WorldWideScience

Sample records for highest accuracy asked

  1. Next generation dilatometer for highest accuracy thermal expansion measurement of ZERODUR®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Engel, Axel; Kunisch, Clemens; Westenberger, Gerhard; Fischer, Peter; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    In the recent years, the ever tighter tolerance for the Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of IC Lithography component materials is requesting significant progress in the metrology accuracy to determine this property as requested. ZERODUR® is known for its extremely low CTE between 0°C to 50°C. The current measurement of the thermal expansion coefficient is done using push rod dilatometer measurement systems developed at SCHOTT. In recent years measurements have been published showing the excellent CTE homogeneity of ZERODUR® in the one-digit ppb/K range using these systems. The verifiable homogeneity was limited by the CTE(0°C, 50°C) measurement repeatability in the range of ± 1.2 ppb/K of the current improved push rod dilatometer setup using an optical interferometer as detector instead of an inductive coil. With ZERODUR® TAILORED, SCHOTT introduced a low thermal expansion material grade that can be adapted to individual customer application temperature profiles. The basis for this product is a model that has been developed in 2010 for better understanding of the thermal expansion behavior under given temperature versus time conditions. The CTE behavior predicted by the model has proven to be in very good alignment with the data determined in the thermal expansions measurements. The measurements to determine the data feeding the model require a dilatometer setup with excellent stability and accuracy for long measurement times of several days. In the past few years SCHOTT spent a lot of effort to drive a dilatometer measurement technology based on the push rod setup to its limit, to fulfill the continuously demand for higher CTE accuracy and deeper material knowledge of ZERODUR®. This paper reports on the status of the dilatometer technology development at SCHOTT.

  2. Highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolskij, S.

    1984-01-01

    Primary particles of cosmic radiation with highest energies cannot in view of their low intensity be recorded directly but for this purpose the phenomenon is used that these particles interact with nuclei in the atmosphere and give rise to what are known as extensive air showers. It was found that 40% of primary particles with an energy of 10 15 to 10 16 eV consist of protons, 12 to 15% of helium nuclei, 15% of iron nuclei, the rest of nuclei of other elements. Radiation intensity with an energy of 10 18 to 10 19 eV depends on the direction of incoming particles. Maximum intensity is in the direction of the centre of the nearest clustre of galaxies, minimal in the direction of the central area of our galaxy. (Ha)

  3. Lowest cost due to highest productivity and highest quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Since global purchasing in the automotive industry has been taken up all around the world there is one main key factor that makes a TB-supplier today successful: Producing highest quality at lowest cost. The fact that Tailored Blanks, which today may reach up to 1/3 of a car body weight, are purchased on the free market but from different steel suppliers, especially in Europe and NAFTA, the philosophy on OEM side has been changing gradually towards tough evaluation criteria. "No risk at the stamping side" calls for top quality Tailored- or Tubular Blank products. Outsourcing Tailored Blanks has been starting in Japan but up to now without any quality request from the OEM side like ISO 13919-1B (welding quality standard in Europe and USA). Increased competition will automatically push the quality level and the ongoing approach to combine high strength steel with Tailored- and Tubular Blanks will ask for even more reliable system concepts which enables to weld narrow seams at highest speed. Beside producing quality, which is the key to reduce one of the most important cost driver "material scrap," in-line quality systems with true and reliable evaluation is going to be a "must" on all weld systems. Traceability of all process related data submitted to interfaces according to customer request in combination with ghost-shift-operation of TB systems are tomorrow's state-of-the-art solutions of Tailored Blank-facilities.

  4. Highest priority in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, E

    1968-01-01

    Responding to the challenge posed by its population problem, Pakistan's national leadership gave the highest priority to family planning in its socioeconomic development plan. In Pakistan, as elsewhere in the world, the first family planning effort originated in the private sector. The Family Planning Association of Pakistan made a tentative beginning in popularizing family planning in the country. Some clinics were opened and some publicity and education were undertaken to emphasize the need for family limitation. It was recognized soon that the government needed to assume the primarily responsibility if family planning efforts were to be successful. For the 1st plan period, 1955-60, about $10 million was allocated by the central government in the social welfare sector for voluntary family planning. The level of support continued on the same basis during the 2nd plan, 1960-65, but has been raised 4-fold in the 1965-70 scheme of family planning. Pakistan's Family Planning Association continues to play vital collaborative roles in designing and pretesting of prototype publicity material, involvement of voluntary social workers, and functional research in the clinical and public relations fields. The real breakthrough in the program came with the 3rd 5-year plan, 1965-70. High priority assigned to family planning is reflected by the total initial budget of Rs.284 million (about $60,000,000) for the 5-year period. Current policy is postulated on 6 basic assumptions: family planning efforts need to be public relations-oriented; operations should be conducted through autonomous bodies with decentralized authority at all tiers down to the grassroots level, for expeditious decision making; monetary incentives play an important role; interpersonal motivation in terms of life experience of the clientele through various contacts, coupled with mass media for publicity, can produce a sociological breakthrough; supplies and services in all related disciplines should be

  5. Highest Resolution Gaspra Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  6. Gaspra - Highest Resolution Mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This picture of asteroid 951 Gaspra is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft from a range of 5,300 kilometers (3,300 miles), some 10 minutes before closest approach on October 29, 1991. The Sun is shining from the right; phase angle is 50 degrees. The resolution, about 54 meters/pixel, is the highest for the Gaspra encounter and is about three times better than that in the view released in November 1991. Additional images of Gaspra remain stored on Galileo's tape recorder, awaiting playback in November. Gaspra is an irregular body with dimensions about 19 x 12 x 11 kilometers (12 x 7.5 x 7 miles). The portion illuminated in this view is about 18 kilometers (11 miles) from lower left to upper right. The north pole is located at upper left; Gaspra rotates counterclockwise every 7 hours. The large concavity on the lower right limb is about 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) across, the prominent crater on the terminator, center left, about 1.5 kilometers (1 mile). A striking feature of Gaspra's surface is the abundance of small craters. More than 600 craters, 100-500 meters (330-1650 feet) in diameter are visible here. The number of such small craters compared to larger ones is much greater for Gaspra than for previously studied bodies of comparable size such as the satellites of Mars. Gaspra's very irregular shape suggests that the asteroid was derived from a larger body by nearly catastrophic collisions. Consistent with such a history is the prominence of groove-like linear features, believed to be related to fractures. These linear depressions, 100-300 meters wide and tens of meters deep, are in two crossing groups with slightly different morphology, one group wider and more pitted than the other. Grooves had previously been seen only on Mars's moon Phobos, but were predicted for asteroids as well. Gaspra also shows a variety of enigmatic curved depressions and ridges in the terminator region at left. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the

  7. Catching the Highest Energy Neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    We briefly discuss the possible sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos and the methods for their detection. Then we present the results obtained by different experiments for detection of the highest energy neutrinos.

  8. Asking Questions in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  9. What to Ask: Delirium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join our e-newsletter! Resources What to Ask: Delirium Tools and Tips Under recognition of delirium is a major problem. It is important to ... questions you can ask your healthcare professional about delirium. What is delirium? What are its symptoms? How ...

  10. Up to the highest peak!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    In the early hours of this morning, the beam energy was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record and the highest energy for this year’s run. Now operators will prepare the machine to make high-energy collisions later this month. CERN Operations Group leader Mike Lamont (foreground) and LHC engineer in charge Alick Macpherson in the CERN Control Centre early this morning. At 5:23 this morning, Friday 19 March, the energy of both beams in the LHC was ramped up to 3.5 TeV, a new world record. During the night, operators had tested the performance of the whole machine with two so-called ‘dry runs’, that is, without beams. Given the good overall response, beams were injected at around 3:00 a.m. and stabilized soon after. The ramp started at around 4:10 and lasted about one hour. Over the last couple of weeks, operation of the LHC at 450 GeV has become routinely reproducible. The operators were able to test and optimize the beam orbit, the beam collimation, the injection and ext...

  11. Web life: Ask Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Ask Nature is a site devoted to biomimicry, an interdisciplinary field in which practitioners study how animals and plants solve problems, and then use those solutions to develop better human technologies.

  12. ASK Magazine. No. 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor); Post, Todd (Editor); Brady, Jody Lannen (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Welcome to the Academy of Program and Project Leadership (APPL) and ASK Magazine. APPL helps NASA managers and project teams accomplish today's missions and meet tomorrow's challenges by providing performance enhancement services and tools, supporting career development programs, sponsoring knowledge sharing events and publications, and creating opportunities for project management collaboration with universities, professional associations, industry partners and other government agencies. ASK Magazine grew out of APPL's Knowledge Sharing Initiative. The stories that appear in ASK are written by the 'best of the best' project managers, primarily from NASA, but also from other government agencies and industry. These stories contain genuine nuggets of knowledge and wisdom that are transferable across projects. Who better than a project manager to help another project manager address a critical issue on a project? Big projects, smaLl projects-they're ali here in ASK. Stories in this issue include: Earthly Considerations on Mars, Getting Politically Active, Stumping for the Project, Grins & Giggles: The Launch Pad to High Performance, Transfer Wisdom Workshops: Coming to a NASA Center Near You, Project Management: The Television Show, Lessons Learned Again and Again and Again, Implementation Reviews, ASK Talks with Dr. Michael Hecht, and What Is This Fourth Dimension?.

  13. Asking the Right Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  14. The highest energies in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    2006-01-01

    There are not many issues of fundamental importance which have induced so many problems for astrophysicists like the question of the origin of cosmic rays. This radiation from the outer space has an energy density comparable with that of the visible starlight or of the microwave background radiation. It is an important feature of our environment with many interesting aspects. A most conspicuous feature is that the energy spectrum of cosmic rays seems to have no natural end, though resonant photopion production with the cosmic microwave background predicts a suppression of extragalactic protons above the so-called Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuz’min cutoff at about EGZK = 5 × 10"1"9 eV. In fact the highest particle energies ever observed on the Earth, stem from observations of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays (E > 3 × 10"1"9 eV). But the present observations by the AGASA and HiRes Collaborations, partly a matter of debate, are origin of a number of puzzling questions, where these particles are coming from, by which gigantic acceleration mechanism they could gain such tremendous energies and how they have been able to propagate to our Earth. These questions imply serious problems of the understanding of our Universe. There are several approaches to clarify the mysteries of the highest energies and to base the observations on larger statistical accuracy. The Pierre Auger Observatory, being in installation in the Pampa Amarilla in the Province Mendoza in Argentina, is a hybrid detector, combining a large array of water Cerenkov detectors (registering charged particles generated in giant extended air showers) with measurements of the fluorescence light produced during the air shower development. This contribution will illustrate the astrophysical motivation and the current status of the experimental efforts, and sketch the ideas about the origin of these particles.

  15. ASK Magazine; No. 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Alexander (Editor); Little, Terry (Editor); Davis, Marty (Editor); Simmons, Jessica (Editor); Margolies, Donald (Editor); Goshorn, Larry (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    THIS ISSUE FEATURES A VISUAL DEPICTION OF THE ACADEMY of Program and Project Leadership (APPL). I imagine a variety of initial reactions to the drawing. One might be, "What is a cartoon doing in a magazine about project management?" Or perhaps, "Wow, nice colors-and fun." Another may be to closely search the image for signs, symbols and meaning. Still another, to read a new level of innovation and creativity into the picture. Undoubtedly, some readers will raise questions about the cost. Of course, any reaction is a sign of engagement. The stronger, the more energized the emotional and cognitive processing, the better. It is a sign of attention and interaction. For I've heard it said, "You only need to worry if they don t care one way or the other." So what is the point of the picture? To stimulate interest, raise questions, promote discussion, and maybe raise a smile.. .That, at least, was my initial reaction when I was introduced to the work of Nancy Hegedus, who helps to create these drawings for Root Learning Inc. At the NASA PM Conference, I was first shown the work Nancy had been doing with the help of Goddard s Knowledge Management Architect, Dr. Ed Rogers. I was immediately drawn into the power of visualization as a tool for more effective learning, communicating, and conveying complex knowledge concepts. We need new tools in today s world, where information and data overwhelms by sheer volume. There are articles, pamphlets, communications, and white papers-all aiming to convince and influence. Reactions to these tend to be either avoidance or mind-numbing, heavy-eyed consent; the message never registers or enters the soul. That s one of the reasons that APPL s Knowledge Sharing Initiative (KSI) has turned to storytelling as a memorable way of transfer- ring knowledge, inspiring imitation of best practices, and spurring reflection. ASK Magazine s recent fourth birthday marks an important milestone in APPL s continuing quest to provide ongoing support to

  16. Origin of the highest energy cosmic rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Ahn, Eun-Joo; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Stanev, Todor

    2000-06-01

    Introducing a simple Galactic wind model patterned after the solar wind we show that back-tracing the orbits of the highest energy cosmic events suggests that they may all come from the Virgo cluster, and so probably from the active radio galaxy M87. This confirms a long standing expectation. Those powerful radio galaxies that have their relativistic jets stuck in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy, such as 3C147, will then enable us to derive limits on the production of any new kind of particle, expected in some extensions of the standard model in particle physics. New data from HIRES will be crucial in testing the model proposed here.

  17. Directional clustering in highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Haim; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    An unexpected degree of small-scale clustering is observed in highest-energy cosmic ray events. Some directional clustering can be expected due to purely statistical fluctuations for sources distributed randomly in the sky. This creates a background for events originating in clustered sources. We derive analytic formulas to estimate the probability of random cluster configurations, and use these formulas to study the strong potential of the HiRes, Auger, Telescope Array and EUSO-OWL-AirWatch facilities for deciding whether any observed clustering is most likely due to nonrandom sources. For a detailed comparison to data, our analytical approach cannot compete with Monte Carlo simulations, including experimental systematics. However, our derived formulas do offer two advantages: (i) easy assessment of the significance of any observed clustering, and most importantly, (ii) an explicit dependence of cluster probabilities on the chosen angular bin size

  18. Corporate Governance Frequently Asked Questions

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2016-01-01

    This guidebook is designed to address common questionson corporate governance that are frequently asked byowners and managers of companies in the Middle Eastand North Africa (MENA) region. It familiarizes readerswith the basic concepts of corporate governance,providing a comprehensive overview of the subject matter,using case studies as practical examples of corporategovernance application...

  19. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... call to find more information about driving and epilepsy? What should I discuss with my boss at ...

  20. Ask a Periodontist (Frequently Asked Questions about Gum Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May Increase Lung Cancer Risk CDC Estimate: New Mexico, Hawaii Have Highest U.S. Incidence of Advanced Gum ... Finally, periodontists can be integral in the comprehensive planning of your oral care, along ... the costs of implants can often vary from urban to rural areas and will depend on how ...

  1. Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaundice - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about newborn jaundice ... What causes jaundice in a newborn child? How common is newborn jaundice? Will the jaundice harm my child? What are the ...

  2. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  3. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child ... should I discuss with my child's teachers about epilepsy? Will my child need to take medicines during ...

  4. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in ... and more with our Ask a Scientist video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, ...

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  6. Angina - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about angina and heart disease; Coronary artery disease - what to ask your doctor ... the signs and symptoms that I am having angina? Will I always have the same symptoms? What ...

  7. Concussion - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... What type of symptoms or problems will my child have? Will my child have problems thinking or ...

  8. Dementia - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease - what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor ... Alzheimer's Association. Dementia Care Practice Recommendations ... in a Home Setting. Updated 2009. Alz.org. www.alz.org/national/ ...

  9. Headache - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraine - what to ask your doctor; Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor ... How can I tell if the headache I am having is dangerous? What are ... headache ? A migraine headache ? A cluster headache ? What medical ...

  10. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series ...

  12. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  13. Frequently Asked Questions about Personal Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kept by your health plan, contact the plan’s customer service department. Ask for an "authorization for the ... and healthcare provider have a confidential relationship. However, access to parents may be permitted in ...

  14. Frequently Asked Questions about Radiation Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about Radiation Emergencies Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more information on radiation, go to the Radiation Dictionary . Get Inside: Why should I get inside during ...

  15. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  16. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video below to get answers to questions like these and more with our Ask a Scientist video ... Is perfect vision real? Click to Watch Are these common eye-related myths true or false? Click ...

  17. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  18. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  19. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? ... Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color blind. ...

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural ...

  1. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding ... NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos ...

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  3. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  4. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  5. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  6. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:May 9, ... you? This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  7. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » Ask a Scientist Video Series ... can see clearly from 25 feet away. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  8. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials? Finding Help Reprints For More Information Share Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions Download PDF Download ... a week. Text “HOME” to 741741. What Is Suicide? Suicide is when people direct violence at themselves ...

  9. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  10. Which Kids Are at Highest Risk for Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Which Kids are at Highest Risk for Suicide? Page Content Article Body No child is immune, ... who have lost a friend or relative to suicide. Studies show that a considerable number of youth ...

  11. Learning How to Ask: Women and Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Bajaj, Anureet K

    2017-03-01

    Women are less likely to reach top-level leadership positions, and more likely to leave academic positions, than men, and are likely to earn less money than men. Women are also less likely to initiate a negotiation-a process that is crucial for professional advancement. This reluctance to ask hinders their advancement and can have long-lasting consequences-both financial and professional. The reasons that women do not ask are multifactorial. In this article, we will explore reasons why women are less likely to negotiate, the barriers they face when they do, and strategies that women can apply to improve their negotiation skills.

  12. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  13. Highest weight representations of the quantum algebra Uh(gl∞)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.; Stoilova, N.I.

    1997-04-01

    A class of highest weight irreducible representations of the quantum algebra U h (gl-∞) is constructed. Within each module a basis is introduced and the transformation relations of the basis under the action of the Chevalley generators are explicitly written. (author). 16 refs

  14. Exploring the cultural dimensions of the right to the highest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The right to enjoying the highest attainable standard of health is incorporated in many international and regional human rights instruments. This right contains both freedoms and entitlements, including the freedom to control one's own health and body and the right to an accessible system of health care, goods and services.

  15. Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

  16. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  17. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  18. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the media Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications (301)496-5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions ...

  19. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Katie E.; Bickel, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism have impairments in communication that make it difficult for them to acquire the ability to ask appropriate wh- questions. This is a very important skill, and one that clinicians often do not know how to target. Search terms were entered into several databases to locate studies published in peer-reviewed journals. The studies…

  20. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...

  1. Learning How to Ask Research Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

  2. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  3. The kinds of questions asked by novice teachers in learning mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, L.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Usodo, B.

    2018-05-01

    This study describes the kinds of questions asked by novice teachers during mathematics learning process in senior high school. This study used descriptive analysis. The subjects of this study were two novice teachers who teach mathematics in 10th grade. The result showed that the frequently asked questions by novice teachers based on the objective were compliance questions, rethorical questions and sometimes prompting questions and probing questions. The frequently questions asked by novice teacher based on the cognitive process dimension of Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy were questions of remembering, questions of understanding, questions of applying, questions of analyzing and questions of evaluating. The novice teachers asked the routine questions which had same thinking level. The question with the highest level of thinking did not asked by the novice teachers.

  4. The highest energy cosmic rays, photons and neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zas, Enrique

    1998-01-01

    In these lectures I introduce and discuss aspects of currently active fields of interest related to the production, transport and detection of high energy particles from extraterrestrial sources. I have payed most attention to the highest energies and I have divided the material according to the types of particles which will be searched for with different experimental facilities in planning: hadrons, gamma rays and neutrinos. Particular attention is given to shower development, stochastic acceleration and detection techniques

  5. Do optimally ripe blackberries contain the highest levels of metabolites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Koron, Darinka; Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert

    2017-01-15

    Five blackberry cultivars were selected for the study ('Chester Thornless', 'Cacanska Bestrna', 'Loch Ness', 'Smoothstem' and 'Thornfree') and harvested at three different maturity stages (under-, optimal- and over-ripe). Optimally ripe and over-ripe blackberries contained significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to under-ripe fruit. 'Loch Ness' cultivar was characterized by 2.2-2.6-fold higher levels of total sugars than other cultivars and consequently, the highest sugar/acids ratio. 'Chester Thornless' stands out as the cultivar with the highest level of vitamin C in under-ripe (125.87mgkg(-1)) and optimally mature fruit (127.66mgkg(-1)). Maturity stage significantly affected the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The content of total anthocyanins increased for 43% at optimal maturity stage and cinnamic acid derivatives for 57% compared to under-ripe fruit. Over-ripe blackberries were distinguished by the highest content of total phenolics (1251-2115mg GAE kg(-1) FW) and greatest FRAP values (25.9-43.2mM TE kg(-1) FW). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ASK Talks with W. Scott Cameron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an interview with Scott Cameron who is the Capital Systems Manager for the Food and Beverage Global Business Unit of Procter and Gamble. He has been managing capital projects and mentoring other project managers for the past 20 years at Procter and Gamble within its Beauty Care, Health Care, Food and Beverage, and Fabric and Home Care Businesses. Scott also has been an Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK) feature writer since Volume One.

  7. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  8. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Guerra; Rodrigo Munguia; Yolanda Bolea; Antoni Grau

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM) is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D) Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hyp...

  9. Robert Aymar receives one of the highest Finnish distinctions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 December 2008 Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, was awarded the decoration of Commander, first class, of the Order of the Lion of Finland by the President of the Republic of Finland. This decoration, one of the highest of Finland, was presented in a ceremony by the Ambassador Hannu Himanen, Permanent Representative of Finland to the UN and other international organisations in Geneva. Robert Aymar was honoured for his service to CERN, the LHC, his role in the cooperation between Finland and CERN, as well as his contribution to science in general. In his speech the ambassador underlined CERN’s efforts in the field of education, mentioning the High school teachers programme.

  10. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenger RH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roland H Wenger,1,2 Vartan Kurtcuoglu,1,2 Carsten C Scholz,1,2 Hugo H Marti,3 David Hoogewijs1,2,4 1Institute of Physiology and Zurich Center for Human Physiology (ZIHP, University of Zurich, 2National Center of Competence in Research “Kidney.CH”, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 4Institute of Physiology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany Abstract: “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. Keywords: gas laws, hypoxia-inducible factor, Krogh tissue cylinder, oxygen diffusion, partial pressure, tissue oxygen levels

  11. Z-burst scenario for the highest energy cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Z.

    2002-10-01

    The origin of highest energy cosmic rays is yet unknown. An appealing possibility is the so-called Z-burst scenario, in which a large fraction of these cosmic rays are decay products of Z bosons produced in the scattering of ultrahigh energy neutrinos on cosmological relic neutrinos. The comparison between the observed and predicted spectra constrains the mass of the heaviest neutrino. The required neutrino mass is fairly robust against variations of the presently unknown quantities, such as the amount of relic neutrino clustering, the universal photon radio background and the extragalactic magnetic field. Considering different possibilities for the ordinary cosmic rays the required neutrino masses are determined. In the most plausible case that the ordinary cosmic rays are of extragalactic origin and the universal radio background is strong enough to suppress high energy photons, the required neutrino mass is 0.08 eV ≤ m ν ≤ 0.40 eV. The required ultrahigh energy neutrino flux should be detected in the near future by experiments such as AMANDA, RICE or the Pierre Auger Observatory. (orig.)

  12. Compatibility of Firm Positioning Strategy and Website Content: Highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evla MUTLU KESİCİ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporate websites are essential platforms through which firms introduce their goods and services on B2B and B2C level, express financial information for the stakeholders and share corporate values, purposes and activities. Due to its facilities, websites take part in firm positioning strategy. Accordingly this study aims to understand the innovation oriented positioning through corporate websites. The method applied in this study has been adapted from the 2QCV2Q Model developed by Mich and Franch (2000 to evaluate websites and top 30 firms with the highest Research and Development expenditures listed in Turkishtime (2015 have been analyzed. Within this context, this study presents a revised and updated method for the assessments of websites through positioning strategy framework. Findings indicate no direct relationship between website evaluation and R&D expenditure, though some common weaknesses have been put forward, such as information about management of the firms. Besides, publicly traded firms are recognized to facilitate websites more efficiently than non-publicly traded firms. Study contribute to both academia and practitioners as putting forward a new approach for 2QCV2Q Model and indicating the similarities and differences among the corporate websites through positioning perspective.

  13. Estimation of the center frequency of the highest modulation filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C J; Füllgrabe, Christian; Sek, Aleksander

    2009-02-01

    For high-frequency sinusoidal carriers, the threshold for detecting sinusoidal amplitude modulation increases when the signal modulation frequency increases above about 120 Hz. Using the concept of a modulation filter bank, this effect might be explained by (1) a decreasing sensitivity or greater internal noise for modulation filters with center frequencies above 120 Hz; and (2) a limited span of center frequencies of the modulation filters, the top filter being tuned to about 120 Hz. The second possibility was tested by measuring modulation masking in forward masking using an 8 kHz sinusoidal carrier. The signal modulation frequency was 80, 120, or 180 Hz and the masker modulation frequencies covered a range above and below each signal frequency. Four highly trained listeners were tested. For the 80-Hz signal, the signal threshold was usually maximal when the masker frequency equaled the signal frequency. For the 180-Hz signal, the signal threshold was maximal when the masker frequency was below the signal frequency. For the 120-Hz signal, two listeners showed the former pattern, and two showed the latter pattern. The results support the idea that the highest modulation filter has a center frequency in the range 100-120 Hz.

  14. Kyle Cranmer receives the highest recognition from the US government

    CERN Multimedia

    Allen Mincer

    Kyle Cranmer with Clay Sell, Deputy Secretary of EnergyKyle Cranmer, who has worked on ATLAS as a graduate student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a Goldhaber Fellow at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and, most recently, an Assistant Professor at New York University, has been awarded a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). As described at the United States Department of Energy web page: "The PECASE Awards are intended to recognize some of the finest scientists and engineers who, while early in their research careers, show exceptional potential for leadership at the frontiers of scientific knowledge during the twenty-first century...The PECASE Award is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers beginning their independent careers." Kyle's work on ATLAS focuses on tools and strategies for data analysis, triggering, and searches for the Higgs.At the awards ceremony, which took place on Thursday Nov. 1st in Washington, D.C.,...

  15. Recreational fishing selectively captures individuals with the highest fitness potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, David A H; Suski, Cory D; Philipp, David P; Klefoth, Thomas; Wahl, David H; Kersten, Petra; Cooke, Steven J; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-12-18

    Fisheries-induced evolution and its impact on the productivity of exploited fish stocks remains a highly contested research topic in applied fish evolution and fisheries science. Although many quantitative models assume that larger, more fecund fish are preferentially removed by fishing, there is no empirical evidence describing the relationship between vulnerability to capture and individual reproductive fitness in the wild. Using males from two lines of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) selectively bred over three generations for either high (HV) or low (LV) vulnerability to angling as a model system, we show that the trait "vulnerability to angling" positively correlates with aggression, intensity of parental care, and reproductive fitness. The difference in reproductive fitness between HV and LV fish was particularly evident among larger males, which are also the preferred mating partners of females. Our study constitutes experimental evidence that recreational angling selectively captures individuals with the highest potential for reproductive fitness. Our study further suggests that selective removal of the fittest individuals likely occurs in many fisheries that target species engaged in parental care. As a result, depending on the ecological context, angling-induced selection may have negative consequences for recruitment within wild populations of largemouth bass and possibly other exploited species in which behavioral patterns that determine fitness, such as aggression or parental care, also affect their vulnerability to fishing gear.

  16. Academic Training - Tevatron: studying pp collisions at the highest energy

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES 15, 16, 17, 18 May Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 on 15, 16, 17 May - Council Chamber on 18 May Physics at the Tevatron B. HEINEMANN, Univ. of Liverpool, FERMILAB Physics Results from the Tevatron The Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Fermilab in the US is currently the world's highest energy collider. At the experiments CDF and D0 a broad physics programme is being pursued, ranging from flavour physics via electroweak precision measurements to searches for the Higgs boson and new particles beyond the Standard Model. In my lecture I will describe some of the highlight measurements in the flavour, electroweak and searches sectors, and the experimental techniques that are used. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/...

  17. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Guerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse-Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  18. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  19. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what ... other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear ...

  20. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask Your Doctor about Your Diagnosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... me? Other questions you want to ask: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  1. Hepatitis C: Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... treatment? Other questions you want to ask: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ Search Hepatitis Search this website Submit Share this page Related ...

  2. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  3. Children's Question Asking and Curiosity: A Training Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirout, Jamie; Klahr, David

    2011-01-01

    A primary instructional objective of most early science programs is to foster children's scientific curiosity and question-asking skills (Jirout & Klahr, 2011). However, little is known about the relationship between curiosity, question-asking behavior, and general inquiry skills. While curiosity and question asking are invariably mentioned in…

  4. Extreme Markup: The Fifty US Hospitals With The Highest Charge-To-Cost Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ge; Anderson, Gerard F

    2015-06-01

    Using Medicare cost reports, we examined the fifty US hospitals with the highest charge-to-cost ratios in 2012. These hospitals have markups (ratios of charges over Medicare-allowable costs) approximately ten times their Medicare-allowable costs compared to a national average of 3.4 and a mode of 2.4. Analysis of the fifty hospitals showed that forty-nine are for profit (98 percent), forty-six are owned by for-profit hospital systems (92 percent), and twenty (40 percent) operate in Florida. One for-profit hospital system owns half of these fifty hospitals. While most public and private health insurers do not use hospital charges to set their payment rates, uninsured patients are commonly asked to pay the full charges, and out-of-network patients and casualty and workers' compensation insurers are often expected to pay a large portion of the full charges. Because it is difficult for patients to compare prices, market forces fail to constrain hospital charges. Federal and state governments may want to consider limitations on the charge-to-cost ratio, some form of all-payer rate setting, or mandated price disclosure to regulate hospital markups. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Five questions to ask about the soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasanin Grubin, Milica

    2013-04-01

    I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the

  6. I Wish I'd Asked That: The Culture of Asking Questions in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleisis, Audra

    2009-01-01

    I will present the results from a qualitative study of the values and norms for thinking about science in academic astronomy, as seen through astronomers’ beliefs about departmental speech events. In-depth interviews were carried out with 12 graduate students and 9 faculty members from a prominent astronomy department at a large, public university. Interviewees were asked about a variety of speaking events in their department. The speaking events chosen were those at which: (1) graduate students could be presenters and/or ask questions, and (2) presenters spoke about science research to an audience of academic peers. This included Coffee Hour, Journal Club, research seminars, Colloquium, and dissertation defense talks. These events are part of the socialization of students into "acting like an astronomer.” Socialization is a process by which novices learn the rules (can and can't do), norms (should and shouldn't do), and values of a culture. The values of astronomy culture are encoded within the rules for participation in these events and the assumptions that audience members make about speakers. When these values contradict each other speakers face the dilemma of choosing between conflicting behaviors. One of the central dilemmas that arose in this study was that of whether or not to ask a question during a talk. Both graduate students and faculty members wanted students to speak up more often. However, students had conflicting worries - of voicing a question and it being a "stupid question” vs. having remained silent if it turned out to have been a "good question.” I will argue that this anxiety is a product of academic culture and not an indicator of individual failure, and discuss a number of factors that influence this situation, such as the perceived goals of each event, and astronomers’ beliefs about intelligence and learning.

  7. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  8. Exchange Interactions on the Highest-Spin Reported Molecule: the Mixed-Valence Fe42 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Daniel; Venegas-Yazigi, Diego; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2016-04-01

    The finding of high-spin molecules that could behave as conventional magnets has been one of the main challenges in Molecular Magnetism. Here, the exchange interactions, present in the highest-spin molecule published in the literature, Fe42, have been analysed using theoretical methods based on Density Functional Theory. The system with a total spin value S = 45 is formed by 42 iron centres containing 18 high-spin FeIII ferromagnetically coupled and 24 diamagnetic low-spin FeII ions. The bridging ligands between the two paramagnetic centres are two cyanide ligands coordinated to the diamagnetic FeII cations. Calculations were performed using either small Fe4 or Fe3 models or the whole Fe42 complex, showing the presence of two different ferromagnetic couplings between the paramagnetic FeIII centres. Finally, Quantum Monte Carlo simulations for the whole system were carried out in order to compare the experimental and simulated magnetic susceptibility curves from the calculated exchange coupling constants with the experimental one. This comparison allows for the evaluation of the accuracy of different exchange-correlation functionals to reproduce such magnetic properties.

  9. Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions for Parents of Children with PH What causes pulmonary hypertension in children? I’ve ... of what I read is about adults with PH. What are the primary differences between PH in ...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pan American Health Organization Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S. Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... I’ve been exposed to someone who has measles. What should I do? A: Immediately call your ...

  11. What to Ask when Contracting for Maintenance and Custodial Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crothall, Graeme A.

    1989-01-01

    Some school districts have found that maintenance and custodial services can be contracted out with cost-saving results. Contains specific questions to ask potential contractors in order to evaluate contracting for maintenance and custodial services. (MLF)

  12. asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinking skills in the English visual literacy (VL) learning classroom. .... out that the use of assessment in the classroom as a tool to promote greater learner ..... tions on technical knowledge and critical language awareness were not asked.

  13. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families - Vietnamese Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  14. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  15. Information ranks highest: Expectations of female adolescents with a rare genital malformation towards health care services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Simoes

    Full Text Available Access to highly specialized health care services and support to meet the patient's specific needs is critical for health outcome, especially during age-related transitions within the health care system such as with adolescents entering adult medicine. Being affected by an orphan disease complicates the situation in several important respects. Long distances to dedicated institutions and scarcity of knowledge, even among medical doctors, may present major obstacles for proper access to health care services and health chances. This study is part of the BMBF funded TransCareO project examining in a mixed-method design health care provisional deficits, preferences, and barriers in health care access as perceived by female adolescents affected by the Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS, a rare (orphan genital malformation.Prior to a communicative validation workshop, critical elements of MRKHS related care and support (items were identified in interviews with MRKHS patients. During the subsequent workshop, 87 persons involved in health care and support for MRKHS were asked to rate the items using a 7-point Likert scale (7, strongly agree; 1, strongly disagree as to 1 the elements' potential importance (i.e., health care expected to be "best practice", or priority and 2 the presently experienced care. A gap score between the two was computed highlighting fields of action. Items were arranged into ten separate questionnaires representing domains of care and support (e.g., online-portal, patient participation. Within each domain, several items addressed various aspects of "information" and "access". Here, we present the outcome of items' evaluation by patients (attended, NPAT = 35; respondents, NRESP = 19.Highest priority scores occurred for domains "Online-Portal", "Patient participation", and "Tailored informational offers", characterizing them as extremely important for the perception as best practice. Highest gap scores yielded domains

  16. Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira A. Baranova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

  17. Parents' Qualitative Perspectives on Child Asking for Fruit and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Nicklas, Theresa A; Baranowski, Tom

    2017-06-05

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 years old child asking for fruits and vegetables (FV). An online parenting style questionnaire was completed and follow-up qualitative telephone interviews assessed home food rules, child influence on home food availability, parents' preferences for being asked for food, and common barriers and reactions to their child's FV requests. Parents ( n = 73) with a 10 to 14 years old child were grouped into authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved parenting style categories based on responses to questionnaires, and interviewed. Almost no differences in responses were detected by parenting style or ethnicity. Parents reported their children had a voice in what foods were purchased and available at home and were receptive to their child's asking for FV. The most important child asking characteristic was politeness, especially among authoritarian parents. Other important factors were asking in person, helping in the grocery store, writing requests on the grocery shopping list, and showing information they saw in the media. The barrier raising the most concern was FV cost, but FV quality and safety outside the home environment were also considerations.

  18. On the Derivation of Highest-Order Compact Finite Difference Schemes for the One- and Two-Dimensional Poisson Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Settle, Sean O.; Douglas, Craig C.; Kim, Imbunm; Sheen, Dongwoo

    2013-01-01

    - and two-dimensional Poisson equation on uniform, quasi-uniform, and nonuniform face-to-face hyperrectangular grids and directly prove the existence or nonexistence of their highest-order local accuracies. Our derivations are unique in that we do not make

  19. Inspiring Sustainable Behaviour 19 Ways to Ask for Change

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    What is the answer to inspiring sustainable behaviour? It starts with a question - or nineteen. With this simple and inspiring guide you'll learn how to ask for persistent, pervasive, and near-costless change by uncovering our hidden quirks, judgmental biases, and apparent irrationalities.  The only change you'll need to make is how you ask.Businesses, larger or small, will soon have to cut costs and cut carbon, irrespective of the products they sell, or the services they perform. National government has structural policy and legislative needs, and local government has implementation and docum

  20. On the Derivation of Highest-Order Compact Finite Difference Schemes for the One- and Two-Dimensional Poisson Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Settle, Sean O.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to answer the question, What are the highest-order five- or nine-point compact finite difference schemes? To answer this question, we present several simple derivations of finite difference schemes for the one- and two-dimensional Poisson equation on uniform, quasi-uniform, and nonuniform face-to-face hyperrectangular grids and directly prove the existence or nonexistence of their highest-order local accuracies. Our derivations are unique in that we do not make any initial assumptions on stencil symmetries or weights. For the one-dimensional problem, the derivation using the three-point stencil on both uniform and nonuniform grids yields a scheme with arbitrarily high-order local accuracy. However, for the two-dimensional problem, the derivation using the corresponding five-point stencil on uniform and quasi-uniform grids yields a scheme with at most second-order local accuracy, and on nonuniform grids yields at most first-order local accuracy. When expanding the five-point stencil to the nine-point stencil, the derivation using the nine-point stencil on uniform grids yields at most sixth-order local accuracy, but on quasi- and nonuniform grids yields at most fourth- and third-order local accuracy, respectively. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  2. Competence-Based Education and Training– about Frequently Asked Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction

  3. Parents' qualitative perspectives on child asking for fruit and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children can influence the foods available at home, but some ways of approaching a parent may be better than others; and the best way may vary by type of parent. This study explored how parents with different parenting styles would best receive their 10 to 14 year old child asking for fruit and vege...

  4. Investing Wisely in Information Technology: Asking the Right Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    1993-01-01

    College administrators are offered a series of questions to ask in evaluating the appropriateness of information technology for their campuses. Issues addressed include defining institutional goals and the role of information technology in them, determining the most effective organization of information resources and technology, and allocation of…

  5. Asking the Right Questions: A Framework for Assessing Counterterrorism Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    hope to em - power policy makers to ask the right questions about countering terrorism and practitioners to answer them. Notes 1. The history of...10576100590950156. 8. Ibid., 308. 9. Michele L. Malvesti, “ Bombing bin Laden: Assessing the Effectiveness of Air Strikes as a Counter-Terrorism Strategy

  6. Asking the Right Questions: Teaching about Islam and Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar, Afshan

    2017-01-01

    This article describes an exercise designed to introduce the topic of Islam and Muslims in a Sociology of Globalization course. The activity asks students to complete a sentence regarding Muslim women. Rather than provide any definitive answers regarding Islam or Muslims, the purpose of the exercise is for students to see the reductive nature of…

  7. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsley, Amy; Sutherland, William J; Johnston, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  8. Unit asking: a method to boost donations and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsee, Christopher K; Zhang, Jiao; Lu, Zoe Y; Xu, Fei

    2013-09-01

    The solicitation of charitable donations costs billions of dollars annually. Here, we introduce a virtually costless method for boosting charitable donations to a group of needy persons: merely asking donors to indicate a hypothetical amount for helping one of the needy persons before asking donors to decide how much to donate for all of the needy persons. We demonstrated, in both real fund-raisers and scenario-based research, that this simple unit-asking method greatly increases donations for the group of needy persons. Different from phenomena such as the foot-in-the-door and identifiable-victim effects, the unit-asking effect arises because donors are initially scope insensitive and subsequently scope consistent. The method applies to both traditional paper-based fund-raisers and increasingly popular Web-based fund-raisers and has implications for domains other than fund-raisers, such as auctions and budget proposals. Our research suggests that a subtle manipulation based on psychological science can generate a substantial effect in real life.

  9. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Hinsley

    Full Text Available Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for audience gender ratio, male attendees asked 1.8 questions for each question asked by a female attendee. Amongst only younger researchers, male attendees also asked 1.8 questions per female question, suggesting the pattern cannot be attributed to the temporary problem of demographic inertia. We link our findings to the 'chilly' climate for women in STEM, including wider experiences of discrimination likely encountered by women throughout their education and careers. We call for a broader and coordinated approach to understanding and addressing the barriers to women and other under-represented groups. We encourage the scientific community to recognise the context in which these gender differences occur, and evaluate and develop methods to support full participation from all attendees.

  10. What's the Harm in Asking about Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, Michael; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Crum, Paige; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Both researchers and oversight committees share concerns about patient safety in the study-related assessment of suicidality. However, concern about assessing suicidal thoughts can be a barrier to the development of empirical evidence that informs research on how to safely conduct these assessments. A question has been raised if asking about…

  11. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Rickard; Behrens, Claus F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise c...... outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors....

  12. Comparative diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Hood, A.F.; Lampros, J.

    2011-01-01

    studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of virtual slides compared to traditional glass slides. Methods: Ten Nordic dermatopathologists and pathologists were given a randomized combination of 20 virtual and glass slides and asked to identify the diagnoses. They were then asked to give...... their impressions about the virtual images. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups using Fisher's exact test were performed. Objective: To compare the diagnostic ability of dermatopathologists and pathologists in two image formats: the traditional (glass) microscopic slides, and whole mount digitized...... of virtual or glass slides did not affect the percentage of questions answered correctly. Seven of nine participants completing the questionnaire, felt virtual microscopy is useful for both learning and testing. Conclusion: There was no significant difference in the participants' diagnostic ability using...

  13. A new derivation of the highest-weight polynomial of a unitary lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Chau, Huu-Tai; P Van, Isacker

    2000-01-01

    A new method is presented to derive the expression of the highest-weight polynomial used to build the basis of an irreducible representation (IR) of the unitary algebra U(2J+1). After a brief reminder of Moshinsky's method to arrive at the set of equations defining the highest-weight polynomial of U(2J+1), an alternative derivation of the polynomial from these equations is presented. The method is less general than the one proposed by Moshinsky but has the advantage that the determinantal expression of the highest-weight polynomial is arrived at in a direct way using matrix inversions. (authors)

  14. What’s the Harm in Asking about Suicidal Ideation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Crum, Paige; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Both researchers and oversight committees share concerns about patient safety in the study-related assessment of suicidality. However, concern about assessing suicidal thoughts can be a barrier to the development of empirical evidence that informs research on how to safely conduct these assessments. A question has been raised if asking about suicidal thoughts can result in iatrogenic increases of such thoughts, especially among at-risk samples. The current study repeatedly tested suicidal ideation at 6-month intervals for up to 2-years. Suicidal ideation was measured with the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire Junior, and administered to adolescents who had previously received inpatient psychiatric care. Change in suicidal ideation was tested using several analytic techniques, each of which pointed to a significant decline in suicidal ideation in the context of repeated assessment. This and previous study outcomes suggest that asking an at-risk population about suicidal ideation is not associated with subsequent increases in suicidal ideation. PMID:22548324

  15. Effects of Experience and Training on Diagnostic Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, Robert

    The interview process was studied to uncover the relationship of expertise in psychotherapy to the likelihood of accurate diagnosis. Experience and training affect the number of diagnostic questions clinicians ask as compared to personal, family, social, occupational, and history questions; and this in turn affects the accuracy of the diagnoses…

  16. Men ask more questions than women at a scientific conference

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsley, Amy; Sutherland, William J.; Johnston, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequity in science and academia, especially in senior positions, is a recognised problem. The reasons are poorly understood, but include the persistence of historical gender ratios, discrimination and other factors, including gender-based behavioural differences. We studied participation in a professional context by observing question-asking behaviour at a large international conference with a clear equality code of conduct that prohibited any form of discrimination. Accounting for au...

  17. Structural aspects of protein kinase ASK1 regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obšil, Tomáš; Obšilová, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, 1 Dec (2017), s. 31-36 ISSN 2212-4926 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02739S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ASK1 kinase * apoptosis * thioredoxin * 14-3-3 protein Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology

  18. The Highest Good and the Practical Regulative Knowledge in Kant’s Critique of Practical Reason

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Thiago Klein

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I defend three different points: first, that the concept of highest good is derived from an a priori but subjective argument, namely a maxim of pure practical reason; secondly, that the theory regarding the highest good has the validity of a practical regulative knowledge; and thirdly, that the practical regulative knowledge can be understood as the same “holding something to be true” as Kant attributes to hope and believe.

