatchery caretaker feeds them several times during his 8-hour workday, but they must go without food during the remaining 16 hours. The high metabolic rate of small fish, however, appears to make them strongly inclined toward almost continual feeding. Belief that greater, more regular food consumption would result from a mechanical feeder providing a continuous supply of food over a longer period of the day led to development of the equipment described in this paper.

  6. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.

    1998-12-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  7. Jamming in complex networks with degree correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore y Piontti, Ana L.; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of the degree-degree correlations on the pressure congestion J when we apply a dynamical process on scale free complex networks using the gradient network approach. We find that the pressure congestion for disassortative (assortative) networks is lower (bigger) than the one for uncorrelated networks which allow us to affirm that disassortative networks enhance transport through them. This result agree with the fact that many real world transportation networks naturally evolve to this kind of correlation. We explain our results showing that for the disassortative case the clusters in the gradient network turn out to be as much elongated as possible, reducing the pressure congestion J and observing the opposite behavior for the assortative case. Finally we apply our model to real world networks, and the results agree with our theoretical model.

  8. Effective hadron degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses several topics. The first one is the importance of a consistent treatment of extended nucleons and the subsequent requirement of accounting for quark antisymmetrization. It will probably be possible to account for these effects through quark exchange currents in much of the same way as meson exchange currents at lower values of Q 2 . In order to obtain more definite answers on intrinsic properties of nucleons and other hadronic degrees of freedom in nuclei it is important to establish to which extent hadronic degrees of freedom behaving like quasi-free nuclear constituents can be used to describe the nuclear response in inclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering at intermediate energies

  9. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Isobar degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given on some recent investigations of the influence of isobar degrees of freedom on the ground state properties of finite nuclei like e.g. 16 O. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is constructed in the freamework of an extended one-boson-exchange (OBE) model using non-covariant, time-dependent perturbation theory. The explicit consideration of fourth-order iterative diagrams involving NΔ and ΔΔ intermediate states gives an effective NN interaction in the nuclear many-body system which is less attractive than those which are obtained treating these terms phenomenologically. Therefore the binding energy calculated in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation is smaller if these effects of isobar degrees of freedom are taken into account. This repulsive effect of isobar configurations is partly counterbalanced by the attraction obtained for three-nucleon terms with intermediate NNΔ states. (Auth.)

  11. The physical gravitational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O

    2005-01-01

    When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom

  12. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  13. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1994: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This survey is designed to include those programs sponsored by the Department of Energy. The survey is designed to include those programs offering a major in nuclear engineering or course work equivalent to a major in other engineering disciplines that prepare the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This survey provides data on nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees for use in labor market analyses, information on education programs for students, and information on new graduates to employers, government agencies, academia and professional societies

  14. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  15. Adolescent Obesity and Future College Degree Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.

    2009-01-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...

  16. The Gender Wage Gap as a Function of Educational Degree Choices in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliakas, Konstantinos; Livanos, Ilias

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the extent to which differences in the subject of degree studied by male and female university graduates contributes to the gender pay gap in Greece. The case of Greece is interesting as it is an EU country with historically large gender discrepancies in earnings and one of the highest levels of occupational gender segregation among OECD economies. Using micro-data from the most recently available waves (2000-2003) of the Greek Labour Force Survey (LFS), the returns ...

  17. Depth and degree of melting of komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude

    1992-04-01

    High pressure melting experiments have permitted new constraints to be placed on the depth and degree of partial melting of komatiites. Komatiites from Gorgona Island were formed by relatively low degrees of pseudoinvariant melting involving L + Ol + Opx + Cpx + Gt on the solidus at 40 kbar, about 130 km depth. Munro-type komatiites were separated from a harzburgite residue (L + Ol + Opx) at pressures that were poorly constrained, but were probably around 50 kbar, about 165 km depth; the degree of partial melting was less than 40 percent. Secular variations in the geochemistry of komatiites could have formed in response to a reduction in the temperature and pressure of melting with time. The 3.5 Ga Barberton komatiites and the 2.7 Ga Munro-type komatiities could have formed in plumes that were hotter than the present-day mantle by 500 deg and 300 deg, respectively. When excess temperatures are this size, melting is deeper and volcanism changes from basaltic to momatiitic. The komatiities from Gorgona Island, which are Mesozoic in age, may be representative of komatiities that are predicted to occur in oceanic plateaus of Cretaceous age throughout the Pacific (Storey et al., 1991).

  18. Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm caused to patients through incompetence, indifference, maladministration or negligence regarding the availability of hospital equipment.

  19. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received

  20. Hand-held multi-DOF robotic forceps for neurosurgery designed for dexterous manipulation in deep and narrow space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Takuro; Harada, Kanako; Fujii, Masahiro; Tanaka, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Iwanaka, Tadashi; Nakatomi, Hirohumi; Sora, Sigeo; Morita, Akio; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Neurosurgical procedures require precise and dexterous manipulation of a surgical suture in narrow and deep spaces in the brain. This is necessary for surgical tasks such as the anastomosis of microscopic blood vessels and dura mater suturing. A hand-held multi-degree of freedom (DOF) robotic forceps was developed to aid the performance of such difficult tasks. The diameter of the developed robotic forceps is 3.5 mm, and its tip has three DOFs, namely, bending, rotation, and grip. Experimental results showed that the robotic forceps had an average needle insertion force of 1.7 N. Therefore, an increase in the needle insertion force is necessary for practical application of the developed device.

  1. On the possibility of highest energy cosmic rays bursts and their correlation with gamma rays bursts e.g. March 5th, 1979 event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, K.

    1982-01-01

    The avalanche production of magnetic monopoles is possible in neutron stars. Big part of the magnetic field energy can be used to accelerate a pulse of 10 30 monopoles to the energy E > approximately 10 17 eV. Thus the neutron stars may be ''point'' sources of bursts of highest energy Cosmic Rays. The emission of brehmsstrahlung photons by these highly relativistic monopoles would be seen as X and gamma bursts. This ''exotic'' model for March 5th, 1979 event, predicts that it has been followed by burst of highest energy Cosmic Rays coming from the direction of LMC supernovae remanent N49

  2. Performance and microbial community composition dynamics of aerobic granular sludge from sequencing batch bubble column reactors operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Sirous; Gabus, Sébastien; Rohrbach-Brandt, Emmanuelle; Hosseini, Maryam; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2010-07-01

    Two bubble column sequencing batch reactors fed with an artificial wastewater were operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C. In a first stage, stable granules were obtained at 20 degrees C, whereas fluffy structures were observed at 30 degrees C. Molecular analysis revealed high abundance of the operational taxonomic unit 208 (OTU 208) affiliating with filamentous bacteria Leptothrix spp. at 30 degrees C, an OTU much less abundant at 20 degrees C. The granular sludge obtained at 20 degrees C was used for the second stage during which one reactor was maintained at 20 degrees C and the second operated at 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C after prior gradual increase of temperature. Aerobic granular sludge with similar physical properties developed in both reactors but it had different nutrient elimination performances and microbial communities. At 20 degrees C, acetate was consumed during anaerobic feeding, and biological phosphorous removal was observed when Rhodocyclaceae-affiliating OTU 214 was present. At 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C, acetate was mainly consumed during aeration and phosphorous removal was insignificant. OTU 214 was almost absent but the Gammaproteobacteria-affiliating OTU 239 was more abundant than at 20 degrees C. Aerobic granular sludge at all temperatures contained abundantly the OTUs 224 and 289 affiliating with Sphingomonadaceae indicating that this bacterial family played an important role in maintaining stable granular structures.

  3. Direction-Sensitive Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2012-10-04

    A novel, light-weight, hand-held gamma-ray detector with directional sensitivity is being designed. The detector uses a set of multiple rings around two cylindrical surfaces, which provides precise location of two interaction points on two concentric cylindrical planes, wherefrom the source location can be traced back by back projection and/or Compton imaging technique. The detectors are 2.0 × 2.0 mm europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu2+) crystals, whose light output has been measured to exceed 120,000 photons/MeV, making it one of the brightest scintillators in existence. The crystal’s energy resolution, less than 3% at 662 keV, is also excellent, and the response is highly linear over a wide range of gamma-ray energies. The emission of SrI2:Eu2+ is well matched to both photo-multiplier tubes and blue-enhanced silicon photodiodes. The solid-state photomultipliers used in this design (each 2.0 × 2.0 mm) are arrays of active pixel sensors (avalanche photodiodes driven beyond their breakdown voltage in reverse bias); each pixel acts as a binary photon detector, and their summed output is an analog representation of the total photon energy, while the individual pixel accurately defines the point of interaction. A simple back-projection algorithm involving cone-surface mapping is being modeled. The back projection for an event cone is a conical surface defining the possible location of the source. The cone axis is the straight line passing through the first and second interaction points.

  4. Prevalence of celiac disease among first-degree relatives of Indian celiac disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asha; Prakash, Shyam; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Ahuja, Vineet; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Makharia, Govind K

    2016-03-01

    Celiac disease, once thought to be uncommon in Asia, is now recognized in Asian nations as well. We investigated the prevalence of celiac disease in first-degree relatives of celiac disease patients followed in our centre. First-degree relatives were screened prospectively for celiac disease using questionnaire-based interview and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody. Serology positive first-degree relatives underwent duodenal biopsies. Diagnosis of celiac disease was made based on positive serology and villous abnormality Marsh grade 2 or higher. Human leucocyte antigen DQ2/-DQ8 was also assessed in 127 first-degree relatives. 434 first-degree relatives of 176 celiac disease patients were prospectively recruited; 282 were symptomatic (64.9%), 58 were positive for serology (13.3%). Seroprevalence was higher in female than in males (19% vs 8.5%; p=0.001) and highest in siblings (16.9%) than parents (13.6%) and children (5.9%) of celiac patients (p=0.055); 87.4% first-degree relatives were human leucocyte antigen-DQ2/-DQ8 positive. Overall prevalence of celiac disease was 10.9% amongst first-degree relatives. The prevalence of celiac disease in first-degree relatives of celiac disease patients was 10.9% in our cohort, and 87% had human leucocyte antigen-DQ2 or -DQ8 haplotype. All first-degree relatives of celiac disease patients should be screen for celiac disease even if asymptomatic or with atypical manifestations. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Developing Your 360-Degree Leadership Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nupur; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Bhargava, Puneet

    2017-09-01

    Radiologists serve in leadership roles throughout their career, making leadership education an integral part of their development. A maxim of leadership style is summarized by 360-Degree Leadership, which highlights the ability of a leader to lead from any position within the organization while relying on core characteristics to build confidence from within their team. The qualities of leadership discussed can be learned and applied by radiologists at any level. These traits can form a foundation for the leader when faced with unfavorable events, which themselves allow the leader an opportunity to build trust. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  7. Education Pays Off! On Transition to Work for 25 Year Olds in Norway with Upper Secondary Education or Lower as Their Highest Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Eifred

    2017-01-01

    In this article we examine the relationship between educational level and position in the labour market at age 25 for those who have completed upper secondary education or lower as their highest educational level. Whilst completion of upper secondary education is widely regarded as being important, we find that early and lasting work experience…

  8. On the Derivation of Highest-Order Compact Finite Difference Schemes for the One- and Two-Dimensional Poisson Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Settle, Sean O.; Douglas, Craig C.; Kim, Imbunm; Sheen, Dongwoo

    2013-01-01

    - and two-dimensional Poisson equation on uniform, quasi-uniform, and nonuniform face-to-face hyperrectangular grids and directly prove the existence or nonexistence of their highest-order local accuracies. Our derivations are unique in that we do not make

  9. Importance of small-degree nodes in assortative networks with degree-weight correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sijuan; Feng, Ling; Monterola, Christopher Pineda; Lai, Choy Heng

    2017-10-01

    It has been known that assortative network structure plays an important role in spreading dynamics for unweighted networks. Yet its influence on weighted networks is not clear, in particular when weight is strongly correlated with the degrees of the nodes as we empirically observed in Twitter. Here we use the self-consistent probability method and revised nonperturbative heterogenous mean-field theory method to investigate this influence on both susceptible-infective-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) spreading dynamics. Both our simulation and theoretical results show that while the critical threshold is not significantly influenced by the assortativity, the prevalence in the supercritical regime shows a crossover under different degree-weight correlations. In particular, unlike the case of random mixing networks, in assortative networks, the negative degree-weight correlation leads to higher prevalence in their spreading beyond the critical transmissivity than that of the positively correlated. In addition, the previously observed inhibition effect on spreading velocity by assortative structure is not apparent in negatively degree-weight correlated networks, while it is enhanced for that of the positively correlated. Detailed investigation into the degree distribution of the infected nodes reveals that small-degree nodes play essential roles in the supercritical phase of both SIR and SIS spreadings. Our results have direct implications in understanding viral information spreading over online social networks and epidemic spreading over contact networks.

  10. Pursuit of STEM: Factors shaping degree completion for African American females in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine secondary data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman and College Senior Surveys to investigate factors shaping degree aspirations for African American female undergraduates partaking in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the data and identify relationships between independent variables in relation to the dependent variable. The findings of the study reveal four key variables that were predictive of degree completion for African American females in STEM. Father's education, SAT composite, highest degree planned, and self-perception were positive predictors for females; while independent variable overall sense of community among students remained a negative predictor. Lastly implications for education and recommendations for future research were discussed.

