Higher-order scene statistics of breast images
Abbey, Craig K.; Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha N.; Olshausen, Bruno A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.
2009-02-01
Researchers studying human and computer vision have found description and construction of these systems greatly aided by analysis of the statistical properties of naturally occurring scenes. More specifically, it has been found that receptive fields with directional selectivity and bandwidth properties similar to mammalian visual systems are more closely matched to the statistics of natural scenes. It is argued that this allows for sparse representation of the independent components of natural images [Olshausen and Field, Nature, 1996]. These theories have important implications for medical image perception. For example, will a system that is designed to represent the independent components of natural scenes, where objects occlude one another and illumination is typically reflected, be appropriate for X-ray imaging, where features superimpose on one another and illumination is transmissive? In this research we begin to examine these issues by evaluating higher-order statistical properties of breast images from X-ray projection mammography (PM) and dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). We evaluate kurtosis in responses of octave bandwidth Gabor filters applied to PM and to coronal slices of bCT scans. We find that kurtosis in PM rises and quickly saturates for filter center frequencies with an average value above 0.95. By contrast, kurtosis in bCT peaks near 0.20 cyc/mm with kurtosis of approximately 2. Our findings suggest that the human visual system may be tuned to represent breast tissue more effectively in bCT over a specific range of spatial frequencies.
Higher order capacity statistics of multi-hop transmission systems over Rayleigh fading channels
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2012-03-01
In this paper, we present an exact analytical expression to evaluate the higher order statistics of the channel capacity for amplify and forward (AF) multihop transmission systems operating over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, we present simple and efficient closed-form expression to the higher order moments of the channel capacity of dual hop transmission system with Rayleigh fading channels. In order to analyze the behavior of the higher order capacity statistics and investigate the usefulness of the mathematical analysis, some selected numerical and simulation results are presented. Our results are found to be in perfect agreement. © 2012 IEEE.
Describing supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics using higher-order moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Wetzel, Benjamin
2012-01-01
We show that the noise properties of fiber supercontinuum generation and the appearance of long-tailed “rogue wave” statistics can be accurately quantified using statistical higher-order central moments. Statistical measures of skew and kurtosis, as well as the coefficient of variation provide im...
Blind equalization of underwater acoustic channels using implicit higher-order statistics
Blom, K.C.H.; Dol, Henry S.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
2016-01-01
In order to reduce the length of transmission time slots and energy consumption of underwater modems, this work focuses on equalization without the need for training sequences. This type of equalization is known as blind equalization. A blind equalizer cascade based on higher-order statistics is
Higher order moment description of supercontinuum noise and rogue wave statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Dudley, John M.
We quantify the noise properties of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fibers using higher-order central moments. The higher-order moments quantify not only the mean and variance of a distribution, but also the asymmetry and the presence of long tails, and are thus particularly useful...... for identifying regions of long-tailed rogue wave like behaviour. By carrying out multiple numerical simulations in the presence of noise, we demonstrate that the statistical moments of Coefficient of Variation, Skew and Kurtosis provide the necessary rigorous measure of the SC histograms to yield a clear means...
Higher-Order Statistical Correlations and Mutual Information Among Particles in a Quantum Well
Yépez, V. S.; Sagar, R. P.; Laguna, H. G.
2017-12-01
The influence of wave function symmetry on statistical correlation is studied for the case of three non-interacting spin-free quantum particles in a unidimensional box, in position and in momentum space. Higher-order statistical correlations occurring among the three particles in this quantum system is quantified via higher-order mutual information and compared to the correlation between pairs of variables in this model, and to the correlation in the two-particle system. The results for the higher-order mutual information show that there are states where the symmetric wave functions are more correlated than the antisymmetric ones with same quantum numbers. This holds in position as well as in momentum space. This behavior is opposite to that observed for the correlation between pairs of variables in this model, and the two-particle system, where the antisymmetric wave functions are in general more correlated. These results are also consistent with those observed in a system of three uncoupled oscillators. The use of higher-order mutual information as a correlation measure, is monitored and examined by considering a superposition of states or systems with two Slater determinants.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JiYeoun Lee
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A preprocessing scheme based on linear prediction coefficient (LPC residual is applied to higher-order statistics (HOSs for automatic assessment of an overall pathological voice quality. The normalized skewness and kurtosis are estimated from the LPC residual and show statistically meaningful distributions to characterize the pathological voice quality. 83 voice samples of the sustained vowel /a/ phonation are used in this study and are independently assessed by a speech and language therapist (SALT according to the grade of the severity of dysphonia of GRBAS scale. These are used to train and test classification and regression tree (CART. The best result is obtained using an optima l decision tree implemented by a combination of the normalized skewness and kurtosis, with an accuracy of 92.9%. It is concluded that the method can be used as an assessment tool, providing a valuable aid to the SALT during clinical evaluation of an overall pathological voice quality.
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2012-01-01
The higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity $\\mu_n=\\mathbb{E}[\\log^n(1+\\gamma_{end})]$, where $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ denotes the order of the statistics, has received relatively little attention in the literature, due in part to the intractability of its analysis. In this letter, we propose a novel and unified analysis, which is based on the moment generating function (MGF) technique, to exactly compute the HOS of the channel capacity. More precisely, our mathematical formalism can be readily applied to maximal-ratio-combining (MRC) receivers operating in generalized fading environments. The mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples focussing on the correlated generalized fading environments.
Detection of seizure and epilepsy using higher order statistics in the EMD domain.
Alam, S M Shafiul; Bhuiyan, M I H
2013-03-01
In this paper, a method using higher order statistical moments of EEG signals calculated in the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) domain is proposed for detecting seizure and epilepsy. The appropriateness of these moments in distinguishing the EEG signals is investigated through an extensive analysis in the EMD domain. An artificial neural network is employed as the classifier of the EEG signals wherein these moments are used as features. The performance of the proposed method is studied using a publicly available benchmark database for various classification cases that include healthy, interictal (seizure-free interval) and ictal (seizure), healthy and seizure, nonseizure and seizure, and interictal and ictal, and compared with that of several recent methods based on time-frequency analysis and statistical moments. It is shown that the proposed method can provide, in almost all the cases, 100% accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity, especially in the case of discriminating seizure activities from the nonseizure ones for patients with epilepsy while being much faster as compared to the time-frequency analysis-based techniques.
Automatic moving-object and background segmentation by means of higher order statistics
Neri, Alessandro; Colonnese, Stefania; Russo, Giuseppe
1997-01-01
In this paper we propose a segmentation method aimed at separating the moving objects from the background in a generic video sequence. This task, accomplished at the coder site, is intended to support some new functionalities oriented to access and decode single objects of the coded video sequence, foreseen by innovative multimedia scenarios focused during the MPEG4 work. The proposed segmentation method comprises a motion detection, that produces a preliminary segmentation map, followed by a morphological regularization that plays an important role in eliminating misclassifications due to motion estimation ambiguities, noise, etc., of the original video sequence. The motion detection is essentially based on a higher order statistics (HOS) test that employs a temporally, non-linearly filtered version of the video sequence; this choice is motivated by HOS detection properties. The regularization phase, performed by basic morphological operators, provides a local connectivity constraint on the background-foreground map. The segmentation algorithm performance is illustrated by some experimental results carried out on MPEG4 test sequences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oberer, Richard B. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2002-10-01
The current practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of fissile materials using neutrons is dominated by the ^{3}He detector. This has been the case since the mid 1980s when Fission Multiplicity Detection (FMD) was replaced with thermal well counters and neutron multiplicity counting (NMC). The thermal well counters detect neutrons by neutron capture in the ^{3}He detector subsequent to moderation. The process of detection requires from 30 to 60 μs. As will be explained in Section 3.3 the rate of detecting correlated neutrons (signal) from the same fission are independent of this time but the rate of accidental correlations (noise) are proportional to this time. The well counters are at a distinct disadvantage when there is a large source of uncorrelated neutrons present from (α, n) reactions for example. Plastic scintillating detectors, as were used in FMD, require only about 20 ns to detect neutrons from fission. One thousandth as many accidental coincidences are therefore accumulated. The major problem with the use of fast-plastic scintillation detectors, however, is that both neutrons and gamma rays are detected. The pulses from the two are indistinguishable in these detectors. For this thesis, a new technique was developed to use higher-order time correlation statistics to distinguish combinations of neutron and gamma ray detections in fast-plastic scintillation detectors. A system of analysis to describe these correlations was developed based on simple physical principles. Other sources of correlations from non-fission events are identified and integrated into the analysis developed for fission events. A number of ratios and metric are identified to determine physical properties of the source from the correlations. It is possible to determine both the quantity being measured and detection efficiency from these ratios from a single measurement without a separate calibration. To account for detector dead-time, an alternative analytical technique
Symbolic Algebra Development for Higher-Order Electron Propagator Formulation and Implementation.
Tamayo-Mendoza, Teresa; Flores-Moreno, Roberto
2014-06-10
Through the use of symbolic algebra, implemented in a program, the algebraic expression of the elements of the self-energy matrix for the electron propagator to different orders were obtained. In addition, a module for the software package Lowdin was automatically generated. Second- and third-order electron propagator results have been calculated to test the correct operation of the program. It was found that the Fortran 90 modules obtained automatically with our algorithm succeeded in calculating ionization energies with the second- and third-order electron propagator in the diagonal approximation. The strategy for the development of this symbolic algebra program is described in detail. This represents a solid starting point for the automatic derivation and implementation of higher-order electron propagator methods.
Higher-order aberration corrector for an image-forming system in a transmission electron microscope
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sawada, H., E-mail: hsawada@jeol.co.jp [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Sasaki, T. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Hosokawa, F.; Yuasa, S.; Terao, M.; Kawazoe, M.; Nakamichi, T. [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Kaneyama, T. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Y. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kimoto, K. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Suenaga, K. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Research Center for Advanced Carbon Materials, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8565 (Japan)
2010-07-15
We developed a new electron optical system with three dodecapoles to compensate for spherical aberration and six-fold astigmatism, which generally remains in a two-hexapole type corrector. In this study, we applied the corrector for image-forming system in transmission electron microscope. Compensation for higher-order aberration was demonstrated through a diffractogram tableau using a triple three-fold astigmatism field system, which was then compared with a double hexapole field system. Using this electron optical system, six-fold astigmatism was measured to be less than 0.1 mm at an acceleration voltage of 60 kV, showing that the system successfully compensated for six-fold astigmatism.
Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories
Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan
2017-10-01
Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.
Higher-order harmonics coupling in different free-electron laser codes
Giannessi, L.; Freund, H. P.; Musumeci, P.; Reiche, S.
2008-08-01
The capability for simulation of the dynamics of a free-electron laser including the higher-order harmonics in linear undulators exists in several existing codes as MEDUSA [H.P. Freund, S.G. Biedron, and S.V. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27 (2000) 243; H.P. Freund, Phys. Rev. ST-AB 8 (2005) 110701] and PERSEO [L. Giannessi, Overview of Perseo, a system for simulating FEL dynamics in Mathcad, , in: Proceedings of FEL 2006 Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, p. 91], and has been recently implemented in GENESIS 1.3 [See ]. MEDUSA and GENESIS also include the dynamics of even harmonics induced by the coupling through the betatron motion. In addition MEDUSA, which is based on a non-wiggler averaged model, is capable of simulating the generation of even harmonics in the transversally cold beam regime, i.e. when the even harmonic coupling arises from non-linear effects associated with longitudinal particle dynamics and not to a finite beam emittance. In this paper a comparison between the predictions of the codes in different conditions is given.
Higher-Order Moment Characterisation of Rogue Wave Statistics in Supercontinuum Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Simon Toft; Bang, Ole; Wetzel, Benjamin
2012-01-01
The noise characteristics of supercontinuum generation are characterized using higherorder statistical moments. Measures of skew and kurtosis, and the coefficient of variation allow quantitative identification of spectral regions dominated by rogue wave like behaviour....
SyntEyes KTC: higher order statistical eye model for developing keratoconus.
Rozema, Jos J; Rodriguez, Pablo; Ruiz Hidalgo, Irene; Navarro, Rafael; Tassignon, Marie-José; Koppen, Carina
2017-05-01
To present and validate a stochastic eye model for developing keratoconus to e.g. improve optical corrective strategies. This could be particularly useful for researchers that do not have access to original keratoconic data. The Scheimpflug tomography, ocular biometry and wavefront of 145 keratoconic right eyes were collected. These data were processed using principal component analysis for parameter reduction, followed by a multivariate Gaussian fit that produces a stochastic model for keratoconus (SyntEyes KTC). The output of this model is filtered to remove the occasional incorrect topography patterns by either an automatic or manual procedure. Finally, the output of this keratoconus model is matched to that of the original model for normal eyes using the non-corneal biometry to obtain a description of keratoconus development. The synthetic data generated by the model were found to be significantly equal to the original data (non-parametric Mann-Whitney equivalence test; 145/154 passed). The variability of the synthetic data, however, was often significantly less than that of the original data, especially for the higher order Zernike terms of corneal elevation (non-parametric Levene test; p < 0.05/154). These results remained generally the same after applying either filter procedure to remove the synthetic eyes with incorrect topographies. Interpolation between matched pairs of normal and keratoconic SyntEyes appears to provide an adequate model for keratoconus progression. The synthetic data provided by the proposed keratoconus model closely resembles actual clinical data and may be used for a range of research applications when (sufficient) real data is not available. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.
Wan, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Chunhui; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Wu
2017-11-01
This paper proposes a novel classification paradigm for hyperspectral image (HSI) using feature-level fusion and deep learning-based methodologies. Operation is carried out in three main steps. First, during a pre-processing stage, wave atoms are introduced into bilateral filter to smooth HSI, and this strategy can effectively attenuate noise and restore texture information. Meanwhile, high quality spectral-spatial features can be extracted from HSI by taking geometric closeness and photometric similarity among pixels into consideration simultaneously. Second, higher order statistics techniques are firstly introduced into hyperspectral data classification to characterize the phase correlations of spectral curves. Third, multifractal spectrum features are extracted to characterize the singularities and self-similarities of spectra shapes. To this end, a feature-level fusion is applied to the extracted spectral-spatial features along with higher order statistics and multifractal spectrum features. Finally, stacked sparse autoencoder is utilized to learn more abstract and invariant high-level features from the multiple feature sets, and then random forest classifier is employed to perform supervised fine-tuning and classification. Experimental results on two real hyperspectral data sets demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms some traditional alternatives.
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2012-12-01
The higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity μn=E[logn (1+γ end)], where n ∈ N denotes the order of the statistics, has received relatively little attention in the literature, due in part to the intractability of its analysis. In this letter, we propose a novel and unified analysis, which is based on the moment generating function (MGF) technique, to exactly compute the HOS of the channel capacity. More precisely, our mathematical formalism can be readily applied to maximal-ratio-combining (MRC) receivers operating in generalized fading environments. The mathematical formalism is illustrated by some numerical examples focusing on the correlated generalized fading environments. © 2012 IEEE.
Yilmaz, Ferkan
2014-01-01
Higher order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity provide useful information regarding the level of reliability of signal transmission at a particular rate. In this paper, we propose a novel and unified analysis, which is based on the moment-generating function (MGF) approach, to efficiently and accurately compute the HOS of the channel capacity for amplify-and-forward (AF) multihop transmission over generalized fading channels. More precisely, our easy-to-use and tractable mathematical formalism requires only the reciprocal MGFs of the transmission hop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Numerical and simulation results, which are performed to exemplify the usefulness of the proposed MGF-based analysis, are shown to be in perfect agreement. © 2013 IEEE.
Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2012-01-01
The latest research trends in the wireless communications and standardizations [1] accentuate that the higher-order statistics (HOS) of the channel capacity are necessary to achieve a reliable and trusting signal transmission. We propose in this letter a novel and unified analysis, which is based on the moment-generating function (MGF) approach, to efficiently and accurately compute the HOS of the channel capacity for amplify-and-forward multihop transmission over generalized fading channels. More precisely, our mathematical formulism is easy-to-use and tractable specifically requiring only the reciprocal MGFs of the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio distributions of the transmission hops. Numerical and simulation results, performed to exemplify the usefulness of the proposed MGF-based analysis, are shown to be in perfect agreement.
Higher-order mode-based cavity misalignment measurements at the free-electron laser FLASH
Hellert, Thorsten; Baboi, Nicoleta; Shi, Liangliang
2017-12-01
At the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser, superconducting TeV-energy superconducting linear accelerator (TESLA)-type cavities are used for the acceleration of electron bunches, generating intense free-electron laser (FEL) beams. A long rf pulse structure allows one to accelerate long bunch trains, which considerably increases the efficiency of the machine. However, intrabunch-train variations of rf parameters and misalignments of rf structures induce significant trajectory variations that may decrease the FEL performance. The accelerating cavities are housed inside cryomodules, which restricts the ability for direct alignment measurements. In order to determine the transverse cavity position, we use a method based on beam-excited dipole modes in the cavities. We have developed an efficient measurement and signal processing routine and present its application to multiple accelerating modules at FLASH. The measured rms cavity offset agrees with the specification of the TESLA modules. For the first time, the tilt of a TESLA cavity inside a cryomodule is measured. The preliminary result agrees well with the ratio between the offset and angle dependence of the dipole mode which we calculated with eigenmode simulations.
Mahapatra, Dwarikanath; Schueffler, Peter; Tielbeek, Jeroen A W; Buhmann, Joachim M; Vos, Franciscus M
2013-10-01
Increasing incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) in the Western world has made its accurate diagnosis an important medical challenge. The current reference standard for diagnosis, colonoscopy, is time-consuming and invasive while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as the preferred noninvasive procedure over colonoscopy. Current MRI approaches assess rate of contrast enhancement and bowel wall thickness, and rely on extensive manual segmentation for accurate analysis. We propose a supervised learning method for the identification and localization of regions in abdominal magnetic resonance images that have been affected by CD. Low-level features like intensity and texture are used with shape asymmetry information to distinguish between diseased and normal regions. Particular emphasis is laid on a novel entropy-based shape asymmetry method and higher-order statistics like skewness and kurtosis. Multi-scale feature extraction renders the method robust. Experiments on real patient data show that our features achieve a high level of accuracy and perform better than two competing methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kazunobu Kondo
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We conduct an objective analysis on musical noise generated by two methods of integrating microphone array signal processing and spectral subtraction. To obtain better noise reduction, methods of integrating microphone array signal processing and nonlinear signal processing have been researched. However, nonlinear signal processing often generates musical noise. Since such musical noise causes discomfort to users, it is desirable that musical noise is mitigated. Moreover, it has been recently reported that higher-order statistics are strongly related to the amount of musical noise generated. This implies that it is possible to optimize the integration method from the viewpoint of not only noise reduction performance but also the amount of musical noise generated. Thus, we analyze the simplest methods of integration, that is, the delay-and-sum beamformer and spectral subtraction, and fully clarify the features of musical noise generated by each method. As a result, it is clarified that a specific structure of integration is preferable from the viewpoint of the amount of generated musical noise. The validity of the analysis is shown via a computer simulation and a subjective evaluation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Purnamawati
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The aims of this research were to: (1 find out the response of students to metacognition-based industrial electronic learning in growing the ability of Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS in vocational secondary schools, (2 describe the learning outcomes of the students in the field of industrial electronics based on metacognition with direct learning method, and (3 generate the effectiveness of metacognition-based industrial electronics learning in growing HOTS capabilities in vocational secondary schools. The research was Quasi-experimental type, while the research design used Pretest-Posttest Control Design with the research subject was the students of Public Vocational Secondary Schools in Makassar City in the field of Industrial Electronics Expertise. Data collection techniques were conducted by questionnaire and learning outcomes test. The result showed that: (1 the students’ response of experimental class was higher that control class, (2 the learning outcomes of experimental class was higher than control class, and (3 the use of metacognition-based tools for industrial electronics learning was effective. This learning method could grow the HOTS capabilities of the students in solving the problems of industrial electronics circuit.
I. Arismendi; S. L. Johnson; J. B. Dunham
2015-01-01
Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical...
Nakano, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Hirata, So; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi
2017-11-05
We have implemented a linear-scaling divide-and-conquer (DC)-based higher-order coupled-cluster (CC) and Møller-Plesset perturbation theories (MPPT) as well as their combinations automatically by means of the tensor contraction engine, which is a computerized symbolic algebra system. The DC-based energy expressions of the standard CC and MPPT methods and the CC methods augmented with a perturbation correction were proposed for up to high excitation orders [e.g., CCSDTQ, MP4, and CCSD(2)TQ ]. The numerical assessment for hydrogen halide chains, polyene chains, and first coordination sphere (C1) model of photoactive yellow protein has revealed that the DC-based correlation methods provide reliable correlation energies with significantly less computational cost than that of the conventional implementations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Barak, Moshe
2005-01-01
This research explored learning and thinking processes enhanced by integrating computers in secondary schools electronics projects. Electronics studies provide a sophisticated learning environment, where computers are simultaneously part of the subject matter learned (Technology Education), and a means for enhancing teaching and learning…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ernst, Erik
2003-01-01
This paper introduces the notion of higher-order inheritance hierarchies. They are useful because they provide well-known benefits of object-orientation at the level of entire hierarchies-benefits which are not available with current approaches. Three facets must be adressed: First, it must...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, P.; Baboi, N.; Jones, R.M.; Eddy, N.
2012-11-01
Beam-excited higher order modes (HOMs) can provide remote diagnostics information of the beam position and cavity misalignment. In this paper we report on recent studies on the resolution with specially selected series of modes with custom-built electronics. This constitutes the first report of measurements of these cavities in which we obtained a resolution of 20 micron in beam offset. Details of the setup of the electronics and HOM measurements are provided.
Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason
2015-01-01
Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical moments (skewness and kurtosis) to examine potential changes of empirical distributions at decadal extents. Second, we adapt a statistical procedure combining a non-metric multidimensional scaling technique and higher density region plots to detect potentially anomalous years. We illustrate the use of these approaches by examining long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-influenced streams. In particular, we contrast predictions about thermal regime responses to changing climates and human-related water uses. Using these methods, we effectively diagnose years with unusual thermal variability and patterns in variability through time, as well as spatial variability linked to regional and local factors that influence stream temperature. Our findings highlight the complexity of responses of thermal regimes of streams and reveal their differential vulnerability to climate warming and human-related water uses. The two approaches presented here can be applied with a variety of other continuous phenomena to address historical changes, extreme events, and their associated ecological responses.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Benedetto
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on an innovative hypothesis test for discrimination of wireless mobile channels based on higher order statistics to possibly start-up coherent combining. We have devised a new testing procedure, namely the Rakeness test, that statistically measures how much the series under investigation (amplitude samples of matched filter receiver's output fits Rice vs. non-Rice models. This is equivalent to discriminate between the cases of a channel with one single dominant path (strong propagation, or with few dominant paths (weak propagation. Then, mathematical expressions for the bias and variance of the new testing variable are derived, by a 3-D reduced Taylor's expansion up to the second order. The achieved results, obtained throughout theory and simulations, evidence the robustness of this innovative test. Our test can hence be used as a preliminary signal processing method to decide if simpler choices (i.e. matched filters or cumbersome coherent combining strategies (i.e. Rake receivers can be effectively implemented at the receiver's side.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Israelsen, Stine Møller
This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others....... The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Datz, S.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Dittner, P.F.; Miller, P.D.; Biggerstaff, J.A.
1977-05-16
The stopping power in )111) Au for channeling ions which have not changed charge has been measured for bare nuclei for Z = 1 - 5 at 3.5 MeV/amu, and for ions bearing 0, 1, and 2 bound electrons for Z/sub 1/ = 1 - 9 at 2 MeV/amu. An effective screening of approx.0.9e per electron is obtained. For the bare nculei, deviations from simple Z/sub 1/ /sup 2/ scaling are reported. At 2 MeV/amu an increase of 3.5% in S/Z/sub 1/ /sup 2/ is seen from H to He, 3% from He to Li; but no differences are seen from Z/sub 1/ = 5 - 9. However, at 3.5-MeV/amu deviations of as much as 20% per Z/sub 1/ are observed.
Higher-Order Program Generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rhiger, Morten
This dissertation addresses the challenges of embedding programming languages, specializing generic programs to specific parameters, and generating specialized instances of programs directly as executable code. Our main tools are higher-order programming techniques and automatic program generation...... infrastructure of higher-order functions, types, and modules. Furthermore, it has been observed that embedded programs can be restricted to those having simple types using a technique called ``phantom types''. We prove, using an idealized higher-order language, that such an embedding is sound (i.e., when all...... to the disproportion between general programs that can be executed in several contexts and their specialized counterparts that can be executed efficiently. However, stand-alone partial evaluation is usually too costly when a program must be specialized at run time. We introduce a collection of byte-code combinators...
Adaptive approximation of higher order posterior statistics
Lee, Wonjung
2014-02-01
Filtering is an approach for incorporating observed data into time-evolving systems. Instead of a family of Dirac delta masses that is widely used in Monte Carlo methods, we here use the Wiener chaos expansion for the parametrization of the conditioned probability distribution to solve the nonlinear filtering problem. The Wiener chaos expansion is not the best method for uncertainty propagation without observations. Nevertheless, the projection of the system variables in a fixed polynomial basis spanning the probability space might be a competitive representation in the presence of relatively frequent observations because the Wiener chaos approach not only leads to an accurate and efficient prediction for short time uncertainty quantification, but it also allows to apply several data assimilation methods that can be used to yield a better approximate filtering solution. The aim of the present paper is to investigate this hypothesis. We answer in the affirmative for the (stochastic) Lorenz-63 system based on numerical simulations in which the uncertainty quantification method and the data assimilation method are adaptively selected by whether the dynamics is driven by Brownian motion and the near-Gaussianity of the measure to be updated, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Lio, Guillaume; Boulinguez, Philippe
2013-02-15
A mandatory assumption in blind source separation (BSS) of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) is that the mixing matrix remains invariant, i.e., that the sources, electrodes and geometry of the head do not change during the experiment. Actually, this is not often the case. For instance, it is common that some electrodes slightly move during EEG recording. This issue is even more critical for group independent component analysis (gICA), a method of growing interest, in which only one mixing matrix is estimated for several subjects. Indeed, because of interindividual anatomo-functional variability, this method violates the mandatory principle of invariance. Here, using simulated (experiments 1 and 2) and real (experiment 3) EEG data, we test how eleven current BSS algorithms undergo distortions of the mixing matrix. We show that this usual kind of perturbation creates non-Gaussian features that are virtually added to all sources, impairing the estimation of real higher order statistics (HOS) features of the actual sources by HOS algorithms (e.g., Ext-INFOMAX, FASTICA). HOS-based methods are likely to identify more components (with similar properties) than actual neurological sources, a problem frequently encountered by BSS users. In practice, the quality of the recovered signal and the efficiency of subsequent source localization are substantially impaired. Performing dimensionality reduction before applying HOS-based BSS does not seem to be a safe strategy to circumvent the problem. Second order statistics (SOS)-based BSS methods belonging to the less popular SOBI family class are much less sensitive to this bias. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nonlocal higher order evolution equations
Rossi, Julio D.
2010-06-01
In this article, we study the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the nonlocal operator ut(x, t)1/4(-1)n-1 (J*Id -1)n (u(x, t)), x ∈ ℝN, which is the nonlocal analogous to the higher order local evolution equation vt(-1)n-1(Δ)nv. We prove that the solutions of the nonlocal problem converge to the solution of the higher order problem with the right-hand side given by powers of the Laplacian when the kernel J is rescaled in an appropriate way. Moreover, we prove that solutions to both equations have the same asymptotic decay rate as t goes to infinity. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Resilience and Higher Order Thinking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioan Fazey
2010-09-01
Full Text Available To appreciate, understand, and tackle chronic global social and environmental problems, greater appreciation of the importance of higher order thinking is required. Such thinking includes personal epistemological beliefs (PEBs, i.e., the beliefs people hold about the nature of knowledge and how something is known. These beliefs have profound implications for the way individuals relate to each other and the world, such as how people understand complex social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking is an approach to environmental stewardship that includes a number of interrelated concepts and has strong foundations in systemic ways of thinking. This paper (1 summarizes a review of educational psychology literature on PEBs, (2 explains why resilience thinking has potential to facilitate development of more sophisticated PEBs, (3 describes an example of a module designed to teach resilience thinking to undergraduate students in ways conducive to influencing PEBs, and (4 discusses a pilot study that evaluates the module's impact. Theoretical and preliminary evidence from the pilot evaluation suggests that resilience thinking which is underpinned by systems thinking has considerable potential to influence the development of more sophisticated PEBs. To be effective, however, careful consideration of how resilience thinking is taught is required. Finding ways to encourage students to take greater responsibility for their own learning and ensuring close alignment between assessment and desired learning outcomes are particularly important.
Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.
2016-01-01
We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....
Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk
2015-01-01
A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, P. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Baboi, N. [DESY; Eddy, N. [Fermilab; Fellenz, B. [Fermilab; Jones, R. M. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Lorbeer, B. [DESY; Wamsat, T. [DESY; Wendt, M. [Fermilab
2012-08-01
Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to define a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 {\\mu}m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 {\\mu}m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)
2012-08-15
Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Appel, Claus; van Oostrom, Vincent; Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2010-01-01
We show that, contrary to the situation in first-order term rewriting, almost none of the usual properties of rewriting are modular for higher-order rewriting, irrespective of the higher-order rewriting format. We show that for the particular format of simply typed applicative term rewriting syst...
Static Complexity Analysis of Higher Order Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Avery, James Emil; Kristiansen, Lars; Moyen, Jean-Yves
2009-01-01
The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms.......The overall goal of the research presented in this paper is to find^Mautomatic methods for static complexity analysis of higher order^Mprograms....
Zhang, P; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Jones, R M; Lorbeer, B; Wamsat, T; Wendt, M
2012-01-01
Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to define a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 micron accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth d...
Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report
Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...
Higher-order techniques in computational electromagnetics
Graglia, Roberto D
2016-01-01
Higher-Order Techniques in Computational Electromagnetics explains 'high-order' techniques that can significantly improve the accuracy, computational cost, and reliability of computational techniques for high-frequency electromagnetics, such as antennas, microwave devices and radar scattering applications.
HIGHER ORDER THINKING IN TEACHING GRAMMAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Citra Dewi
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper discussed about how to enhance students’ higher order thinking that should be done by teacher in teaching grammar. Usually teaching grammar was boring and has the same way to learn like change the pattern of sentence into positive, negative and introgative while the students’ need more various way to develop their thinking. The outcome of students’ competence in grammar sometimes not sufficient enough when the students’ occured some test international standart like Test of English Foreign Language, International English Language Testing. Whereas in TOEFL test it needed higher order thinking answer, so teacher should develop students’ higher order thingking in daily teaching grammar in order to make the students’ enhance their thinking are higher. The method was used in this paper by using field study based on the experience of teaching grammar. It can be shown by students’ toefl score was less in stucture and written expression. The result of this paper was after teacher gave some treatments to enhance students’ higher order thinking in teaching grammar, the students’ toefl scores are sufficient enough as a part of stucture and written expression. It can concluded that it needed some strategies to enhancce students higher order thinking by teaching grammar it can make students’ higher toefl score. Teachers should be creative and inovative to teach the students’ started from giving the students’ question or test in teaching grammar.
Higher-Order Minimal Functional Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jones, Neil D; Rosendahl, Mads
1994-01-01
We present a minimal function graph semantics for a higher-order functional language with applicative evaluation order. The semantics captures the intermediate calls performed during the evaluation of a program. This information may be used in abstract interpretation as a basis for proving...
Higher Order Thinking in the Dance Studio
Moffett, Ann-Thomas
2012-01-01
The author identifies higher order thinking as an essential component of dance training for students of all ages and abilities. Weaving together insights from interviews with experts in the field of dance education with practical pedagogical applications within an Improvisation and Composition class for talented and gifted youth, this article…
Extending CASL with Higher-order Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haxthausen, Anne; Krieg-Brückner, Bernd; Mossakowski, Till
1998-01-01
We present a proposal for the design of the higher-order extension of CASL. For each design step, we have tried to find the best of several possible alternatives, give a motivation for the preferred alternative and argue why the other alternatives are not taken. This note discusses function space...
Higher-Order Resonances in Dynamical Systems
Tuwankotta, J.M.
2002-01-01
This thesis is a collection of studies on higher-order resonances in an important class of dynamical systems called coupled oscillators systems. After giving an overview of the mathematical background, we start in Chapter 1 by presenting a study on resonances in two degrees of freedom, autonomous,
Higher-Order Components for Grid Programming
Dünnweber, Jan
2009-01-01
Higher-Order Components were developed within the CoreGRID European Network of Excellence and have become an optional extension of the popular Globus middleware. This book provides the reader with hands-on experience, describing a collection of example applications from various fields of science and engineering, including biology and physics.
Frontiers of higher order fuzzy sets
Tahayori, Hooman
2015-01-01
Frontiers of Higher Order Fuzzy Sets, strives to improve the theoretical aspects of general and Interval Type-2 fuzzy sets and provides a unified representation theorem for higher order fuzzy sets. Moreover, the book elaborates on the concept of gradual elements and their integration with the higher order fuzzy sets. This book also introduces new frameworks for information granulation based on general T2FSs, IT2FSs, Gradual elements, Shadowed sets and rough sets. In particular, the properties and characteristics of the new proposed frameworks are studied. Such new frameworks are shown to be more capable to be exploited in real applications. Higher order fuzzy sets that are the result of the integration of general T2FSs, IT2FSs, gradual elements, shadowed sets and rough sets will be shown to be suitable to be applied in the fields of bioinformatics, business, management, ambient intelligence, medicine, cloud computing and smart grids. Presents new variations of fuzzy set frameworks and new areas of applicabili...
Sophisticated Thinking: Higher Order Thinking Skills
Elena Tikhonova; Natalia Kudinova
2015-01-01
The information-based society determines that the key factor to achieve success is the development of sophisticated thinking. That said, the thinking process cannot be just a mere imitation of cognitive work, since the digital age requires the authentic skills of working with a flow of information that is being constantly updated. This paper deals with the last stage of the study devoted to the development of sophisticated thinking. It focuses on the enhancement of higher order thinking sk...
Higher-order aberrations and anisometropia.
Hartwig, Andreas; Atchison, David A; Radhakrishnan, Hema
2013-01-01
Myopia incidence is increasing around the world. Myopization is considered to be caused by a variety of factors. One consideration is whether higher-order aberrations (HOA) influence myopization. More knowledge of optics in anisometropic eyes might give further insight into the development of refractive error. To analyze the possible influence of HOA on refractive error development, we compared HOA between anisometropes and isometropes. We analyzed HOA up to the 4th order for both eyes of 20 anisometropes (mean age: 43 ± 17 years) and 20 isometropes (mean age: 33 ± 17 years). HOA were measured with the Shack-Hartman i.Profiler (Carl Zeiss, Germany) and were recalculated for a 4 mm pupil. Mean spherical equivalent (MSE) was based on the subjective refraction. Anisometropia was defined as ≥1 D interocular difference in MSE. The mean absolute differences between right and left eyes in spherical equivalent were 0.28 ± 0.21 D in the isometropic group and 2.81 ± 2.04 D in the anisometropic group. Interocular differences in HOA were compared with the interocular difference in MSE using correlations. For isometropes oblique trefoil, vertical coma, horizontal coma and spherical aberration showed significant correlations between the two eyes. In anisometropes, all analyzed higher-order aberrations correlated significantly between the two eyes except oblique secondary astigmatism and secondary astigmatism. When analyzing anisometropes and isometropes separately, no significant correlations were found between interocular differences of higher-order aberrations and MSE. For isometropes and anisometropes combined, tetrafoil correlated significantly with MSE in left eyes. The present study could not show that interocular differences of higher-order aberrations increase with increasing interocular difference in MSE.
Automatic code generator for higher order integrators
Mushtaq, Asif; Olaussen, Kåre
2014-05-01
Some explicit algorithms for higher order symplectic integration of a large class of Hamilton's equations have recently been discussed by Mushtaq et al. Here we present a Python program for automatic numerical implementation of these algorithms for a given Hamiltonian, both for double precision and multiprecision computations. We provide examples of how to use this program, and illustrate behavior of both the code generator and the generated solver module(s).
Higher order integral stark-type conjectures
Emmons, Caleb J.
2006-01-01
The Stark conjectures attempt to capture the leading terms at s=0 of the S-incomplete Artin L-functions attached to an abelian extension of number fields as the image under a regulator map of an evaluator built out of S-units. We introduce a new conjecture of Popescu, which extends Rubin's higher order of vanishing Stark-type conjecture by removing the hypothesis that S contains splitting primes. We prove that the evaluator attached to an extension K/k can be written as a linear combina...
Nonconservative higher-order hydrodynamic modulation instability
Kimmoun, O.; Hsu, H. C.; Kibler, B.; Chabchoub, A.
2017-08-01
The modulation instability (MI) is a universal mechanism that is responsible for the disintegration of weakly nonlinear narrow-banded wave fields and the emergence of localized extreme events in dispersive media. The instability dynamics is naturally triggered, when unstable energy sidebands located around the main energy peak are excited and then follow an exponential growth law. As a consequence of four wave mixing effect, these primary sidebands generate an infinite number of additional sidebands, forming a triangular sideband cascade. After saturation, it is expected that the system experiences a return to initial conditions followed by a spectral recurrence dynamics. Much complex nonlinear wave field motion is expected, when the secondary or successive sideband pair that is created is also located in the finite instability gain range around the main carrier frequency peak. This latter process is referred to as higher-order MI. We report a numerical and experimental study that confirms observation of higher-order MI dynamics in water waves. Furthermore, we show that the presence of weak dissipation may counterintuitively enhance wave focusing in the second recurrent cycle of wave amplification. The interdisciplinary weakly nonlinear approach in addressing the evolution of unstable nonlinear waves dynamics may find significant resonance in other nonlinear dispersive media in physics, such as optics, solids, superfluids, and plasma.
Higher order cumulants in colorless partonic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cherif, S. [Sciences and Technologies Department, University of Ghardaia, Ghardaia, Algiers (Algeria); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M. A. A. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Taiz University in Turba, Taiz (Yemen); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria); Ladrem, M., E-mail: mladrem@yahoo.fr [Department of Physics, College of Science, Taibah University Al-Madinah Al-Mounawwarah KSA (Saudi Arabia); Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathématiques Appliquées (LPMA), ENS-Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Algiers (Algeria)
2016-06-10
Any physical system considered to study the QCD deconfinement phase transition certainly has a finite volume, so the finite size effects are inevitably present. This renders the location of the phase transition and the determination of its order as an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the colorless QCD deconfinement transition point in finite volume T{sub 0}(V), a new approach based on the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the ℒ{sub m,n}-Method is used. We have shown that both cumulants of higher order and their ratios, associated to the thermodynamical fluctuations of the order parameter, in QCD deconfinement phase transition behave in a particular enough way revealing pronounced oscillations in the transition region. The sign structure and the oscillatory behavior of these in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition point might be a sensitive probe and may allow one to elucidate their relation to the QCD phase transition point. In the context of our model, we have shown that the finite volume transition point is always associated to the appearance of a particular point in whole higher order cumulants under consideration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John W. Lewellen
2001-04-01
Full Text Available Traditional photocathode rf gun design is based around the use of TM_{0,1,0}-mode cavities. This is typically done in the interest of obtaining the highest possible gradient per unit supplied rf power and for historical reasons. In a multicell, aperture-coupled photoinjector, however, the gun as a whole is produced from strongly coupled cavities oscillating in a π mode. This design requires very careful preparation and tuning, as the field balance and resonant frequencies are easily disturbed. Side-coupled designs are often avoided because of the dipole modes introduced into the cavity fields. This paper proposes the use of a single higher-order mode rf cavity in order to generate the desired on-axis fields. It is shown that the field experienced by a beam in a higher-order mode rf gun is initially very similar to traditional 1.5- or 2.5-cell π-mode gun fields, and projected performance in terms of beam quality is also comparable. The new design has the advantages of much greater ease of fabrication, immunity from coupled-cell effects, and simpler tuning procedures. Because of the gun geometry, the possibility also exists for improved temperature stabilization and cooling for high duty-cycle applications.
Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics
Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene
2002-01-01
The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.
Reduction of background by higher order statistics with NMIS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mattingly, jk; Mullens, ja; Mihalczo, jt
2000-07-11
Measurements that accumulate the rate of real coincidence between multiplets of detection events (groupings of arbitrary order, e.g., one event, two events, three events, etc.) can yield spurious results if background events arise from processes (e.g., spontaneous fission or neutron spallation) that themselves produce correlated multiplets. This is particularly true if this background varies significantly over time or from one location to another, as it often does in operating facilities, i.e., those not specifically designed to support experimental radiation measurements but that instead rely upon the support of precise radiation measurements for, e.g., NMC and A. In particular, both the quantity and location of radioactive material in weapons facilities changes frequently and unpredictably, and so the background due to the presence (or absence) of this material is completely out of the control of the radiation measurement analyst. Furthermore, numerous Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) measurements have revealed that background often contains mutually correlated events even in the complete absence of material (e.g., {sup 240}Pu) with a significant spontaneous fission rate. The technique subsequently described removes the effects of such self-correlated background from active NMIS measurements. It could be adapted to other active radiation measurements.
Matrix algebra for higher order moments
Meijer, Erik
2005-01-01
A large part of statistics is devoted to the estimation of models from the sample covariance matrix. The development of the statistical theory and estimators has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of special matrices, such as the commutation matrix and the duplication matrix, and the
Statistics of Electron Avalanches and Streamers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Ficker
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We have studied the severe systematic deviations of populations of electron avalanches from the Furry distribution, which has been held to be the statistical law corresponding to them, and a possible explanation has been sought. A new theoretical concept based on fractal avalanche multiplication has been proposed and is shown to be a convenient candidate for explaining these deviations from Furry statistics.
Transversely isotropic higher-order averaged structure tensors
Hashlamoun, Kotaybah; Federico, Salvatore
2017-08-01
For composites or biological tissues reinforced by statistically oriented fibres, a probability distribution function is often used to describe the orientation of the fibres. The overall effect of the fibres on the material response is accounted for by evaluating averaging integrals over all possible directions in space. The directional average of the structure tensor (tensor product of the unit vector describing the fibre direction by itself) is of high significance. Higher-order averaged structure tensors feature in several models and carry similarly important information. However, their evaluation has a quite high computational cost. This work proposes to introduce mathematical techniques to minimise the computational cost associated with the evaluation of higher-order averaged structure tensors, for the case of a transversely isotropic probability distribution of orientation. A component expression is first introduced, using which a general tensor expression is obtained, in terms of an orthonormal basis in which one of the vectors coincides with the axis of symmetry of transverse isotropy. Then, a higher-order transversely isotropic averaged structure tensor is written in an appropriate basis, constructed starting from the basis of the space of second-order transversely isotropic tensors, which is constituted by the structure tensor and its complement to the identity.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Notaros, Branislav M; Ilic, Milan M; Djordjevic, Miroslav
2004-01-01
...), method of moments (MoM), and physical optics (PO). The simulations combine higher order geometrical modeling and higher order field/current modeling, which is referred to as double-higher-order modeling...
Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics
Kessler, G.C.; Markevich, Andrei
The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the
Electronic Repository of Russian Historical Statistics
Tykhonov, Vyacheslav; Kessler, Gijs; Markevich, Andrei; de Vries, Jerry
2014-01-01
The Electronic Repository for Russian Historical Statistics brings together data extracted from various published and unpublished sources in one place. Its principal focus is Russian economic and social history of the last three centuries (18th-21st). The repository caters to the needs of the
Systems with Higher-Order Modulation
Seimetz, Matthias
With the objective of reducing costs per information bit in optical communication networks, per fibre capacities and optical transparent transmission lengths have been stepped up by the introduction of new technology in recent years. The innovation of the erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) at the beginning of the nineties facilitated long distances to be bridged without electro-optical conversion. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology allowed a lot of wavelength channels to be simultaneously transmitted over one fibre and to be amplified by one EDFA with high bandwidth, offering a huge network capacity. At this time, the modulation format of choice was the simple "on-off keying" (OOK), and there was no need for increasing spectral efficiency. The internet traffic growth during the nineties required increasing transmission rates. In that context, the transmission impairments of the optical fibre had to be counteracted and the application of differential binary phased shift keying (DBPSK) became an issue, providing for a higher robustness against nonlinear effects [1]. Moreover, the transmission behaviour of binary intensity modulation was optimized by using alternative optical pulse shapes such as return to zero (RZ) and by employing schemes with auxiliary phase coding, such as optical duobinary, which exhibits a higher tolerance against chromatic dispersion (CD). The capacity-distance product was further enhanced by applying optical dispersion compensation, Raman amplification and advanced optical fibres, as well as through electronic means, such as forward error correction (FEC) and the adaptive compensation of CD and polarization mode dispersion (PMD).
Introductory statistical mechanics for electron storage rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jowett, J.M.
1986-07-01
These lectures introduce the beam dynamics of electron-positron storage rings with particular emphasis on the effects due to synchrotron radiation. They differ from most other introductions in their systematic use of the physical principles and mathematical techniques of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of fluctuating dynamical systems. A self-contained exposition of the necessary topics from this field is included. Throughout the development, a Hamiltonian description of the effects of the externally applied fields is maintained in order to preserve the links with other lectures on beam dynamics and to show clearly the extent to which electron dynamics in non-Hamiltonian. The statistical mechanical framework is extended to a discussion of the conceptual foundations of the treatment of collective effects through the Vlasov equation.
A linear support higher-order tensor machine for classification.
Hao, Zhifeng; He, Lifang; Chen, Bingqian; Yang, Xiaowei
2013-07-01
There has been growing interest in developing more effective learning machines for tensor classification. At present, most of the existing learning machines, such as support tensor machine (STM), involve nonconvex optimization problems and need to resort to iterative techniques. Obviously, it is very time-consuming and may suffer from local minima. In order to overcome these two shortcomings, in this paper, we present a novel linear support higher-order tensor machine (SHTM) which integrates the merits of linear C-support vector machine (C-SVM) and tensor rank-one decomposition. Theoretically, SHTM is an extension of the linear C-SVM to tensor patterns. When the input patterns are vectors, SHTM degenerates into the standard C-SVM. A set of experiments is conducted on nine second-order face recognition datasets and three third-order gait recognition datasets to illustrate the performance of the proposed SHTM. The statistic test shows that compared with STM and C-SVM with the RBF kernel, SHTM provides significant performance gain in terms of test accuracy and training speed, especially in the case of higher-order tensors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.Kostrobii
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Nonequilibrium properties of an inhomogeneous electron gas are studied using the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator by D.N. Zubarev. Generalized transport equations for the mean values of inhomogeneous operators of the electron number density, momentum density, and total energy density for weakly and strongly nonequilibrium states are obtained. We derive a chain of equations for the Green's functions, which connects commutative time-dependent Green's functions "density-density", "momentum-momentum", "enthalpy-enthalpy" with reduced Green's functions of the generalized transport coefficients and with Green's functions for higher order memory kernels in the case of a weakly nonequilibrium spatially inhomogeneous electron gas.
Conceptualizing and Assessing Higher-Order Thinking in Reading
Afflerbach, Peter; Cho, Byeong-Young; Kim, Jong-Yun
2015-01-01
Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students' higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a…
RNA Seeds Higher-Order Assembly of FUS Protein
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacob C. Schwartz
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The abundant nuclear RNA binding protein FUS binds the C-terminal domain (CTD of RNA polymerase II in an RNA-dependent manner, affecting Ser2 phosphorylation and transcription. Here, we examine the mechanism of this process and find that RNA binding nucleates the formation of higher-order FUS ribonucleoprotein assemblies that bind the CTD. Both the low-complexity domain and the arginine-glycine rich domain of FUS contribute to assembly. The assemblies appear fibrous by electron microscopy and have characteristics of β zipper structures. These results support the emerging view that the pathologic protein aggregation seen in neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may occur via the exaggeration of functionally important assemblies of RNA binding proteins.
Statistical process control for electron beam monitoring.
López-Tarjuelo, Juan; Luquero-Llopis, Naika; García-Mollá, Rafael; Quirós-Higueras, Juan David; Bouché-Babiloni, Ana; Juan-Senabre, Xavier Jordi; de Marco-Blancas, Noelia; Ferrer-Albiach, Carlos; Santos-Serra, Agustín
2015-07-01
To assess the electron beam monitoring statistical process control (SPC) in linear accelerator (linac) daily quality control. We present a long-term record of our measurements and evaluate which SPC-led conditions are feasible for maintaining control. We retrieved our linac beam calibration, symmetry, and flatness daily records for all electron beam energies from January 2008 to December 2013, and retrospectively studied how SPC could have been applied and which of its features could be used in the future. A set of adjustment interventions designed to maintain these parameters under control was also simulated. All phase I data was under control. The dose plots were characterized by rising trends followed by steep drops caused by our attempts to re-center the linac beam calibration. Where flatness and symmetry trends were detected they were less-well defined. The process capability ratios ranged from 1.6 to 9.3 at a 2% specification level. Simulated interventions ranged from 2% to 34% of the total number of measurement sessions. We also noted that if prospective SPC had been applied it would have met quality control specifications. SPC can be used to assess the inherent variability of our electron beam monitoring system. It can also indicate whether a process is capable of maintaining electron parameters under control with respect to established specifications by using a daily checking device, but this is not practical unless a method to establish direct feedback from the device to the linac can be devised. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Higher-order phase transitions on financial markets
Kasprzak, A.; Kutner, R.; Perelló, J.; Masoliver, J.
2010-08-01
Statistical and thermodynamic properties of the anomalous multifractal structure of random interevent (or intertransaction) times were thoroughly studied by using the extended continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism of Montroll, Weiss, Scher, and Lax. Although this formalism is quite general (and can be applied to any interhuman communication with nontrivial priority), we consider it in the context of a financial market where heterogeneous agent activities can occur within a wide spectrum of time scales. As the main general consequence, we found (by additionally using the Saddle-Point Approximation) the scaling or power-dependent form of the partition function, Z(q'). It diverges for any negative scaling powers q' (which justifies the name anomalous) while for positive ones it shows the scaling with the general exponent τ(q'). This exponent is the nonanalytic (singular) or noninteger power of q', which is one of the pilar of higher-order phase transitions. In definition of the partition function we used the pausing-time distribution (PTD) as the central one, which takes the form of convolution (or superstatistics used, e.g. for describing turbulence as well as the financial market). Its integral kernel is given by the stretched exponential distribution (often used in disordered systems). This kernel extends both the exponential distribution assumed in the original version of the CTRW formalism (for description of the transient photocurrent measured in amorphous glassy material) as well as the Gaussian one sometimes used in this context (e.g. for diffusion of hydrogen in amorphous metals or for aging effects in glasses). Our most important finding is the third- and higher-order phase transitions, which can be roughly interpreted as transitions between the phase where high frequency trading is most visible and the phase defined by low frequency trading. The specific order of the phase transition directly depends upon the shape exponent α defining the stretched
Lower Bounds for Higher-Order Convex Optimization
Agarwal, Naman; Hazan, Elad
2017-01-01
State-of-the-art methods in convex and non-convex optimization employ higher-order derivative information, either implicitly or explicitly. We explore the limitations of higher-order optimization and prove that even for convex optimization, a polynomial dependence on the approximation guarantee and higher-order smoothness parameters is necessary. As a special case, we show Nesterov's accelerated cubic regularization method to be nearly tight.
Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems
Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso
2012-07-01
The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.
Higher Order Aberration and Astigmatism in Children with Hyperopic Amblyopia.
Choi, Seung Kwon; Chang, Ji Woong
2016-02-01
To investigate the changes in corneal higher-order aberration (HOA) during amblyopia treatment and the correlation between HOA and astigmatism in hyperopic amblyopia children. In this retrospective study, a total of 72 eyes from 72 patients ranging in age from 38 to 161 months were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of astigmatism. Corneal HOA was measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between HOA and astigmatism. A total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, 37 of which were classified as belonging to the higher astigmatism group, while 35 were assigned to the lower astigmatism group. There was a statistically significant difference in success rate between the higher and lower astigmatism groups. In both groups, all corneal HOAs were significantly reduced during amblyopia treatment. When comparing the two groups, a significant difference in coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up was detected (p = 0.043). In the Pearson correlation test, coma HOA at the 12-month follow-up demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with astigmatism and a stronger correlation with astigmatism in the higher astigmatism group than in the lower astigmatism group (coefficient values, 0.383 and 0.284 as well as p = 0.021 and p = 0.038, respectively). HOA, particularly coma HOA, correlated with astigmatism and could exert effects in cases involving hyperopic amblyopia.
The Role of Formative Feedback in Promoting Higher Order ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DrNneka
Key Words: classroom environment, formative assessment, formative feedback, higher order, thinking. ... plays in promoting higher order thinking in classrooms, though the majority of the studies in the literature on ..... characteristics; novelty, complexity, and creativity, were identified and measured on a. 7-point scale in a ...
A Seeming Problem for Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness
Mulder, J.M.
Higher-order theories account for intransitive consciousness by using the transitive notion ‘awareness-of.’ I argue that this notion implies a form of ‘seeming’ that the higher-order approach requires, yet cannot account for. I show that, if the relevant kind of seeming is declared to be present in
Characteristic bisimulation for higher-order session processes
Kouzapas, Dimitrios; Pérez, Jorge A.; Yoshida, Nobuko
For higher-order (process) languages, characterising contextual equivalence is a long-standing issue. In the setting of a higher-order ππ -calculus with session types, we develop characteristic bisimilarity, a typed bisimilarity which fully characterises contextual equivalence. To our knowledge,
Higher order comoments of multifactor models and asset allocation
Boudt, K.M.R.; Lu, W.; Peeters, B.
2015-01-01
Accurate estimates of the higher order comoments are needed in asset allocation. We derive explicit formulas for the higher order comoments under the assumption that stock returns are generated by a multifactor model and show that this assumption leads to a substantial reduction in the number of
Higher-order Gaussian kernel in bootstrap boosting algorithm ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The bootstrap boosting algorithm is a bias reduction scheme. The adoption of higher-order Gaussian kernel in a bootstrap boosting algorithm in kernel density estimation was investigated. The algorithm used the higher-order. Gaussian kernel instead of the regular fixed kernels. A comparison of the scheme with existing ...
Higher order factors of personality: do they exist?
Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R; de Vries, Reinout E
2009-05-01
Scales that measure the Big Five personality factors are often substantially intercorrelated. These correlations are sometimes interpreted as implying the existence of two higher order factors of personality. The authors show that correlations between measures of broad personality factors do not necessarily imply the existence of higher order factors and might instead be due to variables that represent same-signed blends of orthogonal factors. Therefore, the hypotheses of higher order factors and blended variables can only be tested with data on lower level personality variables that define the personality factors. The authors compared the higher order factor model and the blended variable model in three participant samples using the Big Five Aspect Scales, and found better fit for the latter model. In other analyses using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, they identified mutually uncorrelated markers of six personality factors. The authors conclude that correlations between personality factor scales can be explained without postulating any higher order dimensions of personality.
Modeling Human Behaviour with Higher Order Logic: Insider Threats
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boender, Jaap; Ivanova, Marieta Georgieva; Kammuller, Florian
2014-01-01
to and implemented in Higher Order Logic. We validate this working hypothesis by revisiting Weber’s understanding explanation. We focus on constructive realism in the context of logical explanation. We review Higher Order Logic (HOL) as a foundation for computer science and summarize its use of theories relating...... it to the sociological process of logical explanation. As a case study on modeling human behaviour, we present the modeling and analysis of insider threats as a Higher Order Logic theory in Isabelle/HOL. We show how each of the three step process of sociological explanation can be seen in our modeling of insider’s state...
Improved Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher-Order discretizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik
2014-01-01
The Multilevel Fast Multipole Method (MLFMM) allows for a reduced computational complexity when solving electromagnetic scattering problems. Combining this with the reduced number of unknowns provided by Higher-Order discretizations has proven to be a difficult task, with the general conclusion...... being that going above 2nd order is not worthwhile. In this paper, we challenge this conclusion, providing results that demonstrate the potential performance gains with Higher-Order MLFMM and showing some modifications to the traditional MLFMM that can benefit both Higher-Order and standard...
Higher Order Fractional Stable Motion: Hyperdiffusion with Heavy Tails
Kawai, Reiichiro
2016-10-01
We introduce the class of higher order fractional stable motions that can exhibit hyperdiffusive spreading with heavy tails. We define the class as a generalization of higher order fractional Brownian motion as well as a generalization of linear fractional stable motions. Higher order fractional stable motions are self-similar with Hurst index larger than one and non-Gaussian stable marginals with infinite variance and have stationary higher order increments. We investigate their sample path properties and asymptotic dependence structure on the basis of codifference. In particular, by incrementing or decrementing sample paths once under suitable conditions, the diffusion rate can be accelerated or decelerated by one order. With a view towards simulation study, we provide a ready-for-use sample path simulation recipe at discrete times along with error analysis. The proposed simulation scheme requires only elementary numerical operations and is robust to high frequency sampling, irregular spacing and super-sampling.
Higher order nonlinear degenerate elliptic problems with weak monotonicity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youssef Akdim
2006-09-01
Full Text Available We prove the existence of solutions for nonlinear degenerate elliptic boundary-value problems of higher order. Solutions are obtained using pseudo-monotonicity theory in a suitable weighted Sobolev space.
Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion
Maimaiti, Aili; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Chormaic, Síle Nic
2014-01-01
Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. In this work, we demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Single polystyrene particles were trapped and propelled in the evanescent fields of higher order and fundamental modes near the surface of microfibres. Speed enhancement of particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mo...
Generating superpositions of higher order bessel beams [Conference paper
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vasilyeu, R
2009-10-01
Full Text Available An experimental setup to generate a superposition of higher-order Bessel beams by means of a spatial light modulator and ring aperture is presented. The experimentally produced fields are in good agreement with those calculated theoretically....
Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas, CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Vankerschaver, Joris [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology, CA (United States)], E-mail: cedricmc@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: mdeleon@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: d.martin@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: jv@caltech.edu
2009-11-27
The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.
Higher-Order Finite Element Solutions of Option Prices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raahauge, Peter
2004-01-01
Kinks and jumps in the payoff function of option contracts prevent an effectiveimplementation of higher-order numerical approximation methods. Moreover, thederivatives (the greeks) are not easily determined around such singularities, even withstandard lower-order methods. This paper suggests...
Higher-order Kerr effect and harmonic cascading in gases
Bache, Morten; Eilenberger, Falk; Minardi, Stefano
2012-01-01
The higher-order Kerr effect (HOKE) has recently been advocated to explain measurements of the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index in gases. Here we show that cascaded third-harmonic generation results in an effective fifth-order nonlinearity that is negative and significant. Higher-order harmonic cascading will also occur from the HOKE, and the cascading contributions may significantly modify the observed nonlinear index change. At lower wavelengths, cascading increases the HOKE sat...
Predictors of third and Higher order births in India
Payal Singh; Akash Mishra; OP Mishra
2015-01-01
Background: Total fertility rate (TFR) reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above me...
On higher order geometric and renormalization group flows
Prabhu, Kartik; Das, Sanjit; Kar, Sayan
2011-10-01
Renormalization group (RG) flows of the bosonic nonlinear σ-model are governed, perturbatively, at different orders of α', by perturbatively evaluated β-functions. In regions where {α'}/{Rc2}≪1 ( {1}/{Rc2} represents the curvature scale), the flow equations at various orders in α' can be thought of as approximating the full, non-perturbative RG flow. On the other hand, taking a different viewpoint, we may consider the above-mentioned RG flow equations as viable geometric flows in their own right, without any reference to the RG aspect. Looked at as purely geometric flows where higher order terms appear, we no longer have the perturbative restrictions (small curvatures). In this paper, we perform our analysis from both these perspectives using specific target manifolds such as S2, H2, unwarped S2×H2 and simple warped products. We analyse and solve the higher order RG flow equations within the appropriate perturbative domains and find the corrections arising due to the inclusion of higher order terms. Such corrections, within the perturbative regime, are shown to be small and they provide an estimate of the error that arises when higher orders are ignored. We also investigate higher order geometric flows on the same manifolds and figure out generic features of geometric evolution, the appearance of singularities and solitons. The aim, in this context, is to demonstrate the role of higher order terms in modifying the flow. One interesting aspect of our analysis is that, separable solutions of the higher order flow equations for simple warped spacetimes (of the kind used in bulk-brane models with a single extra dimension), correspond to constant curvature anti de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes, modulo an overall flow parameter dependent scale factor. The functional form of this scale factor (that we obtain) changes on the inclusion of successive higher order terms in the flow.
All-fiber Raman Probe using Higher Order Modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Stine Højer Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the first all-fiber Raman probe utilizing higher order modes for the excitation. The spectrum of cyclohexane is measured using both the fundamental mode as well as in-fiber-generated Bessel-like modes.......We demonstrate the first all-fiber Raman probe utilizing higher order modes for the excitation. The spectrum of cyclohexane is measured using both the fundamental mode as well as in-fiber-generated Bessel-like modes....
Higher order aberrations of the eye: Part one
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marsha Oberholzer
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two articles that provide a comprehensive literature review of higher order aberrations (HOAs of the eye. The present article mainly explains the general principles of such HOAs as well as HOAs of importance, and the measuring apparatus used to measure HOAs of the eye. The second article in the series discusses factors contributing to variable results in measurements of HOAs of the eye.Keywords: Higher order aberrations; wavefront aberrations; aberrometer
Linear matrix differential equations of higher-order and applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mustapha Rachidi
2008-07-01
Full Text Available In this article, we study linear differential equations of higher-order whose coefficients are square matrices. The combinatorial method for computing the matrix powers and exponential is adopted. New formulas representing auxiliary results are obtained. This allows us to prove properties of a large class of linear matrix differential equations of higher-order, in particular results of Apostol and Kolodner are recovered. Also illustrative examples and applications are presented.
Higher-Order Factors of Personality: Do They Exist?
Ashton, Michael C.; Lee, Kibeom; Goldberg, Lewis R.; de Vries, Reinout E.
2010-01-01
Scales that measure the Big Five personality factors are often substantially intercorrelated. These correlations are sometimes interpreted as implying the existence of two higher-order factors of personality. We show that correlations between measures of broad personality factors do not necessarily imply the existence of higher-order factors, and might instead be due to variables that represent same-signed blends of orthogonal factors. Therefore, the hypotheses of higher-order factors and blended variables can only be tested with data on lower-level personality variables that define the personality factors. We compared the higher-order factor model and the blended variable model in three participant samples using the Big Five Aspect Scales, and found better fit for the latter model. In other analyses using the HEXACO Personality Inventory, we identified mutually uncorrelated markers of six personality factors. We conclude that correlations between personality factor scales can be explained without postulating any higher-order dimensions of personality. PMID:19458345
Tensor Spectral Clustering for Partitioning Higher-order Network Structures.
Benson, Austin R; Gleich, David F; Leskovec, Jure
2015-01-01
Spectral graph theory-based methods represent an important class of tools for studying the structure of networks. Spectral methods are based on a first-order Markov chain derived from a random walk on the graph and thus they cannot take advantage of important higher-order network substructures such as triangles, cycles, and feed-forward loops. Here we propose a Tensor Spectral Clustering (TSC) algorithm that allows for modeling higher-order network structures in a graph partitioning framework. Our TSC algorithm allows the user to specify which higher-order network structures (cycles, feed-forward loops, etc.) should be preserved by the network clustering. Higher-order network structures of interest are represented using a tensor, which we then partition by developing a multilinear spectral method. Our framework can be applied to discovering layered flows in networks as well as graph anomaly detection, which we illustrate on synthetic networks. In directed networks, a higher-order structure of particular interest is the directed 3-cycle, which captures feedback loops in networks. We demonstrate that our TSC algorithm produces large partitions that cut fewer directed 3-cycles than standard spectral clustering algorithms.
Dynamics and control of higher-order nonholonomic systems
Rubio Hervas, Jaime
A theoretical framework is established for the control of higher-order nonholonomic systems, defined as systems that satisfy higher-order nonintegrable constraints. A model for such systems is developed in terms of differential-algebraic equations defined on a higher-order tangent bundle. A number of control-theoretic properties such as nonintegrability, controllability, and stabilizability are presented. Higher-order nonholonomic systems are shown to be strongly accessible and, under certain conditions, small time locally controllable at any equilibrium. There are important examples of higher-order nonholonomic systems that are asymptotically stabilizable via smooth feedback, including space vehicles with multiple slosh modes and Prismatic-Prismatic-Revolute (PPR) robots moving open liquid containers, as well as an interesting class of systems that do not admit asymptotically stabilizing continuous static or dynamic state feedback. Specific assumptions are introduced to define this class, which includes important examples of robotic systems. A discontinuous nonlinear feedback control algorithm is developed to steer any initial state to the equilibrium at the origin. The applicability of the theoretical development is illustrated through two examples: control of a planar PPR robot manipulator subject to a jerk constraint and control of a point mass moving on a constant torsion curve in a three dimensional space.
Visualization and processing of higher order descriptors for multi-valued data
Schultz, Thomas
2015-01-01
Modern imaging techniques and computational simulations yield complex multi-valued data that require higher-order mathematical descriptors. This book addresses topics of importance when dealing with such data, including frameworks for image processing, visualization, and statistical analysis of higher-order descriptors. It also provides examples of the successful use of higher-order descriptors in specific applications and a glimpse of the next generation of diffusion MRI. To do so, it combines contributions on new developments, current challenges in this area, and state-of-the-art surveys. Compared to the increasing importance of higher-order descriptors in a range of applications, tools for analysis and processing are still relatively hard to come by. Even though application areas such as medical imaging, fluid dynamics, and structural mechanics are very different in nature they face many shared challenges. This book provides an interdisciplinary perspective on this topic with contributions from key rese...
Binocular visual performance and summation after correcting higher order aberrations.
Sabesan, Ramkumar; Zheleznyak, Len; Yoon, Geunyoung
2012-12-01
Although the ocular higher order aberrations degrade the retinal image substantially, most studies have investigated their effect on vision only under monocular conditions. Here, we have investigated the impact of binocular higher order aberration correction on visual performance and binocular summation by constructing a binocular adaptive optics (AO) vision simulator. Binocular monochromatic aberration correction using AO improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity significantly. The improvement however, differed from that achieved under monocular viewing. At high spatial frequency (24 c/deg), the monocular benefit in contrast sensitivity was significantly larger than the benefit achieved binocularly. In addition, binocular summation for higher spatial frequencies was the largest in the presence of subject's native higher order aberrations and was reduced when these aberrations were corrected. This study thus demonstrates the vast potential of binocular AO vision testing in understanding the impact of ocular optics on habitual binocular vision.
Filtering of higher-order laser modes using plasma structures
Djordjevic, Blagoje; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2017-10-01
Plasma structures based on leaky channels are proposed to filter higher-order laser mode content. The evolution and propagation of non-Gaussian laser pulses in leaky channels is studied, and it is shown that, for appropriate laser-plasma parameters, the higher-order laser mode content may be removed while the fundamental mode remains well-guided. The behavior of the multi-mode laser pulse is described analytically, including the derivation of the leakage coefficients, and compared to numerical calculations. Gaussian laser pulse propagation, without higher-order mode content, improves guiding in parabolic plasma channels, enabling extended interaction lengths for laser-plasma accelerator applications. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of High Energy Physics, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
Higher-order modulation instability in nonlinear fiber optics.
Erkintalo, Miro; Hammani, Kamal; Kibler, Bertrand; Finot, Christophe; Akhmediev, Nail; Dudley, John M; Genty, Goëry
2011-12-16
We report theoretical, numerical, and experimental studies of higher-order modulation instability in the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. This higher-order instability arises from the nonlinear superposition of elementary instabilities, associated with initial single breather evolution followed by a regime of complex, yet deterministic, pulse splitting. We analytically describe the process using the Darboux transformation and compare with experiments in optical fiber. We show how a suitably low frequency modulation on a continuous wave field induces higher-order modulation instability splitting with the pulse characteristics at different phases of evolution related by a simple scaling relationship. We anticipate that similar processes are likely to be observed in many other systems including plasmas, Bose-Einstein condensates, and deep water waves. © 2011 American Physical Society
Statistical Distributions of Electron Avalanches and Streamers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Ficker
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A new theoretical concept of fractal multiplication of electron avalanches has resulted in forming a generalized distribution function whose multiparameter character has been subjected to detailed discussion.
Higher-order Kerr effect and harmonic cascading in gases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bache, Morten; Eilenberger, Falk; Minardi, Stefano
2012-01-01
The higher-order Kerr effect (HOKE) has recently been advocated to explain measurements of the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index in gases. Here we show that cascaded third-harmonic generation results in an effective fifth-order nonlinearity that is negative and significant. Higher......-order harmonic cascading will also occur from the HOKE, and the cascading contributions may significantly modify the observed nonlinear index change. At lower wavelengths, cascading increases the HOKE saturation intensity, while for longer wavelengths cascading will decrease the HOKE saturation intensity....
Higher-order Kerr effect and harmonic cascading in gases.
Bache, Morten; Eilenberger, Falk; Minardi, Stefano
2012-11-15
The higher-order Kerr effect (HOKE) has recently been advocated to explain measurements of the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index in gases. Here we show that cascaded third-harmonic generation results in an effective fifth-order nonlinearity that is negative and significant. Higher-order harmonic cascading will also occur from the HOKE, and the cascading contributions may significantly modify the observed nonlinear index change. At lower wavelengths, cascading increases the HOKE saturation intensity, while for longer wavelengths cascading will decrease the HOKE saturation intensity.
The Cauchy problem for higher order abstract differential equations
Xiao, Ti-Jun
1998-01-01
This monograph is the first systematic exposition of the theory of the Cauchy problem for higher order abstract linear differential equations, which covers all the main aspects of the developed theory. The main results are complete with detailed proofs and established recently, containing the corresponding theorems for first and incomplete second order cases and therefore for operator semigroups and cosine functions. They will find applications in many fields. The special power of treating the higher order problems directly is demonstrated, as well as that of the vector-valued Laplace transforms in dealing with operator differential equations and operator families. The reader is expected to have a knowledge of complex and functional analysis.
Multilevel Fast Multipole Method for Higher Order Discretizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Meincke, Peter; Jorgensen, Erik
2014-01-01
The multi-level fast multipole method (MLFMM) for a higher order (HO) discretization is demonstrated on high-frequency (HF) problems, illustrating for the first time how an efficient MLFMM for HO can be achieved even for very large groups. Applying several novel ideas, beneficial to both lower...... order and higher order discretizations, results from a low-memory, high-speed MLFMM implementation of a HO hierarchical discretization are shown. These results challenge the general view that the benefits of HO and HF-MLFMM cannot be combined....
Practical Programming with Higher-Order Encodings and Dependent Types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poswolsky, Adam; Schürmann, Carsten
2008-01-01
, tedious, and error-prone. In this paper, we describe the underlying calculus of Delphin. Delphin is a fully implemented functional-programming language supporting reasoning over higher-order encodings and dependent types, while maintaining the benefits of HOAS. More specifically, just as representations......Higher-order abstract syntax (HOAS) refers to the technique of representing variables of an object-language using variables of a meta-language. The standard first-order alternatives force the programmer to deal with superficial concerns such as substitutions, whose implementation is often routine...
Protein electron transfer: Dynamics and statistics.
Matyushov, Dmitry V
2013-07-14
Electron transfer between redox proteins participating in energy chains of biology is required to proceed with high energetic efficiency, minimizing losses of redox energy to heat. Within the standard models of electron transfer, this requirement, combined with the need for unidirectional (preferably activationless) transitions, is translated into the need to minimize the reorganization energy of electron transfer. This design program is, however, unrealistic for proteins whose active sites are typically positioned close to the polar and flexible protein-water interface to allow inter-protein electron tunneling. The high flexibility of the interfacial region makes both the hydration water and the surface protein layer act as highly polar solvents. The reorganization energy, as measured by fluctuations, is not minimized, but rather maximized in this region. Natural systems in fact utilize the broad breadth of interfacial electrostatic fluctuations, but in the ways not anticipated by the standard models based on equilibrium thermodynamics. The combination of the broad spectrum of static fluctuations with their dispersive dynamics offers the mechanism of dynamical freezing (ergodicity breaking) of subsets of nuclear modes on the time of reaction/residence of the electron at a redox cofactor. The separation of time-scales of nuclear modes coupled to electron transfer allows dynamical freezing. In particular, the separation between the relaxation time of electro-elastic fluctuations of the interface and the time of conformational transitions of the protein caused by changing redox state results in dynamical freezing of the latter for sufficiently fast electron transfer. The observable consequence of this dynamical freezing is significantly different reorganization energies describing the curvature at the bottom of electron-transfer free energy surfaces (large) and the distance between their minima (Stokes shift, small). The ratio of the two reorganization energies
Optical diagnosis of cervical cancer by higher order spectra and boosting
Pratiher, Sawon; Mukhopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Barman, Ritwik; Pratiher, Souvik; Pradhan, Asima; Ghosh, Nirmalya; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.
2017-03-01
In this contribution, we report the application of higher order statistical moments using decision tree and ensemble based learning methodology for the development of diagnostic algorithms for optical diagnosis of cancer. The classification results were compared to those obtained with an independent feature extractors like linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The performance and efficacy of these methodology using higher order statistics as a classifier using boosting has higher specificity and sensitivity while being much faster as compared to other time-frequency domain based methods.
Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills through Clinical Simulation
Varutharaju, Elengovan; Ratnavadivel, Nagendralingan
2014-01-01
Purpose: The study aimed to explore, describe and analyse the design and implementation of clinical simulation as a pedagogical tool in bridging the deficiency of higher order thinking skills among para-medical students, and to make recommendations on incorporating clinical simulation as a pedagogical tool to enhance thinking skills and align the…
Order-sorted Algebraic Specifications with Higher-order Functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth
1995-01-01
This paper gives a proposal for how order-sorted algebraic specification languages can be extended with higher-order functions. The approach taken is a generalisation to the order-sorted case of an approach given by Mller, Tarlecki and Wirsing for the many-sorted case. The main idea in the proposal...
On the Constitution and Configuration of Higher-order Compounds
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 9. On the Constitution and Configuration of Higher-order Compounds. Alfred Werner. Reflections Volume 4 Issue 9 September 1999 pp 90-94. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Meta-Logical Reasoning in Higher-Order Logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villadsen, Jørgen; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Hess, Andreas Viktor
The semantics of first-order logic (FOL) can be described in the meta-language of higher-order logic (HOL). Using HOL one can prove key properties of FOL such as soundness and completeness. Furthermore, one can prove sentences in FOL valid using the formalized FOL semantics. To aid...
Numerical methods of higher order of accuracy for incompressible flows
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kozel, K.; Louda, Petr; Příhoda, Jaromír
2010-01-01
Roč. 80, č. 8 (2010), s. 1734-1745 ISSN 0378-4754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : higher order methods * upwind methods * backward-facing step Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.812, year: 2010
Higher-Order Integral Equation Methods in Computational Electromagnetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter
Higher-order integral equation methods have been investigated. The study has focused on improving the accuracy and efficiency of the Method of Moments (MoM) applied to electromagnetic problems. A new set of hierarchical Legendre basis functions of arbitrary order is developed. The new basis...
Higher-Order Hierarchical Legendre Basis Functions in Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter
2007-01-01
degree of orthogonality. The basis functions are well-suited for solution of complex electromagnetic problems involving multiple homogeneous or inhomogeneous dielectric regions, metallic surfaces, layered media, etc. This paper presents real-life complex antenna radiation problems modeled...... with electromagnetic simulation tools based on the higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions....
Stochastic and Higher-Order Effects on Exploding Pulses
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orazio Descalzi
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The influence of additive noise, multiplicative noise, and higher-order effects on exploding solitons in the framework of the prototype complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation is studied. Transitions from explosions to filling-in to the noisy spatially homogeneous finite amplitude solution, collapse (zero solution, and periodic exploding dissipative solitons are reported.
Recent Advances in Higher-Order, Multimodal, Biomedical Imaging Agents.
Rieffel, James; Chitgupi, Upendra; Lovell, Jonathan F
2015-09-16
Advances in biomedical imaging have spurred the development of integrated multimodal scanners, usually capable of two simultaneous imaging modes. The long-term vision of higher-order multimodality is to improve diagnostics or guidance through the analysis of complementary, data-rich, co-registered images. Synergies achieved through combined modalities could enable researchers to better track diverse physiological and structural events, analyze biodistribution and treatment efficacy, and compare established and emerging modalities. Higher-order multimodal approaches stand to benefit from molecular imaging probes and, in recent years, contrast agents that have hypermodal characteristics have increasingly been reported in preclinical studies. Given the chemical requirements for contrast agents representing various modalities to be integrated into a single entity, the higher-order multimodal agents reported so far tend to be of nanoparticulate form. To date, the majority of reported nanoparticles have included components that are active for magnetic resonance. Herein, recent progress in higher-order multimodal imaging agents is reviewed, spanning a range of material and structural classes, and demonstrating utility in three (or more) imaging modalities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Impact of higher-order dispersion in the modulational instability ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-02-08
Feb 8, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 2. Impact of higher-order dispersion in the modulational instability spectrum of a relaxing coupled saturable media. K Nithyanandan R Vasantha Jayakantha Raja T Uthayakumar K Porsezian. Contributed Papers Volume 82 Issue 2 February ...
Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits
Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming
2013-01-01
Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…
New higher-order transition in causal dynamical triangulations
Ambjorn, J.; Coumbe, D.; Gizbert-Studnicki, J.; Gorlich, A.; Jurkiewicz, J.
2017-01-01
We reinvestigate the recently discovered bifurcation phase transition in causal dynamical triangulations and provide further evidence that it is a higher-order transition. We also investigate the impact of introducing matter in the form of massless scalar fields to causal dynamical triangulations.
Squeezing of higher order Hermite-Gauss modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard
2008-01-01
The present paper gives an overview of the experimental generation of squeezing in higher order Hermite-Gaussian modes with an optical parametric ampli¯er (OPA). This work was awarded with The European Optical Society (EOS) price 2007. The purpose of the prize is to encourage a European dimension...
Decidable Fragments of a Higher Order Calculus with Locations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hüttel, Hans; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Haagensen, Bjørn
2009-01-01
Homer is a higher order process calculus with locations. In this paper we study Homer in the setting of the semantic finite control property, which is a finite reachability criterion that implies decidability of barbed bisimilarity. We show that strong and weak barbed bisimilarity are undecidable...... control π-calculus in Homer....
Building Higher-Order Markov Chain Models with EXCEL
Ching, Wai-Ki; Fung, Eric S.; Ng, Michael K.
2004-01-01
Categorical data sequences occur in many applications such as forecasting, data mining and bioinformatics. In this note, we present higher-order Markov chain models for modelling categorical data sequences with an efficient algorithm for solving the model parameters. The algorithm can be implemented easily in a Microsoft EXCEL worksheet. We give a…
Eigenvalue Problem of Nonlinear Semipositone Higher Order Fractional Differential Equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing Wu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We study the eigenvalue interval for the existence of positive solutions to a semipositone higher order fractional differential equation = = where , , , , satisfying , is the standard Riemann-Liouville derivative, , and is allowed to be changing-sign. By using reducing order method, the eigenvalue interval of existence for positive solutions is obtained.
Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn, E-mail: cedricmc@icmat.e, E-mail: mdeleon@icmat.e, E-mail: david.martin@icmat.e [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas, CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2010-11-12
We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.
Higher-order factors of personality: Do they exist?
Ashton, M.C.; Lee, K.; Goldberg, L.R.; de Vries, R.E.
2009-01-01
Scales that measure the Big Five personality factors are often substantially intercorrelated. These correlations are sometimes interpreted as implying the existence of two higher order factors of personality. The authors show that correlations between measures of broad personality factors do not
Higher-order momentum distributions and locally affine LDDMM registration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sommer, Stefan Horst; Nielsen, Mads; Darkner, Sune
2013-01-01
higher-order momentum distributions in the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM) registration framework. While the zeroth-order moments previously used in LDDMM only describe local displacement, the first-order momenta that are proposed here represent a basis that allows local...
Higher Order Language Competence and Adolescent Mental Health
Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh; Im-Bolter, Nancie
2013-01-01
Background: Clinic and community-based epidemiological studies have shown an association between child psychopathology and language impairment. The demands on language for social and academic adjustment shift dramatically during adolescence and the ability to understand the nonliteral meaning in language represented by higher order language…
Positive solutions for higher order singular p-Laplacian boundary ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of positive solutions for sublinear 2m-th order singular p-Laplacian BVPs on closed interval. Keywords. Positive solution; singular BVPs; sufficient and necessary conditions; p-Laplacian equations. 1. Introduction. In this paper, we are concerned with higher order singular p-Laplacian boundary value problems. ⎧. ⎨. ⎩.
First Measurements of Higher Order Optics Parameters in the LHC
Vanbavinckhove, G; Bartolini, R; Calaga, R; Giovannozzi, M; Maclean, E H; Miyamoto, R; Schmidt, F; Tomas, R
2011-01-01
Higher order effects can play an important role in the performance of the LHC. Lack of knowledge of these pa- rameters can increase the tune footprint and compromise the beam lifetime. First measurements of these parameters at injection and flattop have been conducted. Detailed sim- ulations are compared to the measurements together with discussions on the measurement limitations.
Higher order risk attitudes, demographics, and financial decisions
Noussair, C.N.; Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.
We study the prevalence of the higher order risk attitudes of prudence and temperance in an experiment with a large demographically representative sample of participants. Under expected utility, prudence and temperance are defined by a convex first, and concave second, derivative of the utility
Higher order QCD corrections in small x physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chachamis, G.
2006-11-15
We study higher order QCD corrections in small x Physics. The numerical implementation of the full NLO photon impact factor is the remaining necessary piece for the testing of the NLO BFKL resummation against data from physical processes, such as {gamma}{sup *}{gamma}{sup *} collisions. We perform the numerical integration over phase space for the virtual corrections to the NLO photon impact factor. This, along with the previously calculated real corrections, makes feasible in the near future first estimates for the {gamma}*{gamma}* total cross section, since the convolution of the full impact factor with the NLO BFKL gluon Green's function is now straightforward. The NLO corrections for the photon impact factor are sizeable and negative. In the second part of this thesis, we estimate higher order correction to the BK equation. We are mainly interested in whether partonic saturation delays or not in rapidity when going beyond the leading order. In our investigation, we use the so called 'rapidity veto' which forbid two emissions to be very close in rapidity, to 'switch on' higher order corrections to the BK equation. From analytic and numerical analysis, we conclude that indeed saturation does delay in rapidity when higher order corrections are taken into account. In the last part, we investigate higher order QCD corrections as additional corrections to the Electroweak (EW) sector. The question of whether BFKL corrections are of any importance in the Regge limit for the EW sector seems natural; although they arise in higher loop level, the accumulation of logarithms in energy s at high energies, cannot be dismissed without an investigation. We focus on the process {gamma}{gamma}{yields}ZZ. We calculate the pQCD corrections in the forward region at leading logarithmic (LL) BFKL accuracy, which are of the order of few percent at the TeV energy scale. (orig.)
Promoting higher order thinking skills using inquiry-based learning
Madhuri, G. V.; S. S. N Kantamreddi, V.; Goteti, L. N. S. Prakash
2012-05-01
Active learning pedagogies play an important role in enhancing higher order cognitive skills among the student community. In this work, a laboratory course for first year engineering chemistry is designed and executed using an inquiry-based learning pedagogical approach. The goal of this module is to promote higher order thinking skills in chemistry. Laboratory exercises are designed based on Bloom's taxonomy and a just-in-time facilitation approach is used. A pre-laboratory discussion outlining the theory of the experiment and its relevance is carried out to enable the students to analyse real-life problems. The performance of the students is assessed based on their ability to perform the experiment, design new experiments and correlate practical utility of the course module with real life. The novelty of the present approach lies in the fact that the learning outcomes of the existing experiments are achieved through establishing a relationship with real-world problems.
Comparison Criteria for Nonlinear Functional Dynamic Equations of Higher Order
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taher S. Hassan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We will consider the higher order functional dynamic equations with mixed nonlinearities of the form xnt+∑j=0Npjtϕγjxφjt=0, on an above-unbounded time scale T, where n≥2, xi(t≔ri(tϕαixi-1Δ(t, i=1,…,n-1, with x0=x, ϕβ(u≔uβsgnu, and α[i,j]≔αi⋯αj. The function φi:T→T is a rd-continuous function such that limt→∞φi(t=∞ for j=0,1,…,N. The results extend and improve some known results in the literature on higher order nonlinear dynamic equations.
Higher-Order Separation Logic in Isabelle/HOLCF
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varming, Carsten; Birkedal, Lars
2008-01-01
or greatest fixed points etc. The higher-order logic ensures that we can show non-trivial algorithms correct without having to extend the semantics of the language as was done previously in verifications based on first-order separation logic [2,20]. We provide non-trivial examples to support this claim...... language. This follows the definitional approach common in HOL theorem provers, i.e., the soundness of our model only relies on the soundness of Isabelle/HOL [6]. We use our formalization to give a formally verified proof of Cheney's copying garbage collector [4] using a tagged representation of objects....... The proof generalizes the results in [2]. The proof uses an encoding of the separation logic formula this(h) to capture the heap from before the garbage collection and thus shows another novel use of higher-order separation logic....
Higher Order Hierarchical Legendre Basis Functions for Electromagnetic Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Erik; Volakis, John L.; Meincke, Peter
2004-01-01
This paper presents a new hierarchical basis of arbitrary order for integral equations solved with the Method of Moments (MoM). The basis is derived from orthogonal Legendre polynomials which are modified to impose continuity of vector quantities between neighboring elements while maintaining most....... In addition, all higher-order terms in the expansion have two vanishing moments.In contrast to existing formulations, these properties allow the use of very high-order basis functions without introducing ill-conditioning of the resulting MoM matrix. Numerical results confirm that the condition number...... of the MoM matrix obtained with this new basis is much lower than existing higher-order interpolatory and hierarchical basis functions. As a consequence of the excellent condition numbers, we demonstrate that even very high-order MoM systems, e.g. 10th order, can be solved efficiently with an iterative...