  19. Diagnosing Eyewitness Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently mistake innocent people for the perpetrator of an observed crime. Such misidentifications have led to the wrongful convictions of many people. Despite this, no reliable method yet exists to determine eyewitness accuracy. This thesis explored two new experimental methods for this purpose. Chapter 2 investigated whether repetition priming can measure prior exposure to a target and compared this with observers’ explicit eyewitness accuracy. Across three experiments slower...

  20. Do women give the same information on binge drinking during pregnancy when asked repeatedly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    in question. As the report of binge drinking was highest in the first of two interviews referring to the same period, as well as women who participated in the first interview in pregnancy week 12 or earlier reported more binge drinking compared to women who participated in the interview later in pregnancy......OBJECTIVE: To study if pregnant women give the same answers to questions on frequency and timing of binge drinking when asked more than once during and after pregnancy. DESIGN: Cohort study.Setting:The Danish National Birth Cohort. SUBJECTS: The study is based on 76 307 pregnant women with repeated...... information on binge drinking during the early part of pregnancy and 8933 pregnant women with information on binge drinking during pregnancy weeks 30-36, obtained while pregnant and 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: More women reported binge drinking, if the interview took place close to the period...

  1. [The gender gap in highest quality medical research - A scientometric analysis of the representation of female authors in highest impact medical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendels, Michael H K; Wanke, Eileen M; Benik, Steffen; Schehadat, Marc S; Schöffel, Norman; Bauer, Jan; Gerber, Alexander; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Oremek, Gerhard M; Groneberg, David A

    2018-05-01

     The study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in high-impact medical research, analyzing the representation of female authorships from January, 2008 to September, 2017.  133 893 male and female authorships from seven high-impact medical journals were analyzed. The key methodology was the combined analysis of the relative frequency, odds ratio and citations of female authorships. The Prestige Index measures the distribution of prestigious authorships between the two genders.  35.0 % of all authorships and 34.3 % of the first, 36.1 % of the co- and 24.2 % of the last authorships were held by women. Female authors have an odds ratio of 0.97 (KI: 0.93 - 1.01) for first, 1.36 (KI: 1.32 - 1.40) for co- und 0.57 (KI: 0.54 - 0.60) for last authorships compared to male authors. The proportion of female authorships exhibits an annual growth of 1.3 % overall, with 0.5 % for first, 1.2 % for co-, and 0.8 % for last authorships. Women are underrepresented at prestigious authorship compared to men (Prestige Index = -0.38). The underrepresentation accentuates in highly competitive articles attracting the highest citation rates, namely, articles with many authors and articles that were published in highest-impact journals. Multi-author articles with male key authors are more frequently cited than articles with female key authors. The gender-specific differences in citation rates increase the more authors contribute to an article. Women publish fewer articles compared to men (39.6 % female authors are responsible for 35.0 % of the authorships) and are underrepresented at productivity levels of more than 1 article per author. Distinct differences at the country level were revealed.  High impact medical research is characterized by few female group leaders as last authors and many female researchers being first or co-authors early in their career. It is very likely that this gender-specific career dichotomy will persistent in

  2. Conditions for exercising shareholders' right to ask questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Vuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Law on Business Organizations from 2011 has significantly improved the regulation of shareholders' right to ask questions in Serbia. In contrast to the previous law from 2004, that has completely transferred regulation to companies which is why there was no guarantee for exercising this right, new law contains detailed norms in this respect. They are written under the dominant influence of German law and are completely harmonized with the Shareholders' Rights Directive. All important issues of shareholders' right to ask questions have been regulated mostly with imperative norms (subject of the right, conditions for exercising this right, debtor of this obligation, court protection, etc.. Corporations have a lot of freedom to adjust exercising this right to their needs, but only by giving more rights to shareholders. Limiting the scope of this right is possible only in certain, precisely defined areas. Although the general impression of the new regulation is very positive, there are certain aspects which can be criticized. Some of them can be cured by adequate judicial interpretation, while others cannot be cured without changes to the law. In the area of conditions for exercising this right, the most important deficiency is the fact that the law has not determined when the right to ask questions can be exercised, and that stands in obvious disharmony with the adopted conception to regulate all important aspects of this right. Contrary to conditions, which basically have been properly formulated, other aspects of legislation regarding this shareholders' right contain more profound obscurities that go beyond the scope of this paper.

  3. Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q"2's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.

    2016-12-01

    We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q"2 values of 3.5 GeV"2 to the highest values of Q"2=250 GeV"2. To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35< Q"2 GeV"2 region. The fits including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.

  4. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  5. Ask Marilyn in the Mathematics Classroom: Probability Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1986, Marilyn Vos Savant, who is listed in the "Guinness Book of World Records Hall of Fame" for the highest IQ, has had a weekly column that is published in "Parade Magazine." In this column, she answers readers' questions on a wide variety of subjects including mathematics and particularly probability. Many of the mathematically oriented…

  6. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The

  7. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in Madeira (Portugal): the highest prevalence in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spínola, Carla; Bruges-Armas, Jácome; Pereira, Conceição; Brehm, António; Spínola, Hélder

    2009-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a common genetic disease which affects both lung and liver. Early diagnosis can help asymptomatic patients to adjust their lifestyle choices in order to reduce the risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The determination of this genetic deficiency prevalence in Madeira Island (Portugal) population is important to clarify susceptibility and define the relevance of performing genetic tests for AAT on individuals at risk for COPD. Two hundred samples of unrelated individuals from Madeira Island were genotyped for the two most common AAT deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Mediated Site-Directed Mutagenesis. Our results show one of the highest frequencies for both mutations when compared to any already studied population in the world. In fact, PI*S mutation has the highest prevalence (18%), and PI*Z mutation (2.5%) was the third highest worldwide. The frequency of AAT deficiency genotypes in Madeira (PI*ZZ, PI*SS, and PI*SZ) is estimated to be the highest in the world: 41 per 1000. This high prevalence of AAT deficiency on Madeira Island reveals an increased genetic susceptibility to COPD and suggests a routine genetic testing for individuals at risk.

  8. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  9. The science and art of asking questions in cognitive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ian Andrew; Morse, Rachel; Howarth, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Questions underpin all aspects of therapeutic assessment and intervention and are a vital component of the clinical process. Over recent years frameworks have started to be applied to obtain a greater understanding of questioning formats and processes. This paper examines the use of questions in cognitive therapy (CT). An overview of the main types of questions identified in the literature is presented. In addition, we examine a range of client and therapist characteristics that may impact on the questioning process. Asking questions in therapy is a complex, yet under-taught, skill. This paper provides a set of frameworks to assist in identifying helpful and unhelpful questioning skills. Thus the article has implications for further training and research.

  10. Frequently Asked Questions in Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Park, Gee Yong

    2010-05-01

    The FAQs(Frequently Asked Questions) in the Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment(FPSA) are the issues occurred during performing the engineering evaluation based on NFPA-805. In this report, the background and resolutions are reviewed and described for 17 FAQs related to FPSA among 57 FAQs. The current FAQs related to FPSA are the issues concerning to NUREG/CR-6850, and are almost resolved but for the some FAQ, the current resolutions would be changed depending on the results of the future or on-going research. Among FAQs related to FPSA, best estimate approaches are suggested concerning to the conservative method of NUREG/CR-6850. If these best estimate solutions are used in the FPSA of nuclear power plants, realistic evaluation results of fire risk would be obtained

  11. High court asked to review differing definitions of 'disability'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-21

    [Name removed] applied for and received Social Security benefits after losing his job at The Disney Stores, Inc. [Name removed], who has AIDS, alleges he was fired in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The 3rd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals said [name removed] could not sue [name removed] because of a discrepancy between his statements on the disability application and in the lawsuit. The Court said he had to choose between suing and accepting disability benefits. The court would not accept [name removed]'s argument that the definitions of disability under the Social Security Act and the ADA differed significantly. The U.S. Supreme Court has been asked to overturn this ruling. In a related case, the Michigan Court of Appeals invoked judicial estoppel to bar a worker from suing his employer under the State Handicappers' Civil Rights Act.

  12. WHICH MOTOR ABILITIES HAVE THE HIGHEST IMPACT ON WORKING PERFORMANCE OF SLOVENIAN SOLDIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  13. Accuracy of home blood pressure readings: monitors and operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Trina; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas W

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of automated digital blood pressure monitoring devices and operators in the community. Also, we tested the effects of a simple education program, and looked for arm-arm differences. Subjects who had bought their own automated digital blood pressure monitor were recruited via an advertisement in the local newspaper. On arrival, they were asked to record their blood pressure exactly as they would at home. The investigator noted any technique deficiencies then corrected them. Blood pressures were then recorded by the investigator and the subject, on opposite arms, simultaneously, and repeated with the arms switched. Finally, subjects recorded their blood pressure again. The subjects' readings were compared to the average of monitor and mercury readings using Bland-Altman methods. A total of 80 subjects were tested. Before educating, subjects' systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were +5.8+/-6.4 (standard deviation) mmHg greater than the mean of all readings, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were +1.3+/-4.0 mmHg; after educating they were +1.3+/-4.0 and -1.3+/-2.7 respectively. The monitors, as a group, were accurate, and met British Hypertension Society and AAMI highest standards. We found no differences among monitors that had been validated (n=26) and those that had not. There were differences between the arms: 5.3+/-5.2 mmHg for SBP and 3.4+/-3.3 mmHg for DBP. Most patients had never been informed by anyone of proper blood pressure measuring techniques. We conclude that home blood pressure measurement, as practiced in our community, is prone to error, mostly due to mistakes by the operator. These can easily be corrected, so that readings become more accurate. Attention should be paid to arm-arm differences.

  14. Highest manageable level of radioactivity in the waste storage facilities of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.; Lennartsson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This project presents and discusses an investigation of the highest level of radioactivity possible to handle in the waste storage facilities. The amount of radioactivity, about 0.1% of the fuel inventory, is the same in both of the cases but the amount of water is very different. The hypothetical accident was supposed to be damage of the reactor fuel caused by loss of coolant. (K.A.E.)

  15. Highest cited papers published in Neurology India: An analysis for the years 1993-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Paritosh; Subeikshanan, V; Madhugiri, Venkatesh S

    2016-01-01

    The highest cited papers published in a journal provide a snapshot of the clinical practice and research in that specialty and/or region. The aim of this study was to determine the highest cited papers published in Neurology India and analyze their attributes. This study was a citation analysis of all papers published in Neurology India since online archiving commenced in 1993. All papers published in Neurology India between the years 1993-2014 were listed. The number of times each paper had been cited up till the time of performing this study was determined by performing a Google Scholar search. Published papers were then ranked on the basis of total times cited since publication and the annual citation rate. Statistical Techniques: Simple counts and percentages were used to report most results. The mean citations received by papers in various categories were compared using the Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance, as appropriate. All analyses were carried out on SAS University Edition (SAS/STAT®, SAS Institute Inc, NC, USA) and graphs were generated on MS Excel 2016. The top papers on the total citations and annual citation rate rank lists pertained to basic neuroscience research. The highest cited paper overall had received 139 citations. About a quarter of the papers published had never been cited at all. The major themes represented were vascular diseases and infections. The highest cited papers reflect the diseases that are of major concern in India. Certain domains such as trauma, allied neurosciences, and basic neuroscience research were underrepresented.

  16. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets resonance event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass, central dijet event passing the dijet resonance selection collected in 2015 (Event 1273922482, Run 280673) : the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 6.9 TeV, the two leading jets have a pT of 3.2 TeV. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV.

  17. ATLAS event at 13 TeV - Highest mass dijets angular event in 2015 data

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The highest-mass dijet event passing the angular selection collected in 2015 (Event 478442529, Run 280464): the two central high-pT jets have an invariant mass of 7.9 TeV, the three leading jets have a pT of 1.99, 1.86 and 0.74 TeV respectively. The missing transverse momentum in this event is 46 GeV

  18. Eyebrow hairs from actinic keratosis patients harbor the highest number of cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ines; Lehmann, Mandy D; Kogosov, Vlada; Stockfleth, Eggert; Nindl, Ingo

    2013-04-24

    Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (pAK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK.

  19. Accuracy Assessment of Different Digital Surface Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Alganci

    2018-03-01

    -sections were extracted from the DSMs to evaluate the accuracies related to land cover. The PHR and SPOT DSMs had the highest accuracies of all of the testing methods, followed by the ALOS DSM, which had very promising results. Comparatively, the SRTM and ASTER DSMs had the worst accuracies. Additionally, the PHR and SPOT DSMs captured man-made objects and above-terrain structures, which indicated the need for post-processing to attain better representations.

  20. Geoid undulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the geoid and equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field, has long been of interest to geodesists and oceanographers. The geoid provides a surface to which the actual ocean surface can be compared with the differences implying information on the circulation patterns of the oceans. For use in oceanographic applications the geoid is ideally needed to a high accuracy and to a high resolution. There are applications that require geoid undulation information to an accuracy of +/- 10 cm with a resolution of 50 km. We are far from this goal today but substantial improvement in geoid determination has been made. In 1979 the cumulative geoid undulation error to spherical harmonic degree 20 was +/- 1.4 m for the GEM10 potential coefficient model. Today the corresponding value has been reduced to +/- 25 cm for GEM-T3 or +/- 11 cm for the OSU91A model. Similar improvements are noted by harmonic degree (wave-length) and in resolution. Potential coefficient models now exist to degree 360 based on a combination of data types. This paper discusses the accuracy changes that have taken place in the past 12 years in the determination of geoid undulations.

  1. Compressive sensing-based wideband capacitance measurement with a fixed sampling rate lower than the highest exciting frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lijun; Ren, Ying; Sun, Shijie; Cao, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an under-sampling method for wideband capacitance measurement was proposed by using the compressive sensing strategy. As the excitation signal is sparse in the frequency domain, the compressed sampling method that uses a random demodulator was adopted, which could greatly decrease the sampling rate. Besides, four switches were used to replace the multiplier in the random demodulator. As a result, not only the sampling rate can be much smaller than the signal excitation frequency, but also the circuit’s structure is simpler and its power consumption is lower. A hardware prototype was constructed to validate the method. In the prototype, an excitation voltage with a frequency up to 200 kHz was applied to a capacitance-to-voltage converter. The output signal of the converter was randomly modulated by a pseudo-random sequence through four switches. After a low-pass filter, the signal was sampled by an analog-to-digital converter at a sampling rate of 50 kHz, which was three times lower than the highest exciting frequency. The frequency and amplitude of the signal were then reconstructed to obtain the measured capacitance. Both theoretical analysis and experiments were carried out to show the feasibility of the proposed method and to evaluate the performance of the prototype, including its linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, accuracy and stability within a given measurement range. (paper)

  2. Two Clock Transitions in Neutral Yb for the Highest Sensitivity to Variations of the Fine-Structure Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Marianna S.; Porsev, Sergey G.; Sanner, Christian; Ye, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We propose a new frequency standard based on a 4 f146 s 6 p P0 3 -4 f136 s25 d (J =2 ) transition in neutral Yb. This transition has a potential for high stability and accuracy and the advantage of the highest sensitivity among atomic clocks to variation of the fine-structure constant α . We find its dimensionless α -variation enhancement factor to be K =-15 , in comparison to the most sensitive current clock (Yb+ E 3 , K =-6 ), and it is 18 times larger than in any neutral-atomic clocks (Hg, K =0.8 ). Combined with the unprecedented stability of an optical lattice clock for neutral atoms, this high sensitivity opens new perspectives for searches for ultralight dark matter and for tests of theories beyond the standard model of elementary particles. Moreover, together with the well-established 1S0-3P0 transition, one will have two clock transitions operating in neutral Yb, whose interleaved interrogations may further reduce systematic uncertainties of such clock-comparison experiments.

  3. Eyebrow hairs from actinic keratosis patients harbor the highest number of cutaneous human papillomaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections seem to be associated with the onset of actinic keratosis (AK). This study compares the presence of cutaneous HPV types in eyebrow hairs to those in tissues of normal skin and skin lesions of 75 immunocompetent AK patients. Methods Biopsies from AK lesions, normal skin and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from each patient. DNA from these specimens was tested for the presence of 28 cutaneous HPV (betaPV and gammaPV) by a PCR based method. Results The highest number of HPV prevalence was detected in 84% of the eyebrow hairs (63/75, median 6 types) compared to 47% of AK lesions (35/75, median 3 types) (p< 0.001) and 37% of normal skin (28/75, median 4 types) (p< 0.001), respectively. A total of 228 HPV infections were found in eyebrow hairs compared to only 92 HPV infections in AK and 69 in normal skin. In all three specimens HPV20, HPV23 and/or HPV37 were the most prevalent types. The highest number of multiple types of HPV positive specimens was found in 76% of the eyebrow hairs compared to 60% in AK and 57% in normal skin. The concordance of at least one HPV type in virus positive specimens was 81% (three specimens) and 88-93% of all three combinations with two specimens. Conclusions Thus, eyebrow hairs revealed the highest number of cutaneous HPV infections, are easy to collect and are an appropriate screening tool in order to identify a possible association of HPV and AK. PMID:23618013

  4. 17-Year-Old Boy with Renal Failure and the Highest Reported Creatinine in Pediatric Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Master Sankar Raj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD is on the rise and constitutes a major health burden across the world. Clinical presentations in early CKD are usually subtle. Awareness of the risk factors for CKD is important for early diagnosis and treatment to slow the progression of disease. We present a case report of a 17-year-old African American male who presented in a life threatening hypertensive emergency with renal failure and the highest reported serum creatinine in a pediatric patient. A brief discussion on CKD criteria, complications, and potential red flags for screening strategies is provided.

  5. Observations of the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingus, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    EGRET has extended the highest energy observations of gamma-ray bursts to GeV gamma rays. Such high energies imply the fireball that is radiating the gamma-rays has a bulk Lorentz factor of several hundred. However, EGRET only detected a few gamma-ray bursts. GLAST will likely detect several hundred bursts and may extend the maximum energy to a few 100 GeV. Meanwhile new ground based detectors with sensitivity to gamma-ray bursts are beginning operation, and one recently reported evidence for TeV emission from a burst

  6. Addressing the Highest Risk: Environmental Programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, Elaine E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-08

    Report topics: Current status of cleanup; Shift in priorities to address highest risk; Removal of above-ground waste; and Continued focus on protecting water resources. Partnership between the National Nuclear Security Administration's Los Alamos Site Office, DOE Carlsbad Field Office, New Mexico Environment Department, and contractor staff has enabled unprecedented cleanup progress. Progress on TRU campaign is well ahead of plan. To date, have completed 130 shipments vs. 104 planned; shipped 483 cubic meters of above-ground waste (vs. 277 planned); and removed 11,249 PE Ci of material at risk (vs. 9,411 planned).

  7. An optical ASK and FSK phase diversity transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, H.; Vanetten, W.; Dekrom, W. H. C.; Vanbennekom, P.; Huijskens, F.; Niessen, L.; Deleijer, F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a contribution to an electrooptical project for a 'phase diversity system', covering ASK and FSK (Amplitude and Frequency Shift Keying), are described. Specifications of subsystems, and tolerances and consequences of these tolerances for the final system performance, were derived. For the optical network of the phase diversity receiver, a manufacturing set up for three by three fused biconical taper fiber couplers was developed. In order to characterize planar optical networks, a set up was constructed to measure the phase relations at 1523 nm. The optical frequency of the local oscillator laser has to be locked on to the frequency of the received optical signal. This locking circuit is described. A complete optical three by three phase diversity transmission system was developed that can be used as a testbed for subsystems. The sensitivity of the receiver at a bit error rate of 10 to the minus 9th power is -47.2 dBm, which is 4.2 dB better than the value of the specifications.

  8. Eight questions to ask before writing an article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Tim

    2017-06-02

    Health professionals often have to write articles for publication in academic journals. Many of them find this difficult and suffer from one or more variations of writer's block. A good way of avoiding these setbacks is to prepare thoroughly for the writing project, and this article proposes eight different questions writers can ask before they start. The first is whether they are in a good position to complete the task, and if not whether they should try to negotiate their way out of the project. If they commit to going ahead, writers should work out where they will find the necessary time, and set deadlines for ensuring that they do. They should also decide on their co-authors, because getting them involved early should make the rewriting more straightforward as well as reducing the danger of ghost authors emerging once the work has been done. Writers should put their research away and reflect on the most appropriate message - a simple sentence that sums up the main implication of the paper. Armed with this message, they can identify a suitable journal for publication - and thereafter can use articles in this journal to guide them on matters of substance and style. If the article is published in that target journal authors can consider that they have written a successful paper.

  9. Refugees' advice to physicians: how to ask about mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Patricia J

    2014-08-01

    About 45.2 million people were displaced from their homes in 2012 due to persecution, political conflict, generalized violence and human rights violations. Refugees who endure violence are at increased risk of developing chronic psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. The primary care visit may be the first opportunity to detect the devastating psychological effects of trauma. Physicians and refugees have identified communication barriers that inhibit discussions about mental health. In this study, refugees offer advice to physicians about how to assess the mental health effects of trauma. Ethnocultural methodology informed 13 focus groups with 111 refugees from Burma, Bhutan, Somali and Ethiopia. Refugees responded to questions concerning how physicians should ask about mental health in acceptable ways. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic categorization informed by Spradley's Developmental Research Sequence. Refugees recommended that physicians should take the time to make refugees comfortable, initiate direct conversations about mental health, inquire about the historical context of symptoms and provide psychoeducation about mental health and healing. Physicians may require specialized training to learn how to initiate conversations about mental health and provide direct education and appropriate mental health referrals in a brief medical appointment. To assist with making appropriate referrals, physicians may also benefit from education about evidence-based practices for treating symptoms of refugee trauma. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Automatic orbital GTAW welding: Highest quality welds for tomorrow's high-performance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henon, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic orbital gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG welding is certain to play an increasingly prominent role in tomorrow's technology. The welds are of the highest quality and the repeatability of automatic weldings is vastly superior to that of manual welding. Since less heat is applied to the weld during automatic welding than manual welding, there is less change in the metallurgical properties of the parent material. The possibility of accurate control and the cleanliness of the automatic GTAW welding process make it highly suitable to the welding of the more exotic and expensive materials which are now widely used in the aerospace and hydrospace industries. Titanium, stainless steel, Inconel, and Incoloy, as well as, aluminum can all be welded to the highest quality specifications automatically. Automatic orbital GTAW equipment is available for the fusion butt welding of tube-to-tube, as well as, tube to autobuttweld fittings. The same equipment can also be used for the fusion butt welding of up to 6 inch pipe with a wall thickness of up to 0.154 inches.

  11. Optimasi Penggunaan Lahan Kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti Untuk Properti Komersial Dengan Prinsip Highest and Best Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Darmawan Saputra Mahardika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Baturiti merupakan satu-satunya kecamatan di Kabupaten Tabanan yang berkembang dalam sektor ekonomi agrowisata karena lokasinya yang strategis dekat dengan berbagai obyek wisata terkenal. Dengan lokasi yang strategis, pembangunan untuk properti komersial tentu akan memberikan potensi keuntungan tinggi bagi investor yang memiliki lahan kosong di Kecamatan Baturiti. Kondisi seperti ini menyebabkan permintaan yang tinggi akan lahan, padahal ketersediaan lahan selalu berkurang. Pembangunan properti komersial di Kecamatan Baturiti perlu dioptimalisasi agar dicapai keuntungan maksimum bagi investor. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, investor yang ingin membangun di Kecamatan Baturiti memerlukan analisa untuk mendapatkan alternatif pemanfaatan lahan kosong. Lahan yang dianalisa merupakan lahan kosong belum terbangun seluas 22.175 m2 di Kecamatan Baturiti, Kabupaten Tabanan. Metode yang digunakan untuk mengetahui alternatif pendirian bangunan komersial yang memiliki nilai pasar tertinggi adalah Highest and Best Use (HBU. Dengan metode tersebut, pemilik lahan dapat mengetahui alternatif terbaik yang memenuhi syarat-syarat diijinkan secara legal, memungkinkan secara fisik, layak secara finansial, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum. Hasil yang diperoleh dari analisa Highest and Best Use ini adalah alternatif mixed-use berupa hotel dan toko souvenir dengan nilai lahan tertinggi dibandingkan alternatif lainnya sebesar Rp 7,950,714.60 per m2.

  12. A novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yukun; Ye, Fuxing; Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The plasma sprayed coatings are stacked by splats, which are regarded generally as the elementary units of coating. Many researchers have focused on the morphology and formation mechanism of splat. However, a novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects is proposed according to the nanohardness of splat in this paper. The effectiveness of this novel method was examined by experiments. Firstly, the microstructure of splats and coating, meanwhile the 3D topography of the splats were observed by SEM (SU1510) and video microscope (VHX-2000). Secondly, the nanohardness of splats was evaluated by nanoindentation (NHT) in order to be compared with microhardness of coating measured by microhardness tester (HV-1000A). The results show that the nanohardness of splats with diameter of 70 μm, 100 μm and 140 μm were in the scope of 11∼12 GPa while the microhardness of coating were in the range of 8∼9 GPa. Because the splats had not micro-defects such as pores and cracks in the nanohardness evaluated nano-zone, the nanohardness of the splats can be utilized to predict the highest hardness of coating without micro-defects. This method indicates the maximum of sprayed coating hardness and will reduce the test number to get high hardness coating for better wear resistance.

  13. Understanding, Treating, and Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventing STDs / Questions to Ask your Health Care Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... sexual partner Questions to Ask Your Health Care Professional How can I prevent getting an STD? If ...

  14. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your Hearing Professional Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... on decibel information. ) Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional What can I do to protect my hearing ...

  15. Analisa Highest and Best Use Pada Lahan Kosong Di Jemur Gayungan II Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finda Virgitta Faradiany

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan bisnis properti di Surabaya yang semakin pesat, mengakibatkan permintaan terhadap lahan semakin tinggi. Namun fakta di lapangan menampakkan hal yang sebaliknya karena ternyata masih terdapat lahan-lahan yang dibiarkan kosong tidak dimanfaatkan oleh pemiliknya. Kondisi yang demikian memerlukan efisiensi dan optimalisasi penggunaan lahan dengan mendirikan sebuah properti komersial yang memberikan keuntungan bagi pemilik serta lingkungan sekitarnya.Lahan “X” seluas 1786 m2 berlokasi di Jl. Jemur Gayungan II merupakan lahan kosong yang terletak di dekat daerah perkantoran dan berpotensi dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial. Penentuan nilai lahan “X” bergantung pada penggunaan lahan. Metode penilaian yang digunakan adalah analisa penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik atau Highest and Best Use (HBU yang secara legal diijinkan, secara fisik memungkinkan, layak secara finansial dan memiliki produktifitas maksimum. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan alternatif yang menghasilkan nilai lahan tertinggi dan produktivitas maksimum adalah hotel. Nilai lahan yang didapatkan sebesar Rp 9.722.718/m2 dengan produktivitas meningkat sebesar 486%.

  16. Failure of ETV in patients with the highest ETV success scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaris, Thomas J; Nazar, Ryan; Middlebrook, Emily; Gonda, David D; Jea, Andrew; Fulkerson, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a surgical alternative to placing a CSF shunt in certain patients with hydrocephalus. The ETV Success Score (ETVSS) is a reliable, simple method to estimate the success of the procedure by 6 months of postoperative follow-up. The highest score is 90, estimating a 90% chance of the ETV effectively treating hydrocephalus without requiring a shunt. Treatment with ETV fails in certain patients, despite their being the theoretically best candidates for the procedure. In this study the authors attempted to identify factors that further predicted success in patients with the highest ETVSSs. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of all patients treated with ETV at 3 institutions. Demographic, radiological, and clinical data were recorded. All patients by definition were older than 1 year, had obstructive hydrocephalus, and did not have a prior shunt. Failure of ETV was defined as the need for a shunt by 1 year. The ETV was considered a success if the patient did not require another surgery (either shunt placement or a repeat endoscopic procedure) by 1 year. A statistical analysis was performed to identify factors associated with success or failure. RESULTS Fifty-nine patients met the entry criteria for the study. Eleven patients (18.6%) required further surgery by 1 year. All of these patients received a shunt. The presenting symptom of lethargy statistically correlated with success (p = 0.0126, odds ratio [OR] = 0.072). The preoperative radiological finding of transependymal flow (p = 0.0375, OR 0.158) correlated with success. A postoperative larger maximum width of the third ventricle correlated with failure (p = 0.0265). CONCLUSIONS The preoperative findings of lethargy and transependymal flow statistically correlated with success. This suggests that the best candidates for ETV are those with a relatively acute elevation of intracranial pressure. Cases without these findings may represent the failures in this

  17. The highest velocity and the shortest duration permitting attainment of VO2max during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Turnes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n2p226   The severe-intensity domain has important applications for the prescription of running training and the elaboration of experimental designs. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the validity of a previously proposed model to estimate the shortest exercise duration (TLOW and the highest velocity (VHIGH at which VO2max is reached during running, and 2 to evaluate the effects of aerobic training status on these variables. Eight runners and eight physically active subjects performed several treadmill running exercise tests to fatigue in order to mathematically estimate and to experimentally determine TLOW and VHIGH. The relationship between the time to achieve VO2max and time to exhaustion (Tlim was used to estimate TLOW. VHIGH was estimated using the critical velocity model. VHIGH was assumed to be the highest velocity at which VO2 was equal to or higher than the average VO2max minus one standard deviation. TLOW was defined as Tlim associated with VHIGH. Runners presented better aerobic fitness and higher VHIGH (22.2 ± 1.9 km.h-1 than active subjects (20.0 ± 2.1 km.h-1. However, TLOW did not differ between groups (runners: 101 ± 39 s; active subjects: 100 ± 35 s. TLOW and VHIGH were not well estimated by the model proposed, with high coefficients of variation (> 6% and a low correlation coefficient (r<0.70, a fact reducing the validity of the model. It was concluded that aerobic training status positively affected only VHIGH. Furthermore, the model proposed presented low validity to estimate the upper boundary of the severe-intensity domain (i.e., VHIGH, irrespective of the subjects’ training status.

  18. Model solutions and properties for diagnosing student programs in Ask-Elle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Johan; Binsbergen, Thomas~van; Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Ask-Elle is an interactive tutor that supports the stepwise development of simple functional programs. Using Ask-Elle students receive feedback about whether or not they are on the right track, they can ask for a hint when they are stuck, and get suggestions about how to refactor their program. Our

  19. Identification of multiple sclerosis patients at highest risk of cognitive impairment using an integrated brain magnetic resonance imaging assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, T; Vaneckova, M; Sormani, M P; Krasensky, J; Sobisek, L; Dusankova, J Blahova; Seidl, Z; Havrdova, E; Kalincik, T; Benedict, R H B; Horakova, D

    2017-02-01

    While impaired cognitive performance is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), it has been largely underdiagnosed. Here a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening algorithm is proposed to identify patients at highest risk of cognitive impairment. The objective was to examine whether assessment of lesion burden together with whole brain atrophy on MRI improves our ability to identify cognitively impaired MS patients. Of the 1253 patients enrolled in the study, 1052 patients with all cognitive, volumetric MRI and clinical data available were included in the analysis. Brain MRI and neuropsychological assessment with the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis were performed. Multivariable logistic regression and individual prediction analysis were used to investigate the associations between MRI markers and cognitive impairment. The results of the primary analysis were validated at two subsequent time points (months 12 and 24). The prevalence of cognitive impairment was greater in patients with low brain parenchymal fraction (BPF) (3.5 ml) than in patients with high BPF (>0.85) and low T2-LV (patients predicted cognitive impairment with 83% specificity, 82% negative predictive value, 51% sensitivity and 75% overall accuracy. The risk of confirmed cognitive decline over the follow-up was greater in patients with high T2-LV (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and low BPF (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.7). The integrated MRI assessment of lesion burden and brain atrophy may improve the stratification of MS patients who may benefit from cognitive assessment. © 2016 EAN.

  20. Breaststroke swimmers moderate internal work increases toward the highest stroke frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jessy; Olstad, Bjørn Harald; Minetti, Alberto Enrico; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Rouard, Annie Hélène

    2015-09-18

    A model to predict the mechanical internal work of breaststroke swimming was designed. It allowed us to explore the frequency-internal work relationship in aquatic locomotion. Its accuracy was checked against internal work values calculated from kinematic sequences of eight participants swimming at three different self-chosen paces. Model predictions closely matched experimental data (0.58 ± 0.07 vs 0.59 ± 0.05 J kg(-1)m(-1); t(23)=-0.30, P=0.77), which was reflected in a slope of the major axis regression between measured and predicted total internal work whose 95% confidence intervals included the value of 1 (β=0.84, [0.61, 1.07], N=24). The model shed light on swimmers ability to moderate the increase in internal work at high stroke frequencies. This strategy of energy minimization has never been observed before in humans, but is present in quadrupedal and octopedal animal locomotion. This was achieved through a reduced angular excursion of the heaviest segments (7.2 ± 2.9° and 3.6 ± 1.5° for the thighs and trunk, respectively, Paquatic movements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  2. THE IMPACT OF FREQUENCY STANDARDS ON COHERENCE IN VLBI AT THE HIGHEST FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioja, M.; Dodson, R. [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Asaki, Y. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuou, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Hartnett, J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Tingay, S., E-mail: maria.rioja@icrar.org [ICRAR, Curtin University, Perth (Australia)

    2012-10-01

    We have carried out full imaging simulation studies to explore the impact of frequency standards in millimeter and submillimeter very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), focusing on the coherence time and sensitivity. In particular, we compare the performance of the H-maser, traditionally used in VLBI, to that of ultra-stable cryocooled sapphire oscillators over a range of observing frequencies, weather conditions, and analysis strategies. Our simulations show that at the highest frequencies, the losses induced by H-maser instabilities are comparable to those from high-quality tropospheric conditions. We find significant benefits in replacing H-masers with cryocooled sapphire oscillator based frequency references in VLBI observations at frequencies above 175 GHz in sites which have the best weather conditions; at 350 GHz we estimate a 20%-40% increase in sensitivity over that obtained when the sites have H-masers, for coherence losses of 20%-10%, respectively. Maximum benefits are to be expected by using co-located Water Vapor Radiometers for atmospheric correction. In this case, we estimate a 60%-120% increase in sensitivity over the H-maser at 350 GHz.

  3. Analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada Lahan Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaluddin Akmaluddin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laju pertumbuhan penduduk dan tingkat perekonomian yang semakin meningkat di  kota-kota besar seperti Surabaya, bertolak belakang dengan  ketersediaan lahan yang terbatas. Selayaknya properti yang akan dibangun di atas suatu lahan dapat memberikan manfaat yang maksimal serta efisien agar hasilnya dapat dirasakan demi pembangunan wilayah tersebut. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan perhitungan  penggunaan yang paling memungkinkan dan diizinkan dari suatu tanah kosong atau tanah yang  sudah dibangun, dimana secara fisik dimungkinkan, didukung atau dibenarkan oleh peraturan, layak secara keuangan dan menghasilkan nilai tertinggi. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan analisis Highest and Best Use (HBU pada lahan di Jl. Gubeng Raya No. 54 Surabaya seluas 1.150 m2 yang direncanakan akan dibangun hotel. Lahan tersebut berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi properti komersial seperti hotel, apartemen, perkantoran dan pertokoan. Analisis tersebut menggunakan tinjauan terhadap aspek fisik, legal, finansial dan produktivitas maksimumnya. Dari hasil penelitian ini didapatkan alternatif properti komersial hotel yang memiliki penggunaan tertinggi dan terbaik pada pemanfaatan lahan dengan nilai lahan Rp. 67.069.980,31/ m2.

  4. Analisa Alternatif Revitalisasi Pasar Gubeng Masjid Surabaya dengan Metode Highest And Best Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Swalia Mustika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam era globalisasi ini banyak bermunculan pasar-pasar modern yang dibangun dengan segala kelebihan dan fasilitasnya. Munculnya pasar-pasar modern membuat keberadaan pasar tradisional tersudut, tidak terkecuali Pasar Gubeng Masjid Surabaya. Namun keberadaan pasar yang strategis yaitu dekat dengan perkantoran, hotel dan pusat perbelanjaan, serta stasiun kereta api membuat pasar tersebut memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi properti yang memberikan nilai lahan tertinggi dan terbaik. Oleh karena itu, perlu dilakukan analisa Highest and Best Use (HBU yang dapat memberikan masukan untuk melakukan investasi terbaik. Analisa HBU ini menggunakan empat kriteria yaitu secara fisik dimungkinkan, secara legal diizinkan , secara finansial layak, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum. Alternatif yang memiliki produktivitas maksimum tersebut dapat dijadikan sebagai nilai lahan tertinggi dan terbaik pada lahan Pasar Gubeng Masjid Surabaya. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan alternatif yang menghasilkan nilai lahan tertinggi dan produktivitas maksimum adalah alternatif pengembangan multi use pasar dengan pusat perbelanjaan.. Nilai lahan yang didapatkan sebesar Rp 46.946.524,-/m2 dengan produktivitas meningkat sebesar 312%.

  5. Transitional care for the highest risk patients: findings of a randomised control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Hock Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions to prevent readmissions of patients at highest risk have not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to determine if a post-discharge transitional care programme can reduce readmissions of such patients in Singapore. Methods: We randomised 840 patients with two or more unscheduled readmissions in the prior 90 days and Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity of patient, Emergency department utilisation score ≥10 to the intervention programme (n = 419 or control (n = 421. Patients allocated to the intervention group received post-discharge surveillance by a multidisciplinary integrated care team and early review in the clinic. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one unscheduled readmission within 30 days after discharge. Results: We found no statistically significant reduction in readmissions or emergency department visits in patients on the intervention group compared to usual care. However, patients in the intervention group reported greater patient satisfaction (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Any beneficial effect of interventions initiated after discharge is small for high-risk patients with multiple comorbidity and complex care needs. Future transitional care interventions should focus on providing the entire cycle of care for such patients starting from time of admission to final transition to the primary care setting. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, no NCT02325752

  6. Transitional care for the highest risk patients: findings of a randomised control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheng Hock Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions to prevent readmissions of patients at highest risk have not been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a randomised controlled trial to determine if a post-discharge transitional care programme can reduce readmissions of such patients in Singapore.Methods: We randomised 840 patients with two or more unscheduled readmissions in the prior 90 days and Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity of patient, Emergency department utilisation score ≥10 to the intervention programme (n = 419 or control (n = 421. Patients allocated to the intervention group received post-discharge surveillance by a multidisciplinary integrated care team and early review in the clinic. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one unscheduled readmission within 30 days after discharge.Results: We found no statistically significant reduction in readmissions or emergency department visits in patients on the intervention group compared to usual care. However, patients in the intervention group reported greater patient satisfaction (p < 0.001.Conclusion: Any beneficial effect of interventions initiated after discharge is small for high-risk patients with multiple comorbidity and complex care needs. Future transitional care interventions should focus on providing the entire cycle of care for such patients starting from time of admission to final transition to the primary care setting.Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, no NCT02325752

  7. Measurement of radon concentration in dwellings in the region of highest lung cancer incidence in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoliana, B.; Rohmingliana, P.C.; Sahoo, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of radon exhalation from soil and its concentration in indoor is found to be helpful in many investigations such as health risk assessment and others as radiation damage to bronchial cells which eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. The fact that Aizawl District, Mizoram, India has the highest lung cancer incidence rates among males and females in Age Adjusted Rate (AAR) in India as declared by Population Based Cancer Registry Report 2008 indicates the need for quantification of radon and its anomalies attached to it. Measurement of radon concentration had been carried out inside the dwellings in Aizawl district, Mizoram. A time integrated method of measurement was employed by using a solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) type (LR-115 films) kept in a twin cup dosimeter for measurement of concentration of radon and thoron. The dosimeters were suspended over bed rooms or living rooms in selected dwellings. They were deployed for a period of about 120 days at a time in 63 houses which were selected according to their place of location viz. fault region, places where fossil remains were found and geologically unidentified region. After the desired period of exposure, the detectors were retrieved and chemically etched which were then counted by using a spark counter. The recorded nuclear tract densities are then converted into air concentrations of Radon and Thoron

  8. A System with a Choice of Highest-Bidder-First and FIFO Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Bodas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Service systems using a highest-bidder-first (HBF policy have been studied in queueing literature for various applications and in economics literature to model corruption. Such systems have applications in modern problems like scheduling jobs in cloud computing scenarios or placement of ads on web pages. However, using a HBF service is like using a spot market and may not be preferred by many users. For such users, it may be good to provide a simple scheduler, e.g., a FIFO service. Further, in some situations it may even be necessary that a free service queue operates alongside a HBF queue. Motivated by such a scenario, we propose and analyze a service system with a FIFO server and a HBF server in parallel. Arriving customers are from a heterogeneous population with different valuations of their delay costs. They strategically choose between FIFO and HBF service; if HBF is chosen, they also choose the bid value to optimize an individual cost. We characterize the Wardrop equilibrium in such a system and analyze the revenue to the server. We see that when the total capacity is fixed and is shared between the FIFO and HBF servers, revenue is maximised when the FIFO capacity is non zero. However, if the FIFO server is added to an HBF server, then the revenue decreases with increasing FIFO capacity. We also discuss the case when customers are allowed to balk.

  9. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  10. A cosmopolitan design of teacher education and a progressive orientation towards the highest good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Roth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss a Kantian conception of cosmopolitan education. It suggests that we pursue the highest good – an object of morality – in the world together, and requires that we acknowledge the value of freedom, render ourselves both efficacious and autonomous in practice, cultivate our judgment, and unselfishly co-operate in the co-ordination and fulfilment of our morally permissible ends. Now, such an accomplishment is one of the most difficult challenges, and may not be achieved in our time, if ever. In the first part of the paper I show that we, according to Kant, have to interact with each other, and comply with the moral law in the quest of general happiness, not merely personal happiness. In the second part, I argue that a cosmopolitan design of teacher education in Kantian terms can establish moral character, even though good moral character is ultimately the outcome of free choice. Such a design can do so by optimizing the freedom of those concerned to set and pursue their morally permissible ends, and to cultivate their judgment through the use of examples. This requires, inter alia, that they be enabled, and take responsibility, to think for themselves, in the position of everyone else, and consistently; and to strengthen their virtue or self-mastery to comply, in practice, with the moral law.

  11. Oxygen pathway modeling estimates high reactive oxygen species production above the highest permanent human habitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Cano

    Full Text Available The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS from the inner mitochondrial membrane is one of many fundamental processes governing the balance between health and disease. It is well known that ROS are necessary signaling molecules in gene expression, yet when expressed at high levels, ROS may cause oxidative stress and cell damage. Both hypoxia and hyperoxia may alter ROS production by changing mitochondrial Po2 (PmO2. Because PmO2 depends on the balance between O2 transport and utilization, we formulated an integrative mathematical model of O2 transport and utilization in skeletal muscle to predict conditions to cause abnormally high ROS generation. Simulations using data from healthy subjects during maximal exercise at sea level reveal little mitochondrial ROS production. However, altitude triggers high mitochondrial ROS production in muscle regions with high metabolic capacity but limited O2 delivery. This altitude roughly coincides with the highest location of permanent human habitation. Above 25,000 ft., more than 90% of exercising muscle is predicted to produce abnormally high levels of ROS, corresponding to the "death zone" in mountaineering.

  12. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches. PMID:26212024

  13. Medical school dropout--testing at admission versus selection by highest grades as predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wallstedt, Birgitta; Korsholm, Lars; Eika, Berit

    2011-11-01

    Very few studies have reported on the effect of admission tests on medical school dropout. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of non-grade-based admission testing versus grade-based admission relative to subsequent dropout. This prospective cohort study followed six cohorts of medical students admitted to the medical school at the University of Southern Denmark during 2002-2007 (n=1544). Half of the students were admitted based on their prior achievement of highest grades (Strategy 1) and the other half took a composite non-grade-based admission test (Strategy 2). Educational as well as social predictor variables (doctor-parent, origin, parenthood, parents living together, parent on benefit, university-educated parents) were also examined. The outcome of interest was students' dropout status at 2 years after admission. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model dropout. Strategy 2 (admission test) students had a lower relative risk for dropping out of medical school within 2 years of admission (odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39-0.80). Only the admission strategy, the type of qualifying examination and the priority given to the programme on the national application forms contributed significantly to the dropout model. Social variables did not predict dropout and neither did Strategy 2 admission test scores. Selection by admission testing appeared to have an independent, protective effect on dropout in this setting. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  14. Towards highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busold, Simon; Schumacher, Dennis; Brabetz, Christian; Jahn, Diana; Kroll, Florian; Deppert, Oliver; Schramm, Ulrich; Cowan, Thomas E.; Blažević, Abel; Bagnoud, Vincent; Roth, Markus

    2015-07-01

    A laser-driven, multi-MeV-range ion beamline has been installed at the GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research. The high-power laser PHELIX drives the very short (picosecond) ion acceleration on μm scale, with energies ranging up to 28.4 MeV for protons in a continuous spectrum. The necessary beam shaping behind the source is accomplished by applying magnetic ion lenses like solenoids and quadrupoles and a radiofrequency cavity. Based on the unique beam properties from the laser-driven source, high-current single bunches could be produced and characterized in a recent experiment: At a central energy of 7.8 MeV, up to 5 × 108 protons could be re-focused in time to a FWHM bunch length of τ = (462 ± 40) ps via phase focusing. The bunches show a moderate energy spread between 10% and 15% (ΔE/E0 at FWHM) and are available at 6 m distance to the source und thus separated from the harsh laser-matter interaction environment. These successful experiments represent the basis for developing novel laser-driven ion beamlines and accessing highest peak intensities for ultra-short MeV-range ion bunches.