  11. How to reliably deliver narrow individual-patient error bars for optimization of pacemaker AV or VV delay using a "pick-the-highest" strategy with haemodynamic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Darrel P

    2013-03-10

    Intuitive and easily-described, "pick-the-highest" is often recommended for quantitative optimization of AV and especially VV delay settings of biventricular pacemakers (BVP; cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT). But reliable selection of the optimum setting is challenged by beat-to-beat physiological variation, which "pick-the-highest" combats by averaging multiple heartbeats. Optimization is not optimization unless the optimum is identified confidently. This document shows how to calculate how many heartbeats must be averaged to optimize reliably by pick-the-highest. Any reader, by conducting a few measurements, can calculate for locally-available methods (i) biological scatter between replicate measurements, and (ii) curvature of the biological response. With these, for any clinically-desired precision of optimization, the necessary number of heartbeats can be calculated. To achieve 95% confidence of getting within ±∆x of the true optimum, the number of heartbeats needed is 2(scatter/curvature)(2)/∆x(4) per setting. Applying published scatter/curvature values (which readers should re-evaluate locally) indicates that optimizing AV, even coarsely with a 40ms-wide band of precision, requires many thousand beats. For VV delay, the number approaches a million. Moreover, identifying the optimum twice as precisely requires 30-fold more beats. "Pick the highest" is quick to say but slow to do. We must not expect staff to do the impossible; nor criticise them for not doing so. Nor should we assume recommendations and published protocols are well-designed. Reliable AV or VV optimization, using "pick-the-highest" on commonly-recommended manual measurements, is unrealistic. Improving time-efficiency of the optimization process to become clinically realistic may need a curve-fitting strategy instead, with all acquired data marshalled conjointly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sampling networks with prescribed degree correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Charo; Bassler, Kevin; Erdos, Péter; Miklos, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2014-03-01

    A feature of a network known to affect its structural and dynamical properties is the presence of correlations amongst the node degrees. Degree correlations are a measure of how much the connectivity of a node influences the connectivity of its neighbours, and they are fundamental in the study of processes such as the spreading of information or epidemics, the cascading failures of damaged systems and the evolution of social relations. We introduce a method, based on novel mathematical results, that allows the exact sampling of networks where the number of connections between nodes of any given connectivity is specified. Our algorithm provides a weight associated to each sample, thereby allowing network observables to be measured according to any desired distribution, and it is guaranteed to always terminate successfully in polynomial time. Thus, our new approach provides a preferred tool for scientists to model complex systems of current relevance, and enables researchers to precisely study correlated networks with broad societal importance. CIDG acknowledges support by the European Commission's FP7 through grant No. 288021. KEB acknowledges support from the NSF through grant DMR?1206839. KEB, PE, IM and ZT acknowledge support from AFSOR and DARPA through grant FA?9550-12-1-0405.

  13. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  14. The True Gravitational Degrees Of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murchadha, N. o

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years ago it was realized that General Relativity could be expressed in Hamiltonian form. Unfortunately, just like electromagnetism and Yang-Mills theory, the Einstein equations split into evolution equations and constraints which complicates matters. The 4 constraints are expressions of the gauge freedom of the theory, general covariance. One can cleanly pose initial data for the gravitational field, but this data has to satisfy the constraints. To find the independent degrees of freedom, one needs to factor the initial data by the constraints. There are many ways of doing this. I can do so in such a way as to implement the model suggested by Poincare for a well-posed dynamical system: Pick a configuration space and give the free initial data as a point of the configuration space and a tangent vector at the same point. Now, the evolution equations should give a unique curve in the same configuration space. This gives a natural definition of what I call the true gravitational degrees of freedom. (author)

  15. Neighbor Rupture Degree of Some Middle Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökşen BACAK-TURAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks have an important place in our daily lives. Internet networks, electricity networks, water networks, transportation networks, social networks and biological networks are some of the networks we run into every aspects of our lives. A network consists of centers connected by links. A network is represented when centers and connections modelled by vertices and edges, respectively. In consequence of the failure of some centers or connection lines, measurement of the resistance of the network until the communication interrupted is called vulnerability of the network. In this study, neighbor rupture degree which is a parameter that explores the vulnerability values of the resulting graphs due to the failure of some centers of a communication network and its neighboring centers becoming nonfunctional were applied to some middle graphs and neighbor rupture degree of the $M(C_{n},$ $M(P_{n},$ $M(K_{1,n},$ $M(W_{n},$ $M(P_{n}\\times K_{2}$ and $M(C_{n}\\times K_{2}$ have been found.

  16. Gauge invariance and degree of freedom count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.; Universite Libre de Bruxelles; Teitelboim, C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Zanelli, J.; Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)

    1990-01-01

    The precise relation between the gauge transformations in lagrangian and hamiltonian form is derived for any gauge theory. It is found that in order to define a lagrangian gauge symmetry, the coefficients of the first class constraints in the hamiltonian generator of gauge transformations must obey a set of differential equations. Those equations involve, in general, the Lagrange multipliers. Their solution contains as many arbitrary functions of time as there are primary first class constraints. If n is the number of generations of constraints (primary, secondary, tertiary...), the arbitrary functions appear in the general solution together with their successive time derivatives up to order n-1. The analysis yields as by-products: (i) a systematic way to derive all the gauge symmetries of a given lagrangian; (ii) a precise criterion for counting the physical degrees of freedom of a gauge theory directly from the form of gauge transformations in lagrangian form. This last part is illustrated by means of examples. The BRST analog of the counting of physical degrees of freedom is also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Device for measuring a burnup degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshiaki; Goto, Seiichiro

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the burnup degree at high efficiency and accuracy. Constitution: The outer metal wall of fuel assemblies is heated under gamma radiation with long half life gamma rays in inverse proportion to the burnup degree and issues infrared radiation in proportion to the intensity of the gamma rays. An image pick-up tube is opposed to one surface of the fuel assemblies to detect the radiated infrared rays. Since the output signal from the pick-up tube is subjected to the absorptive damping by the distance between the pick-up tube and the fuel assembly, as well as water filled in the gap therebetween, it is corrected through a main amplifier comprising a signal correction circuit composed of a characteristic section inverse to the absorption property and a characteristic section inverse to the square of the distance. The corrected output signal is displayed on a display unit such as CRT or recorded in a film or a magnetic tape. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Epidemic spreading on preferred degree adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B; Zia, R K P

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree κ. Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting κ depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either 'blind' or 'selective'--depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result λ(c)/μ = / and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With 'blind' adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The 'selective' adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram.

  19. 17 CFR 300.102 - Accounts held by executors, administrators, guardians, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounts held by executors... CORPORATION Accounts of âseparateâ Customers of Sipc Members § 300.102 Accounts held by executors... estate or in the name of the executor or administrator of the estate of the decedent shall be combined so...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1231-2 - Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or... Losses § 1.1231-2 Livestock held for draft, breeding, dairy, or sporting purposes. (a)(1) In the case of cattle, horses, or other livestock acquired by the taxpayer after December 31, 1969, section 1231 applies...

  1. 77 FR 67865 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Parts 1, 3, 22 et al. Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures... Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants and Derivatives Clearing Organizations... amend existing regulations to require enhanced customer protections, risk management programs, internal...

  2. 24 CFR 3282.309 - Formal and informal presentations of views held by SAAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal and informal presentations of views held by SAAs. 3282.309 Section 3282.309 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... held by SAAs. (a) When an SAA is the appropriate agency to hold a Formal or Informal Presentation of...

  3. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... immersion during their use. Section 15(a) of the CPSA defines ``substantial product hazard'' to include, a....'' Hand-held hair dryers routinely contain open-coil heating elements that are, in essence, uninsulated..., bathtub, or lavatory). The proposed rule would define ``hand-held hair dryer'' as ``an electrical...

  4. On Engaging with Others: A Wittgensteinian Approach to (Some) Problems with Deeply Held Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowell, Tracy

    2018-01-01

    My starting point for this paper is a problem in critical thinking pedagogy--the difficult of bringing students to a point where they are able, and motivated, critically to evaluate their own deeply held beliefs. I first interrogate the very idea of a deeply held belief, drawing upon Wittgenstein's idea of a framework belief--a belief that forms…

  5. 26 CFR 20.6166A-2 - Definition of an interest in a closely held business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procedure and Administration § 20.6166A-2 Definition of an interest in a closely held business. (a) In... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of an interest in a closely held business. 20.6166A-2 Section 20.6166A-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  6. 76 FR 41432 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy, Gulfstream... proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has... Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.): Docket No. FAA-2011-0716; Directorate Identifier 2011-NM-013...

  7. 77 FR 44113 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150... to the manufacturer. This action was prompted by a report from the Civil Aviation Authority of Israel...

  8. 77 FR 58323 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream G150 airplanes. This proposed AD was.... Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has...

  9. 77 FR 32069 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200 airplanes. This proposed... receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the...

  10. 47 CFR 32.3200 - Accumulated depreciation-held for future telecommunications use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation-held for future... Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.3200 Accumulated depreciation—held for future telecommunications use. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the investment contained in Account...

  11. 47 CFR 32.6562 - Depreciation expense-property held for future telecommunications use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Depreciation expense-property held for future... Expense Accounts § 32.6562 Depreciation expense—property held for future telecommunications use. This account shall include the depreciation expense of capitalized costs included in Account 2002, Property...

  12. 29 CFR 453.21 - Interests held in agents, brokers, and surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interests held in agents, brokers, and surety companies... LABOR-MANAGEMENT REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Qualified Agents, Brokers, and Surety Companies for the Placing of Bonds § 453.21 Interests held in agents, brokers, and surety companies. (a) Section...

  13. 29 CFR 2580.412-22 - Interests held in agents, brokers and surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interests held in agents, brokers and surety companies... SECURITY ACT OF 1974 TEMPORARY BONDING RULES Qualified Agents, Brokers and Surety Companies for the Placing of Bonds § 2580.412-22 Interests held in agents, brokers and surety companies. Section 13(c...

  14. Relationship between swelling and irradiation creep in cold worked PCA stainless steel to 178 DPA at∼400 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Garner, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    At 178 dpa and ∼400 degrees C, the irradiation creep behavior of 20% cold-worked PCA has become dominated by the creep disappearance phenomenon. The total diametral deformation rate has reached the limiting value of 0.33%/dpa at the three highest stress levels. The stress-enhancement of swelling tends to camouflage the onset of creep disappearance, however

  15. Parallel high-performance grid computing: capabilities and opportunities of a novel demanding service and business class allowing highest resource efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.N. Kepper (Nick); R. Ettig (Ramona); F. Dickmann (Frank); R. Stehr (Rene); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); G. Wedemann (Gero); T.A. Knoch (Tobias)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe hardware and software requirements for parallel applications depend on the problem size, type and the number particles / parameters, the degree of parallelization possible, the load balancing over different processors / memory, the calculation type and the input / output and

  16. Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD in chitooligosaccharides (COS. This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in COS having relatively high and low molecular weights: an acid-base titration with bromocresol green indicator and a first order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for assessment of DD in COS. The accuracy of both methods as a function of molecular weight was also investigated and compared to results obtained using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates two simple, fast, widely adaptable, highly precise, accurate, and inexpensive methods for the effective determination of DD in COS, which have the potential for widespread commercial applications in developing country.

  17. Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuhan; Wu, Sihui; Liu, Guihua; Guo, Jiao; Su, Zhengquan

    2017-01-01

    The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD) in chitooligosaccharides (COS). This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in COS having relatively high and low molecular weights: an acid-base titration with bromocresol green indicator and a first order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for assessment of DD in COS. The accuracy of both methods as a function of molecular weight was also investigated and compared to results obtained using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates two simple, fast, widely adaptable, highly precise, accurate, and inexpensive methods for the effective determination of DD in COS, which have the potential for widespread commercial applications in developing country. PMID:29068401

  18. Degree of mapping for general relativistic kinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriot, Tina A.; Williams, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Finkelstein-Misner metrical kinks of general relativity are homo topically nontrivial light cone configurations that can occur on space-time hypersurfaces. The number of kinks corresponds to the winding number of a timelike vector field that that is determined from the metric. This paper uses the usual Euclidean integral formula for degree of mapping as a starting point and so produces a covariant formula that can be applied to counting general relativistic kinks in any dimension. The kink number is calculated for some simple-to-visualize examples in 2 + 1 dimensions. These include hypersurfaces of differing topologies and so have relevance to mechanisms of topology change in semi-classical theories of quantum gravity

  19. Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states.

  20. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  1. Bounded-Degree Approximations of Stochastic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Christopher J.; Pinar, Ali; Kiyavash, Negar

    2017-06-01

    We propose algorithms to approximate directed information graphs. Directed information graphs are probabilistic graphical models that depict causal dependencies between stochastic processes in a network. The proposed algorithms identify optimal and near-optimal approximations in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence. The user-chosen sparsity trades off the quality of the approximation against visual conciseness and computational tractability. One class of approximations contains graphs with speci ed in-degrees. Another class additionally requires that the graph is connected. For both classes, we propose algorithms to identify the optimal approximations and also near-optimal approximations, using a novel relaxation of submodularity. We also propose algorithms to identify the r-best approximations among these classes, enabling robust decision making.