Speckle reduction via higher order total variation approach.
Wensen Feng; Hong Lei; Yang Gao
2014-04-01
Multiplicative noise (also known as speckle) reduction is a prerequisite for many image-processing tasks in coherent imaging systems, such as the synthetic aperture radar. One approach extensively used in this area is based on total variation (TV) regularization, which can recover significantly sharp edges of an image, but suffers from the staircase-like artifacts. In order to overcome the undesirable deficiency, we propose two novel models for removing multiplicative noise based on total generalized variation (TGV) penalty. The TGV regularization has been mathematically proven to be able to eliminate the staircasing artifacts by being aware of higher order smoothness. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm is developed for solving the TGV-based optimization problems. Numerical experiments demonstrate that our proposed methods achieve state-of-the-art results, both visually and quantitatively. In particular, when the image has some higher order smoothness, our methods outperform the TV-based algorithms.
Higher order theories and their relationship with noncommutativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez-Santos, Oscar, E-mail: oscarsanbuzz@yahoo.com.mx [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F., México (Mexico); Vergara, José David, E-mail: vergara@nucleares.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, C.P. 04510, México D.F., México (Mexico)
2014-06-13
We present a relationship between noncommutativity and higher order time derivative theories using a perturbation method. We make a generalization of the Chern–Simons quantum mechanics for higher order time derivatives. This model presents noncommutativity in a natural way when we project to low-energy physical states without the necessity of taking the strong field limit. We quantize the theory using a Bopp's shift of the noncommutative variables and we obtain a spectrum without negative energies, under the perturbation limits. In addition, we extent the model to high order time derivatives and noncommutativity with variable dependent parameter. - Highlights: • We show a relationship between high order derivative theories and noncommutativity. • The noncommutativity appears when we project to low-energy physical states. • We extend the model to high order time derivatives. • We include cases with variable dependent noncommutative parameter.
Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric
Colistete, R J; Kerner, R
2002-01-01
Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).
Numerical evidence for higher order Stark-type conjectures
McGown, Kevin,; Sands, Jonathan; Vallières, Daniel
2017-01-01
We give a systematic method of providing numerical evidence for higher order Stark-type conjectures such as (in chronological order) Stark's conjecture over $\\mathbb{Q}$, Rubin's conjecture, Popescu's conjecture, and a conjecture due to Burns that constitutes a generalization of Brumer's classical conjecture on annihilation of class groups. Our approach is general and could be used for any abelian extension of number fields, independent of the signature and type of places (finite or infinite)...
Higher-order symmetries and conservation laws of multi ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Equation (1) has been extensively studied in terms of their symmetries and variational properties [1]. In particular, the sine-Gordon equation uXT − sin u = 0 has been shown to have higher-order variational symmetries, X = Q∂u. For example,. X1 = (. uXXX +. 1. 2 u3. X. ) ∂u,. X2 = (. uXXXXX +. 5. 2 u2. X uXXX +. 5. 2. uX u2.
Nonresonance impulsive higher order functional nonconvex-valued differential inclusions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mouffak Benchohra
2002-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors investigate the existence of solutions for nonresonance impulsive higher order functional differential inclusions in Banach spaces with nonconvex valued right hand side. They present two results. In the first one, they rely on a fixed point theorem for contraction multivalued maps due to Covitz and Nadler, and for the second one, they use Schaefer's fixed point theorem combined with lower semi-continuous multivalued operators with decomposable values.
Higher-order structure and epidemic dynamics in clustered networks.
Ritchie, Martin; Berthouze, Luc; House, Thomas; Kiss, Istvan Z
2014-05-07
Clustering is typically measured by the ratio of triangles to all triples regardless of whether open or closed. Generating clustered networks, and how clustering affects dynamics on networks, is reasonably well understood for certain classes of networks (Volz et al., 2011; Karrer and Newman, 2010), e.g. networks composed of lines and non-overlapping triangles. In this paper we show that it is possible to generate networks which, despite having the same degree distribution and equal clustering, exhibit different higher-order structure, specifically, overlapping triangles and other order-four (a closed network motif composed of four nodes) structures. To distinguish and quantify these additional structural features, we develop a new network metric capable of measuring order-four structure which, when used alongside traditional network metrics, allows us to more accurately describe a network׳s topology. Three network generation algorithms are considered: a modified configuration model and two rewiring algorithms. By generating homogeneous networks with equal clustering we study and quantify their structural differences, and using SIS (Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible) and SIR (Susceptible-Infected-Recovered) dynamics we investigate computationally how differences in higher-order structure impact on epidemic threshold, final epidemic or prevalence levels and time evolution of epidemics. Our results suggest that characterising and measuring higher-order network structure is needed to advance our understanding of the impact of network topology on dynamics unfolding on the networks. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wolff, Hans-Georg; Preising, Katja
2005-02-01
To ease the interpretation of higher order factor analysis, the direct relationships between variables and higher order factors may be calculated by the Schmid-Leiman solution (SLS; Schmid & Leiman, 1957). This simple transformation of higher order factor analysis orthogonalizes first-order and higher order factors and thereby allows the interpretation of the relative impact of factor levels on variables. The Schmid-Leiman solution may also be used to facilitate theorizing and scale development. The rationale for the procedure is presented, supplemented by syntax codes for SPSS and SAS, since the transformation is not part of most statistical programs. Syntax codes may also be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive/.
Enhanced sensitivity at higher-order exceptional points
Hodaei, Hossein; Hassan, Absar U.; Wittek, Steffen; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh
2017-08-01
Non-Hermitian degeneracies, also known as exceptional points, have recently emerged as a new way to engineer the response of open physical systems, that is, those that interact with the environment. They correspond to points in parameter space at which the eigenvalues of the underlying system and the corresponding eigenvectors simultaneously coalesce. In optics, the abrupt nature of the phase transitions that are encountered around exceptional points has been shown to lead to many intriguing phenomena, such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional invisibility, band merging, topological chirality and laser mode selectivity. Recently, it has been shown that the bifurcation properties of second-order non-Hermitian degeneracies can provide a means of enhancing the sensitivity (frequency shifts) of resonant optical structures to external perturbations. Of particular interest is the use of even higher-order exceptional points (greater than second order), which in principle could further amplify the effect of perturbations, leading to even greater sensitivity. Although a growing number of theoretical studies have been devoted to such higher-order degeneracies, their experimental demonstration in the optical domain has so far remained elusive. Here we report the observation of higher-order exceptional points in a coupled cavity arrangement—specifically, a ternary, parity-time-symmetric photonic laser molecule—with a carefully tailored gain-loss distribution. We study the system in the spectral domain and find that the frequency response associated with this system follows a cube-root dependence on induced perturbations in the refractive index. Our work paves the way for utilizing non-Hermitian degeneracies in fields including photonics, optomechanics, microwaves and atomic physics.
Changes of higher-order aberrations with the use of various mydriatics.
Kim, Jae-Hyung; Lim, Taehyung; Kim, Myoung Joon; Tchah, Hungwon
2009-11-01
Advances in corneal refractive surgery have allowed ophthalmologists to correct ocular higher-order aberrations. To obtain more information on the ocular aberrations generated from the optical axis, mydriasis is required. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in higher-order aberrations with the use of various mydriatics. Higher-order aberrations were measured in 21 eyes of 21 subjects (age range 24-37 years; 13 males, 8 females). Repeated measurements were conducted before and after the installation of three different mydriatics: 10% phenylephrine, 1% tropicamide, or 1% cyclopentolate. At a pupil size of 6 mm, the average root mean square value of higher-order aberrations (HO-RMS) was 0.430 mum in undilated eyes, and 0.413, 0.410, and 0.477 mum after installation of phenylephrine, tropicamide, and cyclopentolate, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the HO-RMS between the four conditions. There was a significant difference in the spherical aberration between the undilated or phenylephrine-treated eyes, compared to those treated with tropicamide or cyclopentolate. Cycloplegic mydriatics seemed to shift spherical aberration in a positive direction. These results suggest that mydriatics may affect higher-order aberrations, especially spherical aberration, and this should be considered when performing wavefront analysis and when correcting wavefront errors.
Higher order aberrations in amblyopic children and their role in refractory amblyopia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arnaldo Dias-Santos
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Objective: Some studies have hypothesized that an unfavourable higher order aberrometric profile could act as an amblyogenic mechanism and may be responsible for some amblyopic cases that are refractory to conventional treatment or cases of “idiopathic” amblyopia. This study compared the aberrometric profile in amblyopic children to that of children with normal visual development and compared the aberrometric profile in corrected amblyopic eyes and refractory amblyopic eyes with that of healthy eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study with three groups of children – the CA group (22 eyes of 11 children with unilateral corrected amblyopia, the RA group (24 eyes of 13 children with unilateral refractory amblyopia and the C group (28 eyes of 14 children with normal visual development. Higher order aberrations were evaluated using an OPD-Scan III (NIDEK. Comparisons of the aberrometric profile were made between these groups as well as between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Results: Higher order aberrations with greater impact in visual quality were not significantly higher in the CA and RA groups when compared with the C group. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in the higher order aberrometric profile between the amblyopic and healthy eyes within the CA and RA groups. Conclusions: Contrary to lower order aberrations (e.g., myopia, hyperopia, primary astigmatism, higher order aberrations do not seem to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of amblyopia. Therefore, these are likely not the cause of most cases of refractory amblyopia.
Programming real-time executives in higher order language
Foudriat, E. C.
1982-01-01
Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.
Oscillation of solutions of some higher order linear differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-Yan Xu
2009-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the order of growth and the hyper order of solutions of higher order linear differential equations $$f^{(k}+B_{k-1}f^{(k-1}+\\cdots+B_1f'+B_0f=F$$ where $B_j(z (j=0,1,\\ldots,k-1$ and $F$ are entire functions or polynomials. Some results are obtained which improve and extend previous results given by Z.-X. Chen, J. Wang, T.-B. Cao and C.-H. Li.
A simple higher-order theory for laminated composite plates
Reddy, J. N.
1984-01-01
A higher-order shear deformation theory of laminated composite plates is developed. The theory contains the same dependent unknowns as in the first-order shear deformation theory of Whitney and Pagano (1970), but accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate. Exact closed-form solutions of symmetric cross-ply laminates are obtained and the results are compared with three-dimensional elasticity solutions and first-order shear deformation theory solutions. The present theory predicts the deflections and stresses more accurately when compared to the first-order theory.
Higher-order Brunnian structures and possible physical realizations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A. Baas, Nils; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.
2014-01-01
We consider few-body bound state systems and provide precise definitions of Borromean and Brunnian systems. The initial concepts are more than a hundred years old and originated in mathematical knot-theory as purely geometric considerations. About thirty years ago they were generalized and applied...... to the binding of systems in nature. It now appears that recent generalization to higher order Brunnian structures may potentially be realized as laboratory made or naturally occurring systems. With the binding energy as measure, we discuss possibilities of physical realization in nuclei, cold atoms...
Solution of higher order boundary value problems by spline methods
Chaurasia, Anju; Srivastava, P. C.; Gupta, Yogesh
2017-10-01
Spline solution of Boundary Value Problems has received much attention in recent years. It has proven to be a powerful tool due to the ease of use and quality of results. This paper concerns with the survey of methods that try to approximate the solution of higher order BVPs using various spline functions. The purpose of this article is to thrash out the problems as well as conclusions, reached by the numerous authors in the related field. We critically assess many important relevant papers, published in reputed journals during last six years.
Higher Order Parametric Excitation Modes for Spaceborne Quadrupole Mass Spectrometers
Gershman, D. J.; Block, B. P.; Rubin, M.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Zurbuchen, T. H.
2011-01-01
This paper describes a technique to significantly improve upon the mass peak shape and mass resolution of spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometers (QMSs) through higher order auxiliary excitation of the quadrupole field. Using a novel multiresonant tank circuit, additional frequency components can be used to drive modulating voltages on the quadrupole rods in a practical manner, suitable for both improved commercial applications and spaceflight instruments. Auxiliary excitation at frequencies near twice that of the fundamental quadrupole RF frequency provides the advantages of previously studied parametric excitation techniques, but with the added benefit of increased sensed excitation amplitude dynamic range and the ability to operate voltage scan lines through the center of upper stability islands. Using a field programmable gate array, the amplitudes and frequencies of all QMS signals are digitally generated and managed, providing a robust and stable voltage control system. These techniques are experimentally verified through an interface with a commercial Pfeiffer QMG422 quadrupole rod system.When operating through the center of a stability island formed from higher order auxiliary excitation, approximately 50% and 400% improvements in 1% mass resolution and peak stability were measured, respectively, when compared with traditional QMS operation. Although tested with a circular rod system, the presented techniques have the potential to improve the performance of both circular and hyperbolic rod geometry QMS sensors.
Higher-Order Cyclostationarity Detection for Spectrum Sensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julien Renard
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Recent years have shown a growing interest in the concept of Cognitive Radios (CRs, able to access portions of the electromagnetic spectrum in an opportunistic operating way. Such systems require efficient detectors able to work in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR environments, with little or no information about the signals they are trying to detect. Energy detectors are widely used to perform such blind detection tasks, but quickly reach the so-called SNR wall below which detection becomes impossible Tandra (2005. Cyclostationarity detectors are an interesting alternative to energy detectors, as they exploit hidden periodicities present in man-made signals, but absent in noise. Such detectors use quadratic transformations of the signals to extract the hidden sine-waves. While most of the literature focuses on the second-order transformations of the signals, we investigate the potential of higher-order transformations of the signals. Using the theory of Higher-Order Cyclostationarity (HOCS, we derive a fourth-order detector that performs similarly to the second-order ones to detect linearly modulated signals, at SNR around 0 dB, which may be used if the signals of interest do not exhibit second-order cyclostationarity. More generally this paper reviews the relevant aspects of the cyclostationary and HOCS theory, and shows their potential for spectrum sensing.
Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability
Bonito, Andrea
2013-01-01
Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulations deal with PDEs on deformable domains upon extending the domain velocity from the boundary into the bulk with the purpose of keeping mesh regularity. This arbitrary extension has no effect on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time-dependent advection-diffusion-model problem in moving domains, and study their stability properties. The analysis hinges on the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity for dG. Exploiting the variational structure and assuming exact integration, we prove that our conservative and nonconservative dG schemes are equivalent and unconditionally stable. The same results remain true for piecewise polynomial ALE maps of any degree and suitable quadrature that guarantees the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity. This approach generalizes the so-called geometric conservation law to higher-order methods. We also prove that simpler Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order are conditionally stable, that is, subject to a mild ALE constraint on the time steps. Numerical experiments corroborate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Compiler-Directed Transformation for Higher-Order Stencils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basu, Protonu [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hall, Mary [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Williams, Samuel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Straalen, Brian Van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oliker, Leonid [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Colella, Phillip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2015-07-20
As the cost of data movement increasingly dominates performance, developers of finite-volume and finite-difference solutions for partial differential equations (PDEs) are exploring novel higher-order stencils that increase numerical accuracy and computational intensity. This paper describes a new compiler reordering transformation applied to stencil operators that performs partial sums in buffers, and reuses the partial sums in computing multiple results. This optimization has multiple effect son improving stencil performance that are particularly important to higher-order stencils: exploits data reuse, reduces floating-point operations, and exposes efficient SIMD parallelism to backend compilers. We study the benefit of this optimization in the context of Geometric Multigrid (GMG), a widely used method to solvePDEs, using four different Jacobi smoothers built from 7-, 13-, 27-and 125-point stencils. We quantify performance, speedup, andnumerical accuracy, and use the Roofline model to qualify our results. Ultimately, we obtain over 4× speedup on the smoothers themselves and up to a 3× speedup on the multigrid solver. Finally, we demonstrate that high-order multigrid solvers have the potential of reducing total data movement and energy by several orders of magnitude.
Higher-Order Spectrum in Understanding Nonlinearity in EEG Rhythms
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Cauchy Pradhan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamental nature of the brain's electrical activities recorded as electroencephalogram (EEG remains unknown. Linear stochastic models and spectral estimates are the most common methods for the analysis of EEG because of their robustness, simplicity of interpretation, and apparent association with rhythmic behavioral patterns in nature. In this paper, we extend the use of higher-order spectrum in order to indicate the hidden characteristics of EEG signals that simply do not arise from random processes. The higher-order spectrum is an extension Fourier spectrum that uses higher moments for spectral estimates. This essentially nullifies all Gaussian random effects, therefore, can reveal non-Gaussian and nonlinear characteristics in the complex patterns of EEG time series. The paper demonstrates the distinguishing features of bispectral analysis for chaotic systems, filtered noises, and normal background EEG activity. The bispectrum analysis detects nonlinear interactions; however, it does not quantify the coupling strength. The squared bicoherence in the nonredundant region has been estimated to demonstrate nonlinear coupling. The bicoherence values are minimal for white Gaussian noises (WGNs and filtered noises. Higher bicoherence values in chaotic time series and normal background EEG activities are indicative of nonlinear coupling in these systems. The paper shows utility of bispectral methods as an analytical tool in understanding neural process underlying human EEG patterns.
Recognition of higher order patterns in proteins: immunologic kernels.
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Robert D Bremel
Full Text Available By applying analysis of the principal components of amino acid physical properties we predicted cathepsin cleavage sites, MHC binding affinity, and probability of B-cell epitope binding of peptides in tetanus toxin and in ten diverse additional proteins. Cross-correlation of these metrics, for peptides of all possible amino acid index positions, each evaluated in the context of a ±25 amino acid flanking region, indicated that there is a strongly repetitive pattern of short peptides of approximately thirty amino acids each bounded by cathepsin cleavage sites and each comprising B-cell linear epitopes, MHC-I and MHC-II binding peptides. Such "immunologic kernel" peptides comprise all signals necessary for adaptive immunologic cognition, response and recall. The patterns described indicate a higher order spatial integration that forms a symbolic logic coordinating the adaptive immune system.
Radiation by solitons due to higher-order dispersion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karpman, V.I.
1993-01-01
in a simple and general way the radiation of KdV and NS, as well as other types. of solitons, is developed. From the WKB approach it follows that the soliton radiation is a result of a tunneling transformation of the non-linearly self-trapped wave into the free-propagating radiation.......We consider the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) and nonlinear Schrodinger (NS) equations with higher-order derivative terms describing dispersive corrections. Conditions of existence of stationary and radiating solitons of the fifth-order KdV equation are obtained. An asymptotic time-dependent solution...... to the latter equation, describing the soliton radiation, is found. The radiation train may be in front as well as behind the soliton, depending on the sign of dispersion. The change rate of the soliton due to the radiation is calculated. A modification of the WKB method, that permits one to describe...
Cognition with few neurons: higher-order learning in insects.
Giurfa, Martin
2013-05-01
Insects possess miniature brains but exhibit a sophisticated behavioral repertoire. Recent studies have reported the existence of unsuspected cognitive capabilities in various insect species that go beyond the traditionally studied framework of simple associative learning. Here, I focus on capabilities such as attentional modulation and concept learning and discuss their mechanistic bases. I analyze whether these behaviors, which appear particularly complex, can be explained on the basis of elemental associative learning and specific neural circuitries or, by contrast, require an explanatory level that goes beyond simple associative links. In doing this, I highlight experimental challenges and suggest future directions for investigating the neurobiology of higher-order learning in insects, with the goal of uncovering the basic neural architectures underlying cognitive processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graziano, V.; Gerchman, S.E.; Schneider, D.K.; Ramakrishnan, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)
1994-12-31
We have been engaged in studies of the structure and condensation of chromatin into the 30nm filament using small-angle neutron scattering. We have also used deuterated histone H1 to determine its location in the chromatin 30nm filament. Our studies indicate that chromatin condenses with increasing ionic strength to a limiting structure that has a mass per unit length of 6-7 nucleosomes/11 nm. They also show that the linker histone H1/H5 is located in the interior of the chromatin filament, in a position compatible with its binding to the inner face of the nucleosome. Analysis of the mass per unit length as a function of H5 stoichiometry suggests that 5-7 contiguous nucleosomes need to have H5 bound before a stable higher order structure can exist.
Nonlinear eigenvalue problems for higher order Lidstone boundary value problems
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Paul Eloe
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the Lidstone boundary value problem $y^{(2m}(t = \\lambda a(tf(y(t, \\dots, y^{(2j}(t, \\dots y^{(2(m-1}(t, 0 0$ and $a$ is nonnegative. Growth conditions are imposed on $f$ and inequalities involving an associated Green's function are employed which enable us to apply a well-known cone theoretic fixed point theorem. This in turn yields a $\\lambda$ interval on which there exists a nontrivial solution in a cone for each $\\lambda$ in that interval. The methods of the paper are known. The emphasis here is that $f$ depends upon higher order derivatives. Applications are made to problems that exhibit superlinear or sublinear type growth.
Higher order correlation beams in atmosphere under strong turbulence conditions.
Avetisyan, H; Monken, C H
2016-02-08
Higher order correlation beams, that is, two-photon beams obtained from the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion pumped by Hermite-Gauss or Laguerre-Gauss beams of any order, can be used to encode information in many modes, opening the possibility of quantum communication with large alphabets. In this paper we calculate, analytically, the fourth-order correlation function for the Hermite-Gauss and Laguerre-Gauss coherent and partially coherent correlation beams propagating through a strong turbulent medium. We show that fourth-order correlation functions for correlation beams have, under certain conditions, expressions similar to those of intensities of classical beams and are degraded by turbulence in a similar way as the classical beams. Our results can be useful in establishing limits for the use of two-photon beams in quantum communications with larger alphabets under atmospheric turbulence.
Mixed Higher Order Variational Model for Image Recovery
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Pengfei Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A novel mixed higher order regularizer involving the first and second degree image derivatives is proposed in this paper. Using spectral decomposition, we reformulate the new regularizer as a weighted L1-L2 mixed norm of image derivatives. Due to the equivalent formulation of the proposed regularizer, an efficient fast projected gradient algorithm combined with monotone fast iterative shrinkage thresholding, called, FPG-MFISTA, is designed to solve the resulting variational image recovery problems under majorization-minimization framework. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed regularization scheme by the experimental comparisons with total variation (TV scheme, nonlocal TV scheme, and current second degree methods. Specifically, the proposed approach achieves better results than related state-of-the-art methods in terms of peak signal to ratio (PSNR and restoration quality.
Higher-order techniques for some problems of nonlinear control
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Sarychev Andrey V.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A natural first step when dealing with a nonlinear problem is an application of some version of linearization principle. This includes the well known linearization principles for controllability, observability and stability and also first-order optimality conditions such as Lagrange multipliers rule or Pontryagin's maximum principle. In many interesting and important problems of nonlinear control the linearization principle fails to provide a solution. In the present paper we provide some examples of how higher-order methods of differential geometric control theory can be used for the study nonlinear control systems in such cases. The presentation includes: nonlinear systems with impulsive and distribution-like inputs; second-order optimality conditions for bang–bang extremals of optimal control problems; methods of high-order averaging for studying stability and stabilization of time-variant control systems.
Higher-order Brunnian structures and possible physical realizations
Baas, N. A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Riisager, K.; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.
2014-03-01
We consider few-body bound state systems and provide precise definitions of Borromean and Brunnian systems. The initial concepts are more than a hundred years old and originated in mathematical knot-theory as purely geometric considerations. About thirty years ago they were generalized and applied to the binding of systems in nature. It now appears that recent generalization to higher-order Brunnian structures may potentially be realized as laboratory-made or naturally occurring systems. With the binding energy as measure, we discuss possibilities of physical realization in nuclei, cold atoms, and condensedmatter systems. Appearance is not excluded. However, both the form and the strengths of the interactions must be rather special. The most promising subfields for present searches would be in cold atoms because of external control of effective interactions, or perhaps in condensed-matter systems with nonlocal interactions. In nuclei, it would only be by sheer luck due to a lack of tunability.
Higher order corrections to asymptotic-de Sitter inflation
Mohsenzadeh, M.; Yusofi, E.
2017-08-01
Since trans-Planckian considerations can be associated with the re-definition of the initial vacuum, we investigate further the influence of trans-Planckian physics on the spectra produced by the initial quasi-de Sitter (dS) state during inflation. We use the asymptotic-dS mode to study the trans-Planckian correction of the power spectrum to the quasi-dS inflation. The obtained spectra consist of higher order corrections associated with the type of geometry and harmonic terms sensitive to the fluctuations of space-time (or gravitational waves) during inflation. As an important result, the amplitude of the power spectrum is dependent on the choice of c, i.e. the type of space-time in the period of inflation. Also, the results are always valid for any asymptotic dS space-time and particularly coincide with the conventional results for dS and flat space-time.
Predictors of third and Higher order births in India
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Payal Singh
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Total fertility rate (TFR reflecting population growth is closely related to higher order parity progression. Many Indian states reached replacement level of TFR, but still states constituting nearly 40% population are with TFR ≥ 3. The predictors are the desire of son’s, poor contraceptives practices, younger age at marriage, child loss and shorter birth spacing. Objective: This analysis assessed the degree of relation of 3rd and higher order parity progression with the above mentioned predictors. Material and Methods: State/Union Territories wise proportions of women: progressing to ≥3 births, more sons desire, birth spacing <24 months, adopting modern contraception and median marriage age <18 years along with infant mortality rate (IMR were taken from NFHS-III report. Correlation matrix and stepwise forward multiple regression carried. Significance was seen at 5%. Results: Hindi speaking states constituting 38.92% nation population recorded TFR ≥3. Positive correlation of mothers progressing ≥ 3 births was highest (0.746 with those desiring more sons followed by IMR (0.445; while maximum negative correlation with those practicing modern contraceptives (-0.565 followed by median age at marriage (-0.391. Multiple regression analysis in order identified desire of more sons, practicing modern contraception and shorter birth spacing as the significant predictors and jointly explained 77.9% of the total variation with gain of 15.5% by adding modern contraceptive practice and 8.3% by adding shorter birth spacing. Conclusions: Desire of more sons appeared the most important predictor to progress ≥3 births that is governed by society culture and educational attainment, require attitudinal change. Further, mothers need motivation to practice both spacing and terminal methods once family is complete.
Higher-order conditioning is impaired by hippocampal lesions.
Gilboa, Asaf; Sekeres, Melanie; Moscovitch, Morris; Winocur, Gordon
2014-09-22
Behavior in the real world is rarely motivated by primary conditioned stimuli that have been directly associated with potent unconditioned reinforcers. Instead, motivation and choice behavior are driven by complex chains of higher-order associations that are only indirectly linked to intrinsic reward and often exert their influence outside awareness. Second-order conditioning (SOC) [1] is a basic associative-learning mechanism whereby stimuli acquire motivational salience by proxy, in the absence of primary incentives [2, 3]. Memory-systems theories consider first-order conditioning (FOC) and SOC to be prime examples of hippocampal-independent nondeclarative memory [4, 5]. Accordingly, neurobiological models of SOC focus almost exclusively on nondeclarative neural systems that support motivational salience and reward value. Transfer of value from a conditioned stimulus to a neutral stimulus is thought to require the basolateral amygdala [6, 7] and the ventral striatum [2, 3], but not the hippocampus. We developed a new paradigm to measure appetitive SOC of tones in rats. Hippocampal lesions severely impaired both acquisition and expression of SOC despite normal FOC. Unlike controls, rats with hippocampal lesions could not discriminate between positive and negative secondary conditioned tones, although they exhibited general familiarity with previously presented tones compared with new tones. Importantly, normal rats' behavior, in contrast to that of hippocampal groups, also revealed different confidence levels as indexed by effort, a central characteristic of hippocampal relational memory. The results indicate, contrary to current systems models, that representations of intrinsic relationships between reward value, stimulus identity, and motivation require hippocampal mediation when these relationships are of a higher order. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruling out Higher-Order Interference from Purity Principles
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Howard Barnum
2017-06-01
Full Text Available As first noted by Rafael Sorkin, there is a limit to quantum interference. The interference pattern formed in a multi-slit experiment is a function of the interference patterns formed between pairs of slits; there are no genuinely new features resulting from considering three slits instead of two. Sorkin has introduced a hierarchy of mathematically conceivable higher-order interference behaviours, where classical theory lies at the first level of this hierarchy and quantum theory theory at the second. Informally, the order in this hierarchy corresponds to the number of slits on which the interference pattern has an irreducible dependence. Many authors have wondered why quantum interference is limited to the second level of this hierarchy. Does the existence of higher-order interference violate some natural physical principle that we believe should be fundamental? In the current work we show that such principles can be found which limit interference behaviour to second-order, or “quantum-like”, interference, but that do not restrict us to the entire quantum formalism. We work within the operational framework of generalised probabilistic theories, and prove that any theory satisfying Causality, Purity Preservation, Pure Sharpness, and Purification—four principles that formalise the fundamental character of purity in nature—exhibits at most second-order interference. Hence these theories are, at least conceptually, very “close” to quantum theory. Along the way we show that systems in such theories correspond to Euclidean Jordan algebras. Hence, they are self-dual and, moreover, multi-slit experiments in such theories are described by pure projectors.
Schizophrenia patients have higher-order language and extralinguistic impairments.
Pawełczyk, Agnieszka; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Łojek, Emila; Ruszpel, Anna; Pawełczyk, Tomasz
2017-04-21
The extralinguistic and paralinguistic aspects of the language refer to higher-order language functions such as lexical-semantic processes, prosody, indirect speech acts or discourse comprehension and production. Studies suggest that these processes are mediated by the Right Hemisphere (RH) and there is also some evidence of RH dysfunctions in schizophrenia. The aim of the paper is to investigate the extralinguistic and paralinguistic processing mediated by Right Hemisphere in schizophrenia patients using a validated and standardized battery of tests. Two groups of participants were examined: a schizophrenia sample (40 participants) and a control group (39 participants). Extralinguistic and paralinguistic processing was assessed in all subjects by the Polish version of the Right Hemisphere Language Battery (RHLB-PL), which measures comprehension of implicit information, naming, understanding humor, inappropriate remarks and comments, explanation and understanding of metaphors, understanding emotional and language prosody and discourse understanding. Schizophrenia patients scored significantly lower than controls in subtests measuring comprehension of implicit information, interpretation of humor, explanation of metaphors, inappropriate remarks and comments, discernment of emotional and language prosody and comprehension of discourse. No differences were observed in naming, understanding metaphors or in processing visuo-spatial information. Extralinguistic and paralinguistic dysfunctions appear to be present in schizophrenia patients and they suggest that RH processing may be disturbed in that group of patients. As the disturbances of higher-order language processes mediated by the RH may cause serious impairments in the social communication of patients, it is worth evaluating them during clinical examination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Askerov, Bahram M
2010-01-01
This book deals with theoretical thermodynamics and the statistical physics of electron and particle gases. While treating the laws of thermodynamics from both classical and quantum theoretical viewpoints, it posits that the basis of the statistical theory of macroscopic properties of a system is the microcanonical distribution of isolated systems, from which all canonical distributions stem. To calculate the free energy, the Gibbs method is applied to ideal and non-ideal gases, and also to a crystalline solid. Considerable attention is paid to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics and its application to different quantum gases, and electron gas in both metals and semiconductors is considered in a nonequilibrium state. A separate chapter treats the statistical theory of thermodynamic properties of an electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field.
Majumdar, A. K.
1979-01-01
Expressions are derived for higher-order skewness and excess coefficients using central moments and cumulants up to 8th order. These coefficients are then calculated for three probability distributions: (1) Log-normal, (2) Rice-Nakagami, and (3) Gamma distributions. Curves are given to shown the variation of skewness with excess coefficients for these distributions. These curves are independent of the particular distribution parameters. This method is useful for studying fluctuating phenomena, which obey non-Gaussian statistics.
A Simplified Algorithm for Inverting Higher Order Diffusion Tensors
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Laura Astola
2014-11-01
Full Text Available In Riemannian geometry, a distance function is determined by an inner product on the tangent space. In Riemann–Finsler geometry, this distance function can be determined by a norm. This gives more freedom on the form of the so-called indicatrix or the set of unit vectors. This has some interesting applications, e.g., in medical image analysis, especially in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI. An important application of DWI is in the inference of the local architecture of the tissue, typically consisting of thin elongated structures, such as axons or muscle fibers, by measuring the constrained diffusion of water within the tissue. From high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI data, one can estimate the diffusion orientation distribution function (dODF, which indicates the relative diffusivity in all directions and can be represented by a spherical polynomial. We express this dODF as an equivalent spherical monomial (higher order tensor to directly generalize the (second order diffusion tensor approach. To enable efficient computation of Riemann–Finslerian quantities on diffusion weighted (DW-images, such as the metric/norm tensor, we present a simple and efficient algorithm to invert even order spherical monomials, which extends the familiar inversion of diffusion tensors, i.e., symmetric matrices.
Corneal Higher-Order Aberrations in Infectious Keratitis.
Shimizu, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Yagi-Yaguchi, Yukari; Dogru, Murat; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimazaki, Jun
2017-03-01
To characterize the corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), bacterial keratitis (BK), and fungal keratitis (FK). Retrospective consecutive case series. This retrospective study includes 18 normal subjects and 63 eyes of 62 consecutive patients with corneal scarring due to AK (20 eyes), BK (35 eyes), and FK (8 eyes) from 2010 to 2016. HOAs of the anterior and posterior surfaces and the total cornea were analyzed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Corneal HOA patterns were assigned on the basis of corneal topography maps. Corneal opacity grading was assigned on the basis of slit-lamp examinations. We evaluated corneal HOAs, corneal opacity grading, and their correlation with visual acuity. HOAs of the total cornea within a 4-mm diameter were significantly larger in eyes with infectious keratitis (AK, 1.15 ± 2.06 μm; BK, 0.91 ± 0.88 μm; FK, 1.39 ± 1.46 μm) compared with normal controls (0.09 ± 0.01 μm, all, P keratitis were associated with poorer visual acuity values. Asymmetric pattern was the most common topographic pattern in infectious keratitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delayed Higher-Order Optical Nonlinearities in Noble Gases
Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri; Levis, Robert
2014-05-01
The role of higher-order Kerr effect (HOKE) in femtosecond laser filamentation is currently at the center of a controversy, as alleged crossover from positive to negative nonlinear refractive index at higher intensities was proposed to cause filament stabilization. Experimental evidence of HOKE crossover or lack thereof is being hotly debated. Motivated by this debate, we report the frequency-dependent nonlinear refractive index coefficients n2 and n4 for a series of atmospheric-pressure noble gases: helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon. The corresponding atomic hyperpolarizability coefficients are obtained via auxiliary static electric field approach developed on the basis of ab initio calculations implemented in Dalton program and performed at the CCSD level of theory with t-Aug-cc-PV5Z basis set. The n4 index is obtained using the relations between the degenerate six-wave mixing coefficient and some other frequency-dependent second hyperpolarizability coefficients, which can be calculated on the basis of n2via the auxiliary field approach. For all the investigated gases, the n4 indices are found to be positive over the wavelength range 300 nm-1500 nm. This result runs counter to the HOKE crossover hypothesis. The calculated n4 indices demonstrate considerable temporal dispersion, which progressively increases from helium to xenon. This feature implies delayed nonlinearity and calls for modifications in current theoretical models of filamentation process. We gratefully acknowledge financial support through AFOSR MURI Grant No. FA9550-10-1-0561.
Degree of musical expertise modulates higher order brain functioning.
Oechslin, Mathias S; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Lazeyras, François; Hauert, Claude-Alain; James, Clara E
2013-09-01
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show for the first time that levels of musical expertise stepwise modulate higher order brain functioning. This suggests that degree of training intensity drives such cerebral plasticity. Participants (non-musicians, amateurs, and expert musicians) listened to a comprehensive set of specifically composed string quartets with hierarchically manipulated endings. In particular, we implemented 2 irregularities at musical closure that differed in salience but were both within the tonality of the piece (in-key). Behavioral sensitivity scores (d') of both transgressions perfectly separated participants according to their level of musical expertise. By contrasting brain responses to harmonic transgressions against regular endings, functional brain imaging data showed compelling evidence for stepwise modulation of brain responses by both violation strength and expertise level in a fronto-temporal network hosting universal functions of working memory and attention. Additional independent testing evidenced an advantage in visual working memory for the professionals, which could be predicted by musical training intensity. The here introduced findings of brain plasticity demonstrate the progressive impact of musical training on cognitive brain functions that may manifest well beyond the field of music processing.
Higher-order graph wavelets and sparsity on circulant graphs
Kotzagiannidis, Madeleine S.; Dragotti, Pier Luigi
2015-08-01
The notion of a graph wavelet gives rise to more advanced processing of data on graphs due to its ability to operate in a localized manner, across newly arising data-dependency structures, with respect to the graph signal and underlying graph structure, thereby taking into consideration the inherent geometry of the data. In this work, we tackle the problem of creating graph wavelet filterbanks on circulant graphs for a sparse representation of certain classes of graph signals. The underlying graph can hereby be data-driven as well as fixed, for applications including image processing and social network theory, whereby clusters can be modelled as circulant graphs, respectively. We present a set of novel graph wavelet filter-bank constructions, which annihilate higher-order polynomial graph signals (up to a border effect) defined on the vertices of undirected, circulant graphs, and are localised in the vertex domain. We give preliminary results on their performance for non-linear graph signal approximation and denoising. Furthermore, we provide extensions to our previously developed segmentation-inspired graph wavelet framework for non-linear image approximation, by incorporating notions of smoothness and vanishing moments, which further improve performance compared to traditional methods.
A general higher-order remap algorithm for ALE calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiravalle, Vincent P [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-05
A numerical technique for solving the equations of fluid dynamics with arbitrary mesh motion is presented. The three phases of the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) methodology are outlined: the Lagrangian phase, grid relaxation phase and remap phase. The Lagrangian phase follows a well known approach from the HEMP code; in addition the strain rate andflow divergence are calculated in a consistent manner according to Margolin. A donor cell method from the SALE code forms the basis of the remap step, but unlike SALE a higher order correction based on monotone gradients is also added to the remap. Four test problems were explored to evaluate the fidelity of these numerical techniques, as implemented in a simple test code, written in the C programming language, called Cercion. Novel cell-centered data structures are used in Cercion to reduce the complexity of the programming and maximize the efficiency of memory usage. The locations of the shock and contact discontinuity in the Riemann shock tube problem are well captured. Cercion demonstrates a high degree of symmetry when calculating the Sedov blast wave solution, with a peak density at the shock front that is similar to the value determined by the RAGE code. For a flyer plate test problem both Cercion and FLAG give virtually the same velocity temporal profile at the target-vacuum interface. When calculating a cylindrical implosion of a steel shell, Cercion and FLAG agree well and the Cercion results are insensitive to the use of ALE.
Phantom Friedmann cosmologies and higher-order characteristics of expansion
Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Stachowiak, Tomasz
2006-04-01
We discuss a more general class of phantom (p -1) matter. We show that many types of evolution which include both Big-Bang and Big-Rip singularities are admitted and give explicit examples. Among some interesting models, there exist non-singular oscillating (or “bounce”) cosmologies, which appear due to a competition between positive and negative pressure of variety of matter content. From the point of view of the current observations the most interesting cosmologies are the ones which start with a Big-Bang and terminate at a Big-Rip. A related consequence of having a possibility of two types of singularities is that there exists an unstable static universe approached by the two asymptotic models—one of them reaches Big-Bang, and another reaches Big-Rip. We also give explicit relations between density parameters Ω and the dynamical characteristics for these generalized phantom models, including higher-order observational characteristics such as jerk and “kerk.” Finally, we discuss the observational quantities such as luminosity distance, angular diameter, and source counts, both in series expansion and explicitly, for phantom models. Our series expansion formulas for the luminosity distance and the apparent magnitude go as far as to the fourth-order in redshift z term, which includes explicitly not only the jerk, but also the “kerk” (or “snap”) which may serve as an indicator of the curvature of the universe.
Higher Order Modes Excitation of Micro Cantilever Beams
Jaber, Nizar
2014-05-01
In this study, we present analytical and experimental investigation of electrically actuated micro cantilever based resonators. These devices are fabricated using polyimide and coated with chrome and gold layers from both sides. The cantilevers are highly curled up due to stress gradient, which is a common imperfection in surface micro machining. Using a laser Doppler vibrometer, we applied a noise signal to experimentally find the first four resonance frequencies. Then, using a data acquisition card, we swept the excitation frequency around the first four natural modes of vibrations. Theoretically, we derived a reduced order model using the Galerkin method to simulate the dynamics of the system. Extensive numerical analysis and computations were performed. The numerical analysis was able to provide good matching with experimental values of the resonance frequencies. Also, we proved the ability to excite higher order modes using partial electrodes with shapes that resemble the shape of the mode of interest. Such micro-resonators are shown to be promising for applications in mass and gas sensing.
Predicting perceptual learning from higher-order cortical processing.
Wang, Fang; Huang, Jing; Lv, Yaping; Ma, Xiaoli; Yang, Bin; Wang, Encong; Du, Boqi; Li, Wu; Song, Yan
2016-01-01
Visual perceptual learning has been shown to be highly specific to the retinotopic location and attributes of the trained stimulus. Recent psychophysical studies suggest that these specificities, which have been associated with early retinotopic visual cortex, may in fact not be inherent in perceptual learning and could be related to higher-order brain functions. Here we provide direct electrophysiological evidence in support of this proposition. In a series of event-related potential (ERP) experiments, we recorded high-density electroencephalography (EEG) from human adults over the course of learning in a texture discrimination task (TDT). The results consistently showed that the earliest C1 component (68-84ms), known to reflect V1 activity driven by feedforward inputs, was not modulated by learning regardless of whether the behavioral improvement is location specific or not. In contrast, two later posterior ERP components (posterior P1 and P160-350) over the occipital cortex and one anterior ERP component (anterior P160-350) over the prefrontal cortex were progressively modified day by day. Moreover, the change of the anterior component was closely correlated with improved behavioral performance on a daily basis. Consistent with recent psychophysical and imaging observations, our results indicate that perceptual learning can mainly involve changes in higher-level visual cortex as well as in the neural networks responsible for cognitive functions such as attention and decision making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle
Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace
2017-11-01
As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.
Multilinear Discriminant Analysis for Higher-Order Tensor Data Classification.
Li, Qun; Schonfeld, Dan
2014-12-01
In the past decade, great efforts have been made to extend linear discriminant analysis for higher-order data classification, generally referred to as multilinear discriminant analysis (MDA). Existing examples include general tensor discriminant analysis (GTDA) and discriminant analysis with tensor representation (DATER). Both the two methods attempt to resolve the problem of tensor mode dependency by iterative approximation. GTDA is known to be the first MDA method that converges over iterations. However, its performance relies highly on the tuning of the parameter in the scatter difference criterion. Although DATER usually results in better classification performance, it does not converge, yet the number of iterations executed has a direct impact on DATER's performance. In this paper, we propose a closed-form solution to the scatter difference objective in GTDA, namely, direct GTDA (DGTDA) which also gets rid of parameter tuning. We demonstrate that DGTDA outperforms GTDA in terms of both efficiency and accuracy. In addition, we propose constrained multilinear discriminant analysis (CMDA) that learns the optimal tensor subspace by iteratively maximizing the scatter ratio criterion. We prove both theoretically and experimentally that the value of the scatter ratio criterion in CMDA approaches its extreme value, if it exists, with bounded error, leading to superior and more stable performance in comparison to DATER.