  15. Highest-order optical phonon-mediated relaxation in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, Yasuaki; Nomura, Mitsuhiro; Okuno, Tsuyoshi; Terai, Yoshikazu; Kuroda, Shinji; Takita, K.

    2003-01-01

    The highest 19th-order longitudinal optical (LO) phonon-mediated relaxation was observed in photoluminescence excitation spectra of CdTe self-assembled quantum dots grown in ZnTe. Hot excitons photoexcited highly in the ZnTe barrier layer are relaxed into the wetting-layer state by emitting multiple LO phonons of the barrier layer successively. Below the wetting-layer state, the LO phonons involved in the relaxation are transformed to those of interfacial Zn x Cd 1-x Te surrounding CdTe quantum dots. The ZnTe-like and CdTe-like LO phonons of Zn x Cd 1-x Te and lastly acoustic phonons are emitted in the relaxation into the CdTe dots. The observed main relaxation is the fast relaxation directly into CdTe quantum dots and is not the relaxation through either the wetting-layer quantum well or the band bottom of the ZnTe barrier layer. This observation shows very efficient optical phonon-mediated relaxation of hot excitons excited highly in the ZnTe conduction band through not only the ZnTe extended state but also localized state in the CdTe quantum dots reflecting strong exciton-LO phonon interaction of telluride compounds

  16. Which Environmental Factors Have the Highest Impact on the Performance of People Experiencing Difficulties in Capacity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Loidl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Disability is understood by the World Health Organization (WHO as the outcome of the interaction between a health condition and personal and environmental factors. Comprehensive data about environmental factors is therefore essential to understand and influence disability. We aimed to identify which environmental factors have the highest impact on the performance of people with mild, moderate and severe difficulties in capacity, who are at risk of experiencing disability to different extents, using data from a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey in Cambodia and random forest regression. Hindering or facilitating aspects of places to socialize in community activities, transportation and natural environment as well as use and need of personal assistance and use of medication on a regular basis were the most important environmental factors across groups. Hindering or facilitating aspects of the general environment were the most relevant in persons experiencing mild levels of difficulties in capacity, while social support, attitudes of others and use of medication on a regular basis were highly relevant for the performance of persons experiencing moderate to higher levels of difficulties in capacity. Additionally, we corroborate the high importance of the use and need of assistive devices for people with severe difficulties in capacity.

  17. Nonlinear Analysis to Detect if Excellent Nursing Work Environments Have Highest Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalicchio, Giuseppe; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Bruyneel, Luk

    2017-09-01

    To detect potentially nonlinear associations between nurses' work environment and nurse staffing on the one hand and nurse burnout on the other hand. A cross-sectional multicountry study for which data collection using a survey of 33,731 registered nurses in 12 European countries took place during 2009 to 2010. A semiparametric latent variable model that describes both linear and potentially nonlinear associations between burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment) and work environment (Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index: managerial support for nursing, doctor-nurse collegial relations, promotion of care quality) and staffing (patient-to-nurse ratio). Similar conclusions are reached from linear and nonlinear models estimating the association between work environment and burnout. For staffing, an increase in the patient-to-nurse ratio is associated with an increase in emotional exhaustion. At about 15 patients per nurse, no further increase in emotional exhaustion is seen. Absence of evidence for diminishing returns of improving work environments suggests that continuous improvement and achieving excellence in nurse work environments pays off strongly in terms of lower nurse-reported burnout rates. Nurse staffing policy would benefit from a larger number of studies that identify specific minimum as well as maximum thresholds at which inputs affect nurse and patient outcomes. Nurse burnout is omnipresent and has previously been shown to be related to worse patient outcomes. Additional increments in characteristics of excellent work environments, up to the highest possible standard, correspond to lower nurse burnout. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Lost opportunities in HIV prevention: programmes miss places where exposures are highest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild F; Siziya, Seter; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2008-01-01

    Background Efforts at HIV prevention that focus on high risk places might be more effective and less stigmatizing than those targeting high risk groups. The objective of the present study was to assess risk behaviour patterns, signs of current preventive interventions and apparent gaps in places where the risk of HIV transmission is high and in communities with high HIV prevalence. Methods The PLACE method was used to collect data. Inhabitants of selected communities in Lusaka and Livingstone were interviewed about where people met new sexual partners. Signs of HIV preventive activities in these places were recorded. At selected venues, people were interviewed about their sexual behaviour. Peer educators and staff of NGOs were also interviewed. Results The places identified were mostly bars, restaurants or sherbeens, and fewer than 20% reported any HIV preventive activity such as meetings, pamphlets or posters. In 43% of places in Livingstone and 26% in Lusaka, condoms were never available. There were few active peer educators. Among the 432 persons in Lusaka and 676 in Livingstone who were invited for interview about sexual behaviour, consistent condom use was relatively high in Lusaka (77%) but low in Livingstone (44% of men and 34% of women). Having no condom available was the most common reason for not using one. Condom use in Livingstone was higher among individuals socializing in places where condoms always were available. Conclusion In the places studied we found a high prevalence of behaviours with a high potential for HIV transmission but few signs of HIV preventive interventions. Covering the gaps in prevention in these high exposure places should be given the highest priority. PMID:18218124

  19. How to identify the person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev D.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current version of the resolution of the RF Supreme Court Plenum of June 10, 2010 N 12, clarifying the provisions of the law on liability for crimes committed by a person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy (Part 4 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, is criticized. Evaluative character of the considered aggravating circumstance doesn’t allow to develop clear criteria for identifying the leaders of the criminal environment. Basing on the theory provisions and court practice, the authors suggest three criteria. The first criterion is specific actions including: establishment and leadership of the criminal association (criminal organization; coordinating criminal acts; creating sustainable links between different organized groups acting independently; dividing spheres of criminal influence, sharing criminal income and other criminal activities, indicating person’s authority and leadership in a particular area or in a particular sphere of activity. The second is having money, valuables and other property obtained by criminal means, without the person’s direct participation in their acquisition; transferring money, valuables and other property to that person systematically, without legal grounds (unjust enrichment; spending that money, valuables and other property to carry out criminal activities (crimes themselves and conditions of their commission. The third is international criminal ties manifested in committing one of the crimes under Part 1 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, if this crime is transnational in nature; ties with extremist and (or terrorist organizations, as well as corruption ties. The court may use one or several of these criteria.

  20. Analisa Penggunaan Tertinggi dan Terbaik (Highest and Best Use Analysis pada Lahan Pasar Turi Lama Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida Herradiyanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasar  Turi  merupakan  pasar  yang  telah lama  menjadi  ikon  perdagangan  tidak  hanya  di Surabaya,  namun  juga  di  Indonesia  Timur.  Kebakaran hebat yang terjadi pada Juli 2007 telah menghanguskan bangunan Pasar Turi. Aktivitas perdagangan di tempat tersebut  otomatis  terhenti.  Hingga saat ini, lahan Pasar Turi  Tahap  III  atau  yang  biasa  disebut  Pasar  Turi Lama  masih  terbengkalai.  Padahal,  lahan  seluas  16281 m2tersebut terletak di wilayah sentra perdagangan dan cocok  untuk  dikembangkan  menjadi properti komersial seperti perkantoran, pertokoan, rumah toko (ruko, danpasar tradisional. Salah  satu  cara  untuk  menentukan  penggunaan lahan Pasar Turi Lama adalah dengan metode Highest and  Best  Use  (HBU.  HBU  adalah  suatu  metode  untuk menentukan  penggunaan  aset  yang  memberikan peruntukan  paling  optimal sehingga dapat memberikan nilai  lahan  tertinggi.  Kriteria  HBU  yaitu  diijinkan secara  legal,  memungkinkan  secara  fisik,  layak  secara finansial, dan memiliki produktivitas maksimum.Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan alternatif pertokoan sebagai  alternatif  penggunaan  lahan  terbaik  dengan nilai  lahan  tertinggi  yaitu  sebesar  Rp27.994.695,78/m2dengan produktivitas maksimum sebesar  124%.

  1. Risk of influenza transmission in a hospital emergency department during the week of highest incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Esteve, Miguel; Bautista-Rentero, Daniel; Zanón-Viguer, Vicente

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the risk of influenza transmission in patients coming to a hospital emergency department during the week of highest incidence and to analyze factors associated with transmission. Retrospective observational analysis of a cohort of patients treated in the emergency room during the 2014-2015 flu season. The following variables were collected from records: recorded influenza diagnosis, results of a rapid influenza confirmation test, point of exposure (emergency department, outpatient clinic, or the community), age, sex, flu vaccination or not, number of emergency visits, time spent in the waiting room, and total time in the hospital. We compiled descriptive statistics and performed bivariate and multivariate analyses by means of a Poisson regression to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% CIs. The emergency department patients had a RR of contracting influenza 3.29 times that of the communityexposed population (95% CI, 1.53-7.08, P=.002); their risk was 2.05 times greater than that of outpatient clinic visitors (95% CI, 1.04-4.02, P=.036). Emergency patients under the age of 15 years had a 5.27 greater risk than older patients (95% CI, 1.59-17.51; P=.007). The RR of patients visiting more than once was 11.43 times greater (95% CI, 3.58-36.44; P<.001). The risk attributable to visiting the emergency department risk was 70.5%, whereas risk attributable to community exposure was 2%. The risk of contracting influenza is greater for emergency department patients than for the general population or for patients coming to the hospital for outpatient clinic visits. Patients under the age of 15 years incur greater risk.

  2. Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran C R Fox

    Full Text Available The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1-15,000 hrs experience. Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a 'body-scanning' meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices.

  3. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Rickard O; Behrens, Claus F

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise conversion of CT number to density and proper differentiation between air and lung. Existing tools do not address this issue specifically. Moreover, their density conversion may depend on the number of media used. Differentiation between air and lung is an important task in MC treatment planning and misassignment may lead to local dose errors on the order of 10%. A novel algorithm, CTC-ask, is presented in this study. It enables locally confined constraints for the media assignment and is independent of the number of media used for the conversion of CT number to density. MC compatible phantoms were generated for two clinical cases using a CT-conversion scheme implemented in both CTC-ask and the DICOM-RT toolbox. Full MC dose calculation was subsequently conducted and the resulting dose distributions were compared. The DICOM-RT toolbox inaccurately assigned lung in 9.9% and 12.2% of the voxels located outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors. (note)

  4. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.

  5. Consumer Airfare Report: Table 5 - Detailed Fare Information For Highest and Lowest Fare Markets Under 750 Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides detailed fare information for highest and lowest fare markets under 750 miles. For a more complete explanation, please read the introductory information at...

  6. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  7. How Are Questions That Students Ask in High Level Mathematics Classes Linked to General Giftedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, Roza; Koichu, Boris; Berman, Avi; Dinur, Sariga

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a part of a larger study, in which we asked "How are learning and teaching of mathematics at high level linked to students' general giftedness?" We consider asking questions, especially student-generated questions, as indicators of quality of instructional interactions. In the part of the study presented in this…

  8. Ask-Elle: an adaptable programming tutor for Haskell giving automated feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, J.T.; Binsbergen, Thomas van

    2015-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a

  9. Ask-Elle: an Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerdes, A.; Heeren, B.J.; Jeuring, J.T.; Binsbergen, Thomas~van

    2017-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a

  10. The AskA Starter Kit: How To Build and Maintain Digital Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Kasowitz, Abby S.

    This Starter Kit is designed to help organizations and individuals who wish to offer human-mediated information services via the Internet to users in the K-12 community. A six-step process is proposed for organizations to follow in creating an "AskA" service. This process addresses all aspects involved in building and maintaining an AskA…

  11. What Are Youth Asking about Drugs? A Report of NIDA Drug Facts Chat Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Hoefinger, Heidi; Linn-Walton, Rebecca; Aikins, Ross; Falkin, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    The current study analyzes a sample of questions about drugs asked online by youth who participated in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) "Drug Facts Chat Day." The types of drugs youth asked about were coded into 17 substance categories, and the topics they raised were coded into seven thematic categories. The top five…

  12. Questions Asked by Primary Student Teachers about Observations of a Science Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtee, Maija; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Suomela, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Teacher questioning has a central role in guiding pupils to learn to make scientific observations and inferences. We asked 110 primary student teachers to write down what kind of questions they would ask their pupils about a demonstration. Almost half of the student teachers posed questions that were either inappropriate or presupposed that the…

  13. 32.1 Gbit/s InverseRZ-ASK-DQPSK modulation with low implementation penalty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tokle, Torger; Serbay, M.; Rosenkranz, W.

    2006-01-01

    32.1 Gbit/s InverseRZ-ASK-DQPSK is experimentally investigated using a new InverseRZ generation method. We demonstrate......32.1 Gbit/s InverseRZ-ASK-DQPSK is experimentally investigated using a new InverseRZ generation method. We demonstrate...

  14. Ask-Elle: An Adaptable Programming Tutor for Haskell Giving Automated Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Alex; Heeren, Bastiaan; Jeuring, Johan; van Binsbergen, L. Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Ask-Elle is a tutor for learning the higher-order, strongly-typed functional programming language Haskell. It supports the stepwise development of Haskell programs by verifying the correctness of incomplete programs, and by providing hints. Programming exercises are added to Ask-Elle by providing a task description for the exercise, one or more…

  15. If You or Someone You Love is Very Ill...Ask Tough Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you or someone you love is very ill... ask tough questions* Ask Your Doctor... 1 Will you talk openly and candidly with me and my family ... make decisions about my care? 7 Will you still be available to me even when I’m ...

  16. SCO2 induces p53-mediated apoptosis by Thr845 phosphorylation of ASK-1 and dissociation of the ASK-1-Trx complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Esha; Gogna, Rajan; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Bhatt, Madan; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Pati, Uttam

    2013-04-01

    p53 prevents cancer via cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and the maintenance of genome stability. p53 also regulates energy-generating metabolic pathways such as oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis via transcriptional regulation of SCO2 and TIGAR. SCO2, a cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor, is a metallochaperone which is involved in the biogenesis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Here we have shown that SCO2 functions as an apoptotic protein in tumor xenografts, thus providing an alternative pathway for p53-mediated apoptosis. SCO2 increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces dissociation of the protein complex between apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase [MAPKKK]) and its cellular inhibitor, the redox-active protein thioredoxin (Trx). Furthermore, SCO2 induces phosphorylation of ASK-1 at the Thr(845) residue, resulting in the activation of the ASK-1 kinase pathway. The phosphorylation of ASK-1 induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases 4 and 7 (MAP2K4/7) and MAP2K3/6, which switches the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)/p38-dependent apoptotic cascades in cancer cells. Exogenous addition of the SCO2 gene to hypoxic cancer cells and hypoxic tumors induces apoptosis and causes significant regression of tumor xenografts. We have thus discovered a novel apoptotic function of SCO2, which activates the ASK-1 kinase pathway in switching "on" an alternate mode of p53-mediated apoptosis. We propose that SCO2 might possess a novel tumor suppressor function via the ROS-ASK-1 kinase pathway and thus could be an important candidate for anticancer gene therapy.

  17. Effects of presentation modality on team awareness and choice accuracy in a simulated police team task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streefkerk, J.W.; Wiering, C.; Esch van-Bussemakers, M.; Neerincx, M.

    2008-01-01

    Team awareness is important when asking team members for assistance, for example in the police domain. This paper investigates how presentation modality (visual or auditory) of relevant team information and communication influences team awareness and choice accuracy in a collaborative team task. An

  18. Effects of Stimulus Octave and Timbre on the Tuning Accuracy of Advanced College Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byo, James L.; Schlegel, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of octave and timbre on advanced college musicians' (N = 63) ability to tune their instruments. We asked: "Are there differences in tuning accuracy due to octave (B-flat 2, B-flat 4) and stimulus timbre (oboe, clarinet, electronic tuner, tuba)?" and "To what extent do participants'…

  19. Fast and Confident: Postdicting Eyewitness Identification Accuracy in a Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Sporer, Siegfried L.

    2009-01-01

    The combined postdictive value of postdecision confidence, decision time, and Remember-Know-Familiar (RKF) judgments as markers of identification accuracy was evaluated with 10 targets and 720 participants. In a pedestrian area, passers-by were asked for directions. Identifications were made from target-absent or target-present lineups. Fast…

  20. Accuracy Feedback Improves Word Learning from Context: Evidence from a Meaning-Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A.; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Hodges, Leslie; Crossley, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The present study asked whether accuracy feedback on a meaning generation task would lead to improved contextual word learning (CWL). Active generation can facilitate learning by increasing task engagement and memory retrieval, which strengthens new word representations. However, forced generation results in increased errors, which can be…

  1. Highest weight generating functions for hyperKähler T{sup ⋆}(G/H) spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ramgoolam, Sanjaye [Centre for Research in String Theory,School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain)

    2016-10-05

    We develop an efficient procedure for counting holomorphic functions on a hyperKahler cone that has a resolution as a cotangent bundle of a homogeneous space by providing a formula for computing the corresponding Highest Weight Generating function.

  2. Influence of sports games classes in specialized sections on formation of healthy lifestyle at students of the highest educational institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kudryavtsev, M.; Galimova, A.; Alshuvayli, Kh.; Altuvayni, A.

    2018-01-01

    In modern society, the problem of formation of healthy lifestyle at youth, in particular, at students of the highest educational institutions is very relevant. Sport is a good mean for motivation, in this case – sports games. Purpose: to reveal consequences of participation in sports games and influence of these actions on healthy lifestyle of students of the highest educational institutions, to designate a role of classes in the sections, specializing in preparation for sports games in this ...

  3. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Ask Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusak, Laurence (Editor); Cohen, Don (Editor); Ellis, Kerry (Editor); Kohut, Matt (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The topics covered include: The Summer of Hydrogen; Leading Your Leaders; Dawn: Cooperation, not Control; Best Buy: Planning for Disaster The Astronaut Glove Challenge: Big Innovation from a (Very) Small Team; Using the Space Glove to Teach Spatial Thinking; The Power of Story; Interview with Jay O'Callahan; Learning from Space Entrepreneurs; Featured Invention: Laser Scaling Device; Reaching for the APEX at Ames; The Project Manager Who Saved His Country; Choosing and Developing the Right Leadership Styles for Projects; and The Costs of Knowledge.

  5. Forecast Accuracy Uncertainty and Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Han; Dong Hong; Mitch Warachka

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that stock price momentum and earnings momentum can result from uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of cash flow forecasts. Our model has multiple information sources issuing cash flow forecasts for a stock. The investor combines these forecasts into an aggregate cash flow estimate that has minimal mean-squared forecast error. This aggregate estimate weights each cash flow forecast by the estimated accuracy of its issuer, which is obtained from their past forecast errors. Mome...

  6. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  7. Speed and accuracy of visual image discrimination by rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReinagel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade-off between speed and accuracy of sensory discrimination has most often been studying using sensory stimuli that evolve over time, such as random dot motion discrimination tasks. We previously reported that when rats perform motion discrimination, correct trials have longer reaction times than errors, accuracy increases with reaction time, and reaction time increases with stimulus ambiguity. In such experiments, new sensory information is continually presented, which could partly explain interactions between reaction time and accuracy. The present study shows that a changing physical stimulus is not essential to those findings. Freely behaving rats were trained to discriminate between two static visual images in a self-paced, 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC reaction time task. Each trial was initiated by the rat, and the two images were presented simultaneously and persisted until the rat responded, with no time limit. Reaction times were longer in correct trials than in error trials, and accuracy increased with reaction time, comparable to results previously reported for rats performing motion discrimination. In the motion task, coherence has been used to vary discrimination difficulty. Here morphs between the previously learned images were used to parametrically vary the image similarity. In randomly interleaved trials, rats took more time on average to respond in trials in which they had to discriminate more similar stimuli. For both the motion and image tasks, the dependence of reaction time on ambiguity is weak, as if rats prioritized speed over accuracy. Therefore we asked whether rats can change the priority of speed and accuracy adaptively in response to a change in reward contingencies. For two rats, the penalty delay was increased from two to six seconds. When the penalty was longer, reaction times increased, and accuracy improved. This demonstrates that rats can flexibly adjust their behavioral strategy in response to the

  8. Trait Perception Accuracy and Acquaintance Within Groups: Tracking Accuracy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill A; Bernieri, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Previous work on trait perception has evaluated accuracy at discrete stages of relationships (e.g., strangers, best friends). A relatively limited body of literature has investigated changes in accuracy as acquaintance within a dyad or group increases. Small groups of initially unacquainted individuals spent more than 30 hr participating in a wide range of activities designed to represent common interpersonal contexts (e.g., eating, traveling). We calculated how accurately each participant judged others in their group on the big five traits across three distinct points within the acquaintance process: zero acquaintance, after a getting-to-know-you conversation, and after 10 weeks of interaction and activity. Judgments of all five traits exhibited accuracy above chance levels after 10 weeks. An examination of the trait rating stability revealed that much of the revision in judgments occurred not over the course of the 10-week relationship as suspected, but between zero acquaintance and the getting-to-know-you conversation.

  9. 40 CFR 1051.335 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.335 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a...

  10. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  11. RISIKO INVESTASI, BID-ASK SPREAD, DAN COST OF EQUITY CAPITAL DI PASAR MODAL INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Haryono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies investigated how financial information affected investment decisions. The study extendedthis line of research by examining the effect of risk, proxied by price per share, number of shareholders, numberof dealers, trading volume, accounting risk and market risk measures on the bid ask spread. Further, theresearch tried to test the relationship between bid ask spread and cost of equity capital. The samples of thisresearch were the manufacturing companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange which shared the dividendfor 3 years; there were 40 companies. Data analysis technique used multiple regression analysis. The results ofregression provided evidence of statistically significant effect of price per share, market value, asset size andprice variability on bid ask spread. At last, there was a positive relationship between bid ask spread and cost ofequity capital

  12. Questions Children Ask: Helping Children Adjust When a Parent Has Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Questions Children Ask: Helping Children Adjust When a Parent Has Kidney Failure Print ... future plans. If a parent develops kidney failure, children have questions too. Some children are outspoken and ...

  13. 40 CFR 1068.440 - How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Auditing § 1068.440 How do I ask EPA to reinstate my suspended certificate? (a) Send us a written report... failure, propose a remedy, and commit to a date for carrying it out. In your proposed remedy include any...

  14. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  15. Inclusion of Highest Glasgow Coma Scale Motor Component Score in Mortality Risk Adjustment for Benchmarking of Trauma Center Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, David; Byrne, James P; Alali, Aziz S; Xiong, Wei; Hoeft, Chris; Neal, Melanie; Subacius, Harris; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-12-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most widely used measure of traumatic brain injury (TBI) severity. Currently, the arrival GCS motor component (mGCS) score is used in risk-adjustment models for external benchmarking of mortality. However, there is evidence that the highest mGCS score in the first 24 hours after injury might be a better predictor of death. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of including the highest mGCS score on the performance of risk-adjustment models and subsequent external benchmarking results. Data were derived from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program analytic dataset (January 2014 through March 2015) and were limited to the severe TBI cohort (16 years or older, isolated head injury, GCS ≤8). Risk-adjustment models were created that varied in the mGCS covariates only (initial score, highest score, or both initial and highest mGCS scores). Model performance and fit, as well as external benchmarking results, were compared. There were 6,553 patients with severe TBI across 231 trauma centers included. Initial and highest mGCS scores were different in 47% of patients (n = 3,097). Model performance and fit improved when both initial and highest mGCS scores were included, as evidenced by improved C-statistic, Akaike Information Criterion, and adjusted R-squared values. Three-quarters of centers changed their adjusted odds ratio decile, 2.6% of centers changed outlier status, and 45% of centers exhibited a ≥0.5-SD change in the odds ratio of death after including highest mGCS score in the model. This study supports the concept that additional clinical information has the potential to not only improve the performance of current risk-adjustment models, but can also have a meaningful impact on external benchmarking strategies. Highest mGCS score is a good potential candidate for inclusion in additional models. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... diagnostic accuracy of dermatopathologists and pathologists using photomicrographs vs. digitized images, through a self-assessment examination, and to elucidate assessment of virtual dermatopathology. Methods Forty-five dermatopathologists and pathologists received a randomized combination of 15 virtual...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...

  17. RDT accuracy based on age group in hypoendemic malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, L.; Panggabean, M.; Panggabean, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria is still one of the problem of community health in Sumatera. This study was carried out to compare RDT accuracy in some groups of age in hypoendemic malaria. The microscopy test was investigated by 3% Giemsa Staining and examined by a trained laboratory technician. RDT was carried out by using Monotes Test Drive. The accuracy of RDT diagnostic was commonly significant in all groups of age, exceptin thegroup of age > 65 years old (p=0.393). The highest sensitivity of RDT was commonly inagroup of age ≤ 5 years old and decreased in the older group of age. Otherwise, the lowest specificity was found in agroup of age ≤ 5 years old and the highest in agroup of age 6-15 years old.The highest PPV and NPV was found inagroup of age 16-65 years old and ≤ 5 years old, respectively. The highest of parasite density was found in a group of age ≤ 5 years old (644.4±494.5parasite/μl) and the lowest in agroup of age > 65 years (400±490.71parasite/μl). The accurate diagnosis of RDT reduces by increasing of age.

  18. Cadastral Database Positional Accuracy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. M.; Omar, A. H.; Ramli, S. N. M.; Omar, K. M.; Din, N.

    2017-10-01

    Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI) is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA) for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  19. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically...

  20. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually.

  1. Do Pediatricians Ask About Adverse Childhood Experiences in Pediatric Primary Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Szilagyi, Moira; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2016-03-01

    The stress associated with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has immediate and long-lasting effects. The objectives of this study were to examine 1) how often pediatricians ask patients' families about ACEs, 2) how familiar pediatricians are with the original ACE study, and 3) physician/practice characteristics, physicians' mental health training, and physicians' attitudes/beliefs that are associated with asking about ACEs. Data were collected from 302 nontrainee pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who completed the 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Survey. Pediatricians indicated whether they usually, sometimes, or never inquired about or screened for 7 ACEs. Sample weights were used to reduce nonresponse bias. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Only 4% of pediatricians usually asked about all 7 ACEs; 32% did not usually ask about any. Less than 11% of pediatricians reported being very or somewhat familiar with the ACE study. Pediatricians who screened/inquired about ACEs usually asked about maternal depression (46%) and parental separation/divorce (42%). Multivariable analyses showed that pediatricians had more than twice the odds of usually asking about ACEs if they disagreed that they have little effect on influencing positive parenting skills, disagreed that screening for social emotional risk factors within the family is beyond the scope of pediatricians, or were very interested in receiving further education on managing/treating mental health problems in children and adolescents. Few pediatricians ask about all ACEs. Pediatric training that emphasizes the importance of social/emotional risk factors may increase the identification of ACEs in pediatric primary care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ask an anatomist: Identifying global trends, topics and themes of academic anatomists using twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, Madeleine J; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2018-05-06

    Social media (SoMe) is increasingly used in higher education (HE) to access knowledge and enable global communication. The SoMe platform Twitter ® is particularly beneficial in these contexts because it is readily accessible, easily searchable (via hashtags) and global. Given these advantages, the twitter platform @AskAnatomist was created to foster a global weekly tweet chat, where students and academics can ask and address anatomy-related questions. The aim of this study was to identify themes arising in the early stages of the @AskAnatomy Twitter community to gain insights into current needs/key areas for academic anatomists, students, and other followers. A qualitative analysis of tweets including the hashtag #AnatQ, (the associated @AskAnatomist hashtag), was undertaken to achieve this aim. Thematic analysis revealed three core themes arising in the formative stages of the @AskAnatomist Twitter site: (1) anatomical education modalities, (2) specific anatomy content, and (3) research motivations. These themes reveal controversies within the field of anatomical sciences, areas for potential education resource improvement and research, as well as the humor of anatomists. Though the original intent of the @AskAnatomist site was to engage the general public in anatomy content and knowledge, tweet analysis suggests that academic anatomists were the primary active "tweeters". Interestingly, this analysis reveals that the @AskAnatomist site progressed into a web-based community of practice (CoP), suggesting an additional benefit of SoMe communities in the field of anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 11: 270-281. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Accuracy in Optical Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan Aslan

    Low computational accuracy is an important obstacle for optical processors which blocks their way to becoming a practical reality and a serious challenger for classical computing paradigms. This research presents a comprehensive solution approach to the problem of accuracy enhancement in discrete analog optical information processing systems. Statistical analysis of a generic three-plane optical processor is carried out first, taking into account the effects of diffraction, interchannel crosstalk, and background radiation. Noise sources included in the analysis are photon, excitation, and emission fluctuations in the source array, transmission and polarization fluctuations in the modulator, and photoelectron, gain, dark, shot, and thermal noise in the detector array. Means and mutual coherence and probability density functions are derived for both optical and electrical output signals. Next, statistical models for a number of popular optoelectronic devices are studied. Specific devices considered here are light-emitting and laser diode sources, an ideal noiseless modulator and a Gaussian random-amplitude-transmittance modulator, p-i-n and avalanche photodiode detectors followed by electronic postprocessing, and ideal free-space geometrical -optics propagation and single-lens imaging systems. Output signal statistics are determined for various interesting device combinations by inserting these models into the general formalism. Finally, based on these special-case output statistics, results on accuracy limitations and enhancement in optical processors are presented. Here, starting with the formulation of the accuracy enhancement problem as (1) an optimal detection problem and (2) as a parameter estimation problem, the potential accuracy improvements achievable via the classical multiple-hypothesis -testing and maximum likelihood and Bayesian parameter estimation methods are demonstrated. Merits of using proper normalizing transforms which can potentially stabilize

  4. Development of an Interferometric Phased Array Trigger for Balloon-Borne Detection of the Highest Energy Cosmic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieregg, Abigail

    Through high energy neutrino astrophysics, we explore the structure and evolution of the universe in a unique way and learn about the physics inside of astrophysical sources that drives the acceleration of the highest energy particles. Neutrinos travel virtually unimpeded through the universe, making them unique messenger particles for cosmic sources and carrying information about very distant sources that would otherwise be unavailable. The highest energy neutrinos (E>10^{18} eV), created as a by-product of the interaction of the highest energy cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background, are an important tool for determining the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays and still await discovery. Balloon-borne and ground-based experiments are poised to discover these ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmogenic neutrinos by looking for radio emission from two different types of neutrino interactions: particle cascades induced by neutrinos in glacial ice, and extensive air showers in the atmosphere induced by the charged-particle by-product of tau neutrinos interacting in the earth. These impulsive radio detectors are also sensitive to radio emission from extensive air showers induced directly by UHE cosmic rays. Balloon-borne experiments are especially well-suited for discovering the highest energy neutrinos, and are the only way to probe the high energy cutoff of the sources themselves to reveal the astrophysics that drives the central engines inside the most energetic accelerators in the universe. Balloon platforms offer the chance to monitor extremely large volumes of ice and atmosphere, but with a higher energy threshold compared to ground-based observatories, since the neutrino interaction happens farther from the detector. This tradeoff means that the sensitivity of balloon-borne experiments, such as the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) or the ExaVolt Antenna, is optimized for discovery of the highest energy neutrinos. We are developing an

  5. Quantifying fluctuations in market liquidity: analysis of the bid-ask spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Stanley, H Eugene

    2005-04-01

    Quantifying the statistical features of the bid-ask spread offers the possibility of understanding some aspects of market liquidity. Using quote data for the 116 most frequently traded stocks on the New York Stock Exchange over the two-year period 1994-1995, we analyze the fluctuations of the average bid-ask spread S over a time interval deltat. We find that S is characterized by a distribution that decays as a power law P[S>x] approximately x(-zeta(S) ), with an exponent zeta(S) approximately = 3 for all 116 stocks analyzed. Our analysis of the autocorrelation function of S shows long-range power-law correlations, (S(t)S(t + tau)) approximately tau(-mu(s)), similar to those previously found for the volatility. We next examine the relationship between the bid-ask spread and the volume Q, and find that S approximately ln Q; we find that a similar logarithmic relationship holds between the transaction-level bid-ask spread and the trade size. We then study the relationship between S and other indicators of market liquidity such as the frequency of trades N and the frequency of quote updates U, and find S approximately ln N and S approximately ln U. Lastly, we show that the bid-ask spread and the volatility are also related logarithmically.

  6. Ground-state energies and highest occupied eigenvalues of atoms in exchange-only density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Harbola, Manoj K.; Krieger, J. B.; Sahni, Viraht

    1989-11-01

    The exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density-functional theory has recently been interpreted as the work required to move an electron against the electric field of its Fermi-Coulomb hole charge distribution. In this paper we present self-consistent results for ground-state total energies and highest occupied eigenvalues of closed subshell atoms as obtained by this formalism in the exchange-only approximation. The total energies, which are an upper bound, lie within 50 ppm of Hartree-Fock theory for atoms heavier than Be. The highest occupied eigenvalues, as a consequence of this interpretation, approximate well the experimental ionization potentials. In addition, the self-consistently calculated exchange potentials are very close to those of Talman and co-workers [J. D. Talman and W. F. Shadwick, Phys. Rev. A 14, 36 (1976); K. Aashamar, T. M. Luke, and J. D. Talman, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 443 (1978)].

  7. Accuracy of CNV Detection from GWAS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several computer programs are available for detecting copy number variants (CNVs using genome-wide SNP arrays. We evaluated the performance of four CNV detection software suites--Birdsuite, Partek, HelixTree, and PennCNV-Affy--in the identification of both rare and common CNVs. Each program's performance was assessed in two ways. The first was its recovery rate, i.e., its ability to call 893 CNVs previously identified in eight HapMap samples by paired-end sequencing of whole-genome fosmid clones, and 51,440 CNVs identified by array Comparative Genome Hybridization (aCGH followed by validation procedures, in 90 HapMap CEU samples. The second evaluation was program performance calling rare and common CNVs in the Bipolar Genome Study (BiGS data set (1001 bipolar cases and 1033 controls, all of European ancestry as measured by the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. Accuracy in calling rare CNVs was assessed by positive predictive value, based on the proportion of rare CNVs validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, while accuracy in calling common CNVs was assessed by false positive/false negative rates based on qPCR validation results from a subset of common CNVs. Birdsuite recovered the highest percentages of known HapMap CNVs containing >20 markers in two reference CNV datasets. The recovery rate increased with decreased CNV frequency. In the tested rare CNV data, Birdsuite and Partek had higher positive predictive values than the other software suites. In a test of three common CNVs in the BiGS dataset, Birdsuite's call was 98.8% consistent with qPCR quantification in one CNV region, but the other two regions showed an unacceptable degree of accuracy. We found relatively poor consistency between the two "gold standards," the sequence data of Kidd et al., and aCGH data of Conrad et al. Algorithms for calling CNVs especially common ones need substantial improvement, and a "gold standard" for detection of CNVs remains to be established.

  8. Highest performance in 3D metal cutting at smallest footprint: benchmark of a robot based system vs. parameters of gantry systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheller, Torsten; Bastick, André; Michel-Triller, Robert; Manzella, Christon

    2014-02-01

    In the automotive industry as well as in other industries ecological aspects regarding energy savings are driving new technologies and materials, e.g. lightweight materials as aluminium or press hardened steels. Processing such parts especially complex 3D shaped parts laser manufacturing has become the key process offering highest efficiency. The most established systems for 3D cutting applications are based on gantry systems. The disadvantage of those systems is their huge footprint to realize the required stability and work envelope. Alternatively a robot based system might be of advantage if accuracy, speed and overall performance would be capable processing automotive parts. With the BIM "beam in motion" system, JENOPTIK Automatisierungstechnik GmbH has developed a modular robot based laser processing machine, which meets all OEM specs processing press hardened steel parts. A benchmark of the BIM versus a gantry system was done regarding all required parameters to fulfil OEM specifications for press hardened steel parts. As a result a highly productive, accurate and efficient system can be described based on one or multiple robot modules working simultaneously together. The paper presents the improvements on the robot machine concept BIM addressed in 2012 [1] leading to an industrial proven system approach for the automotive industry. It further compares the performance and the parameters for 3D cutting applications of the BIM system versus a gantry system by samples of applied parts. Finally an overview of suitable applications for processing complex 3D parts with high productivity at small footprint is given.

  9. Accuracy of Visual Estimation of LASIK Flap Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Jason E; Fadlallah, Ali; Hatch, Kathryn M; Choi, Catherine; Sayegh, Rony R; Kouyoumjian, Paul; Wu, Simon; Frangieh, George T; Melki, Samir A

    2017-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of surgeons' visual estimation of LASIK flap thickness when created by a femtosecond laser by comparing it to ultrasound measurements. Surgeons were asked to visually estimate the thickness of a femtosecond flap during the procedure. Total corneal thickness was measured by ultrasound pachymetry prior to the procedure and the stromal bed was similarly measured after flap lifting. The estimates from three experienced surgeons (cornea fellowship trained and more than 5 years in practice) were compared to those of three cornea fellows, with each surgeon evaluating 20 eyes (120 total). Surgeons were not told the thickness of the flaps unless required for safety reasons. The average difference between visual and ultrasonic estimation of LASIK flap thickness was 15.20 μm. The flap was 10 μm thicker than estimated in 37% of eyes, 20 μm thicker in 17% of eyes, and 30 μm thicker in 10% of eyes. The largest deviation was 53 μm. There was no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of experienced surgeons and fellows (P = .51). There are significant differences between surgeons' visual estimates and ultrasonic measurements of LASIK flap thickness. Relying on these visual estimates may lead to deeper excimer laser ablation than intended. This could lead to thinner residual stromal beds and higher percent tissue altered than planned. The authors recommend that surgeons measure flaps intraoperatively to maximize accuracy and safety. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(11):765-767.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Camila; Zamberlan, Federico; Erowid, Earth; Erowid, Fire; Tagliazucchi, Enzo

    2018-01-01

    Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states) is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”), emotion (“fear”), setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind”) and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family”) were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain physiology. PMID

  11. Relation of average and highest solvent vapor concentrations in workplaces in small to medium enterprises and large enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Hirohiko; Ohashi, Fumiko; Samoto, Hajime; Fukui, Yoshinari; Okamoto, Satoru; Moriguchi, Jiro; Ezaki, Takafumi; Takada, Shiro; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2006-04-01

    The present study was initiated to examine the relationship between the workplace concentrations and the estimated highest concentrations in solvent workplaces (SWPs), with special references to enterprise size and types of solvent work. Results of survey conducted in 1010 SWPs in 156 enterprises were taken as a database. Workplace air was sampled at > or = 5 crosses in each SWP following a grid sampling strategy. An additional air was grab-sampled at the site where the worker's exposure was estimated to be highest (estimated highest concentration or EHC). The samples were analyzed for 47 solvents designated by regulation, and solvent concentrations in each sample were summed up by use of additiveness formula. From the workplace concentrations at > or = 5 points, geometric mean and geometric standard deviations were calculated as the representative workplace concentration (RWC) and the indicator of variation in workplace concentration (VWC). Comparison between RWC and EHC in the total of 1010 SWPs showed that EHC was 1.2 (in large enterprises with>300 employees) to 1.7 times [in small to medium (SM) enterprises with enterprises and large enterprises, both RWC and EHC were significantly higher in SM enterprises than in large enterprises. Further comparison by types of solvent work showed that the difference was more marked in printing, surface coating and degreasing/cleaning/wiping SWPs, whereas it was less remarkable in painting SWPs and essentially nil in testing/research laboratories. In conclusion, the present observation as discussed in reference to previous publications suggests that RWC, EHC and the ratio of EHC/WRC varies substantially among different types of solvent work as well as enterprise size, and are typically higher in printing SWPs in SM enterprises.

  12. The Experience Elicited by Hallucinogens Presents the Highest Similarity to Dreaming within a Large Database of Psychoactive Substance Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sanz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the modern rediscovery of psychedelic substances by Western society, several authors have independently proposed that their effects bear a high resemblance to the dreams and dreamlike experiences occurring naturally during the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies in humans have provided neurophysiological evidence supporting this hypothesis. However, a rigorous comparative analysis of the phenomenology (“what it feels like” to experience these states is currently lacking. We investigated the semantic similarity between a large number of subjective reports of psychoactive substances and reports of high/low lucidity dreams, and found that the highest-ranking substance in terms of the similarity to high lucidity dreams was the serotonergic psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD, whereas the highest-ranking in terms of the similarity to dreams of low lucidity were plants of the Datura genus, rich in deliriant tropane alkaloids. Conversely, sedatives, stimulants, antipsychotics, and antidepressants comprised most of the lowest-ranking substances. An analysis of the most frequent words in the subjective reports of dreams and hallucinogens revealed that terms associated with perception (“see,” “visual,” “face,” “reality,” “color”, emotion (“fear”, setting (“outside,” “inside,” “street,” “front,” “behind” and relatives (“mom,” “dad,” “brother,” “parent,” “family” were the most prevalent across both experiences. In summary, we applied novel quantitative analyses to a large volume of empirical data to confirm the hypothesis that, among all psychoactive substances, hallucinogen drugs elicit experiences with the highest semantic similarity to those of dreams. Our results and the associated methodological developments open the way to study the comparative phenomenology of different altered states of consciousness and its relationship with non-invasive measurements of brain

  13. Communication: The highest frequency hydrogen bond vibration and an experimental value for the dissociation energy of formic acid dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollipost, F.; Larsen, René Wugt; Domanskaya, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    The highest frequency hydrogen bond fundamental of formic acid dimer, ν24 (Bu), is experimentally located at 264 cm−1. FTIR spectra of this in-plane bending mode of (HCOOH)2 and band centers of its symmetric D isotopologues (isotopomers) recorded in a supersonic slit jet expansion are presented...... thermodynamics treatment of the dimerization process up to room temperature. We obtain D0 = 59.5(5) kJ/mol as the best experimental estimate for the dimer dissociation energy at 0 K. Further improvements have to wait for a more consistent determination of the room temperature equilibrium constant....

  14. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB (physical-technical Federal institution) - research institute and highest technical authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klages, H.

    1976-01-01

    The PTB Braunschweig and Berlin is a Federal institution for the natural sciences and engineering and the highest technical authority for measurements. It is subject to the directions of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs. Its main tasks are representation, maintenance and development of physical units and, in connection with this, research, examinations, and granting permissions for calibration measuring equipment, as well as examinations of building types and permissions. The types of measuring equipment are represented. Many examinations are carried out on a voluntary basis. The advisory activities and the PTB's publications are also reported on. An organizational plan informs of the structure of the PTB. (orig.) [de

  15. The Licancabur Project: Exploring the Limits of Life in the Highest Lake on Earth as an Analog to Martian Paleolakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; McKay, C. P.; Friedmann, I.; Diaz, G. Chong; Demergasso, C.; Kisse, K.; Grigorszky, I.; Friedmann, R. Ocampo; Hock, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Licancabur volcano (6017 m) hosts the highest and one of the least explored lakes in the world in its summit crater. It is located 22 deg.50 min. South / 67 deg.53 min. West at the boundary of Chile and Bolivia in the High-Andes. In a freezing environment, the lake located in volcano-tectonic environment combines low-oxygen, low atmospheric pressure due to altitude, and high-UV radiation (see table). However, its bottom water temperature remains above 0 C year-round. These conditions make Licancabur a unique analog to Martian paleolakes considered high-priority sites for the search for life on Mars.

  16. Potential need for re-definition of the highest priority recovery action in the Krsko SAG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic Zabric, T.; Basic, I.