  2. Anti-correlations in the degree distribution increase stimulus detection performance in noisy spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marijn B; Houweling, Arthur R; E Tiesinga, Paul H

    2017-02-01

    Neuronal circuits in the rodent barrel cortex are characterized by stable low firing rates. However, recent experiments show that short spike trains elicited by electrical stimulation in single neurons can induce behavioral responses. Hence, the underlying neural networks provide stability against internal fluctuations in the firing rate, while simultaneously making the circuits sensitive to small external perturbations. Here we studied whether stability and sensitivity are affected by the connectivity structure in recurrently connected spiking networks. We found that anti-correlation between the number of afferent (in-degree) and efferent (out-degree) synaptic connections of neurons increases stability against pathological bursting, relative to networks where the degrees were either positively correlated or uncorrelated. In the stable network state, stimulation of a few cells could lead to a detectable change in the firing rate. To quantify the ability of networks to detect the stimulation, we used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. For a given level of background noise, networks with anti-correlated degrees displayed the lowest false positive rates, and consequently had the highest stimulus detection performance. We propose that anti-correlation in the degree distribution may be a computational strategy employed by sensory cortices to increase the detectability of external stimuli. We show that networks with anti-correlated degrees can in principle be formed by applying learning rules comprised of a combination of spike-timing dependent plasticity, homeostatic plasticity and pruning to networks with uncorrelated degrees. To test our prediction we suggest a novel experimental method to estimate correlations in the degree distribution.

  3. The 360 Degree Fulldome Production "Clockwork Ocean"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, B.; Heinsohn, R.; Opitz, D.; Fischer, T.; Baschek, T.

    2016-02-01

    The investigation of submesoscale eddies and fronts is one of the leading oceanographic topics at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016. In order to observe these small and short-lived phenomena, planes equipped with high-resolution cameras and fast vessels were deployed during the Submesoscale Experiments (SubEx) leading to some of the first high-resolution observations of these eddies. In a future experiment, a zeppelin will be used the first time in marine sciences. The relevance of submesoscale processes for the oceans and the work of the eddy hunters is described in the fascinating 9-minute long 360 degree fulldome production Clockwork Ocean. The fully animated movie is introduced in this presentation taking the observer from the bioluminescence in the deep ocean to a view of our blue planet from space. The immersive media is used to combine fascination for a yet unknown environment with scientific education of a broad audience. Detailed background information is available at the parallax website www.clockwork-ocean.com. The Film is also available for Virtual Reality glasses and smartphones to reach a broader distribution. A unique Mobile Dome with an area of 70 m² and seats for 40 people is used for science education at events, festivals, for politicians and school classes. The spectators are also invited to participate in the experiments by presenting 360 degree footage of the measurements. The premiere of Clockwork Ocean was in July 2015 in Hamburg, Germany and will be worldwide available in English and German as of fall 2015. Clockwork Ocean is a film of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht produced by Daniel Opitz and Ralph Heinsohn.

  4. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis.Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language.By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change.The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  5. Supported rhodium catalysts for ammonia-borane hydrolysis. Dependence of the catalytic activity on the highest occupied state of the single rhodium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Xiao; Qiu, Jianxiang; Li, Aowen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zeng, Jie [Hefei National Lab. for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Lab. of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui(China); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Hu, Zhenpeng [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Si, Rui [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-04-18

    Supported metal nanocrystals have exhibited remarkable catalytic performance in hydrogen generation reactions, which is influenced and even determined by their supports. Accordingly, it is of fundamental importance to determine the direct relationship between catalytic performance and metal-support interactions. Herein, we provide a quantitative profile for exploring metal-support interactions by considering the highest occupied state in single-atom catalysts. The catalyst studied consisted of isolated Rh atoms dispersed on the surface of VO{sub 2} nanorods. It was observed that the activation energy of ammonia-borane hydrolysis changed when the substrate underwent a phase transition. Mechanistic studies indicate that the catalytic performance depended directly on the highest occupied state of the single Rh atoms, which was determined by the band structure of the substrates. Other metal catalysts, even with non-noble metals, that exhibited significant catalytic activity towards NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} hydrolysis were rationally designed by adjusting their highest occupied states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Variation in meroplankton along 78 degrees E Meridian

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, T.; Peter, K.J.

    Variations along the meridian 78 degrees E between 8 degrees N and 25 degrees S, based on 43 zooplankton samples were studied. Fish larvae exhibited fluctuations in abundance (26 to 57 specimens/IOSN haul) in the three zones studied (8 degrees N-5...

  7. Outcomes of torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification performed by 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacioglu, Firat; Yeter, Celal; Tunc, Zeki; Sencan, Sadik

    2013-08-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of Ozil Intelligent Phaco torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed with 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips using the Infiniti Vision System. Maltepe University School of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey. Comparative case series. Eyes were assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the torsional mode with a 22-degree bent tip (Group 1) or a 12-degree bent tip (Group 2). The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) amplitudes, mean surgical time, mean volume of balanced salt solution used, and surgical complications. Both groups included 45 eyes. The mean UST, CDE, longitudinal US amplitude, and torsional US amplitude were 65 seconds ± 27.23 (SD), 11.53 ± 6.99, 0.22 ± 0.26, and 42.86 ± 15.64, respectively, in Group 1 and 84 ± 45.04 seconds, 16.68 ± 10.66, 0.48 ± 0.68, and 46.27 ± 14.74, respectively, in Group 2. The mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal amplitudes were significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.003, P=.008, and P=.022, respectively). The mean volume of balanced salt solution was 73.33 ± 28.58 cc in Group 1 and 82.08 ± 26.21 cc in Group 2 (P=.134). Torsional phacoemulsification performed with 22-degree bent tips provided more effective lens removal than 12-degree bent tips, with a lower UST and CDE. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [A follow-up study on the degree of satisfaction regarding environment, life style and the coming Olympic events in the inhabitants living in the typical communities of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Ma, Jun; Song, Yi; Li, Yan; Zong, Shu-ting; Xiao, Feng; Chen, Bo-wen

    2008-08-01

    To measure the degree of satisfaction on various environmental and health components and to discuss the impact of Olympic Games among the residents so as to make relative policy suggestions. In 2006, permanent residents over 15 years old lived in the Asian Games Village Community (where the 29th Olympic Games to be held) were selected to conduct a household's survey, while 1610 valid questionnaires were collected. The questionnaire included demographic information, degrees of satisfaction on various health-related environmental components, living condition and on Olympic events. The top 4 aspects with the highest satisfaction rates were "overall rates of satisfaction on current life" "green space", "housing conditions" and "water quality", which were 50.43%, 48.59%, 38.95%, 37.08%, respectively. Residents' satisfaction on "impact of hosting the Olympic Games on China's international image", "China's economic development level", "living conditions" and "personal life" were 65.53%, 56.09%, 47.27%, 46.40%, respectively. Data from partial correlation analysis showed that the total scores of satisfaction on environment and life had positive correlation with the total scores of Olympic satisfaction (P Olympic event through factor analysis showed that 10 entries of the Olympic impact could be reflected by two factors--the influence of image to the nation and impact on personal income. Logistic regression showed that the impact of Olympic Games on personal income, the impact of Olympic Games on the image of the nation and standard of living, gender, education level were independent influencing factors of the total scores of environment and life satisfaction (P Olympic Games to the country's image, the country's economic development level, the environment and personal standard of living.

  9. Increasingly Global: Combining an International Business Degree with a Post-Degree Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Terry, Andy; Vibhakar, Ashvin

    2006-01-01

    In the increasingly complex and competitive global marketplace, many students seek to gain multiple skills and credentials that can aid them in their career goals. One such career strategy weds a general overarching comprehensive degree with a specific and targeted skill set. This paper provides a viable curriculum path for students who seek…

  10. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2007 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census from October through February of all 75 departments that offer degrees in astronomy in the United States. For the class of 2007, the authors received responses from 73 (97%) of these departments. Estimates were derived and included in the totals for…

  11. Making Sense of the Combined Degree Experience: The Example of Criminology Double Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimshurst, Kerry; Manning, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken on student experiences of combined degrees. The few studies report that a considerable number of students experienced difficulty with the contrasting epistemic/disciplinary demands of the component programmes. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore the experiences of graduates from four double degrees…

  12. Degree of Success? A Review of Delivering BSc Honours Degrees in an FE College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Lloyd, Mary Golding

    2009-01-01

    Widening participation initiatives led by the government encourage non-traditional students to enrol in higher education courses usually offered through a franchising arrangement between a Higher Education Institution (HEI) and a local Further Education Institution (FEI). The focus has been on the development of foundation degrees with most…

  13. European master degree in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2003-01-01

    In order to preserve and to improve the quality of nuclear engineering education and training in Europe, as well to ensure the safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants, the European Nuclear Engineering Network Program (ENEN) started in 2002. It is a program aiming to establish and maintain a set of criteria for specific curricula of nuclear engineering education, in particular, for an European Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering (EMNE). The ENEN program is financed by the FP5 and has the wide support of IAEA, OECD and EU Commission departments dealing with the nuclear engineering knowledge management. The promising results up to now determined the creation of the Asian Nuclear Engineering Network (ANEN) in July 2003 and of the World Nuclear University (WNU) starting in September 2003. The paper presents the future structure of EMNE which will allow the harmonization of the curricula of the universities of Europe until the Bologna Convention will be fully accepted and operational in all European countries. The ENEN program has taken into consideration the curricula of 22 universities and research centres from 15 different European countries and proposed a feasible scheme which allows the undergraduates with a weak to strong nuclear background to continue their graduate education in the nuclear engineering field towards EMNE. As one of the contractors of this program, University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest brings its contribution and actively takes part in all activities establishing the EMNE. (author)

  14. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  15. Double degree master program: Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Livshits, Irina; Styk, Adam; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia; Ermolayeva, Elena; Ivanova, Tatiana; Romanova, Galina; Tolstoba, Nadezhda

    2015-10-01

    Modern tendencies of higher education require development of master programs providing achievement of learning outcomes corresponding to quickly variable job market needs. ITMO University represented by Applied and Computer Optics Department and Optical Design and Testing Laboratory jointly with Warsaw University of Technology represented by the Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics at The Faculty of Mechatronics have developed a novel international master double-degree program "Optical Design" accumulating the expertise of both universities including experienced teaching staff, educational technologies, and experimental resources. The program presents studies targeting research and professional activities in high-tech fields connected with optical and optoelectronics devices, optical engineering, numerical methods and computer technologies. This master program deals with the design of optical systems of various types, assemblies and layouts using computer modeling means; investigation of light distribution phenomena; image modeling and formation; development of optical methods for image analysis and optical metrology including optical testing, materials characterization, NDT and industrial control and monitoring. The goal of this program is training a graduate capable to solve a wide range of research and engineering tasks in optical design and metrology leading to modern manufacturing and innovation. Variability of the program structure provides its flexibility and adoption according to current job market demands and personal learning paths for each student. In addition considerable proportion of internship and research expands practical skills. Some special features of the "Optical Design" program which implements the best practices of both Universities, the challenges and lessons learnt during its realization are presented in the paper.

  16. Neural mechanisms mediating degrees of strategic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Rosemarie; Brovelli, Andrea; Heinemann, Frank; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i.e. strategic thinking). Participants were confronted with risky lotteries and two types of coordination games requiring different degrees of strategic thinking of the kind 'I think that you think that I think etc.' We found that the brain network mediating risk during lotteries (anterior insula, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex) is also engaged in the processing of strategic uncertainty in games. In social settings, activity in this network is modulated by the level of strategic thinking that is reflected in the activity of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that strategic uncertainty is resolved by the interplay between the neural circuits mediating risk and higher order beliefs (i.e. beliefs about others' beliefs). © The Author(s) (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Burnup degree measuring device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideo; Imaizumi, Hideki; Endo, Yasumi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a small-sized and convenient device for measuring a burnup degree of spent fuels, which can be installed without remodelling an existent fuel storage pool. Namely, a gamma-ray detecting portion incorporates a Cd-Te detector for measuring intensity ratio of gamma-rays. A neutron detecting portion incorporates a fission counter tube. The Cd-Te detector comprises a neutron shielding member for reducing radiation damages and a background controlling plate for reducing low energy gamma-rays entering from a collimator. Since the Cd-Td detector for use in a gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used at a normal temperature and can measure even a relatively strong radiation field, it can measure the intensity of gamma-rays from Cs-137 and Cs-134 in spent fuels accurately at a resolving power of less than 10 keV. Further, in a case where a cooling period is less than one year, gamma-rays from Rh-106 and Nb-95 can also be measured. (I.S.)

  18. Anthony Traill (1838-1914), the first Provost to confer degrees on Women Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Caoimhghin S

    2015-10-01

    Anthony Traill was born into a Scotch-Irish family at Ballylough House near Bushmills in county Antrim in November 1838. At the age of twenty he entered Trinity College Dublin to study engineering, but he was a professional student who passed through all the faculties and took legal and medical degrees in 1864-1870. He applied his knowledge of physics when advising his brother William who was building the Portrush-Bushmills electric railway. Though he took time off to indulge his athletic abilities, he steeped himself in College affairs and became Provost in March 1904, a post he held until his death in October 1914. His outstanding contribution whilst holding that post was to welcome women with university training into graduation.