Near integrability of kink lattice with higher order interactions
Jiang, Yun-Guo; Liu, Jia-Zhen; He, Song
2017-11-01
We make use of Manton’s analytical method to investigate the force between kinks and anti-kinks at large distances in 1+1 dimensional field theory. The related potential has infinite order corrections of exponential pattern, and the coefficients for each order are determined. These coefficients can also be obtained by solving the equation of the fluctuations around the vacuum. At the lowest order, the kink lattice represents the Toda lattice. With higher order correction terms, the kink lattice can represent one kind of generic Toda lattice. With only two sites, the kink lattice is classically integrable. If the number of sites of the lattice is larger than two, the kink lattice is not integrable but is a near integrable system. We make use of Flaschka’s variables to study the Lax pair of the kink lattice. These Flaschka’s variables have interesting algebraic relations and non-integrability can be manifested. We also discuss the higher Hamiltonians for the deformed open Toda lattice, which has a similar result to the ordinary deformed Toda. Supported by Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation (ZR2014AQ007), National Natural Science Foundation of China (11403015, U1531105), S. He is supported by Max-Planck fellowship in Germany and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305235)
Higher-order web link analysis using multilinear algebra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kenny, Joseph P.; Bader, Brett William (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2005-07-01
Linear algebra is a powerful and proven tool in web search. Techniques, such as the PageRank algorithm of Brin and Page and the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg, score web pages based on the principal eigenvector (or singular vector) of a particular non-negative matrix that captures the hyperlink structure of the web graph. We propose and test a new methodology that uses multilinear algebra to elicit more information from a higher-order representation of the hyperlink graph. We start by labeling the edges in our graph with the anchor text of the hyperlinks so that the associated linear algebra representation is a sparse, three-way tensor. The first two dimensions of the tensor represent the web pages while the third dimension adds the anchor text. We then use the rank-1 factors of a multilinear PARAFAC tensor decomposition, which are akin to singular vectors of the SVD, to automatically identify topics in the collection along with the associated authoritative web pages.
Fracture in a higher-order elastic continuum
Shi, M. X.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, K. C.
2000-12-01
We have obtained analytically the mode I and mode II full-field solutions for a semi-infinite crack in an infinite solid characterized by the higher-order elastic continuum theory. The theory is the limit of the strain gradient plasticity theory (Fleck, N.A., Hutchinson, J.W., 1997. Strain gradient plasticity. In: Hutchinson, J.W., Wu, T.Y. (Eds.), Advances in Applied Mechanics, vol. 33. Academic Press, New York, 295-361) with the plastic work hardening exponent n=1. It also represents the macroscopic behavior of cellular materials. The analytical solution shows the transition from remotely imposed classical K field to the asymptotic field near the crack tip over the internal material lengths associated with the stretch gradient and rotation gradient of deformation. It is established that the asymptotic crack tip fields have no domain of physical validity because the stress tractions have the incorrect sign within a zone on the order of internal material length l1 associated with the stretch gradient of deformation. This analytical full-field solution can be used as an important benchmark for the various finite elements developed for strain gradient plasticity.
Renormalizability in D -dimensional higher-order gravity
Accioly, Antonio; de Almeida, José; Brito, Gustavo P.; Correia, Gilson
2017-04-01
A simple expression for calculating the classical potential in D -dimensional gravitational models is obtained through a method based on the generating functional. The prescription is then used as a mathematical tool to probe the conjecture that renormalizable higher-order gravity models—which are, of course, nonunitary—are endowed with a classical potential that is nonsingular at the origin. It is also shown that the converse of this statement is not true, which implies that the finiteness of the classical potential at the origin is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the renormalizability of the model. The systems we have utilized to verify the conjecture were fourth- and sixth-order gravity models in D dimensions. A discussion about the polemic question related to the renormalizability of new massive gravity, which Oda claimed to be renormalizable in 2009 and which was shown to be nonrenormalizable by Muneyuki and Ohta three years later, is considered. We remark that the solution of this issue is straightforward if the aforementioned conjecture is employed. We point out that our analysis is restricted to local models in which the propagator has simple and real poles.
Statistical Methods for Single-Particle Electron Cryomicroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Katrine Hommelhoff
Electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) is a form of transmission electron microscopy, aimed at reconstructing the 3D structure of a macromolecular complex from a large set of 2D projection images, as they exhibit a very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the single-particle reconstruction (SPR) problem...... in this thesis attempt to solve a specific part of the reconstruction problem in a statistically sound manner. Firstly, we propose two methods for solving the problems (1) and (2). They can ultimately be extended and combined into a statistically sound solution to the full SPR problem. We use Bayesian...
Quantum statistical mechanics of electron gas in magnetic field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I.M.Dubrovskii
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Electron eigenstates in a magnetic field are considered. Density of the probability current and an averaged magnetic moment are obtained. Density of states is investigated for two-dimensional electron in a circle that is bound by the infinite potential barrier. The present study shows that the common quantum statistical mechanics of electron gas in a magnetic field leads to incorrect results. The magnetic moment of electron gas can be computed as the sum of averaged moments of the occupied states. The computations lead to the results that differ from the ones obtained as the derivative of the thermodynamical potential with respect to the magnetic field. Other contradictions in common statistical thermodynamics of electron gas in a magnetic field are pointed out. The conclusion is done that these contradictions arise from using the incorrect statistical operator. A new quantum function of distribution is derived from the basic principles, taking into account the law of conservation of an angular momentum. These results are in accord with the theory that has been obtained within the framework of classical statistical thermodynamics in the previous work.
Separating higher-order nonlinearities in transient absorption microscopy
Wilson, Jesse W.; Anderson, Miguel; Park, Jong Kang; Fischer, Martin C.; Warren, Warren S.
2015-08-01
The transient absorption response of melanin is a promising optically-accessible biomarker for distinguishing malignant melanoma from benign pigmented lesions, as demonstrated by earlier experiments on thin sections from biopsied tissue. The technique has also been demonstrated in vivo, but the higher optical intensity required for detecting these signals from backscattered light introduces higher-order nonlinearities in the transient response of melanin. These components that are higher than linear with respect to the pump or the probe introduce intensity-dependent changes to the overall response that complicate data analysis. However, our data also suggest these nonlinearities might be advantageous to in vivo imaging, in that different types of melanins have different nonlinear responses. Therefore, methods to separate linear from nonlinear components in transient absorption measurements might provide additional information to aid in the diagnosis of melanoma. We will discuss numerical methods for analyzing the various nonlinear contributions to pump-probe signals, with the ultimate objective of real time analysis using digital signal processing techniques. To that end, we have replaced the lock-in amplifier in our pump-probe microscope with a high-speed data acquisition board, and reprogrammed the coprocessor field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to perform lock-in detection. The FPGA lock-in offers better performance than the commercial instrument, in terms of both signal to noise ratio and speed. In addition, the flexibility of the digital signal processing approach enables demodulation of more complicated waveforms, such as spread-spectrum sequences, which has the potential to accelerate microscopy methods that rely on slow relaxation phenomena, such as photo-thermal and phosphorescence lifetime imaging.
Emotion recognition from EEG using higher order crossings.
Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J
2010-03-01
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition is a relatively new field in the affective computing area with challenging issues regarding the induction of the emotional states and the extraction of the features in order to achieve optimum classification performance. In this paper, a novel emotion evocation and EEG-based feature extraction technique is presented. In particular, the mirror neuron system concept was adapted to efficiently foster emotion induction by the process of imitation. In addition, higher order crossings (HOC) analysis was employed for the feature extraction scheme and a robust classification method, namely HOC-emotion classifier (HOC-EC), was implemented testing four different classifiers [quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), k-nearest neighbor, Mahalanobis distance, and support vector machines (SVMs)], in order to accomplish efficient emotion recognition. Through a series of facial expression image projection, EEG data have been collected by 16 healthy subjects using only 3 EEG channels, namely Fp1, Fp2, and a bipolar channel of F3 and F4 positions according to 10-20 system. Two scenarios were examined using EEG data from a single-channel and from combined-channels, respectively. Compared with other feature extraction methods, HOC-EC appears to outperform them, achieving a 62.3% (using QDA) and 83.33% (using SVM) classification accuracy for the single-channel and combined-channel cases, respectively, differentiating among the six basic emotions, i.e., happiness, surprise, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. As the emotion class-set reduces its dimension, the HOC-EC converges toward maximum classification rate (100% for five or less emotions), justifying the efficiency of the proposed approach. This could facilitate the integration of HOC-EC in human machine interfaces, such as pervasive healthcare systems, enhancing their affective character and providing information about the user's emotional status (e.g., identifying user's emotion
Electronic Marking of Statistics Assessments for Bioscience Students
Ayres, Karen L.; Underwood, Fiona M.
2010-01-01
We describe the main features of a program written to perform electronic marking of quantitative or simple text questions. One of the main benefits is that it can check answers for being consistent with earlier errors, so can cope with a range of numerical questions. We summarise our experience of using it in a statistics course taught to 200…
Electron Energy Level Statistics in Graphene Quantum Dots
De Raedt, H.; Katsnellson, M. I.; Katsnelson, M.I.
2008-01-01
Motivated by recent experimental observations of size quantization of electron energy levels in graphene quantum dots [7] we investigate the level statistics in the simplest tight-binding model for different dot shapes by computer simulation. The results are in a reasonable agreement with the
Generalized higher order two-point moments in turbulent boundary layers.
Yang, Xiang; Marusic, Ivan; Meneveau, Charles
2015-11-01
Generalized higher order two-point moments such as uz'm (x) uz'n(x + r > 2 / (m + n) and uz'2 (x) -uz'2 (x + r) ] n > 1 / n (where z is the distance from the wall, r is the distance in the flow direction, and m and n are arbitrary integers) are examined using high Reynolds number experimental data in turbulent boundary layer flow. Logarithmic behaviors with respect to both s and z in such statistics are observed. Certain predictions for such generalized log laws can be made in the context of the attached eddy hypothesis. Particularly simple results can be obtained for the scaling if one considers the velocity fluctuations at some point x and height z being the outcome of a random additive process, e.g. uN' =∑i= 1 Nai , where Ndepends on the wall normal distance zas N ~log (δ / z) , and the ai's are identical independent random additives. Predictions can be made of the slopes in the generalized log laws and these can be compared to the experimental data. For instance, already for single point higher-order moments it was known that the model overpredicts some slopes, indicating a sub-Gaussian behavior in the statistics. Gaussian behavior is rooted in the assumption of independency in ai's. We discuss some variants that introduce correlations, and provide evidence that the generalized higher order two-point moments can help discriminate among various possible models.
Simulation and mitigation of higher-order ionospheric errors in PPP
Zus, Florian; Deng, Zhiguo; Wickert, Jens
2017-04-01
We developed a rapid and precise algorithm to compute ionospheric phase advances in a realistic electron density field. The electron density field is derived from a plasmaspheric extension of the International Reference Ionosphere (Gulyaeva and Bilitza, 2012) and the magnetic field stems from the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. For specific station locations, elevation and azimuth angles the ionospheric phase advances are stored in a look-up table. The higher-order ionospheric residuals are computed by forming the standard linear combination of the ionospheric phase advances. In a simulation study we examine how the higher-order ionospheric residuals leak into estimated station coordinates, clocks, zenith delays and tropospheric gradients in precise point positioning. The simulation study includes a few hundred globally distributed stations and covers the time period 1990-2015. We take a close look on the estimated zenith delays and tropospheric gradients as they are considered a data source for meteorological and climate related research. We also show how the by product of this simulation study, the look-up tables, can be used to mitigate higher-order ionospheric errors in practise. Gulyaeva, T.L., and Bilitza, D. Towards ISO Standard Earth Ionosphere and Plasmasphere Model. In: New Developments in the Standard Model, edited by R.J. Larsen, pp. 1-39, NOVA, Hauppauge, New York, 2012, available at https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=35812
Methods and framework for visualizing higher-order finite elements.
Schroeder, William J; Bertel, François; Malaterre, Mathieu; Thompson, David; Pébay, Philippe P; O'Bara, Robert; Tendulkar, Saurabh
2006-01-01
The finite element method is an important, widely used numerical technique for solving partial differential equations. This technique utilizes basis functions for approximating the geometry and the variation of the solution field over finite regions, or elements, of the domain. These basis functions are generally formed by combinations of polynomials. In the past, the polynomial order of the basis has been low-typically of linear and quadratic order. However, in recent years so-called p and hp methods have been developed, which may elevate the order of the basis to arbitrary levels with the aim of accelerating the convergence of the numerical solution. The increasing complexity of numerical basis functions poses a significant challenge to visualization systems. In the past, such systems have been loosely coupled to simulation packages, exchanging data via file transfer, and internally reimplementing the basis functions in order to perform interpolation and implement visualization algorithms. However, as the basis functions become more complex and, in some cases, proprietary in nature, it becomes increasingly difficult if not impossible to reimplement them within the visualization system. Further, most visualization systems typically process linear primitives, in part to take advantage of graphics hardware and, in part, due to the inherent simplicity of the resulting algorithms. Thus, visualization of higher-order finite elements requires tessellating the basis to produce data compatible with existing visualization systems. In this paper, we describe adaptive methods that automatically tessellate complex finite element basis functions using a flexible and extensible software framework. These methods employ a recursive, edge-based subdivision algorithm driven by a set of error metrics including geometric error, solution error, and error in image space. Further, we describe advanced pretessellation techniques that guarantees capture of the critical points of the
Initial Semantics for higher-order typed syntax in Coq
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benedikt Ahrens
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Initial Semantics aims at characterizing the syntax associated to a signature as the initial object of some category. We present an initial semantics result for typed higher-order syntax together with its formalization in the Coq proof assistant. The main theorem was first proved on paper in the second author’s PhD thesis in 2010, and verified formally shortly afterwards.To a simply–typed binding signature S over a fixed set T of object types we associate a category called the category of representations of S. We show that this category has an initial object Sigma(S, i.e. an object Sigma(S from which there is precisely one morphism i_R : Sigma(S -> R to any object R of this category. From its construction it will be clear that the object Sigma(S merits the name abstract syntax associated to S: it is given by an inductive set – parametrized by a set of free variables and dependent on object types – the type of whose constructors are each given by the arities of the signature S.Our theorem is implemented and proved correct in the proof assistant Coq through heavy use of dependent types. The approach through monads gives rise to an implementation of syntax where both terms and variables are intrinsically typed, i.e. where the object types are rejected in the meta–level types. Terms are implemented as a Coq data type – which play the role of sets – dependent on an object type as well as on a type family of free variables.This article is to be seen as a research article rather than about the formalization of a classical mathematical result. The nature of our theorem – involving lengthy, technical proofs and complicated algebraic structures – makes it particularly interesting for formal verification. Our goal is to promote the use of computer theorem provers as research tools, and, accordingly, a new way of publishing mathematical results: a parallel description of a theorem and its formalization should allow the verification of
Two-Photon or Higher-Order Absorbing Optical Materials for Generation of Reactive Species
Cumpston, Brian (Inventor); Lipson, Matthew (Inventor); Marder, Seth R. (Inventor); Perry, Joseph W. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
Disclosed are highly efficient multiphoton absorbing compounds and methods of their use. The compounds generally include a bridge of pi-conjugated bonds connecting electron donating groups or electron accepting groups. The bridge may be substituted with a variety of substituents as well. Solubility, lipophilicity, absorption maxima and other characteristics of the compounds may be tailored by changing the electron donating groups or electron accepting groups, the substituents attached to or the length of the pi-conjugated bridge. Numerous photophysical and photochemical methods are enabled by converting these compounds to electronically excited states upon simultaneous absorption of at least two photons of radiation. The compounds have large two-photon or higher-order absorptivities such that upon absorption, one or more Lewis acidic species, Lewis basic species, radical species or ionic species are formed.
Upgrading the Marketing Curriculum: The Integration of Higher-Order Skills. A Perspective.
Schoettinger, Nancy L.
1985-01-01
Discusses the support for higher-order skills in the secondary school and vocational curricula, the need for higher-order skills in the marketing curriculum, methods of teaching higher-order skills, and implications for teacher education. (CT)
Statistical acceleration of electrons by lower-hybrid turbulence
Wu, C. S.; Gaffey, J. D., Jr.; Liberman, B.
1981-01-01
The statistical acceleration of electrons along an ambient magnetic field by large-amplitude lower-hybrid turbulence is discussed. Perturbations driven by a crossfield current and propagating nearly perpendicular to the applied magnetic field are considered. It is assumed that the instability saturates rapidly and that the fluctuating electric field is predominantly electrostatic. If the turbulence is characterized by a spectrum of small parallel wavenumbers, such that the parallel phase velocity of the waves is greater than the electron thermal velocity, then the turbulence can only accelerate electrons moving with large velocities along the magnetic field. The quasi-linear diffusion equation is solved using a Green's function technique, assuming a power law spectral energy density. The time evolution of an initial Maxwellian distribution is given and the time rate of change of the mean electron energy is calculated for various cases.
Educating Grade 6 students for higher-order thinking and its influence on creativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wajeeh Daher
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Educating students for higher-order thinking provides them with tools that turn them into more critical thinkers. This supports them in overcoming life problems that they encounter, as well as becoming an integral part of the society. This students’ education is attended to by educational organisations that emphasise the positive consequences of educating students for higher-order thinking, including creative thinking. One way to do that is through educational programmes that educate for higher-order thinking. One such programme is the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT thinking programme. The present research intended to examine the effect of the participation of Grade 6 students in a CoRT programme on their creative thinking. Fifty-three students participated in the research; 27 participated in a CoRT programme, while 26 did not participate in such programme. The ANCOVA test showed that the students who participated in the CoRT programme outperformed significantly, in creative thinking, the students who did not. Moreover, the students in the CoRT programme whose achievement scores were between 86 and 100 outperformed significantly the other achievement groups of students. Furthermore, students with reported high ability outperformed significantly the other ability groups of students. The results did not show statistically significant differences in students’ creativity attributed to gender.
Purposely Teaching for the Promotion of Higher-order Thinking Skills: A Case of Critical Thinking
Miri, Barak; David, Ben-Chaim; Uri, Zoller
2007-10-01
This longitudinal case-study aimed at examining whether purposely teaching for the promotion of higher order thinking skills enhances students’ critical thinking (CT), within the framework of science education. Within a pre-, post-, and post-post experimental design, high school students, were divided into three research groups. The experimental group ( n = 57) consisted of science students who were exposed to teaching strategies designed for enhancing higher order thinking skills. Two other groups: science ( n = 41) and non-science majors ( n = 79), were taught traditionally, and acted as control. By using critical thinking assessment instruments, we have found that the experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement on critical thinking skills components and disposition towards critical thinking subscales, such as truth-seeking, open-mindedness, self-confidence, and maturity, compared with the control groups. Our findings suggest that if teachers purposely and persistently practice higher order thinking strategies for example, dealing in class with real-world problems, encouraging open-ended class discussions, and fostering inquiry-oriented experiments, there is a good chance for a consequent development of critical thinking capabilities.
Multifunctional diffractive optical elements for the generation of higher order Bessel-like-beams
Vijayakumar, A.; Bhattacharya, Shanti
2015-01-01
Higher Order Bessel Beams (HOBBs) have many useful applications in optical trapping experiments. The generation of HOBBs is achieved by illuminating an axicon by a Laguerre-Gaussian beam generated by a spiral phase plate. It can also be generated by a Holographic Optical Element (HOE) containing the functions of the Spiral Phase Plate (SPP) and an axicon. However the HOBB's large focal depth reduces the intensity at each plane. In this paper, we propose a multifunctional Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) containing the functions of a SPP, axicon and a Fresnel Zone Lens (FZL) to generate higher efficiency higher order Bessel-like-beams with a reduced focal depth. The functions of a SPP and a FZL were combined by shifting the location of zones of FZL in a spiral fashion. The resulting element is combined with an axicon by modulo-2π phase addition technique. The final composite element contains the functions of SPP, FZL and axicon. The elements were designed with different topological charges and fabricated using electron beam direct writing. The elements were tested and the generation of a higher order Bessel-like-beams is confirmed. Besides, the elements also generated high quality donut beams at two planes equidistant from the focal plane of the FZL.
Higher-order photon bunching in a semiconductor microcavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Assmann, M.; Veit, F.; Bayer, M.
2009-01-01
Quantum mechanically indistinguishable particles such as photons may show collective behavior. Therefore, an appropriate description of a light field must consider the properties of an assembly of photons instead of independent particles. We have studied multiphoton correlations up to fourth order...... in the single-mode emission of a semiconductor microcavity in the weak and strong coupling regimes. The counting statistics of single photons were recorded with picosecond time resolution, allowing quantitative measurement of the few-photon bunching inside light pulses. Our results show bunching behavior...... in the strong coupling case, which vanishes in the weak coupling regime as the cavity starts lasing. In particular, we verify the n factorial prediction for the zero-delay correlation function of n thermal light photons....
Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis.
Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako
2009-11-01
Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena.
Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis
Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako
2009-11-01
Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena.
Spatio-chromatic adaptation via higher-order canonical correlation analysis of natural images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael U Gutmann
Full Text Available Independent component and canonical correlation analysis are two general-purpose statistical methods with wide applicability. In neuroscience, independent component analysis of chromatic natural images explains the spatio-chromatic structure of primary cortical receptive fields in terms of properties of the visual environment. Canonical correlation analysis explains similarly chromatic adaptation to different illuminations. But, as we show in this paper, neither of the two methods generalizes well to explain both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation at the same time. We propose a statistical method which combines the desirable properties of independent component and canonical correlation analysis: It finds independent components in each data set which, across the two data sets, are related to each other via linear or higher-order correlations. The new method is as widely applicable as canonical correlation analysis, and also to more than two data sets. We call it higher-order canonical correlation analysis. When applied to chromatic natural images, we found that it provides a single (unified statistical framework which accounts for both spatio-chromatic processing and adaptation. Filters with spatio-chromatic tuning properties as in the primary visual cortex emerged and corresponding-colors psychophysics was reproduced reasonably well. We used the new method to make a theory-driven testable prediction on how the neural response to colored patterns should change when the illumination changes. We predict shifts in the responses which are comparable to the shifts reported for chromatic contrast habituation.
Average gluon and quark jet multiplicities at higher orders
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolzoni, Paolo; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Kotikov, Anatoly V. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics
2013-05-15
We develop a new formalism for computing and including both the perturbative and nonperturbative QCD contributions to the scale evolution of average gluon and quark jet multiplicities. The new method is motivated by recent progress in timelike small-x resummation obtained in the MS factorization scheme. We obtain next-to-next-to-leading-logarithmic (NNLL) resummed expressions, which represent generalizations of previous analytic results. Our expressions depend on two nonperturbative parameters with clear and simple physical interpretations. A global fit of these two quantities to all available experimental data sets that are compatible with regard to the jet algorithms demonstrates by its goodness how our results solve a longstanding problem of QCD. We show that the statistical and theoretical uncertainties both do not exceed 5% for scales above 10 GeV. We finally propose to use the jet multiplicity data as a new way to extract the strong-coupling constant. Including all the available theoretical input within our approach, we obtain {alpha}{sub s}{sup (5)}(M{sub Z})=0.1199{+-}0.0026 in the MS scheme in an approximation equivalent to next-to-next-to-leading order enhanced by the resummations of ln(x) terms through the NNLL level and of ln Q{sup 2} terms by the renormalization group, in excellent agreement with the present world average.
Two-photon or higher-order absorbing optical materials and methods of use
Marder, Seth (Inventor); Perry, Joseph (Inventor)
2012-01-01
Compositions capable of simultaneous two-photon absorption and higher order absorptivities are provided. Compounds having a donor-pi-donor or acceptor-pi-acceptor structure are of particular interest, where the donor is an electron donating group, acceptor is an electron accepting group, and pi is a pi bridge linking the donor and/or acceptor groups. The pi bridge may additionally be substituted with electron donating or withdrawing groups to alter the absorptive wavelength of the structure. Also disclosed are methods of generating an excited state of such compounds through optical stimulation with light using simultaneous absorption of photons of energies individually insufficient to achieve an excited state of the compound, but capable of doing so upon simultaneous absorption of two or more such photons. Applications employing such methods are also provided, including controlled polymerization achieved through focusing of the light source(s) used.
Higher order corrections to dust-acoustic shock waves in a strongly coupled cryogenic dusty plasma
El-Borie, M. A.; Atteya, A.
2017-11-01
To investigate the contribution of higher-order nonlinearity and dissipation to nonlinear ultra-low-frequency dust-acoustic shock waves (DASWs), a reductive perturbation technique is employed in a strongly coupled cryogenic dusty plasma. The model consists of Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions, as well as equations for strongly coupled charged dust grains. A nonlinear Burger equation and a linear inhomogeneous Burger-type equation are derived. The present model admits both compressive and rarefactive dust-acoustic (DA) shocks. Including these higher-order corrections results in creating new shock wave structures called "humped DASWs." It is shown that the effects of kinematic viscosity, the number of electrons residing on the dust grain surface, Zd, and the dust number density via β have important roles in the basic features of the produced DA shocks and the associated electric fields. It has been shown that it is more important to be included. These findings are devoted to explaining the observed waves propagating in the laboratory plasma experiments at cryogenic temperature. This kind of plasma is used for etching nano-patterns without defects, used in nonideal systems, and physics of nucleation to deposit nanosize Si compounds.
Delorme, Arnaud; Sejnowski, Terrence; Makeig, Scott
2007-02-15
Detecting artifacts produced in EEG data by muscle activity, eye blinks and electrical noise is a common and important problem in EEG research. It is now widely accepted that independent component analysis (ICA) may be a useful tool for isolating artifacts and/or cortical processes from electroencephalographic (EEG) data. We present results of simulations demonstrating that ICA decomposition, here tested using three popular ICA algorithms, Infomax, SOBI, and FastICA, can allow more sensitive automated detection of small non-brain artifacts than applying the same detection methods directly to the scalp channel data. We tested the upper bound performance of five methods for detecting various types of artifacts by separately optimizing and then applying them to artifact-free EEG data into which we had added simulated artifacts of several types, ranging in size from thirty times smaller (-50 dB) to the size of the EEG data themselves (0 dB). Of the methods tested, those involving spectral thresholding were most sensitive. Except for muscle artifact detection where we found no gain of using ICA, all methods proved more sensitive when applied to the ICA-decomposed data than applied to the raw scalp data: the mean performance for ICA was higher and situated at about two standard deviations away from the performance distribution obtained on raw data. We note that ICA decomposition also allows simple subtraction of artifacts accounted for by single independent components, and/or separate and direct examination of the decomposed non-artifact processes themselves.
Electron teleportation and statistical transmutation in multiterminal Majorana islands
Michaeli, Karen; Landau, L. Aviad; Sela, Eran; Fu, Liang
2017-11-01
We study a topological superconductor island with spatially separated Majorana modes coupled to multiple normal-metal leads by single-electron tunneling in the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that low-temperature transport in such a Majorana island is carried by an emergent charge-e boson composed of a Majorana mode and an electronic excitation in leads. This transmutation from Fermi to Bose statistics has remarkable consequences. For noninteracting leads, the system flows to a non-Fermi-liquid fixed point, which is stable against tunnel couplings anisotropy or detuning away from the charge-degeneracy point. As a result, the system exhibits a universal conductance at zero temperature, which is a fraction of the conductance quantum, and low-temperature corrections with a universal power-law exponent. In addition, we consider Majorana islands connected to interacting one-dimensional leads, and find different stable fixed points near and far from the charge-degeneracy point.
Higher-order Solution of Stochastic Diffusion equation with Nonlinear Losses Using WHEP technique
El-Beltagy, Mohamed A.
2014-01-06
Using Wiener-Hermite expansion with perturbation (WHEP) technique in the solution of the stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) has the advantage of converting the problem to a system of deterministic equations that can be solved efficiently using the standard deterministic numerical methods [1]. The Wiener-Hermite expansion is the only known expansion that handles the white/colored noise exactly. The main statistics, such as the mean, covariance, and higher order statistical moments, can be calculated by simple formulae involving only the deterministic Wiener-Hermite coefficients. In this poster, the WHEP technique is used to solve the 2D diffusion equation with nonlinear losses and excited with white noise. The solution will be obtained numerically and will be validated and compared with the analytical solution that can be obtained from any symbolic mathematics package such as Mathematica.
Kosov, Daniel S.
2017-09-01
Quantum transport of electrons through a molecule is a series of individual electron tunneling events separated by stochastic waiting time intervals. We study the emergence of temporal correlations between successive waiting times for the electron transport in a vibrating molecular junction. Using the master equation approach, we compute the joint probability distribution for waiting times of two successive tunneling events. We show that the probability distribution is completely reset after each tunneling event if molecular vibrations are thermally equilibrated. If we treat vibrational dynamics exactly without imposing the equilibration constraint, the statistics of electron tunneling events become non-renewal. Non-renewal statistics between two waiting times τ1 and τ2 means that the density matrix of the molecule is not fully renewed after time τ1 and the probability of observing waiting time τ2 for the second electron transfer depends on the previous electron waiting time τ1. The strong electron-vibration coupling is required for the emergence of the non-renewal statistics. We show that in the Franck-Condon blockade regime, extremely rare tunneling events become positively correlated.
Base sequence and higher-order structure induce the complex excited-state dynamics in DNA.
Schwalb, Nina K; Temps, Friedrich
2008-10-10
The high photostability of DNA is commonly attributed to efficient radiationless electronic relaxation processes. We used femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy to reveal that the ensuing dynamics are strongly dependent on base sequence and are also affected by higher-order structure. Excited electronic state lifetimes in dG-doped d(A)20 single-stranded DNA and dG.dC-doped d(A)20.d(T)20 double-stranded DNA decrease sharply with the substitution of only a few bases. In duplexes containing d(AGA).d(TCT) or d(AG).d(TC) repeats, deactivation of the fluorescing states occurs on the subpicosecond time scale, but the excited-state lifetimes increase again in extended d(G) runs. The results point at more complex and molecule-specific photodynamics in native DNA than may be evident in simpler model systems.
Calculating Higher-Order Moments of Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Summaries in Linear Time.
Dhar, Amrit; Minin, Vladimir N
2017-05-01
Stochastic mapping is a simulation-based method for probabilistically mapping substitution histories onto phylogenies according to continuous-time Markov models of evolution. This technique can be used to infer properties of the evolutionary process on the phylogeny and, unlike parsimony-based mapping, conditions on the observed data to randomly draw substitution mappings that do not necessarily require the minimum number of events on a tree. Most stochastic mapping applications simulate substitution mappings only to estimate the mean and/or variance of two commonly used mapping summaries: the number of particular types of substitutions (labeled substitution counts) and the time spent in a particular group of states (labeled dwelling times) on the tree. Fast, simulation-free algorithms for calculating the mean of stochastic mapping summaries exist. Importantly, these algorithms scale linearly in the number of tips/leaves of the phylogenetic tree. However, to our knowledge, no such algorithm exists for calculating higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries. We present one such simulation-free dynamic programming algorithm that calculates prior and posterior mapping variances and scales linearly in the number of phylogeny tips. Our procedure suggests a general framework that can be used to efficiently compute higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries without simulations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our algorithm by extending previously developed statistical tests for rate variation across sites and for detecting evolutionarily conserved regions in genomic sequences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Candel, A.; Kabel, A.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Limborg, C.; Ng, C.; Prudencio, E.; Schussman, G.; Uplenchwar, R.; Ko, K.; /SLAC
2009-06-19
Over the past years, SLAC's Advanced Computations Department (ACD), under SciDAC sponsorship, has developed a suite of 3D (2D) parallel higher-order finite element (FE) codes, T3P (T2P) and Pic3P (Pic2P), aimed at accurate, large-scale simulation of wakefields and particle-field interactions in radio-frequency (RF) cavities of complex shape. The codes are built on the FE infrastructure that supports SLAC's frequency domain codes, Omega3P and S3P, to utilize conformal tetrahedral (triangular)meshes, higher-order basis functions and quadratic geometry approximation. For time integration, they adopt an unconditionally stable implicit scheme. Pic3P (Pic2P) extends T3P (T2P) to treat charged-particle dynamics self-consistently using the PIC (particle-in-cell) approach, the first such implementation on a conformal, unstructured grid using Whitney basis functions. Examples from applications to the International Linear Collider (ILC), Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II), Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and other accelerators will be presented to compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of these codes versus their counterparts using structured grids.
On the expressiveness and decidability of higher-order process calculi
Lanese, Ivan; Perez, Jorge A.; Sangiorgi, Davide; Schmitt, Alan
In higher-order process calculi, the values exchanged in communications may contain processes. A core calculus of higher-order concurrency is studied; it has only the operators necessary to express higher-order communications: input prefix, process output, and parallel composition. By exhibiting a
A review of higher order strain gradient theories of plasticity: Origins ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
However, higher order theories need to be thermodynamically consistent. It has recently been shown that only a few of the existing theories pass this test. We review a few that do. Higher order theories require higher order boundary conditions that enable us to model effects of dislocation storage at impermeable boundaries ...
Analysis of Buried Dielectric Objects Using Higher-Order MoM for Volume Integral Equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav
2004-01-01
A higher-order method of moments (MoM) is applied to solve a volume integral equation for dielectric objects in layered media. In comparison to low-order methods, the higher-order MoM, which is based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre vector basis functions and curvilinear hexahedral elements...
Modular specification and verification for higher-order languages with state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svendsen, Kasper
-order separation logic. The first chapter presents a higher-order separation logic for a higher-order subset of C#. One of the interesting issues that arises when reasoning about higher-order code in an imperative language, is the combination of mutable variables and variable capture. In C#, anonymous methods can...
Higher order structure of personality and mental health: does general affectivity matter?
Simşek, Omer Faruk
2014-01-01
The higher order personality model, namely the Big Two, was tested in 2 studies (Ns = 878 and 467, respectively) by controlling for the effects of both general affectivity and common method variance. Study 2 also examined the associations of the metatraits with different mental health indicators through regression analyses. The results consistently provided support for the validity of the Big Two model in the latent space, with and without the effects of general affectivity and the common method variance. Moreover, in both studies, the high correlation between stability and plasticity decreased when these 2 method effects were controlled statistically. The regression analyses also showed that the associations of plasticity and stability with the indicators of both subjective and psychological well-being, as well as psychopathology, were consistent with the theoretical arguments behind the Big Two.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janmenjoy Nayak
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO based higher order neural network with a single hidden layer called Pi–Sigma Neural Network (PSNN has been proposed for data classification which maintains fast learning capability and avoids the exponential increase of number of weights and processing units. CRO is a recent metaheuristic optimization algorithm inspired by chemical reactions, free from intricate operator and parameter settings such as other algorithms and loosely couples chemical reactions with optimization. The performance of the proposed CRO-PSNN has been tested with various benchmark datasets from UCI machine learning repository and compared with the resulting performance of PSNN, GA-PSNN, PSO-PSNN. The methods have been implemented in MATLAB and the accuracy measures have been tested by using the ANOVA statistical tool. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast, steady and reliable and provides better classification accuracy than others.
Higher order photon transitions in H-like and He-like ions
Dunford, R W; Schaffer, H W; Mokler, P H; Berry, H G; Livingston, A E; Cheng, S; Curtis, L
1999-01-01
Higher order photon transitions such as M1, M2 and two-photon decay are conveniently studied using highly-charged few electron ions. Here we discuss two examples from recent experiments which were done using the ATLAS facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The first is a test of relativistic quantum mechanics involving a precision measurement of the spectral shape of the two-photon decay of the 1s2s /sup 1/S/sub 0/ state in He-like nickel and the second is a test of the theory of damping in quantum mechanics involving observation of E1-M1 interference in the electric field quenching of metastable H- like ions. (21 refs).
A comparison of different methods to implement higher order derivatives of density functionals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Dam, Hubertus J.J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-05-18
Density functional theory is the dominant approach in electronic structure methods today. To calculate properties higher order derivatives of the density functionals are required. These derivatives might be implemented manually,by automatic differentiation, or by symbolic algebra programs. Different authors have cited different reasons for using the particular method of their choice. This paper presents work where all three approaches were used and the strengths and weaknesses of each approach are considered. It is found that all three methods produce code that is suffficiently performanted for practical applications, despite the fact that our symbolic algebra generated code and our automatic differentiation code still have scope for significant optimization. The automatic differentiation approach is the best option for producing readable and maintainable code.
Statistical Feature Extraction and Recognition of Beverages Using Electronic Tongue
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P. C. PANCHARIYA
2010-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for extraction of features from data generated from an electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry. In this approach statistical features of the meaningful selected variables from current response signals are extracted and used for recognition of beverage samples. The proposed feature extraction approach not only reduces the computational complexity but also reduces the computation time and requirement of storage of data for the development of E-tongue for field applications. With the reduced information, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was trained for qualitative analysis of different beverages. Before the qualitative analysis of the beverages, the methodology has been tested for the basic artificial taste solutions i.e. sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. The proposed procedure was compared with the more conventional and linear feature extraction technique employing principal component analysis combined with PNN. Using the extracted feature vectors, highly correct classification by PNN was achieved for eight types of juices and six types of soft drinks. The results indicated that the electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry with reduced feature was capable of discriminating not only basic artificial taste solutions but also the various sorts of the same type of natural beverages (fruit juices, vegetable juices, soft drinks, etc..
Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Støvring, Kristian
2006-01-01
Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....
Analysis of four aberrometers for evaluating lower and higher order aberrations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabiano Cade
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the measurements of lower and higher order aberrations (HOA of 4 commonly used aberrometers. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye & Ear Infirmary, Boston, USA. DESIGN: Prospective, cross-sectional study, in a controlled, single-blinded fashion. METHODS: Multiple readings were obtained in 42 eyes of 21 healthy volunteers, at a single visit, with each of the following aberrometers: Alcon LADARWave®, Visx WaveScan®, B & L Zywave®, and Wavelight Allegro Analyzer®. Results were compared and analyzed in regards to the lower and HOA, to the different wavefront sensing devices and software, Tscherning and Hartmann-Shack and between the Fourier and Zernike algorithms. Statistical analysis included Bland-Altman plots, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC, multiple comparison tests with Analysis of Variance and Kruskal-Wallis. Significant level was set to p<0.05 and alpha level correction was adjusted under the Bonferroni criteria. RESULTS: Most measurements of all 4 aberrometers were comparable. However, statistically significant differences were found between the aberrometers in total HOA (tHOA, spherical aberration (SA, horizontal coma and astigmatism (2,2. LADARwave and Wavescan showed significant differences in tHOA (P<0.001, ICC = 0.549, LoA = 0.19±0.5 and in SA (P<0.001, ICC = 0.733, LoA = 0.16±0.37. Wavescan showed a significant difference compared to Zywave (p<0.001, ICC = 0.920, LoA = 0.09±0.13 in SA. Comparisons between Allegro Analyzer and Zywave demonstrated significant differences in both Horizontal Coma (3,1 (p<0.001, ICC = -0.207, LoA = -0.15±0.48 and Astigmatism (2,2 (P = 0.003, ICC = -0.965, LoA = 0.2±2.5. Allegro Analyzer also differed from Wavescan in Horizontal Coma (3,1 (P<0.001, ICC = 0.725, LoA = -0.07±0.25. CONCLUSIONS: Although some measurements were comparable predominately in the lower order aberrations, significant differences were found in the tHOA, SA, horizontal coma and astigmatism. Our analysis
The Effect of Artificial Tears on Corneal Higher Order Aberrations in Dry Eye Patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hasan Ali Bayhan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the effects of artificial tears on corneal higher order aberrations in dry eye patients. Materials and Methods: 30 right eyes of 30 newly diagnosed dry eye patients were evaluated in this prospective study. After routine ophthalmological examination, Schirmer test and tear break-up time (TBUT test were performed in all patients. Anterior corneal aberrations were derived from conversion of the corneal elevation profile into corneal wavefront data with 6.0 mm pupil diameter using Zernike polynomails by corneal topography before and 5 minutes after instillation of artificial tear (Eyestil®. Corneal optical aberrations were compared before and after instillation of eyedrop. Results: The study included 17 women and 13 men; the average age of the patients was 44.36±13.22 years. Mean TBUT was 4.78±2.78 seconds and mean Schirmer value was 3.58±2.45 mm/5 minutes. After instillation of artificial tear, significant reductions in corneal total aberration from 1.120±0.35 µm to 0.960±0.34 µm, higher order aberration from 0.674±0.26 µm to 0.464±0.18 µm, coma-like aberration from 0.283±0.10 µm to 0.238±0.09 µm, and spherical-like aberration from 0.254±0.11 µm to 0.221±0.08 µm were detected (all, p<0.001. After eyedrop instillation, statistically significant increment was observed in Strehl ratio (p<0.001. Conclusion: As well as reducing the dry eye symptoms, artificial tears also cause increment in optical quality of the eye. Benefits of artificial tears on visual quality can be evaluated objectively via corneal wavefront aberrations. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 119-22
Quantization of the Interacting Non-Hermitian Higher Order Derivative Field
Margalli, Carlos A.; Vergara, J. David
2013-01-01
The quantization of higher order time derivative theories including interactions is unclear. In this paper in order to solve this problem, we propose to consider a complex version of the higher order derivative theory and map this theory to a real first order theory. To achieve this relationship, the higher order derivative formulation must be complex since there is not a real canonical transformation from this theory to a real first order theory with stable interactions. In this manner, we w...
Fractal Dimension Analysis of Higher-Order Mode Shapes for Damage Identification of Beam Structures
Bai, Runbo; Cao, Maosen; Su, Zhongqing; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Xu, Hao
2012-01-01
Fractal dimension analysis is an emerging method for vibration-based structural damage identification. An unresolved problem in this method is its incapability of identifying damage by higher-order mode shapes. The natural inflexions of higher-order mode shapes may cause false peaks of high-magnitude estimates of fractal dimension, largely masking any signature of damage. In the situation of a scanning laser vibrometer (SLV) providing a chance to reliably acquire higher-order (around tenth-or...
Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Hahn
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.
Statistical reconstruction algorithms for continuous wave electron spin resonance imaging
Kissos, Imry; Levit, Michael; Feuer, Arie; Blank, Aharon
2013-06-01
Electron spin resonance imaging (ESRI) is an important branch of ESR that deals with heterogeneous samples ranging from semiconductor materials to small live animals and even humans. ESRI can produce either spatial images (providing information about the spatially dependent radical concentration) or spectral-spatial images, where an extra dimension is added to describe the absorption spectrum of the sample (which can also be spatially dependent). The mapping of oxygen in biological samples, often referred to as oximetry, is a prime example of an ESRI application. ESRI suffers frequently from a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which results in long acquisition times and poor image quality. A broader use of ESRI is hampered by this slow acquisition, which can also be an obstacle for many biological applications where conditions may change relatively quickly over time. The objective of this work is to develop an image reconstruction scheme for continuous wave (CW) ESRI that would make it possible to reduce the data acquisition time without degrading the reconstruction quality. This is achieved by adapting the so-called "statistical reconstruction" method, recently developed for other medical imaging modalities, to the specific case of CW ESRI. Our new algorithm accounts for unique ESRI aspects such as field modulation, spectral-spatial imaging, and possible limitation on the gradient magnitude (the so-called "limited angle" problem). The reconstruction method shows improved SNR and contrast recovery vs. commonly used back-projection-based methods, for a variety of simulated synthetic samples as well as in actual CW ESRI experiments.