    2005-01-01

    Replacement of old SG (Steam Generators) [7] and the characteristic of new ones throws the question of proper accident management strategy, which leans on philosophy that repair and recovery actions have first priority. In the current NPP Krsko SAMGs (Severe Accident Management Guidelines), water supply to the SG has priority over re-injection water into the core. NPP Krsko reconsidered the highest priority of SAG-1 (inject water to the SG), against the WOG (Westinghouse Owners Group) generic approach (inject water into the core) and potential revision of Severe Accident Phenomenology Evaluations using MAAP (Modular accident Analysis Program) 4.0.5 code. (author)

  17. In-Service Teacher Education: Asking Questions for Higher Order Thinking in Visual Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Visvaganthie

    2013-01-01

    The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP) facilitator, I demonstrate that…

  18. Bid-Ask Spreads, Trading Volume and Return Volatility: Intraday Evidence from Indian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Ranjan Paital

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between stock return volatility, trading volume and bid-ask spread within the scope of mixture of distribution hypothesis (MDH and sequential information arrival hypothesis (SIAH in the Indian stock market using high frequency 5-minute data set over the period of 2 July 2012 to 31 December 2012. This is the first kind of study in India using bid-ask spread as an additional information variable along with trading volume to investigate the relationship with stock return volatility. Our empirical findings provide evidence of a positive contemporaneous relationship between return volatility and trading volume, and also between return volatility and bid-ask spread. Moreover, the results of Granger causality test show that the information content of trading volume and bid-ask spread are useful for predicting stock return volatility. Our results indicate that information arrival to investors tends to follow a sequential rather than a simultaneous process. This finding is consistent with the sequential information arrival hypothesis and contradicts the mixture of distribution hypothesis.

  19. Competence-Based Education and Training--About Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the author's previous piece on practical guidelines for the development of comprehensive competence-based education and training (Mulder, 2012). It is about the questions that have been and are still frequently asked in presentations, workshops and classes about the introduction of competence-based education. Here, the author…

  20. Ask Me a Question: How Teachers Use Inquiry in a Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Teacher use questioning techniques to evaluate students' learning, check class work and homework, review and summarize lessons, and motivate students to pay attention, learn, develop thinking skills, and investigate independently. Teachers often overestimate the value of such questions. Asking thought-provoking questions and waiting for answers…

  1. Las Preguntas Que Hacen los Padres sobre la Escuela (Questions Parents Ask about School).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center for…

  2. Questions Often Asked about Special Education Services = Preguntas sobre los servicios de educacion especial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Lisa, Ed.

    This guide, available in both English and Spanish, answers questions often asked by parents about special education services. Questions and answers address the following topics: where to begin if a parent believes a child needs special education services, services available to very young children, the evaluation process, the Individualized…

  3. 'Any questions?'--Clinicians' usage of invitations to ask questions (IAQs) in outpatient plastic surgery consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristowe, Katherine; Patrick, Peter L

    2014-12-01

    To explore use of 'Invitations to Ask Questions' (IAQs) by plastic surgeons in outpatient consultations, and consider how type of IAQ impacts on patients' responses to, and recollection of, IAQs. Descriptive study: 63 patients were audio recorded in consultation with 5 plastic surgeons, and completed a brief questionnaire immediately after the consultation. Consultation transcripts were analyzed using inductive qualitative methods of Discourse Analysis and compared with questionnaire findings. A taxonomy of IAQs was developed, including three types of IAQ (Overt, Covert, and Borderline). Overt IAQs were rarely identified, and almost all IAQs occurred in the closing stages of the consultation. However, when an overt IAQ was used, patients always recollected being asked if they had any questions after the consultation. Patients are rarely explicitly offered the opportunity to ask questions. When this does occur, it is often in the closing stages of the consultation. Clinicians should openly encourage patients to ask questions frequently throughout the consultation, and be mindful that subtle differences in construction of these utterances may impact upon interpretation. Clear communication, of message and intention, is essential in clinical encounters to minimize misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or missed opportunities for patients to raise concerns. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder to ask questions: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raulston, T.; Carnett, A.; Lang, R.B.; Tostanoski, A.; Lee, A.; Machalicek, W.A.; Sigafoos, J.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Didden, H.C.M.; Lancioni, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of studies aimed at teaching individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to ask questions (i.e., teaching mands for information). A systematic search of databases, reference lists, and journals identified 21 studies that met predetermined

  5. Don\\'t Ask, Don\\'t Tell: Ethical Issues Concerning Learning and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent procedures and requirements must be clearly established and communicated. The learning and proficiency practices should be restricted to the staff that can truly benefit from the experience. The practice of 'don't ask, don't tell' is not an option. South African Journal of Family Practice Vol. 50 (4) 2008: pp.

  6. What questions do board members in public service organizations ask about executive compensation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the governance questions that board members in public service organizations ask as they go about fulfilling their responsibilities for the oversight of executive compensation. The research uses 24 of the questions – as proposed by the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants - that directors should ask about executive compensation and investigates both their usage and perceived importance by board members. The study is based on a usable sample of 47 board members from public service organizations who were attending a Canadian director training program. The research finds that, insofar as public service organizations are concerned, not all of the recommended executive compensation governance questions were asked with the same frequency nor were they considered equally important. Additionally, the relationship between a question’s usage frequency and its perceived importance was not perfect. However, there appears to be a significantly positive relationship among the number of executive compensation governance questions asked and selected elements of a board’s governance structure.

  7. ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

  8. Experimental evaluation of ontology-based HIV/AIDS frequently asked question retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Yirsaw; Moeng, Barbara; Mosweunyane, Gontlafetse

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the results of experimental evaluations of an ontology-based frequently asked question retrieval system in the domain of HIV and AIDS. The main purpose of the system is to provide answers to questions on HIV/AIDS using ontology. To evaluate the effectiveness of the frequently asked question retrieval system, we conducted two experiments. The first experiment focused on the evaluation of the quality of the ontology we developed using the OQuaRE evaluation framework which is based on software quality metrics and metrics designed for ontology quality evaluation. The second experiment focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the ontology in retrieving relevant answers. For this we used an open-source information retrieval platform, Terrier, with retrieval models BM25 and PL2. For the measurement of performance, we used the measures mean average precision, mean reciprocal rank, and precision at 5. The results suggest that frequently asked question retrieval with ontology is more effective than frequently asked question retrieval without ontology in the domain of HIV/AIDS.

  9. Informed trading and the bid-ask spread: evidence from an emerging market

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Podpiera, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2003), s. 275-296 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : market microstructure * bid-ask spread * informed trading Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2003

  10. 75 FR 59322 - Notice of Availability of Answers to Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Buy America & FRA's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Asked Questions can be found on FRA's Web site at http://www.fra.dot.gov/Pages/11.shtml . DATES: Written... electronic site at http://www.regulations.gov . Commenters should follow the instructions below for mailed and hand-delivered comments. (1) Web Site: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for...

  11. Ask an Anatomist: Identifying Global Trends, Topics and Themes of Academic Anatomists Using Twitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsland, Madeleine J.; Lazarus, Michelle D.

    2018-01-01

    Social media (SoMe) is increasingly used in higher education (HE) to access knowledge and enable global communication. The SoMe platform Twitter® is particularly beneficial in these contexts because it is readily accessible, easily searchable (via hashtags) and global. Given these advantages, the twitter platform @AskAnatomist was created to…

  12. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them…

  13. A low-power ASK demodulator for inductively coupled implantable electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar

    2000-01-01

    An amplitude shift keying (ASK) demodulator is presented which is suitable for implantable electronic devices that are powered through an inductive link. The demodulator has been tested with carrier frequencies in the range 1-15 MHz, covering most commonly used frequencies. Data rates up to several...

  14. 76 FR 11781 - Wireless Telecommunications Bureau Seeks Comment on Petition for Declaratory Ruling Asking To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ...In this document, the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau seeks comment on a December 3, 2010 petition for declaratory ruling (Petition) filed by CTIA-The Wireless Association (Petitioners). The Petitioners ask the Federal Communications Commission (Commission) to clarify ``the scope of Section 332(c)(3)(A)'s ban on state and local entry regulation.''

  15. Accuracy assessment of seven global land cover datasets over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongke; Xiao, Pengfeng; Feng, Xuezhi; Li, Haixing

    2017-03-01

    Land cover (LC) is the vital foundation to Earth science. Up to now, several global LC datasets have arisen with efforts of many scientific communities. To provide guidelines for data usage over China, nine LC maps from seven global LC datasets (IGBP DISCover, UMD, GLC, MCD12Q1, GLCNMO, CCI-LC, and GlobeLand30) were evaluated in this study. First, we compared their similarities and discrepancies in both area and spatial patterns, and analysed their inherent relations to data sources and classification schemes and methods. Next, five sets of validation sample units (VSUs) were collected to calculate their accuracy quantitatively. Further, we built a spatial analysis model and depicted their spatial variation in accuracy based on the five sets of VSUs. The results show that, there are evident discrepancies among these LC maps in both area and spatial patterns. For LC maps produced by different institutes, GLC 2000 and CCI-LC 2000 have the highest overall spatial agreement (53.8%). For LC maps produced by same institutes, overall spatial agreement of CCI-LC 2000 and 2010, and MCD12Q1 2001 and 2010 reach up to 99.8% and 73.2%, respectively; while more efforts are still needed if we hope to use these LC maps as time series data for model inputting, since both CCI-LC and MCD12Q1 fail to represent the rapid changing trend of several key LC classes in the early 21st century, in particular urban and built-up, snow and ice, water bodies, and permanent wetlands. With the highest spatial resolution, the overall accuracy of GlobeLand30 2010 is 82.39%. For the other six LC datasets with coarse resolution, CCI-LC 2010/2000 has the highest overall accuracy, and following are MCD12Q1 2010/2001, GLC 2000, GLCNMO 2008, IGBP DISCover, and UMD in turn. Beside that all maps exhibit high accuracy in homogeneous regions; local accuracies in other regions are quite different, particularly in Farming-Pastoral Zone of North China, mountains in Northeast China, and Southeast Hills. Special

  16. Highest recorded electrical conductivity and microstructure in polypropylene-carbon nanotubes composites and the effect of carbon nanofibers addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrera, C. A.; Pérez-González, J.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Romero-Partida, N.; Flores-Vela, A.; Cabañas-Moreno, J. G.

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, numerous investigations have been devoted to the preparation of polypropylene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PP/MWCNT) nanocomposites having enhanced properties, and in particular, high electrical conductivities (> 1 S cm-1). The present work establishes that the highest electrical conductivity in PP/MWCNT nanocomposites is limited by the amount of nanofiller content which can be incorporated in the polymer matrix, namely, about 20 wt%. This concentration of MWCNT in PP leads to a maximum electrical conductivity slightly lower than 8 S cm-1, but only by assuring an adequate combination of dispersion and spatial distribution of the carbon nanotubes. The realization of such an optimal microstructure depends on the characteristics of the production process of the PP/MWCNT nanocomposites; in our experiments, involving composite fabrication by melt mixing and hot pressing, a second re-processing cycle is shown to increase the electrical conductivity values by up to two orders of magnitude, depending on the MWCNT content of the nanocomposite. A modest increase of the highest electrical conductivity obtained in nanocomposites with 21.5 wt% MWCNT content has been produced by the combined use of carbon nanofibers (CNF) and MWCNT, so that the total nanofiller content was increased to 30 wt% in the nanocomposite with PP—15 wt% MWCNT—15 wt%CNF.

  17. Presentation and verification of a simple mathematical model foridentification of the areas behind noise barrierwith the highest performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monazzam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Traffic noise barriers are the most important measure to control the environmental noise pollution. Diffraction from top edge of noise barriers is the most important path of indirect sound wave moves towards receiver.Therefore, most studies are focused on  improvement of this kind.   Methods   T-shape profile barriers are one of the most successful barrier among many different profiles. In this investigation the theory of destructive effect of diffracted waves from real edge of barrier and the wave diffracted from image of the barrier with phase difference of radians is used. Firstly a simple mathematical representation of the zones behind rigid and absorbent T- shape barriers with the highest insertion loss using the destructive effect of indirect path via barrier  image is introduced and then two different profile reflective and absorption barrier is used for  verification of the introduced model   Results   The results are then compared with the results of a verified two dimensional boundary element method at 1/3 octave band frequencies and in a wide field behind those barriers. Avery good agreement between the results has been achieved. In this method effective height is used for any different profile barriers.   Conclusion   The introduced model is very simple, flexible and fast and could be used for choosing the best location of profile rigid and absorptive barriers to achieve the highest  performance.  

  18. The Idea of a Highest Divine Principle — Founding Reason and Spirituality. A Necessary Concept of a Comparative Philosophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bickmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available By reference to the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Neo-Platonic philosophical traditions (and then to German Idealism, including Husserl and Heidegger, I will indicate the way in which the concept of reason—on the one side—depends on the horizon of spirituality (by searching for the ultimate ground within us and the striving for the highest good; and inversely—how far the idea of the divine or our spiritual self may be deepened, understood and transmitted by reference to reason and rationality. But whereas philosophical analysis aims at the universal dimensions of spirituality or the divine (as in Plato's idea of the 'highest good', the Aristotelian 'Absolute substance', the 'Oneness of the One' (Plotinus and the Neo-Platonists or the Hegelian 'Absolute spirit',—Comparative Theology may preserve the dimension of spirituality or divinity in its individuality and specifity. Comparative Theology mediates between the universality of the philosophical discourse and the uniqueness of our individual experience (symbolized by a sacred person—such as Jesus, Brahman, Buddha or Mohammed by reflecting and analyzing our religious experiences and practices. Religion may lose its specificity by comparative conceptual analysis within the field of philosophy, but Comparative Theology may enhance the vital dimensions of the very same spiritual experience by placing them in a comparative perspective.

  19. Interventions before consultations to help patients address their information needs by encouraging question asking: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnersley, Paul; Edwards, Adrian; Hood, Kerry; Ryan, Rebecca; Prout, Hayley; Cadbury, Naomi; MacBeth, Fergus; Butow, Phyllis; Butler, Christopher

    2008-07-16

    To assess the effects on patients, clinicians, and the healthcare system of interventions before consultations to help patients or their representatives gather information in consultations by question asking. Systematic review with meta-analysis. Electronic literature searches of seven databases and hand searching of one journal and bibliographies of relevant articles. Review methods Inclusion criteria included randomised controlled trials. Primary outcomes were question asking; patients' anxiety, knowledge, and satisfaction; and length of consultation. 33 randomised trials of variable quality involving 8244 patients were identified. A few studies showed positive effects. Meta-analyses showed small and statistically significantly increases in question asking (standardised mean difference 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.36) and patients' satisfaction (0.09, 0.03 to 0.16). Non-statistically significant changes occurred in patients' anxiety before consultations (weighted mean difference -1.56, -7.10 to 3.97), patients' anxiety after consultations (standardised mean difference -0.08, -0.22 to 0.06), patients' knowledge (-0.34, -0.94 to 0.25), and length of consultation (0.10, -0.05 to 0.25). Interventions comprising written materials had similar effects on question asking, consultation length, and patients' satisfaction as those comprising the coaching of patients. Interventions with additional training of clinicians had little further effect than those targeted at patients alone for patients' satisfaction and consultation length. Interventions for patients before consultations produce small benefits for patients. This may be because patients and clinicians have established behaviours in consultations that are difficult to change. Alternatively small increases in question asking may not be sufficient to make notable changes to other outcomes.

  20. Narrative Skills, Gender, Culture, and Children's Long-Term Memory Accuracy of a Staged Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemfuss, J. Zoe; Wang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which school-aged children's general narrative skills provide cognitive benefits for accurate remembering or enable good storytelling that undermines memory accuracy. European American and Chinese American 6-year-old boys and girls (N = 114) experienced a staged event in the laboratory and were asked to tell a…

  1. "They just asked me why I became homeless": "failure to ask" as a barrier to homeless women's ability to access services post-victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Laura; Broll, Ryan; Hryniewicz, Danielle; Fthenos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    As "access brokers" to resources for their clients, homeless shelter workers are often in a position to aid victimized homeless women in securing medical and psychological services post-victimization. Given high rates of victimization within this population, we would expect that a routine part of a shelter's case management process would involve queries regarding victimization. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with 42 victimized homeless women in Chicago and Detroit, we sought to discover the extent to which such queries were pursued by staff at their current shelter. What we found is that women are seldom asked to provide a complete history that includes experiences of violent victimization and its effects. From these results, we make several recommendations aimed at improving homeless victims' access to services.

  2. Targeted Feedback in the Milestones Era: Utilization of the Ask-Tell-Ask Feedback Model to Promote Reflection and Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Judith C; Colbert, Colleen Y; Pien, Lily C; Dannefer, Elaine F; Taylor, Christine A

    2015-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Milestones Project focuses trainee education on the formation of valued behaviors and skills believed to be necessary for trainees to become independent practitioners. The development and refinement of behaviors and skills outlined within the milestones will require learners to monitor, reflect, and assess their own performance over time. External feedback provides an opportunity for learners to recalibrate their self-assessments, thereby enabling them to develop better self-monitoring and self-assessment skills. Yet, feedback to trainees is frequently generic, such as "great job," "nice work," or "you need to read more." In this article, we describe a feedback model that faculty can use to provide specific feedback, while increasing accountability for learners. We offer practical examples of its use in a variety of settings in the milestone era. The Ask-Tell-Ask (ATA) patient communication skills strategy, which was adapted for use as a trainee feedback model 10 years ago at our institution, is a learner-centered approach for reinforcing and modifying behaviors. The model is efficient, promotes learner accountability, and helps trainees develop reflection and self-assessment skills. A feedback agreement further enhances ATA by establishing a shared understanding of goals for the educational encounter. The ATA feedback model, combined with a feedback agreement, encourages learners to self-identify strengths and areas for improvement, before receiving feedback. Personal monitoring, reflection, self-assessment, and increased accountability make ATA an ideal learner-centered feedback model for the milestones era, which focuses on performance improvement over time. We believe the introduction of the ATA feedback model in surgical training programs is a step in the right direction towards meaningful programmatic culture change. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  3. Who jumps the highest? Anthropometric and physiological correlations of vertical jump in youth elite female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Gkoudas, Konstantinos; Afonso, José; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Knechtle, Beat; Kasabalis, Stavros; Kasabalis, Athanasios; Douda, Helen; Tokmakidis, Savvas; Torres-Luque, Gema

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of vertical jump (Abalakov jump [AJ]) with anthropometric and physiological parameters in youth elite female volleyball players. Seventy-two selected volleyball players from the region of Athens (age 13.3±0.7 years, body mass 62.0±7.2 kg, height 171.5±5.7 cm, body fat 21.2±4.5%), classified into quartiles according to AJ performance (group A, 21.4-26.5 cm; group B, 26.8-29.9 cm; group C, 30.5-33.7 cm; group D, 33.8-45.9 cm), performed a series of physical fitness tests. AJ was correlated with anthropometric (age at peak height velocity [APHV]: r=0.38, Pvolleyball players that jumped the highest were those who matured later than others.

  4. Repeated Radionuclide therapy in metastatic paraganglioma leading to the highest reported cumulative activity of 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezziddin, Samer; Sabet, Amir; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Xun, Sunny; Matthies, Alexander; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    131 I-MIBG therapy for neuroendocrine tumours may be dose limited. The common range of applied cumulative activities is 10-40 GBq. We report the uneventful cumulative administration of 111 GBq (= 3 Ci) 131 I-MIBG in a patient with metastatic paraganglioma. Ten courses of 131 I-MIBG therapy were given within six years, accomplishing symptomatic, hormonal and tumour responses with no serious adverse effects. Chemotherapy with cisplatin/vinblastine/dacarbazine was the final treatment modality with temporary control of disease, but eventually the patient died of progression. The observed cumulative activity of 131 I-MIBG represents the highest value reported to our knowledge, and even though 12.6 GBq of 90 Y-DOTATOC were added intermediately, no associated relevant bone marrow, hepatic or other toxicity were observed. In an individual attempt to palliate metastatic disease high cumulative activity alone should not preclude the patient from repeat treatment

  5. Impact of thermal frequency drift on highest precision force microscopy using quartz-based force sensors at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pielmeier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM the stability of the eigenfrequency of the force sensor is of key importance for highest precision force measurements. Here, we study the influence of temperature changes on the resonance frequency of force sensors made of quartz, in a temperature range from 4.8–48 K. The sensors are based on the qPlus and length extensional principle. The frequency variation with temperature T for all sensors is negative up to 30 K and on the order of 1 ppm/K, up to 13 K, where a distinct kink appears, it is linear. Furthermore, we characterize a new type of miniaturized qPlus sensor and confirm the theoretically predicted reduction in detector noise.

  6. Analysis of the highest transverse energy events seen in the UAl detector at the Spp-barS collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The first full solid angle analysis is presented of large transverse energy events in pp-bar collisions at the CERN collider. Events with transverse energies in excess of 200 GeV at √s = 630 GeV are studied for any non-standard physics and quantitatively compared with expectations from perturbative QCD Monte Carlo models. A corrected differential cross section is presented. A detailed examination is made of jet profiles, event jet multiplicities and the fraction of the transverse energy carried by the two jets with the highest transverse jet energies. There is good agreement with standard theory for events with transverse energies up to the largest observed values (approx. √s/2) and the analysis shows no evidence for any non-QCD mechanism to account for the event characteristics. (author)

  7. A common founder mutation in FANCA underlies the world's highest prevalence of Fanconi anemia in Gypsy families from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, Elsa; Casado, José A; Tischkowitz, Marc D; Bueren, Juan A; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard; Dasí, Angeles; Estella, Jesús M; Muñoz, Arturo; Ortega, Juan J; de Winter, Johan; Joenje, Hans; Schindler, Detlev; Hanenberg, Helmut; Hodgson, Shirley V; Mathew, Christopher G; Surrallés, Jordi

    2005-03-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetic disease characterized by bone marrow failure and cancer predisposition. Here we have identified Spanish Gypsies as the ethnic group with the world's highest prevalence of FA (carrier frequency of 1/64-1/70). DNA sequencing of the FANCA gene in 8 unrelated Spanish Gypsy FA families after retroviral subtyping revealed a homozygous FANCA mutation (295C>T) leading to FANCA truncation and FA pathway disruption. This mutation appeared specific for Spanish Gypsies as it is not found in other Gypsy patients with FA from Hungary, Germany, Slovakia, and Ireland. Haplotype analysis showed that Spanish Gypsy patients all share the same haplotype. Our data thus suggest that the high incidence of FA among Spanish Gypsies is due to an ancestral founder mutation in FANCA that originated in Spain less than 600 years ago. The high carrier frequency makes the Spanish Gypsies a population model to study FA heterozygote mutations in cancer.

  8. Analysis of the highest transverse energy events seen in the UA1 detector at the Spanti pS collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albajar, C.; Bezaguet, A.; Cennini, P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first full solid angle analysis of large transverse energy events in panti p collisions at the CERN collider. Events with transverse energies in excess of 200 GeV at √s=630 GeV are studied for any non-standard physics and quantitatively compared with expectations from perturbative QCD Monte Carlo models. A corrected differential cross section is presented. A detailed examination is made of jet profiles, event jet multiplicities and the fraction of the transverse energy carried by the two jets with the highest transverse jet energies. There is good agreement with standard theory for events with transverse energies up to the largest observed values (≅ √s/2) and the analysis shows no evidence for any non-QCD mechanism to account for the event characteristics. (orig.)

  9. The Mass Elevation Effect of the Central Andes and Its Implications for the Southern Hemisphere's Highest Treeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui He

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the highest treelines in the world is at 4810 m above sea level on the Sajama Volcano in the central Andes. The climatological cause of that exceptionally high treeline position is still unclear. Although it has been suggested that the mass elevation effect (MEE explains the upward shift of treelines in the Altiplano region, the magnitude of MEE has not yet been quantified for that region. This paper defines MEE as the air temperature difference in summer at the same elevation between the inner mountains/plateaus (Altiplano and the free atmosphere above the adjacent lowlands of the Andean Cordillera. The Altiplano air temperature was obtained from the Global Historical Climatology Network-Monthly temperature database, and the air temperature above the adjacent lowlands was interpolated based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research Reanalysis 1 data set. We analyzed the mean air temperature differences for January, July, and the warm months from October to April. The air temperature was mostly higher on the Altiplano than over the neighboring lowlands at the same altitude. The air temperature difference increased from the outer Andean east-facing slope to the interior of the Altiplano in summer, and it increased from high latitudes to low latitudes in winter. The mean air temperature in the Altiplano in summer is approximately 5 K higher than it is above the adjacent lowlands at the same mean elevation, averaging about 3700 m above sea level. This upward shift of isotherms in the inner part of the Cordillera enables the treeline to climb to 4810 m, with shrub-size trees reaching even higher. Therefore, the MEE explains the occurrence of one of the world’s highest treelines in the central Andes.

  10. Contact with HIV prevention services highest in gay and bisexual men at greatest risk: cross-sectional survey in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men who have sex with men (MSM remain the group most at risk of acquiring HIV in the UK and new HIV prevention strategies are needed. In this paper, we examine what contact MSM currently have with HIV prevention activities and assess the extent to which these could be utilised further. Methods Anonymous, self-complete questionnaires and Orasure™ oral fluid collection kits were distributed to men visiting the commercial gay scenes in Glasgow and Edinburgh in April/May 2008. 1508 men completed questionnaires (70.5% response rate and 1277 provided oral fluid samples (59.7% response rate; 1318 men were eligible for inclusion in the analyses. Results 82.5% reported some contact with HIV prevention activities in the past 12 months, 73.1% obtained free condoms from a gay venue or the Internet, 51.1% reported accessing sexual health information (from either leaflets in gay venues or via the Internet, 13.5% reported talking to an outreach worker and 8.0% reported participating in counselling on sexual health or HIV prevention. Contact with HIV prevention activities was associated with frequency of gay scene use and either HIV or other STI testing in the past 12 months, but not with sexual risk behaviours. Utilising counselling was also more likely among men who reported having had an STI in the past 12 months and HIV-positive men. Conclusions Men at highest risk, and those likely to be in contact with sexual health services, are those who report most contact with a range of current HIV prevention activities. Offering combination prevention, including outreach by peer health workers, increased uptake of sexual health services delivering behavioural and biomedical interventions, and supported by social marketing to ensure continued community engagement and support, could be the way forward. Focused investment in the needs of those at highest risk, including those diagnosed HIV-positive, may generate a prevention dividend in the long

  11. ASSESSMENT OF PAHS AND SELECTED PESTICIDES IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER IN THE HIGHEST PROTECTED AREAS IN THE OPOLE REGION, POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Głowacki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ground water quality was determined after the analyses of water samples from 18 wells. The wells were in the Groundwater Area with the Highest Protection (Triassic water, Opole region, Poland, rural build up. The water table level was low: 0.5 – 18.0 m below the ground surface level (except for one artesian well. The following parameters were determined: pH, EC, colour, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, BOD, COD-Mn, COD-Cr, humic substances, chloride, sulphate, total hardness, alkalinity, dry residue PAHs (16 compounds, pesticides (6 compounds, however, only selected data were presented in this paper. In all the analysed water samples chloro-organic pesticides were observed. The analysed water contained heptachlor in the highest concentrations of 15.97 mg/dm3. Good quality water must not include concentrations higher than 0.5 mg/dm3 of heptachlor. However, the concentration was circa 32 times higher than this value. The second pesticide determining poor water quality is dieldrin. This compound in the investigated groundwater was 1.94 mg/dm3 – 4 times higher than the limit for acceptable quality ground water. The concentration of pesticides also changed over the course of the research; the concentration in the analysed groundwater in the same well changed quite dramatically over a period of 1 year. Although PAHs and pesticides are potentially toxic for biological organisms they do exist in the environment as a product of the natural biological transformation of organic matter. The noted concentrations and compositions of PAH compounds were different to natural PAHs. It confirms the fact that agricultural activity influences groundwater quality.

  12. 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Meili, E-mail: fumeilidrlinyi@tom.com [Department of Infectious Disease, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi 276000 (China); Wan, Fuqiang [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Linyi Tumor Hospital, Linyi 276000 (China); Li, Zhengling [Department of Nursing, Tengzhou Central People' s Hospital, Tengzhou 277500 (China); Zhang, Fenghua [Department of Operating Room, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi 276000 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by 4SC-202, a novel class I HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). The associated signaling mechanisms were also analyzed. We showed that 4SC-202 treatment induced potent cytotoxic and proliferation–inhibitory activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, adding 4SC-202 in HCC cells activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, cytochrome C cytosol release and caspase-3/-9 activation. Inhibition of this apoptosis pathway, by caspase-3/-9 inhibitors, mPTP blockers, or by shRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D, a key component of mPTP), significantly attenuated 4SC-202-induced HCC cell death and apoptosis. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D enhanced 4SC-202's sensitivity in HCC cells. Further studies showed that 4SC-202 induced apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation, causing it translocation to mitochondria and physical association with Cyp-D. This mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation appeared required for mediating 4SC-202-induced apoptosis activation. ASK1 stable knockdown by targeted-shRNAs largely inhibited 4SC-202-induced mPTP opening, cytochrome C release, and following HCC cell apoptotic death. Together, we suggest that 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to potently inhibit human HCC cells. - Highlights: • 4SC-202 exerts potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity against established/primary HCC cells. • SC-202-induced anti-HCC cell activity relies on caspase-dependent apoptosis activation. • 4SC-202 activates Cyp-D-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in HCC cells. • 4SC-202 activates ASK1 in HCC cells, causing it translocation to mitochondria. • Mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation mediates 4SC-202's activity in HCC cells.

  13. 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Meili; Wan, Fuqiang; Li, Zhengling; Zhang, Fenghua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by 4SC-202, a novel class I HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). The associated signaling mechanisms were also analyzed. We showed that 4SC-202 treatment induced potent cytotoxic and proliferation–inhibitory activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, adding 4SC-202 in HCC cells activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, cytochrome C cytosol release and caspase-3/-9 activation. Inhibition of this apoptosis pathway, by caspase-3/-9 inhibitors, mPTP blockers, or by shRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D, a key component of mPTP), significantly attenuated 4SC-202-induced HCC cell death and apoptosis. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D enhanced 4SC-202's sensitivity in HCC cells. Further studies showed that 4SC-202 induced apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation, causing it translocation to mitochondria and physical association with Cyp-D. This mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation appeared required for mediating 4SC-202-induced apoptosis activation. ASK1 stable knockdown by targeted-shRNAs largely inhibited 4SC-202-induced mPTP opening, cytochrome C release, and following HCC cell apoptotic death. Together, we suggest that 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to potently inhibit human HCC cells. - Highlights: • 4SC-202 exerts potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity against established/primary HCC cells. • SC-202-induced anti-HCC cell activity relies on caspase-dependent apoptosis activation. • 4SC-202 activates Cyp-D-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in HCC cells. • 4SC-202 activates ASK1 in HCC cells, causing it translocation to mitochondria. • Mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation mediates 4SC-202's activity in HCC cells.

  14. Improving Accuracy for Image Fusion in Abdominal Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ewertsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image fusion involving real-time ultrasound (US is a technique where previously recorded computed tomography (CT or magnetic resonance images (MRI are reformatted in a projection to fit the real-time US images after an initial co-registration. The co-registration aligns the images by means of common planes or points. We evaluated the accuracy of the alignment when varying parameters as patient position, respiratory phase and distance from the co-registration points/planes. We performed a total of 80 co-registrations and obtained the highest accuracy when the respiratory phase for the co-registration procedure was the same as when the CT or MRI was obtained. Furthermore, choosing co-registration points/planes close to the area of interest also improved the accuracy. With all settings optimized a mean error of 3.2 mm was obtained. We conclude that image fusion involving real-time US is an accurate method for abdominal examinations and that the accuracy is influenced by various adjustable factors that should be kept in mind.

  15. Te contaria mi vida: I would tell you my life, if only you would ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Ruth Ann; Sayeed, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    Universal screening for domestic violence is recommended in many health care settings. This qualitative study was undertaken to explore the thoughts and feelings of Mexican American women regarding being asked questions about domestic violence by a health care provider. We wanted to further explore what characteristics about a nurse, or other health care provider, would give a woman confianza, the trust necessary to discuss this issue. Seven women, who self identified as abused or formerly abused, were recruited from a pool of Spanish-speaking women receiving services from a rural domestic violence agency in the midwestern United States. The researchers found that, given certain characteristics and actions of the health care provider, women welcome the opportunity to discuss this issue. The implications for practice are these: be sincerely present for the client, ask about her life, listen to her response, and when necessary assist her to connect with appropriate domestic violence community services.

  16. Morphology and dynamics of aurora at fine scale: first results from the ASK instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ASK instrument (Auroral Structure and Kinetics is a narrow field auroral imager, providing simultaneous images of aurora in three different spectral bands at multiple frames per second resolution. The three emission species studied are O2+ (5620 Å, O+ (7319 Å and O (7774 Å. ASK was installed and operated for the first time in an observational campaign on Svalbard, from December 2005 to March 2006. The measurements were supported by data from the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. The relation between the morphology and dynamics of the visible aurora and its spectral characteristics is studied for selected events from this period. In these events it is found that dynamic aurora is coupled to high energy electron precipitation. By studying the O2+/O intensity ratio we find that some auroral filaments are caused by higher energy precipitation within regions of lower energy precipitation, whereas other filaments are the result of a higher particle flux compared to the surroundings.

  17. The rise of repeal: policy entrepreneurship and Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Christopher L; Edgell, Luke R

    2013-01-01

    We report on policy entrepreneurship by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) and how its legislative strategies used mini-windows of opportunity to shift Capitol Hill perspectives of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) from political plutonium to an emerging issue requiring a second look. Four phases in the legislative history of DADT are identified: radioactive, contested, emerging, and viable. In all, this article argues that SLDN's entrepreneurship focused on contesting congressional sensibilities to wait or defer on repeal, maintained that every discharge was damaging and transitioned toward a post-repeal mind set. Finally, we illustrate the importance of these transitions by comparing SLDN's 2004 estimated vote count for the introduction of the Military Readiness Enhancement Act with the final 2010 voting results on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act.

  18. ’Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ Policy: Is It Time to Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-26

    by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle State Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662...accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215...Lesbians, Bisexual and Transgender (GLBTs). 2 P.W. Singer, How The Real World Ended “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” (Washington, DC: Brooking Institute, August

  19. Facebook’s Ugly Sisters: Anonymity and Abuse on Formspring and Ask.fm

    OpenAIRE

    Binns, Amy

    2013-01-01

    New question and answer websites Ask.fm and Formspring have brought highly specific and personal abuse to a new level amongst young people by providing easy anonymity to users within a circle of offline friendship groups culled from Facebook. Relatively unknown due to their unattractiveness to adults, these sites are growing rapidly and have already been associated with at least eight suicides amongst teenagers. \\ud \\ud Media educators at school level encouraging self-awareness of social medi...

  20. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine, Volume 11, March 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    APPL is a research-based organization that serves NASA program and project managers, as well as project teams, at every level of development. In 1997, APPL was created from an earlier program to underscore the importance that NASA places on project management and project teams through a wide variety of products and services, including knowledge sharing, classroom and online courses, career development guidance, performance support, university partnerships, and advanced technology tools. ASK Magazine grew out of APPL's Knowledge Sharing Initiative. The stories that appear in ASK are written by the 'best of the best' project managers, primarily from NASA, but also from other government agencies and industry. Contributors to this issue include: Teresa Bailey, a librarian at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Roy Malone, Deputy Director in the Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Office at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), W. Scott Cameron, Capital Systems Manager for the Food and Beverage Global Business Unit of Procter and Gamble, Ray Morgan, recent retiree as Vice President of AeroVironment, Inc., Marty Davis, Program Manager of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in Greenbelt, Maryland, Todd Post, editor of ASK Magazine, and works for EduTech Ltd. in Silver Spring, Maryland, Dr. Owen Gadeken, professor of Engineering Management at the Defense Acquisition University, Ken Schwer, currently the Project Manager of Solar Dynamics Observatory, Dr. Edward Hoffmwan, Director of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Frank Snow, a member of the NASA Explorer Program at Goddard Space Flight Center since 1992, Dr. Alexander Laufer, Editor-in-Chief of ASK Magazine and a member of the Advisory Board of the NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership, Judy Stokley, presently Air Force Program Executive Officer for Weapons in Washington, D.C. and Terry Little, Director of the Kinetic

  1. Cysteine residues mediate high‐affinity binding of thioredoxin to ASK1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kylarová, Salome; Košek, Dalibor; Petrvalská, Olivia; Pšenáková, Katarína; Man, Petr; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Obšilová, Veronika; Obšil, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 20 (2016), s. 3821-3838 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-10061S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : ASK 1 * cysteine * disulfide bond * mass spectrometry * TRX Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 3.902, year: 2016

  2. The Trump Administrations March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The Trump Administration’s March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: Frequently Asked Questions Pat Towell Specialist in U.S. Defense Policy and...Budget Lynn M. Williams Analyst in U.S. Defense Budget Policy April 3, 2017 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R44806 The Trump ...8 The Trump Administration’s March 2017 Defense Budget Proposals: FAQs Congressional Research Service 1 Introduction On

  3. The Role Of Gender In Asking Questions At Cool Stars 18 And 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Douglas, Stephanie; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Booth, Rachel S.; Davenport, James R. A.; Mace, Gregory N.

    2016-12-01

    We examine the gender balance of the 18th and 19th meetings of the Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stellar Systems and the Sun (CS18 and CS19). The percent of female attendees at both meetings (31% at CS18 and 37% at CS19) was higher than the percent of women in the American Astronomical Society (25%) and the International Astronomical Union (18%). The representation of women in Cool Stars as SOC members, invited speakers, and contributed speakers was similar to or exceeded the percent of women attending the meetings. We requested that conference attendees assist in a project to collect data on the gender of astronomers asking questions after talks. Using this data, we found that men were over-represented (and women were under-represented) in the question sessions after each talk. Men asked 79% of the questions at CS18 and 75% of the questions at CS19, but were 69% and 63% of the attendees respectively. Contrary to findings from previous conferences, we did not find that the gender balance of questions was strongly affected by the session chair gender, the speaker gender, or the length of the question period. We also found that female and male speakers were asked a comparable number of questions after each talk. The contrast of these results from previous incarnations of the gender questions survey indicate that more data would be useful in understanding the factors that contribute to the gender balance of question askers. We include a preliminary set of recommendations based on this and other work on related topics, but also advocate for additional research on the demographics of conference participants. Additional data on the intersection of gender with race, seniority, sexual orientation, ability and other marginalized identities is necessary to fully address the role of gender in asking questions at conferences.

  4. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    outstanding research that has had a clear impact on improving policy decisions practice or discourse, either in the public or private sectors .” 6. What...2017 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members 433 | OPA Frequently Asked Questions 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations...OPA), has been conducting surveys of gender issues for the active duty military since 1988. RSSC uses scientific state of the art statistical

  5. Pragmatic Failure and Referential Ambiguity when Attorneys Ask Child Witnesses "Do You Know/Remember" Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela D; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

    2017-05-01

    "Do you know" and "Do you remember" (DYK/R) questions explicitly ask whether one knows or remembers some information while implicitly asking for that information. This study examined how 104 4- to 9-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases responded to DYK/R wh- and yes/no questions. When asked DYK/R questions containing an implicit wh- question requesting information, children often provided unelaborated "Yes" responses. Attorneys' follow-up questions suggested that children usually misunderstood the pragmatics of the questions. When DYK/R questions contained an implicit yes/no question, unelaborated "Yes" or "No" responses could be responding to the explicit or the implicit questions resulting in referentially ambiguous responses. Children often provided referentially ambiguous responses and attorneys usually failed to disambiguate children's answers. Although pragmatic failure following DYK/R wh- questions decreased with age, the likelihood of referential ambiguity following DYK/R yes/no questions did not. The results highlight the risks of serious miscommunications caused by pragmatic misunderstanding and referential ambiguity when children testify.

  6. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  7. Targeting apoptosis signalling kinase-1 (ASK-1 does not prevent the development of neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Newton

    Full Text Available Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1 is a mitogen-activated protein 3 kinase (MAPKKK/MAP3K which lies upstream of the stress-activated MAPKs, JNK and p38. ASK1 may be activated by a variety of extracellular and intracellular stimuli. MAP kinase activation in the sensory nervous system as a result of diabetes has been shown in numerous preclinical and clinical studies. As a common upstream activator of both p38 and JNK, we hypothesised that activation of ASK1 contributes to nerve dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. We therefore wanted to characterize the expression of ASK1 in sensory neurons, and determine whether the absence of functional ASK1 would protect against the development of neuropathy in a mouse model of experimental diabetes. ASK1 mRNA and protein is constitutively expressed by multiple populations of sensory neurons of the adult mouse lumbar DRG. Diabetes was induced in male C57BL/6 and transgenic ASK1 kinase-inactive (ASK1n mice using streptozotocin. Levels of ASK1 do not change in the DRG, spinal cord, or sciatic nerve following induction of diabetes. However, levels of ASK2 mRNA increase in the spinal cord at 4 weeks of diabetes, which could represent a future target for this field. Neither motor nerve conduction velocity deficits, nor thermal or mechanical hypoalgesia were prevented or ameliorated in diabetic ASK1n mice. These results suggest that activation of ASK1 is not responsible for the nerve deficits observed in this mouse model of diabetic neuropathy.

  8. Reasons for Consulting a Doctor on the Internet: Web Survey of Users of an Ask the Doctor Service

    OpenAIRE

    Umefjord, Göran; Petersson, Göran; Hamberg, Katarina

    2003-01-01

    Background In 1998 the Swedish noncommercial public health service Infomedica opened an Ask the Doctor service on its Internet portal. At no charge, anyone with Internet access can use this service to ask questions about personal health-related and disease-related matters. Objective To study why individuals choose to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet. Methods Between November 1, 2001, and January 31, 2002 a Web survey of the 3622 Ask the Doctor service users, 1036 men (29%) a...

  9. ACHIEVEMENT OF THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SAFETY AND HEALTH AT WORK AND THE SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Urosevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health at work involves the exercise of such working conditions that take certain measures and activities in order to protect the life and health of employees. The interest of society, of all stakeholders and every individual is to achieve the highest level of safety and health at work, to unwanted consequences such as injuries, occupational diseases and diseases related to work are reduced to a minimum, and to create the conditions work in which employees have a sense of satisfaction in the performance of their professional duties. Textile industry is a sector with higher risk, because the plants of textile industry prevailing unfavorable microclimate conditions: high air temperature and high humidity, and often insufficient illumination of rooms and increased noise. The whole line of production in the textile industry, there is a risk of injury, the most common with mechanical force, or gaining burns from heat or chemicals. All of these factors are present in the process of production and processing of textiles and the same may affect the incidence of occupational diseases of workers, absenteeism, reduction of their working capacity and productivity. With the progress of the textile industry production increases in the number of hazardous and harmful substances that may pose a potential danger to the employee in this branch of the economy as well as the harmful impact on the environment. Therefore, it is important to give special attention to these problems.

  10. Density functional theory, comparative vibrational spectroscopic studies, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis of Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalakshmi, K.; Gunasekaran, S.; Kumaresan, S.

    2015-06-01

    The Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra of Linezolid have been recorded in the regions 4,000-400 and 4,000-100 cm-1, respectively. Utilizing the observed Fourier transform infrared spectra and Fourier transform Raman spectra data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound have been carried out. The optimum molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities and Raman scattering activities, have been calculated by density functional theory with 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p) and M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) levels. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of Linezolid is reported. Mulliken's net charges have also been calculated. Ultraviolet-visible spectrum of the title molecule has also been calculated using time-dependent density functional method. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential, highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital analysis and several thermodynamic properties have been performed by the density functional theoretical method.