  19. Adult Cigarette Smokers at Highest Risk for Concurrent Alternative Tobacco Product Use Among a Racially/Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Lei, Yang; Yu, Qing; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Mayo, Matthew S

    2016-04-01

    Rates of alternative tobacco product use (ATPs; eg, cigars, cigarillos, pipes) among cigarette smokers are on the rise but little is known about the subgroups at highest risk. This study explored interactions between demographic, tobacco, and psychosocial factors to identify cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use from a racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of adult smokers across the full smoking spectrum (nondaily, daily light, daily heavy). Two-thousand three-hundred seventy-six adult cigarette smokers participated in an online cross-sectional survey. Quotas ensured equal recruitment of African American (AA), white (W), Hispanic/Latino (H) as well as daily and nondaily smokers. Classification and Regression Tree modeling was used to identify subgroups of cigarette smokers at highest risk for ATP use. 51.3% were Cig+ATP smokers. Alcohol for men and age, race/ethnicity, and discrimination for women increased the probability of ATP use. Strikingly, 73.5% of men screening positive for moderate to heavy drinking and 62.2% of younger (≤45 years) African American/Hispanic/Latino women who experienced regular discrimination were Cig+ATP smokers. Screening for concurrent ATP use is necessary for the continued success of tobacco cessation efforts especially among male alcohol users and racial/ethnic minority women who are at greatest risk for ATP use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A at single nucleotide polymorphism-358 is required for G at -420 to confer the highest plasma resistin in the general Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Onuma

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance is a feature of type 2 diabetes. Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. We previously reported that the G/G genotype of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at -420 (rs1862513 in the human resistin gene (RETN increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes by enhancing its promoter activity. Plasma resistin was highest in Japanese subjects with G/G genotype, followed by C/G, and C/C. In this study, we cross-sectionally analyzed plasma resistin and SNPs in the RETN region in 2,019 community-dwelling Japanese subjects. Plasma resistin was associated with SNP-638 (rs34861192, SNP-537 (rs34124816, SNP-420, SNP-358 (rs3219175, SNP+299 (rs3745367, and SNP+1263 (rs3745369 (P<10(-13 in all cases. SNP-638, SNP -420, SNP-358, and SNP+157 were in the same linkage disequilibrium (LD block. SNP-358 and SNP-638 were nearly in complete LD (r(2 = 0.98, and were tightly correlated with SNP-420 (r(2 = 0.50, and 0.51, respectively. The correlation between either SNP-358 (or SNP-638 or SNP-420 and plasma resistin appeared to be strong (risk alleles for high plasma resistin; A at SNP-358, r(2 = 0.5224, P = 4.94x10(-324; G at SNP-420, r(2 = 0.2616, P = 1.71x10(-133. In haplotypes determined by SNP-420 and SNP-358, the estimated frequencies for C-G, G-A, and G-G were 0.6700, 0.2005, and 0.1284, respectively, and C-A was rare (0.0011, suggesting that subjects with A at -358, generally had G at -420. This G-A haplotype conferred the highest plasma resistin (8.24 ng/ml difference/allele compared to C-G, P<0.0001. In THP-1 cells, the RETN promoter with the G-A haplotype showed the highest activity. Nuclear proteins specifically recognized one base difference at SNP-358, but not at SNP-638. Therefore, A at -358 is required for G at -420 to confer the highest plasma resistin in the general Japanese population. In Caucasians, the association between SNP-420 and plasma resistin is not strong, and A at -358 may not exist

  1. The first cytogenetic description of Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 from Northern Sardinia reveals the highest diploid chromosome number among sphaerodactylid geckos (Sphaerodactylidae, Squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gornung

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype of a sphaerodactylid gecko Euleptes europaea (Gené, 1839 was assembled for the first time in this species. It is made of 2n = 42 gradually decreasing in size chromosomes, the highest chromosome number so far acknowledged in the family Sphaerodactylidae. The second chromosome pair of the karyotype appears slightly heteromorphic in the male individual. Accordingly, FISH with a telomeric probe revealed an uneven distribution of telomeric repeats on the two homologues of this pair, which may be indicative of an XY sex-determination system in the species, to be further investigated.

  2. Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lian-Ming; Wu Xiang-Sheng; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS) level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the k min -degree (minimum degree) nodes and the k max -degree (maximum degree) nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links) in the hands of the richer (top best-connected) nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the k min -degree nodes is larger for larger λ and smaller k min or k max . The ratio of the k max -degree ones is larger for smaller λ and k max or larger k min . The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the k min -degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of k min . The ratio of the k max -degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k max , and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the ‘73/27 rule’). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. Comparison of two-stage thermophilic (68 degrees C/55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion with one-stage thermophilic (55 degrees C) digestion of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Mladenovska, Z; Westermann, P; Ahring, B K

    2004-05-05

    A two-stage 68 degrees C/55 degrees C anaerobic degradation process for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, an increase of the specific methane yield, ranging from 24% to 56%, was obtained when cattle manure and its fractions (fibers and liquid) were pretreated at 68 degrees C for periods of 36, 108, and 168 h, and subsequently digested at 55 degrees C. In a lab-scale experiment, the performance of a two-stage reactor system, consisting of a digester operating at 68 degrees C with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, connected to a 55 degrees C reactor with 12-day HRT, was compared with a conventional single-stage reactor running at 55 degrees C with 15-days HRT. When an organic loading of 3 g volatile solids (VS) per liter per day was applied, the two-stage setup had a 6% to 8% higher specific methane yield and a 9% more effective VS-removal than the conventional single-stage reactor. The 68 degrees C reactor generated 7% to 9% of the total amount of methane of the two-stage system and maintained a volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of 4.0 to 4.4 g acetate per liter. Population size and activity of aceticlastic methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, and hydrolytic/fermentative bacteria were significantly lower in the 68 degrees C reactor than in the 55 degrees C reactors. The density levels of methanogens utilizing H2/CO2 or formate were, however, in the same range for all reactors, although the degradation of these substrates was significantly lower in the 68 degrees C reactor than in the 55 degrees C reactors. Temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis profiles (TTGE) of the 68 degrees C reactor demonstrated a stable bacterial community along with a less divergent community of archaeal species. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Nuclear forces and quark degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.; Demetriou, P.; Pantis, C.

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to derive the NN forces from the quark and gluon degrees of freedom have been made so far in the framework of the nonrelativistic quark-cluster model (QCM). The justification of such a model is based on the remarkable success in describing the static properties of single hadrons. In the earlier calculations, the NN s-wave phase shifts obtained with the QCM show that the model produces repulsive NN forces at short distances, which constitutes a success for the model, but fails to provide the intermediate range attraction indispensable for binding nucleons in nuclei. This drawback is amended within the context of these models, at the expense of introducing by hand intermediate-range attraction through meson-exchange potentials between quarks or/and between nucleons (quark clusters). This procedure improves the results for the phase shifts and it is often concluded that the QCM provides a good description of the short-range (SR) part of the NN potential. In our opinion, the above procedure does not provide a rigorous test of the validity of the quark-cluster model. In order to get a clear-cut conclusion one should consider the QCM in association with an accurate and well founded model for the long-medium-range (LR+MR) forces. For these reason we study a NN interaction model which satisfies this requirement. In this model, the LR+MR parts are given by the Paris NN potential and the SR part by the QCM. The quality of the model is then tested by confronting directly its predictions with data on observables rather then, as it is usually done, with phase shifts. We compute all the observables for pp and np scattering at energies below the pion production threshold for different QCM versions corresponding to different qq interactions. The results are then compared with the existing world set data. Preliminary results show that the agreement with experiment is not good. (authors)

  5. Accounting Practices Regarding the Non-Current Assets Held for Sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Manea

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally the non-current assets, and especially the tangible assets, are held by the entity (as it results from their very definition in order to be used in the production of goods or for services, to be rented to the thirds or to be used for administrative purposes during several periods. For the time interval that a non-current asset is not classified as being held for sale, its recognition and implicitly its assessment will be done in accordance with the provisions of the applicable International Financial Reporting Standards; after the classification of the respective asset as being held with the intention of subsequent sale there will be applicable the provisions of the contemporary IFRS norm 5 “Non-current assets held for sale and discontinued activities”.

  6. DOE public hearing held at the Calais High School, Calais, Maine, April 8, 1986: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document contains a transcript of the comments of 20 witnesses. These meetings were held to hear public comments regarding the selection of a site for a second high-level nuclear waste repository

  7. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ...The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation by the NIJ Corrections Technology Center of Excellence (CXCoE).

  8. Metallurgical sessions. Second ALAMET congress (held in) Buenos Aires, Argentina, 6-10 May 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This congress was held in Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic, on May 6-10, 1991, gathering experts from all over the world. The present volume includes the papers presented at the Metallurgical Sessions - II. ALAMET Congress [es

  9. Predictors of in vitro fertilization outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone levels ≥ 12 IU/L: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina N Huang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate factors predictive of outcomes in women with highest follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels ≥ 12 IU/L on basal testing, undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF.A prospective cohort study was conducted at Stanford University Hospital in the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Center for 12 months. Women age 21 to 43 undergoing IVF with highest FSH levels on baseline testing were included. Donor/Recipient and frozen embryo cycles were excluded from this study. Prognostic factors evaluated in association with clinical pregnancy rates were type of infertility diagnosis and IVF stimulation parameters.The current study found that factors associated with clinical pregnancy were: increased number of mature follicles on the day of triggering, number of oocytes retrieved, number of Metaphase II oocytes if intracytoplasmic sperm injection was done, and number of embryos developed 24 hours after retrieval.Our findings suggest that it would be beneficial for women with increased FSH levels to attempt a cycle of IVF. Results of ovarian stimulation, especially embryo quantity appear to be the best predictors of IVF outcomes and those can only be obtained from a cycle of IVF. Therefore, increased basal FSH levels should not discourage women from attempting a cycle of IVF.

  10. Evaluating the consistency of location of the most severe acute skin reaction and highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter during radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Li-Min, E-mail: limin.sun@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chih-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Department of College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Yun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Gia-Hsin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China); Tsao, Min-Jen [Department of General Surgery, Zuoying Branch of Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-01

    We conducted this prospective study to evaluate whether the location of the most severe acute skin reaction matches the highest skin dose measured by thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) during adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for patients with breast cancer after breast conservative surgery. To determine whether TLD measurement can reflect the location of the most severe acute skin reaction, 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. We divided the irradiated field into breast, axillary, inframammary fold, and areola/nipple areas. In 1 treatment session when obvious skin reaction occurred, we placed the TLD chips onto the 4 areas and measured the skin dose. We determined whether the highest measured skin dose area is consistent with the location of the most severe skin reaction. The McNemar test revealed that the clinical skin reaction and TLD measurement are more consistent when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the axillary area, and the p = 0.0108. On the contrary, TLD measurement of skin dose is less likely consistent with clinical observation when the most severe skin reaction occurred at the inframammary fold, breast, and areola/nipple areas (all the p > 0.05). Considering the common site of severe skin reaction over the axillary area, TLD measurement may be an appropriate way to predict skin reaction during RT.

  11. On the Derivation of Highest-Order Compact Finite Difference Schemes for the One- and Two-Dimensional Poisson Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Settle, Sean O.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to answer the question, What are the highest-order five- or nine-point compact finite difference schemes? To answer this question, we present several simple derivations of finite difference schemes for the one- and two-dimensional Poisson equation on uniform, quasi-uniform, and nonuniform face-to-face hyperrectangular grids and directly prove the existence or nonexistence of their highest-order local accuracies. Our derivations are unique in that we do not make any initial assumptions on stencil symmetries or weights. For the one-dimensional problem, the derivation using the three-point stencil on both uniform and nonuniform grids yields a scheme with arbitrarily high-order local accuracy. However, for the two-dimensional problem, the derivation using the corresponding five-point stencil on uniform and quasi-uniform grids yields a scheme with at most second-order local accuracy, and on nonuniform grids yields at most first-order local accuracy. When expanding the five-point stencil to the nine-point stencil, the derivation using the nine-point stencil on uniform grids yields at most sixth-order local accuracy, but on quasi- and nonuniform grids yields at most fourth- and third-order local accuracy, respectively. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Report: Fourth International Conference on Gas Hydrates, held at Yokohama, Japan, 19-23 May 2002

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    formations, while Dr. L. Stern presented ne insights into the phenomena of anomalous or self- preservation of gas hydrates. JOUR.GEOL.SOC.INDIA, VOL.61, JAN. 2001 Posters on hydrate formation and prevention in pipelines and hydrate based...-1 REPORT ON THE 4TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GAS HYDRATES The fourth International Conference on Gas Hydrates was recently held at Yokohama, Japan, between 19-23 May 2002 following the earlier conferences held in USA (1993...

  13. A degree of success? Messages from the new social work degree in England for nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Jo; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Macintyre, Gillian; Orme, Joan; Green Lister, Pam; Sharpe, Endellion; Crisp, Beth

    2010-07-01

    In September 2008 the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) approved plans to change pre-registration nursing education in England to an all-graduate qualification in 2015. In 2001 the Department of Health announced a similar decision for social work qualifying education and the first graduate-only qualifying programmes began in 2003-2004. This article presents findings from a national in-depth evaluation of the social work degree in England and describes ways in which efforts have been made to improve the quality of social workers, raise the status of the profession and link practice and theory as part of the transformation to a degree level qualification. Messages for nurse educators are drawn in the light of the professions' commonalities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  15. 26 CFR 1.1031(a)-1 - Property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1031(a)-1 Property held for productive use in trade or business or for investment. (a) In general—(1... business or for investment is exchanged solely for property of a like kind to be held either for productive use in a trade or business or for investment. Under section 1031(a)(1), property held for productive...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6332-3 - The 21-day holding period applicable to property held by banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... property held by banks. 301.6332-3 Section 301.6332-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... set forth in this section, to a levy on property held by banks. (b) Definition of bank. For purposes... customer. (3) Transactions affecting accounts. A levy on deposits held by a bank applies to those funds on...