Chin-Joe-Kong, M.J.S.; Mulder, W.A.; van Veldhuizen, M.
1999-01-01
The higher-order finite-element scheme with mass lumping for triangles and tetrahedra is an efficient method for solving the wave equation. A number of lower-order elements have already been found. Here the search for elements of higher order is continued. Elements are constructed in a systematic
Higher Order Thinking Skills among Secondary School Students in Science Learning
Saido, Gulistan Mohammed; Siraj, Saedah; Bin Nordin, Abu Bakar; Al Amedy, Omed Saadallah
2015-01-01
A central goal of science education is to help students to develop their higher order thinking skills to enable them to face the challenges of daily life. Enhancing students' higher order thinking skills is the main goal of the Kurdish Science Curriculum in the Iraqi-Kurdistan region. This study aimed at assessing 7th grade students' higher order…
Geometric numerical integration applied to the elastic pendulum at higher order resonance
Tuwankotta, J.M.; Quispel, G.R.W.
2000-01-01
In this paper we study the performance of a symplectic numerical integrator based on the splitting method This method is applied to a subtle problem ie higher order resonance of the elastic pendulum In order to numerically study the phase space of the elastic pendulum at higher order resonance a
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav
2007-01-01
The problem of electromagnetic scattering by composite metallic and dielectric objects is solved using the coupled volume-surface integral equation (VSIE). The method of moments (MoM) based on higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions and higher-order curvilinear geometrical elements...
Kuschel, S.; Förster, J.; Denzler, M.
2010-01-01
Three experiments examine the hypothesis that subtle cues of approach orientation facilitate access to higher order information, whereas subtle cues of avoidance orientation impede it. To test these predictions, in two studies, a backward-masking paradigm thought to measure access to higher order
On the Continuity Condition for the Higher-Order VSIE-MoM Formulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter
2004-01-01
A higher-order method of moments (MoM) solution of the volume-surface integral equation (VSIE) based on the higher-order hierarchical Legendre basis functions is presented. The technique is suitable for solving electromagnetic problems involving composite metallic-dielectric objects. Numerical...
From "Hello" to Higher-Order Thinking: The Effect of Coaching and Feedback on Online Chats
Stein, David S.; Wanstreet, Constance E.; Slagle, Paula; Trinko, Lynn A.; Lutz, Michelle
2013-01-01
This exploratory study examined the effect of a coaching and feedback intervention in teaching presence and social presence on higher-order thinking in an online community of inquiry. Coaching occurred before each chat, and feedback was provided immediately afterwards. The findings suggest that over time, the frequency of higher-order thinking…
Generation of higher order Gauss-Laguerre modes in single-pass 2nd harmonic generation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter
2008-01-01
We present a realistic method for dynamic simulation of the development of higher order modes in second harmonic generation. The deformation of the wave fronts due to the nonlinear interaction is expressed by expansion in higher order Gauss-Laguerre modes....
Multi-domain, higher order level set scheme for 3D image segmentation on the GPU
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François
2010-01-01
to evaluate level set surfaces that are $C^2$ continuous, but are slow due to high computational burden. In this paper, we provide a higher order GPU based solver for fast and efficient segmentation of large volumetric images. We also extend the higher order method to multi-domain segmentation. Our streaming...
Teaching Higher Order Thinking in the Introductory MIS Course: A Model-Directed Approach
Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai
2011-01-01
One vision of education evolution is to change the modes of thinking of students. Critical thinking, design thinking, and system thinking are higher order thinking paradigms that are specifically pertinent to business education. A model-directed approach to teaching and learning higher order thinking is proposed. An example of application of the…
Tanujaya, Benidiktus; Mumu, Jeinne; Margono, Gaguk
2017-01-01
Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) is one of important aspects in education. Students with high level of higher order thinking skills tend to be more successful. However, do this phenomenon also happen in the learning of Mathematics? To answer this question, this research aims to study the relationship between HOTS and students' academic…
Ability, Breadth, and Parsimony in Computational Models of Higher-Order Cognition
Cassimatis, Nicholas L.; Bello, Paul; Langley, Pat
2008-01-01
Computational models will play an important role in our understanding of human higher-order cognition. How can a model's contribution to this goal be evaluated? This article argues that three important aspects of a model of higher-order cognition to evaluate are (a) its ability to reason, solve problems, converse, and learn as well as people do;…
The Higher Order Structure of Environmental Attitudes: A Cross-Cultural Examination
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Taciano L. Milfont
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Past research has suggested that Preservation and Utilization are the two higher order dimensions forming the hierarchical structure of environmental attitudes. This means that these two higher order dimensions could group all kinds of perceptions or beliefs regarding the natural environment people have. A crosscultural study was conducted in Brazil, New Zealand, and South Africa to test this hierarchical structure of environmental attitudes. Results from single- and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that environmental attitudes are a multidimensional construct, and that their first-order factors associate to each other to form a vertical structure. However, the question whether the vertical structure comprise a single higher order factor or two higher order factors still remains unanswered. These results are discussed and directions for future research trying to demonstrate that Preservation and Utilization, taken as distinct second-order environmental attitudes factors, are more empirically meaningful than a single and generalised environmental attitudes higher order factor are presented.
Tunneling dynamics of Bose—Einstein condensates with higher-order interactions in optical lattice
Tie, Lu; Xue, Ju-Kui
2011-12-01
The nonlinear Landau—Zener tunneling and nonlinear Rabi oscillations of Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) with higher-order atomic interaction between the Bloch bands in an accelerating optical lattice are discussed. Within the two-level model, the tunneling probability of BEC with higher-order atomic interaction between Bloch bands is obtained. We finds that the tunneling rate is closely related to the higher-order atomic interaction. Furthermore, the nonlinear Rabi oscillations of BEC with higher-order atomic interaction between the bands are discussed by imposing a periodic modulation on the level bias. Analytical expressions of the critical higher-order atomic interaction for suppressing/enhancing the Rabi oscillations are obtained. It is shown that the critical value strongly depends on the modulation parameters (i.e., the modulation amplitude and frequency) and the strength of periodic potential.
Related research on corneal higher-order aberrations after different ways refractive surgery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shu-Xi He
2015-08-01
Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the changes of corneal high-order aberration(including Coma, Spab, RMShafter laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKwith femtosecond laser, sub-Bowman keratomileusis(SBKand laser epithelial keratomileusis(LASEK.METHODS: Of 82 myopic patients(164 eyes, 31 patients(62 eyeswere treated by FS-LASIK, 31 patients(62 eyeswere treated by SBK, 20 patients(40 eyeswere treated by LASEK. Sirius system was used for measuring the coma aberration, spherical aberration, and high order aberration at 1, 15d,1, 3mo after surgery.RESULTS: 1Vision: The uncorrected visual acuity of the three groups had no differences(P>0.05. 2Corneal aberrations: Three kinds of surgical procedure for patients with corneal aberration had significant impact. The C7, C8, C12 and RMSh of three groups were increased significantly(P0.05. The C7, C8, C12 and RMSh were not recovered to preoperative levels after 3mo. But the increase of patients after FS-LASIK was smaller than the other two groups, with statistical significance(P0.05.CONCLUSION: Compared with SBK and LASEK,FS-LASIK has better visual acuity in the early postoperative and corneal higher-order aberrations increase is relatively small.
[The influence of phenylephrine and tropicamide on higher order monochromatic aberrations].
Jurkutat, S; Loosberg, B; Hemmelmann, C; Dawszynski, J; Strobel, J
2007-03-01
For wave-front guided corneal surgery, measuring higher order monochromatic aberrations in mydriasis is needed. However, a potential influence of mydriatic drugs on such aberrations could distort the ablation profile. Wave-front analysis was carried out on 20 (tropicamide) and 19 (phenylephrine) eyes after dark adaptation, followed by measurement after the instillation of the mydriatics one after another. Phenylephrine had no significant influence on the wave-front; neither sphere nor RMS data differed from those taken after dark adaptation. After instilling tropicamide, significant changes in Z(2) (0) and, in parallel, also of the sphere were found. The RMS showed no significant difference, only the spherical aberration Z(4) (0) was reduced by an average of 0.035 microm. The wave-front changes individually through the mydriasis due to phenylephrine and tropicamide. In the case of tropicamide, the deviation is statistically significant. Therefore, abandonment of these mydriatics before refractive surgery can be recommended, as can the use physiological pupil dilatation. Because of its lower influence, phenylephrine should be the first choice if dimout effects no adequate mydriasis.
Palmer, Edward J; Devitt, Peter G
2007-11-28
Reliable and valid written tests of higher cognitive function are difficult to produce, particularly for the assessment of clinical problem solving. Modified Essay Questions (MEQs) are often used to assess these higher order abilities in preference to other forms of assessment, including multiple-choice questions (MCQs). MEQs often form a vital component of end-of-course assessments in higher education. It is not clear how effectively these questions assess higher order cognitive skills. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the MEQ to measure higher-order cognitive skills in an undergraduate institution. An analysis of multiple-choice questions and modified essay questions (MEQs) used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate curriculum was undertaken. A total of 50 MCQs and 139 stages of MEQs were examined, which came from three exams run over two years. The effectiveness of the questions was determined by two assessors and was defined by the questions ability to measure higher cognitive skills, as determined by a modification of Bloom's taxonomy, and its quality as determined by the presence of item writing flaws. Over 50% of all of the MEQs tested factual recall. This was similar to the percentage of MCQs testing factual recall. The modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the MCQ frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge. Construction of MEQs, which will assess higher order cognitive skills cannot be assumed to be a simple task. Well-constructed MCQs should be considered a satisfactory replacement for MEQs if the MEQs cannot be designed to adequately test higher order skills. Such MCQs are capable of withstanding the intellectual and statistical scrutiny imposed by a high stakes exit examination.
Thermal considerations in the cryogenic regime for the BNL double ridge higher order mode waveguide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhananjay K. Ravikumar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL has proposed to build an electron ion collider (EIC as an upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC. A part of the new design is to use superconducting radio frequency (SRF cavities for acceleration, which sit in a bath of superfluid helium at a temperature of 2 K. SRF cavities designed for the BNL EIC create a standing electromagnetic wave, oscillating at a fundamental frequency of 647 MHz. Interaction of the charged particle beam with the EM field in the cavity creates higher order modes (HOM of oscillation which have adverse effects on the beam when allowed to propagate down the beam tube. HOM waveguides are thus designed to remove this excess energy which is then damped at room temperature. As a result, these waveguides provide a direct thermal link between room temperature and the superconducting cavities adding a static thermal load. The EM wave propagating through the warmer sections of the waveguide creates an additional dynamic thermal load. This study calculates these thermal loads, concluding that the dynamic load is small in comparison to the static load. Temperature distributions are mapped on the waveguide and the number of heat intercepts required to efficiently manage thermal loads have been determined. In addition, a thermal radiation study has been performed and it is found that this contribution is around three orders of magnitude smaller than the static conduction and dynamic loads.
Zhang, P; Baboi, Nicoleta
2012-01-01
Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrum...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Y. M. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Liu, Kexin [Peking University, Beijing (China); Geng, Rongli [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-02-01
Multipacting (MP) in higher-order-mode (HOM) couplers of the International Linear Collider (ILC) baseline cavity and the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) 12 GeV upgrade cavity is studied by using the ACE3P suites, developed by the Advanced Computations Department at SLAC. For the ILC cavity HOM coupler, the simulation results show that resonant trajectories exist in three zones, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 0.6-1.6 MV/m, 21-34 MV/m, 32-35 MV/m, and > 40MV/m, respectively. For the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade cavity HOM coupler, resonant trajectories exist in one zone, corresponding to an accelerating gradient range of 6-13 MV/m. Potential implications of these MP barriers are discussed in the context of future high energy pulsed as well as medium energy continuous wave (CW) accelerators based on superconducting radio frequency cavities. Frequency scaling of MP's predicted in HOM couplers of the ILC, CBEAF upgrade, SNS and FLASH third harmonic cavity is given and found to be in good agreement with the analytical result based on the parallel plate model.
Thermal considerations in the cryogenic regime for the BNL double ridge higher order mode waveguide
Ravikumar, Dhananjay K.; Than, Yatming; Xu, Wencan; Longtin, Jon
2017-09-01
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has proposed to build an electron ion collider (EIC) as an upgrade to the existing Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A part of the new design is to use superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for acceleration, which sit in a bath of superfluid helium at a temperature of 2 K. SRF cavities designed for the BNL EIC create a standing electromagnetic wave, oscillating at a fundamental frequency of 647 MHz. Interaction of the charged particle beam with the EM field in the cavity creates higher order modes (HOM) of oscillation which have adverse effects on the beam when allowed to propagate down the beam tube. HOM waveguides are thus designed to remove this excess energy which is then damped at room temperature. As a result, these waveguides provide a direct thermal link between room temperature and the superconducting cavities adding a static thermal load. The EM wave propagating through the warmer sections of the waveguide creates an additional dynamic thermal load. This study calculates these thermal loads, concluding that the dynamic load is small in comparison to the static load. Temperature distributions are mapped on the waveguide and the number of heat intercepts required to efficiently manage thermal loads have been determined. In addition, a thermal radiation study has been performed and it is found that this contribution is around three orders of magnitude smaller than the static conduction and dynamic loads.
Hiraoka, Takahiro; Ishii, Yuko; Okamoto, Fumiki; Oshika, Tetsuro
2009-02-01
To investigate the influence of cosmetically tinted soft contact lenses on ocular higher-order aberrations and visual performance, and to analyze the relationship between these parameters after the lens wear. In 44 eyes of 22 subjects, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity under photopic and mesopic conditions, and ocular higher-order aberrations were evaluated before and after wearing the tinted soft contact lenses (1-day Acuvue Colours; Vistakon, Jacksonville, FL). Contrast sensitivity under a photopic condition was determined at 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree, and the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) was calculated. Mesopic contrast sensitivity with and without glare was assessed. Ocular higher-order aberrations for a 4-mm pupil were measured, and coma-like, spherical-like, and total higher-order aberrations were determined. The tinted contact lens wearing resulted in significant decreases in log contrast sensitivity at all spatial frequencies (P 0.05), the changes in total higher-order aberrations showed a significant correlation with those in AULCSF (P 0.05). Cosmetically tinted contact lenses increase ocular higher-order aberrations and worsen contrast sensitivity under both photopic and mesopic conditions. Increases in higher-order aberrations are responsible for decreased contrast sensitivity under the photopic condition. Tinted contact lens wearers should be sufficiently informed about the possible reduction in optical quality of the eye and quality of vision.
PRE-SERVICE MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ CONCEPTION OF HIGHER-ORDER THINKING LEVEL IN BLOOM'S TAXONOMY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Damianus D Samo
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' conception of higher-order thinking in Bloom's Taxonomy, to explore pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in categorizing six cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy as lower-order thinking and higher-order thinking, and pre-service mathematics teachers' ability in identifying some questionable items as lower-order and higher-order thinking. The higher-order thinking is the type of non-algorithm thinking which include analytical, evaluative and creative thinking that involves metacognition. This research is a descriptive quantitative research. The data were analyzed and visualized by percentages and diagrams. The participants are 50 Third-Year Students of Mathematics Education Department at Universitas Nusa Cendana. The results showed: (1 pre-service mathematics teachers' conception of lower-order and higher-order thinking more emphasis on the different between the easy and difficult problem, calculation problem and verification problem, conceptual and contextual, and elementary and high-level problem; (2 pre-service mathematics teachers categorized six cognitive levels at the lower-order and higher-order thinking level correctly except at the applying level, preservice mathematics teachers placed it at the higher-order thinking level; (3 pre-service mathematics teacher tend to made the wrong identification of the test questions that were included in the lower-order and higher-order thinking. One of the recommendations is pre-service mathematics teachers should be familiarized of higher-order thinking questions start from their first-year of study in University.
Statistical Modeling of Soi Devices for Low-Power Electronics.
Phelps, Mark Joseph
1995-01-01
This dissertation addresses the needs of low-power, large-scale integrated circuit device design, advanced materials technology, and computer simulation for statistical modeling. The main body of work comprises the creation and implementation of a software shell (STADIUM-SOI) that automates the application of statistics to commercial technology computer-aided design tools. The objective is to demonstrate that statistical design of experiments methodology can be employed for the advanced material technology of Silicon -On-Insulator (SOI) devices. The culmination of this effort was the successful modeling of the effect of manufacturing process variation on SOI device characteristics and the automation of this procedure.
On the capabilities of higher-order neurons: a radial basis function approach.
Schmitt, Michael
2005-03-01
Higher-order neurons with k monomials in n variables are shown to have Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) dimension at least nk + 1. This result supersedes the previously known lower bound obtained via k-term monotone disjunctive normal form (DNF) formulas. Moreover, it implies that the VC dimension of higher-order neurons with k monomials is strictly larger than the VC dimension of k-term monotone DNF. The result is achieved by introducing an exponential approach that employs gaussian radial basis function neural networks for obtaining classifications of points in terms of higher-order neurons.
Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for autonomous higher order dynamical systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prieto-Martinez, Pedro Daniel; Roman-Roy, Narciso, E-mail: peredaniel@ma4.upc.edu, E-mail: nrr@ma4.upc.edu [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada IV, Edificio C-3, Campus Norte UPC, C/ Jordi Girona 1, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)
2011-09-23
The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of Skinner and Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, as well as for first-order and higher order field theories. However, a complete generalization to higher order mechanical systems is yet to be described. In this work, after reviewing the natural geometrical setting and the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms for higher order autonomous mechanical systems, we develop a complete generalization of the Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism for these kinds of systems, and we use it to analyze some physical models from this new point of view. (paper)
Modeling 3D PCMI using the Extended Finite Element Method with higher order elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiang, W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spencer, Benjamin W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2017-03-31
This report documents the recent development to enable XFEM to work with higher order elements. It also demonstrates the application of higher order (quadratic) elements to both 2D and 3D models of PCMI problems, where discrete fractures in the fuel are represented using XFEM. The modeling results demonstrate the ability of the higher order XFEM to accurately capture the effects of a crack on the response in the vicinity of the intersecting surfaces of cracked fuel and cladding, as well as represent smooth responses in the regions away from the crack.
Analysis of Scattering by Inhomogeneous Dielectric Objects Using Higher-Order Hierarchical MoM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, Oleksiy S.; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter
2003-01-01
An efficient technique for the analysis of electromagnetic scattering by arbitrary shaped inhomogeneous dielectric objects is presented. The technique is based on a higher-order method of moments (MoM) solution of the volume integral equation. This higher-order MoM solution comprises recently...... that the condition number of the resulting MoM matrix is reduced by several orders of magnitude in comparison to existing higher-order hierarchical basis functions and, consequently, an iterative solver can be applied even for high expansion orders. Numerical results demonstrate excellent agreement...
Block variable order step size method for solving higher order orbital problems
Rasedee, Ahmad Fadly Nurullah; Ijam, Hazizah Mohd; Sathar, Mohammad Hasan Abdul; Ishak, Norizarina; Nazri, Muhamad Azrin; Kamarudin, Nur Shuhada; Ramli, Nur Ainna
2017-11-01
Previous numerical methods for solving systems of higher order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) directly require calculating the integration coefficients at every step. This research provides a block multi step method for solving orbital problems with periodic solutions in the form of higher order ODEs directly. The advantage of the proposed method is, it requires calculating the integration coefficients only once at the beginning of the integration is presented. The derived formulae is then validated by running simulations with known higher order orbital equations. To provide further efficiency, a relationship between integration coefficients of various order is obtained.
Berengut, J C; Dzuba, V A; Flambaum, V V; Gribakin, G F
2015-01-01
The strong mixing of many-electron basis states in excited atoms and ions with open $f$ shells results in very large numbers of complex, chaotic eigenstates that cannot be computed to any degree of accuracy. Describing the processes which involve such states requires the use of a statistical theory. Electron capture into these 'compound resonances' leads to electron-ion recombination rates that are orders of magnitude greater than those of direct, radiative recombination, and cannot be described by standard theories of dielectronic recombination. Previous statistical theories considered this as a two-electron capture process which populates a pair of single-particle orbitals, followed by 'spreading' of the two-electron states into chaotically mixed eigenstates. This method is similar to a configuration-average approach, as it neglects potentially important effects of spectator electrons and conservation of total angular momentum. In this work we develop a statistical theory which considers electron capture in...
Higher Order Thinking in the Australian Army Suite of Logistic Officer Courses
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bradford, Scott R
2006-01-01
.... The current Suite of Logistic Officer Courses (SOLOC) has been recently criticized for failing to meet this requirement, with the general perception that there is a distinct lack of higher-order thinking competencies within this continuum...
Existence Results for Higher-Order Boundary Value Problems on Time Scales
Sang Yanbin; Liu Jian
2009-01-01
By using the fixed-point index theorem, we consider the existence of positive solutions for the following nonlinear higher-order four-point singular boundary value problem on time scales , ; , ; , ; , , where , , , , , , , and is rd-continuous.
The Higher-Order Mode Dampers of the 400 MHz Superconducting LHC Cavities
Häbel, E; Gerigk, F; Zhao, Z T
1997-01-01
The accelerating system of the LHC consists of two structures per beam, each composed of four superconducting single-cell cavities. Their higher-order modes have to be damped sufficiently in order to prevent coupled-bunch instabilities and to limit parasitic mode losses. The first two higher-order modes do not propagate into the beam tubes between the cells. However, strong damping can be obtained with a special dipole mode coupler resonant at both modes. Because of the restricted space, a compact design is used. The other higher-order modes propagate and form coupled modes with unequal field distributions. They are damped by broadband couplers positioned on either side of each cavity cell. We present the design of the higher-order mode couplers together with measurements on a real cavity.
A classification scheme for nonoscillatory solutions of a higher order neutral difference equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Nonoscillatory solutions of a nonlinear neutral type higher order difference equations are classified by means of their asymptotic behaviors. By means of the Kranoselskii's fixed point theorem, existence criteria are then provided for justification of such classification.
On the combined effect of the chemical reaction and a higher order ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
On the combined effect of the chemical reaction and a higher order temparature profile on the velocity of a stretched vertical permeable surface in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow in the presence of heat generation and absorption.
Deformation from symmetry for Schrodinger equations of higher order on unbounded domains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Addolorata Salvatore
2003-06-01
Full Text Available By means of a perturbation method recently introduced by Bolle, we discuss the existence of infinitely many solutions for a class of perturbed symmetric higher order Schrodinger equations with non-homogeneous boundary data on unbounded domains.
Integrability of the higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation revisited
Sakovich, S Yu
1999-01-01
Only the known integrable cases of the Kodama-Hasegawa higher-order nonlinear Schroedinger equation pass the Painleve test. Recent results of Ghosh and Nandy add no new integrable cases of this equation.
Generalizing higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams: analytical description and demonstration.
Schimpf, Damian N; Schulte, Jan; Putnam, William P; Kärtner, Franz X
2012-11-19
We report on a novel class of higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams in which the well-known Bessel-Gauss beam is the fundamental mode and the azimuthally symmetric Laguerre-Gaussian beams are special cases. We find these higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams by superimposing decentered Hermite-Gaussian beams. We show analytically and experimentally that these higher-order Bessel-Gauss beams resemble higher-order eigenmodes of optical resonators consisting of aspheric mirrors. This work is relevant for the many applications of Bessel-Gauss beams in particular the more recently proposed high-intensity Bessel-Gauss enhancement cavities for strong-field physics applications.
On a system of higher-order multi-point boundary value problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johnny Henderson
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate the existence and nonexistence of positive solutions for a system of nonlinear higher-order ordinary differential equations subject to some multi-point boundary conditions.
The Need to Deliver Higher-Order Skills in the Context of Marketing in SMEs
Copley, Paul
2013-01-01
It is argued that the delivery of learning and the development of skills and competences are central to SME success; and there appears to be a requirement for higher-order education and training that can deliver a
Higher-Order Wavefront Aberrations for Populations of Young Emmetropes and Myopes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinhua Bao
2009-01-01
Conclusions: Human eyes have systematical higher order aberrations in population, and factors that cause bilateral symmetry of wavefront aberrations between the right and left eyes made important contribution to the systematical aberrations.
Higher-order multi-resolution topology optimization using the finite cell method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Groen, Jeroen Peter; Langelaar, Matthijs; Sigmund, Ole
2017-01-01
This article presents a detailed study on the potential and limitations of performing higher-order multi-resolution topology optimization with the finite cell method. To circumvent stiffness overestimation in high-contrast topologies, a length-scale is applied on the solution using filter methods....... This reduction is caused by exploiting the decoupling of density and analysis mesh, and by condensing the higher-order modes out of the stiffness matrix....
Ultra-compact Higher-Order-Mode Pass Filter in a Silicon Waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guan, Xiaowei; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Ding, Yunhong
2015-01-01
An 3.7 μm long higher-order-mode pass filter with an extinction ratio larger than 20 dB is demonstrated in a 1D corrugated silicon multimode waveguide......An 3.7 μm long higher-order-mode pass filter with an extinction ratio larger than 20 dB is demonstrated in a 1D corrugated silicon multimode waveguide...
Higher-order Schrödinger and Hartree–Fock equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carles, Rémi, E-mail: Remi.Carles@math.cnrs.fr [IMAG, UMR5149, CNRS and University Montpellier, CC051, 34095 Montpellier (France); Lucha, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Lucha@oeaw.ac.at [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Moulay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.moulay@univ-poitiers.fr [XLIM (UMR-CNRS 7252), University Poitiers, 11 Blvd. Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex (France)
2015-12-15
The domain of validity of the higher-order Schrödinger equations is analyzed for harmonic-oscillator and Coulomb potentials as typical examples. Then, the Cauchy theory for higher-order Hartree–Fock equations with bounded and Coulomb potentials is developed. Finally, the existence of associated ground states for the odd-order equations is proved. This renders these quantum equations relevant for physics.
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions
Burke, Tina M.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P.
2015-01-01
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic, and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood, and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-daylong study that included two 14-daylong 28h forced desynchrony protocols, to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis, and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selectiv...
Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom?s
Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick
2013-01-01
We present an exploratory study of biologists? ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions...
Fractal Dimension Analysis of Higher-Order Mode Shapes for Damage Identification of Beam Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Runbo Bai
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Fractal dimension analysis is an emerging method for vibration-based structural damage identification. An unresolved problem in this method is its incapability of identifying damage by higher-order mode shapes. The natural inflexions of higher-order mode shapes may cause false peaks of high-magnitude estimates of fractal dimension, largely masking any signature of damage. In the situation of a scanning laser vibrometer (SLV providing a chance to reliably acquire higher-order (around tenth-order mode shapes, an improved fractal dimension method that is capable of treating higher-order mode shapes for damage detection is of important significance. This study proposes a sophisticated fractal dimension method with the aid of a specially designed affine transformation that is able to obviate natural inflexions of a higher-order mode shape while preserving its substantial damage information. The affine transformed mode shape facilitates the fractal dimension analysis to yield an effective damage feature: fractal dimension trajectory, in which an abruptly risking peak clearly characterizes the location and severity of the damage. This new fractal dimension method is demonstrated on multiple cracks identification in numerically simulated damage scenarios. The effectiveness of the method is experimentally validated by using a SLV to acquire higher-order mode shapes of a cracked cantilever beam.
Questions for Assessing Higher-Order Cognitive Skills: It's Not Just Bloom’s
Lemons, Paula P.; Lemons, J. Derrick
2013-01-01
We present an exploratory study of biologists’ ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students’ experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants’ ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists’ assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write. PMID:23463228
Questions for assessing higher-order cognitive skills: it's not just Bloom's.
Lemons, Paula P; Lemons, J Derrick
2013-01-01
We present an exploratory study of biologists' ideas about higher-order cognition questions. We documented the conversations of biologists who were writing and reviewing a set of higher-order cognition questions. Using a qualitative approach, we identified the themes of these conversations. Biologists in our study used Bloom's Taxonomy to logically analyze questions. However, biologists were also concerned with question difficulty, the length of time required for students to address questions, and students' experience with questions. Finally, some biologists demonstrated an assumption that questions should have one correct answer, not multiple reasonable solutions; this assumption undermined their comfort with some higher-order cognition questions. We generated a framework for further research that provides an interpretation of participants' ideas about higher-order questions and a model of the relationships among these ideas. Two hypotheses emerge from this framework. First, we propose that biologists look for ways to measure difficulty when writing higher-order questions. Second, we propose that biologists' assumptions about the role of questions in student learning strongly influence the types of higher-order questions they write.
Merrill, Alison Saricks
The purpose of this quasi-experimental quantitative mixed design study was to compare the effectiveness of brain-based teaching strategies versus a traditional lecture format in the acquisition of higher order cognition as determined by test scores. A second purpose was to elicit student feedback about the two teaching approaches. The design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design study with repeated measures on the last factor. The independent variables were type of student, teaching method, and a within group change over time. Dependent variables were a between group comparison of pre-test, post-test gain scores and a within and between group comparison of course examination scores. A convenience sample of students enrolled in medical-surgical nursing was used. One group (n=36) was made up of traditional students and the other group (n=36) consisted of second-degree students. Four learning units were included in this study. Pre- and post-tests were given on the first two units. Course examinations scores from all four units were compared. In one cohort two of the units were taught via lecture format and two using constructivist activities. These methods were reversed for the other cohort. The conceptual basis for this study derives from neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Learning is defined as the growth of new dendrites. Cognitive psychologists view learning as a constructive activity in which new knowledge is built on an internal foundation of existing knowledge. Constructivist teaching strategies are designed to stimulate the brain's natural learning ability. There was a statistically significant difference based on type of teaching strategy (t = -2.078, df = 270, p = .039, d = .25)) with higher mean scores on the examinations covering brain-based learning units. There was no statistical significance based on type of student. Qualitative data collection was conducted in an on-line forum at the end of the semester. Students had overall positive responses about the
Novel Object Exploration as a Potential Assay for Higher Order Repetitive Behaviors in Mice.
Steinbach, Jessica M; Garza, Elizabeth T; Ryan, Bryce C
2016-08-20
Restricted, repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disrupt the lives of affected individuals. RRBs are commonly split into lower-order and higher-order components, with lower order RRBs consisting of motor stereotypies and higher order RRBs consisting of perseverative and sequencing behaviors. Higher order RRBs are challenging to model in mice. Current assays for RRBs in mice focus primarily on the lower order components, making basic biomedical research into potential treatments or interventions for higher-order RRBs difficult. Here we describe a new assay, novel object exploration. This assay uses a basic open-field arena with four novel objects placed around the perimeter. The test mouse is allowed to freely explore the arena and the order in which the mouse investigates the novel objects is recorded. From these data, patterned sequences of exploration can be identified, as can the most preferred object for each mouse. The representative data shared here and past results using the novel object exploration assay illustrate that inbred mouse strains do demonstrate different behavior in this assay and that strains with elevated lower order RRBs also show elevated patterned behavior. As such, the novel object exploration assay appears to possess good face validity for higher order RRBs in humans and may be a valuable assay for future studies investigating novel therapeutics for ASD.
An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation
Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong
2016-09-01
Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.
Simplification of the Flux Function for a Higher-order Gas-kinetic Evolution Model
Zhou, Guangzhao; Liu, Feng
2016-01-01
The higher-order gas-kinetic scheme for solving the Navier-Stokes equations has been studied in recent years. In addition to the use of higher-order reconstruction techniques, many terms are used in the Taylor expansion of the gas distribution functions. Therefore, a large number of coefficients need to be determined in the calculation of the time evolution of the gas distribution function at cell interfaces. As a consequence, the higher-order flux function takes much more computational time than that of a second-order gas-kinetic scheme. This paper aims to simplify the evolution model by two steps. Firstly, the coefficients related to the higher-order spatial and temporal derivatives of a distribution function are redefined to reduce the computational cost. Secondly, based on the physical analysis, some terms can be removed without loss of accuracy. Through the simplifications, the computational efficiency of the higher-order scheme is increased significantly. In addition, a self-adaptive numerical viscosity...
Learning about the world: developing higher order thinking in music education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaco Kruger
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Innovative thinking is an innate human capacity geared towards adaptation and survival. Theories of education accordingly aim at developing teaching-learning strategies that promote creative, problem-solving reasoning referred to as higher order thinking. This essay briefly explains some of the assumptions underlying this concept, and then suggests how they may be reconfigured in a strategy suitable for education in and through music. The strategy involves a basic process of analysis, evaluation and creativity related to actual social experience. Higher order thinking therefore aims to equip learners with the capacity to synthesise relationships in and beyond particular fields of study so that their thinking may expand into the concreteness of the world. Keywords: social challenges, higher order thinking, education, music education, culture contact, Frère Jacques Disciplines: Disciplines: education, music education, musicology, history, anthropology, folklore studies, philosophy of art
Guang, Hui; Wang, Yajun; Zhang, Lianxin; Li, Lulu; Li, Ming; Ji, Linhong
2017-03-10
Accurate wavefront integration based on gradient fields is crucial for various indirect measurement techniques, such as Shack-Hartmann sensing, shearography, and the fringe reflection technique. In this paper, a higher-order iterative compensation algorithm is proposed to enhance the reconstruction accuracy for the finite-difference-based least-squares integration (FLI) method. In this method, higher-order gradient fields are reconstructed and the calculated residual gradient fields compensate the truncation error with the traditional FLI by iterations. A comparison of different FLI methods, including traditional FLI, iterative FLI, higher-order FLI, and the proposed FLI method, is conducted. The result shows that the reconstructed wavefront with the proposed method is more accurate than those with other FLI methods. In addition, the impact of the gradient measurement noise is also discussed.
Collocated electrodynamic FDTD schemes using overlapping Yee grids and higher-order Hodge duals
Deimert, C.; Potter, M. E.; Okoniewski, M.
2016-12-01
The collocated Lebedev grid has previously been proposed as an alternative to the Yee grid for electromagnetic finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. While it performs better in anisotropic media, it performs poorly in isotropic media because it is equivalent to four overlapping, uncoupled Yee grids. We propose to couple the four Yee grids and fix the Lebedev method using discrete exterior calculus (DEC) with higher-order Hodge duals. We find that higher-order Hodge duals do improve the performance of the Lebedev grid, but they also improve the Yee grid by a similar amount. The effectiveness of coupling overlapping Yee grids with a higher-order Hodge dual is thus questionable. However, the theoretical foundations developed to derive these methods may be of interest in other problems.
FitzPatrick, Beverly; Hawboldt, John; Doyle, Daniel; Genge, Terri
2015-02-17
To determine whether national educational outcomes, course objectives, and classroom assessments for 2 therapeutics courses were aligned for curricular content and cognitive processes, and if they included higher-order thinking. Document analysis and student focus groups were used. Outcomes, objectives, and assessment tasks were matched for specific therapeutics content and cognitive processes. Anderson and Krathwohl's Taxonomy was used to define higher-order thinking. Students discussed whether assessments tested objectives and described their thinking when responding to assessments. There were 7 outcomes, 31 objectives, and 412 assessment tasks. The alignment for content and cognitive processes was not satisfactory. Twelve students participated in the focus groups. Students thought more short-answer questions than multiple choice questions matched the objectives for content and required higher-order thinking. The alignment analysis provided data that could be used to reveal and strengthen the enacted curriculum and improve student learning.
Higher order mode laser beam intensity fluctuations in strong oceanic turbulence
Baykal, Yahya
2017-05-01
Intensity fluctuations of the higher order mode laser beams are evaluated when these beams propagate in a medium exhibiting strong oceanic turbulence. Our formulation involves the modified Rytov solution that extends the Rytov solution to cover strong turbulence as well, and our recently reported expression that relates the atmospheric turbulence structure constant to the oceanic turbulence parameters and oceanic wireless optical communication link parameters. The variations of the intensity fluctuations are reported against the changes of the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, viscosity and the source size of the higher order mode laser beam. Our results indicate that under any oceanic turbulence parameters, it is advantageous to employ higher order laser modes in reducing the scintillation noise in wireless optical communication links operating in a strongly turbulent ocean.
Thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes with higher order thermal fluctuations
Pourhassan, B.; Kokabi, K.; Rangyan, S.
2017-12-01
In this paper, we consider higher order corrections of the entropy, which coming from thermal fluctuations, and find their effect on the thermodynamics of higher dimensional charged black holes. Leading order thermal fluctuation is logarithmic term in the entropy while higher order correction is proportional to the inverse of original entropy. We calculate some thermodynamics quantities and obtain the effect of logarithmic and higher order corrections of entropy on them. Validity of the first law of thermodynamics investigated and Van der Waals equation of state of dual picture studied. We find that five-dimensional black hole behaves as Van der Waals, but higher dimensional case have not such behavior. We find that thermal fluctuations are important in stability of black hole hence affect unstable/stable black hole phase transition.
Equivalence of two Fixed-Point Semantics for Definitional Higher-Order Logic Programs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelos Charalambidis
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two distinct research approaches have been proposed for assigning a purely extensional semantics to higher-order logic programming. The former approach uses classical domain theoretic tools while the latter builds on a fixed-point construction defined on a syntactic instantiation of the source program. The relationships between these two approaches had not been investigated until now. In this paper we demonstrate that for a very broad class of programs, namely the class of definitional programs introduced by W. W. Wadge, the two approaches coincide (with respect to ground atoms that involve symbols of the program. On the other hand, we argue that if existential higher-order variables are allowed to appear in the bodies of program rules, the two approaches are in general different. The results of the paper contribute to a better understanding of the semantics of higher-order logic programming.
Higher-order structure of the 30-nm chromatin fiber revealed by cryo-EM.
Zhu, Ping; Li, Guohong
2016-11-01
Genomic DNA is hierarchically packaged into chromatin in eukaryotes. As a central-level chromatin structure between nucleosomal arrays and higher order organizations, 30 nm chromatin fiber, and its dynamics play a crucial role in regulating DNA accessibility for gene transcription. However, despite extensive efforts over three decades, the higher-order structure of the 30 nm chromatin fiber remains unresolved and controversial. We have recently reconstituted the 30 nm chromatin fibers from 12 nucleosomal arrays in vitro in the presence of linker histone H1, and determined their cryo-EM structures at resolution of 11 Å (Song et al., Science 344, 376-380). Here, we briefly reviewed the higher-order structure studies of chromatin fibers, mainly focusing on the insights from the cryo-EM structures we recently solved. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(11):873-878, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Inexpensive electronics and software for photon statistics and correlation spectroscopy.
Gamari, Benjamin D; Zhang, Dianwen; Buckman, Richard E; Milas, Peker; Denker, John S; Chen, Hui; Li, Hongmin; Goldner, Lori S
2014-07-01
Single-molecule-sensitive microscopy and spectroscopy are transforming biophysics and materials science laboratories. Techniques such as fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single-molecule sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are now commonly available in research laboratories but are as yet infrequently available in teaching laboratories. We describe inexpensive electronics and open-source software that bridges this gap, making state-of-the-art research capabilities accessible to undergraduates interested in biophysics. We include a discussion of the intensity correlation function relevant to FCS and how it can be determined from photon arrival times. We demonstrate the system with a measurement of the hydrodynamic radius of a protein using FCS that is suitable for the undergraduate teaching laboratory. The FPGA-based electronics, which are easy to construct, are suitable for more advanced measurements as well, and several applications are described. As implemented, the system has 8 ns timing resolution, can control up to four laser sources, and can collect information from as many as four photon-counting detectors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saksit Seeluangpetch
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This study aimed at 1 investigating the problems and needs for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers, 2 developing an effective curriculum to enhance the learning management performances which emphasized the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers, and 3 studying the effects of using the curriculum developed for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers. The research was conducted in 4 phases. Phase 1 of the research was the study of fundamental information regarding problems and needs for the enhancement of learning management performances emphasizing the higher order thinking skills for lower secondary Science teachers. It was carried out by studying the related literature and exploring the needs. The instrument used in Phase 1 study was the needs assessment. The statistics used for data analysis were mean ( , percentage (%, and standard deviation (S.D.. The result of the study revealed that the Science teachers’ prior knowledge was at low level and the need to enhance their performances was at high level. The development of the curriculum was carried out in Phase 2 of the study. The curriculum was constructed and developed in order to enhance the learning management performances which emphasized the higher order thinking skills. The instrument used was the appropriateness the assessment of the curriculum framework. Mean ( , percentage (%, and standard deviation (S.D. were used to analyze the data. The result of the assessment showed that the overall appropriateness of the curriculum was at high level. The main components of the curriculum comprised of curriculum’s problem and necessity, rationale, objective, structure, training activity, training media, training duration, and evaluation and assessment. The curriculum trial was
Higher order predicted terms for an QCD observable, using PMS procedure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakniehl [Institute for Theoretical Physics-II, Hamburg University, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Mirjalili, A [Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: Mirjalili@ipm.ir
2008-05-15
In this letter, we first review the principle of minimum sensitivity (PMS) in NLO, NNLO and higher order approximations to find an optimized expression for the desired observable at specific order. It is possible to expand the optimized quantities in terms of the quantities which exist in the standard approach of QCD for the observable. In this case we are able to obtain the predicted higher order terms. The calculations indicate that the predicted term, in the NNLO and higher approximations is not unique.
Effective higher-order nonlinear coefficients of composites with weakly nonlinear media
Natenapit, Mayuree; Thongboonrithi, Chaivej
2010-05-01
The field equations, based on the third-order perturbation expansion of electrostatic potential, are derived, and our general formulae for higher-order effective nonlinear coefficients based on the energy definition, are presented and applied to dielectric composites consisting of dilute linear cylindrical inclusions randomly dispersed in a weakly nonlinear host media. The effective nonlinear coefficients are determined up to the ninth order. In addition, the results are also compared to those obtained using the average field method and likely to provide more accurate predictions of effective higher-order nonlinear responses.
Higher order wave loads on and response of an articulated tower
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Utne, N.; Fause, S.; Toerum, A. [Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway)
1995-12-31
A theoretical and experimental study has been carried out on the higher order wave load phenomena frequently called ringing. It has been shown that a significant mechanism for the ringing effect is impulse type wave loading around the still water line area on an articulated tower. In this paper the authors report on an experimental and theoretical study undertaken to explore the mechanism for the ringing. Several avenues were followed to explore the phenomenon of ringing like higher order wave theory effects and special wave loads effects in the surf zone. Both regular and irregular waves were used during the tests.