  11. New hybrid magnet system for structure research at highest magnetic fields and temperatures in the millikelvin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeibidl, Peter; Ehmler, Hartmut; Tennant, Alan; Bird, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Helmholtz Centre Berlin (HZB) is a user facility for the study of structure and dynamics with neutrons and synchrotron radiation with special emphasis on experiments under extreme conditions. Neutron scattering is uniquely suited to study magnetic properties on a microscopic length scale, because neutrons have comparable wavelengths and, due to their magnetic moment, they interact with the atomic magnetic moments. At HZB a dedicated instrument for neutron scattering at extreme magnetic fields and low temperatures is under construction, the Extreme Environment Diffractometer ExED. It is projected according to the time-of-flight principle for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering and for the special geometric constraints of analysing samples in a high field magnet. The new hybrid magnet will not only allow for novel experiments, it will be at the forefront of development in magnet technology itself. With a set of superconducting and resistive coils a maximum field above 30 T will be possible. To compromise between the needs of the magnet design for highest fields and the concept of the neutron instrument, the magnetic field will be generated by means of a coned, resistive inner solenoid and a superconducting outer solenoid with horizontal field orientation. To allow for experiments down to Millikelvin Temperatures the installation of a 3 He or a dilution cryostat with a closed cycle precooling stage is foreseen.

  12. Pleistocene climatic oscillations rather than recent human disturbance influence genetic diversity in one of the world's highest treeline species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanling; Lachmuth, Susanne; Gallegos, Silvia C; Kessler, Michael; Ramsay, Paul M; Renison, Daniel; Suarez, Ricardo; Hensen, Isabell

    2015-10-01

    Biological responses to climatic change usually leave imprints on the genetic diversity and structure of plants. Information on the current genetic diversity and structure of dominant tree species has facilitated our general understanding of phylogeographical patterns. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs), we compared genetic diversity and structure of 384 adults of P. tarapacana with those of 384 seedlings across 32 forest sites spanning a latitudinal gradient of 600 km occurring between 4100 m and 5000 m a.s.l. in Polylepis tarapacana (Rosaceae), one of the world's highest treeline species endemic to the central Andes. Moderate to high levels of genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation were detected in both adults and seedlings, with levels of genetic diversity and differentiation being almost identical. Four slightly genetically divergent clusters were identified that accorded to differing geographical regions. Genetic diversity decreased from south to north and with increasing precipitation for adults and seedlings, but there was no relationship to elevation. Our study shows that, unlike the case for other Andean treeline species, recent human activities have not affected the genetic structure of P. tarapacana, possibly because its inhospitable habitat is unsuitable for agriculture. The current genetic pattern of P. tarapacana points to a historically more widespread distribution at lower altitudes, which allowed considerable gene flow possibly during the glacial periods of the Pleistocene epoch, and also suggests that the northern Argentinean Andes may have served as a refugium for historical populations. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  13. A Systematic Study to Optimize SiPM Photo-Detectors for Highest Time Resolution in PET

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S.; Frisch, B.; Hillemanns, H.; Jarron, P.; Meyer, T.; Pauwels, K.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a systematic study of time resolution made with three different commercial silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) (Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-025P, S10931-050P, and S10931-100P) and two LSO scintillating crystals. This study aimed to determine the optimum detector conditions for highest time resolution in a prospective time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) system. Measurements were based on the time over threshold method in a coincidence setup using the ultrafast amplifier-discriminator NINO and a fast oscilloscope. Our tests with the three SiPMs of the same area but of different SPAD sizes and fill factors led to best results with the Hamamatsu type of 50×50×μm2 single-pixel size. For this type of SiPM and under realistic geometrical PET scanner conditions, i.e., with 2×2×10×mm3 LSO crystals, a coincidence time resolution of 220 ±4 ps FWHM could be achieved. The results are interpreted in terms of SiPM photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark noise, and photon yield.

  14. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdam, Ronald C. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Bentley, Ramsey [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Campbell-Stone, Erin [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Dahl, Shanna [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Deiss, Allory [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Ganshin, Yuri [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Jiao, Zunsheng [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kaszuba, John [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Mallick, Subhashis [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); McLaughlin, Fred [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Myers, James [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Quillinan, Scott [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  15. [Archivos de Bronconeumología: among the 3 Spanish medical journals with the highest national impact factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre Benavent, R; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Castellano Gómez, M; Simó Meléndez, R; Navarro Molina, C

    2004-12-01

    Citation analysis elucidates patterns of information consumption within professional communities. The aim of this study was to analyze the citations of 87 Spanish medical journals by calculating their impact factors and immediacy indices for 2001, and to estimate the importance of Archivos de Bronconeumología within the framework of Spanish medicine. Eighty-seven Spanish medical journals were included. All were listed in the Spanish Medical Index (Indice Medico Español) and in at least one of the following databases: MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, or Science Citation Index. References to articles from 1999 through 2001 in citable articles from 2001 were analyzed. Using the method of the Institute for Scientific Information, we calculated the national impact factor and immediacy index for each journal. The journals with the highest national impact factors were Revista Española de Quimioterapia (0.894), Medicina Clínica (0.89), and Archivos de Bronconeumología (0.732). The self-citation percentage of Archivos de Bronconeumología was 18.3% and the immediacy index was 0.033. The impact factor obtained by Archivos de Bronconeumología confirms its importance in Spanish medicine and validates its inclusion as a source journal in Science Citation Index and Journal Citation Report.

  16. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Aparna; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-09-18

    The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR) of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2-1.7, p < 0.001), and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2-2.9, p < 0.001), and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3-6.2, p < 0.001) and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9-9.8, p < 0.001) areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years.

  17. The Risk of Reported Cryptosporidiosis in Children Aged <5 Years in Australia is Highest in Very Remote Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Lal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cryptosporidiosis is highest in children <5 years, yet little is known about disease patterns across urban and rural areas of Australia. In this study, we examine whether the risk of reported cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years varies across an urban-rural gradient, after controlling for season and gender. Using Australian data on reported cryptosporidiosis from 2001 to 2012, we spatially linked disease data to an index of geographic remoteness to examine the geographic variation in cryptosporidiosis risk using negative binomial regression. The Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR of reported cryptosporidiosis was higher in inner regional (IRR 1.4 95% CI 1.2–1.7, p < 0.001, and outer regional areas (IRR 2.4 95% CI 2.2–2.9, p < 0.001, and in remote (IRR 5.2 95% CI 4.3–6.2, p < 0.001 and very remote (IRR 8.2 95% CI 6.9–9.8, p < 0.001 areas, compared to major cities. A linear test for trend showed a statistically significant trend with increasing remoteness. Remote communities need to be a priority for future targeted health promotion and disease prevention interventions to reduce cryptosporidiosis in children <5 years.

  18. Solving The Longstanding Problem Of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions At the Highest Microscopic Level - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaglioni, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    A 2011 DOE-NP Early Career Award (ECA) under Field Work Proposal (FWP) SCW1158 supported the project “Solving the Long-Standing Problem of Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions at the Highest Microscopic Level” in the five-year period from June 15, 2011 to June 14, 2016. This project, led by PI S. Quaglioni, aimed at developing a comprehensive and computationally efficient framework to arrive at a unified description of structural properties and reactions of light nuclei in terms of constituent protons and neutrons interacting through nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) forces. Specifically, the project had three main goals: 1) arriving at the accurate predictions for fusion reactions that power stars and Earth-based fusion facilities; 2) realizing a comprehensive description of clustering and continuum effects in exotic nuclei, including light Borromean systems; and 3) achieving fundamental understanding of the role of the 3N force in nuclear reactions and nuclei at the drip line.

  19. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Gonnet, Jorge; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-09-30

    There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects. A total of 3.3 ha of alpine meadows and 13.4 ha of alpine steppe were disturbed by trails. Trails through meadows resulted in greater soil loss, more exposed soil and rock and less vegetation than trails through steppe vegetation. Trampling also affected the composition of meadow and steppe vegetation with declines in sedges, herbs, grasses and shrubs on trails. These results highlight how visitor use can result in substantial cumulative damage to areas of high conservation value in the Andes. With unregulated use of trails and increasing visitation, park agencies need to limit the further spread of informal trails and improve the conservation of plant communities in Aconcagua Provincial Park and other popular parks in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ASK1 regulates the survival of neuroblastoma cells by interacting with TLX and stabilizing HIF-1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Praveen K; Zhai, Qiwei; Green, Lydia C; Hansford, Loen M; Funa, Keiko

    2017-01-01

    Elevated expression of TLX (also called as NR2E1) in neuroblastoma (NB) correlates with unfavorable prognosis, and TLX is required for self-renewal of NB cells. Knockdown of TLX has been shown to reduce the NB sphere-forming ability. ASK1 (MAP3K5) and TLX expression are both enhanced in SP (side population) NB and patient-derived primary NB sphere cell lines, but the majority of non-SP NB lines express lower ASK1 expression. We found that ASK1 phosphorylated and stabilized TLX, which led induction of HIF-1α, and its downstream VEGF-A in an Akt dependent manner. In depleting ASK1 upon hypoxia, TLX decreased and the apoptosis ratio of NB cells was enhanced, while low-ASK1-expressing NB cell lines were refractory in TUNEL assay by using flow cytometry. Interestingly, primary NB spheres cell lines express only high levels of active pASK1Thr-838 but the established cell lines expressed inhibitory pASK1Ser-966, and both could be targeted by ASK1 depletion. We report a novel pro-survival role of ASK1 in the tumorigenic NB cell populations, which may be applied as a therapeutic target, inducing apoptosis specifically in cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Technical accuracy in historical writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    A guest editorial is presented on the question of accuracy in the writing of radiation protection history. The author has written several books and articles dealing with various aspects of the development of radiation protection standards and philosophy; some of his own minor errors which have been picked up and frequently repeated are confessed. The author also outlines some of the general faults he has encountered in other articles on the subject. A common complaint is that many writers give source references without checking back to the original sources which leads to much carelessness and misunderstanding in technical writing. In addition, some writers all too frequently refer mainly to review articles which can be especially troublesome if the review is of the interpretative type. The limited outlook of some writers is also deplored in that the scope of the literature referred to is often limited to the author's country. A few glaring examples of factual errors encountered in various radiation protection articles are highlighted; these errors have since been repeated in subsequent review articles. (U.K.)

  2. Mammography: Technique and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Ja; Bahk, Yong Whee; Lee, Don Young

    1974-01-01

    Mammography is now in world wide use, But this has received rather scanty attention in Korea. The purposes of the present communication are twofold: (1) Detailing of technical and photographic aspects of mam in ography and (2) an assessment of its diagnostic accuracy as experienced by us. The clinical materials consisted of 88 cases of mammography performed at the Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the 2 years-period from April 1972. We used nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine- grain films, and a special mammographic device that can be attached to any of the ordinary radiographic machine. Technical factors are shown in Table II. Of 88 cases 19 were operated on or biopsied. There were 7 cases of carcinoma. 8 cases of inflammatory diseases, and 4 cases of benign tumor. Mammographic diagnosis was correct in 85.7% of carcinoma and 87.5% of inflammatory diseases. One misdiagnosis of 7 cases of carcinoma was turned out to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Of 4 cases of benign tumors 2 were correctly diagnosed, and the other 2 mistaken for either inflammatory disease or simple lactating breast. However, none of the benign conditions were diagnosed as malignant process. We found that nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine-grain films, and hand-processing were necessary in obtaining the mammograms of desirable quality

  3. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  4. A story about the discovery of the largest glacier and the highest peak in heart of the Pamirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kotlyakov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tells a story how the “blank spot” at the Pamirs center was puzzled out. In 1878, a small party of explorers headed by V.D. Oshanin had found here a big glacier about 30–40 km long and named it for Fedchenko. In 1884–85, known investigator G.E. Grumm-Grzhimailo made his important proposal about orographic structure of the Pamirs central part. In 1890, expedition headed by topographer N.I. Kosinenko investigated the lower part of the Fedchenko Glacier and, for the first time, saw a separate high peak. In 1916, astronomer Ya.I. Belyaev had put on a map a great pyramidal summit but he had mistaken it for the Garmo Peak well known to local Tadzhiks (Fig. 2.In 1927, N.L. Korzhenevsky published a chart of arrangement of ridges near sources of the river Muksu (Fig. 3 that became a basis for work of the Tadzhik-Pamir expedition of 1928–1932. In 1928, Ya.I. Belyaev determined a true length of the Fechenko Glacier that was 70 km, and geodesist I.G. Dorofeevmapped the whole basin of this glacier (Fig. 4 including also a high irregular truncated pyramid of 7495 m in height (as he believed. But earlier this summit was identified as known the Garmo Peak. And only in 1932, it was established that definitions made by Dorofeev in 1928 were related to this highest peak of the Pamirs and also of the whole Soviet Union. The chart of real Central Pamir orography constructed by I.G. Dorofeev is presented in the paper together with his letter addressed to the author (Fig. 5.Thus, the “Garmo peaks” which were observed by the above mentioned explorers were actually three different summits. One of them does tower on the north of the “knot being puzzled out” and reaches 7495 m, and namely this “one-tooth” peak was repeatedly seen by N.V. Krylenko from valleys Gando and Garmo. It was named then the Stalin peak, and later – the peak of Communism. Another one is located in 18 km southward, and this peak is actually the true Garmo Peak 6595 m

  5. Binding of higher alcohols onto Mn(12) single-molecule magnets (SMMs): access to the highest barrier Mn(12) SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Christos; Redler, Gage; Data, Saiti; Abboud, Khalil A; Hill, Stephen; Christou, George

    2010-02-15

    Two new members of the Mn(12) family of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(Bu(t)OH)(H(2)O)(3)].2Bu(t)OH (3.2Bu(t)OH) and [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(C(5)H(11)OH)(4)] (4) (C(5)H(11)OH is 1-pentanol), are reported. They were synthesized from [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CMe)(16)(H(2)O)(4)].2MeCO(2)H.4H(2)O (1) by carboxylate substitution and crystallization from the appropriate alcohol-containing solvent. Complexes 3 and 4 are new members of the recently established [Mn(12)O(12)(O(2)CCH(2)Bu(t))(16)(solv)(4)] (solv = H(2)O, alcohols) family of SMMs. Only one bulky Bu(t)OH can be accommodated into 3, and even this causes significant distortion of the [Mn(12)O(12)] core. Variable-temperature, solid-state alternating current (AC) magnetization studies were carried out on complexes 3 and 4, and they established that both possess an S = 10 ground state spin and are SMMs. However, the magnetic behavior of the two compounds was found to be significantly different, with 4 showing out-of-phase AC peaks at higher temperatures than 3. High-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (HFEPR) studies were carried out on single crystals of 3.2Bu(t)OH and 4, and these revealed that the axial zero-field splitting constant, D, is very different for the two compounds. Furthermore, it was established that 4 is the Mn(12) SMM with the highest kinetic barrier (U(eff)) to date. The results reveal alcohol substitution as an additional and convenient means to affect the magnetization relaxation barrier of the Mn(12) SMMs without major change to the ligation or oxidation state.

  6. Investigation of Behçet's Disease and Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Frequency: The Highest Prevalence in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Baş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS is the most frequently observed painful pathology of the oral mucosa in the society. It appears mostly in idiopathic form; however, it may also be related with systemic diseases like Behçet’s Disease (BD. Aims: Determining the prevalence of RAS and BD in the Northern Anatolian Region, which is one of the important routes on the Antique Silk Road. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Overall, 85 separate exemplification groups were formed to reflect the population density, and the demographic data of the region they represent. In the first stage, the individuals, who were selected in random order, were invited to a Family Physician Unit at a certain date and time. The dermatological examinations of the volunteering individuals were performed by only 3 dermatology specialists. In the second stage, those individuals who had symptoms of BD were invited to our hospital, and the Pathergy Test and eye examinations were performed. Results: The annual prevalence of RAS was determined as 10.84%. The annual prevalence was determined to be higher in women than in men (p=0.000. It was observed that the prevalence was at the peak level in the 3rd decade, and then decreased proportionally in the following decades (p=0.000. It was also observed that the aphtha recurrence decreased in the following decades (p=0.048. The Behçet’s prevalence was found to be 0.60%. The prevalence in women was found to be higher than in men (0.86% female, 0.14% male; p=0.022. Conclusion: While the RAS prevalence ratio was at an average value when compared with the other societies; the BD prevalence was found as the highest ratio in the world according to the literature.

  7. Where do the highest energy CR's come from? and How does the Milky Way affect their arrival directions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronberg Philipp

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “grand magnetic design” for the Milky Way disk clearly emerges within ~1.5 kpc of the Galactic mid-plane near the Sun [1], and reveals a pitch angle of −5.5°. directed inward from the Solar tangential. This pitch angle can be expected to differ for Galactic disc locations other than ours. Above ~1.5 kpc, the field geometry is completely different, and its 3-D structure is not yet completely specified. However it appears that the UHECR (> 5 · 1019 eV propagation to us is not much affected by the halo field, at least for protons. I discuss new multi-parameter analyses of UHECR deflections which provide a conceptual “template” for future interpretations of energy-species-direction data from AUGER, HiRes etc., and their successors [2]. I show how the strength and structure of the cosmologically nearby intergalactic magnetic field, BIGM, is now well-estimated out to D ~5 Mpc from the Milky Way: − 20nG. These are the first VHECR data-based estimates of BIGM on nearby supragalactic scales, and are also important for understanding and modeling CR propagation in the more distant Universe. CR Acceleration to the highest energies is probably a natural accompanying phenomenon of Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH-associated jets and lobes [3]. I briefly describe what we know about magnetic configurations in these candidate sites for UHECR acceleration, and the first direct estimate of an extragalactic Poynting flux current, ~3 · 1018 Amperes [4, 5]. This number connects directly to SMBH accretion disk physics, and leads directly to ideas of how VHECR acceleration in jets and lobes, possibly involving magnetic reconnection, is likely to be common in the Universe. It remains to be fully understood.

  8. Lyman alpha emission in nearby star-forming galaxies with the lowest metallicities and the highest [OIII]/[OII] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The Lyman alpha line of hydrogen is the strongest emission line in galaxies and the tool of predilection for identifying and studying star-forming galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, especially in the early universe. However, it has become clear over the years that not all of the Lyman alpha radiation escapes, due to its resonant scattering on the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and absorption by dust. Although our knowledge of the high-z universe depends crucially on that line, we still do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms behind the production, radiative transfer and escape of Lyman alpha in galaxies. We wish here to investigate these mechanisms by studying the properties of the ISM in a unique sample of 8 extreme star-forming galaxies (SFGs) that have the highest excitation in the SDSS spectral data base. These dwarf SFGs have considerably lower stellar masses and metallicities, and higher equivalent widths and [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios compared to all nearby SFGs with Lyman alpha emission studied so far with COS. They are, however, very similar to the dwarf Lyman alpha emitters at redshifts 3-6, which are thought to be the main sources of reionization in the early Universe. By combining the HST/COS UV data with data in the optical range, and using photoionization and radiative transfer codes, we will be able to study the properties of the Lyman alpha in these unique objects, derive column densities of the neutral hydrogen N(HI) and compare them with N(HI) obtained from the HeI emission-line ratios in the optical spectra. We will derive Lyman alpha escape fractions and indirectly Lyman continuum escape fractions.

  9. Can All Doctors Be Like This? Seven Stories of Communication Transformation Told by Physicians Rated Highest by Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janisse, Tom; Tallman, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The top predictors of patient satisfaction with clinical visits are the quality of the physician-patient relationship and the communications contributing to their relationship. How do physicians improve their communication, and what effect does it have on them? This article presents the verbatim stories of seven high-performing physicians describing their transformative change in the areas of communication, connection, and well-being. Data for this study are based on interviews from a previous study in which a 6-question set was posed, in semistructured 60-minute interviews, to 77 of the highest-performing Permanente Medical Group physicians in 4 Regions on the "Art of Medicine" patient survey. Transformation stories emerged spontaneously during the interviews, and so it was an incidental finding when some physicians identified that they were not always high performing in their communication with patients. Seven different modes of transformation in communication were described by these physicians: a listening tool, an awareness course, finding new meaning in clinical practice, a technologic tool, a sudden insight, a mentor observation, and a physician-as-patient experience. These stories illustrate how communication skills can be learned through various activities and experiences that transform physicians into those who are highly successful communicators. All modes result in a change of state-a new way of seeing, of being-and are not just a new tool or a new practice, but a change in state of mind. This state resulted in a marked change of behavior, and a substantial improvement of communication and relationship.

  10. Parietal and premotor cortices: activation reflects imitation accuracy during observation, delayed imitation and concurrent imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Britta; Bischoff, Matthias; Blecker, Carlo; Langhanns, Christine; Kindermann, Stefan; Sauerbier, Isabell; Reiser, Mathias; Stark, Rudolf; Munzert, Jörn; Pilgramm, Sebastian

    2014-10-15

    This study investigated whether activation within areas belonging to the action observation and imitation network reveals a linear relation to the subsequent accuracy of imitating a bimanual rhythmic movement measured via a motion capturing system. 20 participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when asked to imitate observed bimanual movements either concurrently versus with a delay (2s) or simply to observe the movements without imitation. Results showed that action observation relates to activation within classic mirror-related areas. Activation patterns were more widespread when participants were asked to imitate the movement. During observation with concurrent imitation, activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) was associated negatively with imitation accuracy. During observation in the delayed imitation condition, higher subsequent imitation accuracy was coupled with higher activation in the right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and the left parietal operculum (POp). During the delayed imitation itself, a negative association between imitation accuracy and brain activation was revealed in the right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC). We conclude that the IPL is involved in online comparison and visuospatial attention processes during imitation, the SPL provides a kinesthetic blueprint during movement observation, the POp preserves body identity, and the vPMC recruits motor representations--especially when no concurrent visual guidance is possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accuracy of surgical wound drainage measurements: an analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Brian; Nizzero, Danielle; Zhang, Chunxiao; van Zyl, Natasha; Ting, Jeannette

    2015-05-01

    Surgical drain tube readings can influence the clinical management of the post-operative patient. The accuracy of these readings has not been documented in the current literature and this experimental study aims to address this paucity. Aliquots (10, 25, 40 and 90 mL) of black tea solution prepared to mimic haemoserous fluid were injected into UnoVac, RedoVac and Jackson-Pratt drain tubes. Nursing and medical staff from a tertiary hospital were asked to estimate drain volumes by direct observation; analysis of variance was performed on the results and significance level was set at 0.05. Doctors and nurses are equally accurate in estimating drain tube volumes. Jackson-Pratt systems were found to be the most accurate for intermediate volumes of 25 and 40 mL. For extreme of volumes (both high and low), all drainage systems were inaccurate. This study suggests that for intermediate volumes (25 and 40 mL), Jackson-Pratt is the drainage system of choice. The accuracy of volume measurement is diminished at the extremes of drain volumes; emptying of drainage systems is recommended to avoid overfilling of drainage systems. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Accuracy of five intraoral scanners compared to indirect digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güth, Jan-Frederik; Runkel, Cornelius; Beuer, Florian; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Edelhoff, Daniel; Keul, Christine

    2017-06-01

    Direct and indirect digitalization offer two options for computer-aided design (CAD)/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)-generated restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different intraoral scanners and compare them to the process of indirect digitalization. A titanium testing model was directly digitized 12 times with each intraoral scanner: (1) CS 3500 (CS), (2) Zfx Intrascan (ZFX), (3) CEREC AC Bluecam (BLU), (4) CEREC AC Omnicam (OC) and (5) True Definition (TD). As control, 12 polyether impressions were taken and the referring plaster casts were digitized indirectly with the D-810 laboratory scanner (CON). The accuracy (trueness/precision) of the datasets was evaluated by an analysing software (Geomagic Qualify 12.1) using a "best fit alignment" of the datasets with a highly accurate reference dataset of the testing model, received from industrial computed tomography. Direct digitalization using the TD showed the significant highest overall "trueness", followed by CS. Both performed better than CON. BLU, ZFX and OC showed higher differences from the reference dataset than CON. Regarding the overall "precision", the CS 3500 intraoral scanner and the True Definition showed the best performance. CON, BLU and OC resulted in significantly higher precision than ZFX did. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the accuracy of the ascertained datasets was dependent on the scanning system. The direct digitalization was not superior to indirect digitalization for all tested systems. Regarding the accuracy, all tested intraoral scanning technologies seem to be able to reproduce a single quadrant within clinical acceptable accuracy. However, differences were detected between the tested systems.

  13. Gender differences in questions asked in an online preoperative patient education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria; Shell, Jasmine E; Thomas, Colleen S; Ortiguera, Cedric J; O'Connor, Mary I

    2012-12-01

    Although osteoarthritis more commonly affects women than men, women are 3 times less likely to undergo hip or knee replacement surgery compared with men. Disparity in the appropriate utilization of surgery between men and women is a complex subject that must take into account the willingness of a patient to proceed with the operation. Adequately addressing patient concerns before surgery may influence such willingness. We examined if a gender difference can be identified in the frequency and types of questions submitted by patients scheduled for total hip or total knee arthroplasty. Patients completed an online interactive preoperative educational program and a database was created containing deidentified information on surgical procedure, sex, year of birth, and any questions that were submitted. Data were also available regarding the total number of patients issued the program, the number of patients who started the program, and the number of patients who completed the program. The results were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank sum test. P values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Among the 2770 women and 1708 men included in the study, 935 (34%) and 462 (27%) asked at least 1 question, respectively. Compared with men, women asked a significantly greater number of questions overall (P < 0.001). Women also asked a significantly greater number of questions in the categories Your Condition (P = 0.031), Your Procedure (P < 0.001), and Risks and Benefits (P < 0.001). Gender differences in concerns and physicians' ability to adequately address these concerns may contribute to disparity in use of hip and knee replacement surgery between men and women. Effective preoperative counseling for women may require additional resources to address their higher level of questions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK). The NASA Source for Project Management Magazine. Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Todd (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    How big is your project world? Is it big enough to contain other cultures, headquarters, hierarchies, and weird harpoon-like guns? Sure it is. The great American poet Walt Whitman said it best, 'I am large/I contain multitudes.' And so must you, Mr. and Ms. Project Manager. In this issue of ASK, we look outside the project box. See how several talented project managers have expanded their definition of project scope to include managing environments outside the systems and subsystems under their care. Here's a sampling of what we've put together for you this issue: In 'Three Screws Missing,' Mike Skidmore tells about his adventures at the Plesetek Cosmodrome in northern Russia. Ray Morgan in his story, 'Our Man in Kauai,' suggests we take a broader view of what's meant by 'the team.' Jenny Baer-Riedhart, the NASA program manager on the same Pathfinder solar-powered airplane, schools us in how to sell a program to Headquarters in 'Know Thyself--But Don't Forget to Learn About the Customer Too.' Scott Cameron of Proctor and Gamble talks about sharpening your hierarchical IQ in 'The Project Manager and the Hour Glass.' Mike Jansen in 'The Lawn Dart' describes how he and the 'voodoo crew' on the Space Shuttle Advanced Solid Rocket Motor program borrowed a harpoon-like gun from the Coast Guard to catch particles inside of a plume. These are just some of the stories you'll find in ASK this issue. We hope they cause you to stop and reflect on your own project's relationship to the world outside. We are also launching a new section this issue, 'There are No Mistakes, Only Lessons.' No stranger to ASK readers, Terry Little inaugurates this new section with his article 'The Don Quixote Complex.'

  15. Kaempferol Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy via Regulation of ASK1/MAPK Signaling Pathway and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Cao, Jianlei; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Yanggan

    2017-07-01

    Kaempferol has been demonstrated to provide benefits for the treatment of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of kaempferol on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. Mice subjected to aorta banding were treated with or without kaempferol (100 mg/kg/d, p. o.) for 6 weeks. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mice hearts were collected for pathological observation and molecular mechanism investigation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were stimulated with or without phenylephrine for in vitro study. Kaempferol significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aorta banding as evidenced by decreased cardiomyocyte areas and interstitial fibrosis, accompanied with improved cardiac functions and decreased apoptosis. The ASK1/MAPK signaling pathways (JNK1/2 and p38) were markedly activated in the aorta banding mouse heart but inhibited by kaempferol treatment. In in vitro experiments, kaempferol also inhibited the activity of ASK1/JNK1/2/p38 signaling pathway and the enlargement of H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our study revealed that kaempferol could protect the mouse heart and H9c2 cells from pathological oxidative stress. Our investigation indicated that treatment with kaempferol protects against cardiac hypertrophy, and its cardioprotection may be partially explained by the inhibition of the ASK1/MAPK signaling pathway and the regulation of oxidative stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A Novel Fractional Fourier Transform-Based ASK-OFDM System for Underwater Acoustic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ashri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A key research area in wireless transmission is underwater communications. It has a vital role in applications such as underwater sensor networks (UWSNs and disaster detection. The underwater channel is very unique as compared to other alternatives of transmission channels. It is characterized by path loss, multipath fading, Doppler spread and ambient noise. Thus, the bit error rate (BER is increased to a large extent when compared to its counterpart of cellular communications. Acoustic signals are the current best solution for underwater communications. The use of electromagnetic or optical waves obviously entails a much higher data rate. However, they suffer from high attenuation, absorption or scattering. This paper proposes a novel fractional fast Fourier transform (FrFT—orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (FrFT-OFDM system for underwater acoustic (UWA communication—which employs the amplitude shift keying (ASK modulation technique (FrFT-ASK-OFDM. Specifically, ASK achieves a better bandwidth efficiency as compared to other commonly used modulation techniques, such as quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM and phase shift keying (PSK. In particular, the system proposed in this article can achieve a very promising BER performance, and can reach higher data rates when compared to other systems proposed in the literature. The BER performance of the proposed system is evaluated numerically, and is compared to the corresponding M-ary QAM system in the UWA channel for the same channel conditions. Moreover, the performance of the proposed system is compared to the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT-OFDM (FFT-OFDM system in the absence and presence of the effect of carrier frequency offset (CFO. Numerical results show that the proposed system outperforms the conventional FFT-based systems for UWA channels, even in channels dominated by CFO. Moreover, the spectral efficiency and data rate of the proposed system are approximately double

  17. ML-Ask: Open Source Affect Analysis Software for Textual Input in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Ptaszynski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present ML-Ask – the first Open Source Affect Analysis system for textual input in Japanese. ML-Ask analyses the contents of an input (e.g., a sentence and annotates it with information regarding the contained general emotive expressions, specific emotional words, valence-activation dimensions of overall expressed affect, and particular emotion types expressed with their respective expressions. ML-Ask also incorporates the Contextual Valence Shifters model for handling negation in sentences to deal with grammatically expressible shifts in the conveyed valence. The system, designed to work mainly under Linux and MacOS, can be used for research on, or applying the techniques of Affect Analysis within the framework Japanese language. It can also be used as an experimental baseline for specific research in Affect Analysis, and as a practical tool for written contents annotation.   Funding statement: This research has been supported by: a Research Grant from the Nissan Science Foundation (years 2009–2010, The GCOE Program founded by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (years 2009–2010, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows (Project Number: 22-00358 (years 2010–2012, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Project Number: 24600001 (years 2012–2015, (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (Project Number: 25880003 (years 2013–2015, and (JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B (Project Number: 15K16044 (years 2015-present, project estimated to end in March 2018.

  18. Efavirenz Has the Highest Anti-Proliferative Effect of Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors against Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hecht

    Full Text Available Cancer prevention and therapy in HIV-1-infected patients will play an important role in future. The non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI Efavirenz and Nevirapine are cytotoxic against cancer cells in vitro. As other NNRTIs have not been studied so far, all clinically used NNRTIs were tested and the in vitro toxic concentrations were compared to drug levels in patients to predict possible anti-cancer effects in vivo.Cytotoxicity was studied by Annexin-V-APC/7AAD staining and flow cytometry in the pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and Panc-1 and confirmed by colony formation assays. The 50% effective cytotoxic concentrations (EC50 were calculated and compared to the blood levels in our patients and published data.The in vitro EC50 of the different drugs in the BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells were: Efavirenz 31.5 μmol/l (= 9944 ng/ml, Nevirapine 239 μmol/l (= 63,786 ng/ml, Etravirine 89.0 μmol/l (= 38,740 ng/ml, Lersivirine 543 μmol/l (= 168,523 ng/ml, Delavirdine 171 μmol/l (= 78,072 ng/ml, Rilpivirine 24.4 μmol/l (= 8941 ng/ml. As Efavirenz and Rilpivirine had the highest cytotoxic potential and Nevirapine is frequently used in HIV-1 positive patients, the results of these three drugs were further studied in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells and confirmed with colony formation assays. 205 patient blood levels of Efavirenz, 127 of Rilpivirine and 31 of Nevirapine were analyzed. The mean blood level of Efavirenz was 3587 ng/ml (range 162-15,363 ng/ml, of Rilpivirine 144 ng/ml (range 0-572 ng/ml and of Nevirapine 4955 ng/ml (range 1856-8697 ng/ml. Blood levels from our patients and from published data had comparable Efavirenz levels to the in vitro toxic EC50 in about 1 to 5% of all patients.All studied NNRTIs were toxic against cancer cells. A low percentage of patients taking Efavirenz reached in vitro cytotoxic blood levels. It can be speculated that in HIV-1 positive patients having high Efavirenz blood levels pancreatic

  19. A New Orally Active, Aminothiol Radioprotector-Free of Nausea and Hypotension Side Effects at Its Highest Radioprotective Doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soref, Cheryl M. [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Hacker, Timothy A. [Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Physiology Core, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Fahl, William E., E-mail: fahl@oncology.wisc.edu [ProCertus BioPharm, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: A new aminothiol, PrC-210, was tested for orally conferred radioprotection (rats, mice; 9.0 Gy whole-body, which was otherwise lethal to 100% of the animals) and presence of the debilitating side effects (nausea/vomiting, hypotension/fainting) that restrict use of the current aminothiol, amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721). Methods and Materials: PrC-210 in water was administered to rats and mice at times before irradiation, and percent-survival was recorded for 60 days. Subcutaneous (SC) amifostine (positive control) or SC PrC-210 was administered to ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and retching/emesis responses were recorded. Intraperitoneal amifostine (positive control) or PrC-210 was administered to arterial cannulated rats to score drug-induced hypotension. Results: Oral PrC-210 conferred 100% survival in rat and mouse models against an otherwise 100% lethal whole-body radiation dose (9.0 Gy). Oral PrC-210, administered by gavage 30-90 min before irradiation, conferred a broad window of radioprotection. The comparison of PrC-210 and amifostine side effects was striking because there was no retching or emesis in 10 ferrets treated with PrC-210 and no induced hypotension in arterial cannulated rats treated with PrC-210. The tested PrC-210 doses were the ferret and rat equivalent doses of the 0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) PrC-210 dose in mice. The human equivalent of this mouse 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose would likely be the highest PrC-210 dose used in humans. By comparison, the mouse 0.5 MTD amifostine dose, 400 {mu}g/g body weight (equivalent to the human amifostine dose of 910 mg/m{sup 2}), when tested at equivalent ferret and rat doses in the above models produced 100% retching/vomiting in ferrets and 100% incidence of significant, progressive hypotension in rats. Conclusions: The PrC-210 aminothiol, with no detectable nausea/vomiting or hypotension side effects in these preclinical models, is a logical candidate for human drug development to use in healthy

  20. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  1. The part of the solar spectrum with the highest influence on the formation of SOA in the continental boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between nucleation events and spectral solar irradiance was analysed using two years of data collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland. We analysed the data in two different ways. In the first step we calculated ten nanometer average values from the irradiance measurements between 280 and 580 nm and explored if any special wavelengths groups showed higher values on event days compared to a spectral reference curve for all the days for 2 years or to reference curves for every month. The results indicated that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 340 nm is higher on event days in winter (February and March compared to the monthly reference graph but quantitative much smaller than in spring or summer. By building the ratio between the average values of different event classes and the yearly reference graph we obtained peaks between 1.17 and 1.6 in the short wavelength range (300--340 nm. In the next step we included number concentrations of particles between 3 and 10 nm and calculated correlation coefficients between the different wavelengths groups and the particles. The results were quite similar to those obtained previously; the highest correlation coefficients were reached for the spectral irradiance groups 3--5 (300--330 nm with average values for the single event classes around 0.6 and a nearly linear decrease towards higher wavelengths groups by 30%. Both analyses indicate quite clearly that short wavelength irradiance between 300 and 330 or 340 nm is the most important solar spectral radiation for the formation of newly formed aerosols. In the end we introduce a photochemical mechanism as one possible pathway how short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of SOA by calculating the production rate of excited oxygen. This mechanism shows in which way short wavelength irradiance can influence the formation of new particles even though the

  2. High-accuracy interferometric measurements of flatness and parallelism of a step gauge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, OA

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used method in the calibration of step gauges is the coordinate measuring machine (CMM), equipped with a laser interferometer for the highest accuracy. This paper describes a modification to a length-bar measuring machine...

  3. Modulador-Demodulador ASK con codificación Manchester implementado en un microcontrolador PIC

    OpenAIRE

    Tarifa Amaya, Ariel; Del Risco Sánchez, Arnaldo; Cruz Hurtado, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta el diseño de un Modulador-Demodulador Digital ASK con codificación Manchester implementado en el firmware de un microcontrolador PIC 18F4455, utilizando el estándar de baja frecuencia (LF) el cual maneja valores de 125kHz. Este modulador-demodulador se utiliza en la implementación de una etiqueta RFID activa. Transmite a solicitud de un dispositivo lector el valor de temperatura de un sensor y su identificador. El dispositivo lector, controla la comunicación con la etiqueta. Según...

  4. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  5. Management of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease: frequently asked questions and answers (if any).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Vitti, P

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, no treatment targeting pathogenic mechanisms of the disease is presently available. Therapies for Graves' hyperthyroidism are largely imperfect because they are bound to either a high rate of relapsing hyperthyroidism (antithyroid drugs) or lifelong hypothyroidism (radioiodine treatment or thyroidectomy). Aim of the present article is to offer a practical guidance to the reader by providing evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinical practice.

  6. Calibration of short rate term structure models from bid-ask coupon bond prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Gonçalves, Erika; Gzyl, Henryk; Mayoral, Silvia

    2018-02-01

    In this work we use the method of maximum entropy in the mean to provide a model free, non-parametric methodology that uses only market data to provide the prices of the zero coupon bonds, and then, a term structure of the short rates. The data used consists of the prices of the bid-ask ranges of a few coupon bonds quoted in the market. The prices of the zero coupon bonds obtained in the first stage, are then used as input to solve a recursive set of equations to determine a binomial recombinant model of the short term structure of the interest rates.

  7. Bounds on the Capacity of ASK Molecular Communication Channels with ISI

    OpenAIRE

    Ghavami, Siavash; Adve, Raviraj; Lahouti, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    There are now several works on the use of the additive inverse Gaussian noise (AIGN) model for the random transit time in molecular communication~(MC) channels. The randomness invariably causes inter-symbol interference (ISI) in MC, an issue largely ignored or simplified. In this paper we derive an upper bound and two lower bounds for MC based on amplitude shift keying (ASK) in presence of ISI. The Blahut-Arimoto algorithm~(BAA) is modified to find the input distribution of transmitted symbol...

  8. Modulador-Demodulador ASK con codificación Manchester implementado en un microcontrolador PIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Tarifa Amaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el diseño de un Modulador-Demodulador Digital ASK con codificación Manchester implementado en el firmware de un microcontrolador PIC 18F4455, utilizando el estándar de baja frecuencia (LF el cual maneja valores de 125kHz. Este modulador-demodulador se utiliza en la implementación de una etiqueta RFID activa. Transmite a solicitud de un dispositivo lector el valor de temperatura de un sensor y su identificador. El dispositivo lector, controla la comunicación con la etiqueta. Según la literatura especializada no se reporta un sistema similar.

  9. Preparing for swine flu: 10 questions that all nurses need to ask themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan; Sutherland, Holly; Spooner, Daniel

    Human swine flu is spreading rapidly and it is timely to reflect on how well we as individuals are prepared for a pandemic. Being prepared includes nurses not only being confident they have a mask that fits but also being practised at putting on and removing personal protective equipment safely. It also involves being familiar with the latest guidance from the Department of Health, having an understanding of the processes in their workplace and an appreciation of some of the ethical challenges if numbers of affected patients overwhelm the health system's resources. This article suggests staff ask themselves 10 questions to assess their level of preparedness.

  10. Variations of the ionization push frequency in the ASK-1 chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoshapkin, P.A.; Mamrukova, V.P.; Skripin, G.V.; Shafer, G.V.

    1997-01-01

    The data on frequency push in the ASK-1 chamber at the Yakutsk station for 1954-1994 are analyzed. The observed eleven-year and half-year push variations are related to the solar activity. The narrowly directed galactic anisotropy with 6-8 h direction, coinciding with the direction of the helio-magnetosphere tail, formed by the solar system motion relative to stars is identified in a daily motion by sidereal time. The great barometric and temperature coefficients of the frequency pushes are obtained. This indicates the prevailing role of the nuclear-active particles in formation of pushes

  11. Interviewing asylum seekers : A vignette study on the questions asked to assess credibility of claims about origin and persecution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, Tanja S.; Horselenberg, Robert; Landström, Sara; Granhag, Pär Anders; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes

  12. 25 CFR 291.3 - When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... III gaming procedures? 291.3 Section 291.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.3 When may an Indian tribe ask the Secretary to issue Class III gaming procedures? An Indian tribe may ask the Secretary to issue Class III...

  13. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  14. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  15. ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Barsi

    2018-04-01

    selected, practice-oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.

  16. Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    -oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.

  17. The voltage optimization of a four-element lens used on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry for highest energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.; Martínez, G.; Madesis, I.; Laoutaris, A.; Dimitriou, A.; Fernández-Martín, M.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the voltage settings for the four-element injection lens of an HDA. • The two well-known approaches, BEM and FDM, in charged particle optics were used. • We tested optimal lens voltages from simulation on the actual experimental setup. • The measured FWHM were well modeled using realistic source parameters. • The results are helpful to experimenters. - Abstract: The methodology and results of a detailed four-element lens optimization analysis based on electron trajectory numerical simulations are presented for a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA), whose entry aperture size is determined by the injection lens itself and is therefore virtual. Trajectory calculations were performed using both the boundary-element method (BEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM) and results from these two different approaches were benchmarked against each other, to probe and confirm the accuracy of our results. Since the first and last electrode are held at fixed potentials, the two intermediate adjustable lens electrode voltages were varied over the entire available voltage space in a direct, systematic, brute-force approach, while minima in beam spot size on the 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) at the exit of the HDA were investigated using a beam shaping approach. Lens voltages demonstrating improved energy resolution for the combined lens/HDA/PSD spectrograph system were sought with and without pre-retardation. The optimal voltages were then tested experimentally on the modeled HDA system using a hot-wire electron gun. The measured energy resolution was found to be in good overall agreement with our simulations, particularly at the highest resolution (∼0.05%) working conditions. These simulations also provide a detailed insight to the distinctive trajectory optics and positions of the first and second image planes, when the PSD has to be placed some distance away from the HDA exit plane, and is therefore not at the ideal optics

  18. The voltage optimization of a four-element lens used on a hemispherical spectrograph with virtual entry for highest energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sise, O., E-mail: omersise@sdu.edu.tr [Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey); Martínez, G. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Madesis, I. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Laoutaris, A. [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Department of Applied Physics, National Technical University of Athens, GR, 15780 Athens (Greece); Dimitriou, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece); Fernández-Martín, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada III, Facultad de Física, UCM, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Zouros, T.J.M. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, INPP, NCSR Demokritos, GR, 15310 Ag Paraskevi (Greece)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • We investigate the voltage settings for the four-element injection lens of an HDA. • The two well-known approaches, BEM and FDM, in charged particle optics were used. • We tested optimal lens voltages from simulation on the actual experimental setup. • The measured FWHM were well modeled using realistic source parameters. • The results are helpful to experimenters. - Abstract: The methodology and results of a detailed four-element lens optimization analysis based on electron trajectory numerical simulations are presented for a hemispherical deflector analyzer (HDA), whose entry aperture size is determined by the injection lens itself and is therefore virtual. Trajectory calculations were performed using both the boundary-element method (BEM) and the finite-difference method (FDM) and results from these two different approaches were benchmarked against each other, to probe and confirm the accuracy of our results. Since the first and last electrode are held at fixed potentials, the two intermediate adjustable lens electrode voltages were varied over the entire available voltage space in a direct, systematic, brute-force approach, while minima in beam spot size on the 2-D position sensitive detector (PSD) at the exit of the HDA were investigated using a beam shaping approach. Lens voltages demonstrating improved energy resolution for the combined lens/HDA/PSD spectrograph system were sought with and without pre-retardation. The optimal voltages were then tested experimentally on the modeled HDA system using a hot-wire electron gun. The measured energy resolution was found to be in good overall agreement with our simulations, particularly at the highest resolution (∼0.05%) working conditions. These simulations also provide a detailed insight to the distinctive trajectory optics and positions of the first and second image planes, when the PSD has to be placed some distance away from the HDA exit plane, and is therefore not at the ideal optics

  19. Asking the age question in elderly populations: a reverse record check study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J. H.; Deeg, D. J.; Schmand, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    In two large-scale surveys among elderly respondents we evaluated the accuracy of answers obtained to three differently formulated age questions. Respondents included 6,149 individuals aged 65-86 living in The Netherlands. Because criterion age data were available from different sources, it was

  20. In-service teacher education: asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visvaganthie Moodley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP facilitator, I demonstrate that within the framework of a carefully structured subject-specific PDP, teachers can be taught how to enhance thinking skills in the English visual literacy (VL learning classroom. Guided by an earlier taxonomy of cognition, and using qualitative methodology, the paper analyses data obtained from: (i observation notes and examination equivalents of 40 teachers from various public schools in Gauteng who were engaged in the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE, English specialization programme; and (ii a case study of three teachers by means of semi-structured interviews, and a study of their lesson plans and worksheets.The paper examines, specifically, teachers' choice of texts and questions asked, for English second-language learners for the teaching of VL. It concludes by suggesting that if teachers themselves are first engaged in the cognitive processes they wish learners to acquire, they are better positioned to promote higher order among their learners.