  17. Effect of isothermal annealing on degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties of poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Liansong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041 (China); Graduated School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039 (China); Huang, Dongling; Zhang, Tianyao; Zhang, Lifang [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610041 (China); Xiong, Chengdong

    2010-03-15

    We investigated the effect of isothermal annealing on the degree of crystallinity and mechanical properties of a random copolymer-poly(l-lactide-co -glycolide) (PLLGA)-with monomer molar ratios of 85/15 (PLLGA85/15) by performing polarizing optical microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and studying the tensile properties. Isothermal annealing of PLLGA at 130 C was conducted to improve the degree of crystallinity of the copolymer; the maximum degree of crystallinity (44.5%) was achieved after 60 min of annealing. The crystal size/perfection was observed to increase with annealing time. The highest tensile strength of 65.8 MPa was achieved after 80 min of annealing. However, the degree of crystallinity and tensile strength can only reach to certain extent. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. An alternative method to specify the degree of resonator stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    *School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 134, India. E-mail: ... Degree of optical stability; S parameter; misalignment tolerance. ... maximum value of the degree of stability corresponding to S = 100%, automatically.

  19. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-01-01

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey

  20. Annealing properties of potato starches with different degrees of phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhrbeck, Per; Svensson, E

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the gelatinization temperature interval and gelatinization enthalpy with annealing time at 50 degrees C were followed for a number of potato starch samples, with different degrees of phosphorylation, using differential scanning calorimetry. The gelatinization temperature increased...

  1. Most probable degree distribution at fixed structural entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we derive the most probable degree distribution emerging ... the structural entropy of power-law networks is an increasing function of the expo- .... tition function Z of the network as the sum over all degree distributions, with given energy.

  2. Biohydrogen production from xylose at extreme thermophilic temperatures (70 degrees C) by mixed culture fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongjan, Prawit; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    /L. Addition of yeast extract in the cultivation medium resulted in significant improvement of hydrogen yield. The main metabolic products during xylose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, and lactate. The specific growth rates were able to fit the experimental points relatively well with Haldane equation...... solid wastes at 70 degrees C. The highest hydrogen yield of 1.62 +/- 0.02 mol-H-2/Mol-xylose(consumed) was obtained at initial xylose concentration of 0.5 g/L with synthetic medium amended with I g/L of yeast extract. Lower hydrogen yield was achieved at initial xylose concentration higher than 2 g...

  3. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  4. Factors influencing a student's decision to pursue a communications degree in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sierra Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyzes the factors that influence secondary school students’ choice of higher education options in Spain today and explores the implications and benefits of establishing provider-client relationships between universities and students.Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative approach using questionnaires to demonstrate the hypothesis and achieve the objectives. We have prepared a questionnaire via telematic LimeSurvey application consisting of twenty-four closed questions.Findings: Results depict that the leading criteria for Spanish students interested in pursuing studies in communication sciences were a university’s reputation and excellence and the quality of its educational programmes. In terms of sources of information related to universities and their degree programmes, Spanish communication sciences students placed the highest value on direct and experiential sources. Spanish students interested in pursuing degrees in communication sciences preferred public universities over private universities.Research limitations: It is a descriptive paper. The sample could have been larger and have covered the entire universe of communication schools in Spain.Practical implications: Gain in-depth insight into the academic, cultural, and sociodemographic characteristics of students who choose to pursue an undergraduate degree in communications sciences in Spain.Ascertain which sources of information proved to be the most valuable to prospective students in choosing a university and degree programme and the other factors that influenced their choices by means of a survey involving first-year undergraduate communication sciences students. Use the results of this survey to rank the criteria used by students when choosing a university and degree programme. Gain a clearer picture of how parents and friends influence a student’s choice of degree programmes and universities.Social implications: Knowing the factors of choice

  5. Retrieving of the complex degree of spatial coherence of electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasquilla-Alvarez, J.; Castaneda, R.; Garcia-Sucerquia, J.; Schofield, M.; Blegiia, M.; Matteucci, G.

    2005-10-01

    We discuss the applicability of a recently developed method for two-dimensionally retrieving the complex degree of spatial coherence of laser beams, in both amplitude and phase, to the case of the electron beam provided by the source of an electron microscope. Obtaining an electron beam with the highest possible coherence is critical for successful holography experiments. Therefore, the accurate measurement of the complex degree of spatial coherence is highly desirable. The method consists of the following three steps: recording of the beam spot, determining its centered-reduced moments and inserting them as coefficients of a series. This procedure is simple, fast and of higher performance than conventional procedures such Fourier analysis or Young interferometry. Experimental results are presented. (author)

  6. Two-dimensional thermal simulations of aluminum and carbon ion strippers for experiments at SPIRAL2 using the highest beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, N.A.; Kim, V.; Lamour, E.; Lomonosov, I.V.; Piriz, A.R.; Rozet, J.P.; Stöhlker, Th.; Sultanov, V.; Vernhet, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on two-dimensional numerical simulations of heating of a rotating, wheel shaped target impacted by the full intensity of the ion beam that will be delivered by the SPIRAL2 facility at Caen, France. The purpose of this work is to study heating of solid targets that will be used to strip the fast ions of SPIRAL2 to the required high charge state for the FISIC (Fast Ion–Slow Ion Collision) experiments. Strippers of aluminum with different emissivities and of carbon are exposed to high beam current of different ion species as oxygen, neon and argon. These studies show that carbon, due to its much higher sublimation temperature and much higher emissivity, is more favorable compared to aluminum. For the highest beam intensities, an aluminum stripper does not survive. However, problem of the induced thermal stresses and long term material fatigue needs to be investigated before a final conclusion can be drawn.

  7. The degree of irreversibility in deterministic finite automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Holzer, Markus; Kutrib, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the language, and show that the degree induces a strict infinite hierarchy of languages. We examine how the degree of irreversibility behaves under the usual language operations union, intersection, complement, concatenation, and Kleene star, showing tight bounds (some asymptotically) on the degree....

  8. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. it also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  9. Structure and origin of the 85 degrees E ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramprasad, T.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Desa, M.; Murty, G.P.S.; Subrahmanyam, C

    The submerged 85 degrees E Ridge in the Bay of Bengal trends approximately N-S between 19 degrees N and 6 degrees N latitudes. Off the southeast coast of Sri Lanka it takes an arcuate shape and seems to terminate with the northweard extension...

  10. Degree-regular triangulations of torus and Klein bottle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 3 ... A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called degree-regular if each of its vertices have the same degree. ... In [5], Datta and Nilakantan have classified all the degree-regular triangulations of closed surfaces on at most 11 vertices.

  11. Scholarship in nursing: Degree-prepared nurses versus diploma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All but one (n = 18) nursing educators who obtained a degree as first qualification are educators in the private sector that include both universities as well as nursing colleges of private hospital groups. Data further revealed that most nurse educators and those in managerial positions were degree prepared. More degree ...

  12. Actuator with Multi Degrees of Freedom(Actuator)

    OpenAIRE

    矢野, 智昭; Tomoaki, YANO; 産業技術総合研究所

    2006-01-01

    The advantages, problems and the recent developments of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are presented. At first, the advantages of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are described. Next, the problems needed to solve for practical use are presented. The recent applications of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are also reviewed.

  13. The Striking Progress of African Americans in Degree Attainments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    While the number of blacks earning bachelor's and master's degrees has risen significantly since 1985, and the number of black doctoral degrees rose 110 percent, the percentage of all degrees awarded to blacks at all levels is far lower than the black percentage of the U.S. population. Black women earn 65.7 percent of all doctorates awarded to…

  14. College Teaching as a Profession: The Doctor of Arts Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Paul L.

    The history of the Doctor of Arts (D.A.) degree and issues related to its development are briefly traced, and D.A. programs presently available and the success of degree recipients are addressed. Attention is also directed to other types of degree programs that are available, including their advantages and disadvantages, factors involved in…

  15. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  16. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2004 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 28 U.S. universities in 2004

  17. Measuring Direct Teaching Costs: Does an Undergraduate Business Degree Cost More to Produce than a Nonbusiness Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis

    2016-01-01

    Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…

  18. How Much Does It Cost Institutions to Produce Stem Degrees? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This AIR Data Brief breaks down the "cost per degree" estimates for 28 disciplines, including those in the STEM fields, which among the most expensive degrees to produce. The brief points to ways colleges can change their tuition structure to finance STEM degrees more affordably. This data brief is the fourth of four in the series. (See…

  19. Exact sampling of graphs with prescribed degree correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Kevin E.; Del Genio, Charo I.; Erdős, Péter L.; Miklós, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2015-08-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit correlations between the node degrees. For instance, in social networks nodes tend to connect to nodes of similar degree and conversely, in biological and technological networks, high-degree nodes tend to be linked with low-degree nodes. Degree correlations also affect the dynamics of processes supported by a network structure, such as the spread of opinions or epidemics. The proper modelling of these systems, i.e., without uncontrolled biases, requires the sampling of networks with a specified set of constraints. We present a solution to the sampling problem when the constraints imposed are the degree correlations. In particular, we develop an exact method to construct and sample graphs with a specified joint-degree matrix, which is a matrix providing the number of edges between all the sets of nodes of a given degree, for all degrees, thus completely specifying all pairwise degree correlations, and additionally, the degree sequence itself. Our algorithm always produces independent samples without backtracking. The complexity of the graph construction algorithm is {O}({NM}) where N is the number of nodes and M is the number of edges.

  20. Performance of hand-held whole-breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS in women with mammographically negative dense breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju

    2011-01-01

    To assess the performance of breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS final assessment categories in women with mammographically negative dense breast. Of 3,820 cases with mammographically negative dense breast and subsequent hand-held bilateral whole-breast ultrasound, a total of 1,507 cases in 1,046 women who had biopsy or at least 2-year follow-up ultrasound constituted the basis of this retrospective study. Cancer rate of each sonographic BI-RADS category was determined and medical audit was performed separately in screening-general, screening-treated, and diagnostic group. A total of 43 cases (2.9%) were confirmed as malignancy. Cancer rate among BI-RADS categories was significantly different (p < 0.0001). Among three groups, the cancer rate was significantly different (p < 0.0001) and the highest in diagnostic group (15.8%, 22 of 139). Abnormal interpretation rate, PPV of biopsy performed, cancer detection rate, and rate of early stage cancer, and the size of invasive cancer were significantly different among three groups and the highest in diagnostic group. Regarding cancer characteristics, the proportion of advanced cancer was the highest in diagnostic group. Breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS as an adjunctive to negative mammography can be useful for predicting malignancy in women with dense breast. (orig.)

  1. Trends in AIDS Deaths, New Infections and ART Coverage in the Top 30 Countries with the Highest AIDS Mortality Burden; 1990–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granich, Reuben; Gupta, Somya; Hersh, Bradley; Williams, Brian; Montaner, Julio; Young, Benjamin; Zuniga, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, mortality and transmission. We assess the impact of expanded HIV treatment for the prevention of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and simulate four treatment scenarios for Nigeria and South Africa. Methods For 1990–2013, we used the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) database to examine trends in AIDS deaths, HIV incidence and prevalence, ART coverage, annual AIDS death rate, AIDS death-to-treatment and HIV infections to treatment ratios for the top 30 countries with the highest AIDS mortality burden and compare them with data from high-income countries. We projected the 1990–2020 AIDS deaths for Nigeria and South Africa using four treatment scenarios: 1) no ART; 2) maintaining current ART coverage; 3) 90% ART coverage based on 2013 World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines by 2020; and 4) reaching the United Nations 90-90-90 Target by 2020. Findings In 2013, there were 1.3 million (1.1 million–1.6 million) AIDS deaths in the top 30 countries representing 87% of global AIDS deaths. Eight countries accounted for 58% of the global AIDS deaths; Nigeria and South Africa accounted for 27% of global AIDS deaths. The highest death rates per 1000 people living with HIV were in Central African Republic (91), South Sudan (82), Côte d’Ivoire (75), Cameroon (72) and Chad (71), nearly 8–10 times higher than the high-income countries. ART access in 2013 has averted as estimated 1,051,354 and 422,448 deaths in South Africa and Nigeria, respectively. Increasing ART coverage in these two countries to meet the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 could avert 2.2 and 1.2 million deaths, respectively. Interpretation Over the past decade the expansion of access to ART averted millions of deaths. Reaching the proposed UN 90-90-90 Target by 2020 will prevent additional morbidity, mortality and HIV transmission. Despite progress

  2. A Wide Band Gap Polymer with a Deep Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital Level Enables 14.2% Efficiency in Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sunsun; Ye, Long; Zhao, Wenchao; Yan, Hongping; Yang, Bei; Liu, Delong; Li, Wanning; Ade, Harald; Hou, Jianhui

    2018-05-21

    To simultaneously achieve low photon energy loss ( E loss ) and broad spectral response, the molecular design of the wide band gap (WBG) donor polymer with a deep HOMO level is of critical importance in fullerene-free polymer solar cells (PSCs). Herein, we developed a new benzodithiophene unit, i.e., DTBDT-EF, and conducted systematic investigations on a WBG DTBDT-EF-based donor polymer, namely, PDTB-EF-T. Due to the synergistic electron-withdrawing effect of the fluorine atom and ester group, PDTB-EF-T exhibits a higher oxidation potential, i.e., a deeper HOMO level (ca. -5.5 eV) than most well-known donor polymers. Hence, a high open-circuit voltage of 0.90 V was obtained when paired with a fluorinated small molecule acceptor (IT-4F), corresponding to a low E loss of 0.62 eV. Furthermore, side-chain engineering demonstrated that subtle side-chain modulation of the ester greatly influences the aggregation effects and molecular packing of polymer PDTB-EF-T. With the benefits of the stronger interchain π-π interaction, the improved ordering structure, and thus the highest hole mobility, the most symmetric charge transport and reduced recombination are achieved for the linear decyl-substituted PDTB-EF-T (P2)-based PSCs, leading to the highest short-circuit current density and fill factor (FF). Due to the high Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (χ), surface-directed phase separation occurs in the P2:IT-4F blend, which is supported by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy results and cross-sectional transmission electron microscope images. By taking advantage of the vertical phase distribution of the P2:IT-4F blend, a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2% with an outstanding FF of 0.76 was recorded for inverted devices. These results demonstrate the great potential of the DTBDT-EF unit for future organic photovoltaic applications.