Developing higher-order thinking skills with concept mapping: A case of pedagogic frailty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto J. Cañas
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Concept maps have been proposed as a tool that can help develop and exercise higher-order thinking skills, including critical thinking, reflective thinking, synthesis, analysis, among others. In this paper, we review how the different aspects of constructing a concept map can help develop and exercise these skills, and discuss why most students never reach the level of concept mapping skills required to exercises their higher-order thinking skills, in what we propose is a case of pedagogic frailty involving the ‘Pedagogy and Discipline’ and ‘Locus of Control’ dimensions.
Oscillation of certain higher-order neutral partial functional differential equations.
Li, Wei Nian; Sheng, Weihong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we study the oscillation of certain higher-order neutral partial functional differential equations with the Robin boundary conditions. Some oscillation criteria are established. Two examples are given to illustrate the main results in the end of this paper.
Temperature variation of higher-order elastic constants of MgO
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An effort has been made for obtaining higher-order elastic constants for MgO starting from basic parameters, viz. nearest-neighbor distance and hardness parameter using Coulomb and Börn–Mayer potentials. These are calculated in a wide temperature range (100–1000 K) and compared with available theoretical and ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Carlos Ceballos V.
2005-10-01
Full Text Available The exact boundary controllability of the higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation with constant coefficients on a bounded domain with various boundary conditions is studied. We derive the exact boundary controllability for this equation for sufficiently small initial and final states.
Some Opial Dynamic Inequalities Involving Higher Order Derivatives on Time Scales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samir H. Saker
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We will prove some new Opial dynamic inequalities involving higher order derivatives on time scales. The results will be proved by making use of Hölder's inequality, a simple consequence of Keller's chain rule and Taylor monomials on time scales. Some continuous and discrete inequalities will be derived from our results as special cases.
The grounding of higher order concepts in action and language: a cognitive robotics model.
Stramandinoli, Francesca; Marocco, Davide; Cangelosi, Angelo
2012-08-01
In this paper we present a neuro-robotic model that uses artificial neural networks for investigating the relations between the development of symbol manipulation capabilities and of sensorimotor knowledge in the humanoid robot iCub. We describe a cognitive robotics model in which the linguistic input provided by the experimenter guides the autonomous organization of the robot's knowledge. In this model, sequences of linguistic inputs lead to the development of higher-order concepts grounded on basic concepts and actions. In particular, we show that higher-order symbolic representations can be indirectly grounded in action primitives directly grounded in sensorimotor experiences. The use of recurrent neural network also permits the learning of higher-order concepts based on temporal sequences of action primitives. Hence, the meaning of a higher-order concept is obtained through the combination of basic sensorimotor knowledge. We argue that such a hierarchical organization of concepts can be a possible account for the acquisition of abstract words in cognitive robots. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Superpositions of higher-order bessel beams and nondiffracting speckle fields - (SAIP 2009)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2009-07-01
Full Text Available speckle fields. The paper reports on illuminating a ring slit aperture with light which has an azimuthal phase dependence, such that the field produced is a superposition of two higher-order Bessel beams. In the case that the phase dependence of the light...
A generalized Lyapunov inequality for a higher-order fractional boundary value problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dexiang Ma
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract In the paper, we establish a Lyapunov inequality and two Lyapunov-type inequalities for a higher-order fractional boundary value problem with a controllable nonlinear term. Two applications are discussed. One concerns an eigenvalue problem, the other a Mittag-Leffler function.
Single mode fibers for two stage higher-order soliton compression
Li, Qian; Cheng, Zihao
2017-11-01
Practical fiber designs for two stage third-order soliton compression with single mode fibers are presented. Fiber design rules as well as influences of higher-order dispersion and splicing loss are discussed. A compression factor of 85.92 is achieved with only 60.39% pedestal energy.
Higher-order multi-resolution topology optimization using the finite cell method
Groen, J.P.; Langelaar, M.; Sigmund, O; Ruess, M.
2017-01-01
This article presents a detailed study on the potential and limitations of performing higher-order multi-resolution topology optimization with the finite cell method. To circumvent stiffness overestimation in high-contrast topologies, a length-scale is applied on the solution using filter
Subsorted Partial Higher-order Logic as an Extension of CASL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haxthausen, Anne; Mossakowski, Till; Krieg-Bruckner, Bernd
1999-01-01
CASL is a specification language combining first-order logic, partiality and subsorting. However, inmany applications, first-order logic does not suffice. Consider e.g. the specification of functionalprograms, which often gain their conciseness through the use of higher-order functions, or thespe...
Subsorted Partial Higher-order Logic as an Extension of CASL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossakowski, Till; Haxthausen, Anne; Krieg-Bruckner, Bernd
1998-01-01
CASL is a specification language combining first-order logic, partiality and subsorting. This paper generalizes the CASL logic to higher-order functions and predicates. The logic is presented in a modular step-by-step reduction. Several possible design alternatives are discussed in the light of t...
Subsorted Partial Higher-order Logic as an extension of CASL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mossakowski, T.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Krieg-Brückner, B.
2000-01-01
CASL is a specification language combining first-order logic, partiality and subsorting. However, inmany applications, first-order logic does not suffice. Consider e.g. the specification of functionalprograms, which often gain their conciseness through the use of higher-order functions, or thespe...
Higher order point and continuum mechanics from phase-space action
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamanna, J.; Talukdar, B.; Das, U
2002-12-02
It is pointed out that use of phase-space action provides an elegant method to study the canonical structure of problems in mechanics. Higher order Lagrangian systems are Hamiltonized by employing the variational principle in phase space. Studies are envisaged for both particle dynamics and field theory. Hamilton's equations are expressed in terms of appropriate Poisson brackets.
Higher-order Bessel like beams with z-dependent cone angles
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Ismail, Y
2010-08-01
Full Text Available be produced however at the expense of its non-diffracting nature. Here we outline an optical design to produce higher-order Bessel-like beams with z-dependent cone angles that will retains its spatial distribution as z 8....
Experimental generation and application of the superposition of higher-order Bessel beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2009-07-01
Full Text Available This presentation provides information on experimental generation and application of the superposition of higher-order Bessel beams. The superposition of zero order Bessel beams can be used to measure the radius of curvature of a reflecting surface...
Second- and Higher-Order Virial Coefficients Derived from Equations of State for Real Gases
Parkinson, William A.
2009-01-01
Derivation of the second- and higher-order virial coefficients for models of the gaseous state is demonstrated by employing a direct differential method and subsequent term-by-term comparison to power series expansions. This communication demonstrates the application of this technique to van der Waals representations of virial coefficients.…
Reexamining the Literature: The Impact of Peer Tutoring on Higher Order Learning
Morano, Stephanie; Riccomini, Paul J.
2017-01-01
The body of peer-tutoring intervention research targeting higher order learning (HOL) objectives for middle and high school students with disabilities is reviewed. Peer-tutoring outcomes are synthesized and studies are analyzed to examine the influence of tutoring procedures and study design features on intervention efficacy. Findings show that…
Teaching Higher Order Thinking Skills: Implications for Vocational-Technical Education.
Mauter, Margaret A.
The expanding needs and growing expectations of employers make it very clear that vocational-technical education must give concentrated attention to critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. The impetus for today's higher-order thinking skills movement can be traced to a number of sources, most of which gained prominence during the…
Smooth Graphs for Visual Exploration of Higher-Order State Transitions
Blaas, J.; Botha, C.P.; Grundy, E.; Jones, M.W.; Laramee, R.S.; Post, F.H.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a new visual way of exploring state sequences in large observational time-series. A key advantage of our method is that it can directly visualize higher-order state transitions. A standard first order state transition is a sequence of two states that are linked by a
The control operator for the optimal control model of higher order ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The control operator of the Extended Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for the control of two- dimensional higher order non-dispersive waves was constructed in the paper. Explicit expressions of each elements, Ri,j , of the operator, R, were computed. These elements are useful for the implementation of the Optimal Control ...
Performance-Based Task Assessment of Higher-Order Proficiencies in Redesigned STEM High Schools
Ernst, Jeremy V.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Li, Songze
2017-01-01
This study explored student abilities in applying conceptual knowledge when presented with structured performance tasks. Specifically, the study gauged proficiency in higher-order applications of students enrolled in earth and environmental science or biology. The student sample was drawn from a Redesigned STEM high school model where a tested…
Compound waves in a higher order nonlinear model of thermoviscous fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønne Rasmussen, Anders; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri B.
2016-01-01
A generalized traveling wave ansatz is used to investigate compound shock waves in a higher order nonlinear model of a thermoviscous fluid. The fluid velocity potential is written as a traveling wave plus a linear function of space and time. The latter offers the possibility of predicting...
Using Higher Order Thinking Questions to Foster Critical Thinking: A Classroom Study
Barnett, Jerrold E.; Francis, Alisha L.
2012-01-01
To determine if quizzes containing higher order thinking questions are related to critical thinking and test performance when utilised in conjunction with an immersion approach to instruction and effort-based grading, sections of an "Educational Psychology" course were assigned to one of three quizzing conditions. Quizzes contained…
Higher?order ionospheric effects on the GPS reference frame and velocities
Petrie, E.J.; King, M.A.; Moore, P.; Lavallée, D.A.
2010-01-01
We describe how GPS time series are influenced by higher?order ionospheric effects over the last solar cycle (1995–2008) and examine implications for geophysical studies. Using 14 years of globally reprocessed solutions, we demonstrate the effect on the reference frame. Including second? and
Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja
2011-01-01
in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuji Liu
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A new fixed point theorem on cones is applied to obtain the existence of at least two positive solutions of a higher-order three-point boundary value problem for the differential equation subject to a class ofboundary value conditions. The associated Green's function is given. Some results obtained recently are generalized.
Stabilization of solutions to higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equation with localized damping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eleni Bisognin
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We study the stabilization of solutions to higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations in a bounded interval under the effect of a localized damping mechanism. We use multiplier techniques to obtain exponential decay in time of the solutions of the linear and nonlinear equations.
Superpositions of higher-order bessel beams and nondiffracting speckle fields
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dudley, Angela L
2009-08-01
Full Text Available speckle fields. The paper reports on illuminating a ring slit aperture with light which has an azimuthal phase dependence, such that the field produced is a superposition of two higher-order Bessel beams. In the case that the phase dependence of the light...
Using Tests To Evaluate the Impact of Curricular Reform on Higher Order Thinking.
Davis, Alan
The dominant issues in considering the use of tests developed outside the classroom to measure the impact of curriculum reform on higher order thinking are reviewed by a panel interviewed for this discussion. Panel members are: (1) Stuart Kahl, (2) Robert Linn, (3) Senta A. Raizen, (4) Lauren Resnick, and (5) Thomas A. Romberg. It is conceded…
Topology optimized design of a transverse electric higher order mode converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frellsen, Louise Floor; Ding, Yunhong; Sigmund, Ole
2016-01-01
present the possibility of employing topology optimization (TO) to design a device that allows for reversible conversion between the transverse electric fundamental even (TE0) mode and the second higher order odd mode (TE2). Topology optimization is an iterative inverse design process, where repeated...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erkinjon Karimov
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.
The advantage of higher-order theory of mind in the game of limited bidding
De Weerd, H.; Verheij, B.; van Eijck, J.; Verbrugge, L. C.
2011-01-01
Higher-order theory of mind is the ability to recursively model mental states of other agents. It is known that adults in general can reason adequately at the second order (covering attributions like "Alice knows that Bob knows that she wrote a novel under pseudonym"), but there are cognitive limits
Higher-order corrected Higgs bosons in FeynHiggs2.4
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Large higher-order corrections enter the Higgs boson sector of the MSSM via Higgs-boson self-energies. Their effects have to be taken into account for the correct treatment of loop-corrected Higgs-boson mass eigenstates as external (on-shell) or internal particles in Feynman diagrams. We review how the loop ...
Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body
Sorgo, Andrej
2006-01-01
We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…
Brady, Timothy F.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.
2013-01-01
When remembering a real-world scene, people encode both detailed information about specific objects and higher order information like the overall gist of the scene. However, formal models of change detection, like those used to estimate visual working memory capacity, assume observers encode only a simple memory representation that includes no…
A review of higher order strain gradient theories of plasticity: Origins ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper we review developments in higher order strain gradient theories. Several variants of these theories have been proposed in order to explain the effects of size on plastic properties that are manifest in several experiments with micron sized metallic structures. It is generally appreciated that the size effect ...
A Hybrid PO - Higher-Order Hierarchical MoM Formulation using Curvilinear Geometry Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, E.; Meincke, Peter; Breinbjerg, Olav
2003-01-01
A very efficient hybrid PO-MoM method has been presented. In contrast to existing methods, the present solution employs higher-order hierarchical basis functions to discretize the MoM and PO currents. This allows to reduce the number of basis functions in both the PO and MoM regions considerably...
Numerical computation of the optimal control model of higher-order ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper implemented the optimal control problem of higher-order nondispersive wave. The Extended Conjugate Gradient Method [1], was used to compute the optimal values of the control and state variables of the model while the analytical expressions of the state and control variables generated the analytical values.
FOOTSTEPS: A Story of One Child's Construction of Higher Order, Logical Mathematical Intelligence.
Fluellen, J. E.
The issue of how a child constructs higher order, logical mathematical intelligence within the context of a multiple-intelligences classroom is explored in this story. Teacher journal observations of one 5th-grade child are woven with selected literature on multiple intelligences and research trends in elementary mathematics education. The story…
Straalen, IJ.J. van
2000-01-01
During tthe 1990's the higher-order theory was developed by Frostig to enable detailed stress analyses of sandwich panel structures. To investigate the potentials of this approach experiments are performed on sandwich panels made of thin steel faces and mineral wool or polystyrene core material. A
Higher-Order Thinking Development through Adaptive Problem-Based Learning
Raiyn, Jamal; Tilchin, Oleg
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose an approach to organizing Adaptive Problem-Based Learning (PBL) leading to the development of Higher-Order Thinking (HOT) skills and collaborative skills in students. Adaptability of PBL is expressed by changes in fixed instructor assessments caused by the dynamics of developing HOT skills needed for problem solving,…
On the effects of wave steepness on higher order Stokes waves ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effect of wave steepness on higher order finite amplitude Stokes waves is investigated analytically and numerically. It is shown that the phase speed increases as the wave steepness increases thereby initiating the wave instabilities. As the order increases, the phase speed also increases .However, the impact of wave ...
Verifying object-oriented programs with higher-order separation logic in Coq
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bengtson, Jesper; Jensen, Jonas Braband; Sieczkowski, Filip
2011-01-01
and interface inheritance. In particular, we show how to use the higher-order features of the Coq formalisation to specify and reason modularly about programs that (1) depend on some unknown code satisfying a specification or that (2) return objects conforming to a certain specification. All of our results have...
Formalizing Higher-order Mobile Embedded Business Processes with Binding Bigraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bundgaard, Mikkel; Glenstrup, Arne John; Hildebrandt, Thomas
2008-01-01
We propose and formalize HomeBPEL, a higher-order WSBPEL-like business process execution language where processes are firstclass values that can be stored in variables, passed as messages, and activated as embedded sub-instances. A sub-instance is similar to a WSBPEL scope, except that it can...
Assessment choices to target higher order learning outcomes: the power of academic empowerment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margot McNeill
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Assessment of higher order learning outcomes such as critical thinking, problem solving and creativity has remained a challenge for universities. While newer technologies such as social networking tools have the potential to support these intended outcomes, academics’ assessment practice is slow to change. University mission statements and unit outlines may purport the value of higher order skills; however, questions remain about how well academics are equipped to design their curriculum and particularly their assessment strategies accordingly. This paper reports on an investigation of academic practice in assessing higher order learning in their units. Despite their intentions towards higher order learning outcomes for their students, the results suggest academics may make decisions when planning their assessment tasks that inadvertently lead students on the path towards lower order outcomes. Among the themes to emerge from the study is the importance of academics’ confidence and their attitudes towards the role of assessment in learning and how these perspectives, along with the types of learning outcomes they intend for their students, can influence their task design.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Pei
2013-02-15
Higher order modes (HOM) are electromagnetic resonant fields. They can be excited by an electron beam entering an accelerating cavity, and constitute a component of the wakefield. This wakefield has the potential to dilute the beam quality and, in the worst case, result in a beam-break-up instability. It is therefore important to ensure that these fields are well suppressed by extracting energy through special couplers. In addition, the effect of the transverse wakefield can be reduced by aligning the beam on the cavity axis. This is due to their strength depending on the transverse offset of the excitation beam. For suitably small offsets the dominant components of the transverse wakefield are dipole modes, with a linear dependence on the transverse offset of the excitation bunch. This fact enables the transverse beam position inside the cavity to be determined by measuring the dipole modes extracted from the couplers, similar to a cavity beam position monitor (BPM), but requires no additional vacuum instrumentation. At the FLASH facility in DESY, 1.3 GHz (known as TESLA) and 3.9 GHz (third harmonic) cavities are installed. Wakefields in 3.9 GHz cavities are significantly larger than in the 1.3 GHz cavities. It is therefore important to mitigate the adverse effects of HOMs to the beam by aligning the beam on the electric axis of the cavities. This alignment requires an accurate beam position diagnostics inside the 3.9 GHz cavities. It is this aspect that is focused on in this thesis. Although the principle of beam diagnostics with HOM has been demonstrated on 1.3 GHz cavities, the realization in 3.9 GHz cavities is considerably more challenging. This is due to the dense HOM spectrum and the relatively strong coupling of most HOMs amongst the four cavities in the third harmonic cryo-module. A comprehensive series of simulations and HOM spectra measurements have been performed in order to study the modal band structure of the 3.9 GHz cavities. The dependencies of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Littel Marianne
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking. Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses. However, there have been few human studies that demonstrate the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction, although it is assumed that higher-order conditioning predominates learning in the outside world. In the present study a higher-order conditioning task was designed in which brain responses of smokers and non-smokers were conditioned by pairing smoking-related and neutral stimuli (CS1smoke and CS1neutral with two geometrical figures (CS2smoke and CS2neutral. ERPs were recorded to all CSs. Results Data showed that the geometrical figure that was paired with smoking stimuli elicited significantly larger P2 and P3 waves than the geometrical figure that was paired with neutral stimuli. During the first half of the experiment this effect was only present in smokers whereas non-smokers displayed no significant differences between both stimuli, indicating that neutral cues paired with motivationally relevant smoking-related stimuli gain more motivational significance even though they were never paired directly with smoking. These conclusions are underscored by self-reported evidence of enhanced second-order conditioning in smokers. Conclusions It can be concluded that smokers show associative learning for higher-order smoking-related stimuli. The present study directly shows the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction and is the first to reveal its electrophysiological correlates. Although results are preliminary, they may help in understanding the etiology of smoking addiction and its persistence.
Littel, Marianne; Franken, Ingmar Ha
2012-01-11
Classical conditioning has been suggested to play an important role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of tobacco smoking. Several studies have shown that initially neutral stimuli that are directly paired with smoking are able to elicit conditioned responses. However, there have been few human studies that demonstrate the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction, although it is assumed that higher-order conditioning predominates learning in the outside world. In the present study a higher-order conditioning task was designed in which brain responses of smokers and non-smokers were conditioned by pairing smoking-related and neutral stimuli (CS1smoke and CS1neutral) with two geometrical figures (CS2smoke and CS2neutral). ERPs were recorded to all CSs. Data showed that the geometrical figure that was paired with smoking stimuli elicited significantly larger P2 and P3 waves than the geometrical figure that was paired with neutral stimuli. During the first half of the experiment this effect was only present in smokers whereas non-smokers displayed no significant differences between both stimuli, indicating that neutral cues paired with motivationally relevant smoking-related stimuli gain more motivational significance even though they were never paired directly with smoking. These conclusions are underscored by self-reported evidence of enhanced second-order conditioning in smokers. It can be concluded that smokers show associative learning for higher-order smoking-related stimuli. The present study directly shows the contribution of higher-order conditioning to smoking addiction and is the first to reveal its electrophysiological correlates. Although results are preliminary, they may help in understanding the etiology of smoking addiction and its persistence.
Analysis of warping deformation modes using higher order ANCF beam element
Orzechowski, Grzegorz; Shabana, Ahmed A.
2016-02-01
Most classical beam theories assume that the beam cross section remains a rigid surface under an arbitrary loading condition. However, in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF) continuum-based beams, this assumption can be relaxed allowing for capturing deformation modes that couple the cross-section deformation and beam bending, torsion, and/or elongation. The deformation modes captured by ANCF finite elements depend on the interpolating polynomials used. The most widely used spatial ANCF beam element employs linear approximation in the transverse direction, thereby restricting the cross section deformation and leading to locking problems. The objective of this investigation is to examine the behavior of a higher order ANCF beam element that includes quadratic interpolation in the transverse directions. This higher order element allows capturing warping and non-uniform stretching distribution. Furthermore, this higher order element allows for increasing the degree of continuity at the element interface. It is shown in this paper that the higher order ANCF beam element can be used effectively to capture warping and eliminate Poisson locking that characterizes lower order ANCF finite elements. It is also shown that increasing the degree of continuity requires a special attention in order to have acceptable results. Because higher order elements can be more computationally expensive than the lower order elements, the use of reduced integration for evaluating the stress forces and the use of explicit and implicit numerical integrations to solve the nonlinear dynamic equations of motion are investigated in this paper. It is shown that the use of some of these integration methods can be very effective in reducing the CPU time without adversely affecting the solution accuracy.
Scott, Kristin M; Barbarin, Oscar A; Brown, Jeffrey M
2013-01-01
This study examines the relations of higher order (i.e., abstract) thinking (HOT) skills to specific domains of social competence in Black boys (n = 108) attending publicly sponsored prekindergarten (pre-K) programs. Data for the study were collected as part of the National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) Multi-State Study, a national, longitudinal study examining the quality and outcomes in a representative sample of publicly sponsored pre-K programs in six states (N = 240). Pre-K and kindergarten teachers rated randomly selected children on measures of abstract thinking, self-regulation, and social functioning at the beginning and end of each school year. Applying structural equation modeling, compared with earlier time points, HOT measured in the fall of kindergarten significantly predicted each of the domains of social competence in the spring of kindergarten, with the exception of peer social skills, while controlling for general cognitive ability. Results suggest that early intervention to improve HOT may be an effective and more focused approach to address concerns about Black boys' early social competencies in specific domains and potentially reduce the risk of later social difficulties. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elaine H. Dean
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Collecting reference statistics is an important facet of academic librarianship. Having accurate, shareable data about the services a library provides is key to understanding the needs of users and highlighting the importance of the library within the overall institution. While many libraries collect reference statistics on paper, gathering this data using an electronic statistics system is an efficient and customizable way to track and analyze reference service trends. By detailing Neumann University Library and Harrell Health Sciences Library’s experiences with two different but equally effective systems, this article will explore the complexities of implementing, customizing, and analyzing the data from an electronic reference statistics system. The authors also discuss challenges encountered and offer recommendations and best practices for others wishing to explore electronic reference statistic collection.
Study of Higher Order Modes in Superconducting Accelerating Structures for Linac Applications
Schuh, Marcel; Welsch, C P
2011-01-01
Higher Order Modes (HOMs) can severely limit the operation of superconducting cavities in a linear accelerator with high beam current, high duty factor and complex pulse structure. Therefore, the full HOM spectrum has to be analysed in detail to identify potentially dangerous modes already during the design phase and to define their damping requirements. For this purpose a dedicated beam dynamics simulation code, Simulation of higher order Mode Dynamics (SMD), focusing on beam-HOM interaction, has been developed in the frame of this project. SMD allows to analyse the beam behaviour under the presence of HOMs, taking into account many important effects, such as for example the HOM frequency spread, beam input jitter, different chopping patterns, as well as klystron and alignment errors. SMD is used to investigate in detail into the effects of HOMs in the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) at CERN and in particular their potential to drive beam instabili- ties in the longitudinal and transverse direction. Based...
Robust rooftop extraction from visible band images using higher order CRF
Li, Er
2015-08-01
In this paper, we propose a robust framework for building extraction in visible band images. We first get an initial classification of the pixels based on an unsupervised presegmentation. Then, we develop a novel conditional random field (CRF) formulation to achieve accurate rooftops extraction, which incorporates pixel-level information and segment-level information for the identification of rooftops. Comparing with the commonly used CRF model, a higher order potential defined on segment is added in our model, by exploiting region consistency and shape feature at segment level. Our experiments show that the proposed higher order CRF model outperforms the state-of-the-art methods both at pixel and object levels on rooftops with complex structures and sizes in challenging environments. © 1980-2012 IEEE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John, V.; Matthies, G.; Tobiska, L. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Analysis und Numerik
2001-07-01
For solving complex three-dimensional flow problems, many different approaches have been developed. It turns out that both the discretization concept and the solver designed for the discrete problem influences essentially the accuracy and efficiency of the method. The main objective of the paper is to compare lower and higher order finite element discretizations for the accurate and fast solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in three space dimensions. To this end, a well-defined benchmark problem of a channel flow around an obstacle is used to quantify the gain in accuracy when higher order discretizations are used. The comparison covers also the robust and efficient solution of the discretized algebraic equations. (orig.)
Enhancing Higher Order Thinking Skills Among Inservice Science Teachers Via Embedded Assessment
Barak, Miri; Dori, Yehudit Judy
2009-10-01
Testing students on higher order thinking skills may reinforce these skills among them. To research this assertion, we developed a graduate course for inservice science teachers in a framework of a “Journal Club”—a hybrid course which combines face-to-face classroom discussions with online activities, interrelating teaching, learning, and assessment. The course involves graduate students in critical evaluation of science education articles and cognitive debates, and tests them on these skills. Our study examined the learning processes and outcomes of 51 graduate students, from three consecutive semesters. Findings indicated that the students’ higher order thinking skills were enhanced in terms of their ability to (a) pose complex questions, (b) present solid opinions, (c) introduce consistent arguments, and (d) demonstrate critical thinking.
Higher-Order Interactions in Quantum Optomechanics: Analytical Solution of Nonlinearity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sina Khorasani
2017-12-01
Full Text Available A method is described to solve the nonlinear Langevin equations arising from quadratic interactions in quantum mechanics. While the zeroth order linearization approximation to the operators is normally used, here, first and second order truncation perturbation schemes are proposed. These schemes employ higher-order system operators, and then approximate number operators with their corresponding mean boson numbers only where needed. Spectral densities of higher-order operators are derived, and an expression for the second-order correlation function at zero time-delay has been found, which reveals that the cavity photon occupation of an ideal laser at threshold reaches 6 − 2 , in good agreement with extensive numerical calculations. As further applications, analysis of the quantum anharmonic oscillator, calculation of Q-functions, analysis of quantum limited amplifiers, and nondemoliton measurements are provided.
Benchmark experiments for higher-order and full-Stokes ice sheet models (ISMIP–HOM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Pattyn
2008-08-01
Full Text Available We present the results of the first ice sheet model intercomparison project for higher-order and full-Stokes ice sheet models. These models are compared and verified in a series of six experiments of which one has an analytical solution obtained from a perturbation analysis. The experiments are applied to both 2-D and 3-D geometries; five experiments are steady-state diagnostic, and one has a time-dependent prognostic solution. All participating models give results that are in close agreement. A clear distinction can be made between higher-order models and those that solve the full system of equations. The full-Stokes models show a much smaller spread, hence are in better agreement with one another and with the analytical solution.
John Carroll’s Views on Intelligence: Bi-Factor vs. Higher-Order Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Alexander Beaujean
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The development of factor models is inextricably tied to the history of intelligence research. One of the most commonly-cited scholars in the field is John Carroll, whose three-stratum theory of cognitive ability has been one of the most influential models of cognitive ability in the past 20 years. Nonetheless, there is disagreement about how Carroll conceptualized the factors in his model. Some argue that his model is best represented through a higher-order model, while others argue that a bi-factor model is a better representation. Carroll was explicit about what he perceived the best way to represent his model, but his writings are not always easy to understand. In this article, I clarify his position by first describing the details and implications of bi-factor and higher-order models then show that Carroll’s published views are better represented by a bi-factor model.
Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.
Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen
2014-11-01
Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A new fuzzy multi-objective higher order moment portfolio selection model for diversified portfolios
Yue, Wei; Wang, Yuping
2017-01-01
Due to the important effect of the higher order moments to portfolio returns, the aim of this paper is to make use of the third and fourth moments for fuzzy multi-objective portfolio selection model. Firstly, in order to overcome the low diversity of the obtained solution set and lead to corner solutions for the conventional higher moment portfolio selection models, a new entropy function based on Minkowski measure is proposed as a new objective function and a novel fuzzy multi-objective weighted possibilistic higher order moment portfolio model is presented. Secondly, to solve the proposed model efficiently, a new multi-objective evolutionary algorithm is designed. Thirdly, several portfolio performance evaluation techniques are used to evaluate the performance of the portfolio models. Finally, some experiments are conducted by using the data of Shanghai Stock Exchange and the results indicate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.
On higher-order boundary conditions at elastic-plastic boundaries in strain-gradient plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof
2008-01-01
are suppressed by using a very high artificial hardening modulus. Through numerical studies of pure bending under plane strain conditions, it is shown that this method predicts the build-up of higher order stresses in the pseudo-elastic regime. This has the effect of delaying the onset of incipient yield......A computational method for dealing with higher order boundary conditions on moving elastic-plastic boundaries in strain gradient plasticity is proposed. The basic idea is to skip the notion of a purely elastic regime, and instead introduce a pseudo-elastic regime, where plastic deformations......, as well as extending the plastic zone further toward the neutral axis of the beam, when compared to conventional models. Arguments supporting the present method are presented that rest on both mathematical and physical grounds. The results obtained are compared with other methods for dealing with higher...
A finite deformation theory of higher-order gradient crystal plasticity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuroda, Mitsutoshi; Tvergaard, Viggo
2008-01-01
For higher-order gradient crystal plasticity, a finite deformation formulation is presented. The theory does not deviate much from the conventional crystal plasticity theory. Only a back stress effect and additional differential equations for evolution of the geometrically necessary dislocation (...... for the small deformation theory. As in a previous formulation for small deformation, the present formulation applies to the context of multiple and three-dimensional slip deformations. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Growth of meromorphic solutions of higher-order linear differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjuan Chen
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the higher-order linear differential equations with meromorphic coefficients. We improve and extend a result of M.S. Liu and C.L. Yuan, by using the estimates for the logarithmic derivative of a transcendental meromorphic function due to Gundersen, and the extended Winman-Valiron theory which proved by J. Wang and H.X. Yi. In addition, we also consider the nonhomogeneous linear differential equations.
Saba, Walid S.
2008-01-01
In this paper we suggest a typed compositional seman-tics for nominal compounds of the form [Adj Noun] that models adjectives as higher-order polymorphic functions, and where types are assumed to represent concepts in an ontology that reflects our commonsense view of the world and the way we talk about it in or-dinary language. In addition to [Adj Noun] compounds our proposal seems also to suggest a plausible explana-tion for well known adjective ordering restrictions.
Analytical Treatment of Higher-Order Graphs: A Path Ordinal Method for Solving Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hala Kamal
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Analytical treatment of the composition of higher-order graphs representing linear relations between variables is developed. A path formalism to deal with problems in graph theory is introduced. It is shown how paths in the composed graph representing individual contributions to variables relation can be enumerated and represented by ordinals. The method allows for one to extract partial information and gives an alternative to classical graph approach.
On the mild solutions of higher-order differential equations in Banach spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Thanh Lan
2003-01-01
Full Text Available For the higher-order abstract differential equation u(n(t=Au(t+f(t, t∈ℝ, we give a new definition of mild solutions. We then characterize the regular admissibility of a translation-invariant subspace ℳ of BUC(ℝ,E with respect to the above-mentioned equation in terms of solvability of the operator equation AX−Xn=C. As applications, periodicity and almost periodicity of mild solutions are also proved.
Higher?order oligomerization promotes localization of SPOP to liquid nuclear speckles
Marzahn, Melissa R.; Marada, Suresh; Lee, Jihun; Nourse, Amanda; Kenrick, Sophia; Zhao, Huaying; Ben?Nissan, Gili; Kolaitis, Regina?Maria; Peters, Jennifer L.; Pounds, Stanley; Errington, Wesley J; Priv?, Gilbert G; Taylor, J Paul; Sharon, Michal; Schuck, Peter
2016-01-01
Abstract Membrane?less organelles in cells are large, dynamic protein/protein or protein/RNA assemblies that have been reported in some cases to have liquid droplet properties. However, the molecular interactions underlying the recruitment of components are not well understood. Herein, we study how the ability to form higher?order assemblies influences the recruitment of the speckle?type POZ protein (SPOP) to nuclear speckles. SPOP, a cullin?3?RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) substrate adaptor, s...
A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme
Pray, Andrew J.
2013-07-01
We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.
Learning about the world: developing higher order thinking in music education
Kruger, J.; van der Merwe, L
2012-01-01
Innovative thinking is an innate human capacity geared towards adaptation and survival. Theories of education accordingly aim at developing teaching-learning strategies that promote creative, problem-solving reasoning referred to as higher order thinking. This essay briefly explains some of the assumptions underlying this concept, and then suggests how they may be reconfigured in a strategy suitable for education in and through music. The strategy involves a basic process of analysis...
Kulig, Alan W; Blanchard, Rebecca D
2016-07-01
It is difficult to assess applicants' higher-order cognitive thinking skills during conventional resident interviews. Application metrics currently employed are useful indicators of academic and personal success in targeted areas, yet value of this information in predicting future clinical performance is limited. We developed an assessment tool to evaluate higher-order cognitive function in real time during anesthesiology resident applicant interviews. During the 2014-2015 residency interview season, we integrated simulation training into applicant interviews to evaluate higher-order cognitive skills. Our 5-minute simulation emphasized the Team STEPPS 2-Challenge Rule and explored candidates' critical thinking, analytical decision making, and response to stress. Participating applicants were evaluated using an outcomes-based checklist targeting desired responses. We also sent applicants a post-National Resident Matching Program survey to assess their perceptions of the simulation's value and educational utility. A total of 90 applicants (75% of all applicants) participated in the simulation, which taught residents about important patient safety concepts and provided the program with real time information about their critical thinking ability. All applicants were confident or very confident that they would both speak up and know what to say if they encountered a patient safety breach as a result of participating in this exercise. Simulation performance affected desirability status for 35% of participating applicants, where 23% of applicants ranked higher, and 12% ranked lower compared to baseline application status. Cognitive simulation training was useful in assessing resident applicant higher-order thinking skills and in helping stratify candidates in conjunction with standard application metrics.
Higgs boson decay into heavy quarks and heavy leptons: higher order corrections
Kim, Victor T
2010-01-01
Theoretical predictions for the decay width of Standard Model Higgs boson into bottom quarks and tau-leptons, in the case when M_H< 2M_W, are briefly reviewed. The effects of higher order perturbative QCD (up to alpha_s^4-level) and QED corrections are considered. The uncertainties of the decay width of Higgs boson into bb and tau+tau- are discussed.
Generalized Green's functions for higher order boundary value matrix differential systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. J. Villanueva
1992-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Green's matrix function for higher order two point boundary value differential matrix problems is constructed. By using the concept of rectangular co-solution of certain algebraic matrix equation associated to the problem, an existence condition as well as an explicit closed form expression for the solution of possibly not well-posed boundary value problems is given avoiding the increase of the problem dimension.
Children’s higher order cognitive abilities and the development of secondary memory
De Alwis, Duneesha; Myerson, Joel; Hershey, Tamara; Hale, Sandra
2009-01-01
The relations between higher cognitive abilities and immediate and delayed recall were studied in 57 children (6–16 years of age). The participants were tested repeatedly on free recall of a supraspan list (Children’s Memory Scale), and their fluid ability was also assessed (Woodcock–Johnson III Spatial Relations). Consistent with Unsworth and Engle’s (2007) account of the relation between memory and higher order cognition, the children’s fluid ability was significantly correlated with retrie...
Liu, Qun; Jiang, Daqing; Hayat, Tasawar; Ahmad, Bashir
2017-09-01
In this paper, we investigate two stochastic SIR epidemic models with higher order perturbation. For the nonautonomous periodic case of the model, by using Has'minskii's theory of periodic solution, we show that the system has at least one nontrivial positive T-periodic solution. For the system disturbed by both the white noise and telephone noise, we establish sufficient conditions for positive recurrence and the existence of ergodic stationary distribution of the positive solution.
Transition, coexistence, and interaction of vector localized waves arising from higher-order effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Chong [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhao, Li-Chen, E-mail: zhaolichen3@163.com [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)
2015-11-15
We study vector localized waves on continuous wave background with higher-order effects in a two-mode optical fiber. The striking properties of transition, coexistence, and interaction of these localized waves arising from higher-order effects are revealed in combination with corresponding modulation instability (MI) characteristics. It shows that these vector localized wave properties have no analogues in the case without higher-order effects. Specifically, compared to the scalar case, an intriguing transition between bright–dark rogue waves and w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons, which occurs as a result of the attenuation of MI growth rate to vanishing in the zero-frequency perturbation region, is exhibited with the relative background frequency. In particular, our results show that the w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons can coexist with breathers, coinciding with the MI analysis where the coexistence condition is a mixture of a modulation stability and MI region. It is interesting that their interaction is inelastic and describes a fusion process. In addition, we demonstrate an annihilation phenomenon for the interaction of two w-shaped solitons which is identified essentially as an inelastic collision in this system. -- Highlights: •Vector rogue wave properties induced by higher-order effects are studied. •A transition between vector rogue waves and solitons is obtained. •The link between the transition and modulation instability (MI) is demonstrated. •The coexistence of vector solitons and breathers coincides with the MI features. •An annihilation phenomenon for the vector two w-shaped solitons is presented.
Yıgıt, Gülsemay; Bayram, Mustafa
2017-01-01
In this study linear and nonlinear higher order singularly perturbed problems are examined by a numerical approach, the differential quadrature method. Here, the main idea is using Chebyshev polynomials to acquire the weighting coefficient matrix which is necessary to get numerical results. Following this, different class of perturbation problems are considered as test problems. Then, all results are shown in tables and also comparison between numerical and exact solution shows the accuracy a...
In-service teacher education: asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy
Visvaganthie Moodley
2013-01-01
The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP) facilitator, I demonstrate that within the framework of a carefully structured subject-specific PDP, teachers can be taught how to enhance thinking skills in the English visual lite...
What Do Trainers Need to Know to Train Higher-Order Thinking Skills
2017-11-01
and Training website http://www.ica-sae.org/trainer/ english /p9.htm Cruickshank, D., Jenkins, D., & Metcalf, K. (2011). The Act of Teaching ...instance, there is a movement in American secondary education to develop higher-order thinking skills ( Teach for America, 2011). A number of classroom...common educational goal ( Teach for America, 2011). However, secondary education has historically relied on techniques that elicit and develop lower
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian influences on higher-order cognitive functions.
Burke, Tina M; Scheer, Frank A J L; Ronda, Joseph M; Czeisler, Charles A; Wright, Kenneth P
2015-08-01
Sleep inertia, sleep homeostatic and circadian processes modulate cognition, including reaction time, memory, mood and alertness. How these processes influence higher-order cognitive functions is not well known. Six participants completed a 73-day-long study that included two 14-day-long 28-h forced desynchrony protocols to examine separate and interacting influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase on higher-order cognitive functions of inhibitory control and selective visual attention. Cognitive performance for most measures was impaired immediately after scheduled awakening and improved during the first ~2-4 h of wakefulness (decreasing sleep inertia); worsened thereafter until scheduled bedtime (increasing sleep homeostasis); and was worst at ~60° and best at ~240° (circadian modulation, with worst and best phases corresponding to ~09:00 and ~21:00 hours, respectively, in individuals with a habitual wake time of 07:00 hours). The relative influences of sleep inertia, sleep homeostasis and circadian phase depended on the specific higher-order cognitive function task examined. Inhibitory control appeared to be modulated most strongly by circadian phase, whereas selective visual attention for a spatial-configuration search task was modulated most strongly by sleep inertia. These findings demonstrate that some higher-order cognitive processes are differentially sensitive to different sleep-wake regulatory processes. Differential modulation of cognitive functions by different sleep-wake regulatory processes has important implications for understanding mechanisms contributing to performance impairments during adverse circadian phases, sleep deprivation and/or upon awakening from sleep. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.
Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn
2015-11-01
Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mierdel, Peter; Krinke, Hans-Eberhard; Pollack, Katharina; Spoerl, Eberhard
2004-01-01
Optimal wavefront-guided refractive corneal laser surgery requires sufficiently exact data of optical higher order aberrations. We investigated whether these aberrations had a systematic during-the-day variation, studied the range of variation, and changes in intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness. In 22 eyes of 22 young volunteers the optical aberrations of higher order were measured by means of a Tscherning-type ocular aberrometer three times during one day (7 AM, 12 noon, 4 PM). In addition, in 12 of these eyes the intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness were measured. The intraocular wavefront aberration was computed using Zernike polynomials up to the sixth order, and Zernike coefficients of third and fourth order were analyzed. Only the coefficient Z 2/4 (C13) showed a significant increase during the day by a mean 0.016 microm. A significant regression could be detected between changes of coefficients Z3/3, Z-2/4, Z0/4, Z4/4, and changes of intraocular pressure or central corneal thickness during the day. Due to the small values, the measured during-the-day changes of higher order aberrations had no direct practical consequences for the aberrometry-guided corneal laser surgery. Alterations of some Zernike coefficients during the day may be explained by the biomechanical behavior of the cornea.
Compositional modeling of three-phase flow with gravity using higher-order finite element methods
Moortgat, Joachim
2011-05-11
A wide range of applications in subsurface flow involve water, a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) or oil, and a gas phase, such as air or CO2. The numerical simulation of such processes is computationally challenging and requires accurate compositional modeling of three-phase flow in porous media. In this work, we simulate for the first time three-phase compositional flow using higher-order finite element methods. Gravity poses complications in modeling multiphase processes because it drives countercurrent flow among phases. To resolve this issue, we propose a new method for the upwinding of three-phase mobilities. Numerical examples, related to enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed algorithm. We pay special attention to challenges associated with gravitational instabilities and take into account compressibility and various phase behavior effects, including swelling, viscosity changes, and vaporization. We find that the proposed higher-order method can capture sharp solution discontinuities, yielding accurate predictions of phase boundaries arising in computational three-phase flow. This work sets the stage for a broad extension of the higher-order methods for numerical simulation of three-phase flow for complex geometries and processes.
A Higher-Order Neural Network Design for Improving Segmentation Performance in Medical Image Series
Selvi, Eşref; Selver, M. Alper; Güzeliş, Cüneyt; Dicle, Oǧuz
2014-03-01
Segmentation of anatomical structures from medical image series is an ongoing field of research. Although, organs of interest are three-dimensional in nature, slice-by-slice approaches are widely used in clinical applications because of their ease of integration with the current manual segmentation scheme. To be able to use slice-by-slice techniques effectively, adjacent slice information, which represents likelihood of a region to be the structure of interest, plays critical role. Recent studies focus on using distance transform directly as a feature or to increase the feature values at the vicinity of the search area. This study presents a novel approach by constructing a higher order neural network, the input layer of which receives features together with their multiplications with the distance transform. This allows higher-order interactions between features through the non-linearity introduced by the multiplication. The application of the proposed method to 9 CT datasets for segmentation of the liver shows higher performance than well-known higher order classification neural networks.