  1. Asking 'why' from a distance facilitates emotional processing: a reanalysis of Wimalaweera and Moulds (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayduk, Ozlem; Kross, Ethan

    2009-01-01

    Wimalaweera and Moulds [Wimalaweera, S. W., & Moulds, M. L. (2008). Processing memories of anger-eliciting events: the effect of asking 'why' from a distance. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 402-409] reported a failure to replicate previous findings demonstrating the effectiveness of analyzing anger-related experiences from a self-distanced perspective for reducing negative affect in the short-term (Ayduk, O., & Kross, E. (2008). [Enhancing the pace of recovery: self-distanced-analysis of negative experiences reduces blood pressure reactivity. Psychological Science, 9(3), 229-231; Kross, E., Ayduk, O., & Mischel, W. (2005). When asking "why" does not hurt. Psychological Science, 16, 709-715.] and facilitating adaptive emotional processing over time [Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2008). Facilitating adaptive emotional analysis: distinguishing distanced-analysis of depressive experiences from immersed-analysis and distraction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin]. A reanalysis of their data that takes into account effect sizes and participants' scores on the avoidance subscale of the Impact of Events Scale, which were not reported in the original write-up, contradict this and a number of other conclusions reported in their article. In this article, we review the key findings that emerged from this reanalysis.

  2. Morphology and dynamics of aurora at fine scale: first results from the ASK instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dahlgren

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The ASK instrument (Auroral Structure and Kinetics is a narrow field auroral imager, providing simultaneous images of aurora in three different spectral bands at multiple frames per second resolution. The three emission species studied are O2+ (5620 Å, O+ (7319 Å and O (7774 Å. ASK was installed and operated for the first time in an observational campaign on Svalbard, from December 2005 to March 2006. The measurements were supported by data from the Spectrographic Imaging Facility (SIF. The relation between the morphology and dynamics of the visible aurora and its spectral characteristics is studied for selected events from this period. In these events it is found that dynamic aurora is coupled to high energy electron precipitation. By studying the O2+/O intensity ratio we find that some auroral filaments are caused by higher energy precipitation within regions of lower energy precipitation, whereas other filaments are the result of a higher particle flux compared to the surroundings.

  3. The AskIT Service Desk: A Model for Improving Productivity and Reducing Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcraft, Phillip Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fogle, Blythe G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cummings, Susan M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-29

    This was prepared for the business process improvement presentation to the Department of Energy. Los Alamos National Laboratory provides a single point of contact, the AskIT Service Desk, to address issues that impact customer productivity. At the most basic level, what customers want is for their calls to be received, to get a response from a knowledgeable analyst, and to have their issues resolved and their requests fulfilled. Providing a centralized, single point of contact service desk makes initiating technical or business support simple for the customer and improves the odds of immediately resolving the issue or correctly escalating the request to the next support level when necessary. Fulfilling customer requests through automated workflow also improves customer productivity and reduces costs. Finally, customers should be provided the option to solve their own problems through easy access to self-help resources such as frequently asked questions (FAQs) and how-to guides. To accomplish this, everyone who provides and supports services must understand how these processes and functions work together. Service providers and those who support services must “speak the same language” and share common objectives. The Associate Directorate for Business Innovation (ADBI) began the journey to improve services by selecting a known service delivery framework (Information Technology Infrastructure Library, or ITIL). From this framework, components that contribute significant business value were selected.

  4. BID-ASK SPREAD DAN PERIODE KEPEMILIKAN SAHAM PADA PERUSAHAAN LQ-45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus Maulina

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis gives quite big impact to the Indonesian Stock Exchange and also changes the investor behavior as well. Fundamental exchange which is considered fragile becomes instability threat and reflects uncertain condition. This research aims to analyze and explain empirically the impact of variance return, trading volume, stock prices and return shares toward bid-ask spread which is the measurement of asymmetrical information cost, also the impact of variance return, market value, bid-ask spread and dividend pay out towards common shares holding periods in Indonesia Stock Exchange and some dominant variable that affect them.The findings of this research strengthen the presumption that in conducting the investment, investors in Indonesian Stock Exchange is more oriented to short term investment by expecting more on common shares than dividend. Most investors keep their ownership in common shares in Indonesian Stock Exchange for two years. Besides, the efficient investment strategy which optimizes profit is “switching strategy”, following the market movement every time exactly, using technical information to active shares by moving from the shares that the price is predicted to decline to the increased ones. Moreover, the researcher also got the evidence that the investors in Indonesian capital market conduct their investment irrationally, investor’s analysis is getting technical and gives less attention to the fundamental factors. The decision of selling and buying which is conducted by the investors on common shares is based on the trading activity, that is actually a measurement of the scale of asymmetry information.

  5. Does Bid/Ask Spread React to the Increase of Internet Search Traffic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Nurazi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article solely examines the effect of investor attentions on bid-ask spread. We find that investors’ attention surrogated by Internet Search Traffic (IST contribute positively and significantly toward bid-ask spread (SPREAD. This result indicates that the incoming information directs the market within the stack circumstance and thin trading activity. Here, our samples were obtained from the manufacturing index, in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX during the period of observation ranging from 2009 to 2011. The hypothesis testing in this research is performed by using panel data regression analysis (Fixed Effect Model. Test result reveals that the search of online information through Google is beneficially one of the efforts to reduce asymmetry information between informed investors and uninformed investors. Besides, we also note that asymmetric information not only exists between the informed and uninformed investors, but also happens to market makers and informed investors. Finally, our findings lead to a conclusion, in which the high search of information tends to help investors in making appropriate investment decisions.

  6. "Ask The Pathologist": An Internet Forum Facilitating Communication Between Cancer Registrars and Pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Marmol, Leah B; Muro-Cacho, Carlos A; Washington, Kay; Foulis, Philip R

    2018-05-30

    - Cancer registrars should work closely with pathologists to ensure compliance with reporting standards. Many registrars, however, have little contact with pathologists, resulting in a lack of "real-time" interaction that is essential for their professional activities and development. - To facilitate registrars' case management, as cancer biology becomes more complex, we developed the ATP (Ask the Pathologist) forum as a place to ask pathology-related questions about neoplasms, such as terminology, biology, histologic classification, extent of disease, molecular markers, and prognostic factors. - Questions posted are reviewed by the ATP multidisciplinary oversight committee, which consists of 3 pathologists, 4 cancer registrars, 1 internal medicine physician, the pathology resident member of the College of American Pathologists Cancer Committee, and 2 medical technologists. The oversight committee may answer the question. Alternatively, the committee may forward the question to a content expert pathologist, determine that the question is better suited for another reference Web site, or both. - Since September 2013, when the ATP forum became available, users have posted 284 questions, of which 48 (17%) related to gastrointestinal tumors, 43 (15%) to breast tumors, and 37 (13%) to general pathology. The average turnaround time, from question posted to response, is 11.1 days. - The ATP forum has had a positive impact in the daily activities of cancer registrars. Of 440 registrars surveyed, more than 90% considered that questions were answered satisfactorily, and one-third reported that ATP answers affected how they managed a given case.

  7. Ask-the-expert: Active Learning Based Knowledge Discovery Using the Expert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kamalika; Avrekh, Ilya; Matthews, Bryan; Sharma, Manali; Oza, Nikunj

    2017-01-01

    Often the manual review of large data sets, either for purposes of labeling unlabeled instances or for classifying meaningful results from uninteresting (but statistically significant) ones is extremely resource intensive, especially in terms of subject matter expert (SME) time. Use of active learning has been shown to diminish this review time significantly. However, since active learning is an iterative process of learning a classifier based on a small number of SME-provided labels at each iteration, the lack of an enabling tool can hinder the process of adoption of these technologies in real-life, in spite of their labor-saving potential. In this demo we present ASK-the-Expert, an interactive tool that allows SMEs to review instances from a data set and provide labels within a single framework. ASK-the-Expert is powered by an active learning algorithm for training a classifier in the backend. We demonstrate this system in the context of an aviation safety application, but the tool can be adopted to work as a simple review and labeling tool as well, without the use of active learning.

  8. Coordinate Activation of Redox-Dependent ASK1/TGF-β Signaling by a Multiprotein Complex (MPK38, ASK1, SMADs, ZPR9, and TRX) Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Hyun-A; Manoharan, Ravi; Ha, Hyunjung

    2016-03-10

    To explore the molecular connections between redox-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathways and to examine the physiological processes in which coordinated regulation of these two signaling pathways plays a critical role. We provide evidence that the ASK1 and TGF-β signaling pathways are interconnected by a multiprotein complex harboring murine protein serine-threonine kinase 38 (MPK38), ASK1, Sma- and Mad-related proteins (SMADs), zinc-finger-like protein 9 (ZPR9), and thioredoxin (TRX) and demonstrate that the activation of either ASK1 or TGF-β activity is sufficient to activate both the redox-dependent ASK1 and TGF-β signaling pathways. Physiologically, the restoration of the downregulated activation levels of ASK1 and TGF-β signaling in genetically and diet-induced obese mice by adenoviral delivery of SMAD3 or ZPR9 results in the amelioration of adiposity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and impaired ketogenesis. Our data suggest that the multiprotein complex linking ASK1 and TGF-β signaling pathways may be a potential target for redox-mediated metabolic complications.

  9. Accuracies Of Optical Processors For Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of accuracies and requirements concerning accuracies of optical linear-algebra processors (OLAP's) in adaptive-optics imaging systems. Much faster than digital electronic processor and eliminate some residual distortion. Question whether errors introduced by analog processing of OLAP overcome advantage of greater speed. Paper addresses issue by presenting estimate of accuracy required in general OLAP that yields smaller average residual aberration of wave front than digital electronic processor computing at given speed.

  10. The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yu, Q; Chen, M; Ma, H

    2001-07-01

    The Arabidopsis floral regulatory genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) are required for the B function according to the ABC model for floral organ identity. AP3 and PI expression are positively regulated by the LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) genes. UFO encodes an F-box protein, and we have shown previously that UFO genetically interacts with the ASK1 gene encoding a SKP1 homologue; both the F-box containing protein and SKP1 are subunits of ubiquitin ligases. We show here that the ask1-1 mutation can enhance the floral phenotypes of weak lfy and ap3 mutants; therefore, like UFO, ASK1 also interacts with LFY and AP3 genetically. Furthermore, our results from RNA in situ hybridizations indicate that ASK1 regulates early AP3 and PI expression. These results support the idea that UFO and ASK1 together positively regulate AP3 and PI expression. We propose that the UFO and ASK1 proteins are components of a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of a repressor of AP3 and PI expression. Our genetic studies also indicate that ASK1 and UFO play a role in regulating the number of floral organ primordia, and we discuss possible mechanisms for such a regulation.

  11. Child and caregiver reported problems in using asthma medications and question-asking during paediatric asthma visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Betsy; Carpenter, Delesha M; Beard, Ashley; Gillette, Christopher; Williams, Dennis; Tudor, Gail; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the extent to which lay caregivers and children who reported asthma medication problems asked medication questions during their medical visits. Children with asthma ages 8 through 16 years and their caregivers were recruited at five paediatric practices and their medical visits were audiotape recorded. Children were interviewed after their medical visits and caregivers completed questionnaires. A home visit was conducted 1 month later. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyse the data. Two hundred and ninety six families participated. Among those caregivers who reported asthma medication problems, only 35% had asked at least one medication question during the visit. Among children who reported asthma medication problems, only 11% had asked at least one medication question during their consultation. Caregivers and children who reported a problem with their asthma medications were significantly more likely to have asked medication questions if providers had asked more questions about control medications. Children who reported higher asthma management self-efficacy were significantly more likely to have asked an asthma medication question. Only one in three caregivers and one in 10 children who reported an asthma medication problem asked a question during their medical visits and many still reported these problems 1 month later. Pharmacists should encourage caregivers and children to report problems they may be having using their asthma medications. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  12. Why physicians and nurses ask (or don’t about partner violence: a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beynon Charlene E

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1 explore physicians’ and nurses’ experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2 determine the variations by discipline; and 3 identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Methods Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher’s Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Results Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. Conclusions This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The

  13. Commonly asked questions by critically ill patients relatives in Arabic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayseer Zaytoun

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relatives often lack important information about intensive care unit patients. Research on ways to improve family satisfaction in the ICU has become a crucial point in ICU quality improvement research. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop and analyze a list of commonly asked questions from relatives of patients in the intensive care unit in Arabic countries. This list might help families to determine which questions they want to ask and help them in decision-making process in emergency situations of their critically ill relatives. Methods: This study was a prospective double center study. It took place in the ICUs of two hospitals in Arabic countries: Egypt and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Alexandria University Main Hospital in Egypt and the ICU of King Fahad specialist Hospital in Dammam in Saudi Arabia. Data collection was done by reporting of Questions asked by the relatives of ICU patients during daily interview. The list of questions generated was checked to identify questions that could be eliminated. The remaining questions were categorized into 9 different groups: diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, comfort, patient interaction, family, mortality, post-ICU management and other questions. WE ranked the questions in the preliminary list through ICU staff, patients families and the patient themselves. Results: 115 Health care professional (34 physicians and 81 nurses participated in the data collection, the questions recorded were 2240 questions. It was found that about 1750 questions (78.12% were duplicated or not clear. The remaining 490 questions were classified into different categories. The same 115 Health care professional (34 physicians and 81 nurses who shared in the collection of data also shared in the ranking of the questions. 128 first degree relatives shared in the evaluation of the relevance of questions as well as 62 patients after they have been cured and before their discharge from ICU.A list was created

  14. Why physicians and nurses ask (or don't) about partner violence: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynon, Charlene E; Gutmanis, Iris A; Tutty, Leslie M; Wathen, C Nadine; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2012-06-21

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is a serious public health issue and is associated with significant adverse health outcomes. The current study was undertaken to: 1) explore physicians' and nurses' experiences, both professional and personal, when asking about IPV; 2) determine the variations by discipline; and 3) identify implications for practice, workplace policy and curriculum development. Physicians and nurses working in Ontario, Canada were randomly selected from recognized discipline-specific professional directories to complete a 43-item mailed survey about IPV, which included two open-ended questions about barriers and facilitators to asking about IPV. Text from the open-ended questions was transcribed and analyzed using inductive content analysis. In addition, frequencies were calculated for commonly described categories and the Fisher's Exact Test was performed to determine statistical significance when examining nurse/physician differences. Of the 931 respondents who completed the survey, 769 (527 nurses, 238 physicians, four whose discipline was not stated) provided written responses to the open-ended questions. Overall, the top barriers to asking about IPV were lack of time, behaviours attributed to women living with abuse, lack of training, language/cultural practices and partner presence. The most frequently reported facilitators were training, community resources and professional tools/protocols/policies. The need for additional training was a concern described by both groups, yet more so by nurses. There were statistically significant differences between nurses and physicians regarding both barriers and facilitators, most likely related to differences in role expectations and work environments. This research provides new insights into the complexities of IPV inquiry and the inter-relationships among barriers and facilitators faced by physicians and nurses. The experiences of these nurses and physicians suggest that more supports (e

  15. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  16. Quality of reporting of diagnostic accuracy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, N.; Rutjes, A.W.; Windt - Mens, van der D.A.W.M.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Reitsma, J.B.; Bouter, L.M.; Vet, de H.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate quality of reporting in diagnostic accuracy articles published in 2000 in journals with impact factor of at least 4 by using items of Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement published later in 2003. MATERIALS AND METHODS: English-language articles on

  17. Accuracy of Parent Identification of Stuttering Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Johanna; Ingham, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background: Clinicians rely on parents to provide information regarding the onset and development of stuttering in their own children. The accuracy and reliability of their judgments of stuttering is therefore important and is not well researched. Aim: To investigate the accuracy of parent judgements of stuttering in their own children's speech…

  18. Improving Accuracy of Processing Through Active Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Barbashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important task of modern mathematical statistics with its methods based on the theory of probability is a scientific estimate of measurement results. There are certain costs under control, and under ineffective control when a customer has got defective products these costs are significantly higher because of parts recall.When machining the parts, under the influence of errors a range scatter of part dimensions is offset towards the tolerance limit. To improve a processing accuracy and avoid defective products involves reducing components of error in machining, i.e. to improve the accuracy of machine and tool, tool life, rigidity of the system, accuracy of the adjustment. In a given time it is also necessary to adapt machine.To improve an accuracy and a machining rate there, currently  become extensively popular various the in-process gaging devices and controlled machining that uses adaptive control systems for the process monitoring. Improving the accuracy in this case is compensation of a majority of technological errors. The in-cycle measuring sensors (sensors of active control allow processing accuracy improvement by one or two quality and provide a capability for simultaneous operation of several machines.Efficient use of in-cycle measuring sensors requires development of methods to control the accuracy through providing the appropriate adjustments. Methods based on the moving average, appear to be the most promising for accuracy control since they include data on the change in some last measured values of the parameter under control.

  19. Advice and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Citizen-Science Environmental Health Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Huang, Hongtai; Williams, Ronald; Kaufman, Amanda; Essoka, Jonathan

    2018-05-11

    Citizen science provides quantitative results to support environmental health assessments (EHAs), but standardized approaches do not currently exist to translate findings into actionable solutions. The emergence of low-cost portable sensor technologies and proliferation of publicly available datasets provides unparalleled access to supporting evidence; yet data collection, analysis, interpretation, visualization, and communication are subjective approaches that must be tailored to a decision-making audience capable of improving environmental health. A decade of collaborative efforts and two citizen science projects contributed to three lessons learned and a set of frequently asked questions (FAQs) that address the complexities of environmental health and interpersonal relations often encountered in citizen science EHAs. Each project followed a structured step-by-step process in order to compare and contrast methods and approaches. These lessons and FAQs provide advice to translate citizen science research into actionable solutions in the context of a diverse range of environmental health issues and local stakeholders.

  20. The President's pleasant surprise: how LGBT advocates ended Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Nathaniel

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the role of LGBT advocates in repealing the military's Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy in the U.S. Congress. It draws on the author's direct involvement with that effort as well as personal interviews and media evidence to consider the contributions of the Obama Administration, members of Congress, the media, and individuals and pressure groups in the repeal process. It argues that repeal succeeded not because of the effective implementation of a White House plan but because the pressure of LGBT advocates ultimately shattered several key obstacles including inadequate messaging and dysfunction and inertia among both politicians and interest groups in Washington. The article offers insight into the role of public pressure in forwarding social change.

  1. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  2. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts.

  3. What do Americans know about inequality? It depends on how you ask them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent survey of inequality (Norton and Ariely, Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 9-12 asked respondents to indicate what percent of the nation's total wealth is---and should be---controlled by richer and poorer quintiles of the U.S. population. We show that such measures lead to powerful anchoring effects that account for the otherwise remarkable findings that respondents reported perceiving, and desiring, extremely low inequality in wealth. We show that the same anchoring effects occur in other domains, namely web page popularity and school teacher salaries. We introduce logically equivalent questions about average levels of inequality that lead to more accurate responses. Finally, when we made respondents aware of the logical connection between the two measures, the majority said that typical responses to the average measures, indicating higher levels of inequality, better reflected their actual perceptions and preferences than did typical responses to percent measures.

  4. Merely asking the customer to recommend has an impact on word-of-mouth activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    impact on customers' WOM activity. In addition, we found that receiving the request was not negatively associated with the customers' overall evaluations, such as customer satisfaction, which indicates that the potential for negative consequences of making the request seems to be low.......This paper examines if a mere request to a customer – within the frame of a service encounter – to engage in word-of-mouth (WOM) would have an impact on the customer's subsequent WOM activity. Although previous studies have not examined this issue, theoretical arguments do exist. And they point...... in different directions; some suggest a positive impact, while others suggest a negative impact. To explore the issue empirically, we carried out two studies (one survey-based study and one experiment). Both generated the same result: they indicate that merely asking customers to engage in WOM has a positive...

  5. Asking how as a next step in avoiding dualistic perspectives on occupation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard; Josephsson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    In their article “Filling in the gaps: A case for enhancing Madsen and Josephsson’s assertions about occupation, situation, and inquiry”, Aldrich and Cutchin (2017) responded to our article “Engagement in occupation as an inquiring process: Exploring the situatedness of occupation” with the ambit......In their article “Filling in the gaps: A case for enhancing Madsen and Josephsson’s assertions about occupation, situation, and inquiry”, Aldrich and Cutchin (2017) responded to our article “Engagement in occupation as an inquiring process: Exploring the situatedness of occupation......” with the ambition to enhance our assertions on occupation. In this reply, we argue that their text does not address the main arguments of our article. We further argue that their response confirms that further steps in exploring the situatedness of occupation by asking how situation and occupation are related...

  6. American's desire for less wealth inequality does not depend on how you ask them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Norton

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A large body of survey research offers evidence that citizens are not always fully aware of the economic and political realities in their respective countries. Norton and Ariely (2011 extended this research to the domain of wealth inequality, showing that Americans were surprisingly unaware of the shape of the wealth distribution in America. Using an alternative methodology, Eriksson and Simpson (2012 found that asking Americans to estimate the average wealth of quintiles, rather than the percent of wealth owned by each quintile, led to relatively more accurate estimates. We note, however, that the Eriksson and Simpson (2012 results do not challenge Norton and Ariely's (2011 conclusion that Americans desire a much more equal distribution of wealth.

  7. Pinon and Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, R.J.; Miller, R.F.; Roundy, B.A.; Chambers, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands are an important vegetation type in the Great Basin. Old-growth and open shrub savanna woodlands have been present over much of the last several hundred years. Strong evidence indicates these woodlands have experienced significant tree infilling and major expansion in their distribution since the late 1800s by encroaching into surrounding landscapes once dominated by shrubs and herbaceous vegetation. Both infilling and expansion affects soil resources, plant community structure and composition, water and nutrient cycles, forage production, wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and fire patterns across the landscape. Another impact is the shift from historic fire regimes to larger and more intense wildfires that are increasingly determining the future of this landscape. This publication helps biologists and land managers consider how to look at expansion of woodlands and determine what questions to ask to develop a management strategy, including prescribed fire or other practices.

  8. High-fructose corn syrup: everything you wanted to know, but were afraid to ask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor

    2008-12-01

    The annual American Society for Nutrition Public Information Committee symposium for 2007 titled "High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS): Everything You Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask" served as a platform to address the controversy surrounding HFCS. Speakers from academia and industry came together to provide up-to-date information on this food ingredient. The proceedings from the symposium covered 1) considerable background on what HFCS is and why it is used as a food ingredient, 2) the contribution HFCS makes to consumers' diets, and 3) the latest research on the metabolic effects of HFCS. The data presented indicated that HFCS is very similar to sucrose, being about 55% fructose and 45% glucose, and thus, not surprisingly, few metabolic differences were found comparing HFCS and sucrose. That said, HFCS does contribute to added sugars and calories, and those concerned with managing their weight should be concerned about calories from beverages and other foods, regardless of HFCS content.

  9. Toward Question-Asking Machines: The Logic of Questions and the Inquiry Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth,Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    For over a century, the study of logic has focused on the algebra of logical statements. This work, first performed by George Boole, has led to the development of modern computers, and was shown by Richard T. Cox to be the foundation of Bayesian inference. Meanwhile the logic of questions has been much neglected. For our computing machines to be truly intelligent, they need to be able to ask relevant questions. In this paper I will show how the Boolean lattice of logical statements gives rise to the free distributive lattice of questions thus defining their algebra. Furthermore, there exists a quantity analogous to probability, called relevance, which quantifies the degree to which one question answers another. I will show that relevance is not only a natural generalization of information theory, but also forms its foundation.

  10. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of two control conditions. Main outcome measures Participants completed a response latency measure of attitude accessibility, before healthy eating behaviour was assessed unobtrusively using an objective measure of snacking. Results Intention measurement participants exhibited more accessible attitudes towards healthy foods, and were more likely to choose a healthy snack, relative to control participants. Furthermore, attitude accessibility mediated the relationship between intention measurement and behaviour. Conclusion This research demonstrates that increased attitude accessibility may explain the QBE, extending the findings of previous research to the domain of health behaviour. PMID:24245778

  11. Adaptive hybrid brain-computer interaction: ask a trainer for assistance!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Steyrl, David; Faller, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In applying mental imagery brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to end users, training is a key part for novice users to get control. In general learning situations, it is an established concept that a trainer assists a trainee to improve his/her aptitude in certain skills. In this work, we want to evaluate whether we can apply this concept in the context of event-related desynchronization (ERD) based, adaptive, hybrid BCIs. Hence, in a first session we merged the features of a high aptitude BCI user, a trainer, and a novice user, the trainee, in a closed-loop BCI feedback task and automatically adapted the classifier over time. In a second session the trainees operated the system unassisted. Twelve healthy participants ran through this protocol. Along with the trainer, the trainees achieved a very high overall peak accuracy of 95.3 %. In the second session, where users operated the BCI unassisted, they still achieved a high overall peak accuracy of 83.6%. Ten of twelve first time BCI users successfully achieved significantly better than chance accuracy. Concluding, we can say that this trainer-trainee approach is very promising. Future research should investigate, whether this approach is superior to conventional training approaches. This trainer-trainee concept could have potential for future application of BCIs to end users.

  12. Camera sensor arrangement for crop/weed detection accuracy in agronomic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Juan; Guerrero, José Miguel; Montalvo, Martín; Emmi, Luis; Guijarro, María; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2013-04-02

    In Precision Agriculture, images coming from camera-based sensors are commonly used for weed identification and crop line detection, either to apply specific treatments or for vehicle guidance purposes. Accuracy of identification and detection is an important issue to be addressed in image processing. There are two main types of parameters affecting the accuracy of the images, namely: (a) extrinsic, related to the sensor's positioning in the tractor; (b) intrinsic, related to the sensor specifications, such as CCD resolution, focal length or iris aperture, among others. Moreover, in agricultural applications, the uncontrolled illumination, existing in outdoor environments, is also an important factor affecting the image accuracy. This paper is exclusively focused on two main issues, always with the goal to achieve the highest image accuracy in Precision Agriculture applications, making the following two main contributions: (a) camera sensor arrangement, to adjust extrinsic parameters and (b) design of strategies for controlling the adverse illumination effects.

  13. The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D; Yang, M; Solava, J; Ma, H

    1999-09-01

    Normal flower development likely requires both specific and general regulators. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant ask1-1 (for -Arabidopsis skp1-like1-1), which exhibits defects in both vegetative and reproductive development. In the ask1-1mutant, rosette leaf growth is reduced, resulting in smaller than normal rosette leaves, and internodes in the floral stem are shorter than normal. Examination of cell sizes in these organs indicates that cell expansion is normal in the mutant, but cell number is reduced. In the mutant, the numbers of petals and stamens are reduced, and many flowers have one or more petals with a reduced size. In addition, all mutant flowers have short stamen filaments. Furthermore, petal/stamen chimeric organs are found in many flowers. These results indicate that the ASK1 gene affects the size of vegetative and floral organs. The ask1 floral phenotype resembles somewhat that of the Arabidopsis ufo mutants in that both genes affect whorls 2 and 3. We therefore tested for possible interactions between ASK1 and UFO by analyzing the phenotypes of ufo-2 ask1-1 double mutant plants. In these plants, vegetative development is similar to that of the ask1-1 single mutant, whereas the floral defects are more severe than those in either single mutant. Interior to the first whorl, the double mutant flowers have more sepals or sepal-like organs than are found in ufo-2, and less petals than ask1-1. Our results suggest that ASK1 interacts with UFO to control floral organ identity in whorls 2 and 3. This is very intriguing because ASK1 is very similar in sequence to the yeast SKP1 protein and UFO contains an F-box, a motif known to interact with SKP1 in yeast. Although the precise mechanism of ASK1 and UFO action is unknown, our results support the hypothesis that these two proteins physically interact in vivo. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  15. Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and phylogenetic inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, T Heath; Rosenberg, Michael S

    2006-04-01

    Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric equal branch length, ultrametric random branch length, nonultrametric random branch length). Comparisons between hypothesized alignments and true alignments enabled determination of two measures of alignment accuracy, that of the total data set and that of individual branches. In general, our results indicate that as alignment error increases, topological accuracy decreases. This trend was much more pronounced for data sets derived from more pectinate topologies. In contrast, for balanced, ultrametric, equal branch length tree shapes, alignment inaccuracy had little average effect on tree reconstruction. These conclusions are based on average trends of many analyses under different conditions, and any one specific analysis, independent of the alignment accuracy, may recover very accurate or inaccurate topologies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian, in general, outperformed neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in terms of tree reconstruction accuracy. Results also indicated that as the length of the branch and of the neighboring branches increase, alignment accuracy decreases, and the length of the neighboring branches is the major factor in topological accuracy. Thus, multiple-sequence alignment can be an important factor in downstream effects on topological reconstruction.

  16. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces apoptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells through a Trx/ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Tsuchiya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1,2-Diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE induces both necrosis/necroptosis and apoptosis of NCI-H28 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM cells. The present study was conducted to understand the mechanism for DAPE-induced apoptosis of NCI-H28 cells. DAPE induced caspase-independent apoptosis of NCI-H28 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM cells, and the effect of DAPE was prevented by antioxidants or an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibited activity of thioredoxin (Trx reductase (TrxR. DAPE decreased an association of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 with thioredoxin (Trx, thereby releasing ASK1. DAPE activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which was inhibited by an antioxidant or knocking-down ASK1. In addition, DAPE-induced NCI-H28 cell death was also prevented by knocking-down ASK1. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE stimulates NOX-mediated ROS production and suppresses TrxR activity, resulting in the decrease of reduced Trx and the dissociation of ASK1 from a complex with Trx, allowing sequential activation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK, to induce apoptosis of NCI-H28 MPM cells.

  17. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces apoptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells through a Trx/ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kaku, Yoshiko; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-11-01

    1,2-Diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE) induces both necrosis/necroptosis and apoptosis of NCI-H28 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. The present study was conducted to understand the mechanism for DAPE-induced apoptosis of NCI-H28 cells. DAPE induced caspase-independent apoptosis of NCI-H28 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells, and the effect of DAPE was prevented by antioxidants or an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX). DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited activity of thioredoxin (Trx) reductase (TrxR). DAPE decreased an association of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) with thioredoxin (Trx), thereby releasing ASK1. DAPE activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which was inhibited by an antioxidant or knocking-down ASK1. In addition, DAPE-induced NCI-H28 cell death was also prevented by knocking-down ASK1. Taken together, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE stimulates NOX-mediated ROS production and suppresses TrxR activity, resulting in the decrease of reduced Trx and the dissociation of ASK1 from a complex with Trx, allowing sequential activation of ASK1 and p38 MAPK, to induce apoptosis of NCI-H28 MPM cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lexical and Sub-Lexical Effects on Accuracy, Reaction Time and Response Duration: Impaired and Typical Word and Pseudoword Reading in a Transparent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert; Rodriguez-Ferreiro, Javier; Suarez, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    In an opaque orthography like English, phonological coding errors are a prominent feature of dyslexia. In a transparent orthography like Spanish, reading difficulties are characterized by slower reading speed rather than reduced accuracy. In previous research, the reading speed deficit was revealed by asking children to read lists of words.…

  19. Systematic review of discharge coding accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, E.M.; Rigby, E.; Mamidanna, R.; Bottle, A.; Aylin, P.; Ziprin, P.; Faiz, O.D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Routinely collected data sets are increasingly used for research, financial reimbursement and health service planning. High quality data are necessary for reliable analysis. This study aims to assess the published accuracy of routinely collected data sets in Great Britain. Methods Systematic searches of the EMBASE, PUBMED, OVID and Cochrane databases were performed from 1989 to present using defined search terms. Included studies were those that compared routinely collected data sets with case or operative note review and those that compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. Results Thirty-two studies were included. Twenty-five studies compared routinely collected data with case or operation notes. Seven studies compared routinely collected data with clinical registries. The overall median accuracy (routinely collected data sets versus case notes) was 83.2% (IQR: 67.3–92.1%). The median diagnostic accuracy was 80.3% (IQR: 63.3–94.1%) with a median procedure accuracy of 84.2% (IQR: 68.7–88.7%). There was considerable variation in accuracy rates between studies (50.5–97.8%). Since the 2002 introduction of Payment by Results, accuracy has improved in some respects, for example primary diagnoses accuracy has improved from 73.8% (IQR: 59.3–92.1%) to 96.0% (IQR: 89.3–96.3), P= 0.020. Conclusion Accuracy rates are improving. Current levels of reported accuracy suggest that routinely collected data are sufficiently robust to support their use for research and managerial decision-making. PMID:21795302

  20. Shifting visual perspective during memory retrieval reduces the accuracy of subsequent memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotti, Petra; St Jacques, Peggy L

    2018-03-01

    Memories for events can be retrieved from visual perspectives that were never experienced, reflecting the dynamic and reconstructive nature of memories. Characteristics of memories can be altered when shifting from an own eyes perspective, the way most events are initially experienced, to an observer perspective, in which one sees oneself in the memory. Moreover, recent evidence has linked these retrieval-related effects of visual perspective to subsequent changes in memories. Here we examine how shifting visual perspective influences the accuracy of subsequent memories for complex events encoded in the lab. Participants performed a series of mini-events that were experienced from their own eyes, and were later asked to retrieve memories for these events while maintaining the own eyes perspective or shifting to an alternative observer perspective. We then examined how shifting perspective during retrieval modified memories by influencing the accuracy of recall on a final memory test. Across two experiments, we found that shifting visual perspective reduced the accuracy of subsequent memories and that reductions in vividness when shifting visual perspective during retrieval predicted these changes in the accuracy of memories. Our findings suggest that shifting from an own eyes to an observer perspective influences the accuracy of long-term memories.

  1. Accuracy and precision in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.

    1984-01-01

    The question of accuracy and precision in thermoluminescent dosimetry, particularly in relation to lithium fluoride phosphor, is discussed. The more important sources of error, including those due to the detectors, the reader, annealing and dosemeter design, are identified and methods of reducing their effects on accuracy and precision to a minimum are given. Finally, the accuracy and precision achievable for three quite different applications are discussed, namely, for personal dosimetry, environmental monitoring and for the measurement of photon dose distributions in phantoms. (U.K.)

  2. The effect of different levels of constructive teaching practices on teacher question asking behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Ibrahim

    The purposes of the study were: (1) to examine the effectiveness of the Iowa Chautauqua Professional Development Program (ICPDP) in moving elementary science teachers toward the use of more constructive teaching practices and (2) to investigate the effectiveness of different levels of teaching practices, especially in terms of a sample of teachers achieving "expert" state at the end of program compared with some attaining only with "competent" level. The variables considered were their perceptions of their own classroom practices, stated philosophy of teaching and learning, and their actual classroom practices and question asking behaviors observed via videotape recording. Structured questionnaires, focus group interviews, teacher reflections, and examination of lesson modules were used to collect data from thirty-three K-5 in-service teachers who were involved in a one-year ICPDP. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of data revealed that: (1) Teacher perceptions regarding their teaching and learning, and their actual teaching practices in classroom in terms of constructivist approaches were significantly changed after participation in the ICPDP. (2) Teacher perceptions of their classroom practices and stated philosophies of teaching and learning have a great affect on their actual practices that can be observed. (3) Teacher stated philosophies of teaching and learning significantly influence the quantity and quality of their use of questions in their classrooms. (4) The "expert" teachers accept students' alternative answers and deliberately ask high cognitive level questions that enable students to think critically and to guide them based on what the students are thinking. Alternatively, the "competent" teachers do not follow student responses and used questions which do not help students to understand their current level of understanding nor encourage students to reflect on their own thinking. (5) The role of "expert" teacher is more geared toward challenging

  3. Speed-Accuracy Tradeoff in Olfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rinberg, Dmitry; Koulakov, ALexel; Gelperin, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The basic psychophysical principle of speed-accuracy tradeoff (SAT) has been used to understand key aspects of neuronal information processing in vision and audition, but the principle of SAT is still debated in olfaction...

  4. Social Security Administration Data for Enumeration Accuracy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data at the national level from federal fiscal year 2006 onwards for the accuracy of the assignment of Social Security numbers (SSN) based on...

  5. A Note on "Accuracy" and "Precision"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Gillmore, Gerald M.

    1971-01-01

    Advocates the use of precision" rather than accuracy" in defining reliability. These terms are consistently differentiated in certain sciences. Review of psychological and measurement literature reveals, however, interchangeable usage of the terms in defining reliability. (Author/GS)

  6. Predictive accuracy of backpropagation neural network ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    incorporated into the BP model for high accuracy management purpose of irrigation water, which relies on accurate values of ET ... as seen from the recent food crisis demonstra- tion in most .... layers by using Geographical Information System.

  7. Strategies to Increase Accuracy in Text Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Blommesteijn (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractText classification via supervised learning involves various steps from processing raw data, features extraction to training and validating classifiers. Within these steps implementation decisions are critical to the resulting classifier accuracy. This paper contains a report of the

  8. Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Bid Ask Spread Pada Masa Sebelum Dan Sesudah Stock Split Di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2008-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Quitsyah Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Bid Ask Spread is the difference of ask-price and bid-price of shares on the capital market. Bid ask spread is a factor that can influence the investor decision whether hold or sell their shares and make profit from spread of ask price and bid price. This is indicates that the stock liquidity as reflected in the stock price, trading volume, stock return will affect bid ask spread. Bid ask spread will increase if the risk of stock is increase, such as the less liquidity of stock, the higher ri...

  9. Improving coding accuracy in an academic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dana; O'Mara, Heather; Powell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Practice management has become an increasingly important component of graduate medical education. This applies to every practice environment; private, academic, and military. One of the most critical aspects of practice management is documentation and coding for physician services, as they directly affect the financial success of any practice. Our quality improvement project aimed to implement a new and innovative method for teaching billing and coding in a longitudinal fashion in a family medicine residency. We hypothesized that implementation of a new teaching strategy would increase coding accuracy rates among residents and faculty. Design: single group, pretest-posttest. military family medicine residency clinic. Study populations: 7 faculty physicians and 18 resident physicians participated as learners in the project. Educational intervention: monthly structured coding learning sessions in the academic curriculum that involved learner-presented cases, small group case review, and large group discussion. overall coding accuracy (compliance) percentage and coding accuracy per year group for the subjects that were able to participate longitudinally. Statistical tests used: average coding accuracy for population; paired t test to assess improvement between 2 intervention periods, both aggregate and by year group. Overall coding accuracy rates remained stable over the course of time regardless of the modality of the educational intervention. A paired t test was conducted to compare coding accuracy rates at baseline (mean (M)=26.4%, SD=10%) to accuracy rates after all educational interventions were complete (M=26.8%, SD=12%); t24=-0.127, P=.90. Didactic teaching and small group discussion sessions did not improve overall coding accuracy in a residency practice. Future interventions could focus on educating providers at the individual level.

  10. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, V.; Pokorny, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper

  11. Increasing of AC compensation method accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlíček, V.; Pokorný, M.

    2003-01-01

    The original MMF compensation method allows the magnetic properties of single sheets and strips to be measured in the same way as the closed specimen properties. The accuracy of the method is limited due to the finite gain of the feedback loop fulfilling the condition of its stability. Digitalisation of the compensation loop appropriate processing of the error signal can rapidly improve the accuracy. The basic ideas of this new approach and the experimental results are described in this paper.

  12. Using questions sent to an Ask-A-Scientist site to identify children's interests in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2006-11-01

    Interest is a powerful motivator; nonetheless, science educators often lack the necessary information to make use of the power of student-specific interests in the reform process of science curricula. This study suggests a novel methodology, which might be helpful in identifying such interests - using children's self-generated questions as an indication of their scientific interests. In this research, children's interests were measured by analyzing 1555 science-related questions submitted to an international Ask-A-Scientist Internet site. The analysis indicated that the popularity of certain topics varies with age and gender. Significant differences were found between children's spontaneous (intrinsically motivated) and school-related (extrinsically motivated) interests. Surprisingly, girls contributed most of the questions to the sample; however, the number of American girls dropped upon entering senior high school. We also found significant differences between girls' and boys' interests, with girls generally preferring biological topics. The two genders kept to their stereotypic fields of interest, in both their school-related and spontaneous questions. Children's science interests, as inferred from questions to Web sites, could ultimately inform classroom science teaching. This methodology extends the context in which children's interests can be investigated.

  13. Building capacity through urban agriculture: report on the askîy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Wanda; Vold, Lindsey

    2018-01-01

    Many North American cities have a built environment that provides access to energy-dense food and little opportunity for active living. Urban agriculture contributes to a positive environment involving food plant cultivation that includes processing, storing, distributing and composting. It is a means to increase local food production and thereby improve community health. The purpose of this study was to understand how participating in urban agriculture can help to empower young adults and build capacity for growing food in the city. This was a qualitative study of seven participants (five Indigenous and two non-Indigenous) between the ages of 19 and 29 years, engaged as interns in an urban agriculture project known as "askîy" in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada in 2015. We used a case-study design and qualitative analysis to describe the participants' experience based on the sustainable livelihoods framework. A collaborative approach had a great effect on the interns' experiences, notably the connections formed as they planned, planted, tended, harvested and sold the produce. Some of the interns changed their grocery shopping habits and began purchasing more vegetables and questioning where and how the vegetables were produced. All interns were eager to continue gardening next season, and some were planning to take their knowledge and skills back to their home reserves. Urban agriculture programs build capacity by providing skills beyond growing food. Such programs can increase local food production and improve food literacy skills, social relationships, physical activity and pride in community settings.

  14. Academic Training Lectures Want to ASK for something? Then ANSWER the questionnaire!

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The Academic Training questionnaire for 2001 is now available on the Web, so if there's a course you think that's missing, now's your chance to ask for it. The questionnaire is your opportunity to give feedback - positive or negative - to the Academic Training Committee, and its an opportunity to make sure the programme is best adapted to CERN's needs. There can't be many at CERN who have never attended an Academic Training lecture. Their subject matter ranges far and wide, making sure that there's something for everyone. Perhaps there are courses that you'd have liked to have followed, but you didn't have the time. Maybe the timetable wasn't compatible with your work schedule, or maybe there's a course you need that isn't on offer. Whatever your concern about Academic Training, the on-line questionnaire is there to let you discuss your concerns with the course organisers. Academic Training has been part of life at CERN since the early 1960s, with short lecture series on topics in high energy physics and rela...

  15. Blood collection and the labile blood components: what should the regulators ask for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A; Adamides, E

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to promote the quality and safety of blood collection are underway in most European Union (EU) member states but the level of quality management continues to differ significantly not only between countries but also among Blood Collection Establishments (BCE's) within a country. The European Commission has asked for blood safety and self-sufficiency in the Community and has initiated action in this direction. What is sought is harmonization of practices in the transfusion chain but such cannot be accomplished solely through recommendations and directives given the sociocultural and economic differences among EU member states. Active support for the development of common standards and a common quality system as well as an inspection and accreditation system would certainly help. The goal of self-sufficiency should certainly be emphasized but may be difficult to achieve, given the unpredictability of factors that may affect demand and supply. Through bipartisan initiatives however, between the USA and EU, consensus regarding the issue of blood safety, could be reached.