  3. A unique degree program for pre-pharmacy education: An undergraduate degree in pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahtab

    2018-02-01

    Within the coming decade, the demand for well-trained pharmacists is expected to only increase, especially with the aging of the United States (US) population. To help fill this growing demand, the University of California, Irvine (UCI) aims to offer a unique pre-pharmacy degree program and has developed a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences to help achieve this goal. In this commentary, we share our experience with our curriculum and highlight its features in an effort to encourage other institutions to enhance the learning experience of their pre-pharmacy students. The efforts of the UCI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences has resulted in UCI being consistently ranked as one of the top feeder institutions by the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) in recent years. The UCI Pharmaceutical Sciences Bachelor of Science offers a unique pre-pharmacy educational experience in an effort to better prepare undergraduates for the rigors of the doctorate of pharmacy curriculum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Ultrasonography with a hand-held device for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameda, Toru; Takahashi, Isao

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) with a hand-held device for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in the emergency room. US with a hand-held device was performed by the first author in 33 patients suspected of having appendicitis in the emergency room. From these 33 patients, 24 who subsequently underwent computed tomography (CT) or surgery were included in this study. The accuracy of US with the hand-held device for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was evaluated based on the findings of CT or surgery. CT and surgery were performed in 22 and 12 patients, respectively. Final diagnoses were acute appendicitis (n=18), terminal ileitis (n=2), pelvic inflammatory disease (n=2), diverticulitis (n=1), and ureterolithiasis (n=1). The US yielded a sensitivity of 78% and a positive predictive value of 100%. The shortest distance between the abdominal wall and the appendix measured on CT was less than 40 mm in 11 patients. In ten (91%) of the 11 patients US with the hand-held device showed the swollen appendix. US with a hand-held device is potentially useful in the positive identification of acute appendicitis, but further investigation is needed to prove its utility in the routine diagnosis of acute appendicitis. (author)

  5. Attitudes of pregnant women towards personally controlled electronic, hospital-held, and patient-held medical record systems: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Lyons, Sarah; Petersen, Rodney W

    2014-09-01

    On July 1, 2012 the Australian Government launched the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR). This article surveys obstetric patients about their medical record preferences and identifies barriers to adoption of the PCEHR. A survey study was conducted of antenatal patients attending a large Australian metropolitan hospital. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires during the launch phase of the PCEHR system. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on demographics, computer access and familiarity, preference for medical record system, and perceived benefits and concerns. Of 528 women eligible to participate, 474 completed the survey (89.8%). Respondents had high levels of home access to a computer (90.5%) and the Internet (87.1%) and were familiar with using computers in daily life (median Likert scale of 9 out of 10). Despite this, respondents preferred hospital-held paper records, and only one-third preferred a PCEHR; the remainder preferred patient-held records. Compared with hospital-held paper records, respondents felt a PCEHR would reduce the risk of lost records (padvantages and disadvantages with the PCEHR, although the majority still prefer existing record systems. To increase uptake, confidentiality, privacy, and control concerns need to be addressed.

  6. Highest performance in 3D metal cutting at smallest footprint: benchmark of a robot based system vs. parameters of gantry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Torsten; Bastick, André; Michel-Triller, Robert; Manzella, Christon

    2014-02-01

    In the automotive industry as well as in other industries ecological aspects regarding energy savings are driving new technologies and materials, e.g. lightweight materials as aluminium or press hardened steels. Processing such parts especially complex 3D shaped parts laser manufacturing has become the key process offering highest efficiency. The most established systems for 3D cutting applications are based on gantry systems. The disadvantage of those systems is their huge footprint to realize the required stability and work envelope. Alternatively a robot based system might be of advantage if accuracy, speed and overall performance would be capable processing automotive parts. With the BIM "beam in motion" system, JENOPTIK Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has developed a modular robot based laser processing machine, which meets all OEM specs processing press hardened steel parts. A benchmark of the BIM versus a gantry system was done regarding all required parameters to fulfil OEM specifications for press hardened steel parts. As a result a highly productive, accurate and efficient system can be described based on one or multiple robot modules working simultaneously together. The paper presents the improvements on the robot machine concept BIM addressed in 2012 [1] leading to an industrial proven system approach for the automotive industry. It further compares the performance and the parameters for 3D cutting applications of the BIM system versus a gantry system by samples of applied parts. Finally an overview of suitable applications for processing complex 3D parts with high productivity at small footprint is given.

  7. Non-apical positive surgical margins after radical prostatectomy for pT2 prostate cancer is associated with the highest risk of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, Martin Andreas; Kawa, Sandra; Scheike, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate how location of positive surgical margins (PSM) in pT2 tumors affect the risk of biochemical recurrence (BR). METHODS: The study includes 1,133 consecutive patients from 1995 until end of 2011, who had organ-confined disease (pT2) following RP. The location...... a 3.1-fold increased risk of BR compared to margin negative patients. Patients with pT2 apical and non-apical PSM had a 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival of 84.9% (95% CI: 77.6-92.2%) and 78.6% (95% CI: 71.3-85.9%), respectively. In multivariate analysis, pT2 apical and non-apical PSM...... was individually associated with a 2.2- and 3.8-fold increased risk of BR compared to margin negative patients. CONCLUSION: In our cohort the location of pT2 PSM was associated with time to BR, that is, patients with non-apical pT2 PSM endured the highest risk of BR compared to apical PSM. This may indicate...

  8. Investigations to the potential of the high temperature reactor for steam power processes with highest steam conditions and comparison with according conventional power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondry, M.

    1988-04-01

    Already in the fifties conventional power plants with high parameters of the live steam were built to improve the total efficiency. The power plant with the highest steam conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany has 300 bar pressure and 600deg C temperature. Because of high material costs and other problems power plants with such high conditions were not continued to be built. Standard conditions of today's power plants are in the order of 180-250 bar pressure and 535deg C temperature. As the high temperature reactor is partly built up in another way than a conventional power plant, the results regarding the high steam parameters are not transferable. Possibilities for the technical realization of determined HTR-specific components are introduced and discussed. Then different HTR-power plants with steam conditions up to 350 bar pressure and 650deg C temperature are projected. Economical considerations show that an HTR with higher steam parameters brings financial profits. Further efficiency increase, which is possible by the high steam conditions, is shortly presented. The work ends with a technical and economical comparison of corresponding conventional power plants. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Flagellar region 3b supports strong expression of integrated DNA and the highest chromosomal integration efficiency of the Escherichia coli flagellar regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2015-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli is routinely used as the chassis for a variety of biotechnology and synthetic biology applications. Identification and analysis of reliable chromosomal integration and expression target loci is crucial for E. coli engineering. Chromosomal loci differ significantly in their ability to support integration and expression of the integrated genetic circuits. In this study, we investigate E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar regions 2 and 3b. Integration of the genetic circuit into seven and nine highly conserved genes of the flagellar regions 2 (motA, motB, flhD, flhE, cheW, cheY and cheZ) and 3b (fliE, F, G, J, K, L, M, P, R), respectively, showed significant variation in their ability to support chromosomal integration and expression of the integrated genetic circuit. While not reducing the growth of the engineered strains, the integrations into all 16 target sites led to the loss of motility. In addition to high expression, the flagellar region 3b supports the highest efficiency of integration of all E. coli K12 MG1655 flagellar regions and is therefore potentially the most suitable for the integration of synthetic genetic circuits. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Proposed stratotype for the base of the highest Cambrian stage at the first appearance datum of Cordylodus andresi, Lawson Cove section, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.F.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Evans, K.R.; Holmer, L.E.; Loch, James D.; Popov, L.E.; Repetski, J.E.; Ripperdan, R.L.; Taylor, John F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a candidate for the Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the highest stage of the Furongian Series of the Cambrian System. The section is at Lawson Cove in the Ibex area of Millard County, Utah, USA. The marker horizon is the first appearance datum (FAD) of the conodont Cordylodus andresi Viira et Sergeyeva in Kaljo et al. [Kaljo, D., Borovko, N., Heinsalu, H., Khazanovich, K., Mens, K., Popov, L., Sergeyeva, S., Sobolevskaya, R., Viira, V., 1986. The Cambrian-Ordovician boundary in the Baltic-Ladoga clint area (North Estonia and Leningrad Region, USSR). Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Toimetised. Geologia 35, 97-108]. At this section and elsewhere this horizon also is the FAD of the trilobite Eurekia apopsis (Winston et Nicholls, 1967). This conodont characterizes the base of the Cordylodus proavus Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of the world. This trilobite characterizes the base of the Eurekia apopsis Zone, which has been recognized in many parts of North America. The proposed boundary is 46.7 m above the base of the Lava Dam Member of the Notch Peak Formation at the Lawson Cove section. Brachiopods, sequence stratigraphy, and carbon-isotope geochemistry are other tools that characterize this horizon and allow it to be recognized in other areas. ?? 2006 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, CAS.

  11. [The highest proportion of tobacco materials in the blend analysis using PPF projection method for the near-infrared spectrum and Monte Carlo method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jin-Rui; Ma, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Juan; Wang, Yi; Wen, Ya-Dong; Zhao, Long-Lian; Li, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Lu-Da

    2011-04-01

    The present paper builds a model based on Monte Carlo method in the projection of the blending tobacco. This model is made up of two parts: the projecting points of tobacco materials, whose coordinates are calculated by means of the PPF (projection based on principal component and Fisher criterion) projection method for the tobacco near-infrared spectrum; and the point of tobacco blend, which is produced by linear additive to the projecting point coordinates of tobacco materials. In order to analyze the projection points deviation from initial state levels, Monte Carlo method is introduced to simulate the differences and changes of raw material projection. The results indicate that there are two major factors affecting the relative deviation: the highest proportion of tobacco materials in the blend, which is too high to make the deviation under control; and the quantity of materials, which is so small to control the deviation. The conclusion is close to the principle of actual formulating designing, particularly, the more in the quantity while the lower in proportion of each. Finally the paper figures out the upper limit of the proportions in the different quantity of materials by theory. It also has important reference value for other agricultural products blend.

  12. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  13. Position statement on use of hand-held portable dental X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The position statement focuses on justification in the medical field, in particular on the use of hand-held portable dental x-ray equipment. It supplements another HERCA position paper, providing a general overview of the use of all hand-held portable X-ray equipment. Key Messages: - HERCA finds that the use of hand-held portable X-ray devices should be discouraged except in special circumstances. - As a general rule, these devices should only be used in scenarios where an intraoral radiograph is deemed necessary for a patient and the use of a fixed or semi-mobile x-ray unit is impractical, e.g.: - nursing homes, residential care facilities or homes for persons with disabilities; - forensic odontology, - military operations abroad without dental facilities

  14. Driver hand-held cellular phone use: a four-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Vivoda, Jonathon M; St Louis, Renée M

    2006-01-01

    The use of hand-held cellular (mobile) phones while driving has stirred more debate, passion, and research than perhaps any other traffic safety issue in the past several years. There is ample research showing that the use of either hand-held or hands-free cellular phones can lead to unsafe driving patterns. Whether or not these performance deficits increase the risk of crash is difficult to establish, but recent studies are beginning to suggest that cellular phone use elevates crash risk. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the rate of hand-held cellular phone use by motor-vehicle drivers on a statewide level in Michigan. This study presents the results of 13 statewide surveys of cellular phone use over a 4-year period. Hand-held cellular phone use data were collected through direct observation while vehicles were stopped at intersections and freeway exit ramps. Data were weighted to be representative of all drivers traveling during daylight hours in Michigan. The study found that driver hand-held cellular phone use has more than doubled between 2001 and 2005, from 2.7% to 5.8%. This change represents an average increase of 0.78 percentage points per year. The 5.8% use rate observed in 2005 means that at any given daylight hour, around 36,550 drivers were conversing on cellular phones while driving on Michigan roadways. The trend line fitted to these data predicts that by the year 2010, driver hand-held cellular phone use will be around 8.6%, or 55,000 drivers at any given daylight hour. These results make it clear that cellular phone use while driving will continue to be an important traffic safety issue, and highlight the importance of continued attempts to generate new ways of alleviating this potential hazard.