Higher-order social cognition in first-episode major depression.
Ladegaard, Nicolai; Larsen, Erik Roj; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H
2014-04-30
Patients suffering from major depression experience difficulties in multiple cognitive faculties. A growing body of research has linked affective disorders to abnormalities in social cognition and specifically the processing of discrete emotional stimuli. However, little inquiry has gone into possible impairment in higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Forty-four medication-naïve patients with first-episode unipolar major depressive disorder and an equal number of matched controls were assessed by the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated (MAS-A), The Frith-Happé animations (FHA) and The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT). Additionally, neurocognition was assessed utilyzing the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Depressed patients showed impairment in all domains of higher-order social cognitive ability. Importantly, social cognitive variables retained their inter-group significance after controlling for possible covariates including neurocognition. Results indicate that first-episode depressed patients experience difficulties in all domains of higher-order social cognition including theory of mind, social perception and metacognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Higher-order neural network software for distortion invariant object recognition
Reid, Max B.; Spirkovska, Lilly
1991-01-01
The state-of-the-art in pattern recognition for such applications as automatic target recognition and industrial robotic vision relies on digital image processing. We present a higher-order neural network model and software which performs the complete feature extraction-pattern classification paradigm required for automatic pattern recognition. Using a third-order neural network, we demonstrate complete, 100 percent accurate invariance to distortions of scale, position, and in-plate rotation. In a higher-order neural network, feature extraction is built into the network, and does not have to be learned. Only the relatively simple classification step must be learned. This is key to achieving very rapid training. The training set is much smaller than with standard neural network software because the higher-order network only has to be shown one view of each object to be learned, not every possible view. The software and graphical user interface run on any Sun workstation. Results of the use of the neural software in autonomous robotic vision systems are presented. Such a system could have extensive application in robotic manufacturing.
Howe, George W; Hornberger, Anna P; Weihs, Karen; Moreno, Francisco; Neiderhiser, Jenae M
2012-05-01
Recent work on comorbidity finds evidence for hierarchical structure of mood and anxiety disorders and symptoms. This study tests whether a higher-order internalizing factor accounts for variation in depression and anxiety symptom severity and change over time in a sample experiencing a period of major life stress. Data on symptoms of depression, chronic worry, and social anxiety were collected five times across seven months from 426 individuals who had recently lost jobs. Growth models for each type of symptom found significant variation in individual trajectories. Slopes were highly correlated across symptom type, as were intercepts. Multilevel confirmatory factor analyses found evidence for a higher-order internalizing factor for both slopes and intercepts, reflective of comorbidity of depression and anxiety, with the internalizing factor accounting for 54% to 91% of the variance in slopes and intercepts of specific symptom sets, providing evidence for both a general common factor and domain-specific factors characterizing level and change in symptoms. Loadings on the higher order factors differed modestly for men and women, and when comparing African American and White participants, but did not differ by age, education, or history of depression. More distal factors including gender and history of depression were strongly associated with internalizing in the early weeks after job loss, but rates of change in internalizing were associated most strongly with reemployment. Findings suggest that stressors may contribute in different ways to the common internalizing factor as compared to variance in anxiety and depression that is independent of that factor.
Experimental characterization of a quantum many-body system via higher-order correlations
Schweigler, Thomas; Kasper, Valentin; Erne, Sebastian; Mazets, Igor; Rauer, Bernhard; Cataldini, Federica; Langen, Tim; Gasenzer, Thomas; Berges, Jürgen; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2017-05-01
Quantum systems can be characterized by their correlations. Higher-order (larger than second order) correlations, and the ways in which they can be decomposed into correlations of lower order, provide important information about the system, its structure, its interactions and its complexity. The measurement of such correlation functions is therefore an essential tool for reading, verifying and characterizing quantum simulations. Although higher-order correlation functions are frequently used in theoretical calculations, so far mainly correlations up to second order have been studied experimentally. Here we study a pair of tunnel-coupled one-dimensional atomic superfluids and characterize the corresponding quantum many-body problem by measuring correlation functions. We extract phase correlation functions up to tenth order from interference patterns and analyse whether, and under what conditions, these functions factorize into correlations of lower order. This analysis characterizes the essential features of our system, the relevant quasiparticles, their interactions and topologically distinct vacua. From our data we conclude that in thermal equilibrium our system can be seen as a quantum simulator of the sine-Gordon model, relevant for diverse disciplines ranging from particle physics to condensed matter. The measurement and evaluation of higher-order correlation functions can easily be generalized to other systems and to study correlations of any other observable such as density, spin and magnetization. It therefore represents a general method for analysing quantum many-body systems from experimental data.
Alamia, Andrea; Solopchuk, Oleg; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Van Bever, Violette; Fadiga, Luciano; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre
2016-03-01
Because Broca's area is known to be involved in many cognitive functions, including language, music, and action processing, several attempts have been made to propose a unifying theory of its role that emphasizes a possible contribution to syntactic processing. Recently, we have postulated that Broca's area might be involved in higher-order chunk processing during implicit learning of a motor sequence. Chunking is an information-processing mechanism that consists of grouping consecutive items in a sequence and is likely to be involved in all of the aforementioned cognitive processes. Demonstrating a contribution of Broca's area to chunking during the learning of a nonmotor sequence that does not involve language could shed new light on its function. To address this issue, we used offline MRI-guided TMS in healthy volunteers to disrupt the activity of either the posterior part of Broca's area (left Brodmann's area [BA] 44) or a control site just before participants learned a perceptual sequence structured in distinct hierarchical levels. We found that disruption of the left BA 44 increased the processing time of stimuli representing the boundaries of higher-order chunks and modified the chunking strategy. The current results highlight the possible role of the left BA 44 in building up effector-independent representations of higher-order events in structured sequences. This might clarify the contribution of Broca's area in processing hierarchical structures, a key mechanism in many cognitive functions, such as language and composite actions.
Computation of Higher-order Symmetries for Nonlinear Evolution and Lattice Equations
Goktas, U; Goktas, Unal; Hereman, Willy
1998-01-01
A straightforward algorithm for the symbolic computation of higher-order symmetries of nonlinear evolution equations and lattice equations is presented. The scaling properties of the evolution or lattice equations are used to determine the polynomial form of the higher-order symmetries. The coefficients of the symmetry can be found by solving a linear system. The method applies to polynomial systems of PDEs of first-order in time and arbitrary order in one space variable. Likewise, lattices must be of first order in time but may involve arbitrary shifts in the discretized space variable. The algorithm is implemented in Mathematica and can be used to test the integrability of both nonlinear evolution equations and semi-discrete lattice equations. With our Integrability Package, higher-order symmetries are obtained for several well-known systems of evolution and lattice equations. For PDEs and lattices with parameters, the code allows one to determine the conditions on these parameters so that a sequence of hig...
Higher-order oligomerization targets plasma membrane proteins and HIV gag to exosomes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Fang
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Exosomes are secreted organelles that have the same topology as the cell and bud outward (outward is defined as away from the cytoplasm from endosome membranes or endosome-like domains of plasma membrane. Here we describe an exosomal protein-sorting pathway in Jurkat T cells that selects cargo proteins on the basis of both higher-order oligomerization (the oligomerization of oligomers and plasma membrane association, acts on proteins seemingly without regard to their function, sequence, topology, or mechanism of membrane association, and appears to operate independently of class E vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS function. We also show that higher-order oligomerization is sufficient to target plasma membrane proteins to HIV virus-like particles, that diverse Gag proteins possess exosomal-sorting information, and that higher-order oligomerization is a primary determinant of HIV Gag budding/exosomal sorting. In addition, we provide evidence that both the HIV late domain and class E VPS function promote HIV budding by unexpectedly complex, seemingly indirect mechanisms. These results support the hypothesis that HIV and other retroviruses are generated by a normal, nonviral pathway of exosome biogenesis.
Higher-order stochastic differential equations and the positive Wigner function
Drummond, P. D.
2017-12-01
General higher-order stochastic processes that correspond to any diffusion-type tensor of higher than second order are obtained. The relationship of multivariate higher-order stochastic differential equations with tensor decomposition theory and tensor rank is explained. Techniques for generating the requisite complex higher-order noise are proved to exist either using polar coordinates and γ distributions, or from products of Gaussian variates. This method is shown to allow the calculation of the dynamics of the Wigner function, after it is extended to a complex phase space. The results are illustrated physically through dynamical calculations of the positive Wigner distribution for three-mode parametric downconversion, widely used in quantum optics. The approach eliminates paradoxes arising from truncation of the higher derivative terms in Wigner function time evolution. Anomalous results of negative populations and vacuum scattering found in truncated Wigner quantum simulations in quantum optics and Bose-Einstein condensate dynamics are shown not to occur with this type of stochastic theory.
Quantum Noether identities for non-local transformations in higher-order derivatives theories
Li, Z P
2003-01-01
Based on the phase-space generating functional of the Green function for a system with a regular/singular higher-order Lagrangian, the quantum canonical Noether identities (NIs) under a local and non-local transformation in phase space have been deduced, respectively. For a singular higher-order Lagrangian, one must use an effective canonical action I sub e sub f sub f sup P in quantum canonical NIs instead of the classical I sup P in classical canonical NIs. The quantum NIs under a local and non-local transformation in configuration space for a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian have also been derived. The above results hold true whether or not the Jacobian of the transformation is equal to unity or not. It has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantum NIs may be converted to conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantum conservation laws is significantly different from the quantum first Noether theorem. The applications of our formulation to the Yan...
What the CERAD Battery Can Tell Us about Executive Function as a Higher-Order Cognitive Faculty
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rochelle E. Tractenberg
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Executive function (EF is believed to control or influence the integration and application of cognitive functions such as attention and memory and is an important area of research in cognitive aging. Recent studies and reviews have concluded that there is no single test for EF. Results from first-order latent variable modeling have suggested that little, if any, variability in cognitive performance can be directly (and uniquely attributed to EF; so instead, we modeled EF, as it is conceptualized, as a higher-order function, using elements of the CERAD neuropsychological battery. Responses to subtests from two large, independent cohorts of nondemented elderly persons were modeled with three theoretically plausible structural models using confirmatory factor analysis. Robust fit statistics, generated for the two cohorts separately, were consistent and support the conceptualization of EF as a higher-order cognitive faculty. Although not specifically designed to assess EF, subtests of the CERAD battery provide theoretically and empirically robust evidence about the nature of EF in elderly adults.
Statistical EMC: A new dimension electromagnetic compatibility of digital electronic systems
Tsaliovich, Anatoly
Electromagnetic compatibility compliance test results are used as a database for addressing three classes of electromagnetic-compatibility (EMC) related problems: statistical EMC profiles of digital electronic systems, the effect of equipment-under-test (EUT) parameters on the electromagnetic emission characteristics, and EMC measurement specifics. Open area test site (OATS) and absorber line shielded room (AR) results are compared for equipment-under-test highest radiated emissions. The suggested statistical evaluation methodology can be utilized to correlate the results of different EMC test techniques, characterize the EMC performance of electronic systems and components, and develop recommendations for electronic product optimal EMC design.
Albert, Lena; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian
2017-08-01
We propose a new approach for the simultaneous classification of land cover and land use considering spatial as well as semantic context. We apply a Conditional Random Fields (CRF) consisting of a land cover and a land use layer. In the land cover layer of the CRF, the nodes represent super-pixels; in the land use layer, the nodes correspond to objects from a geospatial database. Intra-layer edges of the CRF model spatial dependencies between neighbouring image sites. All spatially overlapping sites in both layers are connected by inter-layer edges, which leads to higher order cliques modelling the semantic relation between all land cover and land use sites in the clique. A generic formulation of the higher order potential is proposed. In order to enable efficient inference in the two-layer higher order CRF, we propose an iterative inference procedure in which the two classification tasks mutually influence each other. We integrate contextual relations between land cover and land use in the classification process by using contextual features describing the complex dependencies of all nodes in a higher order clique. These features are incorporated in a discriminative classifier, which approximates the higher order potentials during the inference procedure. The approach is designed for input data based on aerial images. Experiments are carried out on two test sites to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experiments show that the classification results are improved compared to the results of a non-contextual classifier. For land cover classification, the result is much more homogeneous and the delineation of land cover segments is improved. For the land use classification, an improvement is mainly achieved for land use objects showing non-typical characteristics or similarities to other land use classes. Furthermore, we have shown that the size of the super-pixels has an influence on the level of detail of the classification result, but also on the
Higher Order, Hybrid BEM/FEM Methods Applied to Antenna Modeling
Fink, P. W.; Wilton, D. R.; Dobbins, J. A.
2002-01-01
In this presentation, the authors address topics relevant to higher order modeling using hybrid BEM/FEM formulations. The first of these is the limitation on convergence rates imposed by geometric modeling errors in the analysis of scattering by a dielectric sphere. The second topic is the application of an Incomplete LU Threshold (ILUT) preconditioner to solve the linear system resulting from the BEM/FEM formulation. The final tOpic is the application of the higher order BEM/FEM formulation to antenna modeling problems. The authors have previously presented work on the benefits of higher order modeling. To achieve these benefits, special attention is required in the integration of singular and near-singular terms arising in the surface integral equation. Several methods for handling these terms have been presented. It is also well known that achieving he high rates of convergence afforded by higher order bases may als'o require the employment of higher order geometry models. A number of publications have described the use of quadratic elements to model curved surfaces. The authors have shown in an EFIE formulation, applied to scattering by a PEC .sphere, that quadratic order elements may be insufficient to prevent the domination of modeling errors. In fact, on a PEC sphere with radius r = 0.58 Lambda(sub 0), a quartic order geometry representation was required to obtain a convergence benefi.t from quadratic bases when compared to the convergence rate achieved with linear bases. Initial trials indicate that, for a dielectric sphere of the same radius, - requirements on the geometry model are not as severe as for the PEC sphere. The authors will present convergence results for higher order bases as a function of the geometry model order in the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation applied to dielectric spheres. It is well known that the system matrix resulting from the hybrid BEM/FEM formulation is ill -conditioned. For many real applications, a good preconditioner is required
Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai
2016-01-01
Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…
New Statistical Multiparticle Approach to the Acceleration of Electrons by the Ion Field in Plasmas
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Eugene Oks
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of the acceleration of the (perturbing electrons by the ion field (AEIF significantly reduces Stark widths and shifts in plasmas of relatively high densities and/or relatively low temperature. Our previous analytical calculations of the AEIF were based on the dynamical treatment: the starting point was the ion-microfield-caused changes of the trajectories and velocities of individual perturbing electrons. In the current paper, we employ a statistical approach: the starting point is the electron velocity distribution function modified by the ion microfield. The latter had been calculated by Romanovsky and Ebeling in the multiparticle description of the ion microfield. The result shows again the reduction of the electron Stark broadening. Thus two totally different analytical approaches (dynamical and statistical agree with each other and therefore disprove the corresponding recent fully-numerical simulations by Stambulchik et al. that claimed an increase of the electron Stark broadening.
Dillon, Joseph; Yarkony, David R; Schuurman, Michael S
2011-01-28
The quadratic vibronic coupling model is an important computational tool for simulating photoelectron spectra involving strongly coupled electronic states in polyatomic molecules. However, recent work has indicated the need for higher order terms, with most of the initial studies focusing on molecules with symmetry-required degeneracies. In this study we report an extension of our approach for constructing fully quadratic representations of bound electronic states coupled by conical intersections, which allows for the inclusion of higher order terms, demonstrated here employing a quartic expansion. Procedures are developed that eliminate unphysical behavior for large displacements, a problem likely to be an endemic to anharmonic expansions. Following work on representing dissociative electronic states, Lagrange multipliers are used to constrain the constructed representation to reproduce exactly the energy, energy gradients, and∕or derivative couplings at specific points, or nodes, in nuclear coordinate space. The approach is illustrated and systematically studied using the four lowest electronic states of triazolyl, (CH)(2)N(3).
Hayslett, H T
1991-01-01
Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the
Calculation of asymptotic and RMS kicks due to higher order modes in the 3.9-GHz cavity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellantoni, L.; /Fermilab; Edwards, H.; /Fermilab /DESY; Wanzenberg, R.; /DESY
2008-03-01
FLASH plans to use a 'third harmonic' (3.9 GHz) superconducting cavity to compensate nonlinear distortions of the longitudinal phase space due to the sinusoidal curvature of the cavity voltage of the TESLA 1.3 GHz cavities. Higher order modes (HOMs) in the 3.9 GHz have a significant impact on the dynamics of the electron bunches in a long bunch train. Kicks due to dipole modes can be enhanced along the bunch train depending on the frequency and Q-value of the modes. The enhancement factor for a constant beam offset with respect to the cavity has been calculated. A simple Monte Carlo model of these effects, allowing for scatter in HOM frequencies due to manufacturing variances, has also been implemented and results for both FLASH and for an XFEL-like configuration are presented.
Simon, Nicole A.
Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.
Strategy-effects in prefrontal cortex during learning of higher-order S-R rules.
Wolfensteller, Uta; von Cramon, D Yves
2011-07-15
All of us regularly face situations that require the integration of the available information at hand with the established rules that guide behavior in order to generate the most appropriate action. But where individuals differ from one another is most certainly in terms of the different strategies that are adopted during this process. A previous study revealed differential brain activation patterns for the implementation of well established higher-order stimulus-response (S-R) rules depending on inter-individual strategy differences (Wolfensteller and von Cramon, 2010). This raises the question of how these strategies evolve or which neurocognitive mechanisms underlie these inter-individual strategy differences. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study revealed striking strategy-effects across regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex during the implementation of higher-order S-R rules at an early stage of learning. The left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex displayed a quantitative strategy-effect, such that activation during rule integration based on a mismatch was related to the degree to which participants continued to rely on rule integration. A quantitative strategy ceiling effect was observed for the left inferior frontal junction area. Conversely, the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed a qualitative strategy-effect such that participants who at a later point relied on an item-based strategy showed stronger activations in this region compared to those who continued with the rule integration strategy. Together, the present findings suggest that a certain amount of rule integration is mandatory when participants start to learn higher-order rules. The more efficient item-based strategy that evolves later appears to initially require the recruitment of additional cognitive resources in order to shield the currently relevant S-R association from interfering information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
How does participation in inquiry-based activities influence gifted students' higher order thinking?
Reger, Barbara H.
Inquiry-based learning is considered a useful technique to strengthen the critical thinking skills of students. The National Science Standards emphasize its use and the complexities and challenge it provides are well suited for meeting the needs of the gifted. While many studies have documented the effectiveness of this type of instruction, there is a lack of research on growth in higher-order thinking through participation in science inquiry. This study investigated such growth among a small group of gifted fifth-grade students. In this study a group of fifth-grade gifted science students completed a series of three forensics inquiry lessons, and documented questions, ideas and reflections as they constructed evidence to solve a crime. From this class of students, one small group was purposely selected to serve as the focus of the study. Using qualitative techniques, the questions and statements students made as they interacted in the activity were analyzed. Videotaped comments and student logs were coded for emerging patterns and also examined for evidence of increased levels of higher-order thinking based on a rubric that was designed using the six levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Evidence from this study showed marked increase in and deeper levels of higher-order thinking for two of the students. The other boy and girl showed progress using the inquiry activities, but it was not as evident. The social dynamics of the group seemed to hinder one girl's participation during some of the activities. The social interactions played a role in strengthening the exchange of ideas and thinking skills for the others. The teacher had a tremendous influence over the production of higher-level statements by modeling that level of thinking as she questioned the students. Through her practice of answering a question with a question, she gradually solicited more analytical thinking from her students.
Soliton dynamics for trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with higher-order interaction
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Ying Wang
2017-08-01
Full Text Available We model the three-dimensional (3D trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE incorporating higher-order nonlinear interaction effects. Based on the F-expansion method and self-similar approach, we analytically derive the exact soliton solutions of the 3D GPE, identifying the oscillatory mode under certain experimental settings. The oscillatory kinetic parameter values we obtained coincide very well with those reported in previous work, which is based on the variational approach, showing the applicability of the theoretical treatment presented in this work.
Exploring evidence of higher order thinking skills in the writing of first year undergraduates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lynette Faragher
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Research indicates that concern is often expressed about the language and discourse skills new students bring with them when they first enrol at university, which leads to assumptions being made about their academic abilities. In this paper, an argument is developed through detailed analysis of student writing, that many new first year students have nascent Higher Order Thinking Skills and the potential to be successful in their studies. The work of Robert Marzano and his associates (Marzano, 2001; Marzano & Kendall, 2007, 2008 is applied to student writing.
Higher Order Mode (HOM) Impedance and Damping Study for the LHC Capture Cavity
Linnecar, Trevor Paul R; Tückmantel, Joachim; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division
2001-01-01
To investigate the higher order mode, HOM, damping in the LHC 200MHz ACN cavity when using four HOM couplers, simulations have been done by both 3-D frequency domain and time domain methods. These simulations have previously been used in other studies of HOM damped cavities and shown to be effective by comparing measurement and simulation results[1] [2]. Using these methods the impedance spectrum of the HOM modes in the cavity before and after damping has been obtained. From this, detailed information about the HOM coupler's contribution to HOM damping can be obtained. The distribution and magnitude of some potentially dangerous HOM modes in the ACN cavity have been found.
Wake and higher order mode computations for the CMS experimental chamber at the LHC
Wanzenberg, R
2010-01-01
Wakefields and trapped Higher Order Modes (HOMs) in the CMS experimental chamber at the LHC are investigated using a geometrical model which closely reflects the presently installed vacuum chamber. The basic rf-parameters of the HOMs including the frequency, loss parameter, and the Q-value are provided. To cover also transient effects the short range wakefields and the total loss parameter has been calculated, too. Most numerical calculations are performed with the computer code MAFIA. The calculations of the Modes are complemented with an analysis of the multi-bunch instabilities due to the longitudinal and dipole modes in the CMS vacuum chamber.
Higher-order anisotropies in the blast-wave model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cimerman, Jakub [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Comenius University, FMPI, Bratislava (Slovakia); Tomasik, Boris [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Csanad, Mate; Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary)
2017-08-15
We formulate a generalisation of the blast-wave model which is suitable for the description of higher-order azimuthal anisotropies of the hadron production. The model includes anisotropy in the density profile as well as an anisotropy in the transverse expansion velocity field. We then study how these two kinds of anisotropies influence the single-particle distributions and the correlation radii of two-particle correlation functions. Particularly we focus on the third-order anisotropy and consideration is given averaging over different orientations of the event plane. (orig.)
Higher-Order Structure in Bacterial VapBC Toxin-Antitoxin Complexes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bendtsen, Kirstine L; Brodersen, Ditlev E
2017-01-01
Toxin-antitoxin systems are widespread in the bacterial kingdom, including in pathogenic species, where they allow rapid adaptation to changing environmental conditions through selective inhibition of key cellular processes, such as DNA replication or protein translation. Under normal growth...... that allow auto-regulation of transcription by direct binding to promoter DNA. In this chapter, we review our current understanding of the structural characteristics of type II toxin-antitoxin complexes in bacterial cells, with a special emphasis on the staggering variety of higher-order architecture...
Higher Order Relations for ADE-Type Generalized q-Onsager Algebras
Baseilhac, Pascal; Vu, Thi Thao
2015-09-01
Let be the fundamental generators of the generalized q-Onsager algebra introduced in Baseilhac and Belliard (Lett Math Phys 93:213-228, 2010), where is a simply laced affine Lie algebra. New relations between certain monomials of the fundamental generators—indexed by the integer —are conjectured. These relations can be seen as deformed analogs of Lusztig's rth higher order q-Serre relations associated with , which are recovered as special cases. The relations are proven for . For r generic, several supporting evidences are presented.
A new approach to the higher order superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system
Rañada, Manuel F.
2012-11-01
The higher order superintegrability of systems separable in polar coordinates is studied using an approach that was previously applied for the study of the superintegrability of a generalized Smorodinsky-Winternitz system. The idea is that the additional constant of motion can be factorized as the product of powers of two particular rather simple complex functions (here denoted by M and N). This technique leads to a proof of the superintegrability of the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz system and to the explicit expression of the constants of motion. A second family (related with the first one) of superintegrable systems is also studied.
Effects of polyamines on higher-order folding of in situ chromatin.
Vergani, L; Mascetti, G; Nicolini, C
1998-11-01
Modifications of the higher-order chromatin structure induced by polyamines have been quantitatively investigated in situ through a non-invasive biophysical approach using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Quantitative Fluorescence Microscopy. Calorimetric and intensitometric profiles have been acquired for samples of native thymocytes, alternatively suspended in buffers, with or without natural polyamines (spermine and spermidine). The results here reported show that the structure and distribution of nuclear chromatin in situ considerably change upon the ionic composition of the environment. A quantitative analysis of this data and a comparison with previous results obtained from isolated chromatin fibers was carried out. Finally, an inverse relationship between chromatin condensation and nuclear volume was observed.
Higher order Painleve equations and their symmetries via reductions of a class of integrable models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aratyn, H [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL 60607-7059 (United States); Gomes, J F; Zimerman, A H, E-mail: jfg@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Fisica Teorica-UNESP, Rua Dr Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2011-06-10
Higher order Painleve equations and their symmetry transformations belonging to extended affine Weyl groups A{sup (1)}{sub n} are obtained through a self-similarity limit of a class of pseudo-differential Lax hierarchies with symmetry inherited from the underlying generalized Volterra lattice structure. In particular, an explicit example of the Painleve V equation and its Baecklund symmetry is obtained through a self-similarity limit of a generalized KdV hierarchy from Aratyn et al (1995 Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 10 2537).
Higher-order schemes for the Laplace transformation method for parabolic problems
Douglas, C.
2011-01-01
In this paper we solve linear parabolic problems using the three stage noble algorithms. First, the time discretization is approximated using the Laplace transformation method, which is both parallel in time (and can be in space, too) and extremely high order convergent. Second, higher-order compact schemes of order four and six are used for the the spatial discretization. Finally, the discretized linear algebraic systems are solved using multigrid to show the actual convergence rate for numerical examples, which are compared to other numerical solution methods. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Simulation of Airborne Antenna Array Layout Problems Using Parallel Higher-Order MoM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongchao Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The parallel higher-order Method of Moments based on message passing interface (MPI has been successfully used to analyze the changes in radiation patterns of a microstrip patch array antenna mounted on different positions of an airplane. The block-partitioned scheme for the large dense MoM matrix and a block-cyclic matrix distribution scheme are designed to achieve excellent load balance and high parallel efficiency. Numerical results demonstrate that the rigorous parallel Method of Moments can efficiently and accurately solve large complex electromagnetic problems with composite structures.
On the formulations of higher-order strain gradient crystal plasticity models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuroda, M.; Tvergaard, Viggo
2008-01-01
Recently, several higher-order extensions to the crystal plasticity theory have been proposed to incorporate effects of material length scales that were missing links in the conventional continuum mechanics. The extended theories are classified into work-conjugate and non-work-conjugate types...... quantities do not appear explicitly. Instead, rates of crystallographic slip are influenced by back stresses that arise in response to spatial gradients of the geometrically necessary dislocation densities. The work-conjugate type and the non-work-conjugate type of theories have different theoretical...
Tuning PID controllers for higher-order oscillatory systems with improved performance.
Malwatkar, G M; Sonawane, S H; Waghmare, L M
2009-07-01
In this paper, model based design of PID controllers is proposed for higher-order oscillatory systems. The proposed method has no limitations regarding systems order, time delays and oscillatory behavior. The reduced model is achieved based on third-order modeling and selection of coefficients through the use of frequency responses. The tuning of the PID parameters are obtained from a reduced third-order model; the procedure seems to be simple and effective, and improved performance of the overall system can be achieved. Three simulation examples and one real-time experiment are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method to systems with oscillatory behavior.
Elishakoff, Isaac; Librescu, Liviu; Cederbaum, Gabriel
1990-01-01
Higher order shear deformation theory is utilized to study he weakly stationary and nonstationary random vibrations of cross-ply laminated plates. Normal mode method, in conjunction with the biorthogonality condition, for the nonsymmetric differential equations is applied. Detailed derivation is given for the governing equations, biorthogonality condition, the generalized mass and the generalized forces. Results are listed for a plate which is simply supported at all the edges, and subjected to a point load which is either timewise stationary or nonstationary random process.
Dynamic analysis of laminated plates using a higher-order theory
Reddy, J. N.; Phan, N. D.
1984-01-01
This paper deals with the dynamic analog of the higher-order shear deformation plate theory developed by the senior author. The theory is based on a displacement field in which the inplane displacements are expanded as cubic functions of the thicknes coordinate and the transverse deflection is assumed to be constant through the thickness. The additional dependent unkowns introduced with the quadratic and cubic terms of the thickness coordinate are eliminated by requiring the transverse shear stresses to vanish on the bounding planes of the plate. The theory accounts for the parabolic distribution of the transverse shear stresses, and hence no shear correction coefficients are required.
Analysis of laminated composite plates using a higher-order shear deformation theory
Phan, N. D.; Reddy, J. N.
1985-01-01
A higher-order deformation theory is used to analyse laminated anisotropic composite plates for deflections, stresses, natural frequencies and buckling loads. The theory accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear stresses, and requires no shear correction coefficients. A displacement finite element model of the theory is developed, and applications of the element to bending, vibration and stability of laminated plates are discussed. The present solutions are compared with those obtained using the classical plate theory and the three-dimensional elasticity theory.
On the regularity of mild solutions to complete higher order differential equations on Banach spaces
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Nezam Iraniparast
2015-09-01
Full Text Available For the complete higher order differential equation u(n(t=Σk=0n-1Aku(k(t+f(t, t∈ R (* on a Banach space E, we give a new definition of mild solutions of (*. We then characterize the regular admissibility of a translation invariant subspace al M of BUC(R, E with respect to (* in terms of solvability of the operator equation Σj=0n-1AjXal Dj-Xal Dn = C. As application, almost periodicity of mild solutions of (* is proved.
PHz-Wide Spectral Interference Through Coherent Plasma-Induced Fission of Higher-Order Solitons
Köttig, F.; Tani, F.; Travers, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.
2017-06-01
We identify a novel regime of soliton-plasma interactions in which high-intensity ultrashort pulses of intermediate soliton order undergo coherent plasma-induced fission. Experimental results obtained in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber are supported by rigorous numerical simulations. In the anomalous dispersion regime, the cumulative blueshift of higher-order input solitons with ionizing intensities results in pulse splitting before the ultimate self-compression point, leading to the generation of robust pulse pairs with PHz bandwidths. The novel dynamics closes the gap between plasma-induced adiabatic soliton compression and modulational instability.
Observation of higher-order snake resonances in polarized proton acceleration in RHIC.
Ranjbar, V H; Lee, S Y; Huang, H; Luccio, A U; MacKay, W W; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Tepikian, S
2003-07-18
Higher-order and coupled snake resonances were observed during the 2002 polarized proton run in RHIC. Strong depolarization was observed when the fractional part of the vertical betatron tune approached 1/4, and when the fractional part of the horizontal tune approached 3/14. Because of the closed orbit error, each snake resonance splits into two. From the width of the observed snake resonances, we can derive the strength of the imperfection spin resonance. Our results appear consistent with the measured closed orbit error.
Effect of impedance and higher order chromaticity on the measurement of linear chromaticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranjbar, V.H.; /Tech-X, Boulder; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab
2011-08-01
The combined effect of impedance and higher order chromaticity can act on the beam in a nontrivial manner which can cause a tune shift which depends on the relative momenta with respect to the 'on momentum' particle ({Delta}p/p). Experimentally, this tune shift affects the measurement of the linear chromaticity which is traditionally measured with a change of {Delta}p/p. The theory behind this effect will be derived in this paper. Computer simulations and experimental data from the Tevatron will be used to support the theory.
Polynomial Expansions for Solutions of Higher-Order Bessel Heat Equation in Quantum Calculus
Ben Hammouda, M.S.; Nemri, Akram
2007-01-01
Mathematics Subject Class.: 33C10,33D60,26D15,33D05,33D15,33D90 In this paper we give the q-analogue of the higher-order Bessel operators studied by I. Dimovski [3],[4], I. Dimovski and V. Kiryakova [5],[6], M. I. Klyuchantsev [17], V. Kiryakova [15], [16], A. Fitouhi, N. H. Mahmoud and S. A. Ould Ahmed Mahmoud [8], and recently by many other authors. Our objective is twofold. First, using the q-Jackson integral and the q-derivative, we aim at establishing some properties of...
Higher-order brain function analysis by trans-cranial dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy imaging
Koizumi, Hideaki; Yamashita, Yuichi; Maki, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Itagaki, H.; Kennan, R.
1999-10-01
Near-infrared spectroscopy is discussed from the viewpoint of human higher-order brain function analysis. Pioneering work in this field is reviewed; then we describe our concept of noninvasive trans-cranial dynamic optical topography and its instrumentation. Also, the validity of its functional images is assessed from both physical and physiological viewpoints. After conforming the validity of this method, we have applied it to a wide variety of fields such as clinical medicine, cognitive science, and linguistics in collaboration with researchers at several other institutes. Further application possibilities and the future of trans- cranial dynamic optical topography are also discussed.
Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter
2014-01-01
functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost.......An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...
Nonlinear optics in the LP(02) higher-order mode of a fiber.
Chen, Y; Chen, Z; Wadsworth, W J; Birks, T A
2013-07-29
The distinct disperion properties of higher-order modes in optical fibers permit the nonlinear generation of radiation deeper into the ultraviolet than is possible with the fundamental mode. This is exploited using adiabatic, broadband mode convertors to couple light efficiently from an input fundamental mode and also to return the generated light to an output fundamental mode over a broad spectral range. For example, we generate visible and UV supercontinuum light in the LP(02) mode of a photonic crystal fiber from sub-ns pulses with a wavelength of 532 nm.
A Simple Model of Separation Logic for Higher-order Store
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birkedal, Lars; Reus, Bernhard; Schwinghammer, Jan
2008-01-01
Separation logic is a Hoare-style logic for reasoning about pointer-manipulating programs. Its core ideas have recently been extended from low-level to richer, high-level languages. In this paper we develop a new semantics of the logic for a programming language where code can be stored (i.......e., with higher-order store). The main improvement on previous work is the simplicity of the model. As a consequence, several restrictions imposed by the semantics are removed, leading to a considerably more natural assertion language with a powerful specification logic....
The power of non-determinism in higher-order implicit complexity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kop, Cynthia Louisa Martina; Simonsen, Jakob Grue
2017-01-01
We investigate the power of non-determinism in purely functional programming languages with higher-order types. Specifically, we consider cons-free programs of varying data orders, equipped with explicit non-deterministic choice. Cons-freeness roughly means that data constructors cannot occur...... in function bodies and all manipulation of storage space thus has to happen indirectly using the call stack. While cons-free programs have previously been used by several authors to characterise complexity classes, the work on non-deterministic programs has almost exclusively considered programs of data order...
Breast-feeding and bottle-feeding of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births.
Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ooki, Syuichi
2004-11-01
This study was performed to determine the rates of breast-feeding and/or bottle-feeding in mothers of twins, triplets and higher order multiple births compared to those in mothers of singletons, and identify factors associated with decision as to breast-feed or bottle-feed. The subjects were 1,529 mothers of twins aged 6 months-6 years and 258 mothers of triplets and higher order multiple births (higher multiples) aged 6 months-6 years (234 mothers of triplets, 20 mothers of quadruplets, 4 mothers of quintuplets). Also, 1,300 subjects were recruited as a control group from mothers of singletons aged 6 months-6 years. Information regarding feeding methods, including exclusive breast-feeding, mixed-feeding and bottle-feeding with formula milk only, and duration of breast-feeding (in months) was collected. There were significantly higher rates of bottle-feeding in mothers of twins and higher multiples than in mothers of singletons. Duration of breast-feeding in mothers who chose exclusive breast-feeding or mixed-feeding for twins and higher multiples was significantly shorter than those for the singletons. The feeding methods for the twins or higher multiples were not associated with prematurity or low birth weight. However, after adjusting for each associated factor using logistic regression analysis, the decision to bottle-feed was significantly associated with non-cooperation of the husband in childrearing and degree of anxiety that mothers felt when informed of a multiple pregnancy. The odds ratio indicated that mothers who received no cooperation from the husband for childrearing were 1.83 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who received cooperation. Further, the odds ratio indicated that mothers who felt greater anxiety when informed of a multiple pregnancy were 1.73 times more likely to choose bottle-feeding as those who did not feel much anxiety. This study found that establishment and continuation of breast-feeding for twins, triplets and
Davidson, Judy E
2009-03-01
The purpose of this article is to provide examples of learning activities to be used as formative (interim) evaluation of an in-hospital orientation or cross-training program. Examples are provided in the form of vignettes that have been derived from strategies described in the literature as classroom assessment techniques. Although these classroom assessment techniques were originally designed for classroom experiences, they are proposed as methods for preceptors to stimulate the development of higher-order thinking such as synthesizing information, solving problems, and learning how to learn.
Higher order modes HOMs in coupled cavities of the FLASH module ACC39
Shinton, I R R; Li, Z; Zhang, P
2011-01-01
We analyse the higher order modes (HOM’s) in the 3.9GHz bunch shaping cavities installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. A suite of finite element computer codes (including HFSS and ACE3P) and globalised scattering matrix calculations (GSM) are used to investigate the modes in these cavities. This study is primarily focused on the dipole component of the multiband expansion of the wakefield, with the emphasis being on the development of a HOM-based BPM system for ACC39. Coupled inter-cavity modes are simulated together with a limited band of trapped modes.
An algorithm to use higher order invariants for modelling potential energy surface of nanoclusters
Jindal, Shweta; Bulusu, Satya S.
2018-02-01
In order to fit potential energy surface (PES) of gold nanoclusters, we have integrated bispectrum features with artificial neural network (ANN) learning technique in this work. We have also devised an algorithm for selecting the frequencies that need to be coupled for extracting the phase information between different frequency bands. We have found that higher order invariant like bispectrum is highly efficient in exploring the PES as compared to other invariants. The sensitivity of bispectrum can also be exploited in acting as an order parameter for calculating many thermodynamic properties of nanoclusters.
Experimental investigations of higher-order springing and whipping-WILS project
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Hong Sa Young
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Springing and whipping are becoming increasingly important considerations in ship design as container ships increase in size. In this study, the springing and whipping characteristics of a large container ship were investigated through a series of systematic model tests in waves. A multi-segmented hull model with a backbone was adopted for measurement of springing and whipping signals. A conversion method for extracting torsion springing and whipping is described in this paper for the case of an open-section backbone. Higher-order springing, higher-mode torsion responses, and the effects of linear and nonlinear springing in irregular waves are highlighted in the discussion.
Ghandeharion, Hosna; Erfanian, Abbas
2010-09-01
Contamination of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings with different kinds of artifacts is the main obstacle to the analysis of EEG data. Independent component analysis (ICA) is now a widely accepted tool for detection of artifacts in EEG data. One major challenge to artifact removal using ICA is the identification of the artifactual components. Although several strategies were proposed for automatically detecting the artifactual component during past several years, there is still little consensus on the criteria for automatic rejection of undesired components. In this paper we present a new identification procedure based on an efficient combination of independent component analysis (ICA), mutual information, and wavelet analysis for fully automatic ocular artifact suppression. The method does not require any offline training or determining the threshold levels for different markers. The results show that the proposed method could significantly enhance the ocular artifact detection and suppression. The results on 3105 4-s EEG epochs indicate that the artifact components can be identified with an accuracy of 97.8%, a sensitivity of 96.9%, and a specificity of 98.6%. 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahapatra, Dwarikanath; Schueffler, Peter; Tielbeek, Jeroen A. W.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Vos, Franciscus M.
2013-01-01
Increasing incidence of Crohn's disease (CD) in the Western world has made its accurate diagnosis an important medical challenge. The current reference standard for diagnosis, colonoscopy, is time-consuming and invasive while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as the preferred noninvasive
Penner, Jacob; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Schaefer, Betsy; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard W J; Menon, Ravi S; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Bourne, James A; Williamson, Peter C
2017-12-08
The pulvinar and the mediodorsal (MDN) nuclei of the thalamus are higher order nuclei which have been implicated in directed effort and corollary discharge systems. We used seed-based resting fMRI to examine functional connectivity to bilateral pulvinar and MDN in 24 schizophrenic patients (SZ), 24 major depressive disorder patients (MDD), and 24 age-matched healthy controls. SZ had less connectivity than controls between the left pulvinar and precuneus, left ventral-lateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and superior and medial-frontal regions, between the right pulvinar and right frontal pole, and greater connectivity between the right MDN and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). SZ had less connectivity than MDD between the left pulvinar and ventral anterior cingulate (vACC), left vlPFC, anterior insula, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and right hippocampus, between the right pulvinar and right PCC, and between the right MDN and right dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). This is the first study to measure the functional connectivity to the higher order nuclei of the thalamus in both SZ and MDD. We observed less connectivity in SZ than MDD between pulvinar and emotional encoding regions, a directed effort region, and a region involved in representation and salience, and between MDN and a directed effort region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Role of the basolateral amygdala and NMDA receptors in higher-order conditioned fear.
Parkes, Shauna L; Westbrook, R Frederick
2011-01-01
Laboratory rats learn to fear relatively innocuous stimuli which signal the imminent arrival of an innate source of danger, typically brief but aversive foot shock. Much is now known about the neural substrates underlying the acquisition, consolidation and subsequent expression of this fear. Rats also learn to fear stimuli which signal learned sources of danger but relatively little is known about the neural substrates underlying this form of fear. Two Pavlovian conditioning paradigms used to study this form of fear are second-order conditioning and sensory preconditioning. In second-order conditioning, rats are first exposed to a signaling relationship between one stimulus, such as a tone, and aversive foot shock, and then to a signaling relationship between a second stimulus, such as a light, and the now dangerous tone. In sensory preconditioning, these phases are reversed: rats are first exposed to a signaling relationship between the light and the tone and then to a signaling relationship between the tone and the foot shock. In both paradigms, rats exhibit fear when tested with the light. In this review paper, we describe the evidence for higher-order forms of conditioning, the conditions which promote this learning and its contents. We compare and contrast the substrates of the learning underlying second-order and sensory preconditioning fear with those known to underlie the better studied first-order conditioned fear. We conclude with some comments as to the role of higher-order processes in anxiety disorders.
High temperature sensing using higher-order-mode rejected sapphire-crystal fiber gratings
Zhan, Chun; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Jon; Yin, Stuart; Ruffin, Paul; Luo, Claire
2007-09-01
In this paper, we report the fabrication of higher-order-mode rejected fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in sapphire crystal fiber using infrared (IR) femtosecond laser illumination. The grating is tested in high temperature furnace up to 1600 degree Celsius. As sapphire fiber is only available as highly multimode fiber, a scheme to filter out higher order modes in favor for the fundamental mode is theoretically evaluated and experimentally demonstrated. The approach is to use an ultra thin sapphire crystal fiber (60 micron in diameter) to decrease the number of modes. The small diameter fiber also enables bending the fiber to certain radius which is carefully chosen to provide low loss for the fundamental mode LP01 and high loss for the other high-order modes. After bending, less-than-2-nm resonant peak bandwidth is achieved. The grating spectrum is improved, and higher resolution sensing measurement can be achieved. This mode filtering method is very easy to implement. Furthermore, the sapphire fiber is sealed with hi-purity alumina ceramic cement inside a flexible high temperature titanium tube, and the highly flexible titanium tube offers a robust packaging to sapphire fiber. Our high temperature sapphire grating sensor is very promising in extremely high temperature sensing application.
In-service teacher education: asking questions for higher order thinking in visual literacy
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Visvaganthie Moodley
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The kinds of questions teachers ask may thwart or promote learner high-order thinking; teachers themselves must have expertise in questioning skills to promote higher order cognition among learners. Drawing on experiential knowledge of assessment, and as an English-teaching professional development programme (PDP facilitator, I demonstrate that within the framework of a carefully structured subject-specific PDP, teachers can be taught how to enhance thinking skills in the English visual literacy (VL learning classroom. Guided by an earlier taxonomy of cognition, and using qualitative methodology, the paper analyses data obtained from: (i observation notes and examination equivalents of 40 teachers from various public schools in Gauteng who were engaged in the Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE, English specialization programme; and (ii a case study of three teachers by means of semi-structured interviews, and a study of their lesson plans and worksheets.The paper examines, specifically, teachers' choice of texts and questions asked, for English second-language learners for the teaching of VL. It concludes by suggesting that if teachers themselves are first engaged in the cognitive processes they wish learners to acquire, they are better positioned to promote higher order among their learners.
Model-based iterative reconstruction using higher-order regularization of dynamic synchrotron data
Kazantsev, Daniil; Guo, Enyu; Phillion, A. B.; Withers, Philip J.; Lee, Peter D.
2017-09-01
We present a novel iterative reconstruction method applied to in situ x-ray synchrotron tomographic data of dendrite formation during the solidification of magnesium alloy. Frequently, fast dynamic imaging projection data are undersampled, noisy, of poor contrast and can contain various acquisition artifacts. Direct reconstruction methods are not suitable and iterative reconstruction techniques must be adapted to the existing data features. Normally, an accurate modelling of the objective function can guarantee a better reconstruction. In this work, we design a special cost function where the data fidelity term is based on the Group-Huber functional to minimize ring artifacts and the regularization term is a higher-order variational penalty. We show that the total variation penalty is unsuitable for some cases and higher-order regularization functionals can ensure a better fit to the expected properties of the data. Additionally, we highlight the importance of 3D regularization over 2D for the problematic data. The proposed method shows a promising performance dealing with angular undersampled noisy dynamic data with ring artifacts.
Mrochen, M; Kaemmerer, M; Mierdel, P; Seiler, T
2001-03-01
To study the clinical and theoretical effects of subclinical decentrations on the optical performance of the eye after photorefractive laser surgery. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Ocular aberrations were determined before and 1 month after uneventful photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with the Multiscan laser (Schwind) in 10 eyes of 8 patients. The corrections ranged from -2.5 to -6.0 diopters, and ablation zones of 6.0 mm and larger were used. The measured wavefront errors were compared to numerical simulations using the individually determined decentrations and currently used ablation profiles. The PRK-induced aberrations were significantly greater than the preoperative aberrations. The numerically calculated increase in the higher-order optical aberrations correlated with the clinical results, demonstrating a major increase in coma- and spherical-like aberrations. Subclinical decentration (less than 1.0 mm) was found to be a major factor in increased coma-like and spherical-like aberrations after corneal laser surgery. To minimize higher-order optical errors, special efforts to center the ablation zone are necessary; for example, by eye-tracking systems that consider the visual axis.
A Concatenation Scheme for the Computation of Beam Excited Higher Order Mode Port Signals
Flisgen, T; van Rienen, U
2013-01-01
Ongoing studies investigate in how far higher order mode (HOM) port signals of superconducting RF cavities can be used for machine and beam diagnostics. Apart from experiments e.g. at the FLASH facility at DESY in Hamburg, numerical modelling is needed for the prediction of HOM coupler signals. For this purpose, the RF properties of the entire accelerating module have to be taken into account, since higher order modes can propagate along the cavity chain. A discretization of the full chain, followed by a wake field simulation is only feasible with powerful and expensive cluster computers. Instead, an element-wise wake field simulation of subsections of the chain, followed by a suitable concatenation scheme can be performed on standard hardware assuming the beam to be sufficiently stiff. In this paper a concatenation scheme for the computation of beam excited HOM port signals is derived as a generalization of the Coupled S-Parameter scheme CSC. Furthermore, the validity of the method is shown for a sample stru...
Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners
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MM Chabeli
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content, to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30. Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000. Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000. The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005.
Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.
Chabeli, M M
2006-08-01
Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005).
ISWI regulates higher-order chromatin structure and histone H1 assembly in vivo.
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Davide F V Corona
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Imitation SWI (ISWI and other ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factors play key roles in transcription and other processes by altering the structure and positioning of nucleosomes. Recent studies have also implicated ISWI in the regulation of higher-order chromatin structure, but its role in this process remains poorly understood. To clarify the role of ISWI in vivo, we examined defects in chromosome structure and gene expression resulting from the loss of Iswi function in Drosophila. Consistent with a broad role in transcriptional regulation, the expression of a large number of genes is altered in Iswi mutant larvae. The expression of a dominant-negative form of ISWI leads to dramatic alterations in higher-order chromatin structure, including the apparent decondensation of both mitotic and polytene chromosomes. The loss of ISWI function does not cause obvious defects in nucleosome assembly, but results in a significant reduction in the level of histone H1 associated with chromatin in vivo. These findings suggest that ISWI plays a global role in chromatin compaction in vivo by promoting the association of the linker histone H1 with chromatin.
Influence of squeeze film damping on the higher-order modes of clamped–clamped microbeams
Alcheikh, Nouha
2016-05-06
This paper presents an experimental study and a finite-element analysis of the effect of squeeze film damping on the resonance frequency and quality factor of the higher-order flexure vibrations modes of clamped-clamped microbeams. Viscoelastic and silicon nitride microbeams are fabricated and are electrostatically actuated by various electrode configurations to trigger the first, second, and third modes. The damping characteristic and the resonance frequency of these modes are examined for a wide range of gas pressure and electrostatic voltage loads. The results of the silicon nitride beams and viscoelastic beams are compared. It is found that the intrinsic material loss is the major dissipation mechanism at low pressure for the viscoelastic microbeams, significantly limiting their quality factor. It is also found that while the silicon nitride beams show higher quality factors at the intrinsic and molecular regimes of pressure, due to their low intrinsic loss, their quality factors near atmospheric pressure are lower than those of the viscoelastic microbeams. Further, the higher-order modes of all the beams show much higher quality factors at atmospheric pressure compared to the first mode, which could be promising for operating such resonators in air. Experimental results and finite element model simulations show good agreement for resonance frequency and quality factor for the three studied modes. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Dependence of wave front refraction on pupil size due to the presence of higher order aberrations.
Iseli, H P; Bueeler, M; Hafezi, F; Seiler, T; Mrochen, M
2005-01-01
Propagation of light through the optical pathway within the eye can lead to a deformation of the wave front that might affect objective but also subjective refraction depending on pupil size. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in wave front refraction that is calculated on the basis of second order Zernike polynomials when varying the pupil size from 6 mm to 3 mm. The change was correlated with the amount of fourth and sixth order spherical aberration and fourth and sixth order astigmatism. Wave front aberrations were measured in 130 eyes by means of a Tscherning wave front sensor at a pupil size of 6 mm. Wave front aberrations in terms of Zernike coefficients up to sixth order were approximated for 6 mm and 3 mm pupil size. The wave front refraction was calculated based on the second order Zernike coefficients for both pupil diameters. Resulting differences in wave front refraction (sphere or cylinder) due to the change in pupil size were correlated with the initial higher order aberrations determined for the 6.0 mm pupil by means of a linear regression (Spearman rank correlation coefficient). The correlation between the change in sphere and cylinder on one hand and the spherical aberration and higher order astigmatism on the other hand was found to be highly significant (ppupil size should be established in the ophthalmic community.
Jaber, Nizar
2016-01-06
© 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. In this study, we demonstrate analytically and experimentally the excitations of the higher order modes of vibrations in electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam resonators. The concept is based on using partial electrodes with shapes that induce strong excitation of the mode of interest. The devices are fabricated using polyimide as a structural layer coated with nickel from the top and chrome and gold layers from the bottom. Experimentally, frequency sweeps with different electro-dynamical loading conditions are shown to demonstrate the excitation of the higher order modes of vibration. Using a half electrode, the second mode is excited with high amplitude of vibration compared with almost zero response using the full electrode. Also, using a two-third electrode configuration is shown to amplify the third mode resonance amplitude compared with the full electrode under the same electrical loading conditions. An analytical model is developed based on the Euler-Bernollui beam model and the Galerkin method to simulate the device response. Good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data is reported.
A novel nature inspired firefly algorithm with higher order neural network: Performance analysis
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Janmenjoy Nayak
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The applications of both Feed Forward Neural network and Multilayer perceptron are very diverse and saturated. But the linear threshold unit of feed forward networks causes fast learning with limited capabilities, while due to multilayering, the back propagation of errors exhibits slow training speed in MLP. So, a higher order network can be constructed by correlating between the input variables to perform nonlinear mapping using the single layer of input units for overcoming the above drawbacks. In this paper, a Firefly based higher order neural network has been proposed for data classification for maintaining fast learning and avoids the exponential increase of processing units. A vast literature survey has been conducted to review the state of the art of the previous developed models. The performance of the proposed method has been tested with various benchmark datasets from UCI machine learning repository and compared with the performance of other established models. Experimental results imply that the proposed method is fast, steady, reliable and provides better classification accuracy than others.
Higher-order semantic processing in formal thought disorder in schizophrenia.
Dwyer, Karen; David, Anthony; McCarthy, Rosaleen; McKenna, Peter; Peters, Emmanuelle
2014-05-15
Higher-order semantic impairments and lack of sensitivity to linguistic context have both been implicated in formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia. Most investigations have focused on comprehension. We investigated the processing of higher-order semantic relations and the role of emotional arousal in FTD patients' linguistic comprehension and production. We compared FTD schizophrenia patients (n=14) with non-FTD schizophrenia patients (n=18) and healthy controls (n=15) on sense-judgment and repetition tasks, in emotionally negative and neutral conditions. We predicted that the FTD group would display poor sensitivity compared to the other two groups in comprehension and production, and that this would be exacerbated by sentence complexity and negative emotional arousal. The emotional manipulation was not robustly successful, and did not affect task performance in the patient groups. FTD patients made significantly more errors on sense-judgments and repetition than the other two groups. Complexity affected all groups to a similar extent in sense-judgments, but affected FTD patients disproportionately in the repetition task. These results support the view that a lack of sensitivity to context underlies FTD in comprehension and production stages of processing. Patients fail to utilise linguistic context to integrate lexical forms into a global whole and guide their access to lexical targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinpil Tak
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A stepped cylindrical antenna with a higher-order mode ring patch for wideband conical radiation pattern is proposed. To accomplish a low profile with wideband conical radiation characteristics, a stepped cylindrical monopole and a TM41 higher-order mode ring patch with four shorting pins are utilized. The proposed antenna has a monopole-like radiation pattern with a wide 10-dB return loss bandwidth of 11 GHz (2 GHz–13 GHz. It can cover various wireless services, such as wireless broadband (WiBro; 2.3 GHz–2.39 GHz, wireless local area networks (WLAN; 2.4 GHz–2.484 GHz, 5.15 GHz–5.35 GHz, and 5.725 GHz–5.875 GHz, digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB; 2.63 GHz–2.655 GHz, and ultra wideband (UWB; 3.1 GHz–10.6 GHz. The antenna has a height of only 0.12λ0 at 2 GHz.
Pecka, Shannon; Schmid, Kendra; Pozehl, Bunny
2014-12-01
This article describes development of the Pecka Grading Rubric (PGR) as a strategy to facilitate and evaluate students' higher-order thinking in discussion boards. The purpose of this study was to describe psychometric properties of the PGR. Rubric reliability was pilot tested on a discussion board assignment used by 15 senior student registered nurse anesthetist enrolled in an Advanced Principles of Anesthesia course. Interrater and intrarater reliabilities were tested using an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to evaluate absolute agreement of scoring. Raters gave each category a score, scores of the categories were summed, and a total score was calculated for the entire rubric. Interrater (ICC = 0.939, P < .001) and intrarater (ICC = 0.902 to 0.994, P < .001) reliabilities were excellent for total point scores. A content validity index was used to evaluate content validity. Raters evaluated content validity of each cell of the PGR. The content validity index (0.8-1.0) was acceptable. Known-group validity was evaluated by comparing graduate student registered nurse anesthetists (N = 7) with undergraduate senior nursing students (N = 13). Beginning evidence indicates a valid and reliable instrument that measures higher-order thinking in the student registered nurse anesthetist.
Molecular Behavior of DNA Origami in Higher-Order Self-Assembly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhe [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Liu, Minghui [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lei, Wang [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Shandong Univ., Jinan (China); Nangreave, Jeanette [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Yan, Hao [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Liu, Yan [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
2010-09-08
DNA-based self-assembly is a unique method for achieving higher-order molecular architectures made possible by the fact that DNA is a programmable information-coding polymer. In the past decade, two main types of DNA nanostructures have been developed: branch-shaped DNA tiles with small dimensions (commonly up to ~20 nm) and DNA origami tiles with larger dimensions (up to ~100 nm). Here we aimed to determine the important factors involved in the assembly of DNA origami superstructures. We constructed a new series of rectangular-shaped DNA origami tiles in which parallel DNA helices are arranged in a zigzag pattern when viewed along the DNA helical axis, a design conceived in order to relax an intrinsic global twist found in the original planar, rectangular origami tiles. Self-associating zigzag tiles were found to form linear arrays in both diagonal directions, while planar tiles showed significant growth in only one direction. Although the series of zigzag tiles were designed to promote two-dimensional array formation, one-dimensional linear arrays and tubular structures were observed instead. We discovered that the dimensional aspect ratio of the origami unit tiles and intertile connection design play important roles in determining the final products, as revealed by atomic force microscopy imaging. This study provides insight into the formation of higher-order structures from self-assembling DNA origami tiles, revealing their unique behavior in comparison with conventional DNA tiles having smaller dimensions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sadeghzadeh
Full Text Available Abstract This paper implements the higher order Hamiltonian method to analyze an electrostatically actuated nonlinear micro beam-based micro electro mechanical oscillator. First, second and third approximate solutions are obtained, and the frequency responses of the system are compared with energy balance method solution and previously solved Variational Approach (VA and exact solution. After driving the equation of motion based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Galerkin method has been used to simplify the nonlinear equation of motion. Higher order Hamiltonian approach has been used to solve the problem and introduce a design strategy. Phase plane diagram of electrostatically actuated micro beam has plotted to show the stability of presented nonlinear system and natural frequencies are calculated to use for resonator design. According to the numerical results, the second approximate is more acceptable and results show that one could obtain a predesign strategy by prediction of effects of mechanical properties and electrical coefficients on the stability and free vibration of common electrostatically actuated micro beam.
HOMOR: higher order model outlier rejection for high b-value MR diffusion data.
Pannek, Kerstin; Raffelt, David; Bell, Christopher; Mathias, Jane L; Rose, Stephen E
2012-11-01
Diffusion MR images are prone to artefacts caused by head movement and cardiac pulsation. Previous techniques for the automated voxel-wise detection of signal intensity outliers have relied on the fit of the diffusion tensor to the data (RESTORE). However, the diffusion tensor cannot appropriately model more than a single fibre population, which may lead to inaccuracies when identifying outlier voxels in crossing fibre regions, particularly when high b-values are used to obtain increased angular contrast. HOMOR (higher order model outlier rejection) was developed to overcome this limitation and is introduced in this study. HOMOR is closely related to RESTORE, but employs a higher order model capable of resolving multiple fibre populations within a voxel. Using high b-value (b=3000 s/mm2) diffusion data from a population of 90 healthy participants, as well as simulations, HOMOR was found to identify a decreased number of outlier voxels compared to RESTORE primarily within areas of crossing, bending and fanning fibres. At lower b-values, however, RESTORE and HOMOR give similar results, which is demonstrated using diffusion data acquired at b=1000 s/mm2 in a mixed cohort. This study demonstrates that, although RESTORE is suitable for low b-value data, HOMOR is better suited for high b-value data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Interaction of laser-cooled $^{87}$Rb atoms with higher order modes of an optical nanofiber
Kumar, Ravi; Maimaiti, Aili; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary C; Chormaic, Síle Nic
2013-01-01
Optical nanofibers can be used to confine light to submicron regions and are very promising for the realization of optical fiber-based quantum networks using cold, neutral atoms. Light propagating in the higher order modes of a nanofiber has a greater evanescent field extension around the waist in comparison with the fundamental mode, leading to a stronger interaction with the surrounding environment. In this work, we report on the integration of a few-mode, optical nanofiber, with a waist diameter of ~700 nm, into a magneto-optical trap for $^{87}$Rb atoms. The nanofiber is fabricated from 80 $\\mu$m diameter fiber using a brushed hydrogen-oxygen flame pulling rig. We show that absorption by laser-cooled atoms around the waist of the nanofiber is stronger when probe light is guided in the higher order modes than in the fundamental mode. As predicted by Masalov and Minogin*, fluorescent light from the atoms coupling in to the nanofiber through the waist has a higher pumping rate (5.8 times) for the higher-orde...
On the Entropy Based Associative Memory Model with Higher-Order Correlations
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Masahiro Nakagawa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, an entropy based associative memory model will be proposed and applied to memory retrievals with an orthogonal learning model so as to compare with the conventional model based on the quadratic Lyapunov functional to be minimized during the retrieval process. In the present approach, the updating dynamics will be constructed on the basis of the entropy minimization strategy which may be reduced asymptotically to the above-mentioned conventional dynamics as a special case ignoring the higher-order correlations. According to the introduction of the entropy functional, one may involve higer-order correlation effects between neurons in a self-contained manner without any heuristic coupling coefficients as in the conventional manner. In fact we shall show such higher order coupling tensors are to be uniquely determined in the framework of the entropy based approach. From numerical results, it will be found that the presently proposed novel approach realizes much larger memory capacity than that of the quadratic Lyapunov functional approach, e.g., associatron.
Diagnosis of broken-bars fault in induction machines using higher order spectral analysis.
Saidi, L; Fnaiech, F; Henao, H; Capolino, G-A; Cirrincione, G
2013-01-01
Detection and identification of induction machine faults through the stator current signal using higher order spectra analysis is presented. This technique is known as motor current signature analysis (MCSA). This paper proposes two higher order spectra techniques, namely the power spectrum and the slices of bi-spectrum used for the analysis of induction machine stator current leading to the detection of electrical failures within the rotor cage. The method has been tested by using both healthy and broken rotor bars cases for an 18.5 kW-220 V/380 V-50 Hz-2 pair of poles induction motor under different load conditions. Experimental signals have been analyzed highlighting that bi-spectrum results show their superiority in the accurate detection of rotor broken bars. Even when the induction machine is rotating at a low level of shaft load (no-load condition), the rotor fault detection is efficient. We will also demonstrate through the analysis and experimental verification, that our proposed proposed-method has better detection performance in terms of receiver operation characteristics (ROC) curves and precision-recall graph. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integrating reaction and analysis: investigation of higher-order reactions by cryogenic trapping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Skrollan Stockinger
2013-09-01
Full Text Available A new approach for the investigation of a higher-order reaction by on-column reaction gas chromatography is presented. The reaction and the analytical separation are combined in a single experiment to investigate the Diels–Alder reaction of benzenediazonium-2-carboxylate as a benzyne precursor with various anthracene derivatives, i.e. anthracene, 9-bromoanthracene, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde and 9-anthracenemethanol. To overcome limitations of short reaction contact times at elevated temperatures a novel experimental setup was developed involving a cooling trap to achieve focusing and mixing of the reactants at a defined spot in a fused-silica capillary. This trap functions as a reactor within the separation column in the oven of a gas chromatograph. The reactants are sequentially injected to avoid undefined mixing in the injection port. An experimental protocol was developed with optimized injection intervals and cooling times to achieve sufficient conversions at short reaction times. Reaction products were rapidly identified by mass spectrometric detection. This new approach represents a practical procedure to investigate higher-order reactions at an analytical level and it simultaneously provides valuable information for the optimization of the reaction conditions.
Integrating reaction and analysis: investigation of higher-order reactions by cryogenic trapping.
Stockinger, Skrollan; Trapp, Oliver
2013-01-01
A new approach for the investigation of a higher-order reaction by on-column reaction gas chromatography is presented. The reaction and the analytical separation are combined in a single experiment to investigate the Diels-Alder reaction of benzenediazonium-2-carboxylate as a benzyne precursor with various anthracene derivatives, i.e. anthracene, 9-bromoanthracene, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde and 9-anthracenemethanol. To overcome limitations of short reaction contact times at elevated temperatures a novel experimental setup was developed involving a cooling trap to achieve focusing and mixing of the reactants at a defined spot in a fused-silica capillary. This trap functions as a reactor within the separation column in the oven of a gas chromatograph. The reactants are sequentially injected to avoid undefined mixing in the injection port. An experimental protocol was developed with optimized injection intervals and cooling times to achieve sufficient conversions at short reaction times. Reaction products were rapidly identified by mass spectrometric detection. This new approach represents a practical procedure to investigate higher-order reactions at an analytical level and it simultaneously provides valuable information for the optimization of the reaction conditions.
Measurement of mixed higher order flow harmonics in PbPb collisions
CMS Collaboration
2017-01-01
The mixed higher order flow harmonics and nonlinear response coefficients of charged particles are measured for the first time as a function of $p_{\\rm{T}}$ and centrality in PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 2.76~\\mathrm{TeV}$ and $5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the CMS detector. The results are obtained using the scalar product method, and cover a $p_{\\rm{T}}$ range from $0.3~\\mathrm{GeV}/c$ to $8.0~\\mathrm{GeV}/c$, pseudorapidity $|\\eta| < 2.4$, and a centrality range of $0-60\\%$. At $5.02~\\mathrm{TeV}$, results for mixed harmonics are compared to the matching higher order flow harmonics from two-particle correlations, which measure $v_n$ values with respect to the $n$-th order event plane. It is observed that the nonlinear response coefficients of the odd harmonics are larger than the even harmonics ones. The results are compared with hydrodynamic predictions with different shear viscosity to entropy density ratios and different initial conditions.
Qcd Factorization For Hadronic B Decays: Proofs And Higher-order Corrections
Pecjak, B D
2004-01-01
Several issues related to the QCD factorization approach to exclusive hadronic B decays are discussed. This includes a proof of factorization in B → K*γ using the soft-collinear effective theory, and an examination of higher-order corrections to QCD factorization for two-body decays into heavy-light states, such as B → Dπ, and light-light final states, such as B → Kπ,ππ. The proof of factorization in B → K*γ is arguably the most complicated QCD factorization formula proven so far. It is shown that reparameterization invariance in the intermediate effective theory restricts the appearance of transverse momentum components and 3-particle Fock states to operators that can be absorbed into the QCD from factor. This proof also includes an extension of SCET to deal with two collinear directions. The examination of higher-order corrections to QCD factorization has implications for using this technique to extract CP violating weal; ph...
A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations
Pray, Andrew J.
2014-12-01
Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.
Tunable electron counting statistics in a quantum dot at thermal equilibrium
Zhang, X. C.; Mazzeo, G.; Brataas, A.; Xiao, M.; Yablonovitch, E.; Jiang, H. W.
2009-07-01
Tunneling of individual electrons into and out of a GaAs quantum dot is measured in real time by an adjacent charge detector. By controllably increasing the tunneling rate at thermal equilibrium, the full-counting statistics of these tunneling events shows a sub- to super-Poissonian transition, accompanied by a sign reversal of its third statistical moment. These anomalies are believed to be caused by electron tunneling through the singlet-triplet states of an elongated double dot, confirmed by a self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger wave-function calculation.
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
Breastfeeding education and support for women with twins or higher order multiples.
Whitford, Heather M; Wallis, Selina K; Dowswell, Therese; West, Helen M; Renfrew, Mary J
2017-02-28
There are rising rates of multiple births worldwide with associated higher rates of complications and more hospital care, often due to prematurity. While there is strong evidence about the risks of not breastfeeding, rates of breastfeeding in women who have given birth to more than one infant are lower than with singleton births. Breastfeeding more than one infant can be more challenging because of difficulties associated with the birth or prematurity. The extra demands on the mother of frequent suckling, coordinating the needs of more than one infant or admission to the neonatal intensive care unit can lead to delayed initiation or early cessation. Additional options such as breast milk expression, the use of donor milk or different methods of supplementary feeding may be considered. Support and education about breastfeeding has been found to improve the duration of any breastfeeding for healthy term infants and their mothers, however evidence is lacking about interventions that are effective to support women with twins or higher order multiples. To assess effectiveness of breastfeeding education and support for women with twins or higher order multiples. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (30 June 2016), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (1 July 2016), the excluded studies list from the equivalent Cochrane review of singletons, and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing extra education or support for women with twins or higher order multiples were included. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We planned to assess the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach, but were unable to analyse any data. We found 10 trials (23 reports) of education and support for breastfeeding that included women with twins or higher order
Räth, Christoph; Müller, Dirk; Sidorenko, Irina; Monetti, Roberto; Bauer, Jan
2010-03-01
The quantitative characterization of images showing tissue probes being visualized by e.g. CT or MR is of great interest in many fields of medical image analysis. A proper quantification of the information content in such images can be realized by calculating well-suited texture measures, which are able to capture the main characteristics of the image structures under study. Using test images showing the complex trabecular structure of the inner bone of a healthy and osteoporotic patient we propose and apply a novel statistical framework, with which one can systematically assess the sensitivity of texture measures to scale-dependent higher order correlations (HOCs). To this end, so-called surrogate images are generated, in which the linear properties are exactly preserved, while parts of the higher order correlations (if present) are wiped out in a scale dependent manner. This is achieved by dedicated Fourier phase shuffling techniques. We compare three commonly used classes of texture measures, namely spherical Mexican hat wavelets (SMHW), Minkowski functionals (MF) and scaling indices (SIM). While the SMHW were sensitive to HOCs on small scales (Significance S=19-23), the MF and SIM could detect the HOCs very well for the larger scales (S = 39 (MF) and S = 29 (SIM)). Thus the three classes of texture measures are complimentary with respect to their ability to detect scaledependent HOCs. The MF and SIM are, however, slightly preferable, because they are more sensitive to HOCs on length scales, which the important structural elements, i.e. the trabeculae, are considered to have.
Azimuthal correlations and mixed higher order flow harmonics from CMS at the LHC
Stojanovic, Milan
2017-01-01
Two-particle correlations measurements of $v_{n}$ (n=2-4) in 8.16 TeV pPb collisions, and event-by-event correlations of different $v_{n}$ measured using symmetric cumulants in 13 TeV pp, 5.02 and 8.16TeV pPb and 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions at the LHC. These new results give important insights to the origin of collectivity observed in small collision systems. Additionally, using the scalar product method and the method of two-particle correlations, the mixed higher order flow harmonics and extracted nonlinear response coefficients of charged particles are measured for the first time as a function of $p_{T}$ and centrality in 2.76 and 5.02 TeV PbPb collisions. The obtained results are compared with different theoretical predictions.
Higher-order Lorentz-invariance violation, quantum gravity and fine-tuning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos M. Reyes
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The issue of Lorentz fine-tuning in effective theories containing higher-order operators is studied. To this end, we focus on the Myers–Pospelov extension of QED with dimension-five operators in the photon sector and standard fermions. We compute the fermion self-energy at one-loop order considering its even and odd CPT contributions. In the even sector we find small radiative corrections to the usual parameters of QED which also turn to be finite. In the odd sector the axial operator is shown to contain unsuppressed effects of Lorentz violation leading to a possible fine-tuning. We use dimensional regularization to deal with the divergencies and a generic preferred four-vector. Taking the first steps in the renormalization procedure for Lorentz violating theories we arrive to acceptable small corrections allowing to set the bound ξ<6×10−3.
Higher Order Modes in Third Harmonic Cavities for XFEL/FLASH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shinton, I.R.R.; /Manchester U. /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Baboi, N.; /DESY; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab; Flisgen, T.; Glock, H.W.; /Rostock U.; Jones, R.M.; Juntong, N.; /Manchester U. /DESY; Khabiboulline, T.N.; /Fermilab; van Rienen, U; /Rostock U.; Zhang, P.; /Manchester U. /DESY /Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.
2010-06-01
We analyse higher order modes in the 3.9 GHz bunch shaping cavities recently installed in the FLASH facility at DESY. We report on recent experimental results on the frequency spectrum from probe based measurements made at CMTB at DESY. These are compared to those predicted by finite difference and finite element computer codes. This study is focused mainly on the dipole component of the multi-pole expansion of the wakefield. The modes are readily identifiable as single-cavity modes provided the frequencies of these modes are below the cut-off of the inter-connecting beam pipes. The modes above cut-off are coupled to the 4 cavities and are distinct from single cavity modes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Athanasios D. Karageorgos
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In many applications, and generally speaking in many dynamical differential systems, the problem of transferring the initial state of the system to a desired state in (almost zero-time time is desirable but difficult to achieve. Theoretically, this can be achieved by using a linear combination of Dirac -function and its derivatives. Obviously, such an input is physically unrealizable. However, we can think of it approximately as a combination of small pulses of very high magnitude and infinitely small duration. In this paper, the approximation process of the distributional behaviour of higher-order linear descriptor (regular differential systems is presented. Thus, new analytical formulae based on linear algebra methods and generalized inverses theory are provided. Our approach is quite general and some significant conditions are derived. Finally, a numerical example is presented and discussed.
Higher-order threshold resummation for semi-inclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Vogt, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences
2009-08-15
The complete soft-enhanced and virtual-gluon contributions are derived for the quark coefficient functions in semi-inclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation to the third order in massless perturbative QCD. These terms enable us to extend the soft-gluon resummation for the fragmentation functions by two orders to the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (N{sup 3}LL) accuracy. The resummation exponent is found to be the same as for the structure functions in inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. This finding, together with known results on the higher-order quark form factor, facilitates the determination of all soft and virtual contributions of the fourth-order difference of the coefficient functions for these two processes. Unlike the previous (N{sup 2}LL) order in the exponentiation, the numerical effect of the N{sup 3}LL contributions turns out to be negligible at LEP energies. (orig.)
Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis
Bonito, Andrea
2013-03-16
We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our estimates hold without any restrictions on the time steps for dG with exact integration or Reynolds\\' quadrature. They involve a mild restriction on the time steps for the practical Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order. The key ingredients are the stability results shown earlier in Bonito et al. (Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: stability, 2013) along with a novel ALE projection. Numerical experiments illustrate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Effects of higher-order aberration correction on stereopsis at different viewing durations
Kang, Jian; Xiao, Fei; Zhao, Junlei; Zhao, Haoxin; Hu, Yiyun; Tang, Guomao; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong
2015-07-01
To better understand how the eye's optics affects stereopsis, we measured stereoacuity before and after higher-order aberration (HOA) correction with a binocular adaptive optics visual simulator. The HOAs were corrected either binocularly or monocularly in the better eye (the eye with better contrast sensitivity). A two-line stereo pattern served as the visual stimulus. Stereo thresholds at different viewing durations were obtained with the psychophysical method of constant stimuli. Binocular HOA correction led to significant improvement in stereoacuity. However, better eye HOA correction could bring either a bad degradation or a slight improvement in stereoacuity. As viewing duration increased, the stereo benefit approached the level of 1.0 for both binocular and better eye correction, suggesting that long viewing durations might weaken the effects of the eye's optical quality on stereopsis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klein, Dionne C.G., E-mail: dionne.c.g.klein@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim (Norway); Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7489, Trondheim (Norway); Latz, Eicke [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7489, Trondheim (Norway); Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605 (United States); Institute of Innate Immunity, University Hospitals, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Espevik, Terje [Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7489, Trondheim (Norway); Stokke, Bjorn T. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491, Trondheim (Norway)
2010-05-15
Immunostimulatory CpG-DNA activates the innate immune system by binding to Toll-like receptor 9. Structurally different CpG-containing oligonucleotides trigger a different type of immune response while activating the same receptor. We therefore investigated the higher order structure of two different classes of immunostimulatory CpG-DNA. Class A, which contains a partly self-complementary sequence and poly-G ends, forms duplexes and nanoparticles in salt solution, while class B, which does not contain these features and is purely linear, does not form a duplex or nanoparticles. Results obtained here by high-resolution atomic force microscopy of classes A and B CpG-DNA, reflect these differences in secondary structure. Detailed structural analysis of the atomic force microscopy topographs is presented for two different sample preparation methods.
E-Learning to Improve Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS of Students
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Poppy Yaniawati
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The role of technology integration on modern learning is essential to optimize the acceleration process in Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS. This research describes how to implement e-learning to improve HOTS of students and students’ attitude toward e-learning of mathematics, pre- learning students knowledge, duration of login in website, and correlation of variables with HOTS. There is a significant correlation between pre-learning knowledge and students’ HOTS, but there is no significant correlation between students’ HOTS and students’ attitude toward e-learning of mathematics. There is a significant correlation between login duration and students attitude toward e-learning of mathematics. No significant correlation is found between login duration and students’ HOTS.
Luceri, Salvatore; Parker, Jack; Dapena, Isabel; Baydoun, Lamis; Oellerich, Silke; van Dijk, Korine; Melles, Gerrit R J
2016-07-01
To evaluate corneal densitometry and higher order aberrations (HOAs) up to 1 year after Bowman layer (BL) transplantation. This was a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary referral center. Fifteen eyes of 14 patients who underwent BL transplantation for advanced keratoconus and had at least 1 year of follow-up were examined before BL transplantation and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) with spectacles and contact lenses, anterior and posterior HOAs, and corneal densitometry were analyzed. One year after surgery, average logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution of spectacle-CDVA changed from 1.35 (±0.46) preoperatively to 0.96 (±0.32, P cornea, with a peak 1 month after surgery (P transplantation, whereas corneal backscattering increased, mostly in the central and posterior layers, where the graft has been placed. Changes in HOAs and corneal backscattering did not correlate with CDVA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ebert, Grit; Steininger, Anne; Weißmann, Robert
2014-01-01
such as the Williams-Beuren syndrome. Despite these adverse effects, SDs have become fixed in the human genome. Focusing on chromosome 7, which is particularly rich in interstitial SDs, we have investigated the distribution of SDs in the context of evolution and the three dimensional organisation of the chromosome...... sites during primate evolution, we can show by means of public data on long distance chromatin interactions that these three intervals, and consequently the paralogous SDs mapping to them, have retained their spatial proximity in the nucleus. Focusing on SD clusters implicated in the aetiology...... chromosome 7, either by promoting regional SD insertion or by contributing to the establishment of higher order chromatin organisation themselves. The latter could compensate for the high risk of structural rearrangements and thus may have contributed to their evolutionary fixation in the human genome....
Analysis of EMG Signals in Aggressive and Normal Activities by Using Higher-Order Spectra
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Necmettin Sezgin
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The analysis and classification of electromyography (EMG signals are very important in order to detect some symptoms of diseases, prosthetic arm/leg control, and so on. In this study, an EMG signal was analyzed using bispectrum, which belongs to a family of higher-order spectra. An EMG signal is the electrical potential difference of muscle cells. The EMG signals used in the present study are aggressive or normal actions. The EMG dataset was obtained from the machine learning repository. First, the aggressive and normal EMG activities were analyzed using bispectrum and the quadratic phase coupling of each EMG episode was determined. Next, the features of the analyzed EMG signals were fed into learning machines to separate the aggressive and normal actions. The best classification result was 99.75%, which is sufficient to significantly classify the aggressive and normal actions.
Higher-Order Spectral Analysis to Identify Quadratic Nonlinearities in Fluid-Structure Interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imran Akhtar
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Hydrodynamic forces on a structure are the manifestation of fluid-structure interaction. Since this interaction is nonlinear, these forces consist of various frequencies: fundamental, harmonics, excitation, sum, and difference of these frequencies. To analyze this phenomenon, we perform numerical simulations of the flow past stationary and oscillating cylinders at low Reynolds numbers. We compute the pressure, integrate it over the surface, and obtain the lift and drag coefficients for the two configurations: stationary and transversely oscillating cylinders. Higher-order spectral analysis is performed to investigate the nonlinear interaction between the forces. We confirmed and investigated the quadratic coupling between the lift and drag coefficients and their phase relationship. We identify additional frequencies and their corresponding energy present in the flow field that appear as the manifestation of quadratic nonlinear interaction.
Higher-order nonlinear electromechanical effects in wurtzite GaN/AlN quantum dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bahrami-Samani, Mehrdad; Patil, Sunil R; Melnik, Roderick, E-mail: mbahrami@wlu.c, E-mail: spatil@wlu.c, E-mail: rmelnik@wlu.c [M2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue W, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5 (Canada)
2010-12-15
As we demonstrated earlier, conventional mathematical models based on linear approximations may be inadequate in the analysis of properties of low-dimensional nanostructures and band structure calculations. In this work, a general three-dimensional axisymmetric coupled electromechanical model accounting for lattice mismatch, spontaneous polarization and higher-order nonlinear electrostriction effects has been applied to analyze properties of GaN/AlN quantum dots coupled with wetting layer. The generalized model that accounts for five independent electrostriction coefficients has been solved numerically via a finite-element implementation. The results, exemplified for truncated conical GaN/AlN quantum dots, demonstrate that the effect of nonlinear electrostriction in GaN/AlN nanoheterostructure quantum dots could be significant. In particular, the influence of nonlinear electromechanical effects on optoelectronic properties is highlighted by the results on band structure calculations based on a multiband effective mass theory.
Fundamental measure theory for smectic phases: scaling behavior and higher order terms.
Wittmann, René; Marechal, Matthieu; Mecke, Klaus
2014-08-14
The recent extension of Rosenfeld's fundamental measure theory to anisotropic hard particles predicts nematic order of rod-like particles. Our analytic study of different aligned shapes provides new insights into the structure of this density functional, which is basically founded on experience with hard spheres. We combine scaling arguments with dimensional crossover and motivate a modified expression, which enables an appropriate description of smectic layering. We calculate the nematic-smectic-A transition of monodisperse hard spherocylinders with and without orientational degrees of freedom and present the equation of state and phase diagram including these two liquid crystalline phases in good agreement with simulations. We also find improved results related to the isotropic-nematic interface. We discuss the quality of empirical corrections and the convergence towards an exact second virial coefficient, including higher order terms.
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Ahmad Bashir
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We study an initial value problem for a coupled Caputo type nonlinear fractional differential system of higher order. As a first problem, the nonhomogeneous terms in the coupled fractional differential system depend on the fractional derivatives of lower orders only. Then the nonhomogeneous terms in the fractional differential system are allowed to depend on the unknown functions together with the fractional derivative of lower orders. Our method of analysis is based on the reduction of the given system to an equivalent system of integral equations. Applying the nonlinear alternative of Leray-Schauder, we prove the existence of solutions of the fractional differential system. The uniqueness of solutions of the fractional differential system is established by using the Banach contraction principle. An illustrative example is also presented.
Direct Amplitude-Phase Near-Field Observation of Higher-Order Anapole States.
Zenin, Vladimir A; Evlyukhin, Andrey B; Novikov, Sergey M; Yang, Yuanqing; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei V; Chichkov, Boris N; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I
2017-11-08
Anapole states associated with the resonant suppression of electric-dipole scattering exhibit minimized extinction and maximized storage of electromagnetic energy inside a particle. Using numerical simulations, optical extinction spectroscopy, and amplitude-phase near-field mapping of silicon dielectric disks, we demonstrate high-order anapole states in the near-infrared wavelength range (900-1700 nm). We develop the procedure for unambiguously identifying anapole states by monitoring the normal component of the electric near-field and experimentally detect the first two anapole states as verified by far-field extinction spectroscopy and confirmed with the numerical simulations. We demonstrate that higher-order anapole states possess stronger energy concentration and narrower resonances, a remarkable feature that is advantageous for their applications in metasurfaces and nanophotonics components, such as nonlinear higher-harmonic generators and nanoscale lasers.
Climate change in Lebanon: Higher-order regional impacts from agriculture
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Eduardo A. Haddad
2014-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the susceptibility of agricultural outputs to future climate change in Lebanon, and the extent to which it propagates to the economic system as a whole. We use a methodological framework in which physical and economic models are integrated for assessing the higher-order economic impacts of projected climate changes. By using this integrated modeling approach, we are able to quantify the broader economic impacts in the country by considering not only the temporal dimension but also the regional disaggregation of the results. Our estimates suggest that there are high potential costs and risks associated with a burden to the poorer and more vulnerable regions of the country.
An Approach to Stable Gradient-Descent Adaptation of Higher Order Neural Units.
Bukovsky, Ivo; Homma, Noriyasu
2017-09-01
Stability evaluation of a weight-update system of higher order neural units (HONUs) with polynomial aggregation of neural inputs (also known as classes of polynomial neural networks) for adaptation of both feedforward and recurrent HONUs by a gradient descent method is introduced. An essential core of the approach is based on the spectral radius of a weight-update system, and it allows stability monitoring and its maintenance at every adaptation step individually. Assuring the stability of the weight-update system (at every single adaptation step) naturally results in the adaptation stability of the whole neural architecture that adapts to the target data. As an aside, the used approach highlights the fact that the weight optimization of HONU is a linear problem, so the proposed approach can be generally extended to any neural architecture that is linear in its adaptable parameters.
Unsteady MHD flow of an UCM fluid over a stretching surface with higher order chemical reaction
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Sudhagar Palani
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to illustrate the frequent and wide occurrence of unsteady two dimensional MHD flow of an UCM fluid over a stretching surface in the presence of higher order chemical reaction in a diverse range of applications, both in nature and in technology. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation. The ordinary differential equations were numerically solved by using shooting technique. The effects of different governing parameters on the flow field and mass transfer are shown in graphs and tables. The governing physical parameters significantly influence the flow field and mass transfer. Also, existing results in the literature are compared with the present study as a special case. In addition to practical applications in foams, suspensions, polymer solutions and melts, the present study also contributed to the existing literature.
Analyzes of students’ higher-order thinking skills of heat and temperature concept
Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto; Harjana
2017-11-01
High order thinking skills refer to three highest domains of the revised Bloom Taxonomy. The aims of the research were to analyze the student’s higher-order thinking skills of heat and temperature concept. The samples were taken by purposive random sampling technique consisted of 85 high school students from 3 senior high schools in Jayapura city. The descriptive qualitative method was employed in this study. The data were collected by using tests and interviews regarding the subject matters of heat and temperature. Based on the results of data analysis, it was concluded that 68.24% of the students have a high order thinking skills in the analysis, 3.53% of the students have a high order thinking skills in evaluating, and 0% of the students have a high order thinking skills in creation.