  16. Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children and Adolescents: Look, Measure and Ask

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Santoro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify in obese children whether or not the presence of i high waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, ii family history for type 2 diabetes (T2D and iii acanthosis nigricans (AN, singularly or together, might predict the occurrence of metabolic syndrome or prediabetes. Methods. 1,080 Italian obese children (567 females were enrolled. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, and lipids were measured, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT was performed. The WHtR was calculated, family history for T2D was assessed, and the presence of AN was noticed. The odds ratios for showing metabolic syndrome and/or prediabetes according to the presence of these features were calculated. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 29.2%. AN (OR1.81; p = 0.002 and WHtR higher than 0.60 (OR 2.24; p Conclusions: Three simple actions, i.e., looking at the patient, asking about T2D family history, and measuring WHtR, may represent a powerful tool in the hands of pediatricians to identify obese children with high cardiovascular and metabolic risk.

  17. ASK Procedure for Instrumented Pre-cracked Charpy-Type Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, T.; Njo, D.H.; Prantl, G.

    1981-01-01

    The essential technical content of the ASK procedure originated from development work in Switzerland since 1963, and practical experiences gained since 1972. The remainder of the content and the format of the procedure are based on the ASTM E 24.03.03. (Tentative Draft Copy) 'Proposed Method for Pre-cracked Charpy Impact and Slow-Bend Testing of Metallic Materials' by C. E. Harbower, 1973. Two different velocities, 5 m/s and 0.1 m/s were used with a Schnadt-type machine of rigid construction. The stiffness of the machine proved to be very suitable for instrumented testing. The instrumented Schnadt-Type machine was equipped with strain gauges both on the top of the pendulum and on the chisel. A static force calibration was followed by energy calibration, comparing potential energy losses with the area under the force-deflection curve. Deflection was measured using a high frequency eddy current method on the pendulum, and for slow testing by means of an inductive gauge on the chisel. Charpy-Type specimens of 1.0 mm max notch depth and 0.12 mm max notch radius were pre-cracked using a resonant fatigue testing machine, or an eccentric drive machine. Crack propagation rate da/dN was measured using 'Russenberger' measuring gauges. In addition a new technique for the detection of dynamic crack initiation, developed at the Institute of Research and Technology (TVFA) in Vienna is discussed and some results presented

  18. Does Ureaplasma spp. cause chronic lung disease of prematurity: Ask the audience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Nicola C.; Nuttall, Diane; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2009-01-01

    Ureaplasma has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of both preterm labour and neonatal morbidity, particularly chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD), but despite numerous studies, reviews and meta-analyses, its exact role remains unclear. Many papers call for a definitive randomised control trial to determine if eradication of pulmonary Ureaplasma decreases the rates of CLD but few address in detail the obstacles to an adequately powered clinical trial. We review the evidence for Ureaplasma as a causative agent in CLD, asking why a randomised control trial has not been performed. We surveyed the opinions of senior neonatologists in the UK on whether they felt that there was sufficient evidence for Ureaplasma either causing or not causing CLD and whether a definitive trial was needed, as well as their views on the design of such a trial. Additionally, we ascertained current practice with respect to Ureaplasma detection in preterm neonates in the UK. There is clear support for an adequately powered randomised controlled clinical trial by senior neonatologists in the UK. There are no reasons why a definitive trial cannot be conducted especially as the appropriate samples, and methods to culture or identify the organism by PCR are already available. PMID:19144476

  19. "When you're desperate you'll ask anybody": young people's social sources of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; Dawson, Anna; McGee, Rob

    2013-04-01

    This study sought to examine young New Zealand smokers' access to social supplies of cigarettes. A qualitative investigation using 10 focus groups with 66 current young smokers, aged between 15 and 17 years, was conducted throughout New Zealand, between October and December 2011. Transcripts from the focus groups were analysed using NVivo to code the data, from which common themes and critical issues were identified. Family was one of the main sources of tobacco for the young smokers in this study and parents were the leading source, often purchasing tobacco for their children to smoke. Sharing tobacco within groups of friends was also very common. Additional methods were used when young smokers were desperate, including stealing, 'butt scabbing' and asking strangers. Both family and social networks continue to support smoking and supply tobacco to young people. While these networks operate, young people will continue to smoke, despite increased regulations on commercial sales to minors. Restrictions on commercial sales of tobacco to minors are increasing; however, many young people use multiple sources of tobacco, including social sources. It is likely that young people will increasingly use these social sources in the future. Interventions other than purchase restrictions are important for reducing minors' access to tobacco. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Electrodynamics at the highest energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Spencer R.

    2002-01-01

    At very high energies, the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections exhibit complex behavior due to the material in which the interactions occur. The cross sections in dense media can be dramatically different than for isolated atoms. This writeup discusses these in-medium effects, emphasizing how the cross section has different energy and target density dependencies in different regimes. Data from SLAC experiment E-146 will be presented to confirm the energy and density scaling. Finally, QCD analogs of the electrodynamics effects will be discussed

  1. Vermont Highest Priority Connectivity Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Act 174 requires plans to identify potential areas for the development and siting of renewable energy resources and areas that are unsuitable for siting those...

  2. Reasons for consulting a doctor on the Internet: Web survey of users of an Ask the Doctor service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umefjord, Göran; Petersson, Göran; Hamberg, Katarina

    2003-10-22

    In 1998 the Swedish noncommercial public health service Infomedica opened an Ask the Doctor service on its Internet portal. At no charge, anyone with Internet access can use this service to ask questions about personal health-related and disease-related matters. To study why individuals choose to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet. Between November 1, 2001, and January 31, 2002 a Web survey of the 3622 Ask the Doctor service users, 1036 men (29%) and 2586 (71%) women, was conducted. We excluded 186 queries from users. The results are based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of the answers to the question "Why did you choose to ask a question at Infomedica's 'Ask the Doctor' service?" 1223 surveys were completed (response rate 36 %). Of the participants in the survey 322 (26%) were male and 901 (74%) female. As major reasons for choosing to consult previously-unknown doctors on the Internet participants indicated: convenience (52%), anonymity (36%), "doctors too busy" (21%), difficult to find time to visit a doctor (16%), difficulty to get an appointment (13%), feeling uncomfortable when seeing a doctor (9%), and not being able to afford a doctors' visit (3%). Further motives elicited through a qualitative analysis of free-text answers were: seeking a second opinion, discontent with previous doctors and a wish for a primary evaluation of a medical problem, asking embarrassing or sensitive questions, seeking information on behalf of relatives, preferring written communication, and (from responses by expatriates, travelers, and others) living far away from regular health care. We found that that an Internet based Ask the Doctor service is primarily consulted because it is convenient, but it may also be of value for individuals with needs that regular health care services have not been able to meet.

  3. Requisite accuracy for hot spot factors in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Kotaro

    1976-01-01

    In the thermal design of a fast reactor, it should be most effective to reduce hot spot factors to the lowest possible level compatible with safety considerations, in order to minimize the design margin for the temperature prevailing in the core. Hot spot factors account for probabilistic and statistic deviations from nominal value of fuel element temperatures, due to uncertainties in the data adopted for estimating various factors including the physical properties. Such temperature deviations necessitate the provision of correspondingly large design margins for temperatures in order to keep within permissible limits the probability of exceeding the allowable temperatures. Evaluation of the desired accuracy for hot spot factors is performed by a method of optimization, which permits determination of the degree of accuracy that should minimize the design margins, to give realistic results with consideration given not only to sensitivity coefficients but also to the present-day uncertainty levels in the data adopted in the calculations. A concept of ''degree of difficulty'' is introduced for the purpose of determining the hot spot factors to be given higher priority for reduction. Application of this method to the core of a prototype fast reactor leads to the conclusion that the hot spot factors to be given the highest priority are those relevant to the power distribution, the flow distribution, the fuel enrichment, the fuel-cladding gap conductance and the fuel thermal conductivity. (auth.)

  4. Vestibular feedback maintains reaching accuracy during body movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reaching movements can be perturbed by vestibular input, but the function of this response is unclear.Here, we applied galvanic vestibular stimulation concurrently with real body movement while subjects maintained arm position either fixed in space or fixed with respect to their body.During the fixed‐in‐space conditions, galvanic vestibular stimulation caused large changes in arm trajectory consistent with a compensatory response to maintain upper‐limb accuracy in the face of body movement.Galvanic vestibular stimulation responses were absent during the body‐fixed task, demonstrating task dependency in vestibular control of the upper limb.The results suggest that the function of vestibular‐evoked arm movements is to maintain the accuracy of the upper limb during unpredictable body movement, but only when reaching in an earth‐fixed reference frame. Abstract When using our arms to interact with the world, unintended body motion can introduce movement error. A mechanism that could detect and compensate for such motion would be beneficial. Observations of arm movements evoked by vestibular stimulation provide some support for this mechanism. However, the physiological function underlying these artificially evoked movements is unclear from previous research. For such a mechanism to be functional, it should operate only when the arm is being controlled in an earth‐fixed rather than a body‐fixed reference frame. In the latter case, compensation would be unnecessary and even deleterious. To test this hypothesis, subjects were gently rotated in a chair while being asked to maintain their outstretched arm pointing towards either earth‐fixed or body‐fixed memorized targets. Galvanic vestibular stimulation was applied concurrently during rotation to isolate the influence of vestibular input, uncontaminated by inertial factors. During the earth‐fixed task, galvanic vestibular stimulation produced large polarity‐dependent corrections in arm

  5. Thymoquinone inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammation and cell adhesion in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts by ASK1 regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umar, Sadiq; Hedaya, Omar; Singh, Anil K.; Ahmed, Salahuddin, E-mail: salah.ahmed@wsu.edu

    2015-09-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by monocytes/macrophage that plays a pathological role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we investigate the effect of thymoquinone (TQ), a phytochemical found in Nigella sativa, in regulating TNF-α-induced RA synovial fibroblast (RA-FLS) activation. Treatment with TQ (1–5 μM) had no marked effect on the viability of human RA-FLS. Pre-treatment of TQ inhibited TNF-α-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production and ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and cadherin-11 (Cad-11) expression in RA-FLS (p < 0.01). Evaluation of the signaling events showed that TQ inhibited TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK expression, but had no inhibitory effect on NF-κB pathway, in RA-FLS (p < 0.05; n = 4). Interestingly, we observed that selective down-regulation of TNF-α-induced phospho-p38 and phospho-JNK activation by TQ is elicited through inhibition of apoptosis-regulated signaling kinase 1 (ASK1). Furthermore, TNF-α selectively induced phosphorylation of ASK1 at Thr845 residue in RA-FLS, which was inhibited by TQ pretreatment in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.01). Pre-treatment of RA-FLS with ASK1 inhibitor (TC ASK10), blocked TNF-α induced expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and Cad-11. Our results suggest that TNF-α-induced ASK1-p38/JNK pathway is an important mediator of cytokine synthesis and enhanced expression of adhesion molecule in RA-FLS and TQ, by selectively inhibiting this pathway, may have a potential therapeutic value in regulating tissue destruction observed in RA. - Highlights: • Evolving evidence suggests that ASK1 plays a central role in rheumatic arthritis (RA). • TNF-α activates ASK1, which regulate downstream signaling through JNK/p38 activation in RA-FLS. • ASK1 may be used as a potential therapeutic target in RA. • Thymoquinone was able to selectively inhibit TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of ASK1 in RA-FLS. • Thymoquinone might serve as a potential small

  6. INVESTIGATION THE FITTING ACCURACY OF CAST AND SLM CO-CR DENTAL BRIDGES USING CAD SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsanka Dikova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to investigate the fitting accuracy of Co-Cr dental bridges, manufactured by three technologies, with the newly developed method using CAD software. The four-part dental bridges of Co-Cr alloys were produced by conventional casting of wax models, casting with 3D printed patterns and selective laser melting. The marginal and internal fit of dental bridges was studied out by two methods – silicone replica test and CAD software. As the silicone replica test characterizes with comparatively low accuracy, a new methodology for investigating the fitting accuracy of dental bridges was developed based on the SolidWorks CAD software. The newly developed method allows the study of the marginal and internal adaptation in unlimited directions and high accuracy. Investigation the marginal fit and internal adaptation of Co-Cr four-part dental bridges by the two methods show that the technological process strongly influences the fitting accuracy of dental restorations. The fitting accuracy of the bridges, cast with 3D printed patterns, is the highest, followed by the SLM and conventionally cast bridges. The marginal fit of the three groups of bridges is in the clinically acceptable range. The internal gap values vary in different regions – it is highest on the occlusal surfaces, followed by that in the marginal and axial areas. The higher fitting accuracy of the bridges, manufactured by casting with 3D printed patterns and SLM, compared to the conventionally cast bridges is a good precondition for their successful implementation in the dental offices and laboratories.

  7. Klotho Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Oxidant-Induced Degeneration by Modulating ASK1 and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds K Brobey

    Full Text Available Klotho transgenic mice exhibit resistance to oxidative stress as measured by their urinal levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine, albeit this anti-oxidant defense mechanism has not been locally investigated in the brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the reactive oxygen species (ROS-sensitive apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway regulates stress levels in the brain of these mice and showed that: 1 the ratio of free ASK1 to thioredoxin (Trx-bound ASK1 is relatively lower in the transgenic brain whereas the reverse is true for the Klotho knockout mice; 2 the reduced p38 activation level in the transgene corresponds to higher level of ASK1-bound Trx, while the KO mice showed elevated p38 activation and lower level of-bound Trx; and 3 that 14-3-3ζ is hyper phosphorylated (Ser-58 in the transgene which correlated with increased monomer forms. In addition, we evaluated the in vivo robustness of the protection by challenging the brains of Klotho transgenic mice with a neurotoxin, MPTP and analyzed for residual neuron numbers and integrity in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results show that Klotho overexpression significantly protects dopaminergic neurons against oxidative damage, partly by modulating p38 MAPK activation level. Our data highlight the importance of ASK1/p38 MAPK pathway in the brain and identify Klotho as a possible anti-oxidant effector.

  8. Asking women about mental health and social adversity in pregnancy: results of an Australian population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie J

    2014-03-01

    Social adversity undermines health in pregnancy. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which pregnant women were asked about their mental health and life circumstances in pregnancy checkups. Population-based postal survey of recent mothers in two Australian states. Around half of the 4,366 participants reported being asked about depression (45.9%) and whether they were anxious or worried about things happening in their life (49.6%); fewer reported being asked about relationship issues (29.6%), financial problems (16.6%), or family violence (14.1%). One in five women (18%) reported significant social adversity. These women were more likely to recall being asked about their mental health and broader social health issues. Far higher levels of inquiry were reported by women in the public maternity system with midwives more likely than doctors to ask about mental health, family violence, and other social hardships. Routine pregnancy visits afford a window of opportunity for identifying and supporting women experiencing mental health problems and social adversity. Changing practice to take advantage of this opportunity will require concerted and coordinated efforts by practitioners and policy makers to build systems to support public health approaches to antenatal care. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. ASK Florida; a climate change education professional development program for middle school teachers in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    A series of professional development workshops covering the fundamentals of climate change have been developed and facilitated for two groups of middle school science teachers in three Florida counties. The NASA-supported joint venture between Florida State University's Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) and the University of South Florida's (USF's) Coalition for Science Literacy, ASK Florida, focuses on expanding and deepening teachers' content knowledge of a wide range of climate change topics, connecting local and regional changes to the global picture, and supporting classroom implementation and effective teaching practices. Education experts from USF, climate scientists from COAPS, and Hillsborough county teachers and science coaches coordinated and developed the workshop content, which is based on Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State Standards in science, science curriculum guides for 6th grade, and teacher interest. Several scientists have facilitated activities during the workshop, including professors in meteorology and climatology, research scientists in the field, a NOAA program manager, the state climatologists for Florida, and others. Having these climate scientists present during the workshop provides teachers an opportunity to interact directly with the scientists and gain insight into the climatology field. Additionally, we host an open-forum discussion panel during which teachers can ask the experts about any topics of interest. Activities are designed to enhance the scientific skill level of the teachers. Introductory activities reinforce teachers' abilities to distinguish facts from opinions and to evaluate sources. Other activities provide hands-on experience using actual scientific data from NASA and other agencies. For example, teachers analyze precipitation data to create distributions of Florida rainfall, examine sea level trends at various locations, identify Atlantic hurricane frequencies during the phases of ENSO

  10. Ask Me Anything - The Reddit Revolution and other Unconventional Ways to Communicate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiondella, F.; Kahn, B. L.; Noori, A.

    2012-12-01

    Instagram. Pinterest. SoundCloud. Storify. Almost every month there's a new platform through which institutions could potentially promote their work. If used effectively, these less-conventional means of communication can indeed be powerful devices to connect scientists and the general public, especially for small institutions with limited resources. We discuss our experiences on Reddit, a social news site, and Projeqt, a visual storytelling platform. We'll talk about the pros and cons of using them, and provide tips on what to do and what to avoid for those interested in having a go. Nearly 1.5 million people post on Reddit daily. One of the most active sections is "Ask Me Anything", where individuals can share expertise and insights. AMAs are essentially online town-hall style meetings. Movie stars host AMAs, as do politicians, athletes, and increasingly, scientists. In fact, the science subtopic is the 6th most subscribed on the site. Forecaster Tony Barnston, from the International Research Institute for Climate and Society hosted an AMA in June 2012. The session generated >200 comments and questions in 24 hours. Barnston was surprisingly pleased with the experience. "I liked having time to think about my answers," he said, noting this type of engagement could be attractive to scientists who might feel anxious about interacting with the public. Projeqt is a creative visual storytelling platform that allows one to integrate activity from a host of social media such as Twitter, Facebook, Flickr, Instagram, YouTube and more. In very short time, an institution can produce a beautiful visual narrative of its research and activities, combining its own in-house content with creative-commons content easily available on the web. The resulting product is itself shareable and embeddable.; Barnston in office where he took questions via Reddit. (Photo: B. Kahn) ; Photo essay about critical role that climate forecasting plays in helping to reduce vulnerability in Sahel

  11. Ask: a health advocacy program for adolescents with an intellectual disability: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennox Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs. The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP, a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population

  12. Ask: a health advocacy program for adolescents with an intellectual disability: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescents with intellectual disability often have poor health and healthcare. This is partly as a consequence of poor communication and recall difficulties, and the possible loss of specialised paediatric services. Methods/Design A cluster randomised trial was conducted with adolescents with intellectual disability to investigate a health intervention package to enhance interactions among adolescents with intellectual disability, their parents/carers, and general practitioners (GPs). The trial took place in Queensland, Australia, between February 2007 and September 2010. The intervention package was designed to improve communication with health professionals and families’ organisation of health information, and to increase clinical activities beneficial to improved health outcomes. It consisted of the Comprehensive Health Assessment Program (CHAP), a one-off health check, and the Ask Health Diary, designed for on-going use. Participants were drawn from Special Education Schools and Special Education Units. The education component of the intervention was delivered as part of the school curriculum. Educators were surveyed at baseline and followed-up four months later. Carers were surveyed at baseline and after 26 months. Evidence of health promotion, disease prevention and case-finding activities were extracted from GPs clinical records. Qualitative interviews of educators occurred after completion of the educational component of the intervention and with adolescents and carers after the CHAP. Discussion Adolescents with intellectual disability have difficulty obtaining many health services and often find it difficult to become empowered to improve and protect their health. The health intervention package proposed may aid them by augmenting communication, improving documentation of health encounters, and improving access to, and quality of, GP care. Recruitment strategies to consider for future studies in this population include ensuring potential

  13. How long did it last? You’d better ask a human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eLacquaniti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future, human-like robots will live among people to provide company and help carrying out tasks in cooperation with humans. These interactions require that robots understand not only human actions, but also the way in which we perceive the world. Human perception heavily relies on the time dimension, especially when it comes to processing visual motion. Critically, human time perception for dynamic events is often inaccurate. Robots interacting with humans may want to see the world and tell time the way humans do: if so, they must incorporate human-like fallacy. Observers asked to judge the duration of brief scenes are prone to errors: perceived duration often does not match the physical duration of the event. Several kinds of temporal distortions have been described in the specialized literature. Here we review the topic with a special emphasis on our work dealing with time perception of animate actors versus inanimate actors. This work shows the existence of specialized time bases for different categories of targets. The time base used by the human brain to process visual motion appears to be calibrated against the specific predictions regarding the motion of human figures in case of animate motion, while it can be calibrated against the predictions of motion of passive objects in case of inanimate motion. Human perception of time appears to be strictly linked with the mechanisms used to control movements. Thus, neural time can be entrained by external cues in a similar manner for both perceptual judgments of elapsed time and in motor control tasks. One possible strategy could be to implement in humanoids a unique architecture for dealing with time, which would apply the same specialized mechanisms to both perception and action, similarly to humans. This shared implementation might render the humanoids more acceptable to humans, thus facilitating reciprocal interactions.

  14. How do parents experience being asked to enter a child in a randomised controlled trial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bridget

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the number of randomised controlled trials of medicines for children increases, it becomes progressively more important to understand the experiences of parents who are asked to enrol their child in a trial. This paper presents a narrative review of research evidence on parents' experiences of trial recruitment focussing on qualitative research, which allows them to articulate their views in their own words. Discussion Parents want to do their best for their children, and socially and legally their role is to care for and protect them yet the complexities of the medical and research context can challenge their fulfilment of this role. Parents are simultaneously responsible for their child and cherish this role yet they are dependent on others when their child becomes sick. They are keen to exercise responsibility for deciding to enter a child in a trial yet can be fearful of making the 'wrong' decision. They make judgements about the threat of the child's condition as well as the risks of the trial yet their interpretations often differ from those of medical and research experts. Individual pants will experience these and other complexities to a greater or lesser degree depending on their personal experiences and values, the medical situation of their child and the nature of the trial. Interactions at the time of trial recruitment offer scope for negotiating these complexities if practitioners have the flexibility to tailor discussions to the needs and situation of individual parents. In this way, parents may be helped to retain a sense that they have acted as good parents to their child whatever decision they make. Summary Discussing randomised controlled trials and gaining and providing informed consent is challenging. The unique position of parents in giving proxy consent for their child adds to this challenge. Recognition of the complexities parents face in making decisions about trials suggests lines for future

  15. How do parents experience being asked to enter a child in a randomised controlled trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, Valerie; Young, Bridget

    2009-02-16

    As the number of randomised controlled trials of medicines for children increases, it becomes progressively more important to understand the experiences of parents who are asked to enroll their child in a trial. This paper presents a narrative review of research evidence on parents' experiences of trial recruitment focussing on qualitative research, which allows them to articulate their views in their own words. Parents want to do their best for their children, and socially and legally their role is to care for and protect them yet the complexities of the medical and research context can challenge their fulfillment of this role. Parents are simultaneously responsible for their child and cherish this role yet they are dependent on others when their child becomes sick. They are keen to exercise responsibility for deciding to enter a child in a trial yet can be fearful of making the 'wrong' decision. They make judgements about the threat of the child's condition as well as the risks of the trial yet their interpretations often differ from those of medical and research experts. Individual parents will experience these and other complexities to a greater or lesser degree depending on their personal experiences and values, the medical situation of their child and the nature of the trial. Interactions at the time of trial recruitment offer scope for negotiating these complexities if practitioners have the flexibility to tailor discussions to the needs and situation of individual parents. In this way, parents may be helped to retain a sense that they have acted as good parents to their child whatever decision they make. Discussing randomised controlled trials and gaining and providing informed consent is challenging. The unique position of parents in giving proxy consent for their child adds to this challenge. Recognition of the complexities parents face in making decisions about trials suggests lines for future research on the conduct of trials, and ultimately, may help

  16. Important questions asked by family members of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigne, Vincent; Chaize, Marine; Falissard, Bruno; Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Rusinova, Katerina; Megarbane, Bruno; Bele, Nicolas; Cariou, Alain; Fieux, Fabienne; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maite; Georges, Hugues; Jourdain, Merce; Kouatchet, Achille; Lautrette, Alexandre; Legriel, Stephane; Regnier, Bernard; Renault, Anne; Thirion, Marina; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Toledano, Dany; Chevret, Sylvie; Pochard, Frédéric; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie

    2011-06-01

    Relatives often lack important information about intensive care unit patients. High-quality information is crucial to help relatives overcome the often considerable situational stress and to acquire the ability to participate in the decision-making process, most notably regarding the appropriate level of care. We aimed to develop a list of questions important for relatives of patients in the intensive care unit. This was a multicenter study. Questions asked by relatives of intensive care unit patients were collected from five different sources (literature, panel of 28 intensive care unit nurses and physicians, 1-wk survey of nurses and 1-wk survey of physicians in 14 intensive care units, and in-depth interviews with 14 families). After a qualitative analysis (framework approach and thematic analysis), questions were rated by 22 relatives and 14 intensive care unit physicians, and the ratings were analyzed using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering. The five sources produced 2,135 questions. Removal of duplicates and redundancies left 443 questions, which were distributed among nine predefined domains using a framework approach ("diagnosis," "treatment," "prognosis," "comfort," "interaction," "communication," "family," "end of life," and "postintensive care unit management"). Thematic analysis in each domain led to the identification of 46 themes, which were reworded as 46 different questions. Ratings by relatives and physicians showed that 21 of these questions were particularly important for relatives of intensive care unit patients. This study increases knowledge about the informational needs of relatives of intensive care unit patients. This list of questions may prove valuable for both relatives and intensive care unit physicians as a tool for improving communication in the intensive care unit.

  17. How long did it last? You would better ask a human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Carrozzo, Mauro; d'Avella, Andrea; La Scaleia, Barbara; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Zago, Myrka

    2014-01-01

    In the future, human-like robots will live among people to provide company and help carrying out tasks in cooperation with humans. These interactions require that robots understand not only human actions, but also the way in which we perceive the world. Human perception heavily relies on the time dimension, especially when it comes to processing visual motion. Critically, human time perception for dynamic events is often inaccurate. Robots interacting with humans may want to see the world and tell time the way humans do: if so, they must incorporate human-like fallacy. Observers asked to judge the duration of brief scenes are prone to errors: perceived duration often does not match the physical duration of the event. Several kinds of temporal distortions have been described in the specialized literature. Here we review the topic with a special emphasis on our work dealing with time perception of animate actors versus inanimate actors. This work shows the existence of specialized time bases for different categories of targets. The time base used by the human brain to process visual motion appears to be calibrated against the specific predictions regarding the motion of human figures in case of animate motion, while it can be calibrated against the predictions of motion of passive objects in case of inanimate motion. Human perception of time appears to be strictly linked with the mechanisms used to control movements. Thus, neural time can be entrained by external cues in a similar manner for both perceptual judgments of elapsed time and in motor control tasks. One possible strategy could be to implement in humanoids a unique architecture for dealing with time, which would apply the same specialized mechanisms to both perception and action, similarly to humans. This shared implementation might render the humanoids more acceptable to humans, thus facilitating reciprocal interactions.

  18. Accuracy Assessment and Analysis for GPT2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAO Yibin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available GPT(global pressure and temperature is a global empirical model usually used to provide temperature and pressure for the determination of tropospheric delay, there are some weakness to GPT, these have been improved with a new empirical model named GPT2, which not only improves the accuracy of temperature and pressure, but also provides specific humidity, water vapor pressure, mapping function coefficients and other tropospheric parameters, and no accuracy analysis of GPT2 has been made until now. In this paper high-precision meteorological data from ECWMF and NOAA were used to test and analyze the accuracy of temperature, pressure and water vapor pressure expressed by GPT2, testing results show that the mean Bias of temperature is -0.59℃, average RMS is 3.82℃; absolute value of average Bias of pressure and water vapor pressure are less than 1 mb, GPT2 pressure has average RMS of 7 mb, and water vapor pressure no more than 3 mb, accuracy is different in different latitudes, all of them have obvious seasonality. In conclusion, GPT2 model has high accuracy and stability on global scale.

  19. Reliability and accuracy of Crystaleye spectrophotometric system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Tan, Jian Guo; Zhou, Jian Feng; Yang, Xu; Du, Yang; Wang, Fang Ping

    2010-01-01

    to develop an in vitro shade-measuring model to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of the Crystaleye spectrophotometric system, a newly developed spectrophotometer. four shade guides, VITA Classical, VITA 3D-Master, Chromascop and Vintage Halo NCC, were measured with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer in a standardised model, ten times for 107 shade tabs. The shade-matching results and the CIE L*a*b* values of the cervical, body and incisal regions for each measurement were automatically analysed using the supporting software. Reliability and accuracy were calculated for each shade tab both in percentage and in colour difference (ΔE). Difference was analysed by one-way ANOVA in the cervical, body and incisal regions. range of reliability was 88.81% to 98.97% and 0.13 to 0.24 ΔE units, and that of accuracy was 44.05% to 91.25% and 1.03 to 1.89 ΔE units. Significant differences in reliability and accuracy were found between the body region and the cervical and incisal regions. Comparisons made among regions and shade guides revealed that evaluation in ΔE was prone to disclose the differences. measurements with the Crystaleye spectrophotometer had similar, high reliability in different shade guides and regions, indicating predictable repeated measurements. Accuracy in the body region was high and less variable compared with the cervical and incisal regions.

  20. G-Doob-Meyer Decomposition and Its Applications in Bid-Ask Pricing for Derivatives under Knightian Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The target of this paper is to establish the bid-ask pricing framework for the American contingent claims against risky assets with G-asset price systems on the financial market under Knightian uncertainty. First, we prove G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition for G-supermartingale. Furthermore, we consider bid-ask pricing American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty, by using G-Dooby-Meyer decomposition; we construct dynamic superhedge strategies for the optimal stopping problem and prove that the value functions of the optimal stopping problems are the bid and ask prices of the American contingent claims under Knightian uncertainty. Finally, we consider a free boundary problem, prove the strong solution existence of the free boundary problem, and derive that the value function of the optimal stopping problem is equivalent to the strong solution to the free boundary problem.

  1. Don’t ask, don’t tell: Two views on human resource practices for people with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Kulkarni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we explore how employees with physical disabilities and their human resource managers perceive practices aimed at entry, integration, and development of disabled employees. The results indicate that both sets of respondents want to treat people with disabilities as ‘regular’ employees and take attention away from disability. The results also indicate that employees would like to get additional help, but are afraid to ask. Employers do not offer additional support unless asked, not wanting to highlight the disability given fears of stigmatisation. Given this reluctance from both employees and employers, it is possible that people with disabilities remain an underutilised resource.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of Fall Risk Assessment Tools in People With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Patricia S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects nearly half of individuals with diabetes and leads to increased fall risk. Evidence addressing fall risk assessment for these individuals is lacking. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify which of 4 functional mobility fall risk assessment tools best discriminates, in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, between recurrent “fallers” and those who are not recurrent fallers. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in a medical research university setting. Participants The participants were a convenience sample of 36 individuals between 40 and 65 years of age with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Measurements Fall history was assessed retrospectively and was the criterion standard. Fall risk was assessed using the Functional Reach Test, the Timed “Up & Go” Test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Dynamic Gait Index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and overall diagnostic accuracy were calculated for each fall risk assessment tool. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to estimate modified cutoff scores for each fall risk assessment tool; indexes then were recalculated. Results Ten of the 36 participants were classified as recurrent fallers. When traditional cutoff scores were used, the Dynamic Gait Index and Functional Reach Test demonstrated the highest sensitivity at only 30%; the Dynamic Gait Index also demonstrated the highest overall diagnostic accuracy. When modified cutoff scores were used, all tools demonstrated improved sensitivity (80% or 90%). Overall diagnostic accuracy improved for all tests except the Functional Reach Test; the Timed “Up & Go” Test demonstrated the highest diagnostic accuracy at 88.9%. Limitations The small sample size and retrospective fall history assessment were limitations of the study. Conclusions Modified cutoff scores improved diagnostic accuracy for 3 of 4 fall risk

  3. On the possibility of highest energy cosmic rays bursts and their correlation with gamma rays bursts e.g. March 5th, 1979 event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukier, K.

    1982-01-01

    The avalanche production of magnetic monopoles is possible in neutron stars. Big part of the magnetic field energy can be used to accelerate a pulse of 10 30 monopoles to the energy E > approximately 10 17 eV. Thus the neutron stars may be ''point'' sources of bursts of highest energy Cosmic Rays. The emission of brehmsstrahlung photons by these highly relativistic monopoles would be seen as X and gamma bursts. This ''exotic'' model for March 5th, 1979 event, predicts that it has been followed by burst of highest energy Cosmic Rays coming from the direction of LMC supernovae remanent N49

  4. Coordinate metrology accuracy of systems and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Sładek, Jerzy A

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on effective methods for assessing the accuracy of both coordinate measuring systems and coordinate measurements. It mainly reports on original research work conducted by Sladek’s team at Cracow University of Technology’s Laboratory of Coordinate Metrology. The book describes the implementation of different methods, including artificial neural networks, the Matrix Method, the Monte Carlo method and the virtual CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine), and demonstrates how these methods can be effectively used in practice to gauge the accuracy of coordinate measurements. Moreover, the book includes an introduction to the theory of measurement uncertainty and to key techniques for assessing measurement accuracy. All methods and tools are presented in detail, using suitable mathematical formulations and illustrated with numerous examples. The book fills an important gap in the literature, providing readers with an advanced text on a topic that has been rapidly developing in recent years. The book...

  5. Evaluating measurement accuracy a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic and comprehensive exposition of the theory of measurement accuracy and provides solutions that fill significant and long-standing gaps in the classical theory. It eliminates the shortcomings of the classical theory by including methods for estimating accuracy of single measurements, the most common type of measurement. The book also develops methods of reduction and enumeration for indirect measurements, which do not require Taylor series and produce a precise solution to this problem. It produces grounded methods and recommendations for summation of errors. The monograph also analyzes and critiques two foundation metrological documents, the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) and the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM), and discusses directions for their revision. This new edition adds a step-by-step guide on how to evaluate measurement accuracy and recommendations on how to calculate systematic error of multiple measurements. There is also an e...

  6. Social class, contextualism, and empathic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Côté, Stéphane; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-11-01

    Recent research suggests that lower-class individuals favor explanations of personal and political outcomes that are oriented to features of the external environment. We extended this work by testing the hypothesis that, as a result, individuals of a lower social class are more empathically accurate in judging the emotions of other people. In three studies, lower-class individuals (compared with upper-class individuals) received higher scores on a test of empathic accuracy (Study 1), judged the emotions of an interaction partner more accurately (Study 2), and made more accurate inferences about emotion from static images of muscle movements in the eyes (Study 3). Moreover, the association between social class and empathic accuracy was explained by the tendency for lower-class individuals to explain social events in terms of features of the external environment. The implications of class-based patterns in empathic accuracy for well-being and relationship outcomes are discussed.

  7. Process-Product Approach to Writing: the Effect of Model Essays on EFL Learners’ Writing Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parastou Gholami Pasand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing is one the most important skills in learning a foreign language. The significance of being able to write in a second or foreign language has become clearer nowadays. Accordingly, different approaches to writing such as product approach, process approach and more recently process-product approach came into existence and they have been the concern of SL/FL researchers. The aim of this study is to answer the question that whether the use of an incomplete model text in process-product approach to writing and asking the learners to complete the text rather than copying it can have a positive impact on EFL learners’ accuracy in writing. After training a number of EFL learners on using process approach, we held a two-session writing class. In the first session students wrote in the process approach, and in the second one they were given a model text to continue in the process-product approach. The writing performance of the students in these two sessions was compared in term of accuracy. Based on the students’ writing performance, we came to the conclusion that completing the model text in process-product writing can have a rather positive influence in some aspects of their writing accuracy such as punctuation, capitalization, spelling, subject-verb agreement, tense, the use of connectors, using correct pronouns and possessives. Also the results of the paired t-test indicate that using a model text to continue increased students’ writing accuracy.

  8. Breast cancer information on the internet: analysis of accessibility and accuracy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, E M

    2012-02-18

    Studies show internet sourced information often has poor accuracy. However, it is rapidly becoming a major source of patient information. Our aim was to assess accuracy of breast cancer-related information on the internet. The top five breast cancer-related search terms were identified using the commercial program "Wordtracker". These terms were searched using the search-engine "Google" and the top 100 webpages per topic analysed for applicability and accuracy of information. Overall 500 webpages were analysed. 42% were inapplicable to the question asked. Applicable accuracy rates were variable amongst the five terms: "breast cancer symptoms" 84%, "breast cancer care" 87%, "breast cancer stage" 88%, "breast cancer survival" 91% and "breast cancer signs" 78%. Educational websites were more likely to be accurate(p < 0.001) and interest group administered websites less likely to be accurate(p = 0.018) than other websites. Finding accurate breast cancer information on the internet is difficult due to large numbers of inapplicable unregulated websites preferentially returned via search engines.

  9. Assessing nonchoosers' eyewitness identification accuracy from photographic showups by using confidence and response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Melanie; Sagana, Anna; Sporer, Siegfried L

    2012-10-01

    While recent research has shown that the accuracy of positive identification decisions can be assessed via confidence and decision times, gauging lineup rejections has been less successful. The current study focused on 2 different aspects which are inherent in lineup rejections. First, we hypothesized that decision times and confidence ratings should be postdictive of identification rejections if they refer to a single lineup member only. Second, we hypothesized that dividing nonchoosers according to the reasons they provided for their decisions can serve as a useful postdictor for nonchoosers' accuracy. To test these assumptions, we used (1) 1-person lineups (showups) in order to obtain confidence and response time measures referring to a single lineup member, and (2) asked nonchoosers about their reasons for making a rejection. Three hundred and eighty-four participants were asked to identify 2 different persons after watching 1 of 2 stimulus films. The results supported our hypotheses. Nonchoosers' postdecision confidence ratings were well-calibrated. Likewise, we successfully established optimum time and confidence boundaries for nonchoosers. Finally, combinations of postdictors increased the number of accurate classifications compared with individual postdictors. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...

  11. FIELD ACCURACY TEST OF RPAS PHOTOGRAMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Baseline Surveys Ltd is a company which specialises in the supply of accurate geospatial data, such as cadastral, topographic and engineering survey data to commercial and government bodies. Baseline Surveys Ltd invested in aerial drone photogrammetric technology and had a requirement to establish the spatial accuracy of the geographic data derived from our unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photogrammetry before marketing our new aerial mapping service. Having supplied the construction industry with survey data for over 20 years, we felt that is was crucial for our clients to clearly understand the accuracy of our photogrammetry so they can safely make informed spatial decisions, within the known accuracy limitations of our data. This information would also inform us on how and where UAV photogrammetry can be utilised. What we wanted to find out was the actual accuracy that can be reliably achieved using a UAV to collect data under field conditions throughout a 2 Ha site. We flew a UAV over the test area in a "lawnmower track" pattern with an 80% front and 80% side overlap; we placed 45 ground markers as check points and surveyed them in using network Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK GPS. We specifically designed the ground markers to meet our accuracy needs. We established 10 separate ground markers as control points and inputted these into our photo modelling software, Agisoft PhotoScan. The remaining GPS coordinated check point data were added later in ArcMap to the completed orthomosaic and digital elevation model so we could accurately compare the UAV photogrammetry XYZ data with the RTK GPS XYZ data at highly reliable common points. The accuracy we achieved throughout the 45 check points was 95% reliably within 41 mm horizontally and 68 mm vertically and with an 11.7 mm ground sample distance taken from a flight altitude above ground level of 90 m.The area covered by one image was 70.2 m × 46.4 m, which equals 0.325 Ha. This

  12. Electron ray tracing with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Okubo, T.; Takamoto, K.; Uno, Y.; Kondo, M.

    1986-01-01

    An electron ray tracing program is developed to investigate the overall geometrical and chromatic aberrations in electron optical systems. The program also computes aberrations due to manufacturing errors in lenses and deflectors. Computation accuracy is improved by (1) calculating electrostatic and magnetic scalar potentials using the finite element method with third-order isoparametric elements, and (2) solving the modified ray equation which the aberrations satisfy. Computation accuracy of 4 nm is achieved for calculating optical properties of the system with an electrostatic lens

  13. Revolutionizing radiographic diagnostic accuracy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective diagnostic accuracy has in some way been the missing link between periodontal diagnosis and treatment. Most of the clinicians rely on the conventional two-dimensional (2D radiographs. But being a 2D image, it has its own limitations. 2D images at times can give an incomplete picture about the severity or type of disease and can further affect the treatment plan. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT has a better potential for detecting periodontal bone defects with accuracy. The purpose here is to describe how CBCT imaging is beneficial in accurate diagnosis and will lead to a precise treatment plan.

  14. ACCURACY ANALYSIS OF KINECT DEPTH DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khoshelham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the geometric quality of depth data obtained by the Kinect sensor. Based on the mathematical model of depth measurement by the sensor a theoretical error analysis is presented, which provides an insight into the factors influencing the accuracy of the data. Experimental results show that the random error of depth measurement increases with increasing distance to the sensor, and ranges from a few millimetres up to about 4 cm at the maximum range of the sensor. The accuracy of the data is also found to be influenced by the low resolution of the depth measurements.

  15. Final Technical Report: Increasing Prediction Accuracy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Bruce Hardison [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    PV performance models are used to quantify the value of PV plants in a given location. They combine the performance characteristics of the system, the measured or predicted irradiance and weather at a site, and the system configuration and design into a prediction of the amount of energy that will be produced by a PV system. These predictions must be as accurate as possible in order for finance charges to be minimized. Higher accuracy equals lower project risk. The Increasing Prediction Accuracy project at Sandia focuses on quantifying and reducing uncertainties in PV system performance models.

  16. Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing...... of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6% for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD...... the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance...

  17. Accuracy of chest radiographs in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studler, Ueli; Kretzschmar, Martin; Steinbrich, Wolfgang [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Christ, Michael; Breidthardt, Tobias; Noveanu, Markus; Perruchoud, Andre P.; Mueller, Christian [University Hospital Basel, Department of Internal Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Schoetzau, Andreas [Institute of Biostatistics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of chest radiographic findings of heart failure (HF) in current patients presenting with dyspnea in the emergency department. In a secondary analysis of the BASEL study, initial chest radiographs of 277 patients with acute dyspnea were evaluated by two radiologists blinded to the adjudicated diagnosis (56% had the final diagnosis of HF). Predefined radiographic criteria of HF were used. Statistical analysis included receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and calculation of a logistic regression model including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. The reader's overall impression showed the highest area under the ROC curve for the diagnosis of HF in both supine and erect patient positions (0.855 and 0.857). Among individual radiographic findings, peribronchial cuffing in the supine position (0.829) showed the highest accuracies. The lowest accuracy was found for the vascular pedicle width in the supine position (0.461). Logistic regression analysis showed no significant differences between the reader's overall impression, the radiographic model, and BNP testing. In our study, the combination of radiographic features provided valuable information and was of comparable accuracy as BNP-testing for the diagnosis of HF. (orig.)

  18. Education Pays Off! On Transition to Work for 25 Year Olds in Norway with Upper Secondary Education or Lower as Their Highest Educational Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Eifred

    2017-01-01

    In this article we examine the relationship between educational level and position in the labour market at age 25 for those who have completed upper secondary education or lower as their highest educational level. Whilst completion of upper secondary education is widely regarded as being important, we find that early and lasting work experience…

  19. How to reliably deliver narrow individual-patient error bars for optimization of pacemaker AV or VV delay using a "pick-the-highest" strategy with haemodynamic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Darrel P

    2013-03-10

    Intuitive and easily-described, "pick-the-highest" is often recommended for quantitative optimization of AV and especially VV delay settings of biventricular pacemakers (BVP; cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT). But reliable selection of the optimum setting is challenged by beat-to-beat physiological variation, which "pick-the-highest" combats by averaging multiple heartbeats. Optimization is not optimization unless the optimum is identified confidently. This document shows how to calculate how many heartbeats must be averaged to optimize reliably by pick-the-highest. Any reader, by conducting a few measurements, can calculate for locally-available methods (i) biological scatter between replicate measurements, and (ii) curvature of the biological response. With these, for any clinically-desired precision of optimization, the necessary number of heartbeats can be calculated. To achieve 95% confidence of getting within ±∆x of the true optimum, the number of heartbeats needed is 2(scatter/curvature)(2)/∆x(4) per setting. Applying published scatter/curvature values (which readers should re-evaluate locally) indicates that optimizing AV, even coarsely with a 40ms-wide band of precision, requires many thousand beats. For VV delay, the number approaches a million. Moreover, identifying the optimum twice as precisely requires 30-fold more beats. "Pick the highest" is quick to say but slow to do. We must not expect staff to do the impossible; nor criticise them for not doing so. Nor should we assume recommendations and published protocols are well-designed. Reliable AV or VV optimization, using "pick-the-highest" on commonly-recommended manual measurements, is unrealistic. Improving time-efficiency of the optimization process to become clinically realistic may need a curve-fitting strategy instead, with all acquired data marshalled conjointly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 42 CFR 136.412 - What questions must the IHS ask as part of the background investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., exploitation, contact, or prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children? If yes... Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.412 What questions must the IHS ask as part of the...: (1) Has the individual been arrested or charged with a crime involving a child? If yes, the...