  15. Infrared, diode laser spectroscopy of the Ar--N2O complex: Observation of the intermolecular bending mode in combination with the highest frequency intramolecular stretching mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.; Chappell, E.L.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Rotationally resolved vibrational spectra consisting of a-type transitions have been observed for the low-frequency, intermolecular bending mode in combination with the highest frequency, intramolecular stretching mode of Ar--N 2 O. Analysis of the spectral data places the origin of the combination band at 2256.1 cm -1 while the origin of the intramolecular stretching fundamental is at 2223.9 cm -1 . The difference between these two origins is approximately 32.2 cm -1 and agrees well with our calculated frequency of 31.5 cm -1 for the intermolecular bending mode, which was obtained by analysis of the centrifugal distortion constants. In addition, argon--nitrous oxide exhibits an anomalously large inertial defect of 10.96 amu A 2 in the combination state. This indicates a breakdown in the assumption of separation between vibration and rotation. While much of the inertial defect in the ground state can be accounted for by including Coriolis interactions, that occurring in the combination state is only partially accounted for by a similar analysis. Small, but significant changes, are observed in both the radial and angular parameters for Ar--N 2 O when going from the ground to the combination state, indicating large amplitude motion. The combination band is approximately 200 times less intense than the high-frequency, stretching fundamental of Ar--N 2 O. In addition, over 400 new rovibrational transitions are assigned to the previously observed 1 0 1 intramolecular stretching fundamental of the complex, and the subsequent rotational analysis is found to be in close agreement with earlier studies. Data were taken on a newly built, rapid-scan, diode laser spectrometer that incorporates a 12 cmx200 μm pulsed slit-expansion nozzle

  16. Harnessing Omics Big Data in Nine Vertebrate Species by Genome-Wide Prioritization of Sequence Variants with the Highest Predicted Deleterious Effect on Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Vita; Kunej, Tanja

    2018-05-10

    Harnessing the genomics big data requires innovation in how we extract and interpret biologically relevant variants. Currently, there is no established catalog of prioritized missense variants associated with deleterious protein function phenotypes. We report in this study, to the best of our knowledge, the first genome-wide prioritization of sequence variants with the most deleterious effect on protein function (potentially deleterious variants [pDelVars]) in nine vertebrate species: human, cattle, horse, sheep, pig, dog, rat, mouse, and zebrafish. The analysis was conducted using the Ensembl/BioMart tool. Genes comprising pDelVars in the highest number of examined species were identified using a Python script. Multiple genomic alignments of the selected genes were built to identify interspecies orthologous potentially deleterious variants, which we defined as the "ortho-pDelVars." Genome-wide prioritization revealed that in humans, 0.12% of the known variants are predicted to be deleterious. In seven out of nine examined vertebrate species, the genes encoding the multiple PDZ domain crumbs cell polarity complex component (MPDZ) and the transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 2 (TACC2) comprise pDelVars. Five interspecies ortho-pDelVars were identified in three genes. These findings offer new ways to harness genomics big data by facilitating the identification of functional polymorphisms in humans and animal models and thus provide a future basis for optimization of protocols for whole genome prioritization of pDelVars and screening of orthologous sequence variants. The approach presented here can inform various postgenomic applications such as personalized medicine and multiomics study of health interventions (iatromics).

  17. Benefits & risks of statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in Asian Indians – A population with the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease & diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enas, Enas A.; Kuruvila, Arun; Khanna, Pravien; Pitchumoni, C.S.; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Several reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated the incontrovertible benefits of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). But the role for statins in primary prevention remained unclear. The updated 2013 Cochrane review has put to rest all lingering doubts about the overwhelming benefits of long-term statin therapy in primary prevention by conclusively demonstrating highly significant reductions in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and the need for coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs). More importantly, these benefits of statin therapy are similar at all levels of CVD risk, including subjects at low (statins is also highly effective in delaying and avoiding expensive CARPs such as angioplasties, stents, and bypass surgeries. There is no evidence of any serious harm or threat to life caused by statin therapy, though several adverse effects that affect the quality of life, especially diabetes mellitus (DM) have been reported. Asian Indians have the highest risk of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) and diabetes. When compared with Whites, Asian Indians have double the risk of CAD and triple the risk of DM, when adjusted for traditional risk factors for these diseases. Available evidence supports the use of statin therapy for primary prevention in Asian Indians at a younger age and with lower targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL-C), than those currently recommended for Americans and Europeans. Early and aggressive statin therapy offers the greatest potential for reducing the continuing epidemic of CAD among Indians. PMID:24434254

  18. Characteristics of regents college nontraditional nuclear technology degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSain, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    In 1971, the Board of Regents of The University of The State of New York created Regents College Degrees to assess academic knowledge of working adults and award college degrees based on demonstrated knowledge rather than time spent in a college classroom. It was founded on a basic premise that seemed radical to some but which is now widely accepted: What a person knows is more important than how or where that knowledge was acquired. Regents College degrees, therefore, are a different concept of a college: one that is an assessing institution rather than a teaching institution. It has no campus and offers no courses. Students can combine college credits from a variety of different sources int an accredited degree program. Staff and faculty evaluate that credit according to the requirements of the particular degree program. When all requirements are met, the Board or Regents of The University of The State of New York confers the degree

  19. Does a bachelor’s degree pay off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, Martin; Weiss, Felix

    Academic education is generally rewarded by employers, but what happens to graduates if they are trained for two years less and have to compete with vocationally trained labor market entrants in a similar field of study? Focusing on Germany, we analyze labor market entries of individuals eligible...... for higher education, who either opted for newly introduced short bachelor’s degrees, or for well-established vocational degrees. Based on Microcensus data, we find that bachelor’s degrees from classical universities are associated with higher earnings and more prestigious jobs than initial vocational...... training degrees, and with higher prestige (but similar earnings) than further vocational degrees. However, bachelor’s degrees from universities are also related to higher risks of unemployment or fixed-term employment. Universities of applied sciences, which combine academic and practical training, offer...

  20. Surgical wound healing in radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held on different substrata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, M.G.; Magie, R.J.; Copeland, E.S.; Christiansen, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radio-tagged adult Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus held in a raceway with Plexiglas-lined walls and bottom healed more slowly and retained sutures longer than fish held in an all-concrete raceway or one with Plexiglas walls and a cobble-lined bottom. On all substrata, healing depended on when sutures were lost, and fish that lost their sutures in healed faster than those that kept sutures longer. Long-term suture retention led to tissue trauma, infection and poor survival.

  1. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  2. Requirements of British universities for higher medical degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the requirements and opportunities for obtaining a doctor of medicine or master of surgery degree from a university in the United Kingdom other than the graduate's own, particularly in the case of foreign graduates. DESIGN--Review of regulations governing the award of doctor of medicine and master of surgery degrees in British universities. SETTING--All 19 universities in the United Kingdom offering clinical courses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Availability of degrees to gradu...

  3. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  4. A quantitative reading of competences documents of Law new degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Leví Orta, Genoveva del Carmen; Ramos Méndez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Documents formulating competences of degrees are key sources for analysis, evaluation and profile comparison of training, currently offered by different university degrees. This work aims to make a quantitative reading of competences documents of Law degree from various Spanish universities, based on the ideas of Content Analysis. The methodology has two phases. Firstly, a dictionary of concepts related to the components of competences is identified in the documentary corpus. Next, the corpus...

  5. Global Warming Impacts on Heating and Cooling Degree-Days in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Y.; Caldeira, K.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to significantly alter residential air conditioning and space heating requirements, which account for 41% of U.S. household energy expenditures. The degree-day method can be used for reliable estimation of weather related building energy consumption and costs, as well as outdoor climatic thermal comfort. Here, we use U.S. Climate Normals developed by NOAA based on weather station observations along with Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble simulations. We add the projected change in heating and cooling degree-days based on the climate models to the estimates based on the NOAA U.S. Climate Normals to project future heating and cooling degree-days. We find locations with the lowest and highest combined index of cooling (CDDs) and heating degree-days (HDDs) for the historical period (1981 - 2010) and future period (2080 - 2099) under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) climate change scenario. Our results indicate that in both time frames and among the lower 48 states, coastal areas in the West and South California will have the smallest degree-day sum (CDD + HDD), and hence from a climatic perspective become the best candidates for residential real estate. The Rocky Mountains region in Wyoming, in addition to northern Minnesota and North Dakota, will have the greatest CDD + HDD. While global warming is projected to reduce the median heating and cooling demand (- 5%) at the end of the century, CDD + HDD will decrease in the North, with an opposite effect in the South. This work could be helpful in deciding where to live in the United States based on present and future thermal comfort, and could also provide a basis for estimates of changes in heating and cooling energy demand.

  6. Families of Smooth Rational Curves of Small Degree on the Fano Variety of Degree 5 of Main Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Omelkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider some families of smooth rational curves of degree 2, 3 and 4 on a smooth Fano threefold X which is a linear section of the Grassmanian G(1, 4 under the Pl¨ucker embedding. We prove that these families are irreducible. The proof of the irreducibility of the families of curves of degree d is based on the study of degeneration of a rational curve of degree d into a curve which decomposes into an irreducible rational curve of degree d−1 and a projective line intersecting transversally at a point. We prove that the Hilbert scheme of curves of degree d on X is smooth at the point corresponding to such a reducible curve. Then calculations in the framework of deformation theory show that such a curve varies into a smooth rational curve of degree d. Thus, the set of reducible curves of degree d of the above type lies in the closure of a unique component of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on X. From this fact and the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on the Grassmannian G(1, 4 one deduces the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on a general Fano threefold X.

  7. Education evolution: a historical perspective of associate degree nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini-Hain, Liana; Waters, Verle

    2009-05-01

    Exploring the inception and growth of associate degree nursing education informs our understanding of what led to such explosive growth so that most of the nursing workforce is currently educated at the associate degree level. The success of associate degree nursing programs led to many divisive years in nursing education of differentiation of practice debates that were hardly productive. Work world practices and patient needs are creating pressures on community colleges to join forces with universities to increase the percentage of baccalaureate-educated nurses. Associate degree nursing education continues to evolve to meet the demands of a higher educated nursing workforce.

  8. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  9. Astrometric studies of the regions BD + 17 degree 4946, BD -5 degree 3071, and Ross 730-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.; Gatewood, G.

    1975-01-01

    Positions, proper motions, and absolute parallaxes were found for 46 stars in the regions of BD +17 degree4946, BD -5 degree3071, and Ross 730-1. BD +17 degree4946 showed some evidence of irregular variations in position and magnitude. The residuals for Ross 730-1 were used in a preliminary study to test for an appropriate weighting system; a weak weighting system was indicated. (auth)

  10. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier: Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A.

    2012-01-01

    antiparticles. A very weakly coupled hidden-sector that may comprise the dark matter in the universe could be discovered. The search for proton decay can probe the unification of the forces with unprecedented reach and test sacrosanct symmetries to very high scales. Detecting an electric dipole moment for the neutron, or neutral atoms, could establish a clear signal for new physics, while limits on such a measurement would place severe constraints on many new theories. This workshop marked the first instance where discussion of these diverse programs was held under one roof. As a result, it was realized that this broad effort has many connections; a large degree of synergy exists between the different areas and they address similar questions. Results from one area were found to be pertinent to experiments in another domain.

  11. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A. (High Energy Physics); ( PHY); (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center); (Univ. of Michigan); (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)

    2012-06-05

    antiparticles. A very weakly coupled hidden-sector that may comprise the dark matter in the universe could be discovered. The search for proton decay can probe the unification of the forces with unprecedented reach and test sacrosanct symmetries to very high scales. Detecting an electric dipole moment for the neutron, or neutral atoms, could establish a clear signal for new physics, while limits on such a measurement would place severe constraints on many new theories. This workshop marked the first instance where discussion of these diverse programs was held under one roof. As a result, it was realized that this broad effort has many connections; a large degree of synergy exists between the different areas and they address similar questions. Results from one area were found to be pertinent to experiments in another domain.

  12. The DNP/MPH Dual Degree: An Innovative Graduate Education Program for Advanced Public Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kathy; Harpin, Scott; Steinke, Geraldine; Stember, Marilyn; Krajicek, Marilyn

    2017-03-01

    Strong professional priorities, evolving Affordable Care Act requirements, and a significantly limited public health nursing workforce prompted the University of Colorado College of Nursing to collaborate with the School of Public Health to implement one of the first Doctor of Nursing Practice/Master of Public Health dual degree programs in the nation. Federal grant funding supported the development, implementation, and evaluation of this unique post-baccalaureate dual degree program, for which there were no roadmaps, models, or best practices to follow. Several key issues emerged that serve as lessons learned in creating a new, novel higher education pathway for Advanced Public Health Nursing. This paper highlights two of those: (1) marketing, admission, and matriculation across two programs, and (2) enhancing curricula through distance coursework and interprofessional education. When collaboration with a school of public health is possible, the Doctor of Nursing Practice/Master of Public Health dual degree is an efficient way to prepare public health nurses' with the highest level of public health knowledge, practice, and leadership expertise. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Degree of roasting of carob flour affecting the properties of gluten-free cakes and cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; González, Ana; Espina, Teresa; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Carob flour is a product rich in fibre obtained from by-products of the locust bean gum extraction processing. The flour is commercialised with different degrees of roasting in order to improve its organoleptic characteristics. In this study, carob flour with three different roasting degrees was used to replace rice flour (15%) in gluten-free cakes and cookies. The influence of this replacement was studied on the psychochemical characteristics and acceptability of the final products. The incorporation of carob flour increased the viscosity of cake batters and increased the solid elastic-like behaviour of the cookie doughs, indicating a stronger interaction among the formula ingredients. The inclusion of carob flour, with a low time of roasting, did not lead to any significant differences in the specific volume and hardness of the cakes, but reduced cake staling and the thickness and width of the cookies. Darker colours were obtained when carob flour was incorporated into the product. The acceptability of cakes was only reduced with the addition of highly roasted carob flour, while in the case of cookies there was a decline in the acceptability of all carob flour cookies, which was mostly perceived with the highest roasting degree, something mainly attributed to the bitter taste of the products.

  14. [Study of the degree of pneumatization of the viscerocranium in man and pongidae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppe, T; Schumacher, K U

    1992-12-01

    The volumes of the paranasal sinuses of 41 adult skulls of humans, gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans, were examined with use of a Computertomograph type SOMATOM DR. The percentage distribution of the volumes of the different paranasal sinuses showed that the maxillary sinus always had the greatest volume. The maxillary sinus of the humans showed the smallest volume percentage in comparison with the pongids. The typical differences between humans and pongids were observed in the ethmoidal cells and the sphenoidal sinus. The ethmoidal cells of the gorilla and the orangutan have to be defined as rudimentary. Those of the humans come to more than 20% of the total volume of the paranasal sinuses of all hominoids. Differing from the humans, the sphenoidal sinus of the pongids pneumatizes almost the whole sphenoid bone. This volume percentage of the pongids is twice as high as that of the humans. In addition, an index was calculated from the volume of the facial skeleton volume and the total volume of the paranasal sinuses and defined as the degree of pneumatization. We found that the gorilla has the highest degree of pneumatization followed by the chimpanzee, the orangutan, and the humans. The lowest degree of pneumatization of the humans may be related to the reduction of the jaws.

  15. 76 FR 53633 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Viking Air Limited (type certificate No. A-815..., contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L 5V5; telephone: (800) 663-8444; Internet...

  16. 76 FR 10220 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de...-approved maintenance/inspection program identified in this AD, contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road... Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2011-05-02 Viking Air Limited...

  17. 75 FR 75932 - Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Viking Air Limited (Type Certificate No. A-815 Formerly Held by Bombardier Inc. and de..., contact Viking Air Ltd., 9574 Hampden Road, Sidney, BC Canada V8L 5V5; telephone: (800) 663-8444; Internet... proposed AD. Discussion Viking Aircraft Limited has issued revisions to the DHC-3 Otter maintenance manual...

  18. How to use hand-held computers to evaluate wood drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard N. Rosen; Darrell S. Martin

    1985-01-01

    Techniques have been developed to evaluate end generate wood drying curves with hand-held computers (3-5K memory). Predictions of time to dry to a specific moisture content, drying rates, and other characteristics of wood drying curves can be made. The paper describes the development of programs and illustrates their use.

  19. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited) Airplanes AGENCY... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Alpha Aviation Concept... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  20. 77 FR 33622 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation... Aviation Concept Limited Model R2160 Airplanes. This AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness... condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as oil lines fitted to affected...

  1. The Image of Mathematics Held by Irish Post-Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Ciara; Stynes, Martin; O'Donoghue, John

    2014-01-01

    The image of mathematics held by Irish post-primary students was examined and a model for the image found was constructed. Initially, a definition for "image of mathematics" was adopted with image of mathematics hypothesized as comprising attitudes, beliefs, self-concept, motivation, emotions and past experiences of mathematics. Research…

  2. Domains of State-Owned, Privately Held, and Publicly Traded Firms in International Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Briance

    1989-01-01

    Hypotheses relating ownership to domain differences among state-owned, publicly traded, and privately held firms in international competition were examined in a controlled field study of the offshore drilling industry. Ownership explained selected differences in domestic market dominance, international presence, and customer orientation, even…

  3. Personal patient-held 'health books' – should everyone have one?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ann Burgess

    In this age of electronic media, here is an idea for South Sudan's health services. ... Dr Serventi remembers that the 'natural' opponents to patient-held records were ... Files left in the hospitals are easily lost and privacy is not guaranteed. 2.

  4. DOD Future Energy Resources. Proceedings of Workshops Held at the National Defense University

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2003-01-01

    .... In response to concerns about U.S. and global depletion of cheap petroleum resources and the particular impact of this on future DOD energy resource needs, a series of workshops were held during 2002 and 2003 at National Defense University...

  5. 78 FR 73415 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... modifications to the ASTM test procedure set forth in ASTM F2050-12 so that the test produces more repeatable... skills necessary for the preparation of reports or records; and a description of the steps the agency has... the Rule on Small Business There are at least 47 firms currently known to be marketing hand- held...

  6. Predictor Relationships between Values Held by Married Individuals, Resilience and Conflict Resolution Styles: A Model Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Fatma; Dilmac, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to reveal the predictor relationships between the values held by married individuals, resilience and conflict resolution styles. The research adopts a relational screening model that is a sub-type of the general screening model. The sample of the research consists of 375 married individuals, of which 173 are…

  7. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), which is administered by B...

  8. Applying Hand-Held 3D Printing Technology to the Teaching of VSEPR Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Natalie L.; Ewan, Corrina; McIndoe, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    The use of hand-held 3D printing technology provides a unique and engaging approach to learning VSEPR theory by enabling students to draw three-dimensional depictions of different molecular geometries, giving them an appreciation of the shapes of the building blocks of complex molecular structures. Students are provided with 3D printing pens and…

  9. Summary of the workshop on HOM in SPL, held at CERN June 25-26.

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, A; Weingarten, W

    2009-01-01

    A mini-workshop on the subject of HOMs in a superconducting proton linac was held at CERN on the 25th and 26th June 2009. The purpose of this workshop was to discuss more specifically the effects of HOMs on beam dynamics in the SPL and comparable accelerators and to provide guidelines for the specification of HOM dampers, if necessary.

  10. 47 CFR 32.2002 - Property held for future telecommunications use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property held for future telecommunications use. 32.2002 Section 32.2002 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance...

  11. 47 CFR 32.6511 - Property held for future telecommunications use expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Property held for future telecommunications use expense. 32.6511 Section 32.6511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense...

  12. Radiation safety evaluation of a hand-held, battery operated image intensifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, O.J.; Young, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    A portable, hand-held, fluoroscopic unit intended for medical and industrial use was tested to verify the claim of the manufacturers that the radiation doses to the patient and user are low, and comparable to those received from standard radiographic procedures. The first claim was substantiated but not the second. A number of concerns arising from the use of this unit are discussed

  13. World Renewable Energy Congress - To Be Held In Denver In 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    ) announced today that they will host the World Renewable Energy Congress IV in Denver from June 15-21, 1996 to be held outside of the United Kingdom. The World Renewable Energy Congress, which meets every two include world leaders in renewable energy, banking and business. The Congress' objectives are to support

  14. 9 CFR 500.5 - Notification, appeals, and actions held in abeyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification, appeals, and actions held in abeyance. 500.5 Section 500.5 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...; (4) Advise the establishment of its right to contact FSIS to contest the basis for the proposed...

  15. Integrating a Hand Held computer and Stethoscope into a Fetal Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Soltani, Mitra

    2009-01-01

    This article presents procedures for modifying a hand held computer or personal digital assistant (PDA) into a versatile device functioning as an electronic stethoscope for fetal monitoring. Along with functioning as an electronic stethoscope, a PDA can provide a useful information source for a medical trainee. Feedback from medical students, residents and interns suggests the device is well accepted by medical trainees. PMID:20165517

  16. Pipelines and Dead Ends: Jobs Held by Minorities and Women in Broadcast News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vernon A.

    Because of the problem of lack of progress by minorities and women in the newsrooms of television and radio stations, a survey investigated the types of positions held by minority and non-minority men and women in broadcast news. Subjects, 730 news directors from non-satellite commercial TV stations and commercial radio stations, answered…

  17. 78 FR 36089 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Corporation (Type Certificate Previously Held by Raytheon Aircraft Company) Model BAe.125 Series 800A... structural damage or lead to divergent flutter, and result in loss of integrity of the wing, loss of control... to divergent flutter, and result in loss of integrity of the wing, loss of control of the airplane...

  18. Dynamics of values held by future sports teachers: a longitudinal study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of personal values and values pertaining to the meaning of life held by future sport teachers was investigated. The two surveys used were the Rokeach Value Survey for identification of the most important personal values and the Leontiev Life Meaning Orientations Test for the evaluation of values pertaining to ...

  19. 75 FR 82329 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ...-1295; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE-060-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc.) Models PA-46-310P, PA- 46-350P... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA-46-350P airplanes that are equipped with...

  20. 76 FR 18033 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft, Inc... applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P and PA- 46-350P airplanes that are equipped with... information identified in this AD, contact Piper Aircraft, Inc., 2926 Piper Drive, Vero Beach, Florida 32960...

  1. 77 FR 14316 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-0251; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-002-AD] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Type Certificate Previously Held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type...

  2. 78 FR 76050 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeron[aacute]uticas, S.A... rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain EADS CASA (Type...., Washington, DC. For EADS-CASA service information identified in this AD, contact EADS-CASA, Military...

  3. 77 FR 5998 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A... proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: EADS-CASA received... address this condition, EADS-CASA has developed an engine condition control cable P/N 35-56382-0005 with...

  4. 75 FR 68185 - Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; EADS CASA (Type Certificate Previously Held by Construcciones Aeronauticas, S.A...) that were, at that moment, defined in issue C of EADS-CASA document DT-0-C00-05001. That document has... implementation of the revised Fuel Airworthiness Limitations contained in issue D of EADS- CASA document DT-0-C00...

  5. 75 FR 36296 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft... contact we receive about this proposed AD. Discussion The Civil Aviation Authority of Israel (CAAI), which is the aviation authority for Israel, has issued Israeli Airworthiness Directive 01-10-01-07R1, dated...

  6. Public health officials and MECs should be held liable for harm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been several reports of state hospitals not having functional equipment such as radiological equipment. Where these are due to incompetence, indifference, maladministration or negligence by the public officials concerned, they may be held personally liable for the resulting harm to patients. However, the courts ...

  7. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  8. Conceptions of Teaching Science Held by Novice Teachers in an Alternative Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koballa, Thomas R.; Glynn, Shawn M.; Upson, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    Case studies to investigate the conceptions of teaching science held by three novice teachers participating in an alternative secondary science teacher certification program were conducted, along with the relationships between their conceptions of science teaching and their science teaching practice. Data used to build the cases included the…

  9. The Impact of an International Cultural Experience on Previously Held Stereotypes by American Student Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Loretta; Bengiamin, Marlene; Downey, Vicki Wessman

    2001-01-01

    Examined stereotypes held by U.S. student nurses before and after participating in an educational experience in Russia. The experience was intended to prepare them to be effective nurses in multicultural health care settings. Data from student interviews indicated that the experience changed students' stereotyped attitudes about Russian culture…

  10. The Weak Link HP-41C hand-held calculator program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross A. Phillips; Penn A. Peters; Gary D. Falk

    1982-01-01

    The Weak Link hand-held calculator program (HP-41C) quickly analyzes a system for logging production and costs. The production equations model conventional chain saw, skidder, loader, and tandemaxle truck operations in eastern mountain areas. Production of each function of the logging system may be determined so that the system may be balanced for minimum cost. The...

  11. 12 CFR 330.7 - Accounts held by an agent, nominee, guardian, custodian or conservator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounts held by an agent, nominee, guardian..., nominee, guardian, custodian or conservator. (a) Agency or nominee accounts. Funds owned by a principal or... coverage shall be governed by the provisions of § 330.13. (b) Guardian, custodian or conservator accounts...

  12. IsoBank workshop held at IsoEcol10 - University of Tokyo 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, Brian

    2016-01-01

    IsoBank is a repository for stable isotope values and relevant metadata. These slides were presented at a workshop held during IsoEcol10 to refine and design the IsoBank for the needs of a diverse group of researchers.

  13. Probabilistic relation between In-Degree and PageRank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litvak, Nelli; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Volkovich, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel stochastic model that explains the relation between power laws of In-Degree and PageRank. PageRank is a popularity measure designed by Google to rank Web pages. We model the relation between PageRank and In-Degree through a stochastic equation, which is inspired by the

  14. Chapter 3: Crossing Boundaries--Foundation Degrees in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Derek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter traces the history, purposes, and distinctive features of the foundation degree, a short-cycle higher education qualification introduced in England in 2000-2001 and offered by both universities and further education colleges. The key characteristics of the foundation degree are discussed: employer involvement in curriculum development…

  15. Scientific Degrees as a Status Characteristic of Russian University Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilina, Irina Yurievna; Kryukova, Elena Mihajlovna; Zotova, Alexandra Ivanovna; Chardymskiy, Maxim Georgiyevich; Skudareva, Nelli Zinnurovna

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an assessment of the social and motivational value of scientific degrees of Russian university teachers. The author analyzes the historical experience and current trends in the transformation of the system of degrees. The paper shows the dynamics and structural characteristics of teachers with different professional and…

  16. On the Lorentz degree of a product of polynomials

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we negatively answer two questions of T. Erdélyi (1991, 2010) on possible lower bounds on the Lorentz degree of product of two polynomials. We show that the correctness of one question for degree two polynomials is a direct consequence of a result of Barnard et al. (1991) on polynomials with nonnegative coefficients.

  17. Should 360-Degree Feedback Be Used Only for Developmental Purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, David W.; Dalton, Maxine A.; Jako, Robert A.; McCauley, Cynthia D.; Pollman, Victoria A.

    This booklet presents five papers that address the issue of whether 360-degree feedback (in which a manager or executive receives feedback on how bosses, peers, and direct reports see him or her) should be used only for development, or whether 360-degree feedback (also known as multi-rater feedback) should be used for administrative purposes such…

  18. Joint degrees and engaging with a Europe of Knowledge: lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study of staff perspectives and quality assurance assessment of joint degrees offers insights into the challenges and the lessons that can be learned and the lived reality of this type of international curriculum development from the practitioner perspective. Keywords: international joint degrees, international ...

  19. On the estimation of the degree of regression polynomial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Cs.

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical functions most commonly used to model curvature in plots are polynomials. Generally, the higher the degree of the polynomial, the more complex is the trend that its graph can represent. We propose a new statistical-graphical approach based on the discrete projective transformation (DPT) to estimating the degree of polynomial that adequately describes the trend in the plot

  20. Cross-Evaluation of Degree Programmes in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Juha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to develop and describe the benchmarking approach of enhancement-led evaluation in higher education and to present a cross-evaluation process for degree programmes. Design/methodology/approach: The benchmarking approach produces useful information for the development of degree programmes based on self-evaluation,…