  1. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  2. 77 FR 30349 - Alderox, Inc., Applied Solar, Inc., Artes Medical, Inc., AskMeNow, Inc., Blink Logic Inc., and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Alderox, Inc., Applied Solar, Inc., Artes Medical, Inc., AskMeNow, Inc., Blink Logic Inc., and Convergence Ethanol, Inc.; Order of Suspension of... Blink Logic Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended June 30, 2009. It...

  3. Mastering the Maestro: The Effective Maestro Asks Writers, Photographers, and Designers to Trade Places with Readers as They Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Considers two very different fictional high school newspaper editorships to see how the "maestro" process works. Notes that the process is a management technique similar to brainstorming but in which one person keeps the planning meeting focused. Suggests that the effective maestro asks writers, photographers, and designers to trade places with…

  4. Finding Good Child Care: The Essential Questions To Ask When Seeking Quality Care for Your Child. CCAC Information Guide 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Action Campaign, New York, NY.

    This Child Care Action Campaign (CCAC) Information Guide focuses on questions for parents to ask when looking for the right childcare program. The guide provides a checklist for parents to use when evaluating potential or currently used childcare programs. By sharing and discussing the checklist with caregivers, parents and caregivers can work…

  5. Modulation of ASK1 expression during overexpression of Trx and HSP70 in stressed fish liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmini, Ekambaram; Vijaya Geetha, Bose

    2009-09-01

    Mitochondrial heat shock protein 70 (mtHSP70) is found to play a primary role in cellular defense against physiological stress like exposure to environmental contaminants and helpful in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis by promoting the cell survival. In the present investigation, the environmental-stress-induced increase in mtHSP70 levels along with the quantification of apoptosis signal regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin (Trx) were measured in the liver mitochondria of grey mullets (Mugil cephalus) collected from the polluted Ennore estuary and the unpolluted Kovalam estuary for a period of 2 years. The results showed elevated lipid peroxide (LPO) and decreased total antioxidant capacity along with the decrease in mitochondrial viability percentage. Mitochondrial HSP70, ASK1, and Trx levels were increased under this stress condition. A 42% increase in LPO levels and 18% decrease in mitochondrial survivality were observed in the polluted-site fish liver mitochondria when compared to the results of unpolluted estuary. We also report that, under observed oxidative stress condition in Ennore fish samples, the ASK1 levels are only moderately elevated (13% increase). This may be due to mitochondrial-HSP70-induced adaptive tolerance signaling for the activation of Trx (22% increase) which suppresses the ASK1 expression thereby promoting the cell survival that leads to the maintenance of the cellular homeostasis.

  6. AskFuse Origins: System Barriers to Providing the Research That Public Health Practice and Policy Partners Say They Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmer, Rosemary; Shucksmith, Janet

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the development of askFuse is used as a case study to illustrate contextual and system barriers to universities providing useful, usable and timely research evidence in response to local practice and policy partners' stated public health research needs. Entrenched systems (research excellence framework, academic career pathways,…

  7. The Most Frequently Asked Questions on the Education Rights of Children and Youth in Homeless Situations. Updated September 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Barbara; Julianelle, Patricia; Santos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This document provides answers to frequently asked questions on the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act and the education rights of children and youth in homeless situations, based on the amendments made by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, which took effect on October 1, 2016. The answers are general responses based on federal statutes,…

  8. Biotechnologies as a Context for Enhancing Junior High-School Students' Ability to Ask Meaningful Questions about Abstract Biological Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, G.; Dreyfus, A.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests a new approach to teaching about biochemical cellular processes by stimulating student interest in those biochemical processes that allowed for the outcomes of modern biotechnologies. Discusses the development of students' ability to ask meaningful questions about intra-cellular processes, and the resulting meaningful learning of relevant…

  9. Accuracy Of Stereometry In Assessing Orthognathic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Geoffrey E.; Bays, R. A.

    1983-07-01

    An X-ray stereometric technique has been developed for the determination of 3-dimensional coordinates of spherical metallic markers previously implanted in monkey skulls. The accuracy of the technique is better than 0.5mm. and uses readily available demountable X-ray equipment. The technique is used to study the effects and stability of experimental orthognathic surgery.

  10. Accuracy of sampling during mushroom cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Hendrickx, P.M.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments described in this report were performed to increase the accuracy of the analysis of the biological efficiency of Agaricus bisporus strains. Biological efficiency is a measure of the efficiency with which the mushroom strains use dry matter in the compost to produce mushrooms (expressed

  11. Laser measuring scanners and their accuracy limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Ryszard

    1993-09-01

    Scanning methods have gained the greater importance for some years now due to a short measuring time and wide range of application in flexible manufacturing processes. This paper is a summing up of the autho?s creative scientific work in the field of measuring scanners. The research conducted allowed to elaborate the optimal configurations of measuring systems based on the scanning method. An important part of the work was the analysis of a measuring scanner - as a transducer of an angle rotation into the linear displacement which resulted in obtaining its much higher accuracy and finally in working out a measuring scanner eliminating the use of an additional reference standard. The completion of the work is an attempt to determine an attainable accuracy limit of scanning measurement of both length and angle. Using a high stability deflector and a corrected scanning lens one can obtain the angle determination over 30 (or 2 mm) to an accuracy 0 (or 0 tm) when the measuring rate is 1000 Hz or the range d60 (4 mm) with accuracy 0 " (0 jim) and measurement frequency 6 Hz.

  12. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hembree, Charles E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mar, Alan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  13. Accuracy of References in Five Entomology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristof, Cynthia

    ln this paper, the bibliographical references in five core entomology journals are examined for citation accuracy in order to determine if the error rates are similar. Every reference printed in each journal's first issue of 1992 was examined, and these were compared to the original (cited) publications, if possible, in order to determine the…

  14. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. METHODS: Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann(®) Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were process...

  15. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... Data quality may be expressed in terms of several indicators such as attributes, temporal or positional accuracies. ... It is concluded that for the purpose of shoreline change analysis, such as shoreline change trends, large scale data sources should be used where possible for accurate ...

  16. Accuracy assessment of an industrial actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalla Costa, Giuseppe; Genta, Gianfranco; Barbato, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    A commercial linear actuator equipped with a 0.1 μm resolution encoder was used as a contact displacement sensor with adjustable force. The accuracy of the position reading of the actuator was evaluated from experimental data taking into account the uncertainty contributions. The tests consisted ...

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of organ electrodermal diagnostics | Szopinski ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To estimate the diagnostic accuracy as well as the scope of utilisation of a new bio-electronic method of organ diagnostics. Design. Double-blind comparative study of the diagnostic results obtained by means of organ electrodermal diagnostics (OED) and clinical diagnoses, as a criterion standard. Setting.

  18. Task Speed and Accuracy Decrease When Multitasking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Cockerham, Deborah; Chang, Zhengsi; Natividad, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    As new technologies increase the opportunities for multitasking, the need to understand human capacities for multitasking continues to grow stronger. Is multitasking helping us to be more efficient? This study investigated the multitasking abilities of 168 participants, ages 6-72, by measuring their task accuracy and completion time when they…

  19. Content in Context Improves Deception Detection Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, J. Pete; Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison S.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that people are only slightly better than chance at distinguishing truths from lies. Higher accuracy rates, however, are possible when contextual knowledge is used to judge the veracity of situated message content. The utility of content in context was shown in a series of experiments with students (N = 26, 45, 51, 25, 127)…

  20. On the accuracy of short read mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Karl Peter; Frellsen, Jes; Plass, Mireya

    2013-01-01

    .e., mapping the reads to a reference genome. In this new situation, conventional alignment tools are obsolete, as they cannot handle this huge amount of data in a reasonable amount of time. Thus, new mapping algorithms have been developed, which are fast at the expense of a small decrease in accuracy...

  1. Studies on the diagnostic accuracy of lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luening, M.; Stargardt, A.; Abet, L.

    1979-01-01

    Contradictory reports in the literature on the reliability of lymphography stimulated the authors to test the diagnostic accuracy, employing methods which are approximately analogous to practice, using carcinoma of the cervix as the model on which the study was carried out. Using 21 observers it was found that there was no correlation between their experience and on-target accuracy of the diagnosis. Good observers obtained an accuracy of 85% with good proportions between sensitivity in the recognition of detail, specificity and readiness to arrive at a decision on the basis of discriminatory ability. With the help of the concept of the ROC curves, the position taken up by the observers in respect of diagnostic decisions, and a complex manner of assessing the various characteristic factors determining diagnostic accuracy, are demonstrated. This form of test, which permits manipulation of different variants of diagnosis, is recommended, among other things, for performance control at the end of training and continuing education courses in other fields of x-ray diagnosis as well. (orig.) [de

  2. Accuracy of Digital vs. Conventional Implant Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J.; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Gianneschi, Grace E.; Gallucci, German O.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of digital impressions greatly influences the clinical viability in implant restorations. The aim of this study is to compare the accuracy of gypsum models acquired from the conventional implant impression to digitally milled models created from direct digitalization by three-dimensional analysis. Thirty gypsum and 30 digitally milled models impressed directly from a reference model were prepared. The models were scanned by a laboratory scanner and 30 STL datasets from each group were imported to an inspection software. The datasets were aligned to the reference dataset by a repeated best fit algorithm and 10 specified contact locations of interest were measured in mean volumetric deviations. The areas were pooled by cusps, fossae, interproximal contacts, horizontal and vertical axes of implant position and angulation. The pooled areas were statistically analysed by comparing each group to the reference model to investigate the mean volumetric deviations accounting for accuracy and standard deviations for precision. Milled models from digital impressions had comparable accuracy to gypsum models from conventional impressions. However, differences in fossae and vertical displacement of the implant position from the gypsum and digitally milled models compared to the reference model, exhibited statistical significance (p<0.001, p=0.020 respectively). PMID:24720423

  3. Analyzing thematic maps and mapping for accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Two problems which exist while attempting to test the accuracy of thematic maps and mapping are: (1) evaluating the accuracy of thematic content, and (2) evaluating the effects of the variables on thematic mapping. Statistical analysis techniques are applicable to both these problems and include techniques for sampling the data and determining their accuracy. In addition, techniques for hypothesis testing, or inferential statistics, are used when comparing the effects of variables. A comprehensive and valid accuracy test of a classification project, such as thematic mapping from remotely sensed data, includes the following components of statistical analysis: (1) sample design, including the sample distribution, sample size, size of the sample unit, and sampling procedure; and (2) accuracy estimation, including estimation of the variance and confidence limits. Careful consideration must be given to the minimum sample size necessary to validate the accuracy of a given. classification category. The results of an accuracy test are presented in a contingency table sometimes called a classification error matrix. Usually the rows represent the interpretation, and the columns represent the verification. The diagonal elements represent the correct classifications. The remaining elements of the rows represent errors by commission, and the remaining elements of the columns represent the errors of omission. For tests of hypothesis that compare variables, the general practice has been to use only the diagonal elements from several related classification error matrices. These data are arranged in the form of another contingency table. The columns of the table represent the different variables being compared, such as different scales of mapping. The rows represent the blocking characteristics, such as the various categories of classification. The values in the cells of the tables might be the counts of correct classification or the binomial proportions of these counts divided by

  4. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  5. An automated method for the evaluation of the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Pötzi, Werner; Freislich, Heinrich; Strutzmann, Heinz; Veronig, Astrid M.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2017-03-01

    The accuracy of solar radiation measurements, for direct (DIR) and diffuse (DIF) radiation, depends significantly on the precision of the operational Sun-tracking device. Thus, rigid targets for instrument performance and operation have been specified for international monitoring networks, e.g., the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) operating under the auspices of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP). Sun-tracking devices that fulfill these accuracy requirements are available from various instrument manufacturers; however, none of the commercially available systems comprise an automatic accuracy control system allowing platform operators to independently validate the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking sensors during operation. Here we present KSO-STREAMS (KSO-SunTRackEr Accuracy Monitoring System), a fully automated, system-independent, and cost-effective system for evaluating the pointing accuracy of Sun-tracking devices. We detail the monitoring system setup, its design and specifications, and the results from its application to the Sun-tracking system operated at the Kanzelhöhe Observatory (KSO) Austrian radiation monitoring network (ARAD) site. The results from an evaluation campaign from March to June 2015 show that the tracking accuracy of the device operated at KSO lies within BSRN specifications (i.e., 0.1° tracking accuracy) for the vast majority of observations (99.8 %). The evaluation of manufacturer-specified active-tracking accuracies (0.02°), during periods with direct solar radiation exceeding 300 W m-2, shows that these are satisfied in 72.9 % of observations. Tracking accuracies are highest during clear-sky conditions and on days where prevailing clear-sky conditions are interrupted by frontal movement; in these cases, we obtain the complete fulfillment of BSRN requirements and 76.4 % of observations within manufacturer-specified active-tracking accuracies. Limitations to tracking surveillance arise during overcast conditions and

  6. Genomic Prediction Accuracy for Resistance Against Piscirickettsia salmonis in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyella M. Yoshida

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salmonid rickettsial syndrome (SRS, caused by the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, is one of the main diseases affecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss farming. To accelerate genetic progress, genomic selection methods can be used as an effective approach to control the disease. The aims of this study were: (i to compare the accuracy of estimated breeding values using pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (PBLUP with genomic BLUP (GBLUP, single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP, Bayes C, and Bayesian Lasso (LASSO; and (ii to test the accuracy of genomic prediction and PBLUP using different marker densities (0.5, 3, 10, 20, and 27 K for resistance against P. salmonis in rainbow trout. Phenotypes were recorded as number of days to death (DD and binary survival (BS from 2416 fish challenged with P. salmonis. A total of 1934 fish were genotyped using a 57 K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array. All genomic prediction methods achieved higher accuracies than PBLUP. The relative increase in accuracy for different genomic models ranged from 28 to 41% for both DD and BS at 27 K SNP. Between different genomic models, the highest relative increase in accuracy was obtained with Bayes C (∼40%, where 3 K SNP was enough to achieve a similar accuracy to that of the 27 K SNP for both traits. For resistance against P. salmonis in rainbow trout, we showed that genomic predictions using GBLUP, ssGBLUP, Bayes C, and LASSO can increase accuracy compared with PBLUP. Moreover, it is possible to use relatively low-density SNP panels for genomic prediction without compromising accuracy predictions for resistance against P. salmonis in rainbow trout.

  7. Computed tomography angiogram. Accuracy in renal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, Danny M.; Al-Hathal, Naif; Al-Fuhaid, Turki; Raza, Sayed; Al-Yami, Fahad; Al-Taweel, Waleed; Alomar, Mohamed; Al-Nagshabandi, Nizar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography angiogram (CTA) in detecting number and location of renal arteries and veins as well as crossing vessels causing uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (UPJO), and to determine if this can be used in decision-making algorithms for treatment of UPJO. A prospective study was carried out in patients undergoing open, laparoscopic and robotic renal surgery from April 2005 until October 2006. All patients were imaged using CTA with 1.25 collimation of arterial and venous phases. Each multi-detector CTA was then read by one radiologist and his results were compared prospectively with the actual intra-operative findings. Overall, 118 patients were included. CTA had 93% sensitivity, 77% specificity and 90% overall accuracy for detecting a single renal artery, and 76% sensitivity, 92% specificity and 90% overall accuracy for detecting two or more renal arteries (Pearson χ 2 =0.001). There was 95% sensitivity, 84% specificity and 85% overall accuracy for detecting the number of renal veins. CTA had 100% overall accuracy in detecting early dividing renal artery (defined as less than 1.5 cm branching from origin), and 83.3% sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy in detecting crossing vessels at UPJ. The percentage of surgeons stating CTA to be helpful as pre-operative diagnostic tool was 85%. Computed tomography angiogram is simple, quick and can provide an accurate pre-operative renal vascular anatomy in terms of number and location of renal vessels, early dividing renal arteries and crossing vessels at UPJ. (author)

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of MRCP in choledocholithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarise, Alessandro; Mainardi, Paride; Baltieri, Susanna; Faccioli, Niccolo'

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of MRCP in diagnosing choledocholithiasis considering Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) as the gold standard. To compare the results achieved during the first two years of use (1999-2000) of Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis with those achieved during the following two years (2001-2002) in order to establish the repeatability and objectivity of MRCP results. Materials and methods: One hundred and seventy consecutive patients underwent MRCP followed by ERCP within 72 h. In 22/170 (13%) patients ERCP was unsuccessful for different reasons. MRCP was performed using a 1.5 T magnet with both multi-slice HASTE sequences and thick-slice projection technique. Choledocholithiasis was diagnosed in the presence of signal void images in the dependent portion of the duct surrounded by hyperintense bile and detected at least in two projections. The MRCP results, read independently from the ERCP results, were compared in two different and subsequent periods. Results: ERCP confirmed choledocholithiasis in 87 patients. In these cases the results of MRCP were the following: 78 true positives, 53 true negatives, 7 false positives, and 9 false negatives. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90%, 88% and 89%, respectively. After the exclusion of stones with diameters smaller than 6 mm, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 100%, 99% and 99%, respectively. MRCP accuracy was related to the size of the stones. There was no significant statistical difference between the results obtained in the first two-year period and those obtained in the second period. Conclusions: MRCP i sufficiently accurate to replace ERCP in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis. The results are related to the size of stones. The use of well-defined radiological signs allows good diagnostic accuracy independent of the learning curve [it

  9. Photon caliper to achieve submillimeter positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kyle J.; Wong, Jennifer; Zhang, Junan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a commercial two-dimensional (2D) detector array with an inherent detector spacing of 5 mm to achieve submillimeter accuracy in localizing the radiation isocenter. This was accomplished by delivering the Vernier ‘dose’ caliper to a 2D detector array where the nominal scale was the 2D detector array and the non-nominal Vernier scale was the radiation dose strips produced by the high-definition (HD) multileaf collimators (MLCs) of the linear accelerator. Because the HD MLC sequence was similar to the picket fence test, we called this procedure the Vernier picket fence (VPF) test. We confirmed the accuracy of the VPF test by offsetting the HD MLC bank by known increments and comparing the known offset with the VPF test result. The VPF test was able to determine the known offset within 0.02 mm. We also cross-validated the accuracy of the VPF test in an evaluation of couch hysteresis. This was done by using both the VPF test and the ExacTrac optical tracking system to evaluate the couch position. We showed that the VPF test was in agreement with the ExacTrac optical tracking system within a root-mean-square value of 0.07 mm for both the lateral and longitudinal directions. In conclusion, we demonstrated the VPF test can determine the offset between a 2D detector array and the radiation isocenter with submillimeter accuracy. Until now, no method to locate the radiation isocenter using a 2D detector array has been able to achieve such accuracy.

  10. High accuracy FIONA-AFM hybrid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronczek, D.N.; Quammen, C.; Wang, H.; Kisker, C.; Superfine, R.; Taylor, R.; Erie, D.A.; Tessmer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-protein complexes are ubiquitous and play essential roles in many biological mechanisms. Single molecule imaging techniques such as electron microscopy (EM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful methods for characterizing the structural properties of multi-protein and multi-protein-DNA complexes. However, a significant limitation to these techniques is the ability to distinguish different proteins from one another. Here, we combine high resolution fluorescence microscopy and AFM (FIONA-AFM) to allow the identification of different proteins in such complexes. Using quantum dots as fiducial markers in addition to fluorescently labeled proteins, we are able to align fluorescence and AFM information to ≥8 nm accuracy. This accuracy is sufficient to identify individual fluorescently labeled proteins in most multi-protein complexes. We investigate the limitations of localization precision and accuracy in fluorescence and AFM images separately and their effects on the overall registration accuracy of FIONA-AFM hybrid images. This combination of the two orthogonal techniques (FIONA and AFM) opens a wide spectrum of possible applications to the study of protein interactions, because AFM can yield high resolution (5-10 nm) information about the conformational properties of multi-protein complexes and the fluorescence can indicate spatial relationships of the proteins in the complexes. -- Research highlights: → Integration of fluorescent signals in AFM topography with high (<10 nm) accuracy. → Investigation of limitations and quantitative analysis of fluorescence-AFM image registration using quantum dots. → Fluorescence center tracking and display as localization probability distributions in AFM topography (FIONA-AFM). → Application of FIONA-AFM to a biological sample containing damaged DNA and the DNA repair proteins UvrA and UvrB conjugated to quantum dots.

  11. Does filler database size influence identification accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergold, Amanda N; Heaton, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Police departments increasingly use large photo databases to select lineup fillers using facial recognition software, but this technological shift's implications have been largely unexplored in eyewitness research. Database use, particularly if coupled with facial matching software, could enable lineup constructors to increase filler-suspect similarity and thus enhance eyewitness accuracy (Fitzgerald, Oriet, Price, & Charman, 2013). However, with a large pool of potential fillers, such technologies might theoretically produce lineup fillers too similar to the suspect (Fitzgerald, Oriet, & Price, 2015; Luus & Wells, 1991; Wells, Rydell, & Seelau, 1993). This research proposes a new factor-filler database size-as a lineup feature affecting eyewitness accuracy. In a facial recognition experiment, we select lineup fillers in a legally realistic manner using facial matching software applied to filler databases of 5,000, 25,000, and 125,000 photos, and find that larger databases are associated with a higher objective similarity rating between suspects and fillers and lower overall identification accuracy. In target present lineups, witnesses viewing lineups created from the larger databases were less likely to make correct identifications and more likely to select known innocent fillers. When the target was absent, database size was associated with a lower rate of correct rejections and a higher rate of filler identifications. Higher algorithmic similarity ratings were also associated with decreases in eyewitness identification accuracy. The results suggest that using facial matching software to select fillers from large photograph databases may reduce identification accuracy, and provides support for filler database size as a meaningful system variable. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  13. Audiovisual biofeedback improves motion prediction accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Sean; Lee, Danny; Keall, Paul; Kim, Taeho

    2013-04-01

    The accuracy of motion prediction, utilized to overcome the system latency of motion management radiotherapy systems, is hampered by irregularities present in the patients' respiratory pattern. Audiovisual (AV) biofeedback has been shown to reduce respiratory irregularities. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that AV biofeedback improves the accuracy of motion prediction. An AV biofeedback system combined with real-time respiratory data acquisition and MR images were implemented in this project. One-dimensional respiratory data from (1) the abdominal wall (30 Hz) and (2) the thoracic diaphragm (5 Hz) were obtained from 15 healthy human subjects across 30 studies. The subjects were required to breathe with and without the guidance of AV biofeedback during each study. The obtained respiratory signals were then implemented in a kernel density estimation prediction algorithm. For each of the 30 studies, five different prediction times ranging from 50 to 1400 ms were tested (150 predictions performed). Prediction error was quantified as the root mean square error (RMSE); the RMSE was calculated from the difference between the real and predicted respiratory data. The statistical significance of the prediction results was determined by the Student's t-test. Prediction accuracy was considerably improved by the implementation of AV biofeedback. Of the 150 respiratory predictions performed, prediction accuracy was improved 69% (103/150) of the time for abdominal wall data, and 78% (117/150) of the time for diaphragm data. The average reduction in RMSE due to AV biofeedback over unguided respiration was 26% (p biofeedback improves prediction accuracy. This would result in increased efficiency of motion management techniques affected by system latencies used in radiotherapy.

  14. On the questions that we can ask visual archives: for public history, communication and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bruce Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiências anteriores com arquivos e coleções fotográficas datadas de meados do século XX, me levaram a pensar nas imagens que os sujeitos, as instituições e as épocas compartilham em suas falas cotidianas. Elas podem ser acessadas não somente em acervos, também na internet, em exposições, no cinema, na sala de aula e em outros espaços de convivência, vistos de uma plataforma como a História pública. Através das perguntas que lhes fazemos é possível distinguir como elas ficam presentes em nosso cotidiano. É possível reconstituir percursos e perscrutar, no presente, ecos daqueles valores que aparecem visualmente. Com isso, o objetivo deste ensaio é expor fragmentos que fazem parte da cultura visual no Recife. Como plataforma reflexiva, os argumentos identificam e relatam alguns desses fragmentos.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arquivos e coleções fotográficas, História pública, comunicação, ensino.   ABSTRACT Previous experiences with photographic archives and collections dating from the mid-twentieth century have led me to think about the images that the subjects, the institutions and the epochs shared in their day-to-day discourse. They can be accessed not only in collections, but also on the internet, in exhibitions, in the cinema, in the classroom and in other spaces of coexistence, seen from a platform such as public History. Through the questions that we ask them, it is possible to distinguish how they become present in our daily lives. It is possible to reconstitute paths and examine, in the present, echoes of those values that appear visually. configure the visibility presented. On thinking about images, we carry out montages. The aim of this essay is therefore to expose fragments that are part of the visual culture in Recife. As a reflective platform, the arguments identify and relate some of these fragments.   KEYWORDS: Photographic archives and collections, public History, communication, teaching.     RESUMEN

  15. Ask the experts how to treat individuals with spatial neglect: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peii; Pitteri, Marco; Gillen, Glen; Ayyala, Harsha

    2017-07-11

    Spatial neglect (SN) impedes rehabilitation success and leaves long-term consequences. We asked experts to provide their opinions in addressing SN by scenario (ideal vs. reality) and by recovery phase (earliest, acute, subacute, and chronic). Experts were individuals who have assessed or treated patients with SN clinically. This study was conducted using an anonymous survey on the Internet with 189 responders over 3 months. Located in 23 different countries, 127 experts of seven disciplines were included (occupational therapy, physical therapy, nursing, speech and language pathology or therapy, neurology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and psychology or neuropsychology). Comparing the two scenarios, more treatments were selected in the ideal than in the reality scenario for all recovery phases except for the chronic phase. In both scenarios, (1) more treatments were selected in acute and subacute phases than in earliest or chronic phases, (2) less experienced experts selected diverse treatment options more often, and (3) highly experienced experts were more likely to provide their reasons of treatment selection, suggestions of treatment delivery methods, and other insights. Finally, 83.7% reported obstacles in treating SN. Experts' treatment selections are consistent with current evidence and practice guidelines. Recognizing the limitation of evidence, their opinions may help generate ideas in various topics (e.g., dosing, integrative intervention, and treatment implementation) to be examined in future studies. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians with experience in treating people with spatial neglect (i.e., experts as defined in the present study) recognized the limitation of evidence but nonetheless suggested specific treatments by recovery phase. In both the reality and ideal scenarios, experts included visual scanning, active limb activation, and sustained attention training in the top-five selections. Prism adaptation was in the top

  16. Using Clinical Questions Asked by Primary Care Providers Through eConsults to Inform Continuing Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Douglas; Liddy, Clare; Lochnan, Heather A; Hendry, Paul J; Keely, Erin J

    2018-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) offerings should address the educational needs of health care providers. Innovative programs, such as electronic consultations (eConsults), provide unique educational opportunities for practice-based needs assessment. The purpose of this study is to assess whether CPD offerings match the needs of physicians by coding and comparing session content to clinical questions asked through eConsults. This study analyzes questions asked by primary care providers between July 2011 and January 2015 using a service that allows specialists to provide consultation over a secure web-based server. The content of these questions was compared with the CPD courses offered in the area in which these primary care providers are practicing over a similar period (2012-2014). The clinical questions were categorized by the content area. The percentage of questions asked about each content area was calculated for each of the 12 specialties consulted. CPD course offerings were categorized using the same list of content areas. Percentage of minutes dedicated to each content area was calculated for each specialty. The percentage of questions asked and the percentage of CPD course minutes for each content area were compared. There were numerous congruencies and discrepancies between the proportion of questions asked about a given content area and the CPD minutes dedicated to it. Traditional needs assessment may underestimate the need to address topics that are frequently the subject of eConsults. Planners should recognize eConsult questions as a valuable source of practice-associated challenges that can identify professional development needs of physicians.

  17. A Younger Man With Localized Prostate Cancer Asks, "Which Type of Radiation Is Right for Me?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelman, Justin E

    2018-06-20

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice. A 61-year-old man presents with stage II prostate cancer after a period of active surveillance. Work-up reveals T1cN0M0 carcinoma, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4.8 ng/mL, and Grade Group II (highest Gleason 3+4) in three cores of 12 taken, at the right mid-gland and right apex. The patient has been on active surveillance for the past 16 months. He was originally diagnosed after biopsy for an elevated PSA with stage I prostate cancer, T1cN0M0; PSA, 4.5 ng/mL; Grade Group 1 (Gleason 3+3) in one core of 12 taken, also at the right mid-gland. A multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a heterogeneous peripheral zone without a dominant lesion and a calculated prostate volume of 28 mL. His medical history includes hypercholesterolemia, for which he takes atorvastatin. He is otherwise healthy and has no other significant medical or surgical history. His father had prostate cancer in his 70s and died of other causes at 89 years of age. The patient reports 2- to 3-hour urinary frequency and 0 to 1 nocturia, and has no difficulty obtaining or maintaining an erection. After meeting with his urologist, he sees a radiation oncologist.

  18. Accuracy and confidence of visual short-term memory do not go hand-in-hand: behavioral and neural dissociations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bona

    Full Text Available Currently influential models of working memory posit that memory content is highly accessible to conscious inspection. These models predict that metacognition of memory performance should go hand-in-hand with the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. To test this view, we investigated how visual information presented during the maintenance period affects VSTM accuracy and confidence. We used a delayed cue-target orientation discrimination task in which participants were asked to hold in memory a grating, and during the maintenance period a second memory cue could be presented. VSTM accuracy of the first memory cue was impaired when the orientation of the second memory cue was sufficiently different. However, participants' response confidence was reduced whenever the second memory cue was presented; thus VSTM accuracy and confidence were dissociated. In a second experiment, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to investigate the causal role of this region in VSTM metacognition. Relative to the sham condition, anodal tDCS induced a general reduction in confidence ratings but did not affect VSTM accuracy. Overall, these results indicate that our metacognition of memory performance is influenced by factors other than the accuracy of the underlying memory representation.

  19. Accuracy and Confidence of Visual Short-Term Memory Do Not Go Hand-In-Hand: Behavioral and Neural Dissociations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, Silvia; Silvanto, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Currently influential models of working memory posit that memory content is highly accessible to conscious inspection. These models predict that metacognition of memory performance should go hand-in-hand with the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. To test this view, we investigated how visual information presented during the maintenance period affects VSTM accuracy and confidence. We used a delayed cue–target orientation discrimination task in which participants were asked to hold in memory a grating, and during the maintenance period a second memory cue could be presented. VSTM accuracy of the first memory cue was impaired when the orientation of the second memory cue was sufficiently different. However, participants' response confidence was reduced whenever the second memory cue was presented; thus VSTM accuracy and confidence were dissociated. In a second experiment, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to investigate the causal role of this region in VSTM metacognition. Relative to the sham condition, anodal tDCS induced a general reduction in confidence ratings but did not affect VSTM accuracy. Overall, these results indicate that our metacognition of memory performance is influenced by factors other than the accuracy of the underlying memory representation. PMID:24663094

  20. Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Restaurant Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E.; McCrory, Megan A.; Dallal, Gerard E.; Das, Sai Krupa; Saltzman, Edward; Weber, Judith L.; Roberts, Susan B.

    2015-01-01

    Context National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake. Foods purchased in restaurants provide approximately 35% of the daily energy intake in US individuals but the accuracy of the energy contents listed for these foods is unknown. Objective To examine the accuracy of stated energy contents of foods purchased in restaurants. Design and Setting A validated bomb calorimetry technique was used to measure dietary energy in food from 42 restaurants, comprising 269 total food items and 242 unique foods. The restaurants and foods were randomly selected from quick-serve and sit-down restaurants in Massachusetts, Arkansas, and Indiana between January and June 2010. Main Outcome Measure The difference between restaurant-stated and laboratory-measured energy contents, which were corrected for standard metabolizable energy conversion factors. Results The absolute stated energy contents were not significantly different from the absolute measured energy contents overall (difference of 10 kcal/portion; 95% confidence interval [CI], −15 to 34 kcal/portion; P=.52); however, the stated energy contents of individual foods were variable relative to the measured energy contents. Of the 269 food items, 50 (19%) contained measured energy contents of at least 100 kcal/portion more than the stated energy contents. Of the 10% of foods with the highest excess energy in the initial sampling, 13 of 17 were available for a second sampling. In the first analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 289 kcal/portion (95% CI, 186 to 392 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents; in the second analysis, these foods contained average measured energy contents of 258 kcal/portion (95% CI, 154 to 361 kcal/portion) more than the stated energy contents (Prestaurant foods were accurate overall. However, there was substantial inaccuracy for some individual foods, with understated energy contents for those with lower

  1. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis.Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language.By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change.The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  2. Supported rhodium catalysts for ammonia-borane hydrolysis. Dependence of the catalytic activity on the highest occupied state of the single rhodium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liangbing; Li, Hongliang; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Xiao; Qiu, Jianxiang; Li, Aowen; Zheng, Xusheng; Zeng, Jie [Hefei National Lab. for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Lab. of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui(China); Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Hu, Zhenpeng [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin (China); Si, Rui [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2017-04-18

    Supported metal nanocrystals have exhibited remarkable catalytic performance in hydrogen generation reactions, which is influenced and even determined by their supports. Accordingly, it is of fundamental importance to determine the direct relationship between catalytic performance and metal-support interactions. Herein, we provide a quantitative profile for exploring metal-support interactions by considering the highest occupied state in single-atom catalysts. The catalyst studied consisted of isolated Rh atoms dispersed on the surface of VO{sub 2} nanorods. It was observed that the activation energy of ammonia-borane hydrolysis changed when the substrate underwent a phase transition. Mechanistic studies indicate that the catalytic performance depended directly on the highest occupied state of the single Rh atoms, which was determined by the band structure of the substrates. Other metal catalysts, even with non-noble metals, that exhibited significant catalytic activity towards NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} hydrolysis were rationally designed by adjusting their highest occupied states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Evaluating measurement accuracy a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Semyon G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of Evaluating Measurement Accuracy: A Practical Approach is to present methods for estimating the accuracy of measurements performed in industry, trade, and scientific research. From developing the theory of indirect measurements to proposing new methods of reduction, transformation, and enumeration, this work encompasses the full range of measurement data processing. It includes many examples that illustrate the application of general theory to typical problems encountered in measurement practice. As a result, the book serves as an inclusive reference work for data processing of all types of measurements: single and multiple, combined and simultaneous, direct (both linear and nonlinear), and indirect (both dependent and independent). It is a working tool for experimental scientists and engineers of all disciplines who work with instrumentation. It is also a good resource for natural science and engineering students and for technicians performing measurements in industry. A key feature of the book is...

  4. Improving the accuracy of dynamic mass calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr F. Dashchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the acceleration of goods transporting, cargo accounting plays an important role in today's global and complex environment. Weight is the most reliable indicator of the materials control. Unlike many other variables that can be measured indirectly, the weight can be measured directly and accurately. Using strain-gauge transducers, weight value can be obtained within a few milliseconds; such values correspond to the momentary load, which acts on the sensor. Determination of the weight of moving transport is only possible by appropriate processing of the sensor signal. The aim of the research is to develop a methodology for weighing freight rolling stock, which increases the accuracy of the measurement of dynamic mass, in particular wagon that moves. Apart from time-series methods, preliminary filtration for improving the accuracy of calculation is used. The results of the simulation are presented.

  5. Teaching accuracy and reliability for student projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Nick

    2002-09-01

    Physics students at Rugby School follow the Salters Horners A-level course, which involves working on a two-week practical project of their own choosing. Pupils often misunderstand the concepts of accuracy and reliability, believing, for example, that repeating readings makes them more accurate and more reliable, whereas all it does is help to check repeatability. The course emphasizes the ideas of checking anomalous points, improving accuracy and making readings more sensitive. This article describes how we teach pupils in preparation for their projects. Based on many years of running such projects, much of this material is from a short booklet that we give out to pupils, when we train them in practical project skills.

  6. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis in knee arthroscopy.

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Stuart; Morgan, Mamdouh

    2002-01-01

    A prospective study of 238 patients was performed in a district general hospital to assess current diagnostic accuracy rates and to ascertain the use and the effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning in reducing the number of negative arthroscopies. The pre-operative diagnosis of patients listed for knee arthroscopy was medial meniscus tear 94 (40%) and osteoarthritis 59 (25%). MRI scans were requested in 57 patients (24%) with medial meniscus tear representing 65% (37 patien...

  7. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camera...

  8. Accuracy of radiocarbon analyses at ANTARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E M; Fink, D; Hotchkis, M; Hua, Q; Jacobsen, G; Smith, A M; Tuniz, C [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Accuracy in Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) measurements, as distinct from precision, requires the application of a number of corrections. Most of these are well known except in extreme circumstances and AMS can deliver radiocarbon results which are both precise and accurate in the 0.5 to 1.0% range. The corrections involved in obtaining final radiocarbon ages are discussed. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Measurement Accuracy Limitation Analysis on Synchrophasors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiecheng [University of Tennessee (UT); Zhan, Lingwei [University of Tennessee (UT); Liu, Yilu [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Qi, Hairong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gracia, Jose R [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the theoretical accuracy limitation of synchrophasors measurements on phase angle and frequency of the power grid. Factors that cause the measurement error are analyzed, including error sources in the instruments and in the power grid signal. Different scenarios of these factors are evaluated according to the normal operation status of power grid measurement. Based on the evaluation and simulation, the errors of phase angle and frequency caused by each factor are calculated and discussed.

  10. Accuracy of radiocarbon analyses at ANTARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, E.M.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Smith, A.M.; Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Accuracy in Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (AMS) measurements, as distinct from precision, requires the application of a number of corrections. Most of these are well known except in extreme circumstances and AMS can deliver radiocarbon results which are both precise and accurate in the 0.5 to 1.0% range. The corrections involved in obtaining final radiocarbon ages are discussed. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Simulation analysis for hyperbola locating accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changli; Liu Daizhi

    2004-01-01

    In the system of the hyperbola location, the geometric shape of the detecting stations has an important influence on the locating accuracy. At first, this paper simulates the process of the hyperbola location by the computer, and then analyzes the influence of the geometric shape on the locating errors and gives the computer simulation results, finally, discusses the problems that require attention in course of selecting the detecting station. The conclusion has practicality. (authors)

  12. On the Accuracy of Language Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompei, Simone; Loreto, Vittorio; Tria, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Historical linguistics aims at inferring the most likely language phylogenetic tree starting from information concerning the evolutionary relatedness of languages. The available information are typically lists of homologous (lexical, phonological, syntactic) features or characters for many different languages: a set of parallel corpora whose compilation represents a paramount achievement in linguistics. From this perspective the reconstruction of language trees is an example of inverse problems: starting from present, incomplete and often noisy, information, one aims at inferring the most likely past evolutionary history. A fundamental issue in inverse problems is the evaluation of the inference made. A standard way of dealing with this question is to generate data with artificial models in order to have full access to the evolutionary process one is going to infer. This procedure presents an intrinsic limitation: when dealing with real data sets, one typically does not know which model of evolution is the most suitable for them. A possible way out is to compare algorithmic inference with expert classifications. This is the point of view we take here by conducting a thorough survey of the accuracy of reconstruction methods as compared with the Ethnologue expert classifications. We focus in particular on state-of-the-art distance-based methods for phylogeny reconstruction using worldwide linguistic databases. In order to assess the accuracy of the inferred trees we introduce and characterize two generalizations of standard definitions of distances between trees. Based on these scores we quantify the relative performances of the distance-based algorithms considered. Further we quantify how the completeness and the coverage of the available databases affect the accuracy of the reconstruction. Finally we draw some conclusions about where the accuracy of the reconstructions in historical linguistics stands and about the leading directions to improve it. PMID:21674034

  13. Do Investors Learn About Analyst Accuracy?

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Charles; Daouk, Hazem; Wang, Albert

    2008-01-01

    We study the impact of analyst forecasts on prices to determine whether investors learn about analyst accuracy. Our test market is the crude oil futures market. Prices rise when analysts forecast a decrease (increase) in crude supplies. In the 15 minutes following supply realizations, prices rise (fall) when forecasts have been too high (low). In both the initial price action relative to forecasts and in the subsequent reaction relative to realized forecast errors, the price response is stron...

  14. On the accuracy of language trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pompei

    Full Text Available Historical linguistics aims at inferring the most likely language phylogenetic tree starting from information concerning the evolutionary relatedness of languages. The available information are typically lists of homologous (lexical, phonological, syntactic features or characters for many different languages: a set of parallel corpora whose compilation represents a paramount achievement in linguistics. From this perspective the reconstruction of language trees is an example of inverse problems: starting from present, incomplete and often noisy, information, one aims at inferring the most likely past evolutionary history. A fundamental issue in inverse problems is the evaluation of the inference made. A standard way of dealing with this question is to generate data with artificial models in order to have full access to the evolutionary process one is going to infer. This procedure presents an intrinsic limitation: when dealing with real data sets, one typically does not know which model of evolution is the most suitable for them. A possible way out is to compare algorithmic inference with expert classifications. This is the point of view we take here by conducting a thorough survey of the accuracy of reconstruction methods as compared with the Ethnologue expert classifications. We focus in particular on state-of-the-art distance-based methods for phylogeny reconstruction using worldwide linguistic databases. In order to assess the accuracy of the inferred trees we introduce and characterize two generalizations of standard definitions of distances between trees. Based on these scores we quantify the relative performances of the distance-based algorithms considered. Further we quantify how the completeness and the coverage of the available databases affect the accuracy of the reconstruction. Finally we draw some conclusions about where the accuracy of the reconstructions in historical linguistics stands and about the leading directions to improve

  15. Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs in Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    capacity of discrete motor responses under different cognitive sets. Journal of Experimental Psychology , 71 (4), 475. SPEED-ACCURACY TRADEOFFS IN HUMAN...space defined by vocal tract constriction degree and location, as in Articulatory Phonology Browman & Goldstein (1992). These high-level spaces are...relationship between speech gestures varies as a function of their positions within the syllable Browman & Goldstein (1995); Krakow (1999); Byrd et al

  16. The dimensional accuracy of the sintered billets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Чингиз Ариф оглы Алиев

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of assessing the impact of the behaviour stability of the components included in the compositions and process parameters of their production, on the dimensional accuracy of workpieces. It was found that by increasing the amount of oxide in the composition is greater compaction of the sintered billet in the process of heat treatment. This also increases the density of all components of the composition

  17. QUALITY LOSS FUNCTION FOR MACHINING PROCESS ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Stere PARIS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose new quality loss models for machining process accuracy in the classical case “zero the best”, MMF and Harris type. In addition a numerical example illustrates that the choose regression functions are directly linked with the quality loss of manufacturing process. The proposed models can be adapted for the “maximal the best” and “nominal the best” cases.

  18. Accuracy and precision in activation analysis: counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    Accuracy and precision in activation analysis was investigated with regard to counting of induced radioactivity. The various parameters discussed include configuration, positioning, density, homogeneity, intensity, radioisotopic purity, peak integration, and nuclear constants. Experimental results are presented for many of these parameters. The results obtained indicate that counting errors often contribute significantly to the inaccuracy and imprecision of analyses. The magnitude of these errors range from less than 1 percent to 10 percent or more in many cases

  19. Radioactivity analysis of food and accuracy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    From the fact that radioactive substances have been detected from the foods such as agricultural and livestock products and marine products due to the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare stipulated new standards geared to general foods on radioactive cesium by replacing the interim standards up to now. Various institutions began to measure radioactivity on the basis of this instruction, but as a new challenge, a problem of the reliability of the data occurred. Therefore, accuracy control to indicate the proof that the quality of the data can be retained at an appropriate level judging from an objective manner is important. In order to consecutively implement quality management activities, it is necessary for each inspection agency to build an accuracy control system. This paper introduces support service, as a new attempt, for establishing the accuracy control system. This service is offered jointly by three organizations, such as TUV Rheinland Japan Ltd., Japan Frozen Foods Inspection Corporation, and Japan Chemical Analysis Center. This service consists of the training of radioactivity measurement practitioners, proficiency test for radioactive substance measurement, and personal authentication. (O.A.)

  20. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging